Title: Grazing trial results for one year.
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 Material Information
Title: Grazing trial results for one year.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Everglades Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1963-1964
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076883
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 166140782

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Everglades Station Mimeo Report EES66-5


GRAZING TRIAL RESULTS FOR ONE YEAR (1963 1964)
1/
C. E. Haines and R. J. Allen, Jr.


Grazing studies have been conducted for many years at the Everglades Experi-
ment Station using yearling cattle. The studies have usually compared the pro-
ductivity of several pasture forages on the organic soils of south Florida on
the basis of the amount of beef produced per acre in a year's time. Comparisons
between Roselawn St. Augustinegrass, paragrass, Argentine bahiagrass, Pensacola
bahiagrass and pangolagrass have been reported in recent years by Haines and
Allen (2, 3, 4). Since 1944, Roselawn St. Augustinegrass has been the most pro-
minent and productive pasture forage. A ten-year summary of its productivity
has been compiled by Haines et al. (6). A bulletin by Chapman et al. (1) includes
a discussion of feedstuffs that may be used as pasture supplements during the
winter for increasing the amount of beef produced from forage. Haines and le
Grand (5) have reported on the value of using chopped sugarcane as a winter
supplement for yearling steers that were grazing several pasture grasses.

The study reported herein used yearling steers to compare the annual pro-
ductivity of Roselawn St. Augustinegrass, paragrass, Argentine bahiagrass and
Pensacola bahiagrass. In the winter season, a portion of the animals on each
of the grasses was provided with a pasture supplement.


Experimental Procedure

Yearling steers were used to continuously graze the forages being compared.
An attempt was made to maintain a minimum stocking rate of two yearlings per
acre on all grasses but this was not quite attained for paragrass. The "put
and take" system of animal management was employed to compensate for flucta-
tions in forage quantity except during the winter period when stocking rates
were kept constant to compare the value of pasture supplements. The addition-
al steers were kept in a "pool group" and maintained in a thrifty condition so
that when they were added to a particular block, they continued to show normal
weight changes. Original "base" animals were assigned to blocks on the basis
of weight and breeding.

In the 12-week winter period, one fourth of the animals grazing each grass
received 1.5 pounds of cornmeal per head daily and another fourth received 1.5
pounds of cottonseed meal. The remaining half of the steers on each grass re-
ceived no supplemental feed during the winter. Animals were individually weigh-
ed every two weeks and forage samples were secured each month for chemical anal-
ysis. All animals had access to a mineral mixture throughout the trial.

Each of the forage blocks was two acres in size. For replication purposes,
there were four blocks of Roselawn St. Augustinegrass, four of paragrass, three
of Argentine bahiagrass and four of Pensacola bahiagrass. The trial was initiat-
ed on October 17, 1963, and terminated on October 22, 1964.



1/
Assistant Animal Husbandman and Assistant Agronomist, respectively, Ever-
glades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida.


September, 1965





-2-


Results

A summary of the annual productivity of the four grasses is shown in table
1. The values show that an acre of St. Augustinegrass produced almost 1100 pounds
of beef or twice as much as an acre of paragrass. Argentine bahiagrass yielded
almost 1000 pounds of beef per acre and approximately 200 pounds more than Pensa-
cola bahiagrass. Although St. Augustinegrass yielded the most pounds of beef,
Argentine bahiagrass had the highest stocking rate or total number of grazing
days per acre. Also, the stocking rates of St. Augustinegrass and Pensacola
bahiagrass were about equal. Thus, individual steer gains were higher on St.
Augustinegrass than they were on the two bahiagrasses.

Table 1. Average Number of Steers per Acre and Average Daily Gain in Pounds.


Grass St. Augustine Para Argentine B. Pensacola B.
Experimental No. of Daily No. of Daily No. of Daily No. of Daily
Periods Steers Gain Steers Gain Steers Gain Steers Gain


1963

Oct.
Oct.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.

1964

Dec.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
May
May
Jun.
Jun.
Jul.
Jul.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.
Sep.
Oct.


Oct.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.


Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
May
May
Jun.
Jun.
Jul.
Jul.
Aug.
Aug.
Sep.
Sep.
Oct.
Oct.


2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0


2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.8
2.0
2.0


Total Grazing Days
Total Pounds Gain


0.92
1.09
0.36
1.07
0.18


2.0
2.3
2.0
2.0
2.0


0.33
-0.04
0.56
1.07
1.52
0.78
1.65
2.10
2.08
1.79
1.74
1.32
1.59
1.53
1.37
1.37
1.16
1.18
1.01
0.49
1.06


907
1086


509


0.78
1.77
0.80
1.85
-0.27


-1.21
-0.65
-1.52
-0.49
-0.33
-1.34
-0.31


3.04
2.53
1.38
2.12
1.90
1.96
2.05
1.54
1.38
1.25
0.29
1.29


2.0
3.0
3.0
2.0
2.0


2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
4.0
4.0
3.0
3.0


1.01
0.95
0.42
1.04
-0.33


-1.61
-0.12
0.57
1.01
1.43
1.10
2.17
1.88
2.59
2.36
1.37
0.96
0.85
1.10
0.56
0.65
0.19
0.77
0.94
0.06
0.71


2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0


2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.3


1175
995


0.51
1.16
0.04
1.52
-0.13


0.11
0.13
-0.11
1.54
0.96
1.38
1.70
1.70
1.98
1.75
1.77
0.58
0.41
0.85
0.45
1.41
0.33
0.84
0.61
0.18
1.37


901
790






The gain from an acre of grass fluctuated considerably throughout the year
and was related to both the season of the year and the number of steers on the
pasture. Stocking rates varied from 2 to 5 steers per acre and grasses were the
most productive in the months of April, May, June, and July. Approximately 30%
of the annual gains from St. Augustinegrass and Argentine and Pensacola bahia-
grass occurred in the eight weeks period of April and May while over 33% of the
annual gains from paragrass were recorded in the eight weeks of June and July.
The largest gains made by an individual steer during the year's period was 455
pounds which is an average gain of 1.2 pounds a day. Another steer did almost
as well with a total of 450 pounds of gain during the test. Both of these ani-
mals were grazing St. Augustinegrass and were crossbred steers.

Months for low gains were December, January, February and March with oc-
casional weight losses showing up in these months for St. Augustinegrass, Ar-
gentine and Pensacola bahiagrass. Steers on the paragrass lost weight during
the entire period of December through March and these pastures became so over-
grazed due to the cold weather that all steers were removed and the pastures
were rested for the month of April.

In the 12-week winter season, the animal responses to the supplemental
feeds were variable. The cottonseed meal appeared to stimulate the gains of
steers on St. Augustinegrass and Pensacola bahiagrass while cornmeal was of
no benefit. However, both cornmeal and cottonseed meal were beneficial to steers
on paragrass and Argentine bahiagrass. Both supplements improved the gains of
steers on Argentine bahiagrass and decreased the winter weight loss of steers
on the paragrass. Cornmeal appeared to be slightly more beneficial than cot-
tonseed meal for these two groups. A summary of this data is shown in Table
2 and indicates that ncne of the supplements improved the overall gains of
individual steers even though benefits were evident during the supplementa-
tion period. This suggests that non-supplemented animals were able to "catch
up" with the winter-supplemented steers in the subsequent periods of better
pasture quality.

Table 2. Average Gains for "Base" Steers Only in the Period of Supplementation
and for the Entire Year (4 steers/group).


Winter Supplement Corn Meal CSM None None

St. Augustinegrass

Supplementation Period 69 90 69 80
Entire Year 350 405 365 413

Paragrass

Supplementation Period -35 -43 -81 -101
Entire Year 370 340 268 380

Argentine Bahiagrass

Supplementation Period 105 81 73 *
Entire Year 339 265 309

Pensacola Bahiagrass

Supplementation Period 63 98 71 80
Entire Year 304 298 326 315
* Lot in process of establishment to grass.




-4-


Forage samples were secured in the middle of each month for laboratory
analysis. Some of the proximate analysis data is shown in table 3. The peak
periods for dry matter content were generally in the cooler months and the
bahiagrass usually ran a little higher in dry matter than St. Augustinegrass
and paragrass. The protein content appeared to be the.highest in the spring
and early summer (March July) for all of the grasses. The only samples that
ran below 12% crude protein were those in February and March for paragrass.
The paragrass also produced samples containing the highest level of crude
protein and this occurred in May through. August. The crude protein values
of the bahiagrasses usually were as high as those from the St. Augustinegrass
pastures. Except for paragrass, the peak periods of crude fiber content oc-
curred in October, November and December and were rather consistent between
the grasses. The crude fiber values for paragrass were the highest in Feb-
ruary and March. In general, May, June and November were the months for the
high ether extract values while low levels were scattered throughout the year.


Summary

Yearling steers were used to compare the annual productivity of four pere-
nnial pasture forages under continuous.grazing. Base animals remained in the
test pasture for the entire year and additional animals were used to graze ex-
cess forage. A portion of the base steers received a pasture supplement during
the winter.

Steers grazing Roselawn St. Augustinegrass produced total gains of 1086
pounds per acre while total weight gains from Argentine bahiagrass, Pensacola
bahiagrass and paragrass were 995, 790 and 509 pounds, respectively. Season-
al stocking rates varied from 2 to 5 steers per acre. The total number of
animal grazing days per acre was 1175 for Argentine bahiagrass compared to
907-for Roselawn St. Augustinegrass, 901 for Pensacola bahiagrass and 665 for
paragrass. Roselawn St. Augustinegrass, Argentine bahiagrass and Pensacola
bahiagrass were the most productive in April and May while paragrass was the
most productive in June and July. The months for small gains and low stock-
ing were December, January4 February and March. Although small amounts of
cottonseed meal or cornmeal appeared to be of slight value as pasture sup-
plements during the winter, they did not improve'the overall gains of indi-
vidual steers. Proximate analyses of the four grasses, at monthly intervals,
were also compiled.







-5-


Table 3. Average Dry Matter, Protein, fiber and at Content of our Grasses by Monthly Periods
Table 3. Average Dry Matter, Protein, Fiber and Fat Content of Four Grasses by Monthly Periods-
llm e-l


.--. .Percent Dry Matter


Collection


St. Augustine


Para Argentine B Pensacola B


Percent Protein"


St*. Augustine Para


Argentine B Pensacola B


November, 1963

December, 1963

January, 1914

February, 1964

March, 1964

April, 1964

May, 1964

June, 1964
*
July, 1964

August, 1964

September, 1964

October, 1964


1/ Forage samples secured in the middle of each

2/ Expressed as percent of crude protein in dry


month for analyses.

matter.


21.5

25.5

25.9

28.8

27.6

28.0

22.1

22.3

23.0

22.7

20.4

20.3


18.5

21.9

32.1

51.2

86.0

26.8

20.5

20.1

21.3

22.3

21.1

S16.2


33.0

35.9

37.6

34.6

26.4

26.1

26.0

28.1

28.5

27.9

25.5

21.4


33.7

35.4

36.5

36.9

28.6

26.8

26.7

32.0

33.4

30.8

29.9

26.0


14.3

14.0

14.7

12.9

15.3

12.9

16.5

14.9

16.3

15.3

14.2

12.5


17.5

16.8

14.3

10.1

10.7

19.1

22.7

20.8

23.4

20.8

15.7

15.2


14.6

12.8

14.5

16.0

20.5

17.0

16.4

13.8

13.9

13.5

12.6

12.5


13.6

13.1

12.9

14.7

19.1

16.4

15.8

13.7

13.6

15.7

14.2

13.3








-6-


Table 3 (continued)


- Month of_ ...
Collection


November, 1963

December, 1963

January, 1964

February, 1964

March, 1964

April, 1964

May, 1964

June, 1964

July, 1964

August, 1964

September, 1964


October, 1964


3/
Percent Crude Fiber--


St. Augustine


33.0

28.9

28.4

28.7

28.3

28.1

25.0

26.4

27.9

28.3

29.4


30.2


Para Argentine B. Pensacola B.. St.


"31.1

28.6

30.3

35.7

36.7

26.1

18.9

21.3

21.4

22.6

26.9

28.1


33.8

30.0

28.2

25.3

23.8

24.4

24.3

26.3

29.8

28.9

31.6

30.4


32.1

31.0

28.8

27.8

26.1

27.7

28.2

30.4

30.7

31.0

30.4

30.3


3/
Percent -Ethfe F-'act
Para Argentine B Pensacola B.


A: St-stj ne


2.7

2.5

2.1

2.2

2.0

1.5

2.4

3.6

2.7

2.6

2.1

1.7


2.1

2.1

1,4

1.9

1.6

1.6

2.2

3.1

1.6

2.3

1.9

1.6


2.4

1.8

2.0

1.7

2.2

1.7

1.8

2.6

1.4

1.9

1.9

1.6


..-3/--xpressed as percent-of dry-matter.


. ... ...


4.0

2.8

2.6

2.1

1.8

2.3

3.6

3.8

3.2

3.4

2.0

1.8


--- --


....3_/-Exprsse- s- pren-ofdy"mttr




-7-


LITERATURE CITED


1. Chapman, H. L., Jr., F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley and T. J.
Cunha. 1964. Supplemental feeding of beef cattle on pasture in
south Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 665.

2. Haines, C. E. and R. J. Allen, Jr. 1961. Grazing trial results for one
year (1959-1960). Everglades Experiment Station Mimeo 61-11.

3. 1962. Grazing trial results for one year (1960-1961).
Everglades Experiment Station Mimeo 62-26.

4. 1963. Grazing trial results for one year (1961-1962).
Everglades Experiment Station Mimeo 64-7.

5. Haines, C. E. and F. le Grand. 1963. Supplementing winter grazing with
sugarcane. Sugar Jour. 26: 7.

6. Haines, C. E., H. L. Chapman, Jr., R. J. Allen, Jr. and R. W. Kidder.
1965. Roselawn St. Augustinegrass as a perennial pasture forage
for organic soils of south Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 689.



























EES66-5.


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