Front Cover
 To the people of Florida
 Back Cover

Title: Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076875/00007
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Alternate Title: Your Florida Agricultural Extension Service annual report
Physical Description: 11 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service,
University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1965
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with 1959; ceased with 1969.
General Note: Description based on first issue; title from cover.
General Note: Final issue consulted.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076875
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05162738
lccn - 2007229448
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by: Annual report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    To the people of Florida
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Back Cover
        Page 38
Full Text

.1. A-






To the People of Florida:

-. K.

~: _;a-.-=-. .Th~-i-"~a
6i ZA


'It atg :~

We live in an age of abundance.
Personal and family incomes are at the highest rates in history
have more leisure time than ever before. The vast majority of Am
can and do enjoy many luxuries that were beyond even the wildest
of their grandparents.
The credit for much of this rests squarely with science and tech
and with the educational programs that develop knowledge and impa
to our highly productive people.
It was just 100 years ago that more than 90 percent of our f
fathers were needed to produce enough food and fiber to supply the po
lation. Today, less than 10 percent of our work force is needed for dir
farm production. Machines and new knowledge have made this possible
We have come a long way from the limited, seasonally-controlled di
of our grandfathers to the variety of elaborate foods available in
average supermarket.
But, in spite of the great strides of the past 50 years alone, the chan
in store for us during the next half century are bound to be even m
drastic. Since it is now estimated that the storehouse of all knowled
depending on the field of study, doubles every 3 to 8 years, it is nearly i
possible to imagine what life will be like even two decades from now.
We are in a period of rapid change. The Agricultural Extensi
Service, which has played a vital role in the development of our abunda
during the last 50 years, has responded with new and expanded program
to meet the challenges of tomorrow's world.
This report to the people of Florida describes how Extension is me
ing the challenges of a changing world. We hope you find it interest
and informative.

M. O. Watkins, Director
Florida Agricultural Extension Servi

...Through Finer Farm Products

Food and shelter are basic to life itself.
What happens on America's farms, therefore, affects every citizen
the country, no matter whether he lives in the heart of Miami or on a
rm in Hamilton County.
The variety of food, its fine quality, the way it is preserved and
packaged, and the time-saving organization found in today's supermarket
present tremendous advances over the old-fashioned country store.
Improved methods begin on the farm where the food is produced, and
continue all through the process of handling, packaging, and retailing.
This has been referred to as the era of the "corporate farm," which
s true only in the broadest definition of the word. It is definitely an era
f farming as a carefully managed, professionally operated manufacturing
The ideal farmer today and the most successful one is a well-
rained businessman who realizes he must manage with the skill of a
corporate president, use only the best available resources, mechanize his
reduction, strive for peak efficiency, and play the market in order to
make a profit.
That is the ideal.
But, few farm operators have reached this ideal stage, and if they
have, find it difficult to keep abreast considering the rapid progress of
This is the challenge faced by the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service today. In the production of food, the educational task extends

from business management to production methods to harvesting and mar-
The development of Florida agriculture has hit stride during the last
10 years. During the 1950's the state moved into number one position
nationally in rate of growth.
Extension programs to help producers with their basic problems are
not designed with any thought of keeping uneconomical small farms in
operation. They are designed, however, to provide the necessary informa-
tion and training for all operators to help them to a profitable business,
or at least to see when an operation is unprofitable and should be dis-
The problems attacked by state and county Extension workers involve
not only individual farmers or ranchers, but entire segments of the industry.
Extension works with industry leaders to identify problems, measure po-
tential for growth, and design programs to combat the basic stumbling
blocks to growth. This is the continuing effort of Operation DARE (De-
veloping Agricultural Resources Effectively), and Extension plays the role
of implementing solutions developed through the DARE process.
On the following pages some major problems facing the industry are
stated in brief form with a resume of the types of programs initiated and
some of the results obtained. For the purpose of this report, of course,
only a few problems and programs have been selected as examples. They
represent only a small glimpse of Extension's work throughout Florida.


Most farm and ranch operators keep records mainly for income
purposes rather than to analyze their businesses. This is the wrong
phasis since Internal Revenue doesn't need such figures as labor efficie
unit cost, production rates, and efficient use of capital.

A comprehensive Farm Record Book, adaptable to all farm, ranch
grove operations, has been developed by Extension. This is available
a nominal charge.

In-service training sessions have been held to instruct county a
cultural agents in keeping this record book. They are now prepared to
up the record book and instruct Florida farm operators how records sho
be kept.

The Florida Farm Bureau Federation is now carrying on a busin
analysis program in cooperation with Extension specialists and cou
agents. This is a data processing program utilizing computers to summer
L a farm operation each month. Extension is responsible for helping fa
operators interpret and make good use of the monthly reports from

Extension now has 25 nurseries, 21 ranches, 10 poultry and 83 da
farms on a formal program of annual business analysis. Increased e
ciency has netted higher profits in every case. One ranch, showing a
percent annual loss, moved to a 7.73 percent annual return on capital af
two years.

More than 300 farm, ranch and grove operators and commerce
nurserymen have been taught the techniques of record analysis in form


Under Florida's sun lies some of the most unfertile soil in the world.
With low clay and organic matter content, plant food balance is critical.
Many farmers do not realize the full potential of their land because they
fail to test soil regularly and use the results as a guide for the lime and
S Working in conjunction with county agents, Extension's testing labora-
tory at the University of Florida analyzes soil samples from all over the
state. From this information, agents are able to make scientific recom-
mendations as one step in increasing yields. Last year, for example, more
than 28,000 soil samples were processed in this laboratory.

A soils specialist works with other production specialists such as
agronomists, citriculturists, and so on to help commercial producers and
homeowners as well.


A subtropical climate encourages rich plant growth. But it also
nurtures a wide variety of diseases and insects. Thousands of dollars are
lost each year by commercial producers and homeowners from nematodes,
diseases and insects. Farmers and homeowners alike often recognize when
a problem has arisen, but often they cannot identify the problem and must
seek help.

Just as Extension maintains a soil test laboratory, the plant pathology
section conducts a plant disease clinic at the Gainesville campus. Over 500
plant disease samples and 2,400 samples of nematode infested soil were
tested last year. Samples come in from both commercial growers and ordi-
ary home gardeners. It is impossible to estimate the economic value of this
S service, but in the case of some commercial growers a single solution has
involved a saving of more than $5,000.

In addition to the Plant Disease Clinic, the Extension pathologist holds
individual consultations with commercial growers and county Extension
agents, and conducts special schools and shortcourses for groups of pro-
ducers and hobbyists.

Insects are not only a serious problem in producing crops economically,
but the measures taken to control insects provide still another problem.
Chemicals used to control insects are often improperly handled, applied
in the wrong quantities or carelessly stored or disposed of. This causes the
agricultural industry countless losses in contaminated crops that cannot be
sold, and many accidental poisonings among farm workers.

Insects are identified by growers by experience and with help from
Extension's agents and publications describing pests. But the pesticide situ-
ation can only be improved by a strong educational and informational
program. County Chemical Education groups were organized in many
counties in 1965 to emphasize the seriousness of chemical residues and
careless handling of pesticides. The job is to create awareness, and all
means from meetings and demonstrations to radio and television pro-
grams are used to convey the message.

A newsletter "Chemically Speaking" is circulated each month to 800
key individuals to pass along latest information on handling and using
agricultural chemicals. The Agricultural Chemicals Information Center has
been created to carry out this work. Federal funds have provided a trained
journalist to help get information to the public on safe use of chemicals.
Newspapers, radio and television, and printed leaflets are being widely

Diseases and parasites are a major problem for Florida's livestock and
poultry industries, causing annual financial losses of over $55 million.

Extension veterinarians have concluded that failure of ranchers and
poultry farmers to recognize the need for professional help is the major

tributing factor to this loss of money and animals. Often a producer will
w insidious but non-fatal sickness to cut away profits, day-by-day,
cause it does not appear serious.

Here again, the major emphasis is on informing farm operators of the
d to get professional help with even the most minor-looking problem.
erinarians are being educated in the problems of animal producers and
outraged to offer organized help. A Large Animal Practitioners Section
the Florida State Veterinary Medical Association has now been estab-

Schools and workshops on disease and parasite problems are being
d to promote better understanding between veterinarians and producers,
d to explain the substantial savings possible through a program of pro-
sional disease prevention and control instead of do-it-yourself diagnosis
d treatment.


The 1962 freeze, combined with rapidly-expanding urban areas that
e infringing on grove land, has caused the rapidly-expanding citrus in-
stry to move into portions of south Florida where the land was once
nsidered unsuitable for citrus culture. Citrus groves are being expanded
a rate of 50,000 acres annually, much of it poorly drained or even par-
lly submerged.

While the Experiment Stations are engaged in a crash program to de-
lop cultural practices, varieties and root stocks suitable for low lands,
extension specialists have been working with researchers on water control
d drainage. "Peep-wells" which allow daily observation of water table
ivels, have been developed and put in use in strategic locations in south
'lorida. These day-to-day observations are providing vital information
)r growers on these new lands.


-i-- -'

With enough acreage to account for 70 percent of the nation's t
citrus production, and rapid expansion underway, management probl
are cropping up. Vertical integration that is, combinations of owners
production, marketing and processing in the industry has contrib
to management difficulties. Management training is being conducted to
prove maintenance charges, equipment depreciation rates, and cultiva
practices. At the other end of the scale, schools directed at grove wor
are designed to provide better care and maintenance of equipment
thereby lower production costs. These schools, conducted over the
two or three years, are producing better-trained, more efficient work
Instilling pride in their work and training these workers to recognize dise
and insect problems as they work in a grove, mean concrete savings
grove owners.


Although several segments of the agricultural industry are experie
ing a serious labor problem, it is especially pronounced in citrus, sugarct
and the many vegetable crops grown in Florida. Hand labor is in sh
supply because of Federal regulations prohibiting importation of off-sh

Almost all vegetable crops require substantial numbers of h(
laborers and mostly on a seasonal basis. Planting, cultivation and harvest
must be done by hand in most cases. Extension is working in three art
to alleviate the problem:

Engineers are working on labor saving equipment to do as much we
as possible by machine. Field tests on existing equipment, and field desi
of new ideas are being carried forth on a cooperative basis by Extensi
and research specialists.

An intensive study of herbicides designed to control weeds and the
by "chemically cultivate" vegetable crops is being carried on in field tried

'i -
~ 1; ~r'
~r;: , I
~c r:~yJ
r ~ c


,..~ S

--r -.
3' ~~ :

;"Lc536il ''"
..,.;~~ ca
4 L.-~;
3 ''3

\ -

This is part of the overall effort to bring to the attention of growers labor-
saving methods.

One of Extension's most important roles in helping growers with the
present labor shortage is one of information. Specialists attempt to keep
the industry abreast of legislation, rules and regulations which affect the
labor market so that growers can anticipate their needs and crops will not
spoil, unharvested, in the fields.


Nearly 75 percent of all carcass beef and pork is imported into
Florida. Yet, the state is ideally suited because of its climate and the
opportunity for year-round grazing for the animal industry. The poten-
tial for growth is tremendous as was pointed out in the DARE Report
of 1964 but there are two basic problems for both beef cattle and

Herd management that is, the efficient production of high quality
calves has been holding back the beef industry as a whole. Florida cattle-
men have been producing too many low-quality calves weighing from 150
to 300 pounds too light for feedlot purposes. They can be marketed
through one channel slaughter. Too few pounds are marketed for the
rancher to realize a profit.

The swine industry has suffered with a similar problem. Both pure-
bred and commercial producers lacked a method of evaluating their breed-
ing programs under a set of standards applicable to all. A measure has
been needed for evaluating feed conversion, carcass traits and health

The second barrier to growth is common to both beef and pork pro-
duction the necessity to import grain for the feedlot because of low
yields of corn in Florida. Soil fertility, proper fertilization, adapted va-
rieties, and proper storage are factors in providing grain locally.

Extension specialists have initiated a program to help ranchers identify
their most productive cows and to assist them in saving the best heifers for
herd replacement. Cattlemen have been encouraged to shorten the breeding
season by 90 to 120 days and to have calves dropped during December,
January and February. The importance of using bulls that have been tested
for performance has been stressed. More calves are being marketed directly
from the ranch as a result of the shorter breeding season.

Feeder calf sales are now well established in several parts of Florida
- brought about largely through county Extension agents working with
local cattle associations. These sales have proved conclusively that Florida
ranchers, using proper management, can produce calves weighing more than
500 pounds. The demand for these feeders is great even from out-of-
state feed lots.

The need for uniform standards in the swine industry has been met
by establishment of the Florida Swine Evaluation Center at the former
USDA Hog Cholera Research Station at Live Oak. The Florida Swine
Producers Association and Florida Feeder Pig Association donated money
for the renovation.

A state Advisory Committee has been formed, and has set up regula-
tions under which the evaluation program is being carried on. The evalua-
tion program is being widely accepted by the industry and has been tested
on 23 groups since the Center opened in September, 1965. Comparison of
graded feeder pigs sold at sales, fed side-by-side, has shown producers the
advantages of top grade over low grade pigs.

Feeder pig sales are being established in several areas of the state, with
guidelines and standards being set by a state feeder pig committee. Low
quality of feeder pies was causing swine feeding operations to go out of
state for between 8,000 and 15,000 pigs every year.

In 1965, over 9,000 head of feeder pigs were sold at 12 sales for a
1 of $200,245.70 an average of $23.40 per hundredweight. These
s were compared to feeder pigs sold at a leading livestock market in
rida, and the graded pigs brought producers over $25,000 more. Imports
e decreased to a marked degree down to 3,500 head in 1965.

Meanwhile, Extension field crops specialists have been working to get
th Florida farmers to soil test regularly, use the recommended kinds
amounts of fertilizers, and try hybrid varieties that have been produc-
high yields on research plots. Improving the quality of pastures to
e advantage of year-round grazing is also being stressed.


Florida dairymen, over the past few years, have been caught in a
ht cost-price squeeze. Regulation by the Milk Commission set standards
ich make efficiency in production mandatory. As in the animal industry,
rd management selecting the most productive cows and promoting high
oduction is one key to this problem.

Health and nutrition are important to maintain the kind of production
cessary for a profit (10,000 pounds of milk per year for each cow).
tension specialists, both state and local, have been working with in-
vidual dairymen in making evaluations of dairy rations.

Dairymen have been encouraged to adopt the Dairy Herd Improvement
association records system which provides monthly analysis of records by
regional dairy electronic records processing center. Monthly reports
ow the production and feed records on every cow, and on the herd as a
hole. Local DHIA associations are being encouraged by the Extension
service complete with a supervisor to help dairymen interpret and use
iese records. A state DHIA board has been organized recently to advise
iese local associations.

Better management, largely fostered by this careful record keep
has resulted in a 100 percent increase in per-cow-production over the 1

.:: of time.


Every part of the agricultural industry has become more complicate
as farm and ranch operations have grown in size. The demand for s
., cialized knowledge has, for the past few years, seriously taxed Extensior
I county agents. Only two agents, for example, had studied poultry scien
prior to 1965, and it was difficult for county Extension staff members
advise poultrymen on some serious problems.

Each year Extension agents are given additional training in variola
phases of the agricultural industry. The emphasis for this training is oftE
determined by what commodities or segments of the industry have el
countered a new serious problem.
,, ,i,,,, ',

In 1965, Extension's poultry science specialists answered the ca
from county Extension workers for more training by conducting intensive
in-service training programs. Agents in the major poultry-producing county
were given a one-week school in basic poultry science and the major prol
lems experienced by poultrymen. Following the school, 14 agents wer
qualified to counsel poultrymen.

Two-day schools were conducted for agents in other parts of the state
and a one-week poultry institute was conducted for county agents, industry
servicemen and poultry producers. The institute was designed to brini
the poultry industry up to date on latest research and new methods of pro
duction. In-service training of this type is conducted for Extension agent
in commodity areas to some degree each year.

I. .



One of the first recommendations made by Extension to producers of
agricultural products is to consider irrigation to increase yields. Moreover,
much interest has been raised during the past three years in irrigation for
cold protection in citrus. The result has been demands for specialized irri-
gation equipment. Getting the industry to support good design in irrigation
systems has been difficult. Competition being what it is, industry has been
prone to under-design systems particularly for citrus groves.

With Extension agricultural engineers providing leadership, the
Florida Irrigation Society has been organized. Membership includes 75
commercial businesses the majority selling in Florida. Specifications
have been set up and members of the society are pledged to follow these
design specifications. In support of this effort, Extension specialists have
held many workshops and schools for growers to explain what is good
design and discourage buying on the basis of price alone. Information
presented was gained from over 1,000 hours of testing in actual field trials.

Although irrigation systems is one major effort of Extension engineers,
the entire field of farm equipment is given attention. Agricultural engineers
help design and test specialized equipment, and study the usage of ordinary
machines. Florida, for example, averages from two to four times as many
tractor man-hours as the national average. Maintenance costs, because of
this high average, can make or break a producer.

Farm equipment schools held one night each week for from four to 12
weeks have been held in many counties. The special schools for grove
workers have stressed preventative maintenance and safety procedures to
improve the effectiveness of men actually operating equipment. The result
has been lowered production costs in hundreds of operations.

More Florida land is devoted to producing commercial timber than
any other agricultural product. Yet, because of natural stands of timber,


many producers are not aware that timber production is also a precise type
of farming. Most stands are less than 40 percent stocked compared with
what the land will produce. In Florida, where 40 percent of pulpwood
processed is imported, 800,000 acres of land are understocked.

Extension foresters have been attempting to inform land owners pro-
ducing timber of these facts, and to promote better site preparation, new
methods of planting or seeding, and careful attention to disease and insect
controls (which cause more losses than forest fires).

Methods of improving unproductive land, through water control and
soil improvement, are being used to increase the number of timber stands.
Attention has been given to the nutrition of young trees, and several land
owners are cooperating by fertilizing on a controlled basis on timber stands.
One commercial grower has applied phosphate to large areas of land and
constructed many water control structures to convert previously unproduc-
tive land to timber production.


Proper farm or ranch management and completely scientific production
methods are only two steps toward getting agricultural products to con-
sumers. Products must be processed or manufactured or marketed in some
way before eventually reaching retail outlets. Many segments of Florida's
agricultural industry are now going through a process of vertical integra-
tion in which a single firm or cooperative manages all phases from produc-
tion to marketing.

The most common form of this integration is the cooperative that helps
individual members manage farm operations, helps with production and
harvesting and then manages processing, manufacturing and/or marketing.
The cooperative has been a boon to many small farm operations, offering
collective purchasing and selling power that can keep them economical.

There are problems, however, as this vertical integration takes place.
pension marketing and utilization specialists have been working to in-
ase the efficiency of agricultural marketing firms. One major problem
that the management of many of these firms has been recruited from
ong the farm operators who make up the cooperative. Many have had
le experience in the management of marketing.

Two major programs have been designed to help these firms. In the
st, two-day formal conferences have been set up to teach modem manage-
nt principles for directors and managers. Five major areas of manage-
nt planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling -
a large business are taught.

As a follow-up to this formal instruction, Extension specialists con-
ntrate on individual firms for a "management audit." During this inten-
e study, principles taught in the formal conferences are applied so that
e manager or director can see how this operation falls short of meeting
eal conditions.

During 1965, three formal conferences taught principles to more than
0 managers and directors of Florida marketing organizations. This in-
rectly served hundreds of individual farmers and ranchers who were
embers of cooperatives. Two management audits were held in 1965 with
cellent results.


Should the United States ever suffer a nuclear disaster, one of the most
desperate situations for survivors would be getting enough food. Very few
ranchers have made provisions for fallout protection for farm animals
which would be needed to supply meat.

The overall civil defense program in rural areas is largely one of
making people aware of problems that could very easily come about some
lay. The first reaction for most people, even if they will admit that nuclear

.. tr4S~

-----------~~` ~ ~ ~ ~

war is possible, is providing shelter for themselves. The fact that their
future food would need protection generally has to be pointed out.

Workshops are used on a continuing basis by Extension agents to
make farmers, ranchers and community leaders aware of the need for pro-
tection. Experience has shown that working through community leaders has
obtained best results. Progress is often slow with the general public, but
when key ranchers set the example other producers often see the importance
of fallout protection.


One of the basic problems for the Agricultural Extension Service,
through the years, has been in overcoming the resistance of tradition and
getting farmers and ranchers to accept new methods. Often "what was good
enough for grandpa is good enough for me" has been the attitude.

When all else failed, Extension agents have often turned to the
youngsters in a family as a way of showing how new methods can improve
both the quantity and quality of farm products. The 4-H program has been
especially helpful in winning friends among farmer-parents, since young-
sters are generally willing to learn something new.

When 4-H'ers buy only purebred animals, select only improved va-
rieties, use only production-tested sires, and cultivate according to recom-
mended practices, the results are bound to show up. Youngsters are willing
to try something new even when parents will not. Thus, 4-H work in agri-
culture has been of great benefit to the industry as a whole, over the years.

While there are still many strictly agricultural 4-H projects, shifts
in population, the change to community clubs, and the growing awareness
that many projects can benefit any boy or girl, have brought in a growing
number of urban youngsters. Florida now has more urban and non-farm
young people than rural youth enrolled in 4-H clubs. Whether or not they
select any agricultural projects, many of these young people gain a much
better understanding of the importance of the industry that provides our
food and fiber.

~-~i~sB~ ~i~1~~9. 4i~~~.:
h II.I-.
I' ~-


~C -Bna~W/~ ~ :1 ~f





-rr--aa n

r .C'


...Through Improved Homes and Families

The same forces which have brought about a revolution in agricultural
reduction have contributed to new problems and by the same token,
ew opportunities for all American families, both rural and urban.
We are a nation on wheels, and this greater mobility has changed the
pattern of family activity and use of time.
We are a growing nation, and this population explosion contributes
oa faster living pace, greater competition for jobs and social position, and
changes in living areas.
We are an affluent nation with great pressure to raise family incomes,
nd as a result there are thousands of working wives.
We are a nation where the stress is on automation and a high level of
efficiency, where social retraining is as important as job retraining for the
Home economics and many youth programs carried on by the Extension
Service are designed to help all people urban, rural non-farm, and rural
- face these changes in society and improve their lives. Youth programs,
both organized 4-H and special interest youth projects, are also designed
to improve family living by stressing citizenship and personal development
on the part of teenagers.
The problems of family living are complex, and the Extension Service
must call on the knowledge and training of specialists in many fields in
order to provide educational programs throughout Florida. Living patterns
vary from county to county depending on the amount of urbanization,

stability of population, and influx of new social and cultural groups. Some
Extension agents in each county are trained in the broad field of home
economics, and others work primarily with young people, either in formal
4-H programs or special interest groups.

The family as a unit, and its individual members, are targets of Exten-
sion's educational programs. If summarized, the work is carried out by:
Extending knowledge based on current research from the
University of Florida and the United States Department of Agri-
Offering continuing education in home economics and per-
sonal development
Presenting unbiased information to help people make intelli-
gent decisions
Providing opportunities for people to recognize their needs
and take part in organizing their own programs.

Many of the problems under attack by Extension specialists are local-
ized, while others are universal to families throughout the state. Some
of the following examples have been continuing problems to people over
the years, while others have come about because of recent social and
economic changes. They are only examples, of course, of the hundreds
of situations faced by state and county Extension workers.


i~ ..*` '--
, :1\- :'

In 23 Florida counties, a large number of families have an inco
of $3,000 per year or less. Many of these families live in abject poverty
existing from day to day on minimum needs, attempting to survive in
atmosphere of affluence all around them. They are not equipped educ
tionally, and not motivated personally to do anything about their condition
without help and influence from the outside.

Certainly, the overall problem is lack of income sufficient to meet t
costs of living. Within this basic problem are literally hundreds of facto
which contribute to the end result poverty. Lack of education bot
formal schooling and social, personal and religious training; lack
motivation; and lack of opportunities for advancement are among th
chief factors.

Extension specialists have been attacking the problem of low family
income from several different directions. In one program, agents attem
to show homemakers how to make the most of what money is available
This involves education on how to use inexpensive foods, how to sele
foods for a balanced diet, and how to prepare the foods in a more palatable
way. Surplus government foods are available in many areas, and agent
have held demonstrations on how to make best use of donated food.

Workshops in clothing construction have helped many families to liv
better on limited incomes. Using inexpensive or unusual materials, an
encouraging "do-it-yourself" methods, many families have refinished ol
furniture, built simple cabinets, and generally cleaned up and improved
their houses. This has fostered a healthy pride of accomplishment, and the
improved surroundings have made homes more cheerful.

,Many low income families, because of the pressures of society, have
serious problems of internal family and community relationships. Lack
of luxuries enjoyed by other people, has, in some cases, caused serious
psychological problems. Personal hygiene is often poor because of lack of

education. County Extension workers attempt to alleviate these conditions
through tactful suggestion, either on a personal basis or through local
citizens who are interested in helping. Leaflets on family relations are
often used.


Many Floridians are unaware of the services available to them to pro-
tect and improve their health, and many are not aware of the importance
of some health problems.

Extension's work in the area of health is almost exclusively educational
since agents themselves do not conduct examinations or, generally, teach
first aid. The effort is to create awareness of health problems, and to
acquaint families with the public health services available in Florida com-
munities. It is a matter of bringing together the people and those organi-
zations which are equipped to examine or train.

For example, Extension agents use newspapers and broadcast stations
to explain services available through county Health Departments, and to
encourage programs in which these Health Departments have an opportunity
to explain health problems.

The Medical Self-Help program is designed to set up first aid training
by groups such as the Red Cross, and then motivate people to attend courses
in this training. Many communities are short of doctors, nurses and hospital
facilities, and families need to know what to do in emergency situations
until professional help can be obtained.

A large number of pre-school children have never been examined by
a dentist. Many school-age youngsters do not go to the dentist until it is too
late for preventive care.



Two programs are carried out by Extension agents. Using the mass
media, agents encourage parents to have children examined by physicians
and dentists before they enter the first grade. In another program, con-
ducted through 4-H camps, dental examinations have been given at 4-H
camps by Health Department dental technicians. During the 1965 camping
season, 531 boys and girls received inspections.

The greatest number of accidents occur in the home and Extension
agents carry on information programs to make people aware of the
most common accidents. A month-by-month tally on accidents was kept
on display on the courthouse lawn in one west Florida county. The safe
use of pesticides around the home has been emphasized in many counties.


The tremendous building boom and emphasis toward home ownership
faced by most people today presents many problems to people who have
had little experience in judging the value of homes on the market.

Using the attitude that people can only make wise choices in what
they buy if they know what values to look for, Extension agents conduct
workshops on how to select a home what to look for in the way of
construction, the kind and number of built-ins provided, types of financing,
and so on. State specialists in housing and home furnishings have used
the workshop method to train county Extension workers who, in turn, have
conducted their own workshops and educational programs throughout the

Some emphasis has been placed on using native Florida plants in
landscaping the home, and using Florida materials in special upholstery
and furnishings workshops. Home beautification is a major part of Exten-
sion's effort to provide improved living conditions for Florida families.

i ~i~-%,?
a. 'k':i':
; i.,~tl
IrJ h .aa:l~,.

. H% -4,



The fast pace of today's living, with more and more emphasis on
er education, has placed tremendous strains on young people. Since
dren are the center of almost every family, their problems get special
ntion by the Extension Service.

Young people reach an earlier maturity than ever before. They look
act older than their parents did at the same age. More teenagers are
shing high school and going to college. School curricula are being re-
nped from elementary grades on up; courses are more advanced and
prehensive. Youngsters have more money to spend, get married earlier,
S- in general face the pressures of adult society sooner.

Although Extension provides the educational information and advises
community clubs, many programs designed to meet the problems of
nagers are carried out through special interest groups which are not a
rt of the 4-H program. Youngsters are encouraged to complete their
rmal education and plan for a career through the Career Exploration

Young married people are provided with leaflets on family relations,
w to handle and budget money, how to take care of young children,
tting along with their new in-laws, and adjusting to married life. A
ecial packet on these and other subjects about running a home is available
r young brides.


Surveys show that one-third of the teenage girls in Florida go to school
withoutt a nutritious breakfast. The number of boys with the same habit
lay not be as high, but often breakfast is more of a pre-school snack than
balanced meal.

F i_

4- _____

Many Florida boys and girls are enrolled in a popular 4-H pr
in food and nutrition. Surprisingly, some boys' classes have been organ
to learn the value of foods and how to prepare them.

Special teenage nutrition programs have been held in one-third
Florida's counties. Girls enrolled in 4-H food and nutrition projects
prepared demonstrations for their classmates and other community gro
Leaflets on food science have been prepared by Extension specialists
general distribution. Statewide workshops have been held to pre
county Extension workers for local programs.

Many senior citizens have problems similar to youngsters in facing
pace of today's living. Like youngsters, they must seek a place in society
which they can feel useful. They also have problems with good nutrit
since they no longer may be inclined to prepare balanced meals.

Extension works with established senior citizens groups to provide
same type of information on foods and nutrition, on learning to us
sometimes limited retirement income wisely, on getting adjusted to a n
society (since many have moved to Florida to retire), and on getting al
with each other.

One especially successful effort has been to encourage senior citizen
to "adopt" grandchildren youngsters who have no grandparents a
take part in enjoyable activities together. The program operates somethi
like the well-established boys' club system.

Competition is keen among businesses these days, and it is often
difficult task to select which products to buy and how much to pay.

Programs in consumer education are very broad extending fro
the type of values to look for in buying a house, to the type and quality

~I I

.- a~~5

clothing to buy for best wearability in Florida's climate. The "hard-sell"
pressure of bargain prices is often great, but many products sold at very
low prices have little value. Evaluating many products especially
clothing and fabrics is especially difficult these days because of the
many new products, finishes, and characteristics.

Printed literature, newspaper stories, broadcast spots, and group work-
shops are used to provide latest information to consumers. Every effort
is made by Extension agents to provide facts established by research so
that people can make intelligent decisions when buying products.

Almost every Extension program either in home economics or youth
work is at least in part aimed at personal development of the individual.
This development, of itself, helps improve family living by promoting good
relationships and stronger internal leadership.

Primary emphasis in 4-H and youth programs that are not directly
related to agriculture is personal development, since young people are
experiencing their formative years. Formal projects in leadership, public
speaking, citizenship, and personal achievement are not only adopted by
long-time 4-H youngsters, but by teenagers who have had no previous
contact with 4-H club work.

The problems of delinquency, school dropouts, rising rate of infectious
diseases, and lack of strong family ties are combatted with youth programs
of this type.

The record clearly shows the beneficial effect of these special personal
development projects, and of the well-established 4-H camping program
which has fostered learning in an atmosphere of recreation.

Literally thousands of young people have gotten a start toward a better
life, or have been encouraged to utilize their talents through Extension's
youth programs. The effect on an otherwise troubled family situation has,
in hundreds of cases, been a turning point for an entire family.


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Rural Civil Defense

State Appropriation:
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (estimated)
County Appropriations:


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended
Agricultural Marketing
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Rural Civil Defense
Resource Development

State Appropriation
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (estimated)
County Appropriations:












Data from County and Home Economics Agents Reports
Studies of problems and opportunities
Field trials, tests, demonstrations
Consultations providing information, advice, guidance on problems of:
a. Number of different pieces prepared
b. Number of pieces distributed
Radio broadcasts participated in
Television broadcasts participated in
a. Individuals, families, and farm operators
b. Agencies, firms, and organizations
Meetings of Extension Planning Development and other committees
Leader Training:
a. Meetings to train local leaders
b. Number of different leaders trained
Other meetings at which extension workers presented information
News stories released directly to newspapers or magazines
Publications distributed to public
Direct Mail:

(Total number of different voluntary lead-
ers assisting Extension agents with organiza-
tion, planning and conducting of Extension
work in counties:)

Junior 4-H boys
Junior 4-H girls






Number of 4-H Clubs 1,312
Number of 4-H members:
Boys 8,984
Girls 16,007
Total 24.991

Rural non-farm


~ ~

_ ~ I

ROWARD BETTER LIVING... Through Better Communities

The pressure of Florida's growth on the one hand and stagnation in
many traditionally farming areas have placed tremendous pressures on
communities all over the state.
The contrast is amazing. Boom areas, such as along the coastline and
in the space-oriented Orlando-Cape Kennedy area, face an unending strug-
gle to provide enough schools, public facilities, and new housing to keep
up with new population. Conversion of farm and ranch land to residential
or industrial use has placed serious strain on the agricultural industry.
Zoning has become a major problem.
On the other hand, many communities in north and west Florida -
by-passed by tourism and new industry, saddled with lower overall family
income, and losing their young people to the opportunities in boom areas-
have little hope of ever enjoying the improved living that results from
economic growth, unless the people work together and get some outside help.
More and more, community problems have become a major job for
the Extension Service. It stands as a link between the educational informa-
tion and technical assistance available from the University of Florida, and
in many cases the financial assistance available from the Federal Govern-
Extension's approach to community problems is the same as it has
always been with agricultural problems motivate the people to become
aware of their difficulties and of the need to help themselves, and provide
the technical assistance once the people have organized an effort.
Some of these community problems are described on the following
pages, along with a few of Extension's programs designed to help people
improve their communities.

Rapid population changes have created distressing problems in
Florida communities. From 1960 to 1964, Florida's overall popu
gain was 15.2 percent; this, however, is only part of the picture. Fou
counties gained more than 20 percent, and 11 of these had more
doubled their populations during the decade of the 1950's. At the
time, a dozen counties lost population, and during the 1950's some
declines up to 20 percent.

Changes in population cause many problems, most of which mus
attacked by an organized community effort if a solution is to be reach
Since Extension's programs have always been guided by committees
up of local citizens, county Extension agents have been in an exce
position to work in community affairs.

In its work to help citizens attack community problems, the Exten
Service has emphasized the need to become aware of and utilize the t
resources of a community, county or area. Developing natural resour
including land, water and minerals, has been the first step in providing
base for economic growth in areas of declining population.

Several communities have been guided to the Farmers Home Admi
station for financial assistance and planning help to establish wa
systems, sewage disposal facilities and recreation centers.

One community built a golf course and swimming pool not on
for use by local citizens, but to make the community more attractive f
the development of small industries and commercial establishments whi
will add to the income of the area.

Some communities have obtained funds from the Small Busine
Administration to help establish commercial enterprises or small industrit

Many northwest Florida counties have been stressing new industry
and new development to bolster their economies. At the same time, however,
existing farm operations still have many problems which demand com-
munity or area-wide effort.

Rural Areas Development programs in many northwest Florida coun-
ties have also been aimed at helping farmers with marketing problems. The
Suwannee Valley Farmers' Market was created after the need for such
an outlet was recognized by RAD committees.

Extension forestry specialists have been providing information to
acquaint landowners with the pros and cons of creating recreational areas
for profit. Outdoor recreation offers opportunities for conversion of farm
land to other, sometimes more profitable uses. But such a conversion must
be carefully planned, as with any new business, and workshops have been
held to acquaint interested people with how to select proper locations, how
to conduct this specialized business, needs for both capital investment and
operating capital, and so on.

Often it is not difficult to get community leaders to organize them-
selves to attack community problems, but rank and file members of the
community especially low income groups are reluctant to participate.

In nine counties, leadership training schools were held in 1965 speci-
fically for people who had not been taking part in community activities.
This training is helping many of these families become better able to
participate in their own programs of self-improvement. It is helping many
understand that they must accept personal responsibility, and want to help
themselves, for real improvement of any situation to take place.

In very small communities or counties, people often do not know what
resources are available from outside organizations and agencies. Part of

*.~ i II~III 1!,IUIYYU~s~l~ ~J"

Extension's educational job has been to help people become familiar with
these potential sources.

Many adjacent counties have similar problems. Alone they are not
large enough to get some forms of assistance.

Several counties have banded together into development organizations
or committees to work on an area basis. As a result, citizens in these
communities are now enjoying services and facilities which would not
have been available without an area-wide effort.

Many of Extension's efforts in community affairs have been made in
counties enjoying or suffering from, as the case may be extreme
growth. In these areas there are highly sensitive problems of land assess-
ment and taxation, long-range county planning and zoning, public policies
relating to the production of agricultural commodities, and public issues
involving education and health programs.

-Many of these issues are controversial. The Extension Service does
not attempt to sponsor one group or one set of ideas against other groups
or other ideas. Factual information is provided, through the resources of
the University of Florida, so that the people may make informed decisions
on important matters.

Just about every community in Florida or any other state for that
matter has areas which are run down. Often the cause is low income,
but even modest houses can be kept clean and picked up. The problem
is more one of attitude the lack of motivation to clean, pick up and fix up.


Extension carries on programs for both young people and adults which
home beautification. Home economists encourage people to fix and
holster furniture, build simple cabinets and keep the inside of the
tidy. Extension horticulturists stress the use of plants, shrubs and
rs as a way of making the home more pleasant inside and more
tive outside. Many native plants can be used and are inexpensive.

A 4-H project in home beautification teaches youngsters ways to im-
e the appearance of the home and the neighborhood.

Extension works through Extension homemakers clubs, 4-H community
s, garden clubs and other organizations to promote community-wide
s in home beautification. The technical information, suggestions for
escaping, and an informational program to motivate people to take part
the duties usually assumed by Extension agents.

Many urban areas are growing so rapidly, young people do not have
opportunities they once had to take part in community affairs. And,
more and more stress on specialized education, many young people
so busy they lose touch with their place-and resulting responsibility-
he community.

Often 4-H projects aimed at personal development work to the benefit
communities. Projects in achievement and citizenship are examples.

During 1965 the community clubs of one Florida county participated
a national project to help the National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
n. The effort brought broad recognition to the county and gave 4-H'ers
opportunity to practice good citizenship.

WhBe&m 4-H'


V 1-~1 I ''I l lfllHI IIII ill

Extension's concentrated efforts in community development in both
rural and suburban areas is continuing to gather steam as more and more
needs are recognized by communities. Continuing education through the
Land-grant colleges is expanding and additional legislation to provide
grants and money is fostering this movement. As 1965 drew to a close,
many projects were receiving consideration.
The Extension Service is certain to receive responsibility for much
more area and community development in the future.


Marshall O. Wotkins, D.P.A., Director
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Associate Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Ag., Assistant Director
Miss Betty Jean Brannan, Ph.D., Assistant Director, Home Economics Programs
Shaw E. Grisby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
Miss Emily King, Ph.D., Home Economist, Training
Alto A. Straughn, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Program Specialist
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Administration
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist
K. B. Meurlott, A.B., Assistant Communication Specialist
Douglas L. Buck, B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Roberts C. Smith, Jr., B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Donald W. Poucher, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Miss Alma Warren, M.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension Dairy Technologist
Barney Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meats Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Ag., Associate Animal Husbandman
George T. Edds, Ph.D., Veterinarian
Charles B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Ag., Citriculturist
Robert M. Davis, M.Ag., Interim Assistant Horticulturist
Frank S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
Charles A. Conover, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Robert H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Paultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Ag., Assistant Extension Poultryman
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Economist, Farm Management
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Farm Management
Charles L. Anderson, B.S., Interim Assistant in Farm Management
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist
Richard F. Matthews, Ph.D., Associate Food Technologist
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
S. L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester

Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Farm Forester
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Ag., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Elwyn S. Holmes, M.E., Rural Civil Defense Coordinator
Sam Evans, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Entomologist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Ag., Entomologist
John R. Strayer, M.Ag., Assistant Entomologist
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soil Microbiologist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Kenneth R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Marketing Specialist in Vegetable Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Miss Ann E. Thompson, M.Ed., Extension Home Economist, Programs
Miss Pauline N. Brimhall, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Miss Flay Britt, M.S., Home Economics Specialist
Mrs. Susan C. Camp, M.S., Nutritionist
Miss Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Mrs. Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Miss Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Family Life Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Miss Vervil L. Mitchell, M.S., Home Management and Family Economics Specialist
Miss Izola F. Williams, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Ag., State 4-H Club Leader
Grant M. Godwin, M.Ag., Associate State 4-H Club Agent
B. J. Allen, M.A., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Miss Betty Sue Mifflin, M.S., Assistant State 4-H Club Agent
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
V. L. Elkins, M.S.A., Area Program Specialist
James C. McCall, M.S.A., Rural Areas Development Specialist
W. Howard Smith, M.Ag., Rural Areas Development Specialist
Frank S. Perry, M.Ag., District Agent
William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Ag., District Agent
Miss Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Extension Home Economics Agent
Mrs. Yancey B. Walters, M.H.E., District Extension Home Economics Agent
Miss Lora A. Kiser, B.S.H.E., District Extension Home Economics Agent

I _

Wilburn C. Farrell, M.A.
A. T. Andrews, M.Ag.
English M. Greene, B.S.A.
Mrs. Josephine McSwine, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Clarice J. Robinson, B.S.H.E.

A. Luther Harrell, M.Ag.
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks, A.B.

Horace M. Carr, M.S.A.
Miss Eliza J. Moxley, B.S.H.E.

G. T. Huggins, B.S.A.
Bobby L. Taylor, M.Ag.
Miss Martha Sue McCain, B.S.

James T. Oxford, B.S.A.
Sylvester A. Rose, M.S.
John F. McGuire, B.S.A.
Mrs. Sue B. Young, B.S.
Mrs. Arlene C. Jones, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Glenda Newsom, B.S.H.E.

Lewis E. Watson, M.Ag.
James F. Cummings, B.S.A.
Frank J. Jasa, B.S.A.
Miss Louise Taylor, B.S.

Harvey T. Paulk, M.Ag.
William Floyd Marlow, B.S.A.
Mrs. Virginia G. Davis, B.S.H.E.


N. H. McQueen, B.S.A.E.

Quentin Medlin, B.S.A.
Royce C. Williams, B.S.A.
Mrs. Paula P. Stanley, B.S.A.

Emmett D. McCall, B.S.A.E.
Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Donna L. Druell, A.B.

Donald W. Lander, M.A.
Joseph H. Whitesell, B.S.
Dallas B. Townsend, B.S.A.


Neal M. Dukes, B.S.
Thomas J. Godbold, B.S.A.
Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman, B.S.


John D. Campbell, B.S.A.
Nolan L. Durre, M.S.

Seymour Goldweber, B.S.
Joseph D. Dalton, Ph.D.
Richard M. Hunt, B.S.A.
Roy J. Champagne, M.S.
Louis J. Daigle, M.Ag.
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish, B.S.A.
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Clark, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth H. Reece, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Victoria M. Simpson, B.S.
Miss Patricia A. Helms, B.S.

W. Lester Hatcher, B.S.A.
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey, B.S.H.E.

Ben H. Floyd, B.S.A.


James N. Watson, B.S.A.
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr., M.S.A.
Edward Allen, M.S.A.
Mrs. Nellie D. Mills, B.S.
Mrs. Sandra Ray Jones, B.S.
Miss Sarah E. Anderson, B.S.M.E.
Mrs. Bessie J. Canty, B.S.
Miss Virginia R. Wood, B.S.H.E.


E. Norbert Stephens, B.S.A.
James H. Walker, M.S.A.
J. Lowell Loadholtz, B.S.
Harold A. Taylor, B.S.A.
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Mary J. Castello, B.S.H.E.


Donald F. Jordan, B.S.A.

James B. Estes, M.Ag.
Miss Bernice G. Shuler, B.S.

John C. Russell, M.Ag.
Bernard H. Clark, B.S.A.
Russell H. Stephens, B.S.
Mrs. Majorie B. Gregory, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Ursula H. Williams, B.S.
Miss Betty C. York, B.S.H.E.


James R. Yelvington, M.Ag.
Francis M. Urry, B.S.A.


B. O. Bass, M.S.A.


Cubie R. Laird, B.S.A.


Rance A. Andrews, B.S.A.
Isaac Chandler, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Wylma B. White, M.S.H.E.

Jack C. Hayman, M.Ag.
Miss Nancy B. Whigham, B.S.H.E.

I~II ~ ~~~I_ _ __ _ _

-r -I---------- -~--

Theodore Gallo, III, M.Ag.
Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.

George M. Owens, Jr., M.Ag.
Mrs. Barmell B. Dixon, B.S.H.E.

Bert J. Harris, Jr., B.S.A.
George T. Hurner, Jr., B.S.
Mrs. Imogene D. Ritenburg, M.S.H.E.

Jean Beem, M.S.A.
Milford C. Jorgensen, M.Ag.
R. Donald Downs, B.S.A.
Paul E. Glasscock, B.S.
Clarence F. O'Quinn, B.S.A.
Thomas W. Oswalt, M.S.A.
Wayne T. Wade, B.S.A.
Mrs. Mamie C. Bassett, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs, B.S.
Miss Sudella J. Ford, B.S.
Mrs. Edna S. Little, B.S.
Mrs. Helen P. Webb, B.S.H.E.

Lawrence D. Taylor, M.Ag.
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers, B.S.

Forrest N. McCullars, B.S.A.

Mrs. May 0. Fulton

Woodrow W. Glenn, M.Ag.
William E. Collins, B.S.A.
Pat H. Sullivan, B.S.
Mrs. Mary H. Bennett, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Pearl G. Long, B.S.H.E.

Albert H. Odom, M.S.A.
Miss Jeanette Meadows, B.S.

Edward J. Cowen, M.Ag.
Mrs. Mae M. Anderson, B.S.

Robert E. Norris, B.S.A.
Glenn L. Loveless, Jr., B.S.
William M. Nixon, M.S.A.
Mrs. Marian Valentine, B.S.H.E.

Robert G. Curtis, B.S.A.
Jack Wesley Bass, B.S.A.
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon, B.S.

J. Lloyd Rhoden, M.Ag.

Raymond H. Burgess, M.S.A.
Bobby R. Durden, B.S.A.
Richard A. Hartsfield, B.S.A.
Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Carolyn T. Gamble, B.S.

Leonard C. Cobb, M.Ag.
Mrs. Lillian B. Simmons, B.S.

William C. Smith, Jr., M.Ag.

O. R. Hamrick, Jr., M.Ag.
James C. Miller, B.S.
Ernest R. Wheaton, B.S.A.
Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer, B.S.H.E.
Miss Deloris M. Jones, B.S.

W. Harper Kendrick, B.S.A.
Thomas C. Greenawalt, B.S.A.
Earl M. Kelly, M.Ag.
Earl E. LaRoe, B.S.
Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Patricia D. McCord, B.S.H.E.

Edsel W. Rowan, B.S.A.
John T. Rankin, B.S.
Eugene P. Smith, B.S.A.
Miss Elsie M. Garrett, B.S.
Miss Rose Howard, B.S.
Mrs. Alice B. Shashy, B.S.
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas, B.S.

Levi M. Johnson, B.S.A.
Miss Martha C. Burdine, M.S.H.E.

Gordon B. Ellis
Mrs. Mary N. Harrison, M.S.

Jack D. Patten, B.S.A.
Larry M. Fort, B.S.
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter, B.S.
Miss A. E. Fichtner, B.S.

Clifford R. Boyles

Henry F. Swanson, M.S.A.
Bruce A. Barmby, M.S.
R. Bruce Christmas, M.S.A.
Kenneth L. Rauth, M.Ed.
Mrs. Majorie K. Williams, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Mary A. Moore, M.S.
Mrs. Leala R. Collins, B.S.
Mrs. Deloris Wilkins, B.S.

James B. Smith, B.S.A.
Miss Marilyn Detrich, B.S.

4. .1. 4.


Robert S. Pryor, B.S.
John H. Causey, B.S.A.
R. Kent Price, B.S.A.
Norman C. Bezona, B.S.A.
Raleigh S. Griffis, M.Ag.
Miss Mary L. Todd, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Marylou Shirar, B.S.
Miss Elizabeth A. Woolfe, B.S.H.E.

Luther L. Rozar, B.S.A.
Miss Clara A. Smith, B.S.
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Furr, A.B.

Gilbert M. Whitton, Jr., M.Ag.
William A. Allen, M.S.A.
Charles E. Rowan, M.Ag.
Mrs. Charlotte Lattimer, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Dorothy E. Drives, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Virginia D. Gardner, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Cora H. Meares, B.S.

Jack T. McCown, M.Ag.
Jackson Haddox, M.Ag.
Larry K. Jackson, M.S.A.
David M. Solger, B.S.A.
Sidney L. Sumner, M.S.
Frank W. Johnson, B.S.
Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Josephine Cameron, B.S.H.E.
Miss Anne M. St.Amant, B.S.

Ralph T. Clay, B.S.A.
John A. Eubanks, M.Ag.

Mrs. Essie H. Thompson, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Claudine T. Lee, B.S.H.E.

William C. Zorn, M.Ag.
Jack James Spears, B.S.A.
Miss Fern Nix, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Irene H. Hawley, B.S.H.E.

Kenneth A. Clark, B.S.A.
Edwin S. Pastorius, B.S.
Edward E. Russell, B.S.
Mrs. Catherine H. Love, M.A.

Cecil A. Tucker, II, M.S.
William R. Llewellyn, M.S.A.
Miss Myrtie C. Wilson, B.S.H.E.

Paul L. Dinkins, Jr., M.Ag.
Miss Nettie R. Brown, B.S.H.E.

Hugh C. Whelchel, Jr., B.A.
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock, B.S.H.E.

Donald A. George, B.S.A.
Richard L. Bradley, B.S.A.
Rollin H. McNutt, Jr., B.S.A.
Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird, B.S.H.E.

- Y

J. Paul Crews, B.S.A.
Joe F. DeVane, B.S.
Robert B. Whitty, B.S.
Miss Ida Jo Harrison, M.S.

Henry P. Davis, B.S.A.
James M. Phillips, B.S.
Mrs. Ethel P. Thompson, B.S.

William J. Cowen, B.S.A.

T. R. Townsend, M.Ag.
Larry L. Loadholtz, B.S.A.
Mrs. Edna S. Eby, B.S.H.E.
Mrs. Dorothy Echols, M.E.
Miss Joan Stewart, B.S.

Ernest R. Wheaton, B.S.A.

J. Edsel Thomaston, M.Ag.
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark, B.S.H.E.

Johnnie E. Davis, M.Ag.
Lenzy M. Scott, M.Ag.
Miss Sue Elmore, B.S.

1. .5 a_ I~

The Florida Agricultural Extension
Service 1965 Annual Report was pro-
duced by the Editorial Department,
Hervey Sharpe, Editor and Department
This report was written and designed
by K. B. Meurlott, Assistant Com-
munication Specialist, and Walter E.
Godwin, Extension Staff Artist. Assist-
ance was provided by other members
of the Editorial Department staff, in-
cluding Dr. Sharpe, Alma Warren,
Douglas Buck, Roberts Smith, Charles
Woods, and Donald Poucher.

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs