RESULTS OF RESEARCH TITH FIELD CORN IN THE EVERGLADES AREA
Victor E. Green, Jr. and Emmett D. Harris, Jr.
This report contains results of research with field corn
grown on organic soils in South Florida. The studies here-
in include work on released and experimental varieties
plant population studies and studies on grain insect dam-
EVERGLADES STATION 1IMEO REPORT 57-5
Belle Glade, Florida
December 10, 1956
WU0LTS dP RBSEARCR ITHM FIELD CORN IN THE EVERLADES AREA
Victor E. Qreen, Jr. and Enmett D. Harris, Jr. I/
One varety test was conducted in 1956. The area selected for the test
was well prepared Everglades peat that had been in cultivation for about 28 years.
The soil was fertilized with 300 pounds per acre of 0-10-20 containing 80 pounds
per ton of 25 percent aldrin. Each plot consisted of one row of corn 100 feet
long. There were five replications in completely randomized blocks. The test was
planted on February 2, 1956. The stand was adjusted to one plant every 12 inches
on rows three feet apart, or to 11,520 plants per acre. Cutworms and budworms were
controlled with two applications of one part of 25-percent Tno emulsion in 100 gall-
ons of water per acre.
On May 15, 1956, Miss Alice Robert, ARS-USDA scored the varieties for re-
sistance to leaf blights. On July 9 (157 days after planting) the plots were scor-
ed for lodging and stalk break and the number of ears per row were determined* The
plots were harvested mechanically, samples were taken for moisture determination,
the corn was weighed and shelling percentages were determined.
The yield data showed that the two Funk varieties and Corneli 51 yielded
about equally in the rather dry growing season of 1956. Yields are reported as
shelled grain and can be converted to snapped corn by multiplying by 1,3. These
three varieties are recommended Zor planting in this area of south Florida. The
laow rainfall and absence of windstorms is reflected in the low disease indices and
the high percentage of erect stalks at harvest.
The relative maturity of the corn can be seen by referring to the moisture
at harvest column of Table 1. Shelling percentages of the varieties varied from
79 percent in the case of Francisco Flint with large cobs and abundent husks to
86 percent with Big Joe, Corneli II and Funk 0-737.
Figure 1 shows average yields of the varieties over a number of years. Thc P
figures are more reliable since they show what the varieties have done in good and
bad years combined* Corneli SL has given high yields in wet growing seasons, hav-
ing a three year average of about 82 bushels per acre. Funk 0-710 and Corneli II
have yielded about equally.
One population test was grown in 1956, and it was the second year that the
Corneli 54 variety has been so planted. Three-foot rows and six-foot rows were
compared. The test was planted on February 6, 1956. Rows were 50 feet long and
there were five replications in randomized complete blocks. Six spacing arrange-
ments were used, each giving 14,520 plants per acre, and three square feet per
plant. The yield was harvested mechanically on July 11, 1956 when the moisture in
the grain was about 27 percent. Lodging of the plants did not exceed two percent
in any of the treatments. Yields were coloulated and are shown along with the
treatments in Table 2. The 1955 yields are shown for comparison.
/ Associate Agronomist and Assistant Entomologist, respectively
fable 1. Bs 1haratWertat.os and
Pertomiance of ~arven VaretiMo
of Field Corn on Orga.ic Soil, Belle Glade, Flrida
Height 1i Foet
wrect Stalks Moisture ShelliAn
Percent at Percentage
92 21 83
916 2 ~
96 20 83
SUate 63.5 9.0 .5 1.7 88 94 18 81
piwrr SA tak 5.8 3 6.9 i. 77 ^ 95 83
S6.7 545 .2 1.5 77 97 26 85
gn 59.3 8,6 1.5 1.9 79 8? 2D 8
iHaS 1in 55.1 87 .6 1 83 97 20 79
MUJ o* Sk4 8*6 4.5 1.4 81 94 21 84t
kB"3 o L
SUM -mm x i Jeea 52iL
WtI& 8* t
97 24 81
93 22 83
Planted Feb. 2, 1956; Bmarvted July 9, 1956
f f Mut Alice Lw I ober, FCRB, AR, ASD on M! 15, 1956
Aer A I I Y
-- -- ---
Tom ~c 1ii 1 i 111 i 111 i nn i 111 il1 1 ^
i FMK 0-737 -
# tiFUNK 3-7 Uo-,
, AZIL 333nA--
YEL TUX x UAYRq--
I- A X
*L i Iw
- - -
AVERAGE YIED, BWSHELS
The Average Yields
GLade, Florida for
of Field Corn Varieties Qrown at Belle
the Inadiated Number of Times. 191-1956.
,, ... .. .. , --. . .m
--m -i I---
Tae* 2, The Meo t oft ad kL st A a on fields of Corneli 54c Corn.
Belle Mlade, Flielda. 195 and
Row aaointg, 1i. Pvlantd ields,Bu./A No.2 corn Average
set Distanels l. 1955 .1956
3 1.94 96, 96,
3 1-12 76.6 103,8 90,2
3 2-24 80.8 115.8 98,3
3 3-36 --- 105.9 105.9
6 1-6 65,2 77.8 71,$
6 2-12 69,6 81.8 75.7
6 3-18 69,0 87,6 78.3
The speriority of three-foot rows is readily evident since during both years yields
were anoh highe for the narrow row spacing.
These data show also that hill-dropping the seed is superior to drilling
the seed in the row, especially at wider row spacings. In other states, hill
dropped corn has less lodging than corn that is drilled into the row,
There is greater weed growth in corn on six-foot rows than on the closer
row spacing. The lower yields are probably due to this factor. It is thought that
while each plant on both row spacings is allowed three square feet, these plants in
three-foot rows can better utilize that space than those on the wide row spacing.
In other words, the root system of the plants cannot assume the elongated shape
required to take full advantage of the three square feet allowed on six-foot rows,
Progress in Corn Improvement
Cooperation between the Florida AgriculturalExperiment Station and the
United States Department of Agriculture was effected on a formal basis during 1956.
The Department transferred Dr. W. J. Wiser to Belle Clade who will be in charge of
corn iaprovuent in south Florida,
A large experiment involving 187 test crosses or a common tester made by
Dr. Earl S. Hornercorn breeder at the main Station at Gainesville, was planted on
February 1, 1956 in five replications and was harvested July 18 and 19, 1956. Data
were collected on yield, stalk break and lodging, stalk height and ear height.
A National Helainthoeporium Nursery was planted on February 1 and 2,1956.
There were 16 sets comprising 19 entries each in four replications. Each set con-
sisted of resistant inbred, three susceptible inbred lines, single crosses involv-
ing the resistant line and three susceptible testers and four F2 progenies of
each rosse. The number of rows involved was 1216, These lines were rated in May
for resistance to northern leaf blight by Miss Alice Robert, FCRB-ARS-USDA.
Work was continued on improvement of the variety White Tuxpan or a source
of white corn for milling. About three hundred subtropical and tropical corn lines
were introduced, grown and catalogued for inclusion in the corn breeding program,
MF IntolOlOgi. studies.
on ALgtst 2p1956 a 25-ear sample was taken from each replicate of each
variety and examined for injury by the corn earwors,Heliothis Zea (Boddie) and by
stored grain insects. The only stored grain insect present in any abundance was the
rice weevils, Stophilue (L.),
Most of the damage by the corn earworm was to the tips of the ears,
whereas that by stored grain insects was both to the tips and sides of the ears.
Each ear was given a score (0-5) to indicate the amount of injury by stored grain
insects and corn earwrams. The number of ears of each sample having a certain
sore was aliw~lied by that score and the rseeltinperdw ts were added and the sam
divided by 25 (the fetal a ber of eas in the saple) and ltiplied by 100. The
highest possible seore, 5000, would ldeaste the greatest amount of injury. The
method f scoring was as follows
To side of ear
I NI NUII -O M
ear tip only 1- kernels
kernels to I inch below tip 5-9 kernels
kernels to 1 iJohes below tip 21.04 kernels
kernels to 2* itahe below tip 15-19 kernels
kernels more than 2 inches below tip 20 -erels
In addition to the scoring procedure, the percentages of earwoWcfree
and stored grain-insect free ears were obtained for each variety.
The data for corn earwor injury are shown in Table 3. There were no
sigificant differences among varieties in respect to percent worm-free ears but the
injury scores that Agroceres 3A received sipdificantly less corn earwom inury than
Big Joe, Corneli II, and Funk 3-737. Brasil 3330 A showed signficantly les injury
than Corneli II and Funk 0-737.
Table 4 shows the aouht of injury chased by the stored grainnects.
There were signifeent differences song the varieties for both percent clean ears
and score. It is shown that among the different varieties Francisco Flint is the
most resistant and Corneli II is the least resistant to stored grain insects.
Although statistical differences are not shown, it is evident that among
the varieties recommended from an agronicdo view point, Corneli 5$ is mor re sist-
ant than either of the two Funk varieties to the insects included in these observe
Table 3. Corn earworm injury to field corn varieties.
Iaelow tupan x Mayorbela
Belle GLade, Florida 1956
1/ Scores Joined by the same line are not significantly different from eae ete
?eores not joined by the same line are siipificantly different from eaek other.
Table I. Stored grain iaeot injury to field corn varieties.
Brasil 3330 A
Yellow tiapan x Mayorbela
% clean ears V/
Yellow tapan x Mayorbela
Brasil 3330 A
I/ Scores joined by the same line are not significantly different from each other.
Scores not joined by the same line are significantly different from each other.