Group Title: Belle Glade AREC research report ;
Title: An investigation of subsidence lines in 1978 /
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076881/00001
 Material Information
Title: An investigation of subsidence lines in 1978 /
Series Title: Belle Glade AREC research report ;
Physical Description: 4, 24 p. : ill., charts, maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shih, S. F
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Belle Glade)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, University of Florida,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Belle Glade, FL
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Organic compound content -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Environmental conditions -- Everglades (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
Statement of Responsibility: by S.F. Shih ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076881
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 41830485

Full Text


HUME LIBRARY

WV ; -- 1 l..i





AN INVESTIGATION OF SUBSIDENCE LINES IN 1978

by
S.F. Shih, E.H. Stewart, L.H. Allen, Jr., and J.W. Hilliard



INTRODUCTION

The Florida Everglades is the largest single body of organic soils
in the world consisting of approximately 2,000,000 acres. The agricul-
tural area of the Everglades consists of approximately-7-775,000 acres of
fertile organic soil Figure 1). The area provides much of the nation's
winter vegetables; sweet corn, celery, radishes, leaf crops, carrots and
beans, in addition to pasture and turf. This area also contributes 15%
of the United States annual sugar production.

Whenever organic soils are drained, unfortunately, subsidence oc-
curs as a result of biochemical oxidation, compaction, wind erosion,
burning and shrinking.

The concrete monument at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center (AREC), Belle Glade, University of Florida, dramatically shows
losses that have occurred between 1924 and 1978 (Figure 2).

One practical and effective way to reduce this subsidence is to
maintain a high water table as shown in previous studies. This subsi-
dence rate was found to be directly proportional to the water table depth.



Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida,
AREC Belle Glade; Soil Scientist, USDA, Fort Pierce; Supervisory Soil
Scientist, USDA, and Associate Professor in Agronomy (courtesy),
Gainesville; Engineer I, University of Florida, AREC Belle Glade,
Florida.






-2-




The purposes of this study were: 1) to survey the subsidence of
Everglades organic soils for the past five years; and 2) to document
the surveyed results of ground surface and bedrock elevations.


SURVEY PROCEDURES


Subsidence Lines History

The first subsidence line was established in 1913. In the early
1930's, additional lines were added to total fifteen. Of these, eleven
lines have been resurveyed about every five years in five different sites
as shown in Figure 1. A brief description of each survey line follows:

Site No. 1 has four subsidence survey lines and is located at the
Agricultural Research and Education Center (AREC), Belle Glade, University
of Florida. These four lines which are identified in this report as lines
la, lb, Ic and Id, and were established in the years 1938, 1934, 1932 and
1938, respectively.

Site No. 2, designated as line 2, was established in 1913.

Site No. 3, designated as line 3, was established in 1914.

Site No. 4, of four segments, is located at Haney Wedgworth and has
been surveyed since 1938. These four segments are designated as lines
4a, 4b, 4c and 4d.

Site No. 5, designated as line 5, was established in 1935.

The land use conditions were classified into five categories ----
virgin grass, pasture, field crop, truck crop and sugarcane. The land
use histories for the above eleven lines are shown in Figures 3 through
13. The current five year ground elevation, organic soil depth, and
bedrock elevation were surveyed in March, 1978. The number of measurements
and interval of surveyed points in each field are also listed in Table 1.
The ground elevations were surveyed by using self leveling equipment. The
depths of organic soil was measured between ground surfaces and bedrock by
using a steel probe at the same point that the elevation was surveyed.
The bedrock elevation was computed based on the difference between ground
elevation and depth of organic soil.





-3-





The maximum and minimum values of ground elevation, depth of re-
maining organic soil, and bedrock elevation were analyzed for each
field. If more than one field was involved in a subsidence line, then
both the individual field and the entire line were analyzed.



RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

The subsidence rates of the eleven subsidence lines are listed in
Table 1. The subsidence rate ranged from 0.61 to 1.21 inches per year
and averaged about 0.9 inches.

There were 454 points measured for ground elevation, and 432 points
measured for depth of remaining organic soil and bedrock elevation. Due
to the highly compacted soils along the eastern portion of line 3, the
steel probe was unable to penetrate to bedrock, resulting in 22 fewer
measurements of depth of organic soil and bedrock elevation. The total
distance measured along the ground surface was 4.0 miles.

The mean value, maximum and minimum value of bedrock elevation in
each line are listed in Table 1. The largest deviation between maximum
and minimum values was 36 inches which occurred on line 5. This uneven
bedrock elevation could cause serious problems for water management sys-
tems as the organic soil becomes shallower. Since water does not flow
at the same rate through organic soil as through rock, subsurface drain-
age will not be uniform, resulting in some areas draining more rapidly
than others. This condition would also result in non-uniform subsurface
irrigation. A new water management system must be developed for this
eventuality.

The mean value, maximum and minimum values of ground elevation are
listed in Table 2. These uneven elevations suggest that any maintained
water level based on the lowest elevation will result in the higher field
elevations having a depth of drained soil that may not be conductive to
optimum crop production, soil insect control, and minimum subsidence. A
precision land forming program which includes either land sloping, land
leveling, or land smoothing would be most advantageous under these condi-
tions.

The mean value and maximum and minimum depth of organic soil are
also listed in Table 2. The largest mean depth that remains was 6 feet
along line 3 and the shallowest mean depth was 17inches along line 2.
With the organic soil depth as shallow as 17inches, some crops may no
longer be able to grow well because of the reduced ability of maintaining
a stable, desirable water table. New crops must be initiated when the
soil becomes shallower, or the fields flooded to re-establish peat.
This uneven depth of remaining organic soil result in the same problems as
uneven bedrock elevation.






-4-





The results of 1978 average elevation in each line were shown in
Figures 3 through 13 for the lines la, Ib, 1c, Id, 2, 3, 4a, 4b, 4c,
4d and 5, respectively. The bedrock and ground surface elevation along
each line in each surveyed point were plotted on Figures 14 through 20
for lines la, Ib, Ic, Id, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. As those figures
show, the bedrock surfaces varied considerably in respect to the soil
surface.









RE F E R E N C E S


Lyrene, P. M. and G. Kidder. 1977. A Traveler's Guide to Florida Sugarcane.

Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Univ. of Fla., Agronomy Facts,

No. 59.


Shih, S. F., J. W. Mishoe, J. W. Jones, and D. L. Myhre. 1977. Subsidence

Related to Land Use in Everglades Agricultural Area. Trans. of Am. Soc.

of Agr. Engr. (in press).


Stephens, J. C. and L. Johnson. 1951. Subsidence of Organic Soils in the

Upper Everglades Region of Florida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.

XI:181-237.


Stephens, J. C. 1956. Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida Everglades.

Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 20:77-80.


Stephens, J. C. 1969. Peat and Muck Drainage Problems. J. Irrig. and Drainage

Div., ASCE 95(IR2):285-305.


Waksman, S. A. and K. R. Stevens. 1929. Contribution to the Chemical Composition

of Peat: V. The Role of Microrganisms in Peat Formation and Decomposition.

Soil Sci. XXVIII(4):315-340.








FIGURES' HEADINGS


Figure 1. Florida Everglades Agricultural Area and established subsidence
lines.

Figure 2. The concrete monument at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center Belle Glade, showing subsidence losses between 1924 and
1978.


Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure


Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure


Figure 15.


Figure 16.


Figure 17.


Figure 18.


Figure 19.


Figure 20.


Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of
River Canal).

Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of

Subsidence of


Line

Line

Line

Line

Line

Line


Line 4a

Line 4b

Line 4c

Line 4d

5 (Well


S(Lawn Line A.R.E.C.).

(East Line A.R.E.C.).

(Well Line "A" Reach

1 (Well Line "A" Reach

(Bolles Canal Line).

(South Bay Locks 1 Mile


- A.R.E.C.).

- A.R.E.C.).


Post North New


(Haney Wedgworth Farm).

(Haney Wedgworth Farm).

(Haney Wedgworth Farm).

(Haney Wedgworth Farm).

Line "T" at Liberty Point).


Ground surface and bedrock elevation
A.R.E.C.).

Ground surface and bedrock elevation
A.R.E.C.).

Ground surface and bedrock elevation
(Line "A" A.R.E.C.).

Ground surface and bedrock elevation
Line).

Ground surface and bedrock elevation
Post, North New River Canal).

Ground surface and bedrock elevation
Raoul Line).

Ground surface and bedrock elevation
Point).


of Line la (Lawn Line -


of Line lb (East Line -


of Line Ic and Id


of Line 2 (Bolles Canal


of Line 3 (Line at 1 Mile


of Line 4 (Wedgworth-


of Line "T" (Liberty








Table 1. Subsidence rates; number of surveying points; surveying point interval;


and average, standard deviation, maximum and
for each subsidence line.


minimum Bedrock elevation


No. of Surveying Bedrock Elevation
Subsidence Surveying Point Std.
Site Rate Points Interval Ave. Dev. Max. Min.


- -in/year- -


- - - - - ft.


la 0.83
lb 0.97
1c 1.03
Id 1.21
2 1.04
3 0.61
4a 1.01
4b 0.75
4c 1.00
4d 0.84
5 0.87


11 25 8.25
43 25 8.15
52 50 7.48
52 50 7.66
10 50 7.91
72 50 7.77
21 50 5.53
21 50 5.94
21 50 5.45
21 50 5.63
30 50 9.27


0.34
0.63
0.56
0.45
0.45
0.44
0.23
0.65
0.27
0.49


8.72
8.84
8.76
8.71
8.71
8.64
5.88
7.16
5.90
6.66


7.68
6.34
6.19
6.60
6.85
6.06
4.96
5.13
4.93
5.00


1.03 10.27 7.20









Table 2. Average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of ground elevation
and depth of organic soil remaining in the year 1978.


Ground Elevation (msl) Organic Soil Remaining
Std. Std.
Site Ave. Dev. Max. Min. Ave. Dev. Max. Min.


12.03
11.16
11.83
11.20
11.36
13.48
11.31
11.45
11.19
11.41
12.70


- - -ft.

11.41
10.05
11.26
10.29
9.70
11.92
10.74
10.97
10.78
10.94
11.98


3.43
2.55
3.33
3.14
2.33
4.67
5.44
5.25
5.56
5.53
3.03


0.28
0.47
0.61
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.26
0.66
0.29
0.41
0.89


3.94
4.02
5.27
4.93
3.70
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
4.78


3.11
1.84
2.51
2.12
1.42
3.88
5.10
4.04
5.10
4.72
1.91


11.81
10.70
11.32
10.87
10.24
12.64
11.06
11.20
11.00
11.13
12.30


0.23
0.38
0.18
0.21
0.23
0.43
0.13
0.11
0.10
0.12
0.24


--






ESTABLISHED
SUBSIDENCE LINES
( Belle Glade Agr. Res. and Ed. Center
a. lawn line
b. east line
c. line "A
Line 280ft. N. of Bolles Canal
( Line at one mile post
( Haney Wedgworth (4 sections)
SLine "T" at Liberty Point


Lake
Okeechobee


Cross Canal


1 J


Fig. I Florida Everglades Agricultural Area And Established
Subsidence Lines.









-IX



V-lId







v- I-


1924













1954



1968

-- 1976
1978


FIGURE 2





LAWN LINE 95' WEST OF FRONT


STA. +75 TO 6+25-SEC. 3T. 44 S.R. 37E


-J
Cn

H-
LL

0



-J

LJ
W





D


0
(9
Q:
CD


1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED SU
OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER


3SIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS
INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


FIGURE 3


19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

I I

10


END OF RESIDENCES AT AREC






EAST LINE AT AREC STA.O+O0 TO I 1+00-SEC. 3T 44 S.R. 37E


-J
cl)





W
z



Lu
()


D
C,
C


(9


1920


1930


1940


1950


1960


1970


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED SUE
OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER


FTGIIRF 4


19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

I I
1 1

10


DATE ELEV. (M.S.L.)
Dec. 1934 14.36
Feb. 1938 13.98
'Feb. 1943 13.49
March 1948 13.08
-_June 1953 12.71
April 1958 12.29
June 1963 11.93
March 1969 11.37
Feb. 1973 11.24
r __- March 1978 10.70
~- e
-------^^O



ISLAND USE: TRUCK CROPS DURING YEARS OF OBSERVATION: 1934 __ ___
TO 1978 -,
I I I I I I 1 I I i l1 1 I I I f i l l I1 1I l I i l iL i I


1910


3SIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS
INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


1980





WELL LINE "A"-REACH "A"


-STA. 27+50-52+00 AT AREC


SEC. 10 TWP 44 S.R. 37E


19

18
DATE ELEV. (M.S.L.)
17 - - -April 1932 14.92
April 1938 14.47
Feb. 1943 14.29
16 March 1948 13.99
June 1952 13.28
April 1958 13.25
June 1963 12.10
15 March 1969 11.73
.. Feb. 1973 11.67
"-, March 1978 11.32
S14 o




12

| LAND USE: VIRGIN GROWTH (SAWGRASS AND ELDERS) UNTIL 1950;
S- POOR DRAINAGE PRIOR TO DEVELOPMENT; FIELD CROPS FROM 1950
TO 1959; CONVERTED TO PASTURE FROM 1959 TO 1978.
I II I I ii 1 1i 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I 1 11 1i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. . 1.. .. 1. .1. ..1.1


1920


1930


1940


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED


1950


SUBSIDENCE


1960 1
OF ORGANIC


970
SOILS


OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912

FIGURE 5


1980


1910





WELL LINE "A"-REACH "B"-STA. 0+00 TO 27+00 AT AREC
SEC. 10 TWP 44 S.R. 37E


LL
-J


1-
LL
2

0

-J







z
Q:
o


1960


1970


OF ORGANIC SOILS
DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


FIGURE 6


1920 1930 1940 1950
SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED SUBSIDENCE
OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER INITIAL D


19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

I I

10


1910


1980




LINE 280' NORTH OF BOLLES
(SEC. 36 TWP 44 S


19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

1 1

I0


CANAL AT OKEELANTA
.R. 36E)


1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED SUBSIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS


OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER


FIGURE 7


INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912





3ELOW SOUTH BAY LOCKS NEAR I MILE POST ON NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL
(SEC. 13 TWP 44 S.R. 36E)


Z.
S-

0





LL
0


LL
:D
0)
Q:
G9


19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

1 I

10


1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED


SUBSIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS


OF THE


EVERGLADES AFTER


INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


TGIllRF R





HANEY WEDGEWORTH NORTH & SOUTH LINE


0+00 TO STA. 9+50, SEC. 5 .8,


T44


S.R. 38E


-J








F--
z
0






UJ
LL




Z
D
0
CC
LL


1920


1930


1940


1950


1960


1970


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED
OF THE EVERGLADES AF


SUBSIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS
TER INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


FIGURE 9


STA.


19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12



I1
10


DATE ELEV. (M.S.L.)
Oct. 1938 14.45
Nov. 1940 13.95
Jan. 1943 13.69
April 1948 13.57
June 1953 13.10
Jan. 1959 12.73
-June 1963 12.05
March 1969 11.63
Feb. 1973 11.35
March 1978 11.06


0


LAND USE: EVERGLADES PEAT IN VIRGIN SAWGRASS UNTIL 1938;
FIELD AND TRUCK CROPS FROM 1938 TO 1941; PASTURE FROM 1941 __ ___
TO 1962; FIELD CROPS FROM 1962 TO 1966; SUGARCANE FROM 1966
TO 1978.
71 1 i ,I t ,l i i- i i I I l l i i l 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Wi I W Il l I l l l lL L I l i l


1910


1980





HANEY WEDGEWORTH NORTH &SOUTH LINE STA. 10+50 TO 20+00,

SEC.5 8, T 44 S.R. 38E.


I' Y I* I t I


DATE


19
C)
2 18


; 17


ELEV. (M.S.L.)


1938
1940
1943
1948
1953
1959
1963
1969
1973
1978


13.88
13.72
13.50
13.00
12.76
12.45
12.23
11.84
11.67
11.20


-----^^-------




LAND USE: EVERGLADES PEAT IN VIRGIN .SAWGRASS UNTIL 1937; "a
INTENSIVELY CULTIVATED FOR TRUCK CROPS FROM 1937 TO 1950;
PASTURE FROM 1950 TO 1978.
71t ~ l n II J 1~I I i l t I I t I l l i I i i I l f l i l I I


1920


!930


1940


1950


1960


1970


1980


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED SUE
OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER


3SIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS
INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


FTr~IIpR in


Oct.
Nov.
Jan.
April
June
Jan.
June
March
Feb.
March


16


15


14


13

12


SI


I0


1910





HANEY


WEDGEWORTH


EAST & WEST LINE STA. 0+00


TO 9+50.


SEC. 5 8, T 44 S.R. 38E.


C -1- r r r r


-J
CO)

H-
LL

z



LJ
-J



LL

:D



C(D
Ct


ELEV. (M.S.L.)


19


18


17


16


15


14


13


12


II


10


DATE
Oct.
Nov.
Jan.
April
June
Jan.
June
March
Feb.
March


------------- I -----

.S I



LAND USE: EVERGLADES PEAT IN VIRGIN SAWGRASS UNTIL 1938; "0.
-- FIELD & VEGETABLE CROPS FROM 1938 TO 1941; PASTURE FROM -A
1941 TO 1966; SUGARCANE FROM 1966 TO 1978.
I II I I II I I I I i I I I I I I i I] I I I i l I I I I i I I I I i II I I iI I I ...i.....L.J. ..L...1...I ..J....I....I I I I I I l l l l l


1920


1930


1940


1950


1960


1970


1980


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED
OF THE EVERGLADES AF


SUBSIDENCE


TER INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


FIGURE 11


1938
1940
1943
1948
1953
1958
1963
1969
1973
1978


14.52
13.97
13.66
13.60
13.15
12.84
12.30
11.70
11.32
11.00


1910


OF ORGANIC SOILS






HANEY WEDGEWORTH EAST 8 WEST
SEC.5 8, T"


LINE STA. 10+50 TO 20+00.
14 S.R.38E.


S DATE
Oct.
Nov.
SJan.
April
- June
Jan.
June
March
Feb.
March


ELEV. (M.S.L.)


%-


z
0


LU








D


0
O
W=


19


18


17


16


15

14


13

12


II


I0


LAND USE: EVERGLADES PEAT WITH MODERATE DRAINAGE UNTIL -
1937; TRUCK CROPS FROM 1937 TO 1965; FIELD CROPS FROM 1965
TO 1973; SUGARCANE 1973 TO 1978.


1920


1930


1940


1950


1960


1970


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED


SUBSIDENCE OF ORGANIC SOILS


OF THE EVERGLADES AFTER


1938
1940
1943
1948
1953
1958
1963
1968
1973
1978


14.20
13.71
13.47
13.08
12.73
12.49
12.24
11.66
11.57
11.13


1910


1980


_ 1 _1 _


INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912







WELL LINE "T" AT LIBERTY POINT-SEC. 30 TWP 42


f 1 1 r


-I

'In


H-






uJ

LL


C,)

C
z


(9


DATE


19

18

17

16


15

14


13

12


I I


10


1935
1939
1943
1948
1958
1963
1969
1973
1978


S.R. 34E


ELEV. (M.S.L.)


15.57
15.15
14.81
14.43
13.91
13.47
12.99
12.73
12.30


"*-O



S LAND USE: EVERGLADES PEATY MUCK PRIOR TO THE YEARS OF
OBSERVATION; SUGARCANE FROM 1935 TO 1978.
R IILI i il lI i III 1 1 1 lil lll I I 1 111 ilI I11 I il l l l l


1920


1930


1940


1950


1960


1970


SEQUENCE OF OBSERVED


SUBSIDENCE


OF ORGANIC SOILS


OF THE


EVERGLADES AFTER INITIAL DRAINAGE CIRCA 1912


FIGURE 13


- I I


April
March
April
April 1
April
June
March
Feb.
March


1910


198C





13.0-



12.0-


ELEVATION, 1978'


11.0*
Cl)

...tlo-o.

z
0



w
-J 8.O-
w


7.0-



6.0



5.0


BEDROCK ELEVATION


p p a -


100


200 300
DISTANCE (ft.)


GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATION OF LINE 1A (LAWN LINE AT AREC).


GROUNDSURFACE


*


*


*


FIGURE 14.












GROUNDSURFACE ELEVATION,


-J
c/)



z
010,


w 9.
w


I I I I a I Ill ll ~ l


400
DISTANCE


600
(ft.)


FIGURE 15, GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATION OF LINE IB (EAST LINE AT AREC),


13.0-


12.0C


0+


BEDROCK ELEVATION


1978


Of


8.0


7.O



6.0


200


800


1000










ELEVATION, 1978


GROUNDSURFACE


Cl)
- I
(0




Z
09





w
*

9


.0+


.0+


-BEDROCK ELEVATION


.0+


.04


7.04


6.0
-


I I I a I -"- I "I


,1000


2000


3000


4000


DISTANCE (ft.)


FIGURE 16, GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATION OF LINE 1C AND 1D (LINE "A" AT AREC),


I S I a a II


5000


12.0+


5.0





= .


*

















GROUNDSURFACE ELEVATION, 1978


BEDROCK ELEVATION


I p I I I I I


3000


4000


5000


DISTANCE (ft.)


FIGURE 17, GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATIONS OF LINE 2 (BOLLES CANAL LINE).


12.0+


I1.04


10.04


8.0-


7.0


1000


2000


9.0-










ELEVATION, 1978


BEDROCK


2000


ELEVATION


3000


DISTANCE (ft.)


FIGURE 18.
NEW RIVER


GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATION OF LINE 3 (LINE AT 1-MILE POST, NORTH
CANAL AT SOUTH BAY).


cn



z
0


w
-j8
w


.0


.0


7.0


6.0


1000


4000


5000


GROUNDSURFACE







12.0+


1978


ROUNDSURFACE ELEVATION,


..Jll I\


YWAJ\


-J

CO
4-




I-

-J
LL


ELEVATION


1000


2000 3000
DISTANCE (ft.)


4000


FIGURE 19, GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATION OF LINE 14 (/EDGWORTH PAOUL LINE),


I1.04


10.04


BEDROCK


7.0.


6.0+


5.0


5000


I 1 I I I L 1 1 1





13.0O


12.04


I I.O


BEDROCK ELEVATION


10.04


8.04


7.01


6.01


a I i a I


I.' I


400


600
DISTANCE (ft.,)


FIGURE 20, GROUND SURFACE AND BEDROCK ELEVATION OF LINE "T" AT LIBERTY POINT.


5.0


200


800


1000


GROUNDSURFACE


1978


ELEVATION,


'


S I


L = .




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