FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 1962 ANNUAL REPORT
THE SPACE AGE ...
Many county agents
face a new role as
The story of how
practices boosted yield
A DAIRY INDUSTRY ON
As the population
sprawled in Dade Co.,
the dairies moved out
A sugar mill 20 years
in the making, opened
1962: THE YEAR THE
ROOF CAVED IN
ON CITRUS ...
Report on a year
"The security and elevation of the family and of fam-
ily life are the prime objects of civilization, and the
ultimate ends of all industry."
Charles W. Eliot
To the People of Florida
This year the annual report of your Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service empha-
sizes the development of our state's resources,
both human and physical.
One of the important functions of any
educational system is to teach the manage-
ment and wise use of resources. As the off-
campus arm of the University of Florida in
educational work pertaining to agriculture
and home economics, your Extension Service
is vitally concerned with Florida's resources.
With our exploding population, the physical
possessions of our state must be shared with
more and more people. We must therefore
make certain that we plan with care, based
on all the knowledge available, for the best
use of what we have. It is vital that we do so
for the best interests of our citizens, present
Our people, old and young, are our most
important resource. Your Extension Service
must do all possible to meet the ever-increas-
ing demands for new technology in agriculture
and family living. We must work with people
in helping them to use this information in the
solution of the specific problems of a farm, a
home or a community. To fail to meet the
needs in either of these important areas could
Our 4-H programs are aimed at meeting
the developmental needs of our young people.
These youngsters are finding that more and
more is involved in selecting a career and
planning for the future. Much of 4-H is de-
signed to develop the talent and leadership
abilities of these youth.
May I take this opportunity to thank the
many thousands of volunteer leaders who
worked with our county and state staffs to
extend information to others. Without their
help many of the accomplishments depicted in
this report would not have been possible.
I invite your careful attention to what is
being done to meet our state's educational
needs. I believe you will find the story inter-
esting and exciting.
Sincerely, M. O. WATKINS, Director
3 Agriculture Faces The Space Age
3 Many Measures of Profit
7 4-H Helps Seminole Girl
3 Family Pitches In While Mom Goes To School
10 Better Spending Practices Help Floridans Get
More For Their $
11 Corn Breeders: Dade's New Tourists
12 Too Many Suds
12 Exchange Promotes Better Understanding
13 Volunteer Leaders Share Sewing Know-How
14 Learning To Understand Their Role As Citizens
16 Columbia Farmer Has Bumper Tobacco Crop
17 Agents Help Family Plan Remodeling
18 Vivian and Maggie Whitehurst Live Here
20 SPECIAL SECTION: The Changing Face of
21 RAD Helps People Help Themselves
22 A Dairy Industry On The Move
24 Falling Waters State Park: RAD Success Story
26 Peaches: New Fruit Crop For Florida?
28 Putnam Promotion: Results Indirect, But Good
29 Tobacco Farmers Agree To Protect Each Other
30 Glades County Dream Finally Realized
32 . And It All Started On A City Lot
33 Scholarships Help 4-H'ers To Education
34 St. Johns 4-H Boys "Take A Clothes Look"
34 100,000 Dozen Eggs Per Year
36 1962: The Year The Roof Caved In On Citrus
40 4-H Leads To Career In Home Economics
40 Strickland is Nation's Top 4-H Leader
41 Continuing Education In Home Economics
41 Nutrition Education Their Aim
42 Better Breeding Stock Suggested
42 Gadsden Farmers Seek Increased Tobacco Yield
43 New Agent In Town
44 Marion County Clean-Up Campaign Nets Results
45 1962 Statistical Report
A Publication of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service,
Gainesville, Hervey Sharpe, Editor; K. B. Meurlott, Assistant
Communications Specialist, Publications; Alma Warren, E. A.
Moffett, and R. C.C Smith Jr., Assistant Communications Special-
ists; Elizabeth K. Ehrbar, staff artist.
Agriculture Faces the
SWhat happens to a small agricultural county
when the Spage Age takes over? If you want
L? -k the answer to that question, go to Brevard
SRockets are all around you-in the names of
businesses, the names of the sub-divisions, the
murals on the walls, and, of course, in the air over Cape Cana-
veral. Once quiet communities are now bursting with people,
new building and new business. Populations have trebled and
quadrupled. Many communities have grown from nothing
in a matter of three or four years.
In 1950 the population of Brevard County was 23,653-a
7,500 increase during the previous 10 years. By 1960 the pop-
ulation had rocketed to 111,435-a 371 percent increase. As a
matter of fact, in 1960 the school enrollment alone was 28,201,
more than the total county population in 1950.
The facts and figures about Brevard County are nearly un-
believable. Businessmen get really excited over them. But,
while the eyes of the world watch rockets soar toward the stars
from Cape Canaveral, down below the problems of meeting
this new population multiply directly with the population ex-
Brevard County is now a young county-that is, it is filled
with young people. Figures show the median age of residents
is now 26.5 years. Since it is a young population, there is a
much higher percentage of school-age children in the county.
This has created a tremendous demand on the public school
system. In 1945 there were eight schools in the county; today,
there are 45. Between now and 1966 school enrollment-which
has multiplied seven times since 1950-is expected to nearly
It is easy to visualize what effect this has had on school
operating budgets. In 1962 the operating budgets of Brevard
schools totaled $8,516,700. This, of course, does not include
any capital outlay. This figure is expected to double by 1966
right along with the school population.
Such a population explosion as Brevard is experiencing creates
demands for all types of goods and services. From the stand-
Signs of the times. Graphically, they tell the story of Brevard
County's Space Boom as you travel the highways and streets
of the area.
eE~no* fro I
R16q.c 1EINC1 ETISTS
H:;LL PA~G Cr ?'F
L: 3COYCFT S
point of the businessmen, these
demands are helping and increas-
ing business; however, from the
standpoint of the county and the
state the demands create many
New population requires land
and new houses, new roads to
handle the increased traffic. Of
course, the Space facilities being
installed at Cape Canaveral re-
quire more and better roads.
More schools must be built; more
water and electrical lines installed;
more sanitary sewer lines are
needed. The demands for water
for human consumption and in-
dustry are tremendous.
To meet these demands taxes
must increase to expand capital
facilities and provide services; and,
of course, expansion of some pub-
lic facilities are financed by reve-
nue certificates which affect cus-
tomer service rates.
One can easily see that while
the population has soared and the
rockets roared, taxes, land prices,
and the general cost of living have
Many of these problems deal di-
rectly with and directly affect agri-
culture. As such, many of these
problems are the responsibility of
Jimmy Oxford, Brevard County
Oxford is well aware of the
amount of work involved in meet-
ing these problems and planning
for future population growth. Dur-
ing the past two or three years, he
has spent many hours meeting
with people representing govern-
ment and state agencies, and, of
course, his own farmers and ranch-
Many of these problems are a
matter of adjustment and readjust-
ment in living. When the gov-
ernment announced its NOVA pro-
ject (moon shot) would be centered
at Cape Canaveral, information
leaked out that about 70,000 acres
north of Cape Canaveral would be
acquired. This area was being
SUMMARY OF TRENDS
% INCREASE 1950-1960
Population (50-62) 469.5%
Personal Income (50-60) 127.3%
Med. Fam. Income (50-60) 194.5%
Retail Sales (52-62) 451.9%
Motor Vehicle Reg. (50-62) 681.0%
Gal. of Gas Sold (50-61) 321.5%
Pub. School Enroll. (50-62) 670.7%
Property Evaluation (57-62) 89.0%
Total Co. Expend. (50-61) 490.2%
used for a number of agricultural
purposes. There were about 2,500
to 3,000 acres of good groves in the
area to be taken. Owners of land
and groves organized themselves
and called in the county agent.
They explained what they had
heard about the land to be acquired
and complained bitterly about not
receiving enough direct and offi-
cial information. As a result, Ox-
ford went to Washington on behalf
of the county and talked with Flor-
ida's elected representatives.
Oxford continued his work on
behalf of the owners and in 1962
succeeded in getting the Corps of
Engineers to agree to lease back
some of the property the Govern-
ment was buying in buffer areas.
* COMMITTEE A
County Agent Oxford looks over Brevard map with John Nielson,
Executive Secretary of the County Impact Committee.
Many grove owners who were
forced to sell to the Government
thus have been able to lease back
part or all of their groves and con-
tinue operation for an indefinite
Brevard has been primarily a
citrus and beef cattle county. Ac-
cording to Oxford the citrus busi-
ness "has pretty much held its own
and has, in some cases, shown in-
creases through this population
explosion. But, beef cattle is slip-
ping badly." The return per acre
on beef cattle is not as high as
for citrus and, therefore, the in-
creased evaluation of land and
higher taxes no longer make it pos-
sible to stay in the beef cattle busi-
ness in some areas.
"I have spent a lot of time
since 1957 working on watershed
control of the St. Johns River Val-
ley," Oxford says. "You know, the
St. Johns is our only fresh water
supply. We are beginning to see
results of this work with the Corps
of Engineers launching a $47,000,-
000 water control project in the
Three or four years ago, Oxford
served with a group of civic lead-
ers on a committee to design coun-
ty zoning laws. In the future, the
Brevard county agent expects to
serve on a county long-range plan-
ning committee as a representative
"Actually, when you get right
down to it," Oxford explains, "for
the last two years I've spent nearly
all my time dealing with problems
connected directly with the Space
boom in this county."
Oxford also has worked closely
with an emergency group known as
the "Joint Community Impact
Coordinating Committee". This
committee is made up of three
men, Lt. Col. C. A. McClelland
representing the Air Force, Paul
O. Siebeneichen, representing
NASA, and Max Brewer, represent-
ing the State of Florida. Mr.
Brewer is a member of the State
Road Board and lives in Titusville.
John Nielson, full time executive
secretary of the committee, is
housed in a building belonging to
and adjoining the Agricultural Cen-
ter. The Brevard County agent
gets much of his technical informa-
tion from this committee and, in
turn, is a liaison between agricul-
tural interests and the committee.
In this sense they have worked
Jimmy Oxford's work, as a coun-
ty agent in Brevard, is a marked
departure from the work tradition-
ally connected with a county
agent, and with the work tradi-
tionally connected with the Agri-
cultural Extension Service.
This apparent diversion of du-
ties, however, is more of a surface
difference. It has always been the
job of the Extension Service to
work with and advise local people
in an effort to solve their problems,
and to be an educational arm to
disseminate information about
agriculture. The work Oxford
has been doing in meeting the
Space Age challenge from an agri-
cultural standpoint actually is
based on the same principle; only
the problems are different and
Map of six-county area shows 70,000 acres acquired for NOVA project.
Madison County Youth Proves There Are...
MANY mt UR4g
O Not all profits are measured in dollars-but some
are. While 4-H work is designed to teach boys and
girls about farming and homemaking, about selecting
careers, and becoming leaders, there is another aspect.
An outstanding 4-H'er can reap handsome profits in
One such young man is Delbert Blair, 19, of Madi-
Delbert, who will be graduated from Greenville
High School in mid-1963, will set out on his own with
nearly $3,000 in cash gained on profits from his 4-H
This money will easily carry him through a tech-
nical school in Tallahassee where he hopes to study
auto mechanics or electricity. And, a look at Del-
bert's 4-H record allows a safe prediction that he will
do very well in whatever he selects.
There is a notable air of pride in their voices
when Mr. and Mrs. Wiley Blair talk about their oldest
offspring. Obviously he rewarded their interest
and work, and set the standard for his six younger
brothers and sisters.
Assistant County Agent Ernest Wheaton, who has
worked with the boy and his family for the past
two years, is equally proud.
"I would say that outstanding success in a 4-H boy
can be attributed to about three-fourths individual
interest and initiative, and one-fourth environment or
family encouragement," Wheaton says. "Delbert has
Wiley Blair, himself, was outstanding in 4-H work
as a boy. He encouraged his son from the start and
loaned him the money for his first projects, a Duroc
gilt and one acre of corn.
"The first time I entered hogs in a show I found
that I didn't have quite the type of hogs the judge was
looking for," Delbert says. "The judge criticized my
hog for being too wasty and lardy."
As a result of this experience he began looking for
a meaty type hog. With the help of his father, Delbert
decided on Berkshires and bought a registered gilt and
boar. Both were entered in the State 4-H Hog Show
and received blue ribbons. "After that, I figured I
had come up with the right type of hogs," he says.
The record shows that young Blair was right. Trips
to State 4-H shows and the North Florida Livestock
Show were rewarded with blue ribbons, silver trays
Through 1961 Delbert had completed 37 4-H pro-
jects including seven in meat hogs, seven in breed-
ing hogs, five in beef breeding, five in beef steers, six
in dairying and seven in corn. Hard work in these
projects yielded him 52 blue and six red ribbons and
numerous trophies and silver trays.
In 1957 he showed the grand champion barrow
in the North Florida Livestock Show. A year later,
at age 14, Delbert had the grand champion Berkshire,
the grand champion Berkshire sow, and the reserve
champion boar, and won the sweepstakes award in
the State 4-H Hog Show. He received the Grand
Champion Barrow Trophy in the same show. He re-
ceived further honor when his barrow was grand
champion in the State 4-H and FFA Show the same
Although hogs have been Delbert's forte during
his nine years in 4-H work, he has done exceptionally
well in all of his projects. In 1960 his Polled Hereford
steer was judged grand champion in the North Flor-
ida Livestock Show.
Through 1960 the friendly but quiet youth had
grown 22 acres of corn in his projects and entered
in county corn production contests and State 4-H
corn shows each year. In 1960 his yield of 114.2
bushels per acre won Delbert the County Youth Corn
Production Contest (and $50) and the State 4-H Corn
Efficiency Contest which is based on yield and cost
of production. The latter brought him another silver
By 1960 Delbert had raised 268 head of meat
hogs-mostly Berkshires. He enjoyed notable success
with this type hog, always trying to improve on the
breeding of his stock. In 1958 he, his father, and
County Agent Rudy Hamrick attended the South-
eastern Berkshire Type Conference and Sale at
Clemson College, South Carolina. Some of Delbert's
breeding stock was purchased from South Carolina.
As undisputed swine champion, Delbert was one
of 16 Florida 4-H state winners to attend the National
4-H Club Congress in Chicago. Admittedly this was
the highlight of his 4-H work, as he rubbed shoulders
with the nation's best 4-H youth in November, 1961.
For the present, at least, the Blair family has more
youngsters active in 4-H work than any other family
in Madison County. Delbert's sister, Brenda, also will
be graduated from Greenville High School in mid-
1963, and she has won many ribbons for her 4-H
work-also in livestock.
One is always tempted to seek an answer to the
question: What makes an outstanding young man like
Delbert Blair? What are the characteristics that bring
a boy to the front and cause admiration in all of those
who associate with him?
Delbert is anything but flamboyant-in fact, he
says little. But he has displayed an intense interest
and enthusiasm for his 4-H work and this, combined
with the interest and active encouragement of his
parents, has led to outstanding success. He is living
proof that sometimes actions do speak louder than
Delbert Blair talks with his father, Wiley, who is preparing
to plant corn.
Connie Johni, right, talks with a friend from the Brighton
4-H Helps Seminole Girl
Connie Johns has been a 4-H member from the
very beginning of 4-H on the Brighton Reservation.
She was just old enough to go to Camp that year.
Today she is 18 years old and will soon be graduated
from high school.
Her family background would disturb most girls.
Circumstances separated her from her parents at an
early age, so Connie has grown up in her Aunt Dolly
Johns' Camp with a lot of cousins. She feels a keen
responsibility for her brother and sister. Her father
has kept in touch with her all these years and has
furnished money for her clothes. She has shared it
with her relatives and works hard to help them.
When Connie started to high school, she was not
a very good student. The next summer she attended
4-H Short Course at Florida State University where
she got her first indoctrination of higher education.
Since then she has made a special effort to attend
every 4-H activity possible. It opened doors to places
off the Reservation and gave her a bird's eye-view
of what the world is like away from home. Her
Last year she was elected Homecoming queen at
the Okeechobee High School. She is popular both
on and off the Reservation. Connie has enrolled at
Florida Southern College and recently was selected
to tour Europe in the summer of 1963 as part of a
team to advertise Florida as a tourist resort.
Working together, members of the L. D. Veal fam-
ily of Bay County have managed to create a full
and happy life that is an inspiration to other
members of their community.
Family Pitches In
Goes To School
Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Veal and
their six children live about four
miles south of Youngstown in Bay
County on a 280-acre farm. Their
four boys and two girls range in
age from three to 19 years.
Mrs. Veal has been an active
Home Demonstration Club mem-
ber for the past 10 years. The two
older boys and the two girls have
been in 4-H Club work for anum-
ber of years. They all have learned
that it takes cooperation at home
to be able to meet the goals they
have set for themselves.
The problem of feeding a large
family is a major one. The Veals
have done an excellent job of plan-
ning home food production, conser-
vation and preparation. They have
a home garden, fruit trees, hogs
and cattle; so much of their food
is produced at home.
Each spring and summer, Mrs.
Veal, with the help of Sue and
Jan, preserves large quantities of
food by canning and freezing. It
is a big job to fill both the 24-
foot food freezer and a 24-foot
chest type food freezer, so each
member of the family must do his
share in this project.
In 1961 Mrs. Veal decided that
since she had completed one and
a half years at the Florida State
University she would try to com-
plete her formal education.
Knowing that the family would
all cooperate and do their share at
home, she turned her responsibili-
ties over to them and attended the
summer session last summer at
Florida State University. She was
only home on the week ends. With
Mr. Veal's help and guidance the
family continued with the regular
jobs of the canning, freezing and
pickling, in her absence.
Mrs. Veal, after interning early
in the spring, expects to be grad-
uated in 1963 and to return to her
home town to teach school.
Mr. Veal is employed by a pa-
per company in Panama City, and
Mrs. Veal prepares his lunch each
day. The freezers are put to good
use since there is always a supply of
food that can be prepared quickly.
Frozen foods also come in handy
when it is time to prepare holiday
meals, and Mrs. Veal is thus able
to spend more time with family and
Members of the family have
many individual and joint projects.
For some time they have been in
the process of remodeling their
home, but there are so many duties
and activities that it has been a
David, the oldest boy, is a stu-
dent at Gulf Coast Junior College
and is financing his college educa-
tion by turpentine farming. This
year with the help of his brother
James, he worked 3,000 pine tree
faces. Their long range plan is for
when David to completes his col-
lege education while James will
Mrs. L. D. Veal presiding over Home
take over this responsibility and fi-
nance his education. James is a
student at Everitt Junior High
Sue and Jan, both 4-H Club
members, have found 4-H train-
ing helpful in carrying out respon-
sibilities at home. They both sew
and cook, and are well trained in
all phases of child care and home-
making. This summer, while the
family was harvesting 2,500 bales
of hay, Jan assumed the responsi-
bility of the house and took care
of the younger brothers. All mem-
bers of the family work together to
accomplish the things they want
With all the family cooperating,
both Mr. and Mrs. Veal are able
to enjoy community and family life.
They are active in the Farm Bu-
reau, Parent-Teachers Association
and their church. Mrs. Veal has
done an outstanding job as the
president of the Bay County Coun-
cil of Home Demonstration Clubs,
and her husband has been presi-
dent of the Farm Bureau for the
past four years.
That the Veals are an outstand-
ing farm family goes without say-
ing. Their resourcefulness should
be an inspiration to all people-
rural or urban. They have proved
that a good and happy life can be
carved from a world that hangs
constantly under tremendous pres-
sures. Extension and Home Dem-
onstration workers have helped in
every way they could, and in turn
the Veals have contributed im-
measurably to their community
Jan and Sue select material for a
Mark, left, and Rick play with "Ole Mother Goose".
Better $pending Practices
Get More For Their
Improved consumer spending
practices and better knowledge of
the financial facts of life are help-
ing Florida families get more value
for the dollars they spend.
How are they tackling the prob-
Let's take a look at one ap-
proach. In Lake County the Home
Demonstration staff is expanding
its services to reach a new and
wider audience with consumer in-
formation. Through a monthly
newsletter, mailed to more than
900 people, the Home Demonstra-
tion agents are bringing home eco-
nomics information and new de-
velopments in research to the
The staff has developed a packet
of consumer information on plenti-
ful foods, the importance of read-
ing labels, how to select cuts of
meats, points to consider in buy-
ing ready-mades, facts about fab-
rics, leaflets on Wash and Wear,
what to look for in selecting equip-
ment, and management of time,
energy, and money.
Has this type of education met
Listen to Mrs. Jackie Kelly: "I
like to sew for myself and for my
family, but I always seemed to
have some trouble sewing on the
resin-type cottons. Now the leaf-
let I received on Wash-and-Wear
has solved a lot of my problems.
From it I learned that using the
right size needle and proper pres-
sure as well as folding out some of
the fullness has made sewing on
the new fabrics a lot easier."
Using the USDA Marketing
Guide for Plentiful Foods as a
Guide, Mrs. Marian Valentine,
Lake County Home Demonstration
agent, has come up with a one-
page consumer series for distribu-
tion twice a month. So far, 4,700
have been circulated this year.
"Store managers and consumers
have praised the service," Mrs.
Valentine says. "This is a good
opportunity to reach people with
whom Extension has no direct con-
Another new and popular serv-
ice, the Bride's Packet, brings help
to newly-weds on every facet of
setting up a new home-every-
thing from low-cost, high-nutrition
menus for two, to putting in a
zipper. A Lake County bride,
Mrs. Beverly Jacobs, says, "The
consumer information material in
the Bride's Packet is really helpful,
especially the list of staples, gro-
cery lists, and menus. Trying to
work and set up housekeeping at
the same time would have been
quite a chore for me if I hadn't
had this help."
In an effort to reach everyone
possible, the home agents have
placed 50 loose-leaf notebooks con-
taining consumer information in
doctors' offices and beauty parlors
throughout the county. Titled
"Your Home and Yard", the note-
books include bulletins and leaf-
lets on home and horticulture with
a letter from the Home Demonstra-
tion office giving the services and
opportunities available through
The weekly Home Demonstra-
tion news columns and radio
broadcasts are beamed to the con-
sumer, with information on read-
ing and studying labels, and select-
ing, buying, and utilizing products.
Through its stepped-up focus
on consumer education, Lake
County home agents are reaching
a new and wider audience than
Above, a store manager hands out
a Home Demonstration leaflet on
how to sew Wash 'n Wear fabrics.
Below, grocery store manager pre-
sents customer with consumer in-
E I 1410
Home Demonstration me mbe r
(Above), places customer informa-
tion notebook in doctor's office.
Below, Patient reads consumer leaf-
let while waiting to see doctor.
.',ic| a f-iii .ii
A Different Kind Of Tourist For Dade Co.
Of the many varieties of field and sweet corn
produced in North America, the great majority have
"wintered" in Dade County.
Production of hybrid seed corn is big business in
Dade. Every winter a small army of researchers
from universities and commercial seed companies
comes to Homestead to work, rather than play, in
South Florida's warm winters permit these people
to plant a crop of corn at a time when their northern
test plots are under a blanket of snow. By flying
to Florida, the researchers gain an extra crop season
Some 40 seed companies as well as universities
located throughout the United States and in Canada
have corn nurseries in Dade County. Approximately
150 acres a year are planted in these nurseries.
Although the area of the corn nurseries is small,
in comparison to other crops produced, the crop is a
valuable and important one. From the nurseries come
improved varieties that produce more bushels of
grain per acre, or higher yielding, better tasting
The workers who come to the corn nurseries are
experts in their field. Included are outstanding sci-
entists, and others experienced in plant breeding. How-
ever, the researchers are used to cultural practices for
other areas of the United States. They realize that
in order to produce the best seed, they must follow
practices recommended for the Dade County area.
And, their source of information is the county Agri-
cultural Extension Service staff.
The corn breeders consult those assistant county
agents who specialize in soils and vegetable crops
when cold ground, hot humid weather, or unfamiliar
soil conditions affect their crop.
The scientists join leading growers in Dade County
in following the old saying, "See your county agent."
Various plots in the corn nurseries may contain
hybrids in different stages of development-from first
generation crosses, to final planting-to increase seed
before release of a new variety.
Field corn strains are selected because they have
promise of producing a larger ear of corn, more ears
per stalk, or better quality grain.
In sweet corn breeding, the scientists look for ten-
der kernels, sweetness, good husk cover of the ears,
color of the husk, placement of the ear on the stalk,
and adaptability to mechanical harvesting.
Growth habits get close study. Is the stalk tall,
or short? Stocky, or slender? Will wind blow it over?
Will a man have to stoop to pick the ears? Is the ear
too large for mechanical picker? Such questions are
asked by the researcher as he evaluates each lot of
Increased emphasis is being placed on insect and
disease resistance. Some of the newer varieties have
built-in resistance. The Seneca Wampum variety of
sweet corn was developed from a Dade County test
plot which escaped a widespread attack of helmin-
thosporium one season.
Every bushel of corn released to growers for
volume production of seed represents an investment
of over $200. Lots are guarded in transit by the re-
searchers, and seed is destroyed if any question arises
as to its purity.
Some of the seed is shipped by air so that no time
is lost between the harvest and the next planting.
The corn breeding program has been a facet of
agriculture in Dade County since the late 40's. Corn
growers in Iowa, Illinois, New York, and the other
47 states have come to depend on improved varieties
whose "parents" spent the winter in Florida.
,,. tl^. k!'i .i
Assistant Dade County Agent Nolan Durre talks with "corn
breeders" Leslie Urban (left) and Don Lowenberg at a
commercial nursery in Dade County.
Help Provide Answers
"Never knew there was so much to learn. Give
us more meetings of this type. ."
"Learned a lot-let's have more of the same."
"Enjoyed the laundry forum very much. Let's have
more of this kind of help . ."
These are a sample of comments from homemakers
throughout the state who attended laundry and fabric
care forums directed by county Home Demonstration
agents. These forums came in answer to numerous
requests from Florida homemakers. Why the need
for this information?
With all the modern synthetics and finishes, today's
clothing and household fabrics have taken on a new
look. The homemaker accepts all of these new fabrics
with eagerness, but with some apprehension. There
is no "magic wand" to keep modern fabrics looking
bright with their original freshness. Modern equip-
ment and new laundry products have lightened the
load, but knowing-how to use the equipment and
products wisely is still a problem for many people.
Methods to save time and energy are always high
on the list of most homemakers. Automation has
taken over, and the automatic washer and dryer are
key equipment in today's homes. The economy of
money, time, and energy is involved in their proper
operation and care. Programs in the laundry forums
were designed to educate the consumer in every phase
of home and professional care of clothing and house-
hold linens and the equipment and products neces-
sary for that care.
These forums stressed knowledge of the soap or
detergent being used. Often it is only an added ex-
pense and really not necessary to add softeners,
bleaches or bluing. Length of washing time is also
important since after 15 or 20 minutes soil can be
redeposited if clothes are left in the same water.
The average Florida homemaker uses approxi-
mately 27 pounds of soap and synthetic detergents
in a year, plus other laundry supplies such as water
conditioners, bleaches, starches, and fabric softeners.
Her choice of what washing ingredients to use, when
to use them, and the correct amount to use all have
a significant effect on the success of her laundry
Consumers rated the forum high in important
and pertinent information. As one woman said, "It
takes a lot of know-how to save money and do the
Assisting and cooperating in these consumer infor-
mation series were the State Home Demonstration
management specialists, utility companies, electric
cooperatives, water analysts from both public health
and private industry, and home economists from
the major equipment manufacturers.
Exchange Promotes Better Understanding
"Buenos dias, amigos!"
Speaking on Christmas customs of her land to
the Home Demonstration clubs in Martin County, an
attractive teenager from Honduras, smiled and
opened her remarks with this traditional Spanish
Her visit and that of four other young ladies from
Honduras came about after five Martin County High
School girls spent two months in Honduras in the
summer of 1961 on an exchange program.
Prior to the Honduran group's arrival the five
local girls spoke to many clubs and organizations,
showing colored slides taken during their visit to
South America. One of their appearances was before
Martin County 4-H clubs.
When the Honduran delegation arrived, Carol
Olney, Martin County 4-H club member, had one
of the visiting students as her guest. She took the
guest to a meeting of her club, where the young good-
will ambassador, with some translating, told the club
of Christmas customs in Honduras.
Mrs. George Bost, secretary of the Martin County
Home Demonstration Council, and her husband served
on the planning committee for activities of the Hon-
At Mrs. Bost's suggestion, the Home Demonstration
clubs decided to invite the girls from Honduras, their
hostesses, and the five Martin County exchange stu-
dents to their annual Christmas party.
Instead of exchanging gifts themselves, as they
were accustomed, they put together the money they
would have spent and gave it to the Honduran girls
to buy something they wanted for Christmas. The
money, plus candy, was placed inside a pinata, a hang-
ing earthenware bowl. Following a dinner and pro-
gram, the girls were asked to break the pinata.
Through their "Amigos" exchange, Martin Coun-
ty is helping to improve human relations with our
neighbors to the South.
Mrs. Simard and Mrs. Baillie demonstrate sewing techniques.
Home Demonstration club members are often so
enthusiastic about Extension education that they vol-
unteer to share their new skills with others.
Mrs. Albert J. Simard and Mrs. O. J. Baillie of
Ft. Lauderdale are two such volunteer leaders. They
are sharing their sewing know-how with other club
members through a series of clothing workshops.
With the help and guidance of Miss Louise Taylor,
Broward County Home Demonstration agent, and
Mrs. Dorothy Gifford, assistant Home Demonstration
agent, Mrs. Simard and Mrs. Baillie are teaching
club women how to select fabrics and patterns, to
use the pattern guide sheet, to cut, construct and fit,
and to put in zippers, sleeves, innerfacings and under-
Both Mrs. Simard and Mrs. Baillie have received
training through local and county Home Demonstra-
tion club work, leader training meetings, and state
Home Demonstration workshops.
Mrs. Simard says, "I have been sewing from child-
hood and thought I knew all about it until I joined
the Fort Lauderdale Home Demonstration Club in
1951. Soon I learned some of the things I had been
doing for years were all wrong."
Now she is proud of her own sewing and is always
on the alert for new techniques and information.
Mrs. Simard began her clothing leadership train-
ing in 1953, when she became a volunteer club leader
after receiving a blue ribbon at the State Home Dem-
@e-$owjp1 @now- How
onstration Fashion Show.
Her busiest club year was 1956-57. Then she
taught two county-wide clothing leadership training
workshops, one special interest group, and four local
workshops. She assisted with three other clothing
workshops, helped with the county dress revue and
judged a fashion show.
Mrs. Baillie's experience as a clothing leader cov-
ers some 10 years. During this time she has assisted
with local and county clothing clinics, teaching club
members how to fit and alter a pattern, take body
measurements, set in sleeves, cover belts, and use a
Mrs. Baillie represented the county at the State
Home Demonstration Dress Revue in 1958, and was
county clothing chairman in 1959. Her preference
in style runs to casual daytime dress, suitable for
Both leaders have assisted with the summer cloth-
ing workshops for 4-H junior and senior girls. They
are always willing to give their time and talent toward
helping others do a better job of sewing.
The 16 club members they are working with will
in turn teach sewing skills to interested homemakers
in their local communities.
Miss Taylor and Mrs. Gifford say that both leaders
have made an outstanding contribution to the county
clothing program, teaching home demonstration mem-
bers and 4-H youth.
Governor Farris Bryant presents a document
proclaiming National 4-H Club Week in
Florida to Miss Janice Eubanks, Live Oak.
Wayne Ezzell, Mayo (right) and Jackie
Strickland, Gainesville, look on. All are 4-H
lEHHN I I tU UNUSI N
.... One of the great things about 4-H
Club Work is the unlimited opportunity it
offers young people ... .opportunity for
the growth and development of the head,
heart, health, and hands . opportunity
to learn by doing .... opportunity to make
Above, Mrs. Farris Bryant and two 4-H girls
"watch the world turn" at the 47th Annual
State 4-H Club Girls' Short Course at FSU.
Right, Secretary of State Tom Adams receives
the official 4-H flag from Strickland, Ezzell
and Miss Eubanks. The flag was flown over
the State Capitol during National 4-H Week.
Left, Congressman Charlie Bennett and Sen-
ator Spessard L. Holland of Florida beam as
Sharon Christian, Pensacola (left) and Betty
York pin 4-H's on their lapels on the steps
of the Nation's Capitol.
[HIl HLE HX IWIZENI
the best better . .
opportunity to share
newfound knowledge with others .... op-
portunity to explore the wonderful world
of ideas . . opportunity to become good
citizens .... opportunity to meet and know
state and national leaders ....
Above, Dr. M. O. Watkins, Director of the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service, meets
with Sharon Hoffman, Sarasota, and Bill
Lockhart, St. Augustine. Respectively, they
are presidents of the State Boys' and Girls'
4-H Club Councils. Left, Florida's only
woman Senator, Beth Johnson of Orlando,
chats with a group of 4-H girls from Orange
(_')unl ,XLvn J -n l N -al Du. .
lefl'l. and rnini? I.ilte-.
Columbia Farmer Has Bumper Tobacco Crop
"Having my land tested and following the recom-
mended practices, I think, was the best thing I ever
The man who made this statement has been farm-
ing in Columbia County all of his life; he has reared
a fine family of seven children, one of whom is study-
ing for the ministry, and, during 1962 he produced
the best crop of tobacco he'd ever had-an average
of 3,530 pounds per acre on 11.3 acres.
County Agent Neal Dukes regards the Tommy
Lites family as pretty nearly a model farm family.
He has n worked& closely with them since moving up
from assistant county agent in 1952.
"I don't mean to say that Tommy follows every-
thing we suggest," Dukes says. "A good farmer
knows his own land and has to make his own deci-
sions. But at that he does more than he will admit."
Dukes has been a regular visitor at the 418-acre
farm near Ft. White for the past 10 years. About
seven years ago the county agent got Mr. Lites to
agree to having all of his land soil-tested. This was
the beginning of a new prosperity for the family.
During the years that followed Mr. Lites was en-
couraged to keep careful records and to plan his
crop rotations. He doesn't think he has kept up the
records the way he should, but the results of these
efforts to improve production are readily apparent.
From yields of 20 bushels per acre of corn and
1,200 pounds per acre of tabacco, the Lites farm now
produces 75 bushels per acre of corn, and hit an all-
time high average of 3530 pounds of Florida 22 to-
bacco during 1962. The tobacco brought 57.4 cents
per pound at the High Springs market.
Lites attributes his bumper crop to use of the
high yield Florida 22 plus a new overhead irrigation
system installed before the '62 crop.
He admits that growing tobacco is ticklish busi-
ness, but that "giving the right amount of water at
the right time will increase the yield several hundred
pounds per acre."
"Another thing that helped me get a good price,"
he says, "was that I found out early that I should let
the tobacco get ripe."
It costs Lites about $8,000 to put in the irrigation
system, and he isn't sure how long it will take him
to pay for the system. But, he is sure that the dif-
ference in price and the difference in yield will more
than pay for irrigation.
The county agent encouraged him to put in irri-
gation and Lites also took time to observe the effects
similar systems had on neighboring farms.
Despite the good crop of Florida 22, which cost
about $500 an acre to produce and sold for between
$22,000 and $23,000 at High Springs, the Columbia
County farmer may plant another variety in 1963.
"I want to stress quality, not just how much tobacco
I can produce," he says.
Of the 418 acres on the farm, 230 acres are in culti-
vation and 37 are in improved pasture. Lites grows
about 100 acres of corn each year, part of which he
1.i ,. ",.
sells and part he feeds to cattle and hogs. During
1962 he sold about $3,000 worth of corn. He has a
six-acre peanut allotment.
During the years that he was stressing livestock,
Lites was careful to rotate cows on pasture, to keep
good foundation stock in all of his livestock opera-
tion, and to cull undesirable and slow gaining ani-
mals from the herd.
County home demonstration workers have worked
with Mrs. Lites in making it easier to care for
a large family. All seven children, four boys and
three girls, have been active in 4-H Club work. Only
three of the children are still at home: Annette, 18,
and the youngest of the family, twins Garry and Larry,
age 16. Gerald, 19, is in his first year of college at
Rinehart College in Georgia where he hopes to take
basic courses that will eventually prepare him for the
ministry. The three oldest children are married:
Robert of Gainesville, Frances (Mrs. Claude Phillips)
of Jacksonville, and Imogene (Mrs. Jimmy Hales) of
"All of the Lites children were interested and
eager workers in 4-H," Dukes says. "But, I always
thought Gerald was a little more interested and that
we did more in helping him prepare for his future.
"He came to me one day after he had worked on
public speaking as a project-he was a senior then-
and said he thought he wanted to go to college and
study for the ministry. Somehow, I think the public
speaking got him interested in developing himself."
The Tommy Lites family is an excellent example
of the results of good farm planning, and the desire
and willingness to help themselves to a better life. It
is no wonder that agent Neal Dukes calls it a model
farm and points to the Lites family as an example of
Extension in action.
As Annette and twin brothers Larry and Garry look on,
Mr. and Mrs. Lites survey 4-H ribbons won by the young-
Agents Help Family
Mr. and Mrs. James Ditty had a growing family-
and a growing accumulation of household goods. Over
the years, the need for more space in every room of
their home became acute.
Last year the Jackson County family decided to do
something about the problem. They started by con-
sulting their county Home Demonstration agent, who
helped the Dittys draw up intensive plans for re-
modeling. Then, the couple went to work.
Walls between kitchen, bedroom, and screened
back porch were removed to form a kitchen-family
room combination. New cabinets and an exhaust
fan were added to the cooking area. A large awning-
type window over the sink and other windows added
to the family room gave improved lighting and a
feeling of spaciousness.
The Dittys planned a new master bedroom as an
addition to the house. By removing fireplaces in ad-
joining bedrooms, they found space for a hall between
the children's bedrooms. A new bedroom and bath
were added at the end of this hall. Located away
from the living area, this room has an outside entrance.
Careful planning made possible a maximum use of
space. An attic fan claimed the overhead space in
the hall, where a large chimney had been removed.
Storage space for out-of-season items was built over
the sliding door closet in the new bedroom. Also in
the master bedroom, Mrs. Ditty has equipped a sew-
ing area and Mr. Ditty has space for his office records.
The husband selected the pine paneling for the room,
and his wife chose the overhead ceiling of acoustical
Mrs. Ditty painted her daughter's bedroom and
the family room.
Outside improvements include a concrete front
porch and steps and a porch at the bedroom entrance.
Both porches have wrought iron posts. The roof was
re-covered in asbestos shingles, and insulated fiber-
glass siding covers the outside of the house in brown-
green wood texture.
"One of the greatest satisfactions in remodeling
our home now," says Mrs. Ditty, "is that all the fam-
ily can enjoy these improvements. In a few years the
children will be away at school or working."
Mrs. Ditty relies on her Home Demonstration
agent's advice in many areas of home management.
She has never worked outside the home to supple-
ment the family income, but she plans for wise use
of the household expense money. Recently Mrs. Ditty
began raising broilers on consignment. She is using
the money from this project for new furniture.
* Along State Road 338
a half miles after it lear
a small community. At
are four beautiful homes
office building, a grain
machine shops, surroi
numerous heavy-duty t
It isn't a community
cial sense, but the comm
is there. It is the V. E.
and Sons ranch near V
The only blot on an
immaculate scene is an
er-beaten, one-story hou
half mile from the cen
complex. It hasn't been
years . it is simply
exist as long as it will.
As out of context
house seems, it is an imp
of the scenery. Silver-h
V. E." points proudly to
and says, "That's where I started."
Any fair observer would admit
the pride is well founded. For miles
around the complex of buildings,
there are acres of fine pastures and
3qqie thousands of beef cattle that will,
IRST in a few months, provide steaks
S and roasts for many Americans.
E This is what has grown frbnl a
half-interest in 3,300 acres and a'
herd of 300 or 400 cattle which
"Mr. V. E." acquired in 1931-the
year he stepped back on the ranch
to stay. Fourteen years earlier, old-
est son Eliot was born in the old
house at a time when his father
and grandfather rented the ranch.
Shortly thereafter, "Mr. V. E." took
his family to another ranch near
Williston and did not return until
1931 when he was able to buy
During the 1930s Whitehurst
and his partner, T. J. Cone, raised
cattle and hogs and engaged in
vegetable farming. They were
prosperous enough that Eliot was
able to attend and receive a degree
from the University of Florida. In-
stead of returning home, the oldest
--one and son went to work for the North
ves 331-is Florida Experiment Station until
its center he was called to duty for World
, a modern War II.
mill and Meanwhile, in 1941, Whitehurst
unded by bought out Cone and concentrated
rucks and on beef production.
"I never expected Eliot to come
in the offi- back to the ranch after the War,"
unity spirit he says. "I couldn't afford to pay
Whitehurst him the money a college graduate
Villiston in could earn after he got his degree,
but after I bought the ranch I was
otherwise glad to have all of the boys back."
old, weath- Eliot and his younger brothers,
tse about a Bill and Dan, became a part of
ter of the the team after the war. Always ex-
touched in pending his beef operation, White-
allowed to hurst branched out into another
as this old "It was rough going for a
,ortant part w h i 1 e," Whitehurst says. "You
aired "Mr. know, it's hard to compete with
the house those boys already in the business.
The construction business s,
which Bill and Dan head up, really
got on its feet early in the 1950s
when they found lime deposits on
the ranch and started mining their
Center of' this stream 1 ined
ranch and construction business is
a modern office building that, in-
side, would do justice to a building
and loan company in any city. "Mr.
V. E." operates from an office that
any bank president would be proud
to call home.
He and Eliot have learned that
successful ranching requires their
personal attention every day. They
personally travel to the feeder calf
sales and buy the stock they will
fatten and eventually sell to Swift
and Company and Central Pack-
ing Company their two main
On the whole, the Whitehurst
ranch buys feeder cattle and buys
feed; only about 10 percent of the
cattle are raised from their own
breeding herd and only a small
percent of the corn is grown on
Calves are put on pasture for
from 60 to 100 days and then
moved to one of the ten 21/2 to 3
acre feed lots for finishing. Al-
though you see many Herfords, An-
gus, Shorthorns, Brahmans and
crosses thereof, se v e r a other
breeds are spotted in the herds.
"People try to pin me down on
breeds," Eliot says, "but I generally
tell them quality is what we are
Eight to ten month old calves
are bought at around 400 pounds
and fattened to about 1,000 pounds
before marketing. The Whitehurst
ranch markets from 7,000 to 8,000
head of cattle each year, utilizing
from 2,500 to 3,000 acres of im-
proved pasture. "Mr. V E." and his
sons now own 6,600 acres-twice
as many as when he started in
To feed out that many cattle,
.. ..o 'A P P
Center of the White-
hurst Ranch is "Mr. V.
E.'s" office where he
and oldest son Eliot
often confer. Above,
Leonard Cobb and Jim
stes inspect feed lot.
Other photos are scenes
from recent visit by
those attending Beef
Cattle Short Course.
-- : i -- E s" ofic whee h
they buy from 3,000 to 4,000 tons
of snap corn a year and put it
through the modern hammer mill
where it is mixed with citrus meal
and pulp, cotton and peanut seed
meal and hulls. Citrus molasses is
added as the feed is dispensed
from the truck on the feed lots.
One of the keys to success in
the beef cattle business is storage.
"You have to have enough storage
space to be able to buy when you
can get the best price," Whitehurst
says. "The whole secret is buying
and selling 'right'. Take citrus
meal, for instance. The price is
going up now because of the
freeze. A difference of $5.00 per
ton when you feed a ton and a
half to fatten one steer can be the
difference between profit and loss."
The Whitehurst ranch mill has
a storage capacity of 2,500 tons of
corn. In addition there are two
tanks which can store 133,000 gal-
lons of molasses. This is the third
hammer mill for "Mr. V. E.". Over
the years he has built new mills
as the ranch has grown.
Through the years the White-
hursts have depended greatly on
the help of county agents and the
staff of the University of Florida.
Eliot, having an agriculture degree,
realized the importance of scientific
method in farming.
In return, the family sometimes
hosts visitors from the University.
Recently, men attending a beef cat-
tle short course at Gainesville, were
treated to a barbecue and tour of
the ranch. Of special interest was
one of "Mr. V. E.'s" pet projects,
a new irrigation system and 15 acre
pond created by draining 250 acres
of marshy bottom land. By drain-
ing the land and ditching, the
family created a fine fishing hole"
while reclaiming a pasture.
Whitehurst and his sons live in
the four houses as "neighbors"
which gives "Mr. V. E." an op-
portunity to enjoy his 12 grand-
children. Eliot's oldest daughter,
Betty Ann, who is married to Bill
Arnold, lives about a mile down
the same road in a new brick
house. Whitehurst's only brother,
W. J., owns a ranch which joins
on the north and is a frequent
visitor on the ranch.
Before and after. "Mr. V. E." lived in house above when he rented
the ranch. Below is his present home.
Nothing remains the
same. There is constant
change in the world around
us. The agricultural in-
dustry is no exception.
The process of change
is progress only when
it is given direction.
through its educa-
the people, at-
tempts to pro-
RAD Helps People Help Themselves
b Rural Areas Development is a
term describing many programs of
resource development which are
being conducted by organized lo-
Rural Areas Development might
more properly be described as a
concept or set of ideas than as a
Rural Areas Development in-
volves more efficient use of local
resources and resources available
from outside the area. Local re-
sources include not only the ob-
vious physical resources-land, wa-
ter, minerals and climate-but also
resources in the form of institu-
tions which provide services; and
human resources which are mani-
fested through the capabilities of
people themselves. Resources from
outside the area which may be
brought to bear on local economic
or social problems include capital,
technical information and services
available from various agencies
Usually when local organiza-
tions combine forces to form Ru-
ral Areas Development commit-
tees, they seek to establish (1) ef-
ficient, profitable farms, (2) rural
industries and businesses, (3) train-
ing and retraining programs for
people not needed in agriculture.
(4) adequate public facilities, and
(5) expansion of recreational facil-
ties for both rural and urban peo-
Florida counties which have
enjoyed the greatest success in ru-
ral development efforts have been
those with the broadest support
from existing county organizations.
Formation of an overall develop-
ment council with membership
from each organized group within
the county fosters a united at-
tack on problems that might be
retarding growth or progress.
The typical Rural Areas De-
velopment council functions
through subcommittees, each of
which concentrates on specific
problems. They are established
when justified by need and dis-
banded when the need no longer
exists. The usual county RAD
committee selects, from its group.
a steering committee or executive
board composed of five to seven
Within each county, employees
of U. S. Department of Agriculture
agencies compose a technical ac-
tion panel which stands ready to
assist on all problems falling with-
in their area. These technical ac-
tion panels coordinate the work
of the various agencies of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture and
make USDA programs more effec-
The State Rural Areas Develop-
ment Committee is comprised of
about 30 agencies and organiza-
tions interested in progress
A good example of inter-agency
cooperation for progress within
one county last .year was the ex-
pansion of a food freezing plant
sponsored by the Rural Areas De-
velopment committee. The pro-
prietor obtained a loan of $52,000
from the Area Redevelopment Ad-
ministration and a Small Business
Administration loan for $67,500. In
addition to providing employment
within the plant for about 40 peo-
ple, this facility provides a market
for vegetable growers in this and
surrounding counties. This project
will have a direct economic impact
of more than $100,000 annually.
In Northwest Florida, ARA has
provided funds for a feasibility
study of the opportunities for eco-
nomic operation of cement and
lime plants. They are also provid-
ing funds for studying the feasibili-
ty of a vegetable processing plant
recommended by the J ac k s o n
Count)' RAD Committee, and a
port facility on the Apalachicola
River near Sneads. A grant has
been approved for studying the
feasibility of a clay products plant
in Liberty County.
One Suwannee County project
was the establishment of a new
plant for mining and processing
limestone. This plant employs 10
men with a payroll of about $40,-
000 annually. Its development
was a direct result of increased use
of dolomite limestone in Suwannee
County which was a result of work
by the RAD committee. The Live
Oak vegetable curb market, anoth-
er project of the Suwannee commit-
tee, provided an outlet for the pro-
duce from about 125 farmers dur-
One of the ways Rural Areas
Development committees are en-
couraging increased farm income is
through introduction of new crops
or enterprises. In Holmes Coun-
ty, new varieties of peaches give
good promise of increased income.
In Suwannee, new crops include
gladioli cormlets and sweet potato
plants. In Jackson County, four
offices for watermelon buyers have
been established. A new water-
melon marketing center has been
established in Washington County.
RAD committees have found
that by combining forces they
sometimes are able to achieve more
progress on inter-county problems.
The county committees of Walton,
Holmes, Washington, Jackson, Cal-
houn. Liberty and Franklin Coun-
ties comprise the Northwest Flor-
ida Development Association. The
Suwannee River Area Development
Council includes Madison, Jeffer-
son, Hamilton. Suwannee, Colum-
bia, Lafayette, Gilchrist, and Dixie
Counties. The latter group is sup-
porting a comprehensive develop-
ment plan for the Suwannee River
which will involve 12 recreation
projects costing a total of $8,242,-
In Florida Rural Areas Develop-
ment programs, the Agricultural
Extension Service has major re-
sponsibilities for providing educa-
tional and organizational assistance.
The County Extension Agricultural
and Home Demonstration Agents
help locate and train local organi-
zational leaders. They also pro-
vide assistance in forming organi-
zations for development work. The
Extension Service serves the com-
mittees as a source of educational
materials on various subjects, and
helps the committees locate special-
ists and technicians needed on
oA DAINDUSTY ON
This: is the"r.story --of how rapid
growth and urbanization of two
counties actually. helped a third
county economically. .
n 1..950 .Dade Count-, had 49
dairies .:and: was. one .:.of .the largest
dairying counties :in the state. Ten
y-ars lt.1 i. l onW four of
.ceded 1962, 2.1 dairies were estab-
listifbd in:.Okeechobe.e County pro-
iidig.: the county with a multimil-
lion: dollar industry: that supplies.
about. 15 percent of all the milk
produced in Florida. Prior to Dairy. 0rd. on the Clyde Palmer Dairy near she old town of Barlager.
1956 thete was nio :dairy farming
in the .county. Beef cattle and
vegetable, production--chiefly to-
matoes-made up the economy.
This shift of virtually an entire
industry from one:,county to an-
other. makes an interesting story.
One .of the last of the dairymen to
move from Dade to .Okeechobee, i
in .-mid-1962, was" Clyde Palmer. 9.
Palmer explained the -event that
occuired in this way: "That land
just: iwent crazy. Taxes were eat-
ing them (dairymen), up. They sold
their land for anywhere from $3,-
000 :to $8,000 per acre. Some.sim Par~s of housing subdiision on lthe MeArthur Dairy. iT. .hownr: aboei..
ply ftook -.the money and retired Below .:t a. dairy barn comiple on she. same ranch.
w:"hile" others bought dairies and
.ensoiidated:. ..think .I was. the
only one: who didn't own any. land;
I leased land 'id: that's., probably
why I stayed. longer'. It's just a
matter of: the :old 'saying that the
big. ones :get: bigger and. the little
one get fewer"."
Palmer purchased a small dairy ..
in: Okeechobee, Couinty and-moved
his' existing cows. to the new. pas-
tures near the: townt of, Bassinger.,
He; milks 465.COWS a day.
Center of:the dairying industry
in i Okeechobee, of course, is the ....
arms is similar. In almost all
cases, dairy farmers provide hous-
ing on the farm for employees and
their families. The McArthur Dai-
ry has a little over 100 concrete
block homes in three-subdivisions
built on the farms. These are built
on paved roads and recreation
areas are available for children.
To give a picture of the county
as a whole, there are a total of 21
dairies with 26 dairy barns. Al-
together the county has between
26,000 and 27,000 cows with a little
over two-thirds of that number in
production at all times.
Actually, some of these dairies
have made two moves since leaving
Dade County. Urbanization in
Dade, which caused the price of
land to sky-rocket and caused taxes
to be high, sent some of the dairy
farmers into Broward County just
north. A similar experience, how-
ever, once again made the farmers
look for new lands.
To get an idea of the economic
impact of this new dairy industry
on Okeechobee County, Count)y
Agent Cliff Boyles points out that
the payroll from labor alone
amounts to about $10,000.00 per
month, per dairy. This is a grand
total of over $200,000 per month
in payroll going into the county.
Businesses selling goods and
services to the dairies were also
established. Arrival of the dairy-
ing operations brought along three
County Agent Cliff Boyles, left, talks with Joe Wolfe (center). Wolfe and
his brother had Florida's second highest per cow production rate in 1962.
new seed supply companies, four
trucking lines and three other sup-
Okeechobee enjoyed a major
increase in population between
1950 and 1960. The school system
has averaged 10 percent increase
in enrollment each year for the
last 10 years.
Arrival of dairying as a major
industry has not affected, however,
the existing beef-cattle industry.
Boyles believes that the combina-
tion of these two livestock indus-
tries gives Okeechobee the highest
per acre livestock population in
The county agent certainly is
pleased with the growth and de-
velopment of the dairying indus-
try, but he is even more pleased
with the success of two "county'
sons" in dairying. The Wolfe
brothers, Joe and Jack, went into
the dairy business from scratch.
In 1962 their dairy herd of 270
cows had the second highest per
cow milk production rate in the
state. And, the half-Holstein herd
averaged 3.8 percent butterfat.
'These boys have done a fine
job", Boyles says, "especially con-
sidering the fact that they started
under a heavy load of debt. For-
tunately we were able to get them
a FHA loan to consolidate debts
The County Agent's office has
played a major role in aiding dairy
farmers. Boyles was instrumental
in establishing an artificial breed-
ers association in the area and, as
a result, a little over a half of the
cows in the county are bred arti-
ficially. Three or four day-long
short courses are held each year
by the county agent with members
of the Extension staff from Gaines-
ville on hand to help work out
"Generally." Boyles says "we
have an excellent turnout for these
meetings. Actually they are not all
from Okeechobee County. We
have dairy farmers come in from
several surrounding counties rep-
resenting about 40 dairies. Our
average attendance has been about
Most of the dairies in Okeecho-
bee County belong to the Southeast
Florida Milkshed and the milk is
still marketed in Dade County.
The Southeast Florida Milkshed is
made up largely of independent
producers. The price of milk sold
by the producer to the market,
based on the previous two months'
averages of supply and demand, is
set by a federal agency.
Years: of fund-raising and horse-
trading hive paid off for Washing-
ton County citizens in the estab-
lishimeht of Florida's, newest state
. park. Local bbosters .say :Falling
Waters State :.'ark ijs njo only the
state's newest,' but. most unusual
When Washington County was
designated as a pilot county in the
Rural Areas Development Pro-
gram, development of the county's
recreational potential was near the
-top of a list of goals which local
people drew up.
E. W. (Judge) Carswell had
.proposed creation of a state park
at Falling Waters in 1954, and the
Chipley Kiwanis Club had ac-
cepted sponsorship of the project,
with Carswell serving as project
chairman. In 1957 the project was
endorsed and adopted by the coun-
ty RAD council.
The park area-3 miles south of
Chipley--had long been a favorite
spot for hiking and picnicking. A
main attraction is the waterfall,
which drops over a limestone cliff
into a cylindrical hole about 20 feet
in diameter and over 90 feet deep.
The water is swallowed by the
earth; disappearing into uncharted
Limestone.caverns and steep
hills add to the beauty, and sense
of mystery1 surrounding the plung-
ing stream. Honeysuckle and other
flowering .plants grow luxuriantly
in the area, along with specimens
of most of the kinds of trees found
in the southeastern states. Un-
usual hill formations and pigment-
ed rocks make: the area one of
Recognizing: the area's natural
attractions, the.. county. AD coun-
cil took steps .to acquire the land.
In 1958 the recreation committee
asked for- and received a deed
from a paper company for eight
acres of land at the site.
The RAD council then asked
the State Park Board to consider
a state park on the site. The Park
Board agreed to designate the area
as a state park if a minimum of 150
acres of land could be provided
Paper company representatives:
declined to sell the land outright,
but indicated they would: swap for
acreage of like value. Newspaper
features and other publicity built
widespread community. interest,
and funds were raised to .purchase
a 150-acre tract in the Orange Hill
Community. The paper company
agreed to accept this land in trade,
provided that timber resources be
exchanged on the basis of an ap-
praisal. The value of timber on
the proposed park sites was. $3,300
more than that on the purchased
tract, which meant that local
groups had to raise this much more
to complete the trade.
The Washington County De-
velopment Authority put up the
needed funds, with the stipulation
that it receive the revenue from
any timber .which had to be cut
for roads, building sites, or other
improvements. So, in May 1962,
a trade eight years in.. the making
was brought to a happy conclusion.
Carswell, who had worked for
the creation, of a park throughout
the period, attended the deed swap-
ping ceremony as chairman:of. the
BAD council. Mrs. Ola lobertson,
chairman of the .council's commit-
tee on Parks and Historic Monu-
ments, was. another active worker.
in the drive. Carswell credits the
ultimate success of the project also
to the "scores of public officials and
private citizens who responded
when called upon to help."
The State Representative from
Washington County leaders are shown making the land
swap that led to establishment of Falling Waters State
Park. Seated from left are County Commissioners Walter
T. Cook and W. M. (Bill) Nelson; paper company rep-
resentative W. C. (Bill) Snaidman; Commission chairman
Otis Hinson; Commissioners Freddie Kolmets and L. D.
Owens; and Circuit Court Clerk Lawrence Miner. Stand-
ing are County Attorney W. J. Mongoven, project chair-
man E. W. Carswell, and State Representative Ralph C.
Carter who joined State Senator Dempsey Barren in getting
the park officially designated.
Washington C o u n t y-another
member of the RAD council-in-
troduced the bill that officially de-
signated the area a state park and
earmarked funds for its develop-
ment. The Budget Committee then
released the $41,000 which the 1961
legislature had set up for the
1962-63 biennium, provided the
land was secured.
.Work has now been started on
development of the park. Priority
items are placement of guard
chains around some of the caverns
and sinks, and construction of a
water system and sanitary facili-
Picnicking and camping facili-
ties and an outdoor amphitheater
are slated for later construction.
Long-range plans also call for res-
toration of historical attractions,
such as the grist mill, which once
overlooked the fall. Powered by
an overshot wheel, the ancient mill
was one of the few of its kind
operated in the area. Only some
timbers at the bottom of the cylin-
drical pit remain.
It was within the park area that
one of Florida's early wildcat op-
erations was undertaken. A steam-
driven rig was brought into the
area in 1919. The driller struck
E. W. Carswell
a pocket of gas at a depth of some-
where between 4,000 and 5,000
feet. Quite a blow resulted-but
the well produced no oil. The prod-
ucers did not have funds to con-
tinue the search, and the well was
capped. Restoration of the color-
ful drilling rig is a possibility.
The park also includes the site
of an Indian village thought to pre-
date white settlement of the area
by several years. A group of
mounds-all that remain of the
village-will be preserved.
Other proposals for develop-
ment of the park include the addi-
tion of a Museum of Florida Ge-
ology. Geologic specimens, along
with Indian artifacts, would be
gathered from throughout the state
to form an interesting and valuable
Washington County's RAD
council still has much work to do.
But transforming the dream of a
state park to a reality has been a
rewarding first project.
i, ~ae -. - .....- - ?
-. - :
New Fruit Crop For Florida?
If an .expensive grower experiment works out,. "Our orchards are be
everything may be "peachy" in Madison County in. Madison County Agent
1964. experience in the busine
That will be the. first harvest year for the first: a success of peaches. hen
peach oichard.ini the county--100 acres of .trees located Ownership of the. 10
near Cherry .Lake. in the north end of the county. vested in a partnership c
Many people are crossing their fingers that peaches ]ina men-D. C. Ewing,
will be a success in Madison County-starting, of and their foreman, Linsi
course, with County Agent Rudy Hamrick and:spe- :.acres of peaches.in Nort
cialists at the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and They planted the firs
extending to the seven men.who have invested heavily If everything goes as.wel
in the experiment. Also, interested "are :many. fartiefs .s during the .first .year
and businessmen who visualize what a new crop Parsons-Hursey expect a'
would do for the overall economy. "The first year there
Peaches are not only new to Madison Coun~ty; h est rik says,
but also to Florida.. Within the last year or two there. tell me that will be one
have been scattered plantings in several counties in-
cluding Gadsden, Orange, Lake, Volusia and Hills- The other men who ai
borouigh.. It is estimated that all together there are are. Jimmy Chappell and
about 100 acres in each of the Central Florida :coun- sns with peach growing
ties mentioned. lina and Barney, Georgia
Between 350 and 400 acres have been planted County farmer-at prese
in Gadsden County which, .like Madison, borders s try peaches. The Chap
Georgia. One of the tobacco companies..planted. totaling about 170 acres.
peaches on land that had been used for coin pro- with 10 acres.
duction, and about 15 independent Cadsdea.County Growth of the .trees
farmers have small plantings. that the four-man part
iing put in by peach ,men,"
Hamrick says. "They :hbave
ss and if anyone can make
e, I think they cani,"
0 acres near Cherry; ake is
)f four Candor, North Caro-
F. C. Long, D. S. Parsons
ey Hursey. They; have 600
;t :.orchard in. Januaryy,, 161..
1 during 1968,.and early 1984
, the partners B.Ewing-Lobg-
bumper crop in 1964..
will be enough :peaches to
will ..be 1964... They also.
of the best years."
re involved : in the experiment
Wilson Chappell first cou-
experience in North:.Caro-
; and E.:::B. Wilson, Madison
nrt the only local, farmer:.to
pells have. separate orchards
Mr. Wilson iso experimenting
in 1962 was: so. a stfactory
iership set ot another: 120'
2*'' ** '**
Madison County Agent Rudy Hamrick inspects two-year-
old peach tree in the new orchard near Cherry Lake. The
first crop of commercial quantity is expected early in 1962.
Below, Hamrick holds peach just forming on the young
acres early in 1963, and with other new plantings
Hamrick expected this to bring the total to 520 acres.
The Madison county agent is enthusiastic about
these experiments with peaches in his county. "I'm
very interested and am trying to learn from these
men." Hamrick contacted Dr. Ralph Sharpe of the
Agricultural Experiment Station at the University of
Florida and obtained technical help and information.
The Stations have provided 210 trees for testing.
Several varieties are being tried in these orchards
including Maygold, Moore's, Early Red, Florida Yel-
lows and Suwannees.
Ewing, etal, set out trees in 20-foot squares and
figure they have about 108 trees to the acre. Trees are
set out when they are about 18 inches tall.
Peach trees grow surprisingly fast, and the year-
lings near Cherry Lake topped about six feet by
January 1963. They were pruned back heavily at
the end of the first year so that future growth would
make the trees fuller near the ground.
Soil and moisture in Madison County---which bor-
ders the Georgia State line-are very similar to Georgia
where peaches are a major crop. The main experi-
ment in Florida is to see if the climate will be right
for commercial operations.
Cold weather during the winter or dormant sea-
son helps growth of the trees. For good crops, some
varieties require a certain number of hours of tem-
peratures below 40 degrees. But a freeze after the
trees bloom could harm or destroy the crop. With a
certain amount of cold weather required for good
growth, trees planted further south must be varieties
that require less chilling hours.
Climate, then, is the main factor in the experiment.
There are several reasons for the county agent's
interest. "This can help our total economy in several
ways," Hamrick says. Perhaps most important to
Madison County will be demand for field labor dur-
ing a slack time. Peaches will be harvested in May
and early June. The tobacco harvest, which requires
all available labor, doesn't begin until late June.
Trees have to be hand pruned, and this will re-
quire a lot of local labor.
Not to be overlooked is the effect on local far-
mers if peaches are a big success in Madison County.
Many local people would probably become interested
in getting into the business.
Of the 520 acres now in peach trees, not one acre
was actually being farmed according to Hamrick.
Part of it was in the Soil Bank and part of it in pasture
land. It pleases the agent to know that otherwise
non-productive land is being used.
Economic progress may come about as a direct
result of work done by the citizens of a community;
or progress may be very indirect, such as was the
case of Putnam County during 1962.
The Putnam-St. Johns County area is Florida's
"potato belt". These two counties' have, for the past
several. years, .carried on aggressive promotion pro-
grams to send the story of: Florida potatoes all over
the United States.
One of the area's great problems has been that
farmers are able to produce more potatoes than can.
be marketed. This is the reason for an all-out mar-
Leaders in agriculture in the area are always look-
ing.for new markets.. Early in 1962 some of these
men struck on the idea of .trying to find a company
that would establish. a vegetable processing plant in:
Putnam County.. They reasoned, rightfully, that such
a plant would help solve marketing problems-such
as sale of creamer size and "B-size" potatoes.
The Putnam-St. Johns County Farm Bureau, which
represented, county leadership, was interested, and.
county agents from neighboring counties were asked
to survey farmers in their areas and report farmer in-
terest at a meeting to be held in April.
The Florida Development Commission agreed to
print a brochure, with the help of a work committee;
about the opportunities for vegetable processing in
About the time the work committee began gather-
ing information on the availability of raw materials,
soils, labor, transportation, climate, taxes and other
resources, Dr. Montelaro received a call from Clyde.
L. Lovengood, the representative of a national food
Mr. Lovengood had been scouting in.Florida:for
several days and was told to contact the University
to see if there were any Florida areas suitable for
vegetable processing. Dr. Montelaro directed the
company representative to John Peters of the Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association after assuring him
that Florida had some ideal areas. He also informed
Mr. Lovengood that studies were being prepared.
After investigation the company became interested
in Orange and Volusia Counties and the.county agents
in these two counties began to stir up local interest.
'By mid-year the company had decided: to con-
struct a large vegetable processing plant in Volhsia
County .at .Sanford.
Results Iindireet, But Good
Meanwhile, the State Extension staff, the State
Department of Agriculture, the Florida Development
Commission, and the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association were contacted.
Representatives of these agencies met with the
county agents and local farmers in April, and the
group decided .on a series of planning sessions. Two
were held at the University of Florida in: May and
June and state staff researchers presented information
concerning what vegetables could be adapted to pro-
duction and processing in the northeast Florida area.
It was not, until these meetings that the: Florida
Development: Commission .-.became convinced that
there was justification for trying to "sell" the area to
vegetable processors, according to Dr. James. Mon-.
telaro, Associate Vegetable Crops, Specialist.
Dr. Montelaro was only one of several distin-
guished researchers who worked on the project with
local leaders. .Dr. Joe Busby, assistant directoirof the.
Agricultural Extension Service, attended the first meet-
ing in:Putuam County along with Dr. Frank Jamison,
Vegetable Crops Specialist,. Mason Marvel, Assistant
Crop Specialist, and marketing specialist Kenneth
Construction of a 200 by 240-foot warehouse.and
a 160 by 200-foot processing plant began in July
with dedication slated for January, 1963. Altogether
the' plant was to have about two acres under roof.
Before the end of 1962 the company was con-
tacting farmers in the Putnam and St.: Johns- areas to
purchase creamer size and "B'size" potatoes frm the
It wouldn't be fair to say that the efforts of lead-
ers in Putnam and St. Johns. counties paid off either
directly or immediately, or that the brochure which
will be published in 1963 will bring in more proces-
sors. It is fairly certain, however, that.because the
Florida Development Commission and other state
agencies and groups were firmly convinced of the
feasibility of vegetable processing, it was much easier
for a company to make a decision about establishing
a plant in Florida.
Most important, local, county and state leaders
worked hand in hand in an effort that has already
brought indirect results. These people -have great
hopes the new brochure will interest more companies
Tobacco Farmers Agree To Protect Each Other
A hundred years ago, before
the automobile, before telephones
and television, before the many
conveniences which, today, allow
people to be nearly self-sufficient,
neighbors had to rely on each
other for help.
But the idea of neighbors help-
ing each other is not as outdated
as it might seem. There is a mod-
ern adaptation in Suwannee Coun-
ty which may save tobacco farmers
thousands of dollars each year.
Hail and fire are the scourge of
tobacco farmers. The tender leaves
are extremely vulnerable in the
field to the pelting of hail stones
which strike without notice. Cur-
ing fires in the barn get out of
control easily and destroy both
crops and barns.
The only real income protec-
tion against fire and hail has been
insurance, but since risks are high,
insurance rates are corresponding-
ly high. Hail insurance in Suwan-
nee County was running from $80
to $90 per acre.
Faced with this high cost,
which cut hard into profits, some
of the farmers decided to experi-
ment with some sort of protective
club through which the members
would help each other pay for los-
ses. This was not without prece-
dent since there had been a "barn
protection club" in the county for
about 35 years.
Seventy tobacco farmers be-
came charter members of the new
'club through the efforts of a few
leaders including Suwannee
County Agent Paul Crews-who
wanted to try the idea. These
farmers listed 666 allotted acres of
tobacco to the club.
The first task was to initiate a
survey of the 666 acres which were
included in the club to determine
the actual crop losses from hail
during the last 10 years.
It was discovered that the
average crop loss per acre during
the last 10 years was $5.05. When
this figure was compared to the
insurance cost of from $80 to $90,
fuel was added to the enthusiasm
of those who wanted to make the
club a success.
Tobacco Services, Inc., was the,
name given to the club. Every
member was made to understand
that it was not an "insurance" club,
but more of an "assurance" club.
No policies were issued, no signed
statements were made and there
were no written promises. It was
just one farmer's good word to an-
As a fee to join, each farmer
contributed $25 per acre to be in-
cluded in the cooperative (which
was chartered by the Secretary of
State). This money formed a re-
serve fund to assure against bad
Members agreed, in the by-
laws, to protect each other in the
amount of $1,000 for each acre.
When a farmer reports a loss
from hail, an independent, adjuster
is sent to assess the damage. This
is reported to the secretary of the
club. At the end of the year, all
losses are totaled and this total
amount of money is divided by the
number of acres listed with the
club. The individual farmers are
then notified the amount they
owe their neighbors-based on the
number of acres each member has.
The first year of operation was
1962. At the end of the crop year,
statements for $30.25 per acre were
sent to the farmers in the club.
"There was a total of about
$11,000 in damage during 1962,"
Crews says. "These farmers who
cooperated with each other saved
themselves over $30,000."
Although it had existed for 35
years, there were only 120 barns
listed with the barn protection club
in 1961. Officially known as Far-
mer Services, Inc., the same men
who led the way in establishing
the tobacco cooperative stepped up
their promotion of the barn club.
During 1961 the total number of
barns included jumped from 121
to about 300. During 1962 the
total was increased to 625 with
about 500 farmers participating.
Barn protection in the amount
of $1,000 per barn was agreed up-
on. Fire insurance was costing
from $54 to $72 per barn. A survey
revealed that farmers in the county
were losing about two percent of
their barns each year.
Each farmer who wishes to join
Farmer Services, Inc., pays $2.25
per barn. This pays for a lifetime
Each time a barn burns, all
members are sent a notice and ask-
ed to contribute $2.00 per barn
they have listed in the club.
During 1962, the club paid for
the loss of 11 barns. This cost each
member $22 per barn as opposed
to from $54 to $72 if the member
had purchased fire insurance in-
"This is not an insurance com-
pany," the Suwannee County agent
emphasized. "To be an insurance
company, it would have to have
$200,000 in the bank to back up
written policies. The members
just agree to help each other."
What would happen if there
was a disastrous year when hail
wiped out almost all of the crops?
This could mean an assessment of
as much as $300 per acre, which
no farmer could afford.
"The directors have thought
about that. They have agreed that
farmers would get together and ask
each other how much they could
afford. They would just work it
out of the best they could," Crews
In the meantime, the records
are working in favor of these clubs,
and their boards of directors are
actively promoting more member-
ship through advertisements and
On December 17, 1962-after
Florida shivered under its worst
freeze in years-a new mill began
grinding out the first refined sugar
to be produced in Glades County.
News that the sugar mill and
refinery at Moore Haven was a
reality was even more important
to Glades County residents than
the freeze. It culminated a year of
planning and hope for many Moore
Haven residents, and several years'
efforts by two or three men who
were making their third attempt
to build a mill in the county.
Two previous efforts to place
Glades County on a keel with sister
counties Palm Beach and Hendry
in sugar production, had failed. In
1942 Frank Yaun and the late
Glades County judge J. M. Couse
attempted to organize a sugar co-
op which would have built a mill.
These efforts were stymied by the
war shortage of critical material.
The idea was dropped only
until after World War II when a
Louisiana firm purchased land in
Glades and organized a co-op. This
move also was halted, almost as
abruptly as the first, when it was
learned that strict acreage controls
were being drafted by the govern-
mAlthough the men who had
dreamed of a big sugar industry
in Glades County were probably
discouraged by these early at-
tempts, their hopes were rallied
when the political situation in Cu-
ba-which produced vast amounts
of United States sugar-deteriorat-
ed and trade relations were broken.
The third try got under way in
1961 when J. E. (Jim) Beardsley of
Clewiston discussed the idea with
Yaun, Ray Yoder, and Roy Lundy.
Beardsley got in touch with Man-
uel Arca and Luis De Armas,
former sugar producers in Cuba
who had lost their holdings to the
new government. He explained
that "we wanted to associate with
them because they had the know-
how to produce sugar!"
The result of these early dis-
cussions between Beardsley, Yaun,
Yoder, and Lundy was formation
of the Glades County sugar co-op
with 21 members and an acreage
allotment of about 8,000 acres.
Florida and Louisiana are re-
sponsible for the majority of cane
sugar produced in this country.
Florida's sugar production is cen-
tered in four counties-Palm Beach
(around Belle Glade), Hendry
(around Clewiston), Indian River
(at Felsmere) and Glades. Of the
four, Palm Beach and Hendry
have been the big producers. Sugar
cane grown in Glades by inde-
pendent farmers has been moved
to Clewiston for milling.
These four counties have a total
of about 139,000 acres in sugar
cane production. Since Felsmere
has about 11,500 acres, the great
majority of the sugar cane grown
is in the three county complex on
the south, southeast, and southwest
shores of Lake Okeechobee.
Although there are some in-
dependent growers, most of the
sugar cane produced is under the
auspices, at least, of one or more
of the 11 mills now established in
Florida. Three of these 11 mills
had not operated through the end
of 1962. There are two refineries
in Florida attached to milling
operations, one at Felsmere and
one at the new mill in Glades
Despite several years of plan-
ning on the part of the men in
Glades County, when the time
came to act they were faced with
terrific deadlines, one of which was
to meet the April 15 planting date
and get the mill into operation for
the December through March har-
For two or three years it had
New Sugar Mill and Refinery in Glades County near Moore Haven.
-. ." ..... lM JUi .r I
n mII I I
4'7 ~ ~ "~ F, ;~~~~l~ I I
~ ~ -
been evident that there would be
another sugar boom in the Lake
Okeechobee area, but the sugar
men in Glades were not sure until
late June of 1962 how much sugar
allotments would be increased.
Plans for expansion of the sugar
cane industry in Florida were
based on expected increases in the
U.S. quota, and these hopes were
rewarded when Congress passed a
new Sugar Act in July, 1962, in-
creasing the quota from 649,400
to 895,000 tons.
When the Glades sugar co-op
was formed, Roger Weeks was
elected president and Yaun was
named vice-president. Other offi-
cers named were Bob Beardsley,
secretary; Roy Lundy, treasurer;
and Charles Lykes, J. W. Beards-
ley, Loyd Witt, and Ray Yoder,
According to Weeks, the new
quotas are more than adequate for
present acreage in Florida. "Many
of us," he says, "don't believe we
can produce 895,000 tons from our
Many hours of work, both by
the Glades farmers and the Cuban
sugar experts, went into creation
of the mill and refinery. The re-
finery was added to plans in order
to save about $10.00 per ton addi-
tional cost of shipping raw sugar
to a refinery elsewhere.
Members of the co-op invested
about $2 million to help finance
the mill. Another $3.5 million was
secured from the Columbia Bank
of Co-Operatives, and 1.5 million
was underwritten by a major
f a r m equipment manufacturing
"This is the biggest thing that
has hit Moore Haven since the
1926 hurricane," Weeks says. And,
this is hardly an understatement
about the small county seat com-
With the increased interest in
sugar cane production, G 1 ades
County agent Billy Bass has spent
many hours talking with local
farmers, advising when necessary,
helping conduct guided tours of
the sugar industry for visitors (such
as for "Sugar Press Day" held in
late 1961), and writing articles on
sugar production and farm man-
agement for the newspaper.
Bass has taken an active interest
in the development of the sugar
industry in the county. He has or-
ganized meetings and brought in
specialists from the University of
Florida, and conducted many soil
tests to aid farmers in their efforts-
to plant new acres of sugar cane.
The new industrial boom, al-
though planned for 20 years in the
minds of some, still took the small
community by surprise.
Most critical situation, perhaps,
was the lack of housing for the
sudden influx of plant workers and
executives when the plant prepar-
ed to open in November. Of the
200 white-collar workers employed
as of late 1962, only two families
had found housing in Moore Ha-
ven. Many were living in Clewis-
ton, and some were living in Miami
One of the several factors which
has discouraged building in Moore
Haven has been concern that the
new sugar boom in Glades may
not last-if trade relations are re-
established with Cuban govern-
However, this possibility was
discounted to a certain extent by
passage of the 1962 Sugar Act. In
a speech before thd state Chamber
of Commerce area conference at
Clewiston in June, Harry T.
Vaughn, president of U.S. Sugar-
largest of the Florida producers-
told visitors that he thought there
would be no threat to the extensive
sugar production expansion under
legislation then being considered
The story of Glades County's
move into prominence in sugar
production is only part of the three-
county picture of the industry.
From a total of $750,000 dollars
in 1931-32, sales of Florida sugar
jumped to $17,196,000 in 1961-62.
Florida Department of Agriculture
estimates for the 1963-64 period
have been set at double that figure,
The mill at Moore Haven was
only one of six new mills construct-
ed in the area during 1962. Three
were in production by late 1962.
The 11 Florida mills serve 113
growers who have planted 138,157
acres of cane. Although 1962 was
a record year, the severe Decem-
ber freeze damaged some of the
crop including some of the acreage
planted just before the April 15
Other mills built during 1962
included an $81/2 million mill near
South Bay; a mill about two miles
north of south Bay; a new mill at
Clewiston; one near Canal Point
on the east side of Lake Okeecho-
bee; and the Sugar Cane Growers
Co-operative of Florida mill near
Belle Glade. The latter co-op
organized with 59 grower-members
and 22,000 acres, and a $12.5 mil-
Industry officials, independent
farmers and area leaders are hope-
ful that the boom will continue
and increase. In addition to the
hundreds of new plant employees,
many hundred field hands are
brought in for the harvest.
According to Glades Co-op
president Weeks, the n a t u r al
growth of the United States itself
could consume most of the increas-
es in production now inder way.
And, although Florida and Louis-
iana produce the mainland sugar
cane quota, Florida farms and mills
still produce only about the same
number of tons as presently are
consumed by the Florida popula-
Banana Salesman Produces 18,000 Quail...
And It All Started On A City Lot
SA small city lot in North Miami is
the site of one of Florida's newest in- "
dustries and perhaps one of the state's
most unusual ones. For it is here that
18,000 fluffy, buff colored quail received
their start last year.
How did 18,000 quail-or Bobwhite
as they are commonly known-manage .
to hatch on a Miami city lot? Well, it
all started several years ago when Ivey
L. Jones, 53, became ill while on a trip
in Georgia. It seems that Jones visited
a quail-raising doctor who in addition
to treating his illness, told him about
some of the possibilities of producing
these attractive little partridge on a com-
mercial basis. This sparked the idea
which led Jones to produce quail in
Three years ago, Jones, who is a
banana supply company employee, pur-
chased 16 pairs of quail at $7.50 per
pair from a lawyer in Atlanta. He
found the kind of equipment he need-
ed from a firm in Savannah, Geor- Ivey L. J~
gia, and bought an incubator with a
capacity for 150 eggs for $24. He moved the birds
into his garage and set up his incubator.
Before long his venture had proved so successful
that he was almost over-run with tiny feathered life.
From these first 32 quail he had raised about 90 pairs.
This called for greater efficiency. So, a modern self-
turning incubator was acquired and the flock increased
to 300 pairs. Today he has an $850 incubator with a
capacity of 3,000 eggs.
Jones quickly outgrew the confines of his garage.
Looking for someone with his same love and zeal
for raising quail, Jones discovered Mr. and Mrs Louis
Spaeth of Opa Locka. Spaeth, a retired dairyman,
agreed to lease his unused dairy barn facilities to
Jones and accepted the job of rearing the young birds
and handling the egg production.
The parent birds are housed in 60 hanging cages
in the milking parlor. Six birds are maintained in
each special cage which costs $176. The parlor is
ideal in that it's cool and breezy. Instead of con-
tented cows, contented quail are the occupants of
this parlor. A radio is kept running constantly to
mask out unusual noise, and artificial light is used to
lengthen the day for increased egg production.
nes inspects a quail. Good care and management have paid off.
Jones continues to use his air-conditioned garage
for an incubator but as soon as new quail hatch they
are transported to the dairy farm where they are
raised on a diet of bananas and grain. Jones got the
idea of feeding bananas to the quail from his employer
who had used them to feed a flock of turkeys. Since
the main cost of raising quail is feed, Jones decided to
feed bananas unfit for sale. The bananas are peeled
and all undesirable parts are cut out before feeding.
According to Jones, extra special care given the
birds by Mr. and Mrs. Spaeth was responsible for
the extremely high egg production obtained during
the 1962 season. "Spaeth's earlier experience at farm-
ing enabled him to do an excellent job of quail rais-
ing," Jones emphasizes. The result: 300 pair of quail
produced 1,200 eggs every nine days until more than
18,000 were hatched.
Raising quail has not been all smooth sailing for
Jones and the Spaeths, however. This spring, 2,000
of the young quail developed a chronic respiratory
disease and died. Jones and Spaeth quickly con-
tacted Dade County assistant agent Roy J. Cham-
pagne, who in turn contacted the poultry diagnostic
laboratory at Miami Springs for help in diagnosing
the death of the young quail. With the assistance
of the county agent's office, the respiratory problems
were overcome. Assistant agent Champagne has also
suggested an improved litter, less crowding of the
birds to reduce smothering and more protein in the
diet to cut down on feather loss.
After Jones obtained a permit for quail production
from the state, the county agent's office was instru-
mental in helping him meet the requirements for
poultry raising in Dade County.
Champagne is now attempting to assist Jones in
developing a market for his birds. When Jones first
began production, he did not have any particular
market in mind. So far, the birds have been sold to
hunting preserves and to individuals interested in
establishing their own hunting areas.
An article prepared by the county agent's office for
one of the Miami papers about the quail stimulated
interest and the result is that he has a waiting list
for his 1963 quail.
Jones plans to double and even triple his present
productive capacity and is now looking for a local
poultry farm with suitable facilities which will allow
him to expand his new industry. He eventually hopes
to establish his own hunting preserve.
Jones' love for quail is inherent. Not only does
he enjoy hunting and eating the birds, but he receives
a special satisfaction from just watching and admiring
the graceful creatures. Perhaps a comment by a recent
visitor to the quail farm sums up how Jones feels.
The visitor, an attractive lady who had seen the quail
story in the newspaper, commented to Jones that
she just loved one of the pictures in the newspaper.
"Which one?," he asked, "The one of me?"
"No, the quail, of course," she promptly answered,
"They are so beautiful."
-'R. UE- --i-- ia
Regular poultry waterers and feeders have been
used in enclosed houses covered with palmetto fronds.
4-H'ers To Education
A good education is a necessity in today's world,
for women as well as men. And a good education,
for many, means a college degree that includes prep-
aration for specialized work. All of this costs money.
Since 1931 the Senior Home Demonstration Coun-
cil has maintained a scholarship loan fund for former
4-H Club girls. Fifty-one scholarships totaling over
$8,000 has been given. At the present, seven young
women are in college with the help of these scholar-
In 1962 Sandra Doughtry, a senior in Home Eco-
nomics at Florida State University, received one of
the 20 scholarships given by a Commercial Company.
This award is based on achievements in 4-H work,
scholastic record and interest in Extension work as
a future career. Eleven years in 4-H club work, which
brought her local, county, and state honors, gave San-
dra an excellent record for winning this scholarship.
Sandra lives in Tallahassee, where her mother is
the Leon County Home Demonstration Agent. San-
dra, and her sister, Linda, were enthusiastic 4-H Club
members throughout their public school years.
Sandra enrolled at Florida State University to
study home economics, with the intention of becom-
ing an Extension home economist. In addition to her
studies, she built on her record of 11 years' 4-H Club
membership, by becoming an active member of the
University 4-H Club and Home Economics Club. She
was one of the young women who represented Flor-
ida at the 1960 National 4-H Club Conference.
The FSU senior was married in December, 1962,
but expects to have a career in home economics as
well as use her training in her own home.
Others have received scholarships from a group
of Florida banks, a grocery chain, a large merchan-
dising firm, from the state teaching scholarship fund,
and the Southern Regional Foundation.
Each year an outstanding 4-H Club girl receives a
scholarship to the American Youth Foundation Camp
in Michigan; Sharon Capra of Dade County received
an REA scholarship.
These are only examples of scholarships that were
secured by former 4-H Club girls. There are others,
and all of them help young women reach their goals
of personal development and better education.
In 1962 the State Home Demonstration Council
established a gift scholarship for a foreign student
in home economics at Florida State University. Nora
Chintamani of Allahabad, India, received the first
scholarship. She is a graduate student in Foods and
Nutrition with emphasis on Dietetics. Her work in
India is to teach the teachers who work with village
women in the effort to improve family diets, home
sanitation and nutrition practices.
Howard Davis, St. Johns County 4-H'er (standing) asks fellow club
member Johnny Mullis to "take a clothes look".
St. Johns 4-H Boys
"Take A Clothes Look"
Teenage boys in St. Johns
County are like many other teen-
age boys-they like to dress sloppy.
Experts say that often teenage
leaders practice poor grooming as
a means of adding to their prestige.
Others follow their example for
fear of being dropped by the gang,
even though they may not really
For example, at a county-wide
4-H program, a boy refused to par-
ticipate in the opening exercises
because of his unkempt appear-
ance. However, after combing his
hair and tucking his shirt tail in,
he agreed to take part.
After discussing with a group
of older 4-H club boys the need
for a campaign on neatness, agents
and leaders decided to initiate a
clothing program for teenage boys.
Miss Nettie Ruth Brown, Home
Demonstration agent, prepared a
program for the 4-H officers' train-
ing school on what the well-dressed
young man should wear. She used
two extreme examples of dress-
neat and "beat"-to show that a
well-dressed boy will command at-
tention as well as respect. The
boys liked the idea, and at the
end of the program many excused
themselves to tidy up a bit.
As a follow up at 4-H Club
meetings, county agents Paul Din-
kins and John Eubanks included
tips on good grooming. White
shirts and ties are now accepted as
part of the dress for out-of-county
trips and special activities.
As interest in neatness increas-
ed, it was necessary to provide edu-
cational material on grooming.
Miss Brown prepared a leaflet-
"Young Man, Take A Clothes Look"
-covering selection, fit, color and
combinations of men's clothes.
Home demonstration clubs took
up the idea and studied buying and
selecting men's and boys' clothing.
Since the emphasis on being
well dressed began, men and boys
are more conscious of their appear-
ance and are wearing more pleas-
From A Sideline To ---
In the relatively short period of
four years, a poultry project started
on a trial basis has become one of
the largest and most successful
egg businesses in the state.
A readiness to experiment with
ideas and to contribute hard work
are two factors which have led to
success for the Louie Houck fam-
ily of Perry. Like many other fam-
ilies living on moderate acreage,
the Houcks were carrying on a gen-
eral farm operation. And, like
other farm families they were look-
ing for a side enterprise that would
bring in supplemental income.
Poultry was suggested by the
county agent to several families in
Taylor County, and the Houcks
decided to give it a test.
What happened is now history.
During 1962, Mr. and Mrs. Houck
sold over 100,000 dozen eggs to
Perry housewives. Most of the
eggs were sold at retail on routes
established by the Houcks' cater-
ing to from 300 to 400 customers.
The business is truly a family
affair. Aside from general help
used in planting and harvesting a
sweet potato crop, the Houcks have
only one part time helper in the
egg business. The oldest son,
John Larry, 21, works full time, and
the two younger sons, Ronald, 18,
and George, 15, help as they have
time. Both attend high school in
But the family business is large-
ly possible because the entire egg
producing operation is automated.
The farm has four laying
houses. These are served by three
automatic feeders and automatic
watering systems. Every hour and
a half a time clock turns on the
machinery, and feed is carried on
, , I
Dozen Eggs Per Year
a chain belt through the houses to
about 5,000 hens. The feeders stay
on for 15 minutes 15 times a day.
Lights are automatically switch-
ed on at 3:00 a.m. to provide more
hours of feeding time and increase
Eggs are still gathered by hand,
but then automation takes over
again. They are deposited in an air
conditioned room (the temperature
is kept at 70 degrees year around)
where candling, washing, grading
and packing take place. One per-
son watches as the eggs roll over
the candling light and go into the
machine where they are washed.
One person watches as the eggs
are automatically graded, and then
packs them by hand.
In the beginning the Houcks
bought day-old chicks and raised
their own laying flocks. They soon
found that raising chicks was just
as much a speciality business as
producing eggs. They now pur-
chase 18 to 20 weeks old pullets
from a Georgia farmer who special-
izes in chick production. The birds
are just starting to lay at this age.
Two cross-bred strains, H & N
and Honegger, exclusively make up
the laying flocks. These strains
were developed primarily for high
Birds generally are kept in the
laying flock for about 14 months,
when production decreases to a
point that it is no longer profitable
to keep them. Then, they are
Mr. and Mrs. Houck and son John Larry after gathering eggs.
In the background is large feed storage tank which is connected
to automatic feeding system.
slaughtered and sold as stewing
Mr. Houck claims he has no
difficulty selling the stewing hens.
"We sell them to our regular route
customers," he says.
With good management, ac-
cording to Mr. Houck, a bird can
produce one dozen eggs for every
four pounds of feed. But, 5,000
birds require a lot of feed-15 tons
every 20 days to be exact.
Feed is trucked in from Jack-
sonville and augered into a bulk
tank next to the houses. This allows
Houck to buy feed for one month
at a time.
There has been relatively little
problem with respiratory and other
"We give them good clean
water, keep the houses clean and
use the recommended disease con-
trols," Houck says. "We haven't
had any trouble."
The family has 350 acres in cul-
tivation on the farm. About 200
acres are in corn. and during 1962
about 12 acres were planted in
Assistant County Agent Bill
Smith says Mr. Houck is ready to
try any new idea, just as the poul-
try business was an experiment.
On a recent visit to the farm,
Houck greeted Smith with a hearty
exchange followed by: "I've de-
cided to go into the hog business.
Don't you think that pond down
there will make a good wash?"
The amiable, sandy-haired far-
mer already has made two or three
trips to look at the facilities of
hog-raisers in neighboring coun-
ties. Maybe he and his ambitious
family are on their way to another
1962: The Year The Roof Caved In On Citrus
It's an ill wind that blows nobody good! That
old adage proved still to be working in 1962 in Flor-
ida. The ill wind that blew freezing air over the
citrus groves in December brought ruin and destruc-
tion to most growers; but, the few who were spared
will make a handsome profit.
From the very beginning the 1962 season looked
bad. It followed a 1961 bumper year, in which growers
not only set a record in producing the largest citrus
crop in history (148.4 million boxes) but also produced
an unusually large carry-over of 3323 million gallons
of frozen orange concentrate.
Outlook for another bumper crop seemed inevi-
table. By October the truth was known and the new
crop was officially estimated at 163.6 million boxes.
Marketing prospects were indeed dismal.
As the new season opened, the industry was armed
with determination not only to sell the large carry-
over, but to do a good job with the incoming bumper
crop. Despite valiant efforts, prices remained low
and outlook bad.
H. F. Swanson, Orange County Agent, analyzed
these price trends, and decided the industry might be
facing a very serious marketing problem.
"For years, we had been concentrating on produc-
tion; our schools in Orange County had been designed
to show growers how they could increase yields. As
soon as the crop forecast indicated the State's orange
crop would be a whopping 120 million boxes," Swan-
son says, "I felt that it was my responsibility to in-
form growers of the future trends of the citrus in-
"As soon as we realized that the price for Valencias
was going to remain lower than in previous years, I
talked with my citrus advisory committee about what
we could do: Many growers had been calling and
asking me about the low prices. We decided that
our next citrus school a series of eight weekly meet-
ings should be on marketing."
To prepare for the marketing school, Dr. W. E.
Black of the Florida Citrus Commission was invited
to speak at the June 7 Citrus Production Round-Up
on the subject "The Consumer (Household) Market
for Fruit Juices, and Fruit Drinks During the Past
Five Years". This was followed in July with a talk
by Joe Mullin, Agricultural Statistician who spoke
on the subject "The How and Why of Citrus Crop
The Citrus Marketing School was scheduled for
October 9 through November 27, and 191 people
signed up for the course. Eight one-hour lectures
following by 1 hour discussion sessions were sched-
As the kick-off for the marketing school, the Orange
County Agent scheduled a panel discussion on the
subject, "Local means of marketing your fruit". Dr.
E. W. Cake, Extension Service, marketing economist
was moderator for this panel on which cash buyers,
co-ops, and grower associations were represented.
Orange county's marketing school had hardly
closed when it happened! The freeze of the Century!
Temperatures had ranged about 7 degrees below nor-
mal for the previous six weeks and groves were
dormant. On December 12, north winds rose to from
20 to 30 m.p.h., and the cold started rolling in. By
nightfall 52 million lush, fruit-laden citrus trees were
in the path of what has been termed the worst freeze
in Florida history. Fifty million boxes of fruit were
lost. Another 50 million were frozen, but were ul-
timately salvaged. Only a few interior groves and
those on the lower east coast from Wabasso south-
ward were spared.
On the morning of December 14, it was obvious
that instead of over-production, there would be an
acute shortage of citrus. Prices rocketed from $.75
to $1.00 per box, to $4 to $5 per box on the tree. It
was also obvious that millions of trees probably as
many as 15 million had been killed.
Even though this was a tremendous loss, it took
on added significance considering the various de-
grees of damage within the remaining trees. On the
trees still alive there was a bearing surface loss in
some cases up to 75 percent and more. This will
further reduce supply during the next several years.
It has been estimated that about one-fourth of
Florida's total citrus acreage was killed by the freeze.
Since the major supplies of nursery trees also were
killed, replanting will, of necessity, be limited during
the next two years while a new supply of nursery
stock is being developed from seeds planted in the
spring of 1963.
It is further estimated that the "freeze of the
Century" reduced Florida's total citrus acreage from
660,000 to some 470,000 acres. This lost acreage re-
presented some $200 million, that for all practical
purposes vanished during a 24-hour period on De-
cember 13 and 14, 1962. Even so, when the final crop
returns for the 1962-63 season are totaled the reduced
crop of 100 million boxes will, in all probability; have
returned more money than would the original 163
million. In spite of this unprecedented income, there
are many growers who were wiped out completely,
while others went from rags to riches overnight.
Other 1962 Developments
Medfly Strikes the Third Time: In the early spring,
this dread insect was found near the International Air-
port in Dade County. Within 24 hours poison bait
was being sprayed over the entire areas in which the
fly had apparently become established, after "hitch
Roger Parker, Assistant Marion County Agent, and Dave Martsoff, Assistant Citriculturist, inspect damage on the
morning after "the freeze of the century".
flying" in from outside the continental limits of the
U.S. By the end of the year it appears that the
Mediterranean Fruit Fly will have been successfully
eradicated for the third time.
Insidious Worms Keep Burrowing In: Radolphus
Similis, or the burrowing nematode which spreads in
all directions at the rate of about 100 feet per year,
continues to be a major threat to the remaining Flor-
ida Citrus Industry. Spreading decline, as it is called
because of its slow spread in all directions, does not
kill citrus trees outright. Through the extensive feed-
ing of millions of these microscopic eel worms, the
feeder root system of citrus trees is destroyed and
the trees are reduced in vitality to the point that they
are of no economic value. There are currently some
8,500 acres of infested groves scattered throughout
the citrus producing area, and unless a satisfactory
eradication or control program is soon developed, the
entire industry will be in jeopardy.
Piggy-Back-Fishy-Back applies to the citrus in-
dustry's new approach to getting more fresh fruit to
the consumer in better condition at less cost to the
producer. "Piggy-Back" is the term applied to the
practice of loading "semi-trucks" and refrigerated
trailers with citrus and, in turn, loading the trailer
minus the truck onto railroad cars for the long haul
to markets. This practice eliminates some of the
expensive loading and unloading at terminal markets.
It makes the supply more mobile and all the while
the fruit is sealed in trailers that have a built in, con-
trolled atmosphere conducive to maintaining the fruit
in its freshest form.
"Fishy-Back" carries the process one step further.
The trailers are loaded onto trucks, then trains, and
finally onto decks of trans-ocean freighters. Since
they are deck loaded, they are the last cargo on
and the first off. The individual boxes of citrus are
handled only twice. Under the old system they were
hauled, stacked and stored in warehouses at dock-
side prior to loading during loading and subsequent
to unloading. Fishy-Back is placing fresh citrus in
the European consumers' hands in as little as 10 to 15
days after harvest here in Florida.
Extension Efforts and Accomplishments Be-
cause of the previous years' large crop and the cur-
rent year's outlook, the Extension Service devoted its
efforts to production practices that would result in
higher quality fruit at lower cost. These practices
were extended through five grower institutes and
seven grower schools that involved an estimated 4,000
growers in personal contact with one or more Exten-
sion workers. In addition, numerous news releases,
16 trade magazine articles, five television shows and
six radio programs were conducted by the three
specialists in the Fruit Crops project.
During the fall, a three-day shortcourse on the
correct use of pesticides was conducted by the pro-
ject for the benefit and training of the Institute of
Food Technologists. This school was headed by
Jack McCown, Associate Citriculturist, and held on
the University of Florida campus. The program had
such wide appeal that CBS (from their N.Y. Office)
requested permission to film the program for its "CBS
As a result of the sudden freeze on December 13
and 14, the Extension Service had to "shift gears"
overnight and through cooperative efforts of Florida
Citrus Mutual, some 12,000 citrus growers received,
by direct mail, a special bulletin on the treatment of
cold damaged citrus. Pruning demonstrations and
extensive educational programs aimed at grove re-
habilitation are planned for 1963.
Bob Norris believes in setting an example for his
friends and neighbors. But, that isn't the only reason
he built a fallout shelter. Bob wants to live in the
case of an attack, and he's dead serious about the
business of Civil Defense.
Norris is Lake County agent. Civil Defense is
now part of his job, but this has not always been the
case. Bob actually built the fallout shelter nearly
a year before the Agricultural Extension Service began
a program of making people aware of the danger of
nuclear attack. He was one of the first county agents
to receive information when Extension began this
program of education on the --
measures all people should take
to protect themselves against the
effects of World War III, should
it ever come.
"I guess mine was the first
fallout shelter to be built in Lake
County. At the time a young
man in Ocala went into business
and he helped build mine. It
took us about nine months. He
was a nice young fellow, but
now he's out of business. Ex-
cept for one or two brief scares,
people have not been interested.
"So far as I know, we have 15
or 20 family fallout shelters in
the county and about four built
to accommodate several families.
"Right down the road," Norris Couldn't hap
pointed "there is a huge shelter County Agent
built by four families. It is lives it could
among rural I
completely underground. They for
pooled their m o n e y-about
$2,000 each-to build it. Actual-
ly they offered to build the shel-
ter to accommodate as many as
100 families, but could raise no
"There's another large shel-
ter over at Mount Dora built for
five or six families. There is a
doctor in on that one, and several nurses. They have
just about everything they could possibly need, in-
cluding a little operating room.
"But I don't mean to paint a picture of success
in Lake County. We don't feel that way at all. The
people just aren't interested. I try to present some
information every week, either part of my radio show
or during some meeting. But, you almost have to
have a captive audience to get anyone to listen."
As an example, Norris indicates that there hasn't
been a single livestock fallout shelter built in the coun-
ty, and this is an important part of the Extension's
program of education. It is essential that at least
breeder livestock be preserved in the event of attack.
The Lake County agent says he hopes a demonstra-
tion model can be built in the near future.
The entire county Extension staff has been work-
ing on this problem of education. As a matter of
fact, Home Demonstration Agent Marian Valentine,
has been working on a food preparedness program
for nearly eight years. She explains that she had
Civil Defense training before coming to Lake County.
Her office has mimeographed 200 copies of emergen-
cy food supply lists and distri-
**. buted them to food stores, city
employees, the County Cham-
'. \ ber of Commerce and Home
[) Demonstration Clubs.
S Norris believes the lack of
) interest in civil defense is the
result of a combination of fac-
tors. Like an automobile ac-
cident or any other disaster, peo-
ple "just don't believe it can
Happen to them". Of course,
there is always a matter of the
cost, but adequate financing is
available through agencies such
S- Of those who have built in-
i dividual family shelters, very
few want anyone to know about
here? Lake it. This is a good example of
>b Norris be- how deadly serious they are
and crusades about Civil Defense. Most of
le to prepare
e to prepare the shelters are below ground
and well-camouflaged. Norris
points out, "you could drive by
some of those shelters every day
and never know they were
Existing fallout shelters have
been built of several materials;
some are concrete block and
some are metal. The Norris
shelter is steel and is buried in the back yard of his
Tavares home. There could be little secret that he
has something in his back yard because of the mound
of dirt. Of course, he has made no secret of the
shelter and has used it as a sample for those people
who were interested. Actually, the mound of dirt
was an accident. Norris hit water at a high level and
was unable to completely bury the tank-shaped metal
Since most of the people who have fallout shelters
are completely serious, they have taken exceptional
: "\ ':'
Mrs. Robert Norris, right, county agent's wife shows off
underground fallout shelter.
care to store away food and other materials which
would be necessary to "begin again" in the event of
The Norris family shelter is designed to accom-
modate Mr. and Mrs. Norris, 16-year-old Tim, and a
married daughter and her family who live nearby.
The daughter has three children, and among the
items included in the shelter are numerous toys.
Entryway of the Norris shelter is covered by
a heavy metal cover. Below this is a spiral metal stair-
case which is separate from the shelter proper. Just
inside the door there is an air-conditioning unit which
draws air through the three feet of dirt which covers
the shelter. A pipe extends just above the surface
level and acts as an intake. At the other end there is
an emergency exit. This exit is filled with dirt but re-
sembles a chimney. Should it be necessary to exit at
this end, only the amount of dirt within the chimney
which extends to the surface would fall into the
Aside from cots for sleeping and a chemically-
operated commode, there are numerous shelves which
contain canned goods, powdered milk and concen-
trated foods, and a supply of peanuts-a high energy
food. Among other items of interest are eight to 10
gallons of honey, several cans of a high-protein food
concentrate, concentrated Vitamin C tablets, and a
number of medicines and minor drugs. Of course,
a good first aid kit is very much a part of the equip-
ment. At one end of the shelter is a 25-gallon tank
for the family's water supply. This tank is built
outside but at the same level as the main shelter. In
the event that something should happen to this water
supply, there are a number of one-gallon jugs of water
within the main fallout shelter.
Bob has emphasized to the people of Lake County
the importance of getting an adequate food supply
"I have tried to impress on people that the instant a
national emergency is declared by the President, all
retail stores will be closed. They will be unable to
buy food. I try to make them realize that although
we grow a lot of oranges in this county, we don't really
grow any food. I ask them where they will get their
food if we have an attack."
"Actually," Norris says, "there has been some pro-
gress in getting people to buy and store a reserve
supply. We also have made some progress in inter-
esting people to, at least, set aside an interior part of
their homes as an area where they might go in the
event of an attack."
The Extension Service program, which Norris
and Mrs. Valentine carry out, is primarily an educa-
tional one. Working with local Civil Defense organi-
zations, the State Department of Agriculture has re-
sponsibility for controlling the destination of all foods
from the wholesaler to retail outlets in the event of
disaster. Local USDA offices have responsibility for
handling foods from the farmer to the wholesale
"It's my job to encourage farmers to protect them-
selves," Norris says, "and to provide themselves with
at least some breeding animals. Extension's role re-
mains an educational one.
"We will go on with our job of trying to interest
people. We are hoping for some success. We can't
just give up-it's too important."
Sign intended to keep uninvited visitor away.
Sign intended to keep uninvited visitors away.
Sandra Weiss Pins 4-H Emblem on FSU President Dr. Gordon Blackwell
4-H Leads To Home Economics Career
When Sanda Weiss joined the
fifth grade 4-H Club in the Lock-
hart Community in Orange County
11 eleven years ago, she could
hardly have realized that she was
opening the door to a career in
Sandra says work as a 4-H Club
member had the greatest influence
in making her decision to enter the
field of teaching and Extension.
During the time she was a club
member in Orange County, she
worked in 13 subject-matter pro-
ject areas with emphasis on cloth-
ing, electricity, safety and junior
leadership. Leadership responsi-
bilities in the Lockhart Junior Miss
Club provided her many opportu-
nities to share her knowledge and
skills learned in 4-H with younger
Working with her mother, Mrs.
R. H. Weiss, Sandra guided a group
of members in their club activities
for three years. Sandra says, "I
began my work as a junior leader
with two purposes in mind: to give
additional help to a small group-
providing opportunities they could
not receive in a large club of 50 or
60 members-and to encourage
girls to continue work in 4-H.
Among honors received for out-
standing work were trips to Na-
tional 4-H Club Congress in Chi-
cago and National 4-H Club Con-
ference in Washington, D.C. On
her first out-of-state trip Sandra
was impressed that 4-H Club work
reaches so far geographically and
has such a wide range of projects.
The Washington trip made
clear to the FSU senior that all
4-H'ers have common goals-to
develop themselves individually
and to learn how to become good
After coming to FSU, she chose
a career in home economics and
Home Demonstration education.
Since Sandra always wanted to
teach and had decided her inter-
ests were in working with a wide
range of ages, the Extension serv-
ice seemed to offer the right op-
Through the Collegiate 4-H
Club and as junior counselor to
freshmen girls, Sandra continues
to exhibit leadership qualities
learned through 4-H by helping
new students adjust to college life.
"4-H has helped me develop
more self confidence and the abili-
ty to meet the demands of college
life," Sandra says. Her parents en-
couraged her to work and continue
in 4-H. This is why she feels that
interested parents mean so much
to the club member and to the 4-H
Florida's 4-H program received
one of its highest compliments last
November when Jacky Strickland,
4-H'er from Gainesville, was named
as the top leadership winner in the
This was the first time a Florida
youth received the award-the
highest honor presented at the An-
nual National 4-H Congress held
For being one of the national
winners, Jacky received a $400
scholarship and an expense paid
trip to the Congress. As top na-
tional winner he received a silver
tray from a representative of Presi-
Jacky's climb to 4-H fame has not
been all easy sledding. In fact, ac-
cording to Alachua County Agent
A. T. Andrews, "Strickland didn't
exactly begin as a gavel-wielding
leader." As a 10-year-old club mem-
ber he was frecklefaced and shy.
In an effort to draw him out, his
club leader asked him to make a
speech before a large group. Young
Strickland was horrified. He wrote
a speech, practiced it, and then lis-
tened to himself on a tape recorder.
He practiced until, according to his
club leader, he had worked up a
pretty good speech.
Through the guidance of his
club leader and county agent, Jacky
went on to win state honors in pub-
lic speaking and to be elected pres-
ident of the Florida 4-H Council.
"Jacky's a hard worker who has
earned his own way in 4-H." This is
the way Grant Godwin, associate
state Boys' 4-H agent phrases it.
"He has been a real leader, one that
the boys respect. Florida 4-H is
proud of Jacky."
In 1962 Jacky was selected to
attend the National 4-H Confer-
ence in Washington where he was
elected to preside over a session
honoring Secretary of Agriculture
Orville Freeman. He represented
the U. S. as one of eight delegates
Continued Next Page
Keeping up to date is easy for
Florida homemakers. Home Eco-
nomics Extension offers them an
opportunity to be students in a
program of continuing adult educa-
This year they had their choice
of a variety of subjects to study,
including fabrics and finishes; nu-
trition problems; management of
family finances; selection, use and
care of electrical equipment; color
coordination in home furnishings
or the family wardrobe; and all
phases of housing, from a plan to
fit the family to floor and wall
finishes; and from storage to step-
saving arrangements of work cen-
Homemakers who participate in
the nation-wide family living ed-
ucational program lead as well as
learn as they share their informa-
tion on family living with others.
"Family living education today
in Florida centers largely around
family spending, selection of fam-
ily clothing for all occasions, food
for healthy families, child develop-
ment, selection, care, and repair
of household furnishings and
equipment, and home grounds im-
provement," Miss Anna Mae Sikes,
state Home Demonstration agent,
The changing status and role
of women, early marriages, larger
families, longer life span, higher
living standards, higher incomes, a
higher national level of education,
increased spending power, and
more leisure time are all changes
influencing every aspect of family
The increasing number of wo-
men in the labor force today has
economic, social, and psychological
implications on family life.
All these forces affecting the
family are being taken into account
as Extension Home Economics
makes its contributions to the ed-
ucation of people.
Home Demonstration leaders study nutrition chart
Their Aim Is Nutrition Education
The Hillsborough County Nu-
trition Committee, organized 10
years ago with the assistance of the
Home Demonstration Agent, is
meeting a real need today in the
coordination of nutrition education.
The committee is made up of
public health nutritionists, super-
visors of homemaking education,
representative from the Community
Coordinating Council Welfare De-
partment and voluntary health
agencies, home economists in busi-
ness, hospital dietitians, the news-
paper food editor, school lunch
coordinators, and Extension Home
At the request of the Depart-
ment of Public Welfare, the com-
mittee helped plan nutritious
menus within the welfare allow-
They published a booklet "Eat
Better for Less Money", studied
market ads and made many trips
to the local markets to study food
The resulting planned menu
was pre-tested in the field with
selected families. One woman liv-
ing on a welfare allowance with
an invalid daughter reported that
they "had eaten like kings" com-
pared with what they usually did.
All case workers were trained
in use of these guides for good nu-
trition. The booklet contained not
only menus and market orders, but
also gave some very simple nutri-
tion information and cooking tips.
The material also is being used in
other parts of the state by welfare
Nutrition education on weight
control and food fads and fallacies
received attention by the commit-
tee. At the request of the medical
society, the group prepared a bro-
chure "Grow Slim Stay Trim,"
containing basic nutrition and
health information, low calorie
menus and a calorie chart. The
food editor of the local newspaper
publicized the booklet and over a
thousand requests were made with-
in a few days from 107 cities and
towns within Florida and from
Extension is taking a leading
role in this dynamic county-wide
program for the benefit of good
nutrition and health.
to the Canadian National Youth
Conference in Toronto and Ottawa
in 1960. Strickland won the state
public speaking title in 1961 and
was state winner of the electric
program in 1959.
Strickland has represented Flor-
ida on every 4-H state judging
team except one-"I don't know
how to judge a chicken," he ex-
plains. He has judged on the state
dairy, vegetable, meat, land and
Strickland's success reflects hon-
or on Florida's 4-H. But it does
more than that. It is indicative
of the 44,000 potential "Jackys"
now in the 4-H program.
=7 '.E 7-
Better Breeding Stock Suggested
In the long-range agricultural outlook for Jefferson
County there was a recognized need for improving
the quality of swine being produced.
After taking a hard look at this problem, a plan-
ning committee of agricultural leaders together with
the Negro agent Robert Bryant came up with one
answer-better breeding stock.
To get farmers thinking in terms of better swine
production, the agent arranged a swine tour with a
visit to one of the county's more progressive producers.
This was followed by a forum on swine production
where farmers told of their experiences in producing
swine. These educational methods created great in-
terest in the program.
As a result, the agent managed to get six pure-
bred boars placed into the herds of farmers this
year. It did not take long to see results. One 4-H
club boy, whose father bought one of the boars,
showed both the grand and junior champion pig in
the youth swine show this year.
Agent Bryant says, "I feel that even more progress
will be seen in swine production in the coming year."
Gadsden Farmers Seek Increased Tobacco Yield
The increase in production from flue-cured to-
bacco has been relatively low in Gadsden County
through the years. Gadsden Negro growers, inter-
ested in increased income from all farming enter-
prizes-especially from tobacco, one of Florida's top
cash field crops-called on Russell Stephens, the Ne-
gro county agent, to help solve the problem.
Stephens invited his flue-cured tobacco growers
into conference to discuss the situation. They traced
the slow progress in improvement of tobacco income
to failure to secure plants early enough, improper
fertilization, and lack of sorting poor grades from
good quality tobacco.
Working together, Stephens and the growers
mapped out strategy to lick these problems. They
went on record in recommending a workable pro-
gram including plastic tobacco seed bed cover dem-
onstrations, soil testing, sorting and grading demon-
stations, flue-cured tobacco exhibits and awards.
At the awards program growers gave open testi-
monials concerning the benefits from adopting one
or more of the recommended practices.
To help generate interest in and application of
scientific methods, the Agricultural Extension Service
educational program used communications, news ar-
ticles, farm visits, tours of demonstrations, radio spots,
meetings, and exhibits.
Results? This year Gadsden growers realized a
1,659-pound average acre yield-a 331/3 percent in-
crease over previous years. With 218 acres, yielding
316,880 pounds of tobacco grown in Gadsden this year,
the total tobacco crop-selling at a state average of
56 cents a pound-amounted to $202,652.
Growers in Gadsden are meeting the challenge
to increase their income by producing higher yields,
thanks to improved practices.
New Agent In Town
How does a new Home Dem-
onstration agent in town get across
her message of better living?
Mrs. Virginia Gardner, Pinellas
County's first Negro Home Dem-
onstration agent, has spent a busy
year telling the Home Demonstra-
tion story across Pinellas' 275,000
acres contained in the small pen-
insula between Tampa Bay and
the Gulf of Mexico.
She has concentrated her efforts
on the broad problem area of fam-
ily finance and money management.
She has counseled intensively with
families in decision-making related
specifically to wise use of time,
energy, money, and the division of
labor among family members.
She has given guidance in help-
ing homemakers develop an under-
standing of the wise selection, use,
and care of equipment in order to
receive maximum service.
She is teaching homemakers to
make a financial plan. It covers
making an estimate of income and
expenses, comparing and adjust-
ing, and keeping monthly spending
records. Homemakers say they
are more conscious of budgeting
family income and are getting a
realistic picture of what they ac-
tually spend. They are learning
that there is no trick to managing
money properly, but there are sev-
eral fundamentals-that, first of all,
it is important to develop a sense of
appreciation for one's own income
After taking stock, their eyes
were opened. They commented:
"I had no idea we spent so much
on non-essentials! . "Services
surely add up.".. "We could save
some if we made a budget and
stuck to it." . ."Interest comes
high." . "Impulse buying can
wreck the family pocketbook." . .
Mrs. Gardner works closely
with families on money manage-
ment as related to better planning,
smart buying, and careful prepara-
tion of food in an effort to improve
family meals. First, she points
out that it is necessary to under-
stand foods and their function in
maintaining good health. She em-
phasizes the cultivation of good
eating habits. Homemakers and
4-H members learn to manage their
time and conserve their energy in
planning, buying, and preparing
The agent recently made a sur-
vey to determine the number of
families who use the Daily Food
Guide to serve balanced meals.
She encouraged them to plan
menus around seasonally abundant
foods and advertised specials, and
to serve fewer and larger courses
to enable bulk buying. She recom-
mended buying large packages in-
stead of the costly small ones and
considering supermarkets o w n
brands as compared with adver-
tised brands which may be more
expensive. She showed that
standard grades B or C are the
same nutritionally as grade A or
so-called "fancy" qualities.
Through teaching family eco-
nomics the agent is reaching home-
makers and families throughout
Pinellas county with information
vital to everyday living.
, 1 i.
Four top Florida Negro 4-H'ers, whose achievements and administrative official; Cheryl L. Hill, Tallahassee; Lessie
leadership earned them a trip to Washington, are shown Hayes, Miami high school senior; Virgil Elkins, Florida dis-
visiting the U. S. Department of Agriculture. With the trict agent; Miss Floy Britt, Florida District Home agent;
young people are USDA and Florida Extension Service Miss LeBourhis; Marion Franklin, Madison; Robert Mc-
Negro officials. They are observing some of the art work Elroy, Greenwood; and Dr. Joseph Bradford, Federal Ex-
of Miss Louise LeBourhis of Agricultural Marketing Serv. tension information specialist.
ice. From left are A. S. Bacon, Federal Extension Service
Improving family living is one of the aims of the Home shown in their home above. Pictured between Mr. and
Demonstration program. Marion County's Negro home Mrs. Pasteur are Regional Jr. and Roderick. The little girl
agent has worked closely with the Regional Pasteur family, is Karen Dixon, the daughter of a neighbor.
Marion County Clean-Up Campaign Nets Results
For years people in Marion County had talked
about poor sanitation, health problems, and the in-
creasing number of farm and home accidents.
But nobody did anything about them-that is, not
until this year when some 50 Negro community lead-
ers launched a clean-up campaign. Their target?-
To rid the county of mosquitoes and cut down mount-
ing farm and home accidents.
The group soon learned it was necessary to call
on other committees and leaders to do specific jobs.
Getting volunteers was no problem. Barbers, under-
takers, businessmen, doctors, teachers, ministers, do-
mestic workers, and laborers came forward, ready to
Committees-seven of them, to be exact-rolled
up their sleeves and went to work. A steering com-
mittee planned and directed work to be done. It set
a date for completing the campaign. The job of the
beautification committee was to encourage families
to plant lawns, trees, flowers, and to banish all rub-
bish, tin cans and refuse around the home.
Keeping the public informed of plans and pro-
gress kept the publicity committee busy. Meeting
with city and county governing boards to discuss
plans of Operation Clean-up and to request their as-
sistance in implementing the plans took many hours
of the contact committee's time.
No aspect was overlooked. The home improve-
ment committee gave training in interior decoration
to adults and young people. And, finally, the evalua-
tion and survey committee measured results and rec-
ommended further work to be done.
All county and city boards, professional leaders,
businessmen, and civic organizations endorsed the
drive. City and county governments furnished trucks
to haul away rubbish. In six days 325 truck loads of
refuse were taken to disposal points.
More than 1,500 shrubs and trees were donated by
individuals and groups for community beautification.
Thirty-one dilapidated buildings were razed. More
than 750 homes were improved by installing bath-
rooms, building adequate storage, setting driveways
and walkways, adding rooms, hanging drapes, build-
ing and repairing steps, painting -and re-roofing,
screening, and landscaping. In an effort to control
mosquitoes, stagnant water was removed. Building
materials, paint, and other supplies were secured at
The new agricultural building was an inspiration
to members of the community to improve their sur-
roundings. After 4-H club members and adults helped
landscape the building, they put into practice what
they had learned about landscaping in their own yards
Operation Clean-Up extended to cleaning and
beautifying community cemeteries and getting run-
ning water installed in them.
The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated all
the way from start to finish, contributing counsel,
know-how, and educational aids to make the opera-
tion a success.
And successful it was. So successful, in fact, that
the campaign will be continued another year with
the same objective-better living.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1961-62
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1962-63
Bureau of Indian Affairs
State Trust Fund:
Bureau of Indian Affair
Rural Civil Defense
State Trust Funds:
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm and home visits made
Calls relating to Extension work:
News articles or stories prepared
Broadcasts made or prepared:
Adult result demonstrations conducted
116,309 Training meetings held for local leaders:
258,125 Total attendance
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting
Extension agents with organization, planning and con-
ducting of Extension work in counties:
Older club boys 663
Older club girls 837
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Total attendance 1,088,830
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs
Number of 4-H members enrolled in projects:
Boys 18,620, Girls 25,981, Total
Farm-13,315, rural non-farm-15,616, urban-15,670
~~: ~ '-
U' *2~ i.
S~SB~a ;;. f~IP"""P~a
::: : ::
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PEOPLE:
BOARD OF CONTROL
Baya M. Harrison, Jr., Chairman
Frank M. Buchanan
John C. Pace
Wayne C. McCall
Chester E. Whittle
Charles R. Forman
Gert H. W. Schmidt
Dr. J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
Joe N. Busby, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant Director
John H. Nininger, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Administration
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative, Manager
AGRICULTURAL WORK GAINESVILLE
Frank S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Communication Specialist1
William G. Mitchell, M.A., Associate Communication Specialist1
Roberts C. Smith, B.A., Assistant Communication Specialist
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Agr., State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, M.Agr., Associate State Boys' 4-H Club
B. J. Alien, M.A., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Thomas W. Sparks, M.Agr., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy Technologist
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Meat Specialist
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Agr., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Charles B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M., Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist'
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
Jack T. McCown, M.Agr., Assistant Citriculturist
Jay D. Martsolf, Jr., M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
Frank S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist'
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
James M. Stephens, M.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist1
James L. Taylor, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Allen M. Wilson, M.S., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Norman R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultry Husbandman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Agr., Assistant Poultry Husbandman
Henry G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Economist, Farm Marketing
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Economist
Roger P. Hill, M.S.A., Assistant Economist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Shelby L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, M.S.F., Assistant Farm Forester
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Ph.D., Associate Marketing Specialist
in Vegetable Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Howard C. Giles, Ph.D., Livestock Marketing Specialist
Clyde R. Madsen, B.S., Rodent Control Specialist"
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Florida National Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK TALLAHASSEE
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Assistant to State Home Demonstration
Agent in Trainee Work
Ann Elizabeth Thompson, Assistant to State Home
Demonstration Agent, Programs
Lora A. Kiser, B.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Home Demonstration Agent
Susan C. Camp, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Catherine A. Knarr, M.S., Home Management and Family
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Roberta H. Hall, M.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Emily E. King, Ph.D., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Betty S. Mifflin, M.S., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Pauline N. Brimhall, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Alma Warren, M.A. in L.S., Assistant Communication Specialist
Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Family Life Specialist
NEGRO WORK, TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, M.S., Negro District Home Demonstration Agent
Virgil L. Elkins, M.Agr., Negro District Agent
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
County County Agent
Alachua Wilburn Farrell
Alachua (Asst.) A. T. Andrews
Baker A Luther Harrell
Bay Horace M. Carr
'Cooperative, Other Divisions, U. of F.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks
Miss Eliza J. Moxley
Dade (Asst. Mktg. Agt.)
Glades (Indian Work)
G. T. Huggins
James T. Oxford
H. W. Cunningham
Sylvester A. Rose
Robert S. Pryor
Frank J. Jasa
Lewis E. Watson
Harvey T. Paulk
Charles A. Saunders
N. H. McQueen
Royce C. Williams
Emmett D. McCall
George M. Owens
Donald W. Lander
Joseph H. Whitesell
Charles L. Anderson
Neal M. Dukes
Donald F. Jordan
John D. Campbell
Aaron A. Hutchinson
Nolan L. Durre
Joseph D. Dalton
Louis J. Daigle
Roy J. Champagne
Ralph E. Huffaker
William L. Hatcher
Ben H. Floyd
Charles E. Rowan
James N. Watson
Thomas F. Braddock, Jr.
James F. Cummings
E. Norbert Stephens
James H. Walker
Joe M. O'Neal
J. Lowell Loadholtz
Howard Taylor, Jr.
William C. Zorn
John C. Russell
Bernard H. Clark
James R. Yelvington
B. O. Bass
Cubie R. Laird
Rance A. Andrews
Jack C. Hayman
Frank L. Polhill
Charles R. Smith
Bert J. Harris, Jr.
Richard S. Pike
Paul E. Glasscock
Clarence F. O'Quinn
Robert M. Davis
Robert D. Downs
Wayne T. Wade
M. C. Jorgensen
C. U. Storey
Forrest N. McCullars
Woodrow W. Glenn
James C. McCall
Russell R. Rudd
David M. Solger
Albert H. Odom
Edward J. Cowen
Robert E. Norris
William M. Nixon
Glenn L. Loveless, Jr.
James N. Luttrell
J. Lloyd Rhoden
Raymond H. Burgess
Bobby R. Durden
Leonard C. Cobb
James B. Estes
J. Edsel Thomaston
O. R. Hamrick, Jr.
Green Cove Springs
Green Cove Springs
Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Mrs. Sue B. Young
Mrs. Arlen C. Jones
Mrs. Glenda R. Newsom
Miss Louise Taylor
Mrs. Dorothy Y. Gifford
Mrs. Annie F. Grab
Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Mrs. Margaret Nelson
Miss Sandra L. Reese
Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish
Mrs. Erma L. Butcher
Mrs. Justine L. Bizette
Mrs. Marjory B. McDonald
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey
Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Miss Mary L. Gallagher
Miss Virginia R. Wood
Miss Sarah E. Anderson
Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson
Miss Joy Coffey
Mrs. Peggy H. Walls
Miss Carolyn Tew
Mrs. Marjorie Gregory
Miss Shirley A. Trawick
Mrs. May O. Fulton
Mrs. Wylma B. White
Miss Nancy B. Whigham
Mrs. Dot V. Rooks
Mrs. Patricia G. Hurley
Miss Lora Kiser
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett
Mrs. Mary C. Luter
Mrs. Virginia H. Coombs
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Miss Fern S. Nix
Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Mrs. Marian V. Valentine
Miss Mary E. Davis
Miss Mahalah J. Harrison
Mrs. Dorothy J. Classon
Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock
Mrs. Almon S. Zippperer
Marion (Acting Asst.)
Palm Beach (Assoc.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
St. Johns (Asst.)
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
Ernest R. Wheaton
W. Harper Kendrick
Earl M. Kelly
Robert G. Curtis
Thomas C. Greenwalt
Edsel W. Rowan
Roger A. Parker
W. H. Fletcher
L. M. Johnson
Gordon B. Ellis
Jack D. Patten
Clifford R. Boyles
Henry F. Swanson
Kenneth L. Rauth
R. Bruce Christmas
Bruce A. Barmby
James B. Smith
M. U. Mounts
John H. Causey
Norman C. Bezona
Rayburn K. Price
Raleigh S. Griffis
A. F. Cribbett
Luther L. Rozar
Harry J. Brinkley
Theodore Gallo, III
G. M. Whitton, Jr.
W. Paul Hayman
Robert L. Hall, Jr.
James D. Pierce
H. E. Maltby
Ralph T. Clay, Jr.
Paul L. Dinkins, Jr.
John A. Eubanks
Hugh C. Whelchel, Jr.
S. C. Kierce
Hilton T. Meadows
Kenneth A. Clark
E. E. Russell
Edwin S. Pastorious
Cecil A. Tucker, II
Ernest C. Lundberg
Donald A. George
Rollin H. McNutt, Jr.
J. Paul Crews
W. Howard Smith
Merle E. Palmer
Henry P. Davis
William C. Smith, Jr.
William J. Cowen
T. R. Townsend
L. L. Loadholtz
Lawrence D. Taylor
H. O. Harrison
Johnnie E. Davis
Lenzy M. Scott
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Miss Elva L. Seers
Miss Elsie M. Garrett
Miss M. Rose Howard
Miss Martha C. Burdine
Mrs. Evelyn I. Sabbarese
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter
Mrs. Marjorie L. Knight
Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Miss Janet G. Davidson
Miss Marilyn Dietrich
Miss Mary L. Todd
Mrs. Laura B. Burgard
Miss Beverly A. Sims
Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Miss Mary F. McMahan
Mrs. Charlotte Lattimer
Mrs. Dorothy E. Draves
Miss Lynnette B. Burk
Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Mrs. Mary H. Padgett
Mrs. Josephine M. Cameron
Mrs. Mary Sue Gann
Mrs. Essie H. Thompson
Miss Nettie R. Brown
Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Mrs. Barbara D. Payne
Mrs. Catherine H. Love
Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird
Miss Bernice G. Shuler
Mrs. Ethel P. Thompson
Mrs. Edna S. Eby
Mrs. Virginia C. Clark
Miss Sue Elmore
NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
English M. Greene
Russell H. Stephens
Isaac Chandler, Jr.
William L. Robinson, Jr.
Robert Bryant, Jr.
James C. Miller
Eugene P. Smith
Richard L. Bradley
Miss Leontine Williams
Miss Ellelene Redd
Miss Victoria Simpson
Mrs. Ursula Williams
Miss Sudella J. Ford
Mrs. Pearl G. Long
Mrs. Irie Mae Clark
Miss Deloris M. Jones
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas
Mrs. Leala R. Collins
Mrs. Dorothy B. Echols