Title: Primary evaluation of pre- and post emergence herbicides in vegetable and field crops.
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Title: Primary evaluation of pre- and post emergence herbicides in vegetable and field crops.
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Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1957
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Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-5


V PRIMARY EVALUATION OF PRE-AND POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDES


\ IN VEGETABLE AND FIELD CROPS, FALL, 1957
"K'*


J. R. Orsenigo


This report of the comparative performance of
commercial and experimental herbicides under the con-
ditions of the Florida Everglades, Fall, 1957, was
prepared for herbicide researchers and industry. The
data contained do not imply nor constitute a recommen-
dation of any herbicide for any usage.
















Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-5

Belle Glade, Florida


November 1, 1958


10 November 1958





. Everglades Station Mimeo Report 59-5


PRIMARY EVALUATION OF PRE- AND POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDES

IN VEGETABLE AND FIELD CROPS, FALL, 1957

J. R. Orsenigo
Assistant Horticulturist


The general crop-herbicide program at the Everglades Experiment Station
consists of four phases which are summarized briefly.

1.) The first phase is the primary evaluation of pre- and post emergence
applied herbicides with a number of vegetable and field crops. Herbicide treat-
ment plots comprise a swath six-feet wide which traverses the crop rows at right
angles; 1, 2, 3, or 4 replications may be installed compromising the number
desired with available chemicals, rates, land and other local considerations.
The crops may or may not be grown to maturity and the data may be observational
or numerical ratings. This report presents qualitative observational data while
Mimeo Report 59-6 contains numerical rating evaluations of a post emergence
primary evaluation experiment. This level of screening is necessary since only
limited evaluations of herbicide performance on organic soils and with vegetable
crops are conducted by industry, State or Federal agencies.

2.) In the secondary evaluation phase the most promising herbicides for a
given crop, as determined in the prior phase, are tested with that crop. Plots
usually are single rows 30 to 50 feet in length. Four replications are installed
and the crop is grown to maturity when possible. Numerical rating data of crop
stand, crop tolerance, and grass and broadleaf weed control are taken. If grown
to maturity, yields or comparative yield estimates may be recorded and quality
evaluations made. In crops such as celery, data for the number and length of
petioles may be obtained for limited sub-samples from each plot.

3.) In the tertiary phase the superior treatments of the secondary level
are installed in four replications in 4-row yield plots, 30 to 50 feet in length.
In addition to ratings of crop stand and tolerance, and grass and broadleaf weed
control, yield and quality data are collected. If these experiments are placed
on a cooperator's farm the plot dimensions are accomodated to the planting system.

4.) The commercial trial on growers' farms constitutes the final step in the
program. The best materials form the third level are placed in these trials if:
crop tolerance is assured, weed control is obtained; residue data are favorable,
and crop labelling is contemplated, impending or extant. These trials include
few comparative treatments and may be replicated; crop observations and yield
and quality data are taken.

A very promising herbicide is not necessarily confined rigidly to the fore-
going stepwise procedure, but, may be advanced more rapidly if local observations
and external reports are favorable. If data from other experiment stations and
industry warrant, a chemical and rate of application may be interjected at an
advanced stage (i.e., secondary) even though it will be evaluated concurrently
in the primary phase.

This report is intended to apprise other herbicide researchers and industry
of the comparitive performance of commercial and experimental herbicides under
the conditions of the Florida Everglades in fall evaluations, 1957.


10 November 1958








Number of experiment: 5-58
Location: Field 3SE, EES
Soil Type: Okeelanta peaty muck
Cultural operations:
Field fitting: 18 October 1957
Fertilization: 21 October 1957 (400 lb/A, 0-10-20, broadcast)
Final fitting and rolling: 21 October 1957
Crops planted: 22 October 1957
Celery transplanted: 24 October 1957

Routine fungicide and insecticide applications were made at weekly
intervals and more frequently as required.

Design: Non-replicated single treatment plots. Thirty-six vegetable and 6 field
crops were planted in north-south rows. Herbicide spray strips (6 ft. wide x
150 ft. long) were applied in an east-west direction traversing all crop rows.

Description of test crops:


Spinach:
Beet:
Onion:
Carrot:
Celery:
Parsley:
Broccoli:
Chinese Cabbage:
Mustard:
Collards:
Turnip:
Radish:
Endive:
Lettuce:


Romaine:
Tomato:
Pepper:
English peas:
Southern peas:
Snapbean:

Lima Bean:
Cucumber:
Pumpkin:
Summer Squash:
Winter Squash:
Oat:
Rice:
Sweet Corn:

Field Corn:
Kenaf:
Okra:


Virginia Savoy
Early Wonder
Excel
Chantenay
EES 148
Moss-curled
Waltham #29
Michihli
Florida Brcadleaf
Vates
Purpletop White Globe
Scarlet Globe
Full Heart Batavian (escarole)
Bibbs
Imperial
Salad Bowl
Dark Green Cos
Homestead
Florida Giant
Little Marvel (Garden peas)
Alabama Crowder
Tendergreen
Seminole
Fordhook 242
Marketer
Cushaw
Caserta
Butternut
Seminole
CP 231
lona
Golden Security
Corneli 54
BG 52-41
Clemson Spineless


Crop seed germination had commenced but none of the crops had emerged
by the time of herbicide application.






-3-


Description of weed growth: The pre-emergence herbicidal treatments were applied
prior to weed emergence but germination of annual grass and broadleaf weed seed
had commenced. Weeds which were present in the post emergence treatment plots
were:
Stickerweed, Amaranthus spinosa, up to 10 in. tall.
Purslane, Portuleca oleraceae, up to 4 in. tell.
Pellitory weed, Parietaria floridiana, up to 2 in. tall.
Nut-grasses, Cjoras sp., up t" 6 in. tall.
Crab-grass, Dig:taria sp., up to 10 in. tall.
Goose-grass, Eleyi-ine indica, up to 10 in. tall.
The less abundant species were:
Wild lettuce, SLachus sp.
Eclipta, Eclipta alba.

Description of herbicidal treatments: The herbicides and rates employed are given
in Table 1 along with formulation and supplier.

The pre-emergence applications were made broadcast with experimental tractor
spray equipment using 60 gpa of herbicide solution at 30 psi and a tractor speed
of 3 mph.

The post emergence applications were made with experimental tractor spray
equipment using 90 gpa of herbicide solution at 20 psi and a tractor speed of
2 mph. The herbicides were applied broadcast over the tops of the crops and
weeds.

Dates of herbicide application:
Pre-emergence: 23 October 1957
Post emergence: 20 November 1957

Soil Moisture at time of herbicide application: (0- 1/2 in. depth):
Pre-emergence: 150 percent
Poet emergence: 160 percent
(Note: field capacity approximately 160 percent)

Rainfall data: Total Accumulated
Weeks after application Pre-emergence Post emergence
1 0.11 in. 0.03 in.
2 0.11 0.97
3 0.13 1.08
4 0.89 1.14
8 2.03
12 12.78

Planting of cover crops: At 12 weeks after planting the crops and weeds were
disced down and four cover crops were planted in strips at right angles to the
herbicide strips. Hegari, Seminole oat, CP 9016 rice and Sesbania were drilled
at a seeding rate of 30 lb/A each.

Comparative observations and results: Both hand weeded and unweeded control
strips were interspersed at regular intervals among the herbicide strips. Crop
stand and growth and grass and broadleaf weed control in treated plots could be
contrasted easily with the controls when evaluations were made. Three notations
were applied to crop response and are used in the following summary: crops killed;
crops which grew poorly; crops with a high degree of tolerance. Crops which are
not mentioned in the summaries of the several herbicides exhibited fair to good
growth under the specific herbicides and may or may not have usable tolerance.









Pre-emergence treatments: (evaluated at 4 weeks after planting)

PBA : Did not provide effective grass or broadleaf weed control.
Onion, romaine, garden peas, cucumber and rice were killed.

PBA* : Did not provide effective control of grass or broadleaf weeds.
Peppers, winter squash and rice were killed. Poor growth was
noted in beet, celery, Imperial lettuce, garden peas, cucumber,
and okra.

4-(MCPB) : Obtained fair grass and broadleaf weed control. Romaine and
rice were killed. Growth of spinach, onion, mustard, pepper,
garden peas and okra were poor. Salad Bowl lettuce, snapbean
and oat were especially tolerant.


4-(2,4-DB)






4-(2,4-DB)*




4-(2,4-DB)**





silvex




2,4-D




EMID




sesone




3Y9


: Provided poor grass and broadleaf weed control. Cucumber,
summer squash and rice were killed. Growth was poor in spinach,
beet, romaine, and Bibbs lettuce. Growth was good in the follow-
ing crops which were markedly tolerant of the herbicide: parsley,
carrot, celery, radish, endive, Salad Bowl lettuce, snapbean,
and oat.

: Grass and broadleaf weed control were poor. Pepper, cucumber,
pumpkin and okre. were killed. Spinach, onion, beet, romaine,
Salad Bowl lettuce, rice and kenaf grew poorly. Celery, snap-
bean, field and sweet corn were the most tolerant crops.

: Grass weed control was good, but broadleaf control was poor.
Spinach, oaion, tomato, pepper, pumpkin, summer squash, winter
squesh, and rico were killed. Mustard, Bibbs and Imperial
lettuce, garden peas, and k-:-af grew poorly. Celery and snap-
bean were most tolerant of the herbicide.

: Grass weed control was very good while broadleaf control was
fair. Spinach, endive, pumpkin and summer squash were killed.
Poor growth was noted for onion, parsley, carrot, mustard, tomato
and pepper.

: Grass weed control was good and broadleaf weed control was poor.
Endive, garden peas and cucumber were killed. Growth of spinach,
beet, on-i., parley, celery, Bibbs and imperial lettuce, rice,
kencf and oera were poor.

: Gr.ss and broad3eaf weed control were similar to 2,4-D. Pepper
wav killed. S-piiach, onion, carrot, broccoli, Chinese cabbage,
mustard, turnip, radish, celery, erdive, romaine, BJ.'bs and
Imperial lettuce, lima bean, cucumber, rice and okra grew poorly.

: Grass weed control was fair and broadleaf control was poor.
Peppers ern: Imperial lettuce were killed. Growth of the follow-
ing was poor: spinach, beet, carrot, mustard, celery, endive,
romaine, Bibbs .ettuce, and Salad Bowl lettuce.

: Grass and broal.eaf weed control were rated as equivalent to
sescne. Pppe-r and siuner squash were killed. Poor growth re-
sulted in spinach; mustard, celery, endive, Bibbs and Imperial
lettuce, tomato, kenaf and okra.





-7-


CP-6936 :Low rate: Grass and broadleaf weed control were complete.
Spinach, carrot, endive, romaine, Bibbs, Imperial and Salad
Bowl lettuce, tomato, cucumber, and pumpkin were killed. Growth
of beet, onion, parsley, Chinese cabbage, mustard, and turnip
was poor. Celery, field and sweet corn were especially tolerant.

High rate: In addition to the foregoing observations: beet was
killed and rice growth was poor, while the same crops were
tolerant.

CIPC : Grass weed control was complete while broadleaf weed control
was excellent. Spinach, pepper, cucumber, pumpkin and okra
were killed. Growth of beet, carrot, Chinese cabbage, mustard,
turnip, endive and tomato was poor. Celery, romaine, and Bibbs,
Imperial and Salad Bowl lettuce were tolerant.

diuron : Grass control was very good while broadleaf weed control was
good. Spinach, mustard, endive, Bibbs, Imperial and Salad
Bowl lettuce, and tomato were killed. Poor growth was noted
for beet, onion, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, and turnip. Garden
peas and snapbean were noticeably tolerant.

monuron : Grass control was very good and broadleaf weed control was
excellent. Spinach, mustard, tomato, pepper and pumpkin were
killed. Growth of beet, onion, broccoli, Chinese cabbage,
collards, turnip, celery, endive, Salad Bowl lettuce, and rice
was poor. Snapbean was most tolerant of the crops.

neburon : Grass weed control was poor while broadleaf control was fair.
Spinach, onion and pepper were killed. Growth was poor for
mustard, endive, Imperial and Salad Bowl lettuce. Celery was
tolerant.

dalapon : Good grass control and poor broadleaf weed control were obtained.
Tomato and pepper were killed. Mustard, endive and rice growth
was poor. Spinach and celery were noticeably tolerant.

eptam : Complete grass and very good broadleaf control were obtained.
Spinach, beet, endive, romaine, Bibbs, Imperial and Salad Bowl
lettuce, tomato and pepper were killed. Poor growth was noted
for parsley, onion, broccoli, mustard, collards, turnip, snap-
bean, cucumber, summer squash, oat and okra. Celery, field and
sweet corn were especially tolerant.

simazine : Grass and broadleaf weed control were complete. Unless noted
below all test crops were killed. Growth of parsley, snapbean,
rice, oat and kenaf was poor (none of these crops survived).
Field and sweet corn were the only crops which showed utiliz-
able tolerance to this herbicide.

G-27901 : Grass and broadleaf weed control were complete. The following
crops were killed: spinach, beet, onion, broccoli, Chinese
cabbage, mustard, collards, turnip, radish, endive, romaine,
Bibbs, Imperial and Salad Bowl lettuce, cucumber, pumpkin,
summer and winter squash, and okra. Growth of carrot, snapbean,
rice and kenaf was poor. Eventually, most of these crops died
and only celery and parsley were tolerant.




-8-


G-30028 : Excellent grass weed control and complete broadleaf control
were obtained. Spinach, beet, onion, broccoli, Chinese cabbage,
mustard, collards, turnip, radish, endive, romaine, Bibbs,
Imperial and Salad Bowl lettuce, cucumber, pumpkin, summer and
winter squash and okra were killed. Poor growth was recorded
for garden peas, snapbean, rice and kenaf. Eventually, most
of these died. Some tolerance was noted in parsley and carrot
while celery was especially tolerant.

G-30031 : Excellent grass and broadleaf weed control were obtained.
Spinach, beet, onion, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, mustard,
collards, turnip, radish, endive, rouaine, Bibbs, Imperial
and Salad Bowl lettuce, tomato, pepper, cLcumber, pumpkin,
summer and winter squash, rice oat, kenaf and okra were killed.
Garden peas and snapbean grew poorly. Most crops eventually
died. Parsley and carrot were somewhat tolerant while celery
and field and sweet corn were especially tolerant.

BIO 4512 : Grass control was poor while broadleaf weed control was very
good. Spinach, beet, onion, mustard, turnip, endive, Bibbs and
Salad Bowl lettuce, tomato, pepper, summer and winter squash
were killed. Growth of Imperial lettuce was poor. Celery was
markedly tolerant.

BIO 4562 : Grass control wes good while broadleaf weed cornt-ol was very
good. Spinach, endive, Bibbs and Salad Bowl lettuce, and
cucumber were killed. Poor growth was noted for beet, onion,
mustard, turnip and Imperial lettuce. Tomato and pepper were
somewhat tolerant and celery was especially tolerant.

FW-450 : Grass control was good while broadleaf weed control was very
poor. Spinach, pepper, summer and winter squash were killed.
Growth of broccoli and endive was poor. Celery and some of the
leaf crops had sufficient tolerance to investigate further.

Summary of pre-emergence observations:

Herbicides effective in controlling annual grass weeds in pre-emergence
applications were: silvex, amitrol, DNBP, CDAA, CDEC, CP-6936, CIPC, diuron,
monuron, dalapon, eptam and the triazines.

Broadleaf weeds were effectively controlled by pre-emergence applications
of: amitrol, DNBP, CDAA, CDEC, CP-6936, CIPC, monuron, diuron, eptam and the
triazines.

Herbicides most promising for future investigation for pre-transplanting
weed control in celery were: 4-(2,4-DB); 4-(2,4-DB)*; 4-(2,4-DB)**; CDAA, CDEC,
CP-6936, CIPC,eptam, G-30028, and G-30031.

Herbicides which warrant further experimentation for pre-emergence weed con-
trol in snapbean were: 4-(2,4-DB); (2,4-DB)*; 4-(2,4-DB)**; 4-(MCPB), DNPB, CDAA,
and monuron.

Further testing of pre-emergence sweet corn herbicides should include:
4-(2-DB)*, DNBP, CDAA, CP-6936, eptam, simazine, and G-30031.





Table 1. Description of herbicidal treatments: (All rates are in terms of acid equivalent or active
Table i. Description of herbicidal treatments: (All rates are in terms of acid equivalent or active


ingredient per acre, whichever applies.)


Designation Herbicide


PBA
PBA*
4- MCPB)
4-(2,4-DB)
4- (2,4-DB)*
4-(2,4-DB)**

silver

2,4-D
EMID
sesone
3Y9
DCU
EXD
amitrol
DNBP
CDAA
CDEC
CP-6840
CP-6936
CIPC
diuron
monuron
neburon
dalapon
eptam
simazine
G-27901
G-30028
- 30031
BIO 4512
BIO 4562
FW-450
Hand weeded control


polychlorobenzoic acids
dimethylammonium polychlorobenzoate
dimethylamine salt, 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid
dimethylamine salt, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid
butyl ester, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid
propylene glycol butyl ether esters, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)
butyric acid
propylene glycol butyl ether esters, 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)
propionic acid
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetamide
sodium 2,4-dichlorophenoxyethyl sulfate
tris-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyethyl) phosphite
dichloral urea
ethyl xanthogen disulfide (bis(ethyl xanthic) disulfide)
3-amino 1,2,4-triazole
alkanolamine salts, 4,6-dinitro o secondary butylphenol
2-chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide
2-chlorallyl diethyldithiocarbamate
3,4-dimethylbenzophenone
classified
isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate
3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea
3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea
1-n-butyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea
sodium salt 2,2-dichloropropionic acid
ethyl N, N-di-n-propylthiolcarbamate
2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine
2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-diethylamino-s-triazine
2-chloro-4,6-bis(isopropylamino)-s-triazine
2-chloro-4-diethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine
classified
classified
sodium 2,3-dichloroisobutyrate
(every seventh plot weeded as required.


Formulation


Benzac 103A
X33 A
Butyrac 119
Butyrac 118
M-1090

M-1091

Kuron
Acid Paste
EMID
Crag Herb. 1
3Y9
DCU 73W
Herbisan
Weedazol
Premerge
Randox
Vegedex
CP-6840
CP-6936
ChloroIPC
Karmex DW
Karmex W
Neburon
Dowpon
EPTC
Simazin 50W
G-27901
G-30028
G-30031
BIO 4512
BIO 4562
FW-450
Unweeded control


Supplier

Am. Chem. Paint
Hooker
Am. Chem. Paint
Am. Chem. Paint
Dow Chemical Co.

Dow Chem. Co.

Dow Chem. Co.
Stauffer Chem.
Am. Chem. Paint
Carb. & Carb. Chem.
Naugatuck Chem.
Carb. & Carb. Chem.
Roberts Chem. Co.
Am. Chem. Paint
Dow Chem. Co.
Monsanto Chem.
Monsanto Chem.
Monsanto Chem.
Monsanto Chem.
Col.-Southern
E. I. duPont
E. I. duPont
E. I. duPont
Dow Chem. Co.
Stauffer Chem.
Geigy Agr. Chem.
Geigy Agr. Chem.
Geigy Agr. Chem.
Geigy Agr. Chem.
Niagara Chem.
Niagara Chem.
Rohm and Haas
(every fourteenth plot).


Rates applied,
Pre-emg.


2
1
4

3
6
5
4
9
4. 8
4, 8
4, 8
4, 8
8
2
2
2
10
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5


Ib/A
Post emg.


1






4.5
4
4


4

1.5







1, 6
1, 6
5,10
-









-6-


DCU : Grass and broadleaf weed control were poor. Spinach and pepper
were killed. Beet, mustard, endive romaine Imperial lettuce,
pumpkin, summer squash, and rice growth was poor. Celery was
especially tolerant.

EXD : Grass and broadleaf weeds were not controlled effectively.
Spinach, Chinese cabbage, pepper winter squash, and sweet corn
were killed. Poor growth was noted for mustard, endive, Imper-
ial lettuce, rice and field corn. Celery did not appear to be
affected.

amitrol : Grass and broadleaf control were very good. Tomato, pepper,
pumpkin and rice were killed. Growbt was poor in spinach, beet,
onion, broccoli, mustard, collards, endive, romaine, Bibbs,
Imperial and Salad Bowl lettuce. Garden peas and celery
appeared to be most tolerant.

DNBP : Grass and brosaleaf weed control were rated excellent, Spinach
bect, onion, parsley, carrot, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, mustard,
cc.:l'---, t-,'-i.o, radish endive, romaine, Bibbs, Imperial and
Sa lad Bowl lettuce, tomatoes and poppe.r-s were killed. Celery,
kenaf and o'ra g-owth was poor. Garden peas snapbean and field
and sweet curn were especially tolerant.

CDAA : Low rate: Grace control was complete while broadleaf weed
control wvr excellent. Spinach, eni.ve, rcmaine, Bibbs, Imperial
and Salad 2owl lettuce, were killed. Growth of beet, onion,
carrot, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, mustard, turnip, tomato
pepper, cucumber, kenaf and okr& was poor. C:l. -r7 giardcen peas
snapbean, field and sweet corn were especially tolerret.

High rate: Grass and broadleaf weed control were complete. In
addition to the above listing for the low rate, pepper and
kenaf were killed; collards and oat grew poorly; while the same
crops were tolerant.

CDEC : Low rate: Grass weed control was complete and bro.i3A.eaf weed
control was excellent. Spinach and tomato were kl~ ..J Growth
of beet, carrct, rnustard, and turnip ~- :-oor. CO-.ery. endive,
romaine, Bibb;, Imperial and Salad Bo7-. .-t-';uce azli msapbean
were especially t'.lerant.

High rate: Co..-s.te grass and broadleaf ,.".i control were
obtained. In F,:-,tdition to the low rate li.-:;i.':, pm:kin and
okra were killed ; and growth of Chinese cabbge w",s poor. The
same tolerant crops were noted.

CP-6840 : Low rate: Grass and broadleaf weed control were very good. io
crops were kil -3. Poor growth was rccj.i'.!..d for: spiicne, onion,
Chinese cro~b.z^.c-, mustard, collards, t cr.i'lp, endive, romaine, Bibbs
and Impar'lal letuce, tomato and okra. C..'iry and snapbean were
markedly tolerant.

High rate: Identical observations were recorded for the high
rate.




-9-


CDEC should be investigated further in leaf and cole crops.



Post emergence treatments: (as evaluated at 3 weeks after application.)

Freezing temperatures which occurred several weeks after application com-
plicated complete, accurate evaluation of the post emergence treatments. However
the following observations were obtained, and, in most cases, apply to weed con-
trol, but, for several herbicides it was possible to assess crop tolerance.

PBA: PBA* : No grass or broadleaf weed control obtained.


4-(MCPB)


4-(2,1-DB)


4-(2,4-DB)*


2,4-D


EMID


amitrol:


monuron


DNBP


: Reductions of 20 and 30 percent for grass and broadleaf weeds,


respectively.

: Reductions of 20 and 30
respectively.

: Reductions of 40 and 90
respectively.

: Reduction of 50 percent
broadleaf weeds.

: Reduction of 40 percent
broadleaf weeds.

: Reductions of 90 and 70
broadleaf weeds.

: Reductions of 70 and 90
respectively.

: Reductions of 50 and 90
respectively.


percent for grass and broadleaf weeds,


percent for grass and broadleaf weeds,


of grass weeds and elimination of


of grass weeds and elimination of


percent respectively for grass and


percent for grass and broadleaf weeds,


percent for grass and broadleaf weeds,


: No reduction in grass weed stand and 10 percent reduction in
broadleaf weeds.

: No reduction in grass weeds and 40 percent reduction in broadlea.
weeds.

: No reduction in grass weed stand and 40 percent reduction in
broadleaf weeds.

: Low rate: Eliminated broadleaf weeds and reduced grass weed
stand 50 percent. Nut grasses not killed. Oat not killed.and
celery markedly tolerant.

: High rate: Eliminated broadleaf weeds and reduced grass weeds
stand 70 percent. Nut grasses were not killed. Oat not killed
and celery was markedly tolerant.

: Low rate: Eliminated broadleaf weeds and reduced grass weed
stand 50 percent. Nut grasses killed. Oat tolerant and celery
especially tolerant.


CDAA


CDEC


CIPC


BIO 4512







BIO 4562





-10-


: High rate: Eliminated broadleaf weeds and reduced grass weed
stand 90 percent. Nut grasses killed. Oat was tolerant and
celery especially tolerant.

: Low rate: Broadleaf and grass weeds were reduced about 30 per-
cent. Celery and carrot were especially tolerant to this
herbicide and the leaf and cole crops appeared to have some
tolerance.


: High rate: Broadleaf and grass weed stand was reduced about
60 percent. Crop tolerances were the same as at the low rate.

Summary of post emergence observations:

The herbicides which appeared to deserve further post emergence investiga-
tion were: BIO 4512 and BIO 4562 (celery and other umbelliferous crops); and
FW-450 (celery and leaf and cole crops). The directional application of these
herbicides in other crops should be attempted. Weed kill attributed to the
herbicidal treatments may have been markedly influenced by freezing tempera-
tures.


Cover crop observations: Prolonged wet and cold weather caused
of all cover crops except oat. None of the herbicides, pre- or post
left sufficient residues to affect stand or growth of oat.


the loss
emergence,


Acknowledgements: Vegetable and crop seed were furnished by F. H. Woodruff
and Son, Inc.; The Kilgore Seed Company; and the Agronomy Section, Everglades
Experiment Station. The herbicides were obtained from the suppliers indicated in
Table 1. Mr. William R. Alston assisted in experiment installation and main-
tenance.




















EES 59-5, 400 copies
11/1/58


FW-450




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