Title: Results of research with field corn in the Everglades area.
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Title: Results of research with field corn in the Everglades area.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1957
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076897
Volume ID: VID00002
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 166140927

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C,'


RESULTS OF RESEARCH WITH FIELD CORN IN THE
EVERGLADES AREA
1957

by

Victor E. Green, Jr., W. J. Wiser and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.



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This report contains results of research with field corn
grown on organic soils in south Florida. The studies here-
in include work on released and experimental varieties,
plant population studies and studies on grain insect
damage. This report is a continuation of the work reported
in Everglades Station Mineo Reports 55-4, 56-2 and 57-5.
Research on field corn at this Station is performed coopera-
tively by the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, and the Corn and Sorghum Section, Crops Research
Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States
Department of Agriculture.



EMMt4t-4f-44,^^'-"4

December 10, 1957


Everglades Station Mimeo Report 58-10


Belle Glade, Florida







RESULTS OF RESEARCH WITH FIELD CORN IN THE EVERGLADES AREA
1957

by

Victor E. Green, Jr., W. J. Wiser and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.1/

Variety Testing

Two variety tests were conducted in 1957. They included varieties that
were to be grown at several locations in Florida to obtain data on adaptability
of new released varieties and unreleased experimental hybrids from the Corn and
Sorghum Section, Crops Research Division, ARS-USDA. Some of the same varieties
occurred in both tests. The only differences in the two tests were the entries
and the date of planting. One test was planted February 8 and the other on
February 13, 1957. Certain factors were common to both tests. They were planted
in Field 2NI : of Section 3 on soil that had been previously in cultivation about
30 years, and in corn every year for the past 15 years. The soil was treated
with 600 pounds per acre of 0-15-5 fertilizer plus 0.3% B203, to raise the
fertility to a level previously established as necessary for maximum production
of Big Joe field corn at 14,,20 plants per acre. Five pounds of actual aldrin
(20 lbs. of 25% wettable) per acre were added in the fertilizer and disked in
immediately for wireworm control. Each plot consisted of one row of corn 50
feet long with rows three feet apart. There were six replications in completely
randomized blocks. The stand was adjusted to approach 1l,520 plants per acre,
or one plant every foot, by quickly replanting skips or thinning the hills. Cut-
worms and budworms were controlled by one application of one quart of 25 percent
DDT emulsion in 100 gallons of water per acre and two applications of 2- pounds
of 40 percent wettable toxaphene in 100 gallons of water per acre.

On May 8, Miss Alice L. Robert, ARS-USDA, scored the varieties for resistance
to leaf blights. Heights of the stalk and heights of the ears from the ground
were recorded. Both experiments were harvested on July 24, or 161 aid 166 days,
respectively, after planting. The varieties were scored for lodging and stalk
break and the number of stalks and ears were determined. The ears were husked,
weighed, sampled for moisture and shelled to determine percent grain.

The characteristics and performance of the varieties are shown in Table 1.

Six of the varieties occurred in both tests. For these varieties the data
were combined and averaged and appear in Table 2. Average yields of corn
varieties grown in 1957 are compared in Figure 1 with the average yields of these
and other varieties grown since 1951. The most reliance of the yielding ability
of a variety can be obtained by comparing it over a large number of years, both
good and bad, which has a tempering effect.

The Varieties

Big Joe. A multilined synthetic released at the Everglades Experiment
Station in 1943, containing Puerto Rican Mayorbela, Cuban Yellow Flint, White



1/ Associate Agronomist (Collaborator), Everglades Experiment Station;
Agronomist, Corn and Sorghum Section, CRD-ARB-USDA; and Assistant
Entomologist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, respectively.









h0 50 60 70 60 90 100
x XX x x X X


IG JOE------ -------- --o


?RANCISCO FLIDT'---------------o


TIQUISATE----- ----------o


COI ELI 54------------------------

FUNK G-7h0------ ---------- --------o


FUNK G-737A-----------------------

DIXIE 18--o


U.s. 645--------------------

U.S. 625 . ..-- -. ..-. .--..-.-. ..--

U.S. 626---- ----------.---------.

CUETO 56----- .....------------

ROCAIMEX H-503-------------- o

DEKALB 1051------------------


------------- --


-- -- -


----0o


O-0


X X
50 60
AVERAiGE YIELDS,


X
70
BUSHELS PER ACRE


X
100


The Average Yields of Field Corn Varieties Grown at Belle Glade,
Florida for the Indicated Number of Times. 1951-1957,


F
S3



^-


~~71/


X
4o-


Figure 1.


-na


-.-


-





-2-


and Yellow Tuxpan. Yields a fair crop in most years. Nine crop average equals
69 bushels per acre.

Francisco Flint. An open-pollinated selection from a Cuban Flint found
growing at Central Francisco. Released from the Cuba Agricultural Experiment
Station in 1948. A parent used in forming hybrids of Corneli and Cuba-M series.
Averaged 68.5 bushels per acre in 8 crops. Hard, solid corn.

Tiquisate Golden Yellow. An open-pollinated variety derived from crossing
two Cuban flints and subjecting the resultant to mass selection. Released in
the late 1940's at the Iowa State College Tropical Research Center at Antigua,
Guatemala. The average of six crops has been equal to Big Joe and Francisco
Flint.

Funk G-737A and G-740. Double-cross hybrids of the Funk Brothers Seed Co.
The G-series are southern hybrids, and contain Tuxpan lines. They must be
planted early and harvested early in south Florida, since, although they have
yielded about 78 to 80 bushels per acre in experimental plots, they are suscep-
tible to stalk rots and stalk breaking in the field.

Corneli 54. A double-cross hybrid released for growers in 1955 by The
Corneli Seed Company of Havana and St. Louis. This corn has probably more
merits than any yet tested in south Florida and is recommended for general
plantings in that area. Over a b-year period it has averaged 82 bushels per
acre, can be planted later, stands well in the field and gives solid corn.

Dixie 18. This variety is not adaptable to south Florida and is not
recommeniddfor growing therein. It is very susceptible to Northern leaf blight
and yields soft corn. The average yield for three years has been only 42 bushels
per acre.

DeKalb 1051. Grown as part of the Florida Uniform Test in 1957. Unadaptable
because of susceptibility to Northern leaf blight and softness of the grain.

Cueto 56. A double-cross hybrid produced by Ismael Cueto of Cuba. Pedigree
not known. Seed would have to be imported from Cuba, although that may be pro-
fitable since 82.5 bushels per acre were produced in plots in 1957. Resistant
to leaf blight, stands well. Gives solid, flinty ears.

U. S. Hybrids 625, 626, 645. Experimental double-cross hybrids from the
Corn and Sorghum Section, CRD-ARS-USDA. Relatively immune to leaf blight in
1957. Yielded 90, 87 and 99 bushels per acre, respectively, one year. Grain
easily damaged by weevils. Has promise as a silage or dehydration crop because
of abundance of green leaves that hold well toward harvest.

Rocamex H-503. A white corn variety released in about 195., by the Co-
operative Program of Agriculture of the Secretary of Agriculture and Animal
Husbandry and the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico. This variety along with
H-501 and H-502 offer promise of varieties for milling. In 1957, H-503 yielded
69 bushels per acre.

Spacing and Population Studies

The highest yields of corn result from the most efficient use of the space
in which the corn is planted, A higher plant population is often a means by







Table 1. The Characteristics and Performance of Field Corn Varieties on Organic Soil. Belle Glade, Florida. 1957.


Yield, Bu./A.l/
@ 15.5% Mois-
ture


Height in Feet
Stalk Ear


Disease No. Ears/
Index2/ 50' Row


Erect
Stalks,
Percent


Shelling Final
Percent Stand
Percent


4. Cueto 56 81.0 9.5 5.3 2.7 47 91 84 92
6. Corneli 54 78.8 9.7 5.3 2.5 40 94 83 87
7. Funk G-737A 77.7 9.5 5.1 2.8 43 95 83 92
8. Funk G-740 72.9 9.6 5.1 2.8 42 94 84 88
3. Big Joe 70.7 9.3 5.1 2.8 46 91 81 91
1. Focamex H-503 69.1 10.0 6.1 2.4 34 99 83 70
5. Tiquisate 66.3 9.4 5.0 2.8 40 96 84 83
9. Francisco Flint 61.2 9.4 5.3 2.3 39 95 81 88
2. rixie 18 58.5 10.1 5/3 3.4 40 94 84 91
Planted February b, 1957; Harvested July 24, 1957.
1/ I.S.D. .05 = 12.3 bu./A.
I.S.D. .01 = 16.4 bu./A.
Yields connected by the same line do not differ significantly from each other; those not connected by the
same line do.

2~ Readings by Miss Alice L. Robert, Corn and Sorghum Section, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 8, 1957.

3/ /
5. U.S. Hyb. 645 97.1 8.3 4.0 078 51 92 83 102
7. U.S. Hyb. 625 90.0 8.6 3.4 0.9 45 93 85 102
1. Funk G-737- 89,5 9.2 5.3 2.7 49 95 83 95
2. Corneli 54 88.1 9.4 5.5 2.3 43 93 83 91
6. U.S.Hyb. 626 87.0 8.6 4.4 1,3 43 87 85 98
4. Funk G-740 83.7 9.6 4.8 3.0 46 92 84 96
8. Cueto 56 80.8 9.3 5.7 2.8 51 87 85 96
3. Big Joe 68.2 9.2 4.8 2.5 43 93 82 89
10. DeKalb 1051 57.8 9.1 4.4 3.6 42 89 77 95
9. Francisco Flint 57.1 9.1 5.4 2,7 39 97 81 82
3/ L.S.D. .05 = 11,8 bu./A. Planted February 13, 1957; Harvested July 24, 1957
L.S.D. .01 = 15.8 bu./A.
Yields connected by the same line do not differ significantly from each other; those not connected by the
SReadme lings by iss Alice L. Robert, Corn and Sdoghum Section, CR RS-USDA, ay 8 19
4/ Readings by Miss Alice L. Robert, Corn and Sorghum Section, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 8, 19579


Variety









Table 2. Combined Data for the Varieties That Viere Common to Both Variety Tests. Belle Glade, Florida. 1957.


Yield,Bu./A.1/
@ 15.5% Mois-


Height in Feet
Stalk Ear


Disease
Index2/


No. Ears/
50' Row


Erect
Stalks,


Shelling Final
Percent Stand,


ture Percent Percent

6. Corneli 54 83.1 9.5 5.4 2.4 42 94 87 89
7. Funk G-..737A 83=0 9.3 5.2 3.8 46 95 83 94
I. Cueto 56 80.9 9.4 5.5 2.8 49 89 85 94
8. Funk G-740 76,6 9.6 5.0 2.9 k4 93 84 92
3. Big Joe 69,6 9.3 5.0 2,7 45 92 82 90
9. Francisco Flint 59.3 9.3 5.4 2.5 39 96 81 85


1/ L.S.D. .05 = 8.0 bu./A.
L.S.D. .01 = 10.6 bu./A.
Yields connected by the same line do not differ significantly from each other; those not connected by
the same line do.

2/ Readings by hiss Alice L. Robert, Corn and Sorghum Section, CRD-ARS-USDA, May 6, 1957.


Variety








which corn yields can be increased. With the use of higher populations proper
attention must be directed toward provision of adequate fertilization, moisture
and sunlight. Fertilizers can be applied, based on soil tests, relatively
easily as needed. Water control in many instances can very largely solve the
moisture problems. Although adequate sunlight is available, the method of plant-
ing may have considerable influence on whether or not the individual corn plants
get the sunlight it needs for maximum yield.

The superiority of 3-foot row spacing over 6-foot row sa cing has been
definitely established in the Everglades muck (Green and Harris, Everglades
Station Mimeo Report 57-5). As these authors point out, the roots of the corn
plant do not completely occupy a long but narrow rectangular area. Planting and
cultivating machinery limits row width to approximately three feet on many farms.

The 1957 Rate of Planting experiment was planted in 3-foot rows. Variations
in plant population were obtained by varying the number of plants per hill as
well as the distance between the hills. Moisture did not appear to be a serious
limiting factor and sufficient fertilizers were applied to adequately support a
high population. All plots sustained a severe infection of northern leaf blight.
Table 3 gives yield and other data for the various rates of planting. The
upper portion of the table gives data for individual treatments and the lower
portion summarizes the data for number of plants per hill and number of plants
per acre. Statistical analyses revealed little or no significant difference in
any of the plant populations per acre or number of plants per hill. However,
the summary data indicate a definite trend of higher yield for the higher popu-
lations and fewer plants per hill. That is, highest yields result from heavier
planting when the plants occur singly.

A progressive decrease in number of ears per 100 plants occurs as the plant
population increases. Thus, with higher populations an increasing number of
barren stalks can be expected. Also, there is a progressive decrease in ear
size as the number of plants per acre increases, primarily due to shortening
of the ear. The number of plants per hill had little influence on the number
of ears per 100 plants or upon ear size.

Lodging was high in all plots of all treatments. The individual treatments
varied in lodging percentage. There was little difference in the four population
levels or in the different number of plants per hill. However a slight trend of
decrease in lodging was apparent with increased numbers of plants per acre as
well as per hill.

Uniform stands of high number of plants in conformity with fertility level
and availability of moisture contribute to higher yields on muck soils.

Insects Attacking the Field Corn Ear

Corn from the variety trials was examined from September 6 to September 9,
1957, for injury by the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) and stored grain
insects. The only stored grain insect present in any abundance was the rice
weevil, Sitophilus oryza (1.). Examination occurred approximately six and one-
half weeks after haFvest.

Twenty-five ears taken from each plot were given an index (0-5) to indicate
the degree of injury by stored grain insects and corn earworms. An average index
for each plot was computed and multiplied by 100. The indexes were then statis-
tically analyzed. The highest possible index, 500, vuld indicate the greatest
amount of injury. The method of indexing was as follows:






-6-


Table 3. Rate of Planting.


Everglades Experiment Station, 1957.


Treatment
No.
Kernels Spaced


Yield
per
Acre


Lodg- No. Ears/
ing 100 Plants


Ear Size
Dia-
meter Length


No. In. Bu. % No. MM CM


14,520
17,424
21,780
29,040

14,520
17,424
21,780
29,040

14,520
17,424
21,780
29,040


14,520
17,424
21,780
29,0O0


Variety: Funk G-740 Field Corn in a mid-February planting.


Plants
per
Acre








Amount of earworm injury:


Index

0
1
2
3
$
5


To Tip of Ear

None
Tip of ear only
Kernels to I" below the ear tip
Kernels to 1i" below the tip
Kernels to 21" below the ear tip
Kernels more than 2k-" below the


To Side of Ear

None
1-4 Kernels
5$-9 Kernels
10-14 Kernels
15-19 Kernels
20 Kernels +


Injury by Stored Grain Insects:


Index


Number of Injured Kernels


None
1 to 10
11 to 20
21 to 30
31 to 40
41 +


The data indicating the degree of corn earworm damage to each variety are shown
in Table 4. These data indicate that Francisco Flint, Cueto 56, and perhaps
Tiquisate were significantly superior to all other varieties in the degree of
corn earworm resistance exhibited. These three varieties are classified as
flints. The only significant differences occurring among the semi-flint and dent
varieties was that Big Joe suffered significantly less earworm injury than did
DeKalb 1051.

Francisco Flint was the most resistant variety to stored grain insects,
Table 5. Among the semi-flint and dent varieties Funk G-737A was the most re-
sistant to stored grain insect attack.

Funk G-740 field corn from the spacing and population studies was examined
on July 30, 1957 for corn earworm injury. The average injury index for the
experiment w as 232.3, and only 12.6% of the ears were worm-free. That experi-
ment did not indicate that the spacing or number of plants per acre had any
effect on the amount of corn earworm injury.




The writers wish to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. C. D. Hickman and Mr.
R. M. Fliehs; Mr. C. E. Seller, Mr. R. Yent and Mr. Dallas Nehls, Field
Assistants, in collecting data in the field; for scoring the ears for insect
damage; and for the cultural practices, respectively, and to thank Mr. H. M.
Spelman, III, Staff Assistant, for performing certain of the statistical analyses.


EES
58-10
350 Copies









Table 4. Corn Ear Worm Injury to Field Corn Varieties. Belle Glade, Florida
1957.


February 8 planting
% Ears Injur
Variety Worm-freea Index

2. Dixie 18 0.4 183
1. Rocamex H-503 1 219
3. Big Joe 5 218
4. Funk G-740 8 197
6. Corneli 54 12 189
7. Funk G-737A 13 182
9. Francisco Flint 14 172
5. Tiquisate 15 189
4. Cueto 56 16 170

February 13 planting

10. De Kalb 1051 1 220
2. U.S. Hybrid 626 2 216
1. U.s. Hybrid 625 2 189
5. U.S. Hybrid 645 3 204
8. Funk G-740 5 205
6. Corneli 54 7 201
7. Funk G-737A 8 202
3. Big Joe 10 182
9. Francisco Flint 21 154
4. Cueto 56 24 128

Plantings Grouped to Compare Six Common Varieties

3. Big Joe 201
8. Funk G-740 201
6. Corneli 54 195
7. Funk G-737A 191
9. Francisco Flint 164
4. Cueto 56 151

a Averages joined by a common line are not significantly different;
Averages not joined by a common line are significantly different.

b In the February 8 planting the degree of corn earworm injury to Cueto 56
and Francisco Flint was significantly less than that to Big Joe and
Rocamex H-503. The degrees of injury to other varieties were not signi-
ficantly different.






Table 5. Stored Grain Insect Injury to Field Corn Varieties. Belle Glade, Florida
1957.
February 8 planting

Variety Injury Indexa

3. Big Joe 272
1. Rocamex H-503 256
6. Corneli 54 253
8. Funk G-740 229
7. Funk G-737A 213
2. Dixie 18 209
5. Tiquisate 199
4. Cueto 56 197
9. Francisco Flint 165

February 13 planting

2. U.S. Hybrid 626 320
10. DeKalb 1051 294
5. U.S. Hybrid 645 274
1. U.S. Hybrid 625 250
6. Corneli 54 215
3. Big Joe 214
8. Funk G-740 198
7. Funk G-737A 164
4. Cueto 56 160
9. Francisco Flint 131

Plantings Grouped to Compare Six Common Varieties

3. Big Joe 245
6. Corneli 54 236
8. Funk G-740 215
7. Funk G-737A 191
4. Cueto 56 180
9. Francisco Flint 150

a Averages joined by a common line are not significantly different.
Averages not joined by a common line are significantly different.




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