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scientist must look into
the heart of matter . ."
THE CHALLENGE OF COMFORT
One of the greatest challenges in human endeavor
is summoning the courage and energy to make good
things better. Throughout history, when man has
become comfortable or safe, he has tended to become
apathetic and complacent-to accept the "status
quo" rather than struggle for greater achievement.
This is the sort of challenge that faces top execu-
tives in successful corporations. Many find it diffi-
cult to inspire their workers toward product im-
provement and greater efficiency when the company
is making money, and when wages and fringe bene-
fits have produced contented labor.
Much the same problem exists when a farm operator
delivers a good crop and makes a fair profit. It is
difficult to convince him that he might do even better
by trying a new variety which has given better re-
sults in test plots; or to improve his operation with
a new irrigating system.
This is much the kind of challenge that has faced the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service almost since
its inception. During the early years of agricultural
development, farmers were skeptical of university
people trying to tell them how to farm. This was
overcome largely through persistence and a tech-
nique known as the field trial or "result demonstra-
tion". This method involved convincing one farmer
to try something new, and if it succeeded, inviting
his neighbors over to see the results.
It is not so simple today. Farming has become an
extremely complex business. Bushels per acre repre-
sent only one inch in the yardstick of success. This
is the age of the corporate farm. With such vast
operations, it is not a matter of the degree of suc-
cess; it is more a matter of success or failure. Not
many farm operators or going to "try" 1000 acres
of a nexw variety. You cannot invite the neighbors
over to look at the books and see how one man is
making better use of his capital. It is pretty diffi-
cult to convince 50 producers they should "experi-
ment" with a cooperative to see if it improves mar-
keting products or provides more bargaining power.
When agriculture w\as relatively undeveloped-say,
30 years ago-any step forward was a mile. Today's
improvements are more in terms of inches as farm
production becomes more finite.
Today's agricultural scientist must look into the
heart of matter to find ways of improving our prod-
uctivity. Today's farm producer must be prepared
to completely analyze his business operation-to
take it apart with a fine-toothed comb to find small
areas for continued improvement. Profit margins
are close. A small adjustment often is the difference
between success and failure.
For Extension to do its job today, it must rely on
highly competent research scientists. Extension spe-
cialists have found it necessary to turn to electron
microscopes, computers, and the complex workings
of futures markets to provide the resources for to-
day's farm operator.
Florida, aside from being the number one producer
of citrus products in the world, supplies a large per-
centage of the fresh vegetables and grain crops con-
sumed in the United States. The state has led all
others in rate of agricultural growth for the last
Some of Extension's efforts to help farm operators
continue this trend of growth are summarized on
the following pages.
UNIQUE SOIL AND CLIMATE PROBLEMS
Agricultural science in Florida must, of necessity,
differ from agriculture in typical farm belt states.
The sub-tropical climate is conducive to erratic rain-
fall and produces many insect and disease problems
not experienced in other states. Florida soils are
mostly sandy and therefore do not hold moisture
well and are largely infertile. Heavy fertilization is
often required to produce crops. In coastal areas,
salt water intrusion causes special problems-both
for farm producers and for homeowners.
Soil testing is an essential part of farm production.
At the University of Florida laboratory 32,000 con-
ventional samples were tested during 1968.
The new, experimental Intensity and Balance soil
test system gained wide acceptance after two years
of field trials, jumping from 267 tests in 1967 to
1,349 in 1968. The I and B system, developed and
adapted by Florida research scientists, has proven
extremely effective in new fertilization programs for
vegetables. Significant increases in per acre yields
have been reported as a result of the new test sys-
Soil scientists stepped up work in the areas of water
management and conservation practices and in help-
ing develop income-producing recreation projects.
The recreation projects have been emphasized for
the last two years as a new means of income for
small farm operations.
The increasing interest in soybeans as a new Flor-
ida crop also set off a major soil testing effort for
several large acreages.
Because of the erratic rainfall patterns of Florida's
climate, and because some crops are grown year
around and through dry months, irrigation is im-
portant to farm production. From 1959 to 1964,
irrigated acreage increased 194 per cent, and it is
estimated 2 million acres will be under irrigation
Extension engineers have been active in evaluating
various systems, both moveable and permanent,
manual and automatic. Through schools and work-
shops they help Florida growers and ranchers eval-
uate the cost of installation and types of systems
best suited to individual operations.
Permanent overhead systems, such as often used in
citrus production, represent a current investment of
$10 million. An additional $7 million in automatic
and self-propelled systems have been installed at a
savings of 750,000 man-hours of labor.
Irrigation is not only used to supply water during
dry periods, but for freeze protection of citrus trees
and ornamental crops. Use of irrigation for freeze
protection is tricky however, and requires careful
evaluation of the system and rates of application.
LABOR COST ATTACKED
Labor continues to represent one of the main prob-
lems of Florida producers. Farm labor has become
increasingly expensive and there is a shortage. Most
of the state's most important crops are "high-labor"
crops requiring hand planting, cultivation and har-
vest. With fertilizer applications more frequent
than for other farm areas, and more insect and dis-
ease problems, labor represents one of the largest
Researchers and Extension specialists are making
major efforts to increase mechanization and elimi-
nate man-hours to hell producers lower their costs.
There have been many new developments in use of
large motors for farm operations. Since large mo-
tors (10 to 40 horsepower) present technical prob-
lems for conventional power supplies, new "soft-
start" large single phase motors show promise for
farm use. Extension engineers are working with
power suppliers and producers to encourage more
utilization of the new motors to save labor.
There is a continuing research effort in development
of harvesting equipment for citrus, vegetables and
. . Labor continues to be a problem, but mechanical and
harvesting aid equipment are being developed
S. Over 1300 I and B Soil tests in 1968
.. .Millions invested in irrigation equipment
As new chemicals are developed and tested . .
sugarcane. Extension specialists have played an
important role in field testing many new machines
developed in Florida and elsewhere.
Cultivation practices are also receiving attention in
an effort to cut labor costs. Wider use of herbicides
to control weed growth and eliminate conventional
cultivation is being encouraged. This is especially
true in citrus-our number one crop in acreage and
Acceptance by growers of herbicides in Florida
groves has been the result of cooperative efforts of
Extension specialists and the Citrus Experiment
. . More groves are using herbicides to lower cultivation
Extension's time-proven tool-the field trial-has
been used effectively in gaining grower acceptance
of chemical cultivation. Growers in several counties
agreed to cooperate in tests of various herbicide pro-
grams. Data collected carefully on fruit yield and
the effect on tree size were presented at demonstra-
tions later in the year. Grower meetings, seminars,
and publications have been used to familiarize citrus
producers with the effectiveness of herbicides.
As grower interest has increased, chemical compa-
nies have responded by submitting more materials
for testing, and the future seems assured for wide
use of chemical weed controls.
New records were set during 1968 for peanut yields
in the 25 north and west Florida counties where the
crop is important. Average pounds per acre nearly
doubled during the 10 years from 1958 through 1968
for the 25 counties. During 1968, one-third of the
counties exceeded the 2,000 pounds per acre which
has become the goal of growers the last few years.
Escambia and Leon counties more than quadrupled
average production during this 10-year period.
Extension's efforts have been largely traditional in
working with peanut producers-attempting to get
growers to use better varieties, and improve fertili-
zation and cultural practices.
Major vegetable crops of Florida for the fresh mar-
ket include tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, celery,
sweet corn, strawberries, and various field pea and
bean crops. The major U. S. supply of these during
the winter months comes from Florida.
Extension vegetable crops specialists, however, feel
there is considerable potential for new vegetable
crops. In fact, Florida doesn't produce enough car-
rots, onions and sweet potatoes to meet the demand
of its own population. Working with industry
groups, Extension specialists managed to convince
a number of growers that a favorable market exists
and that proven carrot varieties and cultural prac-
tices have been established through experimental
work. Acreages of carrots have more than doubled
during the last two years.
A similar effort is being attempted for onions.
Through work with county agents, individual vege-
table growers are being encouraged to plant onions.
Research has proven that varieties of sweet bulb
onions can be grown successfully throughout the
state on either sandy or muck soils. Extension vege-
table specialists believe current plantings of 200 to
300 acres can be increased to 3,000 or 4,000 with
current demand. Wholesale outlets and super-
markets in Florida enthusiastically buy vegetables
from in-state producers.
. . Onions, carrots encouraged as new vegetable crops
. .. New records set for peanut yields
THE IMPORTANCE OF CHEMICALS
Every crop grown in Florida is subject to severe
damage or destruction by insects and diseases. Com-
bating these problems requires a continuous effort.
In addition to an almost endless number of species
and conditions, insects develop tolerances to chem-
icals after prolonged exposure and new chemicals
must be tested and developed. Moreover, diseases
common to one crop sometimes attack another crop
in an unexplained manner.
The Extension Service operates a plant disease clinic
at the University of Florida where samples of dis-
ease problems are analyzed. Quick analysis is often
necessary to save a crop worth thousands of dollars.
Because many Florida crops are "high density", re-
quiring little acreage, it is easy for an insect or dis-
ease problem to wipe out a grower almost overnight.
Efforts by Extension pathologists in identifying a
cactus nematode in one Florida nursery saved the
1968 holiday season crop after almost total loss of
the 1967 crop.
. .. Early disease identification important
. . Chemicals important to Hlorida crop production
S. Chemical safety program important
: .i'!" u '
A previously unfamiliar leafspot threatened severe
damage to part of Florida's important watermelon
crop during 1968, but effective fungicide recom-
mendations brought the infestation under control.
While chemicals can be highly effective in control-
ling these insect and disease problems, many are
highly toxic and difficult to handle and use. Since
they are necessary to successful agricultural pro-
duction, the Chemicals Information Center, created
by Extension entomologists, carries on a highly ac-
tive program to educate farm operators, their man-
agers and laborers on proper chemical usage, appli-
cation of chemicals, handling and storage.
The recommendations for rates of application, safe
residues, times of application and proper chemicals
for each crop and each identified insect problem are
highly complex. A loose-leaf style chemical guide
handbook developed by Floirda specialists has gained
wide usage among commercial spray companies and
farm producers. This handbook is updated continu-
ally as new chemicals are cleared for use on various
crops and rates are proven effective.
In addition to these efforts, safe storage and use of
pesticides by homeowners and the general public
again received major emphasis by Extension ento-
mologists. In addition to radio spot announcements
featuring television entertainer Jackie Gleason,
produced by the Editorial Department, a new 15-
minute Florida-produced film went into general cir-
culation. Titled "PSSST-Pesticide Safe Storage
Stops Tragedy", the film is aimed to promoting
proper storage and disposal of poisonous substan-
Florida's livestock industry continued to grow in
both size and productivity during 1968. And much
of the improvement in efficiency can be credited to
better management of both beef and dairy herds
with the help of electronic computers.
It is now possible for a cattleman to cull brood cows
while sitting in his office, and this is being done by
some progressive producers enrolled in the Exten-
sion-sponsored Production Testing Program. Data
on cows and bulls-including carcass characteristics
of the steers produced-is fed into the University of
Florida's computing center for analysis. Brood cows
which are not paying their way are identified, as
are bulls which sire heavy fast growing calves.
Similar record-keeping through the Dairy Herd Im-
provement Association is helping dairymen improve
the productivity of their cows. DHIA herds surpass-
ed the 10,000 pounds milk per cow goal during 1968
-a 3.9 per cent increase in total production, 4.2
per cent increase in pounds butterfat, and 7.2 per
cent increase in value above feed cost per cow over
Over 26,000 cows were enrolled in the electronic rec-
ord-keeping program and an additional 4,200 in
another systematic record program. Over 165,000
dairy cows-87 per cent of the state's total-were
bred artificially to proven bulls.
Improvement of Florida's swine herds is also being
accomplished by careful testing of sires at the Swine
Evaluation Center in Live Oak. Since the facility
was opened in 1965, over 200 progeny groups of
boars have been tested for ability to convert feed to
weight, rate of gain and carcass traits. These sires
. . Computers, more record keeping help livestock industry grow
... One key to growth of cattle industry is constant improve-
ment of carcass quality
. . Ega residue problem solved
are graded according to their production value. Em-
phasis in swine production is to improve carcass
characteristics by reducing fat.
Extension specialists are also working to help pro-
ducers become better judges of carcasses before
slaughter with a series of "on-the-hoof" judging con-
tests. Steer show audiences are allowed to judge 12
steers and record scores. These are later compared
to actual carcass-results in an effort, to acquaint con-
testants with the characteristics of the ideal steer.
Diseases are one of the most serious concerns of
Florida poultrymen because the large number of
birds in confined area is ideal for rapid spread of
diseases. Insecticides to control external parasites
are used widely. Problems became serious in 1966
when the Department of Agriculture's Pesticide
Residue Laboratory began reporting many egg sam-
ples with residues of non-approved insecticides.
Extension specialists, after thorough investigation,
found that approved chemicals were being contami-
nated with non-approved materials, and in a coop-
erative effort with insecticide manufacturers the
problem was solved. Residue levels are back to ac-
While problems of production efficiency are always
a major part of Extension's effort with farm opera-
tors, economists have stepped up efforts during the
last several years to work with producers on busi-
IMPROVING BUSINESS METHODS
These include analyses of business methods, capital
investment, cooperative organizations, use of credit,
partnerships and corporations, and tax structure.
. . Florida farm products generally perishable making mar-
These are practical considerations for the large farm
operation. But they are also important to the many
small operators remaining in some areas of the state
-such as northwest Florida.
Use of credit was the subject of a school held in
Jackson county for agencies, individuals and busi-
nesses extending farm credit. The four 21/2-hour
meetings dealt with total capital needs for the home
and farm, how to determine maximum credit need-
ed, business analysis in terms of credit justified, and
lending policies of commercial banks, FHA, Produc-
tion Credit Association and Federal Land Bank.
During the last half dozen years, marketing of farm
products has become one of the major problems
facing producers. It is even more acute in Florida
where the vast majority of products are highly
perishable. Unlike many Midwestern farm states
which produce corn, wheat and soybeans that can
be stored, Florida's major products are citrus and
In the highly competitive food industry, establish-
ing market outlets and maintaining some form of
bargaining power are essential to profit. The more
perishable the crop, the more helpless individual
producers are in bargaining for a price that will
cover cost of production.
Extension economists have worked with various
parts of the agricultural industry for several years
trying to establish cooperatives for marketing and
processing. More recently, other methods of group
action have been explored. During 1968, eight edu-
cational meetings were held with producers in the
four major tomato-producing districts of the state.
As a result of exploring the problems of cost in
marketing products, a federal marketing order was
approved and went into effect in October. Under the
order, producers have agreed to standardize tomato
sizes, container types and weights, and to adopt a
supply management program using grade and size
Increased volume of citrus products resulting from
higher production levels and increasing acreages
has presented the industry with a serious market-
ing problem for the next few years. Extension econ-
omists worked with a large group of growers in
surveying the possibilities for either a new fresh
fruit or a processing firm. The survey included pro-
jections of acreage and available varieties and
average tree age through 1965, and additional as-
sistance is planned on problems of plant location,
financing and market entry.
Extension economists helped growers establish
several new cooperatives during 1968, and one of
these banded together a cross-cultural group of
small low-income vegetable producers. The new
cooperative is expected to utilize FHA for financial
assistance and to greatly improve the marketing of
FLORIDIANS BENEFIT DIRECTLY
While Extension's work with Florida producers of
food and fiber products indirectly affect the general
public by helping improve the quality of products
while containing the increase in cost, there are many
The work of ornamental horticulturists is largely
directed at commercial nurseries, community pub-
. . Schools and workshops held on business, methods, capital, credit
. Forest shortcourses
lic and private park areas, golf courses, and gen-
eral homeowners. Every Floridian benefits from
these efforts to improve the quality of plant mate-
rials sold to homeowners, and from efforts to help
communities present well-manicured, landscaped
Because of a large population segment of retired,
and the state's tourist industry, golfing is big bus-
iness. Extension horticulturists, using test plots,
work continually on developing better grass mix-
tures for the many established as well as new golf
courses in the state. Even though temperature vari-
ations are not as great as in the more northern
states, mixtures containing cool weather grasses and
exact recommendations for overseeding have been
given attention in these tests.
Where large areas of grass cover are involved-
such as on golf courses-costs run high. Course
superintendents must have accurate and reliable in-
Still another area where Extension work is helping
the general public in Florida is forestry. Many pri-
vate citizens purchase small forested tracts for
country homes and retreats, hunting or other rec-
reation use, and have little knowledge of forest man-
agement. These people are often referred by county
Extension agents to local foresters. Extension spe-
cialists held a one-week shortcourse during 1968 to
explore typical problems of these small land owners
with 60 professional foresters.
Extension foresters also held week-long shortcourses
for large forest owners and pulp companies.
FOCUS ON HOME ECONOMICS
. Helping families solve problems, face a society of rapid change
Extension Home Economics Programs are focused
on five broad problem areas which most significantly
affect Florida's families and individuals. These are
the areas of family stability, consumer competence,
family housing, family health, and community re-
source development. One hundred and eight Ex-
tension Home Economics Agents are conducting edu-
cational programs in fifty-eight counties with in-
formation to assist in the management of family
resources, the development of the individual within
the family, and the establishment of beneficial fam-
There is no adequate substitute for the family.
Forces that threaten the stability of Florida's fami-
lies are many and include changing values, poverty,
mobility, changing roles of family members, and
transference of family functions to the community.
All county Extension Home Economics programs
have been developed to increase the stability of fam-
ilies. In several of these, Extension Home Eco-
nomics Agents conducted series of classes on child
development with staff members and parents of
kindergarten-age children. In five counties classes
were held to help teenage boys and girls become
more responsible babysitters.
More than two thousand older youth were assisted
through classes conducted to prepare them for the
responsibilities of marriage. A somewhat younger
group was reached through leaders with sessions on
the important job of "growing up" and the accept-
ance of responsibilities as individuals and as family
Newlyweds and engaged couples were assisted
through special interest meetings with the impor-
tant task of establishing family values and setting
. . Promoting family stability is often a matter of helping
members identify their problems and goals
S. .Extension Home Economics programs help homemakers apply sound principles in judging
the relative value of items for use by their families
goals. Also, classes were conducted to help brides
and other young homemakers to improve manage-
ment practices in the home.
Extension Home Economics Agents in twenty-six
counties conducted special sessions directly, or
through leaders, to provide assistance to members
of disadvantaged families in improving their cloth-
ing selection and grooming practices. Immediate
results of this teaching were the increase in self-
confidence of the youth and their acceptance by
others, as well as their improved ability to obtain
jobs. Volunteer leaders from Extension Homemaker
Club groups were trained in techniques for planning
wholesome family recreation in the home and coop-
eration with other families for the arrangement
and promotion of community recreation.
In several counties discussion groups were held with
teenagers and their parents to "bridge the genera-
tion gap" through improved communications and
understanding of others within the family group.
Floridians live in a consumer society. They need to
be well-informed and capable consumers skilled in
the management of family income to obtain the max-
imum benefits in goods and services needed by their
To help homemakers and others become more capa-
ble consumers, Extension Home Economics Agents
have carried out a \variety of educational programs
reaching approximately 100,000 individuals and
families. Through mass media, leader training, ex-
hibits, direct presentation to audience groups, and
newsletters to homemakers employed outside the
home, consumer information was presented in more
than fifty counties. In addition, TV programs di-
rected toward consumer problems have been pre-
sented on a regular basis in five metropolitan areas.
A special effort was made in twenty counties to help
consumers understand the significance of new legis-
lation aimed at "truth in packaging" and "truth in
A consumer newsletter was developed and sent to
low income families who are not reached effectively
through programs conducted by mass media and
who are not reached through community or club
Through training of their voluntary leaders Exten-
sion Homemaker Club groups have been assisted in
the improvement of their skills in shopping for a va-
riety of goods and services including insurance,
credit, housing, and furniture, as well as food and
clothing. Homemakers were given information on
new items and services available and how to apply
sound principles in judging the relative value of
these items for use by their families. In twenty-
seven counties Extension Home Economics Agents
conducted programs to help homemakers become
more knowledgeable in the selection and use of Flor-
. . Learning to judge quality at meat is important to con-
ida-produced foods and in the home preservation of
these foods when supplies are abundant.
In thirty-one counties training was given to home-
makers in the selection of small appliances from the
wealth of such items available on today's market. In
thirteen counties programs were presented on the
selection of furniture, rugs and carpets, and house-
hold linens. Special efforts were made to reach low
income audiences with information to aid in the wise
selection and purchase of household items requiring
substantial financial investment.
Adequate housing, including equipment and furnish-
ings, is essential to the health, comfort, stability,
and happiness of a family. One's home is the last
frontier of individuality and creativity as well as
a haven of privacy from an increasingly crowded
State specialists provided for County Extension
Home Economics Agents a week of intensive re-
fresher training, and twenty area sessions on hous-
ing, furnishings, and equipment. Direct results
were seen in nearly all county programs as Exten-
sion Home Economics Agents held classes for home-
makers and husbands on house planning, remodel-
ing, home lighting, and planning kitchens and other
work areas of the home.
Mass media were employed to reach wide audiences
on basic principles of choosing or improving housing
to meet individual family needs. Practical methods
of furniture renovation and making of furnishings,
including draperies, slip covers and bedding, were
taught in workshop sessions in twenty-nine counties.
Many workshop participants were from low income
families for whom the newly-acquired knowledge
and skills were critical factors in achieving a more
attractive and better place to live. In addition,
twenty-two counties presented programs on the use
of art principles in choosing and arranging fur-
niture and furnishings in the home. Altogether,
more than fifty thousand persons were given assist-
ance with problems relating to family housing.
On the Brighton Indian Reservation in Glades Coun-
ty, improved housing has been made available to
Seminole Indian families through a self-help housing
program. Extension Home Economics has begun a
program to help the families who have built new
homes to make successful adjustment to the move
from "chickees" to modern houses. The use and
..__ "' . .- .-
".- --- Q -. " "" .
. . From chickee to modern concrete block home through a
maintenance of the home, and the selection and use
of essential furnishings and equipment are subjects
given first priority. However, help in learning
money management, solving home storage problems,
and improved diet and nutrition are included also.
This educational program, which is carried out
through the use of program aides recruited from
among the Indian homemakers, was made possible
through a special project grant to the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service from the Bureau of In-
S. One key to success of government donated foods program is learning
In spite of Florida's bountiful supplies of food and
increased consumer purchasing power, many Flor-
idians have inadequate diets and are thus under-
mining the foundation on which good health is built.
Studies show that a large proportion of these are in
the families with incomes below $3000 per year. In-
creasing accident rates and public health hazards
are daily threats also to the health of Florida fam-
Donated foods were distributed to low income fam-
ilies in Florida counties during the year. In most of
these, County Extension Home Economics Agents
conducted educational programs to teach homemak-
ers how to use these foods to give their families a
better diet at no added cost.
In thirteen counties educational programs were con-
ducted to increase homemakers skill in planning
meals to establish desirable eating habits and pre-
best use for both nutrition and family acceptance
vent overweight in family members. Obesity, a ma-
jor health problem for adults, often begins with
eating habits established in childhood.
To assist teenagers in becoming aware of how their
decisions regarding use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs
and narcotics can affect their health and personal
goals throughout life, programs were conducted in
seven counties on these and other health problems of
Home accidents and accidental poisoning continue
to be a major cause of death and injury to the pre-
school child. Information to assist homemakers in
reducing such incidents in the home was given by
Extension Home Economics Agents in thirty Flor-
ida counties to mothers, grandmothers, and babysit-
ters of young children. In addition, six counties
held special courses in First Aid, and ten others con-
ducted Defensive Driving Courses, which were es-
. . Extension programs encourage homemakers to take on
community projects, help family become part of community
pecially designed for homemakers and older youth.
Continuing programs in family emergency pre-
paredness and medical self-help have been conducted
in fourteen counties during the year. Special pro-
grams related to sanitary practices within the home
and general measures to promote family health were
directed toward low income families in five counties.
COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Families are the community. If communities are to
meet today's changes successfully, family resources
must be cultivated and developed.
Extension Home Economics Agents have worked
with other members of the Extension Staff and rep-
resentatives of other Extension divisions and com-
munity agencies in implementing the development
of human and community resources. In eighteen
counties they worked with low income youth and
young adults to help them improve their appearance
and manners and self-confidence in seeking job op-
portunities. Extension Agents in five counties train-
ed Extension club leaders in the preparation and
service of community type meals. These leaders have
become more effective in their promotion of whole-
some community recreation in their communities.
In several other counties programs have been con-
ducted to increase families' understanding and
appreciation of their responsibilities as property
owners or tenants. Their responsibilities to the com-
munity received special emphasis. Families were
assisted also in planning for meeting certain family
crises such as death in the family and prolonged ill-
ness so that communities would not be required to
bear the burden of what should be family responsi-
EXTENSION YOUTH PROGRAMS
... provides recreational activities
Florida's Extension Service is devoting a great deal
of effort to developing a more dynamic, flexible and
comprehensive 4-H program geared to the serious
developmental problems of youth in today's society.
Among these efforts is an expansion 4-H program
to reach more young people 9 to 19 years of age
regardless of where they live. Membership is now
32 percent rural non-farm, 20 percent farm, 18 per-
cent suburban and 30 percent urban.
While youth work is administered and carried out
through an organized community structure, com-
munity clubs have been augmented by the forma-
tion of permanent special project groups, short
term special interest groups, and the addition of
projects for individual participation. These 4-H
groups meet with trained adult and teen leaders
or resource teachers volunteers from the com-
munity under the direction of county Extension
Just as all Extension programs have been re-ori-
ented to appeal to urban and suburban audiences,
4-H is offering a broad spectrum of activities for
all young people regardless of backgrounds.
. . promotes development of personality and self-assur-
ance . .
. . affords opportunities to meet new people of different
backgrounds . .
... 4-H promotes leadership ...
. . offers opportunities to learn new
I A1 11 1
. . and offers young people opportunities to serve others
through teaching and guidance of younger members.
. . helps young people learn to work together toward com-
Programs are designed to give young people oppor-
Develop and demonstrate creativity
Demonstrate knowledge with an ability and
willingness to apply it.
Develop democratic ways of thinking, feel-
ing and acting in relation to others.
Understand the basic political, social and eco-
nomic institutions of a democratic society.
Learn and apply the principles of manage-
ment to daily living.
Develop and carry out a personal career plan.
Build patterns of purposeful use of time.
Develop leadership abilities.
Foster open-minded attitudes to new ideas
Work actively toward attaining full potential
Develop a desire for life-long learning.
Four-H members participate in projects based on
records of learning experiences, skills and service
to both the 4-H program and the community. Dur-
ing 1968, almost 7,000 members participated in
projects emphasizing science and technology; 15,000
worked on projects emphasizing consumer educa-
tion, home and family life education and learning
skills relating to the home. Agricultural related
projects enrolled 5,630 members; citizenship edu-
cation program involved 1,794 4-H members, and
4,441 young people carried out community service
TWO WIN NATIONAL HONORS
The 1968 4-H Awards Program was highlighted by
national recognition of two Floridians 17-year-
old Margaret Bartosek of Brevard county who was
named to the "Report to the Nation" team, and
Florida Commissioner of Agriculture Doyle E. Con-
ner, who was cited as one of eight National 4-H
Margaret, one of eight children in the family of
Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Bartosek, has been in 4-H
work seven years and compiled an impressive rec-
ord of service to her family and community. She
and seven other outstanding young people from
other states will act as spokesmen for the 4-H move-
ment this year.
The "Report to the Nation" team attempts to in-
form key leaders in business and industry, govern-
ment, education, civic affairs and the mass media
about today's 4-H program and its role in the social
and economic betterment of the nation.
The team will help increase public understanding
of 4-H objectives, and work to encourage further
support from private industry both current co-
operators and potential ones. Support is accom-
plished through the "Friends of 4-H", the National
4-H Foundation and the National 4-H Service Com-
Outstanding 4-H'ers named to this team have a
unique opportunity to serve in a public relations
role. Support for the "Report to the Nation" effort
is cooperatively provided by the Federal Extension
Service, National 4-H Service Committee, National
4-H Foundation, and state Extension Services.
Commissioner Conner's honor is the highest be-
stowed on former 4-H members, of which there are
some 26 million living in the United States today.
As a young Bradford county 4-H'er, Commissioner
Conner used the knowledge he gained from 4-H
projects to take over management of the family
farm at age 12, during World War II. At age 20
and while a sophomore at the University of Florida
he became the youngest person ever elected to the
Florida House of Representatives, and at age 28,
the youngest to serve as Speaker of the House.
Commissioner Conner has been honored often. He
has served as president of both the state and na-
tional Future Farmers of America, and in 1960 was
named of the nation's "10 Outstanding Young Men"
by the U. S. Junior Chamber of Commerce. His ca-
reer in agriculture and public service has been lib-
erally punctuated with service to young people.
National honors were bestowed dur-
ing 1968 on Margaret Bartosek -
chosen to serve on the Report to the
Nation team and Florida Com-
missioner of Agriculture Doyle Con-
RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT
The Extension Service continues to stress programs
of human development. During 1968 particular at-
tention was given to employment programs for
youth in rural areas. Resource development com-
mittees formed task groups to spear-head drives to
obtain summer jobs for needy young people who
might not be able to return to school without ad-
ditional income. The Clay county Technical Action
Panel made a survey of industrial and farm firms
to determine the number of jobs available and how
many youth each firm would hire. This information
and the cooperation of three high school principals
in the county made possible an effective employment
program. Fifty-six firms provided employment for
young men and women throughout the county.
Funds from Title I of the Higher Education Act
helped finance a statewide program to train labor
supervisors in personnel management. Consultants
from throughout the nation were brought to Flor-
ida to train Extension instructors, who in turn con-
ducted short courses throughout the state. Each
school or short course consisted of 6 two-hour ses-
sions. These were usually taught one night a week
for six weeks or two nights a week for three weeks.
Most of those enrolled in the courses were super-
visors of production workers, but many were also
in processing industries and others in handling and
servicing industries. Participants came from var-
ious segments of agriculture, including citrus, vege-
tables, ornamentals, poultry, horses, dairy, beef and
general farming. A total of 336 foremen were pro-
vided training in the 16 schools held at various
points throughout the state. More than 98 per cent
. . Levy clears trash and litter in area development effort
. . Course for field supervisors is helping with labor prob-
.... . ..
p ,, ; I 1' '.1
of those beginning a course completed the six ses-
sions evidencing high interest by the participants.
These courses take the human relations approach
to labor management. Employers participating in
this program can look forward to more highly mo-
tivated workers, fewer personnel problems and less
turnover. Higher worker productivity results in
more profitable returns to the employer and higher
incomes for the workers. Everyone, including the
community at large, benefits from a more stable,
well-satisfied labor force. These are some of the
goals of the labor supervisor training program.
Community development, especially in rural areas,
has made much greater progress where outside re-
sources have been utilized. The Extension Service
has been instrumental in helping communities form
organized efforts to obtain aid from federal and
state agencies. County extension offices serve as
centers for information on various programs affect-
ing community life and growth. In areas where the
services of professional expediters are not available
this is especially useful.
Each county Extension office in Florida maintains
a file of up-to-date bulletins and leaflets on more
than 150 different sources of Federal assistance.
This offer to extend the services of all Federal agen-
cies into rural areas has been a part of a total effort
of all agencies in the Department of Agriculture.
The Extension Service tries to provide maximum
assistance to rural people, whether farm or non-
farm recognizing that it is not important whether
aid comes from inside or outside the Department of
During 1968, special emphasis was given to preserv-
ing natural beauty and preventing air and water
pollution. In several counties, resource development
committees formed task forces to work on these
specific problems. In Levy County the Rural Areas
Development Council cooperated with Technical
Action Panels and the Health Department to spon-
sor a cleanup campaign in all communities in the
county. Initially, an overall public affairs educa-
tional program emphasized cleaning up public high-
ways and beautification projects along highways.
The second phase consisted of an action program
to eliminate indiscriminate dumping of garbage and
trash along rural roads and on private property. As
a result, the county now has 10 state certified sani-
tary land fills for rural trash and garbage disposal.
A brochure on water pollution and sanitation has
been prepared and distributed throughout the
county, and shows locations of the land fills. The
preservation of Florida's natural resources is of
growing concern to Resource Development Com-
mittees throughout Florida, and they are enlisting
broad support in developing ways to prevent the
destruction of this heritage.
ALL EXTENSION PERSONNEL
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Rural Civil Defense --
Pesticide Chemicals ...
State Trust Funds:
State Funds --
Studies of problems and opportunities _--. --.-. .. --------------..--.-
Field trials, tests, demonstrations ------ .--------
Consultations providing information, advice, guidance on problems of:
a. Individuals, families, and farm operators ------__.... --
b. Agencies, firms, and organizations -...--------- ----
Meetings of Extension Planning Development and other committees -....
a. Meetings to train local leaders --- --------
b. Number of different leaders trained -.. --.. ------
Other meetings at which Extension workers presented information ---.-
Publications distributed to public ------ -----
a. Number of different pieces prepared .- --
b. Number of pieces distributed -............ -- .....---- --
Radio broadcasts participated in
Television broadcasts participated in
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs ....
Number of 4-H members:
Indian Affairs --
Expanded Nutrition __
.---..-.--.------.. -___--- $1,050,429
Junior 4-H boys ----
Junior 4-H girls -.
Farm Members ..-.......---
Rural non-farm members
Urban members ---
State Trust Funds: SUMMARY OF EXTENSION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM
State Trust Funds:
State Funds --
of Persons Assisted Individually and in Groups
of Home Economics Leader Training Meetings Held
of Home Economics Leaders Trained -...-......-_.--
Extension Homemakers Club Members ----
Special Interest Meetings Held in Home Economics .
Individuals Reached in Special Interest Meetings .
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE STAFF
Administrative and State Specialists
Marshall 0. Watkins, D.P.A., Dean for Extension
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Associate Dean for Extension
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant Dean for Extension
Miss Betty Jean Brannan, Ed.D., Assistant Dean for Extension
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Assistant Program Specialist
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S.B.A., Assistant in Administration
David R. Bryant, Jr., B.A., Administrative Manager
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist; Chairman, Editorial Dept.
K. B. Meurlott, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Douglas L. Buck, B.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Donald W. Poucher, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Charles. B. Browning, Ph.D., Chairman, Dairy Science Dept.
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension Dairy Technologist
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Chairman, Animal Science Dept.
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Associate Animal Husbandman
Bill G. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
George T. Edds, Ph.D., Chairman, Veterinary Science Dept.
George W. Meyerholtz, D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Chairman, Fruit Crops Dept.
Fred P. Lawrence, M.S.A., Citriculturist
Larry K. Jackson, M.S.A., Interim Assistant in Horticulture
David P. H. Tucker, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (Citrus Exp. Sta.)
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Eliot C. Roberts, Ph.D., Chairman, Ornamental Horticulture Department
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
Charles A. Conover, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Harry G. Meyers, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Timothy E. Anderson, B.L.A., Interim Assistant in Ornamental Horticulture
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Chairman, Poultry Dept.
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Associate Extension Poultryman
Clifford Alston, M.S., Economist, Farm Management
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Farm Management
Charles L. Anderson, B.S.A., Area Assistant Farm Management Specialist (Citrus Exp.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Chairman, Food Science Dept.
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Associate Food Technologist
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Chairman, Agronomy Dept.
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Elmo B. Whitty, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Charles E. Freeman, M.S., Interim Assistant in Agronomy (Everglades Exp. Sta.)
Miss Izola F. Williams, M.S., Associate State Leader, Home Economics
Miss Elizabeth Dickenson, M.S., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Extension Home Furnishings Specialist
Mrs. Beth H. Walsh, M.S., Extension Food Specialist
Miss Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Home Management and Family Economics Specialist
Miss Charla J. Bartscht, M.S., Home Management and Family Economics Specialist
Miss Carolyn J. Combrink, M.S., Housing and Equipment Specialist
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, M.S., Consumer Education Specialist
Miss Cleora Ewalt, M.S., Interim Assistant Extension Home Economist
Miss Jo Beatrice Cleek, M.S., Human Development Specialist
Miss Pauline F. Calloway, Ed.D., Extension Home Economist, Program Development
Miss Susan C. Camp, M.S., Extension Nutrition Specialist
Miss Emily King, Ph.D., Extension Home Economist, Resource Development
Mrs. Yancey B. Walters, M.H.E., Extension Home Economist, Programs
Miss Lora A. Kiser, M.S., Extension Home Economist, Professional Development
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Ag., State 4-H Club Leader
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Billy Jay Allen, M.A., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Thomas C. Greenawalt, M.Ag., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Betty Sue Mifflin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Carl Farler, M.S., Interim Rural Resource Development Specialist
V. L. Elkins, M.Ed., Area Program Specialist, Fla. A&M Univ., Tallahassee
James C. McCall, M.Ag.Ed., Rural Areas Development Specialist, Marianna
W. Howard Smith, M.A., Rural Areas Development Specialist, Fla. Swine Eval. Cen.,
Frank S. Perry, M.Ag., District Agent
William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
Jack T. McCown, M.Ag., District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Ag., District Agent
Vernon D. Cunningham, B.S., District Agent, Division of Wildlife Service, Gainesville
A. W. O'Steen (Chipley), B.S.A., Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test
John L. Gray, M.S.F., Director, School of Forestry
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Extension Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Extension Forester
E. T. Smerdon, Ph.D., Chairman, Agricultural Engineering Dept.
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
Richard P. Cromwell, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
Lloyd B. Baldwin, M.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Chairman, Entomology Dept.
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
John R. Strayer, M.Ag., Assistant Entomologist
Charles W. Laughlin, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
L. H. Purdy, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Plant Pathology Department
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald W. Dickson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Chairman, Soils Department
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Kenneth R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Chairman, Agriculture Economics Dept.
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist in Vegetable Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Charles D. Covey, Ph.D., Associate Economist, Marketing
COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ECONOMICS AGENTS
Wilburn C. Farrell, M.Ag.
A. T. Andrews, M.Ag.
English M. Greene, B.S.
Mrs. Runette H. Davis, M.A.
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Mable S. Dorsey, B.S.
A. Luther Harrell, M.Ag.
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks, B.S.
Horace M. Corr, B.S.A.
Mrs. Eliza M. Jacskon, B.S.
G. T. Huggins, B.S.A.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
Miss Martha Sue McCain, B.S.
James T. Oxford, B.S.A.
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
John F. McGuire, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sue B. Young, B.S.
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones, B.S.
Mrs. Joy Wren Satcher, Vo.B.S.
Lewis E. Watson, M.Ag.
James F. Cummings, M.Ag.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford, B.S.
Mrs. Sandra Kaye Taylor, B.S.
Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
Jerry A. Wyrick, M.S.A.
W. Lester Hatcher, B.S.A.
Quentin Medlin, B.S.Ag.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.H.E.
Emmett D. McCall, B.S.Ag.Ed.
Mrs. Imogene D. Ritenburgh, B.S.
Mrs. Donna L. Druell, B.S.
Donald W. Lander, M.Ag.
Jesse C. LaPrade, M.S.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.
Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.E.
Mrs. Emily G. Harper, B.S.
Mrs. Judith DeRosia, B.S.E.
Miss Eleanor Faye Simmons, B.S.
John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Nolan L. Durre, M.S.
Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Richard M. Hunt, B.S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Ralph W. Moore, B.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Clark, B.S.H.E.
Miss Mary Alyce Holmes, M.S.
Miss Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
DE SOTO COUNTY
Edward E. Russell, B.S.
Mrs. Mary Ann Roe, B.S.
Edward J. Cowen, M.Ag.
Miss Susan K. Darling, B.S.
James N. Watson, B.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
Richard H. Spielman, B.S.A.
Mrs. Nellie D. Mills, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Susan Brazell, B.A.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, M.S.
Miss Virginia R. Wood, B.S.
Mrs. Jacquelyn F. Benson, B.S.
J. Lowell Loadholtz, B.S.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
Harold A. Taylor, B.S.A.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.
Mrs. Dorothy C. Cunningham, B.S.
Donald F. Jordan, M.A.
James B. Estes, M.Ag.
Mrs. A. F. Toronto, B.S.H.E.
John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Russell H. Stephens, B.S.A.
Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory, B.S.
Mrs. Dicki D. Bentley, B.S.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
Miss Susan K. Darling, B.S.
B. O. Bass, M.S.A.
Cubie R. Laird, M.Ed.
Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.H.E.
Jack C. Hayman, M.A.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
James E. Bellizio, M.S.
George M. Owens, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Barmell B. Dixon, B.S.
Bert J. Harris, Jr., B.S.A.
George T. Hurner, Jr., B.S.
Miss Ellen Landfair, B.S.
Jean Beem, M.S.A.
R. Donald Downs, B.S.
Milford C. Jorgensen, M.Ag.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.
Clarence F. O'Quinn, B.S.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, M.Ed.
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett, B.S.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.H.E.
Miss Sudella J. Ford, B.S.
Mrs. Edna L. Little, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.
Lawrence D. Taylor, M.A.
Robert F. Flewellen, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers, B.S.
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.
Glenn L. Loveless, Jr., B.S.Ag.
Woodrow W. Glenn, M.Ag.
William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Richard H. Leoppert, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Mary H. Bennett, M.Ag.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Albert H. Odom, M.Ag.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, B.S.
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