with an eye
m to the future
UAL REPORT-YOUR FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 1960 ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXTENSION PROGRAM AREAS:
1. Agricultural Production ----- 4
Citrus ........ ..........---------------------------- 4
Land: The Big Citrus Question -- 4
Weather Was the Word in 1960 --- 5
Livestock ---...--...--.....--.----.......... 6
Producing Feeder Calves ....- --- --- 6
Beef Cattle in Alachua County -__-- _- 6
Carr Brothers Success Story -------- 7
Beating the Hog Cycle __ -------- 7
A Family Farm --..--..----. --.-__.--------- 8
Florida's National Egg-Laying Test .. ....._. -- ..8, 9
Controlling Resistant Houseflies _--- --- 9
Vegetables -_---____- -__---_--10
Strawberries Make a Comeback _--_ --- --10
Extending Vegetable Research Results -_ .-__ 11
Field Crops ------_- 11
Top Peanut Grower ---_.. -- ....-11
Soil Testing, a Tool for Larger Profits ...-~_ .- 12
Ornamentals ---------.--... ~___ 13
Planning the Future of Ornamental Horticulture ---.- 13
A Model Turf-Grass Certification Program -__ .13
Growing Ornamentals in New Areas .--. -. 14
Serving "Little Farm" Retirees ----- 14
Cut-Flower Rose Production -_... ------14
Other Agricultural Production Areas --_--- __ 15
Bees Supplement Retirement Pay ------15
Spraying Pecan Groves -.......... ------- 15
Clinic for Sick Plants --_...--.____-._. 16
Growing Healthy Plants --..-.-..-__ ---_---...--.-- 16
2. Marketing Agricultural Products --- 17
Marketing Watermelons ----__...----- 17
Group Action Helps Solve Marketing Problems -._-... 18
"Good Tasting" Milk --... --. --.-... .....19
Planned Beekeeping ---------------....._-.-- --_ .. 19
3. Conservation of Natural Resources ---- -. 20
Planting Pines in Florida --.......-. ....____..__. -- 20
Studying Soil Testing _...----------...21
Changing Land Uses .....------.. --.. .........__. 21
Change Breeds Change ..... -----------.-- ___..- 21
Pulpwood Cutting ----. ....-- ...---- -....- _.. 21
Floods in Florida ---.----.-.. --....-....- ..... 22, 23
Forestry Questions --......-... ___-- _- ...... 24
First State Land Judging Contest ---.._... ......__25
Growing Christmas Trees in Florida .....- --_. ....26
4. Farm and Home Management -- -- 27
Dairy School Stresses Business Management ..--.-_... 27
Analyzing Farm Businesses ----_-------------------.. .. --. .27
An Outstanding Farm Family --........... ---------..28
Business Analysis Means Better Poultry Operations --. 28
Money Management Through 4-H --------------..... ...___. 29
Extension Plan Service Offers Plans for You ....---- 29
5. Family Living .-----------.------------- 30
Stitching a Winner .- --... .......---
Neighborhood Study Groups --------------.
Better Living Through Remodeling -
More Meals From Meat
Seminole Indians Grow Vegetable Gardens
An Extension Family .-...-__.....-----_.---
Creative Home Arts ------.....
Home Industries --------....
6. Youth Development -_- _-36
Meet Steve Baker-A Worthwhile 4-H Club Member __36
The Girls' Side of the 4-H Story ... ---------_.....37
Choosing a Career ------........ ----_ --.-.37
Developing 4-H Girls Through Camping --.. __ 38
Best Foot Forward ------- --. __38
A Voice in Planning __ .. ----------39
In Sickness And in Health -- -- -__40
A Cooperative 4-H Pasture .. __------40
College 4-H Camp .....---------- -- .. -- 41
Learning About Electricity in 4-H -.. ..-______... -- 41
Education Plus ..____ ---------__--42
State 4-H Boys' Short Course-After 4-H, What? --..42
4-H Helps Meet Mechanization Needs -------------.-- 42
7. Leadership Development -- -- 43
Discovered: A 4-H Leader -------43
Caladium Growers Organize -. ------43
8. Community Development and
Public Affairs ----- --- -- 44
Local Control in Rural Development .... --_--.. ___--- 44
A Better Community -----------___ --- 44
Do-It-Yourself Community Development -......------- 44
Planning Brings New Industry to Hamilton _.....__- 45
Tropical Broward Beautification Awards --.. ...-- --46
Community Center --......-.........------.----------46
Home Demonstration Women Serve an International
Luncheon --- ------.-- --~~.-.- 47
Women in Rural Development -.. --------_ 47
Highway Safety .--- -------____-__ .-----47
EXTENSION IN ACTION -----48
Home Demonstration Serves All the People -..--- ---49
Extension With a Foreign Flavor _--------------49
Extension in Action in Urban Duval County ....--------50
Today's New Frontiers in Home Demonstration ..___. 51
The Accent Is on People in Home Demonstration __-- 52
Chemically Speaking ____________. 52
Tractor Safety: Jughead, the Tractor Driving Dummy_53
Citrus Machinery on Display ... .------_ 53
Dairy Extension-The Old Way ---.. .. ___-... ____54
A 4-H Leader in Action __ --..._- .. .__ __54
Snapshots of Your Agricultural Extension Service
at Work --_....-.. -- ..._ .._... 55, 56
Negro Extension Work ------_ ---... ......._ ... 57
Making Sausage Means More Income --_.....--.. _-.. 57
For a Tall Girl-Better Clothing ---- --.. ---- 57
Better Family Living___ .......----------------- _-- 58
Enjoying a New Home -------_ ...58
STATISTICAL AND PERSONNEL SECTION 59-64
Extension Helps People Meet
Change in 8 Program
Form and Home
-1 1, i|
6 N1 I U ^
Community Development and Public Affairs
LAND: THE BIG CITRUS QUESTION
"Where can I get land for planting citrus?" That's
the big citrus question today. In various ways, Exten-
sion has tried to help growers get the answer.
The last decade has been described as the fabulous
fifties. Truly they were for most Florida citrus grow-
Even though total production of the mammoth
600,000- acre citrus industry was down after the freeze
years of 1957-58, economic returns have been the
highest in history. The 1959-60 crop of 122,300,000
boxes had a Florida instate value of $275,010,000.
There are 15,000 well established growers and
more than 200,000 new people moving into the state
each year. Many of these people are interested in
growing citrus. The well-drained soils in warm loca-
tions, long considered to be the only ones suited for
citrus production, are almost exhausted. No wonder
the big question becomes "Where can I find more
land to plant citrus?" Since ridge and hammock lands
are about all developed, prospective growers are look-
ing to the flatwoods and prairies of central and south-
In these lands prosperous growers and large cor-
portions no longer consider developing the 20, 40,
80, and 100-acre tracts, previously so popular. They
think of the new plantings in terms of whole sections
(640 acres) and thousands of acres. This is true
largely because of the drainage problem and amount
of land preparation involved. The "developers" and
subdividerss" are thinking in terms of developing 10,-
000 acres at a time. They subdivide it into 5, 10 and
20-acre units to be sold as retirement-income invest-
ments. There are now some 40 to 50 thousand acres
of these poorly drained soils in various stages of de-
velopment. Planting is proceeding at a rapid pace
without the benefit of extensive research findings and
Extension realizes that future plantings will have
to go onto these poorly drained soils. For this rea-
son, it led in calling together representatives from
State and Federal experiment stations, the Soil Con-
servation Service, and the College of Agriculture to
prepare a summary of the best current research, ex-
perience and opinions on such plantings. A mimeo-
graphed paper containing this summary is available
from the Extension Service.
Clearing land to be
planted in citrus.
Was the Word
Weather of many kinds brought problems to the
citrus industry and to Extension during 1960.
"Wet" is the only way to describe the spring and
The normal rainfall is about 36.9 inches between
January 1 and August 31. This was exceeded by
about 1/3, or 12.9 inches, in 1960.
This, following one of the wettest years on record
(1959), produced fine growing conditions for the high,
well drained plantings. But groves in poorly drained
locations were inundated where growers had not sup-
plied adequate supplementary drainage. Many grow-
ers lost considerable fruit and some trees. They, like
other growers, turned to Extension for help.
Foot rot, even in the well drained groves, caused
much trouble in both old and young trees following
this abnormally high rainfall. Many growers have
lost many trees from this cause.
Hurricane Donna-in her mad rush across the state
in early September-almost completely destroyed some
citrus groves in the south central area of the citrus
belt. The initial result was- an estimated 5 percent
reduction in the orange crop and 20 percent loss of
grapefruit. Besides, the fall fruit drop was much
heavier than normal. This caused a further cut in
the official USDA crop estimate.
Cold weather was another feature of the 1960
weather picture. Below-freezing temperatures oc-
curred nightly from January 20 through the 25th. This
A storm-uprooted citrus tree bears testimony to the fury of
Hurricane Donna's winds.
caused some damage to tender citrus growth and fruit
in almost all areas of the state in unprotected, colder
groves. This cold damaged unprotected young trees
in the colder locations rather severely after minor
damage from the cold of the preceding November
30th. Cold, wet weather continued through the 22nd
of March. Thus this was 1 of our coldest winters.
There were 57 cold nights during this season, as com-
pared to the average of 48.
In all of these situations, the Extension Service
issued special information to hard-hit growers. A
radio report was issued immediately on treatment of
water damage, hurricane damage and freeze injury.
Special newspaper and magazine articles were
published. County agents in affected areas received
and gave the growers the best technical advice and
research information on treatment for recovery of
Florida Citrus Mutual assisted greatly by publish-
ing such information in its weekly news-letters. These
go directly to their 10,500 grower members.
Hurricane Donna almost
destroyed a number of
b ku-, "
Does Florida really produce feeder calves \'is-
itors not familiar \vith uir cattle industry often ask
The a.insver is 'es. Large ninmbers of feeder cattle
art- now being produced annual\ in Florida's com-
mercial herds. Although Florida is not vet self-suffi-
cient in feeder cattle production, this gap is being
rapidly closed. An example of such production is the
operation of Mr. Ralph Sexton of Vero Beach, Flor-
ida. He has been selling his calves to feeder buyers
for several years. Mr. Sexton has been keeping rec-
ords on his herd for 6 years; each year the weaning
weight and grades of his calves have improved.
Mr. Sexton thinks the production of a "2-way"
calf is the solution to rhany problems confronting
the cow-calf rancher. This enables him to trade with
both the feeder and packer buyer-selling them to
the buyer who is willing to pay the highest price.
Those cattlemen who are making the most progress
in feeder cattle production are those who follow
modern management methods. They have highly im-
Feeder cattle from Florid---a part of Ralph Sexton's 1960
calf crop. Sexton (left) and two cattle graders check these
proved pastures. Besides, they use good bulls with
a known history, cull their cow herds closely, select
herd replacements with care, pregnancy test their
cows and keep records on the performance of each
BEEF CATTLE IN ALACHUA COUNTY
Alachua County has grown phenominally in the
production of beef cattle during the past 20 years.
Today, beef is the county's first agricultural enter-
prise, with a gross income of $3,820,000.00. In 1940,
the gross income was $850,000.00. Extension has
played an important role in this growth.
The quality of cattle is much improved. Over
8,000 head of cattle were fattened in dry lots this
year. Three feeder calf sales are held each fall, at
which over 4,000 head are sold for fattening in this
county and elsewhere.
During this 20-year period, the acreage of per-
manent pastures has increased from 800 to 92,000,
and the acreage of winter grazing crops from 2,300
to 20,000. The acreage cut for hay has increased from
2,800 to 25,000.
Twenty years ago cattlemen in Alachua County
were wintering their beef herds on weathered grass,
and grazing them mostly on native wiregrass pastures
in the summer. There was no dry-lot feeding of steers.
Feeder-calves were not sold because of the lack of
proper feeds and inferior breeding of cattle. The time
from December 1 through April 1 each year was
known as the "Starvation Period."
County agricultural agents have worked to help
improve the beef cattle industry in Alachua County
in a number of ways. They used tours to show cat-
tlemen outstanding pastures. When Pensacola Bahia
grass was introduced, the agents secured seed for
small seed plots, from which larger acreages grew.
They secured planting material of Pangola grass from
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for in-
As the acreage of permanent summer pasture in-
creased, they encouraged cattlement to avoid the
"starvation months" by planting large acreages of oats,
rye and wheat for winter grazing. They also stressed
saving hay to feed with a protein supplement.
Talks were given at Cattlemen's Association meet-
ings on the establishing of pastures and their main-
tenance. Soil samples were taken from most pastures,
and the owners advised as to the need for lime and
fertilization. They recommended that old pastures be
renovated and legumes planted.
F r1.1 1 1 I,, 1u tL \ l. th I l.r .,p L I.t .1' H>. ... l ... 1l l
I.Itc ')t F -Ili ,t.I that iS tilh sLi.ctus Aul) ,ut llI C( Lll
Brothers of Jacksonville.
Jim and Marion Carr bought a number of grade
dairy cows in 1951 and started dairying on a rented
farm near Jacksonville. They worked with the
County Agent from the first. They joined the Exten-
sion sponsored and supervised Duval Dairy Herd
Improvement Association and kept records from the
first. Also, they bred their cows artificially through
the Duval Artificial Breeding Association. This Asso-
THE HOG CYCLE
Many Florida swine producers are wearing big
smiles this year. Why? Because they used outlook
information a year ago to make plans based on ex-
Top hogs were selling for 120 a pound early in
1960. Florida outlook information advised producers
to breed more gilts to get ready for the better prices
that were almost sure to follow. While the extremely
low prices were causing farmers throughout the nation
to make drastic reductions in swine herds, many
Florida producers were taking advantage of the same
low prices to rebuild herds with young breeding ani-
mals of better stock.
At the close of an outlook meeting in Santa Rosa
County early in 1960, several producers confessed
that they had been on the verge of liquidating most
of their swine. Extension's Farm Management Spe-
cialist and County Agent Steiner Kierce met with the
same group nearly a year later. They found their
interest in outlook was even greater.
Mr. Delmer Godwin expressed the group's opinion
when he said, "It surely pays to plan on the future
instead of just looking at the present."
By basing their production plans on economic
facts instead of fantasy, these men had made the ad-
justments necessary to take advantage of a 50% in-
crease in hog prices. They had made obsolete the old
saying that, "You never have anything to sell when
the price is high."
Such astute farm planning is doing a lot toward
eliminating wide fluctuations in farm prices.
Marian Corr (right) receives on efficient production award
from E. P. Yocom of the National Dairy Products Corporation.
ciation provides service from proved sires through
the American Breeders Service.
The Carrs' 1st year's average production was 7,408
pounds of milk and 322 pounds of butterfat per cow
for their 74 cows.
While milking cows on the rented farm, the
Carr Brothers purchased land of their own. They
started a pasture program and built the necessary
dairy buildings, then moved to their own farm.
They used improved practices in all phases of
their dairy enterprise on the new farm. Good milk-
ing methods were combined with correct rations, fed
in accordance with DHIA production records. They
used silage, clover and grass permanent pastures, and
supplementary pasture crops.
From the first, the Carrs made constant use of
their DHIA records as a guide for culling. Calves
sired by high production bulls in artificial breeding
were raised from their best cows. Their production
records climbed gradually throughout the 1950's.
By 1959, their DHIA records showed 9,966 pounds
4% fat-corrected milk per cow. They were awarded
a trophy as a state winner in the Efficient Dairy Pro-
duction Contest. The award was based on level of
production, increase in production, cost of production,
production and use of pasture and forage, feeding
methods, breeding program, and herd health.
The herd's 1960 record was even higher with 10,-
347 pounds 4% fat-corrected milk per cow average for
each of 183 cows, the 2nd highest record in the state.
So.by following dairy herd improvement methods, the
Carr Brothers developed one of the top producing
herds in the state.
THE BASS FAMILY OPERATES
A FAMILY FARM
Is the family farm a thing of the past? Not in
The example of 1 family of dairymen, Clint
Bass and his sons, Ned and Van, refutes the idea that
mechanization is bringing in "company or corpora-
From a modest start with 30 cows, in a small
about that phase of the operation. They consulted
the County Agent for advice and information. Mr.
Bass chose pasture improvement, Van the cattle herd,
and Ned records and feeding.
Progress was slow at first. Pastures had to be
cleared, grasses planted and maintained. Herd re-
placements were costly and hard to find.
Today the Basses have nearly 400 acres planted
to improved grass, furnishing year-round feed. They
raise herd replacements on the farm, keeping only
those from top producers, bred artificially.
With labor hard to find, mechanization was in-
evitable. Just recently a new milking parlor was
constructed, and at the same time storage facilities
for feed and hay.
Not only are the Basses good dairymen, they are
good leaders. Clint is on the Extension Dairy Ad-
visory Committee for Program Projection. Van is a
supervisor on the local Soil Conservation Board. All
are quite active in church work.
Both of the sons have recently completed modern
new homes comparable to any within the city.
Each family has children in the 4-H Club, and Van
is Assistant Coach (volunteer) to the little league
Mr. Van Bass operates one of the milkers in their new milking
stanchion-type barn, this dairy has grown until today
it is milking over 100 cows, with the aid of 1 full-
time hired hand and an occasional man to help in the
They are members of the Extension-sponsored and
supervised Dairy Herd Improvement Association.
DHIA records show an average production per cow
of 9,500 pounds of milk.
Some 12 odd years ago the 2 brothers returned
from service in World War II. With their father,
they started thinking of entering the dairy business.
Their first cattle were purchased and most of the
feed bought, since none of their pasture had been
Each partner took a part of the business as his
responsibility. Each set out to learn all possible
Controlling Resistant Houseflies
An old problem that of controlling houseflies -
is back to plague poultrymen. Houseflies have de-
veloped strains tolerant to many of the recommended
insecticides. Neighbors of the poultrymen- plagued
in their turn by the hordes of pests have filed com-
plaints and in a few instances have instituted suits
To help improve this condition, the Extension
Entomologist cooperated with the Agricultural Ex-
periment Station entomology and poultry depart-
ments in conducting housefly control experiments at
the Experiment Station poultry farm. Several insecti-
cides were tested. Eventually a caged-layer poultry
house was placed on a spray program using the most
effective chemical in these tests. The program proved
effective. It was then recommended by the Extension
Entomologist as a housefly control.
During October 1960, a poultryman was served
a notice to appear in Circuit Court because he had
failed to control houseflies in his caged poultry opera-
tion, near a trailer park. The Extension Entomologist
and the Extension Poultryman went, with the County
Agent, to visit the farm.
The poultryman had Extension recommendations
from the County Agent, but was not using them
properly. The specialists put on a demonstration
showing how to measure and mix the insecticide.
They then demonstrated by spraying 1 of the
poultry houses how to apply the spray properly.
They showed how to distribute the required amount
of insecticide uniformly over the area. The impor-
tance of correct dosage and thorough application was
On November 8, the Extension Entomologist and
the County Agent visited the poultry farm again.
They found that the situation was improved, but
satisfactory control had not been obtained. They
learned the poultryman still was not using as much
insecticide as was recommended and had not been
getting adequate coverage due to the way he oper-
ated the sprayer. The proper way to apply insecti-
cide was again demonstrated and the importance of
using the recommended amounts was emphasized.
On November 10, the poultryman appeared in
Circuit Court. Because of the progress he had made,
he was given additional time to correct the situation.
On December 1, the owner of the trailer park who
was the other party in the suit called the County
Agent to report that they had a picnic on their grounds
Thanksgiving without any trouble from houseflies.
Flies were still hard to find. Later in the day, the
County Agent went to the poultry farm and checked
all 3 of the poultry houses for house fly larvae (mag-
gots). He could not find a single fly larva.
.. .. -- -. .
Make a Comeback
Stra.%i erries are on their way up again in Florida,
afterr droppinhi to a low in acreage during the period
roi n 195.i-59 through 1959-60.
Among the many causes of this acreage decline-
from 6,000 acres in 1950-51 to about 1,600 in 1959-60
-were costs of production, scarcity of labor, and low
With Extension help, growers are trying new
methods. These give promise of reviving strawberry
production in Florida. Research, trials, demonstra-
tions and pioneering by growers are helping to reverse
the downward trend.
Two farmers in Dade County, Mr. John Campbell
and Mr. Frank Haliday, tried a new method of plas-
tic mulching in 1958. In this method, the berry plants
are set, then black polyethylene sheets are unrolled
over them. Holes are made over the plants, and the
tops are pulled through. In the rockland soil of Dade
County, the farmers used shavings in the middles to
hold the plastic in place.
Growing strawberries with plastic mulch offers better yields
of higher quality berries.
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
Strawberry Acreage In Florida
Yields from this trial were very good, no weeds
were present, and the berries were easy to pick. Grow-
ers, research workers, Extension people and others
visited these growers to study their methods and adapt
them to other areas.
County Agent G. T. Huggins of Bradford County
put out 2 demonstration plantings in 1959. One
grower, Mr. L. Morgan, liked this demonstration so
well that he planted an additional half acre and
mulched it with plastic. He already had 4 acres
mulched with straw. The straw-mulched berries were
set out in early September, while those under plastic
were set out in November.
The weather was bad during the spring of 1960.
Many blossoms were frost-killed in the straw-mulched
plot, but not so many in the plastic. The grower be-
gan harvesting marketable amounts of berries from
the -plastic 3 weeks earlier than the others. These
brought high prices and needed little grading and re-
packing. The grower paid all production costs of his
4,2 acres from the half acre of plastic-mulched berries.
Two other changes are making strawberries more
attractive. One is a change to a corrugated-paper, 12-
pint tray from the usual wood-veneer crate. These
are easier to handle, cost less, and make a more at-
In Bradford County, growers and businessmen
have formed an association to construct labor hous-
ing. They hope in this way to induce good labor
to come to their county. One building has been con-
structed already which will house 150 workers.
Because Extension and other sources have sup-
plied information, and growers have been willing to
accept it, strawberry production seems on its way
again to a good future in Florida.
Extending Vegetable Research Results
Extension's task is taking the results of research
to those who can use them. Sometimes this requires
some special maneuvering. Here is an example.
During the early spring of 1960, the assistant
county agent of Palm Beach County noted the need
for treating cabbage seed to prevent black rot. Re-
search results from the Hastings area showed that
good control was obtained by treating the seed with
Equipment for such treatment was non-existent.
Besides, certain methods required much care for suc-
cess. The agent asked 2 specialists, an agricultural
engineer and a vegetable crops specialist, for more
information and help.
Together, they decided a seed-treating station of
this type would involve too much expense to 1 grower.
It would be best if a uniform design of a seed treat-
ment station were installed. A commercial seed dealer
agreed to install this station at his distribution ware-
The design and detailed plans were mimeographed
and are now available as Extension Agricultural En-
gineering Mimeo Report 61-1. A commercial station
.-av iC-i-ntlst ..., .1 .. .1-plt.,bl .. .. 1 dealer in South
Commercial seed treatment station in the Belle Glade area.
Florida. In 1 season, over 1,500 pounds of cabbage
seed have been treated by this unit.
/ PEANUT GROWER
Top peanut producer in Florida last year was
Davis Taylor of Jackson County. Taylor produced
more -than a ton and a half of peanuts per acre, an
average of 3,059 pounds.
The champion peanut grower gave proper fertiliza-
tion and careful harvesting as the keys to his success.
As winner in the Tri-State Peanut Festival contest at
Dothan, Alabama, Taylor received a gold loving cup
as a prize.
Most of Taylor's peanuts were Early Runners. "For
the best results in peanut growing, see your county
agent and follow his recommendations," says Taylor.
A resident of the Salem community of Jackson
Davis Taylor and Mrs. Taylor at Tri-State Peaiut Festival
County, Taylor was first secretary of the Salem Coun-
ty Development Club last year.
A TOOL FOR LARGER PROFITS
Soil tests results have helped farmers in Nassau
County get higher yields of tobacco, corn, pastures
and forage crops. For instance, the highest yield of
tobacco ever made in the county, an average of 2,595
pounds per acre, was made last year on a fertilizer
demonstration plot. Fertilizer was applied as indi-
cated by soil tests.
Most Nassau County tobacco farmers had been
making only 1 application of fertilizer-at planting
time. With the cooperation of the local fertilizer com-
panies, the proper fertilizer was used last year in
demonstrations by the County Agent. The Extension
Tobacco Specialist recommended that chemical fer-
tilizer without organic nitrogen be used. This had
never been done before in Nassau County. Most of
the demonstration farmers complied with the recom-
mendations of the County Agent and the Specialist.
The first part of the season was very dry. After
the drouth lifted, tobacco had a good growing
weather until about time to start harvesting. Then it
rained almost every day. Many of the fields got very
wet. There was some loss from drowning.
The 6 highest average yields in the county last
year were on demonstration farms where the growers
followed recommendations based on soil tests. The
highest yield was an average of 2,595 pounds per
All of the farms in the demonstration made high
yields except 1, on which the tobacco was badly
damaged by drowning out.
Demonstrations were conducted also on corn, pas-
ture and forage crops. Similar good results were
County Agent Gordon Ellis of Nassau County (left) shows
J. J. Guynn, a former and poultrymen of Hilliard, how to take
a soil sample.
obtained. Several cattlemen have reported that they
saved money on their fertilizer by using only what
was needed. At a recent dairymen's meeting, 1 of
the dairymen remarked, "I won't fertilize any more
without the results of a soil test."
The agent shows farmers how to take soil sam-
ples. These are sent in to the Extension Soil Testing
Laboratory at Gainesville. Results of the soil tests
are returned to the County Agent. He then makes
recommendations based on the results, and on his
knowledge of local conditions and the farms involved.
*. . .., N 4
Tobacco yields in Florida are
continuing to rise. Last year,
the average in the state was
1,61 1 pounds per acre, com-
pared with 1,503 in 1959. In
1940, the state average was
only 860 pounds. This in-
crease has come about through
better production practices and
better varieties. County ag-
ents played a big part in
bringing this information to
~I~ ~ ~WEC~ ~
OR NAME TALKS
Planning the Future
of Ornamental Horticulture
Esti.,_,,-, ... luicational programs are grass-roots
nii,-int.. TI.- pI',-ple in the counties and cities of the
t.alt- !l.\r ;a m.'I.'r role in planning these activities.
yet's see how this is done in one area- that of orna-
Ornamental horticulture enterprises are becoming
big business in Florida. Both number and output of
such commercial enterprises have more than doubled
within the last 10 years.
Similarly, there has been a rapid increase in new
residents moving into the state. This has intensified
Extension workers' problems in serving and advising
them on gardening and home ground improvement.
Some long-range planning is needed.
This year 2 groups have helped plan and promote
a broader and more effective program in ornamental
horticulture. Each group functions independently,
but each cooperates where mutual support is helpful.
The first of these groups is Extension Advisory
Committee for Ornamentals. The agents are in close
personal touch with the needs of the people of the
state. They have worked out a preliminary draft of
an effective Extension program. Included are the
activities and responsibilities of the state specialists as
well as the requirements for an effective county pro-
gram. In the near future, the Committee will formu-
late and recommend to the Director of Extension a
long-range Extension program for ornamental horti-
culture in Florida.
The objectives of the Industry Advisory Commit-
tee are somewhat similar to those of the County
Agents Committee. However, they are concerned
more with the overall situation in ornamentals as it
affects both the home owner and commercial grower.
This Industry Advisory Committee is also inter-
ested in promoting better financial support for gov-
ernmental agencies and institutions. The committee
is made up of 2 representatives of each of the follow-
ing groups or associations: Florida Agricultural Re-
search Institute, Florida Flower Association, Florida
Nurserymen and Growers Association, Florida Seed
and Garden Supply Dealers Association, and Florida
Loading certified sod for delivery to a new home. Sod fields
are carefully inspected.
A MODEL TURF-GRASS
"When I buy sod, how can I know what kind of
grass I am getting? Where can I buy grass that is
weed-free?" Florida home owners frequently have
asked these questions.
The Florida Turf-Grass Certification Program was
designed to answer them. Certified turf grasses are
true to variety and relatively free of undesirable in-
sects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds. This provides
protection for the buyer, who is usually a home
For example, 3 major types of St. Augustine grass
are grown in Florida Bitter Blue, common and Rose-
lawn. Of these, Bitter Blue is the most desirable,
common is satisfactory, and Roselawn is a pasture
type not suited to use as a lawn grass. However, Rose-
lawn and common are both frequently sold as Bitter
At present, the majority of uncertified sod sold in
Florida is contaminated with weeds. In many cases,
insects, diseases and nematodes also are present.
When these "built in" pests are planted with the
lawn, you can be sure of trouble within a short time.
Certified grass is identified by the blue certification
tag. This tag indicates that the grower has registered
with the State Plant Board and has had his land and
grass inspected periodically until the grass was ready
Home owners, nurserymen, and other buyers in-
terested in securing certified sod can obtain a list
of certified growers from the county agricultural agent
or by writing to the State Plant Board in Gainesville.
This program is the first successful turf certifica-
tion program in the Southeast. It is a cooperative
effort of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and Florida
State Plant Board.
Growing Ornamentals in New Areas
Florida has become the leading Southeastern state
in the production of nursery stock. This industry has
developed because a variety of ornamental plants
make rapid growth in this favorable climate.
Already problems exist in the industry. Many
nurseries were originally established near cities.
Nurserymen are now finding it hard to produce nurs-
ery stock economically on high-priced land. They are
looking for production areas on lower-priced land in
less crowded farming areas.
Another situation in Florida agriculture may help
them. Frozen vegetables have cut the demand for
fresh produce. This has caused less demand for some
truck crops. Truck farmers in some areas need to
add other crops so that they can profitably use land
Under these conditions Extension farm and home
development can benefit both nurserymen and farm-
"LITTLE FARM" RETIREES
Retired people from many parts of the Nation
have purchased 5-acre "little farms" in Okeechobee
County. Many of them used all available cash to pay
for the land and to buy a trailer or build a shell house.
A number of these people soon realized their cash
resources were expended and their pension or Social
Security checks did not cover their essential needs.
They turned to the County Agent for advice on pro-
ducing additional income from their "little farms."
The County Agent first helped them establish
gardens to supply part of their food. Three men got
advice on financing a tractor and equipment. This
equipment lets them take care of their own land and
do custom work for the others. A meeting was held
to establish order of work to be done.
With the assistance of the District Agent and
Specialists from the State Office, a plan is being
developed to establish ornamental nurseries as the
ultimate solution of the situation.
It may be possible to establish large plantings of
basic foundation plants, with a side planting of native
and exotic palms adapted to the area. These could
be marketed as desired. Those remaining would in-
crease in value with size and age.
The "little farmers" plan tours of several of the
nursery areas before they make a definite decision
on this activity.
ers by helping establish new crops in a new area.
State ornamental horticulture specialists, with
county agents, nurserymen and others, surveyed 2
potential nursery areas. One was a muck farm area
in Sarasota County. Land and equipment formerly
used for the production of truck crops seemed ideal
for producing field-grown nursery stock. This could
be sold as "balled and burlapped" specimens. Inter-
ested nurserymen and the county agents will help
develop an acceptable production arrangement with
a local farmer.
A similar situation in Seminole County was sur-
veyed. Sandy land, drained and subirrigated with tile,
had been used for celery and other truck crops. It
seemed well suited for growing roses and other
nursery stock to be sold as "bare-root" plants. The
local Experiment Station will cooperate in exploring
the possibility of producing nursery stock in the area.
Florida's cut flower industry needs a cut flower
with established customer appeal. Roses fill the bill
better than any other crop, but for many years com-
mercial rose cut flower production in Florida has
been thought impractical and uneconomical.
Research iindi.-itak.e to S.-e ift ise production
could be coin.it-rci.LiI te~hible in FIlorida was con-
cerned with tli. l,-ection ot ., liltttek that would
be resistant t irt:i,\wrn L.ll and neimatodes. Control of
black spot aind p-"dler\ .il' I\ coiiul be accomp-
lished ecornor.ii!\ \~ith:',dail.,bl. tuiiicides.
Rosa founii ii-itiA \\1ua tlih, ittclk tound to meet
these require iilntii- Tr-st` \\ith rlt i ootstock indi-
cated that pi.r.iiti, i in.ia.l:- didl int seriously im-
pair plant '. -,.i .iin, i i\. *,i]1 Il .i, never been ob-
served, to ti-ll l.lt. ,ai tllH illJ rst'l Lk
With tbhi information thel E.\t !,iluii floriculturist
has encour.iaged c(wrnicil:.l ii, (it Iof lh rootstock in
As a result, commercial thi.wer grow \r-i in Stuart
are now producing top quality fl.\t-rs \Ia.ii com-
mercial people have ('.pri-ed interest in the root-
stock, both for commercial cut flower production and
for nursery production of rose plants.
Commercial rose production will soon be another
valuable floricultural crop in our state. This will add
diversification to a valuable expanding Florida in-
-I I ~~~
. ........ . .
Honeybees can be a very interesting and profitable
sideline for some retired people.
One may start with a few colonies before retire-
ment, making increases gradually, thus growing into
a sizeable unit. The size will depend on how active
the person wishes to be. Upon retirement, more time
can be devoted to beekeeping. The project can be
expanded to suit the needs of the person retiring.
An example is L. T. Dyer, in Lake Butler, Union
County. Dyer retired from the Veterans Training Pro-
gram several years ago and added bees as a sideline,
along with a few head of stock on his small place in
the village. While teaching agriculture to veterans,
Mr. Dyer developed a beekeeping project and sells
locally most of the honey produced.
In 1958, Mr. Dyer studied the art of raising queen
bees. He raised 100 queen bees in 1960, selling 40
of these to his neighbor beekeepers and keeping 60
to requeen his own colonies. Since he retired, he has
also made beekeeping equipment, saving better than
50 percent on the cost of manufactured bee equip-
He has also started 8 4-H Club boys in projects
with bees, furnishing them bees and equipment.
Mr. Dyer, by carrying out a good program of
exhibiting apiary products at county fairs, has been
able to sell his honey locally at retail prices. His
sales for honey average about $50 a month, a good
Custom spraying seems to be the answer to a dis-
ease and insect problem in Suwannee County pecan
Insects and diseases in many Florida pecan or-
chards have become so troublesome that growers must
spray to get good yields. This was the case in
To effectively spray a pecan orchard, the grower
needs a spray machine capable of pressures up to 800
p.s.i., with an output of 35 gallons per minute. A
pump with this capacity costs a minimum of $1,000.
A complete sprayer is priced at $3,000. In most cases,
individual growers could not afford this for their
The Suwannee County Agent asked an Extension
agricultural engineer to come up to see what could
be done to solve this problem.
As a result, a grower purchased a sprayer with
the need capabilities. This grower now operates a
commercial custom spraying service in Suwannee
County. He sprays pecans and other trees and
shrubs at a custom rate growers can afford to pay.
supplement to his retired pay.
His apiary has increased in the past 5 years from
a few colonies to around 90 at present. His apiary
unit represents an investment of around $3,000
accumulated since retirement.
L. T. Dyer of Lake But-
ler with an exhibit of
his honey and bees.
CLINIC For Sick Plants
During 1960, over 100 different types of plants
were sent to the Plant Disease Clinic of the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service. Extension conducts
this Plant Disease Clinic so that growers, nurserymen,
homeowners and others may send in diseased plants
for identification of troubles and recommendations
About 400 samples were received in 1960. These
included such varied plants as azalea, Australian
silk oak, bean, black olive, camellia, citrus, chrysan-
themum, corn, frangapani, grape, ligustrum, mul-
berry, orchids, oats, philodendron, squash, tomatoes
For example, a grower in North Florida sent in a
tomato disease which he thought was late blight.
Instead the disease turned out to be bacterial leaf
spot. As a result, the grower was able to use materials
which would be effective against bacterial leaf spot
in his spray program.
On ]li.ii-) proble'.msi I in-ibers of the Exten-
sion Service act as a team. An example of this is the
case of a grower who was having trouble with ligus-
trum plants. Samples of these plants were received at
the Plant Disease Clinic. Upon examination, no dis-
ease symptoms were located. The grower was re-
quested to send a specimen of the soil to the Soils
Laboratory for analysis. The request was made be-
cause symptoms on the leaves of the plants indicated
the possibility of fertilizer burn.
The soil sample was received and analyzed by
the Soil Specialist. He found that the amount of
soluble salts contained in the soil was at such a high
level that the plants could not possibly grow well.
The Soils Specialist recommended that the grower
leach the soluble salts from the soil by heavy water-
ing. He followed these recommendations. Many plants
recovered and went on to make satisfactory growth.
GROWING HEALTHY PLANT
For years nurserymen in Florida have had a great
deal of trouble with a disease of dieffenbachia. The
disease causes a stem rot and a leaf spot of the
plants. A nurseryman in Central Florida requested
assistance from the Extension Service in cutting his
losses from this disease.
The Extension Plant Pathologist and the Orna-
mental Horticulture Department worked out a pro-
gram for him. First, the grower obtained some dis-
ease-free dieffenbachia, which he cut into sections.
He sterilized and examined each section for the dis-
ease. Those which were questionable were thrown
away; the others were planted in a new greenhouse
well away from any other dieffenbachia plants. Cut-
tings from these plants were placed in still another
The nurseryman was very careful not to let any
diseased plants go into this greenhouse. Workmen
going into the area washed thoroughly and walked
through a trough of formaldehyde.
As a result of the care and work taken in grow-
ing these plants the nurseryman has one of the most
disease-free plantings of dieffenbachia in the state.
He put a considerable amount of money into the
greenhouses and labor; but the disease-free plants he
obtained as a result have more than repaid him.
Careful sanitation has resulted
in disease-free dieffenbachia
plants in this central Florida
Many watermelon growers can produce melons
successfully. Growers have solved many of their
production problems, with the help of research find-
ings and Extension information. But few watermelon
growers can market their melons profitably. Here's
how 1 county approached this problem.
Levy County grows over 5,000 acres of melons
each year. In the surrounding area, over 35,000 acres
are grown. These melons are usually harvested on a
declining market-top prices not over 2'. cents per
pound, dwindling to 4 to 1 cent at peak harvest.
Marketing has been changing to truck shipments
in recent years from the old method of rail shipments.
This means more individuals are entering the market-
ing processes; therefore there is more chance for dif-
ferences in prices received by growers.
The Levy County Watermelon Committee-com-
posed of Wardell Fugate, Williston; J. P. Sandlin,
Williston; and J. C. Hutchinson, Chiefland-met with
the Gilchrist County Committee to consider this prob-
lem. They decided to try to raise funds from melon
growers to hire a marketing expert to give daily melon
prices by 8:30 a.m. In this way, growers would have
marketing information when they dealt with buyers
and so would not sell under the market price.
Frank Massey, a marketing expert, agreed to work
on a week-to-week basis for $500.00 weekly plus all
expenses. The Committee members from Levy and
Gilchrist Counties decided to contact as many grow-
ers as possible to enlist in the program. The fee was
placed at $1.00 per acre of melons grown.
* Within 2 weeks enough money was raised for
about 3 weeks work for Mr. Massey. He was taken
around to the various farms of growers so he would
know them and some of their problems. The Melon
Committees set up the County Agents' offices in the
two counties as headquarters for disseminating the
price information daily.
Massey phoned market prices, strength of mar-
ket, etc., to the Agricultural Extension Service each
morning by 8:30. Immediately, calls were placed to
each county and also to seed and feed stores so that
they could give growers the latest market information.
Growers in this area feel they benefited greatly
from this first try at solving a big problem. In 1961
they plan to look further into this market situation.
A 16-week marketing school-meeting each Mon-
day night for 2 hours-has been held. Some good
ideas and means of solving the watermelon marketing
problem may come from it.
Loading watermelons for shipment. Levy
County grows about 5,000 acres each year.
_i "t& AGRICULTURAL
Group action in vegetable marketing is paying off
for members of the Central Florida Vegetable Grow-
Many of the 2,343 farms in Hillsborough County
are small vegetable producing operations. But the
size of most of these farms seriously limits the in-
come possible from the production of horticultural
crops-particularly vegetables and strawberries.
Selling under the auction system individually,
small producers like these have very little influence on
the market. Individually, their lack of volume ex-
cludes them from any strong bargaining position, ex-
cept in times of scarcity of produce from other
Several growers of Pole beans in Hillsborough
County-recognizing the weak position of the small
grower-sought some way of strengthening their posi-
tion in the market place. These growers wanted to
develop uniform grading, quality and packaging and
aggressive selling of the product. In this way, they
could offer a more desirable product to the buyer and
sell to the best advantage in all markets.
One of the growers suggested organizing a coop-
erative which could perform such services as central
grading, packaging, and selling. The idea was accept-
ed by a small group who then set about making the
The County Agent encouraged and advised the
group, as did marketing specialists who are also con-
nected with the Florida Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice. As a result, the Central Florida Vegetable Grow-
ers Association was formally organized.
Two very successful seasons have given this group
of about 25 growers much confidence in the coopera-
tive marketing venture. It has relieved the on-farm
task of grading and packaging, allowing the grower
more time to devote to supervision of harvesting. The
members have taken advantage of buying materials
in larger quantities-thus gaining additional discounts.
The group has offered for sale a packinghouse-
graded item, uniformly packaged in new containers.
Their salesman has been informed of expected vol-
ume ahead of time, thus giving him background as
an aid to,promoting sales.
Originally organized to handle Pole beans, the
co-op now handles most other vegetable crops pro-
duced by members. The results of this group's working
cooperatively together have been good.
The progress to date has not been easy. Prob-
lems, coming up daily, were a constant threat to effi-
cient and profitable operation. However, far-seeing
members continued tirelessly to work for the benefit
of the group.
Members now see their products being offered on
the market in volume, with identity and prestige.
The guiding hand of a professional salesman adds
further to the effort.
Other growers in the area are keenly interested
in the progress made by the cooperative. Quite a few
new members have been accepted by the group.
About 25 strawberry growers have recently joined the
association. So strawberries are now a major item
handled in addition to pole beans.
These people have learned much from working
together. Their accomplishment has been significant
financially, and personal satisfaction has more than
offset many hours of work. A new interest in farming
and a more analytical approach to problems certainly
points to a brighter future for these growers.
Coop Manager Basil Todd checks crates of beans for quality
before they are shipped.
The mother who purchases milk for her family
knows the importance of good-tasting milk. She ex-
pects the milk she purchases to be uniform in flavor
from day to day. She knows that her children drink
milk because of taste, not because they know that
milk is excellent in food value. Therefore, to her,
good-tasting milk is doubly important. There is no
substitute for good flavor in milk.
If "Ole Bossy" is properly fed and cared for, the
milk she produces will taste good. Dairy plant own-
ers and operators know that practically every pro-
cedure used in the production, processing and distri-
bution of milk has a potential influence on the flavor
The Extension dairy manufacturing specialist aids
dairy plant managers to maintain or improve the
flavor of milk used in Florida. Here is an outstanding
example of this work. One dairy plant in northeast
Florida was experiencing a flavor problem in the
raw milk supply. The dairy manufacturing specialist
was called on for help by the dairy plant. He identi-
fied the off-flavor, which in this case originated at
the farm. He recommended some changes in the
handling of the milk at the farm. After these changes
A retail milk delivery man serves a Florida customer with
"good tasting milk."
were made, the off-flavor disappeared.
To help the dairy industry with milk flavor prob-
lems, the specialist discussed flavor control in dairy
schools, short courses, and group meetings. He has
made many special visits, such as the one described
above, to dairy plants to help plant owners when
the flavor problem was extremely severe.
He has also used radio, publications, and special
demonstrations to furnish information concerning
good tasting milk.
Beekeepers in Wakulla County, planning together
to improve their industry, selected 2 objectives: Im-
proving the quality of their honey and working for
higher prices for the product.
They felt the first step was to organize, and the
result was the Wakulla Beekeepers Association. Act-
ing as Secretary to this Association, the county agent
obtained a list of honey buyers in the United States.
He wrote to many of them to offer Wakulla County
honey for sale. The response from these letters
brought more orders than could be filled. The bee-
keepers averaged 11/2 to 2 cents per pound more
for their honey than they had received in previous
The Association decided the next step was plant-
ing seed trees. They are planting a number of tupelo
and poplar trees each year to improve yield and
quality of the honey produced.
The Association now meets regularly for fish frys,
to conduct association business, and to discuss prob-
lems and improved methods.
Each member offered 1 beehive to the State
Beekeepers Association for lifetime membership in
that Association. The beehives have been accepted
and will be picked up in the near future.
CONSERVATION of NATURAL
Planting Pines in Florida
On much Florida land, planting time now comes
during the winter months-not the spring. And the
crop planted is pine trees-not cotton, corn or veg-
etables. Since 1928, Florida landowners have plant-
ed over one billion pine seedlings. Over half of these
were planted since 1954.
Tree planting in Florida is an excellent example
of cooperation between 8 major agricultural agencies:
The Agricultural Extension Service, The Florida For-
est Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.
The Agricultural Extension Service often makes
the first contact with a forestry-minded landowner.
The county agent is well acquainted with the right
time to plant trees and how to obtain them. He gives
the landowner seedling application blanks and advises
him of the free seedling program. In many cases
he refers the landowner to the SCS worker who is
in charge of the county tree planters.
Usually, the county farm forester is called in to
look over the land before planting. The farm for-
ester helps the landowner decide what needs doing
before the actual planting takes place. The SCS crew
picks up the seedlings and plants them for the land-
Over one billion pine seedlings like this one have been planted
since 1928 in Florida.
- .' i -. ~-
Planting pine seedlings with a tree planting machine.
After planting, the tree agencies keep an eye on
the plantation. When trouble strikes in the form of
fire, insects, disease or slowed growth, alert county
workers hold a conference with the bewildered land-
owner. They steer him back on the road to a profit-
able harvest of green gold in a few short years.
Working closely with pulp companies, county
agents have distributed one million pine seedlings
in 10 north Florida counties on a matching basis.
Usually the maximum number of seedlings given to
each landowner was 5,000. In this way, the free seed-
lings were available to a larger number of landown-
ers and benefited most those of smaller size.
The success of the tree planting program is in
part due to county agents who keep up with current
tree planting information in their counties and advise
landowners what to do and who to see.
Almost 100,000 soil samples are being analyzed
each year in Florida. Of this number, about 70,000
are analyzed by commercial and private laboratories.
Many methods and procedures are used by these
various laboratories. For this reason, the results of
one laboratory are not comparable with another. This
causes confusion among farmers as well as business
The Extension Service, in cooperation with the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, was asked
to study the situation. Specialists in soil testing vis-
ited 27 testing laboratories. They collected data on
methods and procedures used in analysis, methods of
reporting results and other information pertinent to
the overall operation of the various labs.
Laboratory owners and operators visited expressed
a desire to cooperate in the study and were very
interested in acquiring information on soil testing to
improve their work. A summary of the survey is
being prepared for distribution to the laboratories.
In connection with the study, specialists collected
standard soil samples to send to the laboratories for
analysis. Many labs have reported results. Consider-
able differences appear in the results of tests re-
ported, however. These will be studied and specialists
will give technical assistance where it is needed and
This work is continuing. With the cooperation of
soil testing laboratories and industry, an educational
program is being developed to improve the under-
standing and use of soil testing and soil test results.
Change Breeds Change
Solving one problem in forestry quite often reveals
many new ones to be dealt with.
Extension forestry attempts to help landowners
continue to practice good forestry once they have
started. For example, landowners who have learned
to do a good job of fire protection often need to
learn methods of keeping forest insects and diseases
under control. The next step is to learn proper mar-
keting and harvesting methods. It is a great tempta-
tion for a landowner to accept the first lump-sum
cash offer for his timber. By doing so a landowner
often loses hundreds of dollars. This landowner should
learn to sell his timber for products which bring the
highest income over a long period.
One of the most important problems facing Flor-
idans today is the physical use to which our land
Competition among land uses in Florida is rap-
idly bringing about a more complex situation. The
population which is expected to double in the next
10 years will need additional space. Complicating the
situation is the fact that these people must have in-
creased personal income.
Agriculture is now the basis for considerable in-
dustrial activity in Florida. Take the citrus industry
for example. It is based on an agricultural commod-
ity, but it involves grove caretakers, processing plants,
packinghouses, transportation, corporation stockhold-
ers, can manufacturers, chemical companies, fertilizer
manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and dealers,
research and inspection facilities. The same is true for
many other agricultural commodities.
Admittedly, we must give attention to improving
our facilities which-together with our natural envir-
onment-attract vacationers, the affluent retired, and
high-wage manufacturing. But orderly planning is
needed. Only by this method can we add these in-
come opportunities to the agriculture-based industrial
development that we now enjoy. It is improbable that
either, to the exclusion of the other, will be sufficient
for expanding needs.
The Orange County agricultural agent has devel-
oped a presentation, using preliminary Conservation
Needs Inventory data, illustrating the impact of
changing land use in Orange County. This informa-
tion has helped bring to public attention this press-
ing problem of the day. Other County Agents have
developed similar presentations, based on local situa-
tions, for use elsewhere.
This past eatr 1.900.000 cord.s of pulpwood were
cut ii Fldrida. Florida'\ Extension Foresters helped
m.ak this record possible through demonstrations of
good forest management, current marketing informa-
tion and bull-.tin% given to the county t .agnts and for-
est landowners in Florida.
So one change usually means several changes at
least. But the first is hardest to make. If Extension
can help a forest landowner to change in one way,
there's a good chance the landowner will go all the
S 0 0 *0 0
Floods and heavy rains caused much damage and
property loss in several parts of Florida during 1960.
Not only crops, but ornamentals and homes suffered
from the high waters. Hurricane Donna added her
water to the already heavy burden.
People met this problem in various ways. Here
are 3 examples:
Floods caused by heavy seasonal rains and Hur-
ricane Donna damaged Lee County severely. Flood
damage in the Orange River area alone amounted to
The real and personal properties of over 200 fam-
ilies were damaged by floods. These land owners,
Water Damage-High water from heavy rains in Pasco County
cut this gully through a grove belonging to Mrs. Ethelyn Oden.
with the assistance of County Agent J. F. Barco, or-
ganized the Orange River Improvement Association.
They undertook as their first project a study to see if
something could be done about flood conditions in
the Orange River area.
The river had risen into buildings between 1 and
2 feet, and over the land between 2 and 7 feet in
July and October of 1959 and July and September
The association appointed a committee to contact
the Army Engineers about the flood conditions. The
Army Engineers promised to check into the flooding
from the angle of improved navigation on the Orange
River from the bridge at Orange River Road to the
Caloosahatchee River. They now plan to remove
snags from the river, as well as possibly doing some
dredging, along with cleaning and removing fallen
The heaviest flood damage to the land was in the
form of erosion. These losses were estimated at $180,-
000. Flood damage to fruit trees and crops was set
at $41,000 and that to roads and streets at $30,000.
Loss and damage to equipment, furniture, docks, etc.
was placed at $19,000 and building damage was listed
In March 1960, Sumter County sustained a deluge
that deposited about 13 inches of water on the Coun-
ty in three days. Most activity came to a standstill,
as most County roads were flooded and only main
State highways were open.
Spring vegetable crops were damaged severely
both by standing water and by saturated soil. The
beef cattle situation in the southern half of Sumter
County became critical. Large areas of pasture were
under water. Besides the water problem, many of
the cattlemen had used all their financial resources for
winter feeding. They had neither feed nor financing
available to meet this emergency.
Because of the critical situation, the County Dis-
aster Committee, of which the County Agent is a
member, met and declared the County a Disaster
Area, as did the State Disaster Committee. Extension
workers in Sumter County provided disaster estimates,
showed officials affected areas, and used Extension
vehicles to transport inspection jeeps and emergency
food. In some cases they transported stranded people.
The National Disaster Committee, after surveying
the situation, also declared the County a Disaster
Area. Six carloads of CCC grain were allowed Sumter
County livestock owners. The grain was placed in
the hands of the State Disaster Committee. It was
then turned over to the Sumter County Agricultural
Agent's office for administration and distribution.
A local committee of 5 cattlemen and farmers
was appointed by the Board of County Commission-
ers, and the County Agent's office took applications
for emergency grain. A total of 289 applications were
Before: Cattle in a Pensacola bahiagrass pasture on the ranch
of Vernon Berry, northwest of Webster.
received. The Grain Committee approved 243 for
The County Agents distributed the giLain froI
the box car to the approved farmers. During a period
of about 7 days, 600,000 pounds of miilo grain
sorghum was ground, bagged and distributed.
A total of more than 91 inches of rain fell in the
Dade City area of Pasco County prior to October 15.
1960. The lakes and ponds were already filled from
last year's heavy rains; then on March 15th. 16th and
17th more than 15.35 inches of rain fell.
Following these downpours, the County Agent
made an inspection of all parts of the county and
mapped areas that were flooded with water. He also
noted erosion damage. Many roads were closed.
The largest single item of flood damage in Pasco
County was the soil erosion in groves. Some grow-
ers employed draglines and bulldozers for 2 or 3
months replacing eroded soil in their groves; 1 grow-
er's estimated cost ran as high as $4,000.00 per acre
on his most severely damaged grove land. Some
young groves set in pockets with no outlet were left
to die. Poultry farms in low areas were flooded.
In the summer another flood came, bringing al-
most as much water as fell in March and in Sep-
tember. Hurricane Donna brought another 3 days
of heavy rain.
The County Agents were called on to give advice
and assistance in many areas as a result of these
floods. Some of these areas in which they were asked
for help included: (1) surveying and estimating the
monetary loss; (2) assisting with problems of poul-
try farms that were under water; (3) ditch drain-
age; (4) tiling underground drainage; (5) building
diversion ditches and terraces; (6) repairing deep
wash-outs; (7) replacing eroded grove soil; (8) sod-
ding down places subject to further erosion; (9)
transplanting grove trees and ornamentals to higher
After: 1 he some pasture on the Berry ranch looked like a small
Ijke oir r heavy rain in 1960 Normally, there are no lakes
or rivers near the ranch
ground; (10) diking and pumping out water in soggy
hollows to save groves and other trees; (11) taking
soil samples and renewing the plant food supply in
pastures and groves where flood waters had depleted
the plant food; (12) applying limestone to areas that
had soured because of water and organic matter that
had washed in; (13) ridding lakes and ponds of
muddy water and algae that formed a scum on the
surface; (14) planning a fall and winter feeding pro-
gram for cattle on pastures that had soured out
and giving medication to cattle that had become sick
from the sour grass; (15) finding high-land pastures
and moving cattle to them; (16) and producing fall
and winter forage crops to take the place of hay and
pastures that drowned out.
. .0 .
FLOODS IN FLORIDA
Each year, Extension foresters get a large number
-and a wide variety-of questions on forestry. These
range from requests for help in learning to estimate
timber to what trees to plant around the home. One
person just wrote asking for "information"-type not
Some specific examples of information requested
~"~=~"~- --- -- "f
Extension foresters stress selective cupping of large diameter
trees for gum production.
from the foresters, and how they supplied it, are
High gum prices in 1960 caused a great increase
in interest in possible chipping longleaf and slash
pines for gum. In several cases, the Extension for-
ester received requests for information on beginning
operations involving many crops of new faces.
One firm was even considering South America as
a possibility for increased gum production. It asked
if the Extension Forester could take a trip there in
a consulting capacity.
These requests were carefully handled to screen
the real gum farming possibilities from the get-rich-
Many smaller 1.d R; with good tmbI, r Iiip-
plies were advised t, guini-l.irm timber t, .1.-3 ,5-u
period before cutting for pulpwood or .I\W Otteii
income from a tree can be doubled in this way.
The forester stressed selectively cupping large
diameter trees. Even at high prices, wholesale cup-
ping of small, diameter trees is wasteful and profitless.
Forest Insects and Diseases
Extension foresters received, from agents and land-
owners, many specimens of forest insects and diseases.
Sometimes identification and recommended control
measures proved difficult to find. In this case, Exten-
sion and University pathologists and entomologists
were consulted. If serious outbreaks were reported
or if the specimens were unusual in nature, the for-
esters made an actual visit to the area to gather
first-hand data. The State Plant Board and Florida
Forest Service are frequently consulted in forest in-
sect work also.
Eucalyptus for Planting
The Florida Forest Service has been experiment-
ing with eucalyptus for planting in South Florida.
Potted eucalyptus seedlings were on sale for the first
time this planting season. As a result, Extension for-
esters got more requests from agents and landowners
for information on eucalyptus. Correspondence with
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations brought materials which helped the Exten-
sion foresters answer these requests.
New Forest Industries
Today many Florida communities are trying to
attract new industry. The Extension forester received
many requests for information on timber resources in
various sections of Florida from such potential forest
The forester discussed the possibilities with com-
munity development committees, chambers of com-
merce and industrial development workers in private
industry in the areas concerned. He also visited nu-
merous forest industries-such as saw mills-to get
slab and sawdust volumes or similar figures.
Supplies of hardwood available were checked iii
several areas for potential hardwood mills.
Location of new industry is not easily accom-
plished. Often many months or even years of check-
ing and'negotiation must pass before a new industrN
';-[ \ND JUDGING CONTEST
; Florida's First State Land Judging Contest was
h(.jil in April 1960 in Gainesville. Contestants were
4-H and FFA members.
This contest grew out of land judging contests
Judging land during the first annual State Soil Judging Contest.
held for three counties-Jackson, Liberty and Calhoun,
comprising the Chipola River Soil Conservation Dis-
trict-in 1957 and 1958. Four counties-comprising the
Chipola River and Hillsborough Soil Conservation
Districts-held contests in 1959.
The State Soil Conservation Board appointed a
State Land Judging Committee. This was composed
The winning Cloy County 4-H
team in the first State Land
Judging Contest. They are, left
to right, Benny Thomas; George
Owens, assistant Clay County N
agent and coach of the group;
Dehryl McCall, Gene Jones, and
of representatives from: The State Board; Depart-
ment of Agricultural Education, State Department of
Education; Florida Association of Soil and Water
Conservation Districts; USDA Soil Conservation Serv-
ice; University of Florida College of Agriculture and
Florida Agricultural Extension Service. The commit-
tee developed criteria for Florida's first State Land
During 1960, contests were held in 14 counties,
ranging from Hardee in the south to Washington in
The high scoring 4-H and FFA teams from each
county contest were eligible to compete in the State
Contest. Two winning teams in the state, 1 4-H and 1
FFA, received expense-paid trips to the Ninth Inter-
national Land Judging Contest in Oklahoma.
This competitive training event does not try to
cover all phases of land classification. It does pro-
vide contestants with information useful in employ-
ment situations such as: many types of agricultural
business, agricultural education, civil engineering, gen-
eral contracting, tax assessing, zoning and many
phases of government, to mention a few.
Contests have been scheduled for 25 counties in
1961. With interest expanding at this rate, it will be
necessary to move to some level of competition be-
tween county and state for 1962. The Second State
Land Judging Contest is scheduled for March 31,
1961, at Gainesville, the Tenth International for April
27-28 at Oklahoma City.
GROWING CHRISTMAS TREES IN FLORIDA
Christmas trees, Christmas trees!
Each year-usually about Christmas time-the Ex-
tension foresters get numerous requests for informa-
tion on growing these attractive evergreens.
If all the people inquiring about them followed
through with Christmas tree projects, red cedar plant-
ings would outnumber pine plantations in Florida.
Extension foresters explain the possibilities of red
cedar and Arizona cypress for Christmas tree pro-
duction in Florida to these people. Scarcity of suit-
able planting stock is the main drawback. The for-
esters stress that marketing is a most important part
of a profitable Christmas tree operation. Failure to
find good markets for trees well ahead of Christmas
often means a loss from the operation instead of a
The relatively few acres of land required and
quick return (4-5 years) on this forestry investment
makes Christmas tree growing appear very attractive
to many people. One such group is described here.
Christmas Tree Growers
Some persons might say that a Christmas tree
growers' association with no Christmas trees for sale
was a useless organization.
"Not so," says Mr. Joe Fairchild, president of the
Peoples State Bank and mayor of Groveland. Work-
ing with County Agent Bob Norris of Lake County
and Extension Forester Louis T. Nieland (retired),
this banker has been talking Christmas trees to his
customers for over 6 years.
The past year, after 3 years of crop failure in
the area among small vegetable growers, the talk paid
off. Several Christmas-tree meetings were called.
They were attended by over 30 small landowners.
The group agreed that each landowner would plant
1 acre of red cedar a year for 5 years as an experi-
It was stressed that Christmas-tree growing in Flor-
ida is new. Conditions vary from those in other
states which have raised large numbers for many
years. Besides, red cedar Christmas trees would sup-
plement income only slightly for these farmers at
In mid-November 1960, the Central Florida Christ-
mas Tree Growers' Association was born. The Ex-
tension's marketing economist assisted the landowners
in forming the Association. The assistant Extension
forester and Florida Forest Service farm forester
demonstrated proper planting methods.
Some 27 landowners ordered 40,000 red cedar
seedlings for planting after the first frost. The story
stops here for now. As yet we can't report 40,000
young cedars growing well in western Lake County,
Florida. However, from all indications, it is only a
matter of time until we can.
The Extension foresters made information avail-
able to agents and landowners on pocket gopher con-
trol in pine plantations. Frequently pocket gophers
and cotton rats damage pine seedlings by eating stems
and roots. The foresters worked in cooperation with
Rodent Control Specialist Clyde Madsen.
Sand pine, like this one growing on the campus of the Univer-
sity of Florida, shows promise as a Christmas Tree variety.
FARM AND HOME
Dairy School Stresses
NEW is the word for the type of dairy school
held by Orange and Seminole Counties in 1960. It
was the first time any school conducted by the Agri-
cultural Extension Service had been devoted exclu-
sively to business management.
The school extended for 5 weeks, with 1 session
held each week. Topics discussed were: Size and
how it affects profits; the marketing enterprise of a
dairy farm; management factors on farm organiza-
tion, as to raising replacements and as to producing
pasture and forage; the economics of using farm ma-
chinery and equipment; response of physical produc-
tion to increase in inputs and factors to consider in
determining the most economic rate of input; and
effects on total farm income of increasing production.
County extension agents, specialists and members
of the Agricultural Economics Department presented
the various topics. They emphasized in all meetings
that a farm is a business firm. In the operation of
this business firm, the operator is constantly striving
to combine his land, labor, capital and management
in the most profitable way. To do this, the operator
must make decisions based on economic principles.
Economic decisions should be made with good fac-
tual information and an intelligent interpretation of
Thirty-nine farmers enrolled in the school with
an average attendance of 32. Success of the school
is shown by the following results: A farm business
analysis is being made on 11 dairy farms; 10 dairy
farmers are making improvements in their records; a
study of the cost of producing heifers on 9 farms
with over 1,000 animals involved is underway; and 2
farmers started participating in the DHIA program.
The Orange County Dairy Committee has re-
quested another Dairy Management School in 1961
for dairy owners and managers.
More and more Florida agricultural producers
are realizing the value of an analysis of their busi-
ness. During 1959, the first year this service was
offered by Extension, 47 ranchers and farmers from
9 counties participated. A total of 94 farmers and
ranchers participated in 1960-a 100% increase over
In 1960, analyses were made of 14 poultry farms
in Pasco, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Pinellas Coun-
ties. Dairy analyses were prepared for Holmes, Wash-
ington, Sarasota, Lake, Marion, Sumter, Glades, Dade,
Broward, Palm Beach, and Martin Counties, as well
as in the first 2 counties to participate-Manatee and
Polk, Palm Beach and Indian River Counties were
added to the 4 original counties-Okeechobee, Collier,
Sarasota and Manatee-in ranch analysis.
The main objective of a business analysis is to
help individual farmers and ranchers make better
farm management decision. The farm or ranch man-
ager is concerned with physical and economic factors
affecting the agricultural business firm. The physical
factors relate to breed of livestock, crop varieties,
A farm business analysis is of primary help in
making economic decisions. These decisions include,
among others, the following: size of operation; pro-
duction rates; combination of enterprise; and efficiency
factors such as labor, machinery, equipment, build-
ings, feed, fertilizer, etc.
These analyses were used extensively as guides by
non-cooperating farmers and ranchers. Over 5,000
copies of the various analyses have been distributed.
These were used by county agents, vocational agri-
cultural teachers, FHA supervisors, farmers and ranch-
ers, feed manufacturing companies, etc. They have
also been used in farm meetings, institutes and
-~--'I----~~---- -----~S---Fri~ ~-~ 7 ~~-;
An Outstanding Farm Family
The Old and the New: Mr. D. T. Sessions, his wife and one
of their daughters, Mickie, pull tobacco plants from a new-
style, plastic covered bed. An old style bed is in the background.
The D. T. Sessions family of the Shady Grove
Community was the first in Taylor County to be
selected as a Farm and Home Development Family.
In 1960, the Sessions .family was selected by their
friends and neighbors as Taylor County's Outstanding
Mr. and Mrs. Sessions have 4 daughters and 1 son,
ranging in age from 6 to 23 years. One daughter has
married and left home. The farm consists of 60 acres
with 20 acres in cultivation. In 1955, the first step
in developing their farm and home was to discuss
the family's needs, wants, desires, and resources. The
family decided they needed more farm acreage for
added income; certain home improvements such as
a new kitchen and equipment and a home freezer;
and a tractor to replace the mule they were using
to plant and cultivate the crops. They also wanted
more and better livestock. The family was doing a
pretty good job raising and preserving meats and
vegetables for the family table.
To meet these family needs and desires, the first
approach was to strengthen 4-H projects. The son
and a daughter were already enrolled in 4-H work,
with a purebred pig and 100 top quality baby chicks.
Mr. Sessions rented extra acreage to justify buying a
tractor and equipment. Better production practices
were put into the growing of crops, and off-season
work was secured to supplement the farm income.
Record keeping, something not thought of a few
years ago, has taken on real meaning and importance
in the Sessions family.
Today they are enjoying a new dining room and
kitchen and a large home freezer for the preservation
of food. Mr. Sessions is studying the purchase of an
irrigation system for their tobacco. If purchased,
fall vegetables will be .grown to more fully use the
Mr. and Mrs. Sessions have become active in com-
munity and county affairs. For the past 3 years, Mr.
Sessions has been a member of the County ASC Com-
mittee; he is a member of the Board of Directors
of the County Farm Bureau; Chairman of Field
Crops Committee of the Taylor County Improvement
Council; and member of County Committee for the
Farmers Home Administration.
BUSINESS ANALYSIS MEANS
BETTER POULTRY OPERATIONS
Poultry farmers in Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee Lower mortality-12% vs. 16%.
and Pasco counties have found a key that umlecks Higher capital turnover-$2.04 worth of
the door to more successful poultry operati'ty-, This eggs sold per dollar of capital invested in
key carries the initials FBA-Farm Busi neq Aialysis. the business vs. $1.11.
During 1960, 14 poultry producer, in Be, 4elountyv Better feed conversion-4.44 pounds of
area cooperated with county Extension ageiut to an- .n ,Ifer per dozen eggs vs. 5.73 pounds.
alyze their 1959 operations. In the face ot e trenmel th- er feed cost per cwt. of feed pur-
low egg prices, 5 of the 14 made a small prom. uwhen a-ased-$4.06 vs. $4.30 per cwt.
labor income is used as the measure of profit.1 '---" '* Bettr price for eggs sold-36.1 cents per
When the 5 most profitable farms % ere compared dozen compared to 33.56.
with the five incurring the greatest loss the tos. i Thus farm records and their analysis are serving
profitable farms had the following: I -~ s a tool to help improve poultry management. Poul-
Higher production per layer-234 vs. 192. i 4 trymen are finding records are a tool which can be
Better labor efficiency-62,006 vs. 47,831 used to increase farm income in the same way they
dozens of eggs per man. use any other tools or equipment on the farm.
Money Management Through 4-H
"I have really learned the value of the 4-H money
management project," says Mary Ann Foxbower, an
Orange County 4-H Club girl.
"I wasn't sure when I started to work whether
I would go to college or not. I knew I wanted to go
to Florida State University in Tallahassee, so I planned
to save enough to go.
"I figured and figured until I came out with a part-
Mary Ann Foxbower of Orange County balances her college
budget using principles she learned in 4-H money management
way budget. It wasn't rea( aic4t but ai s\ stn of
"On my chart I had thl-' ?i iitJiyd in sav-
ings at the end of each "tot re.- my goal.
Besides, I planned for emergen cur. tma~ pres-
ents, and such. This experience will help me in the
future, too. What married couple can live, get the
things they need, and ever expect to have a home
of their own without a budget?"
This 4-H Club girl achieved her goal and is in
Many 4-H and home demonstration club members
have made their money work for them and their
families by making and using a spending plan or
budget. They also applied management principles
to the use of their time, energy and other resources.
Extension agents helped more than 70 thousand
people with better home management practices in
1960. About 1,592 volunteer leaders helped Exten-
sion agents. Over 2,017 4-H girls enrolled in the
home management project, and 12,575 received some
training in money management.
Television and radio programs, news articles, group
meetings and individual conferences were the methods
used to bring this information to people.
Families made financial plans, studied cost and
use of credit, kept and analyzed home records, re-
viewed family business and legal matters, improved
housekeeping methods, and used consumer informa-
tion when making major family purchases.
Extension Plan Service Offers
PLANS FOR YOU
You don't have to be an architect or an engineer
to have a good plan for building a farm structure
or a house. Nor do you need the price of a fee
for one of these professionals.
Through the Florida Agricultural Extension Plan
Service, Florida residents can get plans for homes
and farm buildings without cost. During 1960, people
requested approximately 10,500 plans, including 3,000
The Extension Agricutural Engineer is a member
of the Southern Regional Plan Exchange Committee.
Also, Florida is a cooperating state with the Federal
Extension Plan Exchange Service. Through this co-
operation, plans developed by other Southern states
or by the USDA are available to the Florida Plan
Service. This means that more plans and better plans
are available to the residents of Florida.
A major objective of the Florida Plan Service is
continually to supply new and better plans. During
1960, 49 new plans were added to those already
available. Of these, 23 were adopted from the Fed-
eral Extension Plan Exchange Service and '26 were
developed by the Extension Agricultural Engineering
STITCHING A WINNER
Many women and girls throughout Florida are
finding that even a beginner can make stylish, becom-
ing clothes with the right instruction. They find sew-
ing is an interesting hobby, and a big help to the
family budget as well.
Mrs. Chester Miller of Winter Haven and her
daughters, Pam and Donna Dell, are a good example
of how a family can learn sewing through 4-H and
home demonstration workshops.
Mrs. Miller was not taught sewing as she was
growing up. After her marriage, members of her fam-
ily who knew how to sew did not have time or
patience to teach her.
Her daughters enrolled in the Winter Haven 4-H
Community Club. As a result of the instruction Pam
received, she learned to make many of her own
clothes. Wearing some of these, she has represented
Polk County in the State Style Show at Florida State
University. Mrs. Miller attended 2 county-wide work-
shops on clothing to learn sewing so that she could
help her daughters with their 4-H sewing projects.
Mrs. Chester Miller of Winter Haven and her daughters made
all the dresses for Pam's wedding. Pam is shown in her wedding
She was proud to be able to make a coat for one
of her daughters in the tailoring workshop. In turn,
she taught Donna Dell and Pam to make lined coats,
which they modeled in the county style show.
Pam was married this summer, and the family
made all the dresses for the church wedding.
Mrs. Chester Miller (right) and her daughters, Pam (left) and
Donna Dell, show some of the clothing they have made.
NEIGHBORHOOD SPECIAL INTEREST
One of the ways in which Extension is serving
Florida's ever-growing population is through meet-
ings for people with common interests. These are
called special interest groups. In Santa Rosa County,
such groups are helping spread family life education.
Neighborhood study groups there for mothers
with pre-school age children are being sponsored by
the Department of Public Health, Board of Public
Instruction and County Agricultural Extension Office.
The three agencies secure and train group leaders
and promote the program in all areas of the county.
Miss Ruth Harris, Family Life Specialist from
the Agricultural Extension Service, was present for
the organizational meeting of the group, and helped
them make their preliminary plans. Miss Harris em-
phasized that study groups are not designed as prob-
lem solving sessions. They will be means of studying
principles and facts based on research and knowledge
about child growth and development.
General plans outlined by the leader in forming
neighborhood study groups are as follows:
All groups would be small- with five to eight
mothers of pre-school age children participating.
-A leader would be selected for each group.
Eight to 12 study meetings would be held by the
An evaluation meeting would be held following
the completion of the study.
Ten neighborhood group leaders have been se-
lected. Plans are being made to make the program
available to all areas in the county.
Better Living Through Remodeling
The Thomas F. Sullivan family of Hilliard, Nassau
County, have remodeled their home for better living
with Extension help. Before, the house was poorly
arranged. The interior was dark and unappealing.
Now the interior is bright and cheery, and conven-
Their small home was divided into 4 bedrooms,
a dining room, kitchen and living room. There was
no closet or cupboard space.
To enlarge the kitchen, the narrow hallway sep-
arating the bedrooms from the other areas was re-
moved. The larger kitchen which resulted has room
to accommodate built-in cupboards and a stainless
steel sink. A built-in range and oven also were in-
stalled. A breakfast bar was added and a very serv-
iceable rubber tile floor was laid.
Since the dining room needed to be enlarged, the
hall partitions were also removed. The walls were
covered with sheet rock and painted lime green.
They painted the ceiling white because this room
has only one small window.
The living room was enlarged by taking out a
partition and eliminating 1 bedroom. This almost
doubled the size of the living room, and at the same
time added 2 windows. Before, the living room had
only 2 small windows. The walls were covered with
sheet rock, and 3 of them were painted a neutral
gray. One long wall was papered with washable wall-
paper in shades of green and gray. The floor of the
living room was covered with a very pleasing neutral
The members of the Sullivan family and the Home
Demonstration Agent helped in the planning of this
remodeling. The color scheme was keyed to greens,
yellow and a dash of red. The family is very happy
with the result.
Mrs. Thomas F. Sullivan (left) and Home Demonstration
Agent Mrs. Evelyn Sabbarese in the remodeled kitchen of the
Sullivan home. Note built-in oven and stove and cabinets.
More Meals From Meat
"Which is the best beef steak for broiling?"
"Where is the best place to buy meat?"
"You say 'stretch our meat dollar.' How do I get
Meat specialists from the National Livestock & Meat Board
(left) and the Extension Service prepare to teach a school on
f meat information.
more meat for my money?" Questions like this have
been flooding the desks of home demonstration agents,
home economists and other specialists. They have
used meats schools to supply this needed informa-
Many Florida residents live on retirement in-
comes and must carefully watch their food purchases.
Also, their families are small; this means buying the
smaller red-meat cuts. But usually the "ready-to-
serve" meat cuts in 1I
ey per pound tli.ai
ltor in ioi.e mon-
So a major problem of homemakers has been
making the more economical cuts of meat into several
Working with county Extension staffs and local
meat retailers, the meats specialist has held meat
information schools in all major areas of Florida. The
National Livestock and Meat Board assisted in spon-
soring the larger, area schools. At these, leaders in
the meat industry and the education field were train-
ed. Extension agents, home economists and meat
market managers used this training to develop pro-
grams in their local areas.
These 1-day schools cover problems in meat from
identification to serving. Raw meat cuts, visuals and
other teaching aids are used to explain meat selection,
meat buying, cutting, cooking and serving. Several
retail cuts of meat are cooked during the program so
the audience has a chance to taste the meat.
Homemakers soon learn they can save money
and eat better if they buy the larger cuts of meat
and make them into smaller cuts in their own kitchen.
By making 1 large cut into 3 or more different meals
they add variety to their diet, save cooking time and
have cuts easier to carve.
Meat retailers are interested in these programs
because it helps them sell more meat. Meat-market
managers can easily tell when and where these schools
have been held because customers start asking for
the cuts demonstrated in the meat information schools.
Some retailers have used demonstrations and
knowledge gained in the meats schools for develop-
ing programs for high school groups and local home-
An exhibit featuring
kinds of meat at a meat
GROW VEGETABLE GARDENS
Seminole Indians are finding that they can grow
a supply of fresh, nutritious vegetables in South
Special emphasis was placed on Indian work in
1956 by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
At present an agent for Indian work and a home
demonstration agent are doing full-time work with
the Seminoles. These,agents found that a deficiency
existed in the basic diet of the Indians.
Three things caused this deficiency: First, the
cabbage palm-the source of "swamp-cabbage"-had
become less plentiful. Second, only a few Seminoles
grew gardens. Third, the gardens they grew con-
tained only a limited number of vegetables (field corn,
pumpkins, sweet potatoes and perhaps beans and on-
ions). The Seminoles bought only staple items of
Many of the adults spoke only the Seminole lan-
guage or dialect, so it was hard to talk with them.
Therefore, the agents felt the best approach was
through the recently organized 4-H Clubs. Visual aids
would have to be used extensively.
In the winter of 1955-56, a training meeting was
held at the Big Cypress Reservation School. An area
adjacent to the school was planted to a garden. A
training meeting was also held at the Brighton Res-
Seed kits, donated by a seed company, were given
.,. ; ,
'; :. ' ". '.
Josie Billie and Semi-
nole 4-H Club members ;'
show a 4-H vegetable -
garden. ..-- .
to the club members who planned to take the garden
project. One seed kit was given also to Mr. Josie
Billie, an adult Indian at Big Cypress who was a
good gardener. Sweet potato plants were given to a
number of adults, including Mr. Billie.
Following the gardening season, the state veg-
table gardening specialist held vegetable garden
classes at the first Indian 4-H Club camp held in
Florida. The location was 4-H Camp Cloverleaf.
In the 1957-58 growing season, seed kits were
again supplied by a seed company for distribution to
the 4-H Club members. Additional training was
given at 4-H Club meetings.
Seminole adults had shown considerable interest
in the 4-H Club vegetable projects, so in January
1960 additional emphasis was placed on adult work.
Language communications were still poor with the
adults; therefore, the agents arranged for 1 gar-
den to be prepared and planted on each reservation.
Seed and plants were given to 4-H and home dem-
onstration club members to take home to plant in
the same manner as the demonstration gardens.
A number of 4-H Club members and adults have
demonstrated that they can grow successful vegetable
gardens. They have also introduced additional kinds
and disease-resistant varieties of vegetables to the
members of the tribe.
TJE CARTERS OF MANATEE COUNTY:
AN EXTENSION FAMILY
"I think we should all be thankful to the Extension
Service for making all these opportunities possible."
This statement was taken from the record book of a
4-H girl in Manatee County.
This 4-H girl, 12 year old Gay Carter, is a mem-
ber of a typical Extension family. Her 14 year old
brother is also a 4-H Club member, and.her 5 year
old sister is looking forward to the time when she
will be 10 years old and can join. Mrs. Polly Carter
has been an active member of a home demonstration
club for 9 years, and is also a 4-H Club leader. Mr.
T. J. Carter, who owns a small ranch, has worked
closely with the county agricultural agents. He has,
through a program of business analysis and better
practices, improved his cattle and his ranch.
Mrs. Carter manages her resources wisely. She
maintains a high living standard on less money than
most of her friends would believe possible. She says
she learned in Home Demonstration much of her
knowledge of wise buying and food preparation, abil-
ity to make her home attractive, and skill to make
many of their clothes.
"We have become a closer-knit family through our
children's 4-H projects-we all work together," says
Mr. Carter. "Our children's main projects are their
steers. Both have won blue ribbons each year at
the Manatee County Fair and also at the State Fair.
They are proud of showing the Grand Champion one
year. Our 4-H girl has had foods and clothing as
projects both years. She was a winner in the dress
review, and has won blue ribbons on all of her
exhibits. She now helps her mother at home by doing
An Extension family in action-left to right, Mrs. Carter, Mr.
Carter, Jim, Joy, and Gay.
much of the cooking and sewing. Besides, she is an
officer in her club."
The influence of this Extension family extends to
the community. They are active in church work and
community affairs. The mother is an officer in her
Home Demonstration Club, a demonstration leader,
and has worked with the Agent in presenting a pro-
gram to a special interest group. As a 4-H leader,
she works with many girls and families.
Our typical Extension family-because of their ex-
ample of good management, fine family living, and
help to 4-H work-was recently selected as the "4-11
Family of the Year."
CREATIVE HOME ARTS
"It's fun to be creative and make articles for the
home, for gifts and for sale," a home demonstration
club member says.
People-especially the older folks-want and need
satisfying, interesting, purposeful and profitable lei-
sure activities. Many of them ask Extension for guid-
ance, information and training in arts, crafts and other
For example, 1 of Manatee County's home demon-
stration club members attended a ceramic workshop
at the Agricultural Center. She enjoyed it so much
that she decided to make other articles and learn
more about it. She has made several attractive pieces
for herself and to give as gifts, and won prizes by
exhibiting them at the county fair.
To earn money for her church she and a friend
made ceramics for the church bazaar. They worked in
their spare time for several months to make enough
for 1 display table and several shelves. From the
sale of their ceramics they earned $175.00 for the
Many Dade County home demonstration club
members are older women. The relatively inexpen-
sive crafts they learn in some of our county work
meetings are both physical and mental therapy for
them. To a great many of them the amount of in-
come they receive from sales is another important
One older woman who has always led a very busy
life was the victim of a stroke several years ago.
She has found a market for a novelty yarn poodle
she learned to make at a work meeting. Although
her rate of pay per hour is small, the exercise for her
hand and arm muscles-not to mention her mental
and spiritual satisfaction in this creative work-has
added happy, useful years to her life.
Here's another example, from Broward County.
A senior home demonstration chairman for beauti-
fication of home grounds combines her handicraft
and yard work. She raises flowers and ornamentals,
then makes planters, dish gardens and corsages for
gifts and for sale.
Her club wanted to raise funds to help send 2
representatives to State Senior Home Demonstration
Council and Short Course. She volunteered to hold
corsage making classes at her home, charge each per-
son a 50 cent fee and contribute proceeds to the
Twenty-six persons learned to make Easter cor-
sages for themselves and their friends. The club treas-
ury was enriched $13.00.
A 4-H MEMBER'S STORY-
"There are advantages to living on the farm," says
Marjie Alford, a senior high 4-H Club girl from
Putnam County. "One of the advantages is being able
to share in the family income responsibilities and the
independence of growing things of my own."
Her most profitable project in 1960 was her three
acres of collards. She bought the plants and ferti-
lizer. Her brother helped cultivate with the tractor,
but she did most of the work. This gave her more
She sold her collards to local supermarkets and
independent grocers. "I learned three important
things: First, collards must be marketed early, before
the hot summer days come; next, establishing a local
market for my products gave more net profit; and
third, keeping an accurate record of my time, labor,
expenses and income showed me in black and white
that my project was worth it all."
On the farm, she has other money-making proj-
ects. She grows onions for sale, has several head of
cattle and saves money by helping freeze food.
A HOME DEMONSTRATION MEMBER'S STORY
One of the most successful club members in mar-
keting of home products lives in the Glendale Com-
munity of Walton County. She is Mrs. Cordellia Laird.
She has a deep interest in her country home, yard
and garden. This interest, combined with necessity,
caused her to start selling things she grew. At first,
she sold vegetables from her garden to a few people
in a nearby town. News spread about her nice vege-
tables. As business grew she secured a bin at the
curb market in town. Each Wednesday and Satur-
day, she brought vegetables and flowers to the mar-
ket. Soon she realized her small business was a good
supplement to the family income.
Her garden increased to a truck farm. Instead of
a few rows of gladioli, she plants them by the acres.
Now florists in four or five neighboring counties buy
her beautiful flowers.
Home industries similar to this one provide satis-
fying and profitable ways to increase personal income.
Extension workers helped people improve quality
of products, packaging, pricing, and locating nmairkets.
MEET STEVE BAKER-
A Successful 4-H
Meet Steve Baker-a successful 4-H Club member.
Steve is 17 years old. His parents were former
4-H Club members. They live on a family farm in
Santa Rosa County.
Several years ago, Steve's dad won a scholarship
to Boys' 4-H Short Course at the University of Florida.
Steve set his sights on winning this scholarship, too.
During Steve's first 4 years in 4-H, he completed
9 projects earning approximately $400.00 and 2
county medals. Since then, he has carried out 3 proj-
ects in dairying, 1 each in corn and peanut produc-
tion, 3 in electricity, and 1 in junior leadership.
In 1960, he competed in the county 4-H lamp
building contest, placing first in county and district
competition. He also won a scholarship to Boys' 4-H
Short Course at the University of Florida.
Thus, Steven realized a dream. But he did not
lose interest in 4-H; he returned home with a desire
to improve 4-H. He and several older Club members
organized a community 4-H Club, "The Allentown
Hayseeds," where he is now serving as junior leader.
His interest in the county 4-H program is stronger
Steve's county agent says, "I think this is a shining
example of the value of 4-H Club work. Steve may
not win a trip to Chicago or another state honor.
However, this isn't the most important thing in his
The most important or significant thing in Steve's
life is the self-development that he has achieved.
Through these years of 4-H Club work, Steve- as
have so many other 4-H members over the county,
state and nation has successfully molded his life so
that he will be a better citizen of tomorrow. And
after all, this is the goal of 4-H Club work to take
an average boy or girl, and through 4-H Club work
help him "To Make The Best Better."
Steve Baker-an outstanding 4-H member from Santa Rosa
County-with his prize-winning lamp.
The Girls' Side of the 4-H Story
(Ed. Note: The following story was written by Evelyn
Jones, Vice-President of the Girls' 4-H Club Council, who
lives in Sarasota.)
"I would like to tell you a little about the girls'
side of the 4-H story. A 4-H girl has an opportunity,
second to none, to prepare herself for the job of fu-
ture wife and mother through her 4-H projects and
"In every project she takes, she is learning
something valuable in preparing her for this role.
For instance, in food preparation, she learns to pre-
pare foods with the highest nutritive value in the
most economical manner. In child care, she gets ex-
perience in the actual handling of children. This
cannot be learned merely from reading a "How-to-do-
it" book. In sewing, she learns to make clothing and
other articles and to dress appropriately and becom-
ingly at lower cost. This will surely be appreciated
by her future husband.
"I could go on naming projects and relating to
you the important knowledge she gets from all of
these. But the 4-H girl will also learn better to live
with other people by participating in 4-H activities.
"She can give demonstrations, go to camp-pos-
sibly act as a counselor-and also participate in 4-H
"Such a 4-H girl has a chance to lead in her own
individual way. This experience will help her be a
better citizen. She may become a club officer, a mem-
ber of the county council or even the state council.
Evelyn Jones of Sarasota County addresses a group of fellow
4-H girls. Evelyn is vice-president of the Florida State Girls'
"Being a 4-H Club member has meant much to me,
as to the 42,000 other 4-H boys and girls in Florida.
It has meant we're working with fine people and have
trained leaders to help us. We have opportunities.
unlimited to be good citizens of today and tomorrow.
We get both education and enjoyment from our proj-
ects and activities. But most of all, we try always
to make the best better. Besides, we girls are pre-
paring for that most important role-housewife and
CHOOSING A CAREER
One of the biggest decisions any \oullng person
has to rmake is choice of his lite ork. And his deci-
sion a effects not only hisniielf but hfis family. his state
.and tlhi \er\ s(lciet\ in \which we live.
Thoiisa.nds of Florida bo\s and girls in the ninth
gradct and alIvie .can IIno consider this decision sys-
lema!tica.ll\. They are able to evaluate themselves and
do care..-r study as a 4-H Club project. By following
this logical. orderly method of studying and evaluat-
in",g career opport.nitaits, the.\ ,will learn hox\ to make
Isound (ic isiois ba.is d ion obleitia e ilornimatioin.
(One rt-ason for thic popillarilit oI Floiid.,'s 4-H
project in e:arer e\xploiati.ol i% that thle m-inher',
tlhmirii-Ili-s hrlpi-d ti delielop it. The project w\;s pre-
tmsted i, 6 coll tie,_ during i :all 196U.. Four 4-H
members collaborated with Extension workers in sug-
gE-sting ways to inipro\e the project and the materials.
Their ideas helped make the revised literature more
By September 1960 no count\ in the state "as
without its career c\ploration project.
This particular 4-H project requires no capital
inlv-.tmient by the- club member. It is equally useful
to farm and rion-farmn south. The project has :3 main
phasi.'s: .A .,ung person first takes a close look at
hiimsl It, his interests and his capacities. Next. he in-
-rSticate', wetral possible careers in which he might
he irteresti:-d. Ht- ,atli.-rs the same kind of inforrna-
tirn aboit c.Llh fi these jobs. Finally the club mem-
ber counibic.s \\hat he has learned about hiriself \\ith
ilha.t I:e Ihs liar.rrid about the various job opportuni-
tit- This pior\icdk a basis for selectirni a career.
DEVELOPING 4-H GIRLS THROUGH
Ti'h ,-h" .l rli. M .imnin-r f inlt. is a ,iipilL tii t for
m inin\ Flirida I-H 'iri X \liii iIt 1(iij 4-11 (.Job 2'ir ls pI r
week .lttlril each ot the 5 FlonridA. 4-H (C anp, during
the S- t'tri-k c.iiipinlp t.*i,luJa l.
Fo llr I l it" 4-H (. lii i niiu-i i ,-i. (T.ini, il-'1 is thrill
a \aca.tiiin \%ith hiIcid, and .t ]-_'\\ -d\rind itif The
olde-r hiil< el iiov tI,-ir \% I Ik at c.lnip s junior h:',ad-
e:rs Ti, hel--Ip pl.ran and CIri\ i t .ia(ti\ tis sliiI ias
craft claLIt:s. helpinii \\Iith \ ; aterlronit diiti:-s. issi-t-
ilg t ith0 outLticiir retli-A.itli ilnd \c pi-!r'.I, iI \\ itlh a
special interest activity.
Four-H grls enloy a cookout during a summer camp About
100 girl per week oatend each of 5 4-H camps during the
Pr--planniini, is donie' -.b Ieacc h cu )r iroup
Oif loinil s__ months a<.lt-ad i of tin-.--. Usually\ i nieni-
ib-I if tin. State Ext eni-i ,i taiff tihe (..Aiity Exti -i-
.sill Stafftl .id llt ailid Iliol I.an a -ii nll!d li [)itNs lit .-
ti\lt* floiri tin i ior c tamipp -rs | iiin ii t this p aiilnilii' .
.\ldist c iili.'-o pli i t scit tb ciail intliLt' t Ir'l iipi inii l-
iduil ;iid .1 i it) i-'r.>l tit il-ir ._spt-i pr(_iLr ldnit. andil
'.ch anL-ilip s11 -(jUipp):'d \ itih kitilu5ln a.11d ni,_.
hall. \\%t _.iltroint, asst-mlll \ hall, at list 12 cabiis,
and v\'oll-\lill cni Its softba-ll fiT-ld and shi.Lt(-ii llo.ard
Cotlrts. T\No caips i; 131:- added attractinns-1 a pa-i\il-
.tI i ci. h .i,_. All dl (h i mpl_ L S I.- t. lh._ iliiit.s
fir 1t1l- Lamp stalf.
TIp 53 caimnps Lat located iii ()aLi-ns.i \.lidisoi.
M.aiiiii Lk- ajid Hliiiigidnd coentit-%. 1 .cll 4-H
( h11 l1 :l)up is .,att(.inp. i:i d I n (..L i pi ) i\. its 110Ion-
l1li-OniisL tio.tjil A\ i nt. At c inp tilh- fii!l a rccrel-
illli dl ;Iisrc ifr- ,.lil .l ianilp fiit-ctor coik. andi
c.ar taik r i- -, .i.a i-t with thin ciamp prig raii.
Ni I .iallt \ \ III l 1r ia l4il I tt nI d. Ci rrip -is a\ LI ) C11114
ain per I ,i an s, ii inior l .at(_.r. .h- is de( l-loping thu.
foul II II.-adl. He-.irt. H.-ad .and He:ilth She d\ cvel-
iopi- t:he ih. alth II bi \ iarriin to a~i pircltat tithe iin-
[.ii tdiLctI it t liit.t :iild phli 'sl il \% iAll-bh ing. tihe Head
H hi\ t.ikini pait in tliil hit-prc i i kiiig activ itics the
He'.art II 11\ Lniniii c lll(. e tie ti ln' rlld of nature aliii
the workrii arl dilip of (;o.l; a:i d tl.' H.,ril II b leain-
in uisetul skills.
BEST FOOT FORWARD
\\.- IIIr- .lh1141| ; I :' plittin t-- l (1 h I h'. ,i.' toot[
for'war i [ ,r\ .in ia, s. -t Fliriia Th, t- W.i .1N a a
frit- dil \ IS. ti.i t.i i .r ri.Liii', I isiti-r al n eI ) p ubli-
cil/i -1H 1i \ lr l. .\i \.i l i isii r tl ,k tith i Liesc1.
11 i; II,, in I .ak Ct j Ii iit\.
rin i, 16(i L.ak,. Cr,,rit,, 4-1l Club nitinhers
obtlanrd 25 Qigr thrli)uh tht: c.ounti, tiuent ,iflice.
Th;.,' fli ct-i l.i, t hlr it. ilth .l 4-11 c'l i -i. The\
carr\ fli iiord-I L ,k- ( .,iiiii\ 4-II Club-s \\-lcoimL
Yo) i' \ith '"1)ri% S ca-l ih it tl it- bott h )idi.
I-. L..k, ( onait\ ci L -in-ie-r 1tuiikh"i.0 ihe rc IIul.-
tiii a t lr i .1l \ ;llii d l )!i d ti IL- in t.il at.i a lIii(.led.
T h,_ Ir .r, l AtSil- Al i L,:)l;:idl s ni:-.,_1\ \%itl,
L.,k Pilht (. iniii ha- i .t\, Pi'ro ,i.- T ih,,. ; b, in,4
(.iinll. C ii tflrrnii l t il nII L \i \ I oi' .ihi/.tI l I kI (.' ltfi!ll
\(-c ii l c'ii l-' .i_\ I'i toi i i ( ',l in iit[ i i ri.i
LLit iSt I-' SAtil1 l 111~ le i L.
i- t-.ti ii i_<'r> ij- i i1 i, I[ ii-lr i i i i li\ .. 1 i "2 ii i\ I [api fr
i\ r- ii iti, lh id ti, n i i t l .i t-s Tl-ir st i ) hiiit's and
.1h ,irtic'lI- pp,-- r(d l l c\ l c'oiiit\ .in l ci'._' and\n"- -
T lhf- i-> llii \ n! ]ill-< r. .t [..ik.' (a Liiim t\ (.lniri -ii -
li iit'l. the Pr(-IduLhr tOf the- L.ik' (_'l ii Bol\ S' -1-11I
C lI ( ,ai.iii l l -[i l a< ii]<.1' ilb.l it tin" C il lI.i T ri.iull i'
4-H ( :hib \\,-rr I.,atliin.ed in tlhis picture titi l.-. T _he
I'r.-_ i-t-it o, Ilhr l..k t B l,\s 4-H C hl) ( o-ii cil is
the .ta.t,. 1-H .ih.[\ 1 in i-i .
SiL, l i l ow li.ili boin:_ ).lR I-i ,i il!l-.i iai el of
iid|,0 lir ,iuh\ a ", i!, [t e (O iilit\ T lihe ')illit\ c'ili-
Ilill i, ,.'!'i.T ( ,) p ,.it l.I t>-.il is ilr ttiiOi llt-s si ii .
THE GIRLS' 4-H CLUB COUNCIL HAS
A Voice in Planning
"To stren-ithen and expand 4-H Club Work
under the guidance of the Home Demon-
"To develop leadership and individual abilities
in 4-H Club members;
"To advise the Home Demonstration Agents of
the needs and interests of 4-H Club girls;
"To help others to recognize the place of Girls'
4-H Club work in over-all Home Demon-
stration Work and the Agricultural Exten-
These ale the objectives of the State Girls' 4-H
Council of Home Demonstration Work. Through
this group, Florida girls help plan and carry out their
Fifty counties sent representatives to the state
council meeting in Tallahassee during the Annual
State Girls 4-1H Club Short Course this year.
Ml of these representatives served on council
committees during this meeting. Each of these com-
mittees The CkIIerklat (newsheet), county council
reports, finances. 4-H Club supplies, home demon-
stration plaquIe inominatiorns. program (if v. irk consti-
tution and resolutions ua. le b\ a chairman chosen
in advance h\ the State C,'mncil e\ecuti\e commit-
tee Area Home Dcmon-stration agents I .er ed as
The executi e committee of the Girls' 4-H Council
is composed of the 7 state council officers and .3 dis-
trict representatives. This committee met t-, ice dur-
ing the \ear. The first mee-tinr \xas held during the
Florida State Fair in Tampa. There the irls helped
to plan and carry out the 4-H Club Da\ activities
and grandstand program at the Fair A. mee-ting to
plan the agenda for the annual state council meet-
ilnc %.as held in Tdllahassee in March.
New ly elected officers for the 1960-1961 \ear are
President. Sharon Christian. Escambia Countv: Vice
President. Evelvn Jones. Sarasota County; Recording
Secretary. Betty York. OranLge County: Correspond-
inr Secretary. Rencla Pre\att. Suwannee County;
Treasurer. Judy Tripp. Bro\sard Count\. Historian,
S\lia Campen, ,'lachua Couirnty. Parli:n-nentarian,
Carol n Thornhill. Polk Countv: and Representatives,
Susie Hudson. Jackson Countv: Katherine Davidson,
Four-H Club girls hate a chance t.' help olan rheir actvities.
Here a 4-1- Club garl conuull. ",th her odult ad%.,cr at the
Store Grls 4-H Club Sho.rt Course in Tallahas-ee.
Jefferson County; and Sally Hutchinson, Clay County.
These girls, along with the State Girls' 4-H Club
Agents and the Home Demonstration Agent of the
president, will comprise the 1960-1961 state execu-
Every year the girls' council gives a plaque to the
Senior Home Demonstration Council which has con-
tributed the most toward 4-H Club work in its coun-
ty. At the State Girls' 4-H Club Council Meeting.
a committee of girls evaluated the assistance given
the -4-H Club program through the state and county
home demonstration councils.
Some of the Club work that was sponsored by
county home demonstration councils included fur-
nishing project material for underprivileged girls and
scholarships to short course and camp; judging local
and county dress revues; providing refreshments for
county 4-H council meetings and achievement days;
visiting 4-H Club members and their parents; spon-
soring the 4-H banquet for achievement winners;
serving as sponsor for county demonstration day; pro-
viding funds for 4-H Club road signs; providing trans-
portation for 4-H events; sponsoring career day for
girls; and sponsoring College scholarships.
This year, the committee decided that Suwannee
County Home Demonstration Council had done the
most in contributing toward 4-H Club work in the
county, and the rotatingc plaque was presented to
them at the State Senior (Council Meeting in Gaines-
ville in July.
"In Sickness and In Health
Today, 48% of all new brides are teenagers. How
well prepared will they be to care for their families
"in sickness and in health"?
Such new homemakers need information and skills
on such important things as how to prepare and
Four-H girls learn nursing techniques under the guidance of
a nurse from the Florida State University School of Nursing.
A COOPERATIVE 4-H PASTURE
Cooperation is the keynote of a 4-H pasture pro-
gram in Hendry County. This pasture area is near
County Agent Frank L. Polhill and Assistant
County Agent Gene B. Harrison say, "It is the story
of people working together to develop a much needed
facility for the youth of the Clewiston area."
Here is how the project began. The agents ar-
ranged a meeting with Mr. H. T. Vaughn, President
of the United States Sugar Corporation, and three
interested 4-H Club parents went along. They told
him of the many boys in the Clewiston area who
were interested in raising calves as a project, but
who had no facilities at home for doing so.
The company offered for $1.00 per year the
use of a 20-acre tract of land just inside the city
limits so that boys could go back and forth to care
for their calves by either walking or using their
serve attractive and nutritious meals for the sick; ways
to entertain a sick child and adult; bathing and car-
ing for a person in bed; how to take and interpret
temperature readings; emergency first aid at home;
home-made gadgets to make a patient more comfort-
able; and meeting the emotional and social needs
of a sick person.
A class at the 1960 State 4-H Girl's Short Course
helped spur the interest of teenage girls along these
lines. The class met in the Florida State University
School of Nursing classrooms, and was taught by a
registered nurse. The girls had an opportunity to
practice on a dummy and on themselves to discover
what skills and knowledge they would need in their
In the counties, over 14 hundred 4-H Club mem-
bers received definite training in first aid, home nurs-
ing, and health during 1960. Women also studied
these facts and skills. Six counties held leader train-
ing meetings on home care of the sick. Their influ-
ence and interest spread, and 4 counties either spon-
sored or cooperated on the Red Cross course in home
So many Florida women and girls are learning
how to help keep complications of illness down and
make sick or injured persons as comfortable and
cheerful as possible.
bicycle. Mr. Vaughn also offered the use of his com-
pany tractor and other equipment in preparing and
planting the land.
The Board of County Commissioners agreed to
furnish financial assistance. Some of the posts and
wire were donated by 4-H members, parents and
ranchers. All the labor for planting, fencing, and
building pens was furnished by the 4-H Club boys,
and their parents.
Today Hendry County 4-H members have one of
the most productive pastures in the area. Thirty boys
have 35 cows and calves on the pasture. Every after-
noon these boys visit the pasture to care for their
animals. Twenty-five of these calves were exhibited
at the Hendry County Fair and Livestock Show last
year, and 5 of the best calves went to the State
Fair in Tampa.
"I'll soon be an adult.
What should I do about it?
How do I go about buying a home?
Religion what and why?"
These were some of the thoughts in the minds
of several collegiate 4-H members last spring. They
showed this when they planned their annual college
weekend around an adulthood theme, "Assuming
College camp style-Studying?
Biscuits-college camp style.
of Three weeks later a jovial, joking, laughing group
S' of college 4-H members met at Camp Cherry Lake
S. near Madison, Florida. They relived their 4-H camp-
ing days and joined in a true spirit of 4-H.
There were serious times too. These young people
discussed, "Establishing and Maintaining Credit,"
"What Part Does Religion Play in Adult Life," and
"What Do We Look For in Selecting a Mate." Cap-
able instructors led these and other discussions.
The success of this event has been reflected in
the continuing interest of these campers. They hope
to continue the adulthood theme through their 1961
camp, with emphasis on new and current topics.
LEARNING ABOUT ELECTRICITY IN 4-H
Florida's young people are interested in electricity
and its many uses.
Enrollment in electric projects has been increas-
ing probably faster than any other project area. In
1956, 1,661 4-H members were enrolled in electricity.
By 1960, just 4 years later, the number had increased
about 231 times to 3,895.
Extension specialists prepared kits containing an
infra-red brooder, reading lamp, basic electric ma-
terials, advanced electric materials, voltage drop wir-
ing board and appliances. These kits were used by
county Extension workers in teaching electricity. They
were also used by 4-H members to learn by doing
and to show others.
In 1960, 12 rural electric cooperatives and 1
private power company supplied the materials in
these kits for 62 counties. Materials valued at $20
were provided to each county.
The help given the Extension Electrification Pro-
gram by power suppliers has benefitted it materially.
This support will help insure the continued interest
of 4-H boys and girls in electricity. Such 4-H work
can lead to lifetime careers in engineering and science.
Four-H boys learn about electric wiring under the guidance
of a competent instructor at an Electric Clinic.
State 4-H Boys Short Course -
A tour of historic homes, fun night, classes, a
talent show, demonstrations, and a reception held for
juniors and seniors in high school by the Collegiate
4-H Club-these are just a few of the highlights of
the 45th Annual Girls' 4-H Club Short Course in June.
About 500 4-H girls attended.
These.picked girls experienced first hand a taste
of college life at Florida State University, shared
ideas and learned more about subject matter phases
of 4-H Club work. They will share this knowledge
with others back home.
At the State Dress Revue, county dress revue
winners modeled their winning outfits for their fel-
low 4-H Club members from other counties. Four-H
girls are whizzes at sewing. Evidence is the variety
of costumes that graced Opperman Music Hall on
this night. They ranged from bathing suits to formal
ball gowns, all made by the girls themselves.
Short Course provided opportunity for 4-H Club
girls to broaden their interests' to include citizenship,
public speaking and career exploration among others.
Classes in these areas were especially valuable at
this year's short course; this is also the first year proj-
ect work in career .exploration has been available for
4-H girls. The girls also found classes in food prep-
aration, clothing, club recreation, meat cuts, first aid,
singing, devotions,' money management, and stories
for children valuable and interesting.
Leaders and agents were brought up to date on
new ideas in understanding and working with youth.
Speakers from Florida State University, Extension,
4-H, and the city of Tallahassee presented topics
keyed to the short course theme-"Learn, Live, Serve-
Through 4-H." Miss Emmie Nelson of the National
4-H Service Committee spoke on the theme, "Youth
Learns to Lead." Paul Hendrick, 4-H Club member,
told about his experiences as a delegate to the World
Agricultural Fair in New Delhi, India. Mrs. Robert
Binger, Tallahassee homemaker, gave an inspirational
talk on the contributions youth can make to their
lives and those of others. Director M. O. Watkins of
the Florida Extension Service showed how youth
works and serves in America.
An afternoon program by collegiate 4-H Club
members on their experiences at 4-H Club Congress,
4-H Club Conference, American Youth Foundation
Camp, and the White House Conference provided the
4-H Club girls with an insight into the opportunities
for service and development 4-H Club work offers.
AFTER 4-H, WHAT?
This was the guiding thought for 366 top Florida
4-H Club boys as they arrived at the University of
Florida Camps last June. The event was the 41st
Annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course. The boys rep-
resented 57 Florida counties.
In the atmosphere of a college campus, these
youngsters worked to better understand career oppor-
tunities open to them. Agricultural Extension Service
specialists joined other college professors in holding
classes and leading discussions.. Guest speakers in-
cluded outstanding youth speakers. Each of the as-
sembly programs, including one presented by the
College of Agriculture faculty, centered around the
Short Course theme, "After 4-H, What?"
As a follow-up to Short Course training, County
Extension personnel are counseling with older young-
sters about their careers. An excellent example of
this is the career exploration project, which is being
started state-wide during the 1960-61 club year. 4-H
members who are over 14 years of age are enrolling
in this project. It is specifically designed to help them
answer the question, "After 4-H, What?"
4-H Helps Meet
Today's agriculture is ever-changing. Efficiency in
production is essential today. Increased efficiency us-
ually means increased mechanization. More and more
frequently, farm machinery, electric motors, and gas-
oline and diesel engines are replacing human and
Increased mechanization brings new problems.
We need people who understand these new ways of
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service is
doing something to meet this need by instructing
young people. Four-H projects in tractor care and
electricity are receiving special attention.
This year specialists held 2 joint 4-H Tractor-
Electric Clinics for adult and junior 4-H leaders. Rep-
resentatives of power suppliers, farm machinery, com-
panies and the University of Florida helped teach the
159 adult and junior leaders who attended. They
taught machinery maintenance and safe, economical
use of electricity. Adult and junior leaders who at-
tended will carry this information back to others in
their respective counties.
State 4-H Girls' Short Course -
DISCOVERED: A 4-H LEAD
"Where are those people going with those 4-H
Club members?" a person might ask.
"Why, they are adult 4-H leaders. They are going
to a picnic with boys and girls who are enrolled in
a 4-H Club in our community," an Extension Agent
"Don't you think it is a wonderful thing for people
in our community to be interested in the future of
our children? These leaders help them in their 4-H
Club activities because they like young people. Be-
sides, they want these boys and girls to develop into
successful and useful citizens of tomorrow," the agent
"Being a 4-H Club leader offers many challenges.
Young people like to have adults work and play with
them, but they also like to have something to say
about how to reach the goal they are undertaking.
"By the way, did you know that the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service is working with adult lead-
ers throughout the state people who are interested
and willing to work with 4-H Club members? Any
person interested in this kind of community service
can find a place. Their county agent or home demon-
stration agent can give them pointers on how to best
work with these young people.
"Really, it is just like growing young again to
work with young people. They plan-project work in
agriculture and home economics, picnics, educational
trips, camps, shows, fairs, achievement days, parades,
rally days, project tours and many other things which
contribute to their growing up. The best reward these
adult leaders receive is watching 4-H'ers accept their
responsibilities and grow into useful citizens.
"Say, did you know that during 1960 six pilot coun-
ties in Florida received special emphasis in leader-
ship development? As a result, this program is being
extended to all counties in 1961.
"District agents, specialists and 4-H staff members
with the Agricultural Extension Service made more
than 30 different visits to these pilot counties last
4 .: DEVELOPMENT
year. They wanted to get the best results so that this
information would be available to other counties.
"All of these pilot counties gained knowledge about
leadership work. They said they plan to continue
"Well," says the interested person. "This sounds
like a wonderful way to make a contribution to the
welfare of Florida's youth, as well as having a won-
derful time doing it. Sign me up as a volunteer 4-H
Caladium Growers Organize
"Why have a growers' organization? Highlands
County is already the world's leading caladium pro-
ducing county." This was once the attitude of many
growers toward efforts of progressive growers to
A group of county people meeting with County
Agent B. J. Harris, Jr., to study agricultural problems
and solutions recognized several problems in produc-
ing and marketing caladiums that could best be han-
dled by group action. Here are some of these prob-
The group noted that we need research informa-
tion on caladium production methods. This increases
the need for an organization which can speed ex-
change of information and cooperation on problems.
Within the last few years, several foreign coun-
tries have set up quarantine regulations against the
importation of nematode-infested caladiums. Group
action is needed to promote research on nematode
control measures for caladiums in the field and in
As a result of this program projection work in
Highlands county, a statewide organization has been
formed. About 100 caladium growers are members.
As a result of the efforts of this group, a research
project has been initiated to study caladium pro-
Landscaping Helps -
A Better Community
Rural Development is a grass-roots program. That
is the secret of its success.
Everyone living in the community or county has
a chance to be a part of the program. Federal, state
and county agency workers are merely advisers to the
local groups. Local leaders direct the program.
The problems acted upon are those that local
people feel are important. The Agricultural Extension
Service provides educational guidance; first, in help-
ing form an organizational framework for carrying
on the program. Later, as off campus University
faculty, Extension workers provide the kinds of in-
formation requested by the local groups.
This self-help approach to problems of resource
development and community growth is not limited to
low-income or economically-retarded areas. Commun-
ity leaders in all sections of the state are making use
of the methods and techniques which were first tried
in 2 pilot Rural Development counties, Washington
In these efforts by local leaders, Extension is co-
operating with all other agencies and groups at state,
county and local levels. Extension provides leadership
in this movement without attempting to dictate to
Landscaping the streets of Bristol has boosted
the morale of the people. Extension cooperated with
the Lions Club and Women's Club in this effort.
The people asked the county agent to get a plan
drawn and generally assist with beautifying Bristol.
After the plan was drawn, the Women's Club and
Lions Club members donated most of the plants
from their own yards. The State Road Department
and the county agent planted the shrubs. Lions Club
members watered them.
During the year, many unsightly locations have
been cleaned up. People have pruned their shrub-
bery and asked for assistance in landscaping, spray-
ing, and fertilizing their lawns. They are making
plans to enlarge their landscaping. The city is think-
ing of helping people clean up their lots. These are
only a few of the many outward expressions of pride
in the city.
This project has demonstrated how people can
join to improve their community. The improvement
in physical beauty is unimportant compared to the
improvement in the people's attitude about their
county and themselves.
"Do-It-Yourself" Community Development
"Do-It-) rosrc:lt" is the \vatch\, ild for resource
development in community improvement clubs. In-
stead of waiting for state agcrirc' workers to call
meetings (on a problem ni llj _.ct lclcl clubs are
taking tlhe iiritiariM- n i arran- iiL 'l tl-irn '11n pro lcidnls
The local ri'u.ip lecidrs wht mii.itteis in.terest or
conceern thlfi The-n it asks thie clinint' Externsioin atir'it
to contact Extfnsion speciailitk rr others who are
qualified to briic this t : pt oC ilfnrlnation to the
Irouip. Snie oit these matter it I maoII interest to the
communih l tI lbs tliron.ighi:ut the i, stte h.i\t e h-i b-n su.ich
topics as social security, record keeping, l.icl-L wiping
and consumer credit.
Community club activities are not limited to once-
a-month educational meetings. They usually have sev-
eral committees u\or\kiL, iiimilt.iiaeou c- oI various
1111m p10-I\ -1 itn .. I,.>)i'.l id>.l, I ,tlic l ficttij: ii siiIl) and
chui'rch iinpr,,u-mnent, club house imontinctioi, and
recreation programs all nmal- the community a better
place in which to live. Competitive programs using
bot't. If.i 111 p i i ti t.,b r -nllt in lii l, r ir lC ')i in-,.
Local Control in
Discussion and planning in Hamilton County have
resulted in a new agricultural industry for the county
- and added interest in good farming, as well.
County people have established a new grain dry-
ing and processing plant. The idea was born during a
meeting of the Hamilton County Program Projection
Committee for Agriculture. Let's see how it came
Mr. Billy Hill and Mr. E. C. Browne of Jasper
met with the County Agent and other members of
the Program Projection Committee. The group dis-
cussed the need for additional income in the area.
The question arose, "Why not grow more corn?" An-
swer, "No outlet, poor yield and low prices."
This discussion caused Mr. Hill and Mr. Browne
to consider the problem further. Maybe a grain dry-
ing and processing plant would be the answer: Gather
the corn early, dry to suitable moisture content and
ship it to Southern and closer Northern markets.
The 2 men and the agent conducted a thorough
investigation on the number of farmers who could
and would plant corn. A meeting was sponsored by
the interested group and the County Agent, with the
help of an Extension Agronomist, to stimulate in-
terest and encourage better farming methods in grow-
ing corn. A demonstration was set up to prove corn
could be profitable. The grain plant was set up. Sev-
eral farmers, including Mr. Hill and Mr. Browne,
grew corn yielding 70 to 80 bushels per acre in fairly
large plantings. Early gathering and marketing
A new agricultural Industry for Hamilton County.
Ii __ _
Mr. Billy Hill (left) and Mr. E. C. Browne of Jasper were
leaders in the movement to set up a new grain drying and
processing plant in Hamilton County.
But a calamity occurred. At the latter part of the
season, the storage tanks collapsed. This was believed
to be caused by improper foundation and possibly
poor construction. However, friends and neighbors
rushed to the rescue and shoveled corn like mad.
With the threat of constant rain, people worked
around the clock and salvaged the majority of the
The Extension Engineers were called in. They
made recommendations on reconstruction, and sug-
gested a private engineer to supervise it. Soon the
new plant was in operation again.
Farmers planted more corn, fertilized higher, and
followed better practices. The result was the largest
corn crop in the history of Hamilton County.
This operation is not only an industry within
itself but has stimulated interest in better farming.
Several new combines have been purchased to har-
vest corn, as well as trucks to haul it to the dryer.
Larger equipment has been purchased for growing
No individual can take all the credit. Preplanning
and everyone's working together have helped solve a
portion of the problems of this county.
SBeautif' (t / n
Part of the cover of a
folder describing the
contest and providing
on entry blank is shown
Outstanding landscaping work is now being rec-
ognized in Broward County through an awards pro-
gram. The object is to encourage the beautification
of residential areas, businesses, public parks, road-
sides and boulevards.
Called the Tropical Broward Beautification Awards
Program, this effort toward county improvement is
being sponsored by the Broward County Chapter of
the Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association and
the District XI Florida Federation of Garden Clubs.
The county agent's office monitors the program.
Let's see how this beautification awards program
came to be. Two years ago at a directors' meeting
of the Nurserymen's Association, Lewis E. Watson,
Assistant County Agent, suggested that people would
use more plants if they had a better appreciation of
individual plantings and elementary landscaping. "We
can produce many more plants than we actually sell.
They must go to the homeowners," he pointed out.
Bill Brooks, president of the Local Chapter of
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association, sug-
gested a joint program to Mrs. Jack Allen, president
of District XI Florida Federation of Garden Clubs.
An awards program was developed by groups rep-
resenting the nurserymen and garden club and by
Lewis Watson and Baily Breedlove, local landscape
Entry blank folders were printed and distributed
by all garden clubs and nurserymen. Screening of
entries was done by the different garden clubs and
final entries were sent to the County Agent's Office.
Judges of the final entries were: Mrs. Wm. Knox,
Accredited Judge of the Federated Garden Clubs;
Wm. Bigoney, President of the Architect's Association
of Broward County; Donald Bowman, Landscape
Architect; James Griffin, Executive Secretary of the
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association, and
Robert S. Pryor, County Agricultural Agent.
Much planning and organization have gone into
the erection, equipping, care and landscaping of the
premises of the Lafayette County Community Center.
The combined efforts of many groups and individuals
were needed for its success.
An all-day training meeting was held this year at
the Community Center with an Extension horticul-
turist as guest instructor. SIwi t, .1 landscape plans
were drawn for the building area. About 30 inter-
ested men and women attended.
Continued efforts throughout the year have borne
fruit. Tfhe City of Mayo donated $700.00 to perfect
the basic landscape plans. Part of this work has been
H. D. Women Serve
An International Luncheon
Interest in world affairs and good food from many
parts of the world were featured at an international
luncheon held by Clay County Home Demonstration
Council on October 25, 1960. The date was chosen
to correspond to the birthday of the United Nations.
Each club in the county was responsible for 1
dish on the menu. Beef Stroganoff from Germany,
the main dish, was furnished by the Keystone Heights
Club. Gronsalad from Sweden was the choice of the
Doctor's Inlet Club. The Hillton Club served French
bread and garlic butter. The Green Cove Springs
Club chose as dessert a Danish coffee cake. Tea from
China and coffee from Brazil were served by the Mid-
dleburg Club, the hostess group. Two newly formed
clubs were guests at the luncheon.
The meal was served buffet style by the Middle-
burg ladies, who were dressed in costumes of the
countries represented. Mimeographed recipes for the
dishes served were given to each council member.
After the meal, a short talk on the United Na-
tions was given. Each club exhibited articles from for-
eign countries. Many of these had interesting histories
which were related to the group.
Automobile accidents and deaths they cause have
concerned Home Demonstration Club members in
Escambia County. They decided to work to reduce
The problem of highway safety is a continuous one
in Escambia County because of the population con-
The number of traffic accidents was reduced in
the past year. The death rate has decreased from 42
persons in 1959 to 33 persons in 1960.
Several steps were taken by the women and girls.
The Senior Home Demonstration Council conducted
a program to inform the public of the new Florida
Traffic Laws. At the January Council meeting, a rep-
resentative of the Florida State Highway Patrol con-
ducted a lecture and discussion period on the "New
Florida Traffic Laws." Pamphlets were distributed to
the 60 women attending to be used in follow-up pro-
grams in their home demonstration clubs. More than
in Rural Development
Whenever a program deals with the social and
economic welfare of 'people it vitally concerns home-
makers. Whatever affects family living directly con-
cerns the Extension Service. Rural development needs
the support of women in solving problems affecting
families and communities.
During 3 years of rural development progress in
Florida, many contributions have been made by
women committee members in the 2 pilot counties,
Suwannee and Washington.
Through the work of education committees, a
regional library which serves 8 counties has been
expanded in Suwannee County and a library started
In Washington County, committees landscaped
the Health Center. Recreational parks and facilities
are becoming a reality in Washington and Jackson
counties as a result of committee work in those 2
Rural development experience shows very few
problems can be tackled without involving home-
makers with their knowledge and experience in family
In continuing this program, two 4-H Clubs worked
. ':.. ?
on safety as club projects. Both of these clubs used
and promoted the use of red reflector stickers on
automobiles and bicycles. Approximately 110 boys
and girls studied bicycle safety at the 4-H Club
The Ensley 4-H Club prepared an exhibit on bi-
cycle safety for the Pensacola Interstate Fair. 4-H
Club members distributed safety pamphlets to the
public at the fairgrounds.
SERVES ALL THE PEOPLE
Urban people want to become efficient consumers,
capable managers and well informed people in gen-
eral. This has meant greatly increased urban re-
quests for assistance from county home demonstra-
Here are some of the kinds of information most
often requested: selecting food, clothing, household
equipment and furnishings; understanding roles of
family members, including all ages; health education
and safety; managing time and energy; feeding fami-
lies well-balanced meals and stretching the family
dollar; and making homes comfortable, livable and
This vast urban audience includes men, women
and youth. To reach it, Agricultural Extension is
broadening its sphere of subject matter. It is making
this information available not only to organized
Extension groups, but to everyone through special-
interest meetings; extensive use of mass media-
press, radio and television; workshops for family
members in foods and nutrition, family life, manage-
ment and others; personal contacts through home
visits, telephone, office calls and letters; distribution
of Extension bulletins and leaflets; educational tours;
forums; cooperation with other agencies and groups.
Some examples of how Extension is serving this
large urban group are:
Volusia County, a large urban county with 2
distinct sections one a coastal resort and the other
an equally large inland area has entirely different
interests. But both sections are interested in food
To meet requests for consumer information on
food and answer needs and interests of the people,
special interest meetings were held. All county Ex-
tension personnel worked together with state special-
ists and local people in sponsoring these meetings, or
"schools". For the convenience of people in both
sections of the county, a school was held in each sec-
tion on consecutive days.
Three different schools of 2 days each were held
- 1 each on Meat Information, Poultry and Eggs, and
Fish and Seafoods. Men and women attended. The
general opinion expressed was: "Just what we
Various agencies and individuals cooperated with
Agricultural Extension personnel in these schools by
furnishing home economists, providing meeting
places, furnishing information prior to the meeting on
radio and in newspapers and furnishing supplies.
In the second largest city in the state, Jackson-
ville, short taped television programs were given
daily, with a live program once a week. Topics of
interest to the urban audiences were stressed. Tele-
vision programs were also a part of the home dem-
onstration program in other urban counties in the
state. These programs have resulted in requests for
bulletins, individual assistance, further information on
particular topics and added interest in home demon-
WITH A FOREIGN FLAVOR
Florida home demonstration ideas are being ex-
tended overseas. Two home economists in the Exten-
sion program of the Republic of China (Taiwan) stud-
ied in the State Home Demonstration Office during
1960 as part of their extended study programs in the
One of them, Mrs. Li, will become the head of the
Extension home economics program in Taiwan when
the period of work with her American counterpart
and trainer is completed. Her responsibilities include
supervision and specialist's work. Mrs. Li's 3 weeks'
work here consisted of study and conferences with
staff members at the State Home Demonstration Of-
fice concerning selection, training, and supervision
of personnel and preparation of subject matter infor-
mation in home economics that would fit into the
program in Taiwan. During a field trip with the
North Florida District Agent, she met several county
staffs and looked into county activities.
Mrs. Lin, the other Chinese Extension worker,
stayed with us for 2 weeks. She also studied Exten-
sion supervision and the work of home economics
We found both of these women to be conscientious
workers. Our home demonstration staff members en-
joyed knowing and working with them.
The County Agents in Duval County use every
means of communication possible to meet the in-
creasing demands on the office. The county agricul-
tural office is proud of the fact that the general pub-
lic places such high importance upon the agents and
The office has 4 telephones, but the requests
for information at certain periods of the year come
in faster than the office can take care of them.
The telephone company makes traffic checks at vari-
ous times. The last check was made in the spring.
The office received 261 calls with 57 blocked out
because the phones were busy.
The County Agents in Duval realize that farming
in the county is decreased because of the rapid
population expansion in rural areas. Many large farms
have been sold for housing developments.
With this trend, Duval will continue to grow in
population. Expansion of homes and population
means more demands on the Extension office and a
heavier work load per county agent.
At present the County Agent has a daily televi-
sion program on WFGA called "Hi, Neighbor." In
this, he tries to give up-to-date, seasonal information.
The program is very popular with viewers in Duval
and surrounding counties. From time to time, neigh-
boring county agents in Florida and Georgia are in-
vited as guests.
Three radio stations present the county agents'
regular programs to the public. Channel 4 presents a
taped program daily in Jacksonville.
The County Agent's staff has presented classes to
the people in incoming insurance companies. These
have covered timely subjects for the home owner.
The Extension office is gratified at the results of
these classes. The new home owners are very much
interested in finding what plants will grow in this
area, and also what landscape plans are suitable.
Recently the Atlantic Coast Line moved its home
office from Wilmington, North Carolina, to Jackson-
ville. The agents contacted their agricultural repre-
sentative and offered our advice to the railroad per-
sonnel who would be moving to Duval County soon.
The ornamentals agent set up a series of 8 classes
for the Atlantic Coast Line employees.
Duval County has the largest garden club mem-
bership in the world. Each Garden Club wants a talk
from the County Agent. To handle the large rnm-
ber of requests, the agents are now meeting with
the presidents and horticultural chairman of the vari-
ous clubs. These people, in turn, take information
and instructions to their respective clubs.
County Agent Jim Wat-
son of Duval County in
action on his "Hi
program. He has pre-
sented this program for
the post 4 years each
morning from 6:45 to
7:00, Monday through
Friday, on Station
Jacksonville and Duval County now have 23 new
subdivisions, which are built on the poorer type soils.
The new home owners request information and help fist on
from the County Agents. The agents have initiated 7.d..- e-ial-
"tent meetings" in the neighborhoods. These usually .i" :, [ d;iienor
are held under a tree or at the Community House
if available, and a short talk on 1.,i,,1.. qI;,,. grass : .
care, insect control, fertilization, etc., is given. Speak- i:iter-
ers then ask for questions. Extension material is ".. ....e.
handed out for reading. This type meeting has cut
down on office requests.
The ornamentals agent has held a series of meet-
ings with the horticultural chairmen in the home
demonstration clubs to help them with their problems
of landscaping and other phases of yard care.
Each year the County Agent holds 2 meetings at "" & o ::'"
the Mandarin Club House to answer questions about
citrus. The office also set up an exhibit of educa-
tional materials concerning citrus production, disease
control and fertilization at the Citrus Festival. About iti,,
8,000 usually attend.
The County Agents find that the No. 1 problem
called in to the Duval Agricultural Office is lawn On-
troubles. Many exhibits have been set up in garden
stores to answer simple questions about lawn prob-
lems. The chinch bug alone is responsible for one :f.."ir od the
third of the calls.
The office has cooperated with the three Naval -e.
bases in Duval County-Jacksonville Naval Air Sta-
tion, Cecil Field and Mayport. Classes are held at
regular intervals for the personnel, who live in Navy ..-..
projects and subdivisions near the bases. Most of .,e'1
the Navy personnel are not acquainted with Florida i.
and are eager to learn.
Local banks have cooperated by letting the Agents g .
place educational exhibits in the banks. These an- o. w.;
swer the common ornamental and yard problems.
Once a year the County Agents speak to the vari-
ous Civic Clubs and answer any questions members
There are several special ornamental clubs, such i
as the Rose Society, Hibiscus Society and Camellia
Club. The County Agents hold membership, meet
with them and present programs once or twice a nd n houLsing .o:.
year. c -d .Iothing..
Other organizations that the County Agent has oIds. Fords
worked with are the shipyards, department stores, Uizing an, be.R.s
City Hall, Court House, men's clubs in churches, and ne Dem ontra-..;
the Greater Jacksonville Fair.
Th Accn Is On '-..
In Hom Deostrto Work
State and county home demonstration workers of
the Florida Agricultural Extension Service reached
people of all ages and various income levels in
For instance, families from farm, rural non-farm
and urban areas took part in county and community
program projection; rural development; planning and
special interest group programs. Extension contacted
them directly and by television, radio and the press.
They requested and received information on outlook
and trends in family living.
Organized home demonstration clubs and coun-
cils planned educational programs based on discussed
problems of home and community. Agents assist in
Volunteer leaders trained by Extension agents
helped carry out programs with youth and adults.
New leaders are continually being trained to help
with newly organzied or special interest groups.
Youth in 4-H clubs and councils received training.
Carrying projects related to home and family helped
them develop new skills and learn management and
Home demonstration agents worked with young
women's groups in career development; junior 4-H
leadership; advanced educational plans and scholar-
ships; teen age nutrition; and boy-and-girl interests.
Parent discussion groups studied very young chil-
dren and infants. Problems included feeding, care,
making clothing and selecting toys and books. 4-H
girls learned to help share in the family activities
through child care projects.
Young couples met in special community groups
for discussion and work in family life education, fam-
ily management, planning, nutrition and home im-
provement. Families from navy, army, air force and
missile bases were represented in such groups meeting
in service centers in Panama City,, Pensacola, Tampa
Home demonstration agents helped working moth-
ers individually or at night meetings on such subjects
as quick and adequate meals, wise buying, conserva-
tion of foods and management in sharing family re-
Elder citizens were reached through press, radio
and gerontology groups. Assistance requested by
these people related to adjustments to retirement,
home location and related topics. Agents and leaders
helped with housing, skills to help supplement in-
comes, and leisure time activities.
New residents, including foreigners and new citi-
zens, were reached through contacts with home dem-
onstration clubs, housing groups, county officials and
chambers 6f commerce. Agents helped them with
advice on planting, use of new fruits and vegetables,
housing, health, safety, and marketing.
Business men and women through civic clubs,
merchant's associations, chambers of commerce and
other organizations, requested help from Extension
Agents in sponsored community programs such as
health drives, emergency disaster relief programs, and
exhibits. They, in turn, provided 4-H scholarships
and sponsored youth activities.
Agents worked with families of low income in
many communities. These families were not singled
out, but were included within the groups mentioned.
The home demonstration agents gave them special
attention on home visits, office calls and work meet-
Is it registered for use? What is its tolerance?
How many days before harvest?
These are vital questions to all Florida citrus
growers, packers 'and processors. These people want
to operate well within the limits of the regulations
for the safe use of agricultural chemicals as set by
the Food and Drug Administration.
In January, 1960, a Chemical Tolerance Informa-
tion Center was established by the Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Service. This center keeps growers,
packers and processors posted on the latest F.D.A.
regulations, as they apply to the use of agricultural
chemicals and food additives.
One citrus specialist serves as a committee mem-
ber in the "Center." He is responsible for providing
tolerance information on Florida fruit and nut crops.
The Center issues "Chemically Speaking," a
weekly publication. Besides special publications, mim-
eographs, news stories, talks and bulletins are issued
by individual specialists.
"Jughead, our tractor-driving dummy, is about to
use his tractor in an attempt to pull out a stump. But
Jughead is impatient-he thinks he can get more out
of his tractor. So he has hitched the chain to the
axle of the tractor instead of to the drawbar. He
doesn't know this is dangerous.
"Here he goes-let's see what will happen. Oh,
oh! There goes the tractor, turning over backwards.
And Jughead is underneath! Poor Jughead. I'm afraid
he didn't survive that demonstration."
That's how part of a tractor safety demonstration
goes. The "driver" is a straw dummy, and the trac-
tor is remotely controlled by ropes. The purpose is
to show what can happen in real situations on the
This tractor safety demonstration was planned and
constructed by an Extension agricultural engineer and
the Safety Director of the Florida Farm Bureau. The
equipment involved consists of a full-size tractor with
A remotely controlled tractor-with a dummy as the driver-
flips over backwards during a tractor safety demonstration.
crash bar, truck and low-bed trailer, power take-off
assembly, fire extinguisher, life-size dummy and re-
mote control lines to operate the tractor from a dis-
tance. The tractor is turned over, tipped backward,
and set on fire during the demonstration.
The demonstration shows the dangers of high
speed, improper hitching, improper refueling and un-
shielded power take-offs.
During 1960, 19 demonstrations in 15 counties
were held with county agents' help. The audience was
estimated at 2,850 persons. A 13-minute movie, "Big
League Tractor Driving," was prepared using this
equipment. This movie has been shown on TV sta-
tions and in meetings throughout the state. Florida
is the first Southern state to have a demonstration
of this kind.
CITRUS MACHINERY ON DISPLAY
As in most areas, citrus production machinery is
changing at a rapid rate today. Research workers,
machinery manufacturers and growers keep coming
up with new and better designs. Growers find it hard
to keep up with these advances.
For example, growers in 1 part of the state are
not familiar with machinery that is available in other
localities. Frequently a new idea in modification, de-
sign or use of a particular type machine doesn't reach
growers in another area of the state until years later.
To speed up this spread, Extension set up a ma-
chinery demonstration at the 1960 Citrus Institutes
at Camp Cloverleaf and Camp McQuarrie. All man-
ufacturers of farm machinery for citrus were able to
demonstrate their sprayers, tree hoes and the like to
interested growers. Growers watched the perform-
ance of this machinery and were able to talk directly
to equipment dealers in other areas, comparing prices,
models and the like.
Extension and the Florida Retail Farm Equipment
Dealers Association cooperated in making this pro-
gram a success.
USING AN OLD METHOD
In an age of radio satellites, TV and high-speed
printing, how is the best way to bring information to
the farm people who need it?
A school for farmers, taught by an extension spe-
cialist, is an old way to spread information. An old
way, yes but it still works. Last year's Escambia
County Dairy School is a good example. Here is what
During a farm tour which involved a stop at
Assistant Dairyman Wilson Sparks teaches a dairy school in
some dairy farms the county agent, the Assistant
Extension Dairyman, and a group of dairymen were
talking. They discussed ways Extension might help
dairymen learn about new research and better ways of
dairying. After careful consideration, it was suggested
that a 2-day school should help.
The first school was a 2-day event. Speakers were
invited from various sections of the state. One of its
features was a panel discussion with all speakers
participating during the last 2 hours of the second day.
The last 45 minutes was a planning period for
another school. At this period, the dairymen decided
to hold the school quarterly. At the close of each
school, they would plan the program for the follow-
ing school period.
The participation in this event has increased. Now
60 percent of the dairies in Escambia County are
represented on school day.
Dairymen received notification of the school from
the County Agent's office and also from the dis-
tributor who buys their milk.
A 4-H Leader
Much of the strength of the 4-H program in Flor-
ida lies in the dedicated volunteer leaders who work
with the young people. One such leader is Mrs. Grady
Smith, a first grade teacher in the Pinecrest school of
Hillsborough County. Mrs. Smith has served as adult
leader of the Pinecrest Girls' 4-H Clubs for 8 years.
Pinecrest is a rural area located 12 miles south
of Plant City. Many families in the area have low
incomes. Two 4-H Clubs, an elementary and a junior
high club, meet during school hours. High school stu-
dents who have continued interest and have com-
pleted projects may also attend the junior high
club. Eighty-one girls are members.
Mrs. Smith has helped members with their proj-
ects and encouraged them to continue in 4-H work.
Many girls were not able to buy materials to work
with in 4-H projects. Mrs. Smith has made sugges-
tions and showed ways to use products at home so
as to complete a project. She encouraged girls to
select projects that they could complete and which
would help improve the home situation.
Mrs. Smith has given much of her time to project
workshops and record keeping workshops. These are
held during free periods at school and during play
Under her direction the club always participates
in the Junior Agricultural Fair by making exhibits
and a booth display.
The 2 Pinecrest Clubs have a larger percentage
of completions, fair exhibits, 4-H camp attendance,
and more blue ribbons than any other club in this
Through 4-H Club work, members have partici-
pated in activities that otherwise they could not have.
Family living is improved by 4-H members who study
how to manage money, improve sanitary conditions,
sew clothing and household articles, and use home
products to improve the nutrition of the family.
Much of this credit for this 4-H achievement goes
to Mrs. Smith. She has brought it about through her
understanding of youth and the needs of the com-
- l- *
OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
Billy May of Gilchrist County was selected state
winner in 4-H Forestry Awards program for 1960. At
the national level, he was selected regional winner,
receiving a free trip to the 4-H Club Congress.
Bill May planted several thousand pine seedlings
each year for several years. He also had a red cedar
project, wildlife conservation projects and many other
agricultural projects during his time in 4-H.
Dairy industry personnel in Orange, Leon, and
Hillsborough counties attended dairy manufacturing
Schools last year. A wide range of topics was dis-
S cussed. Average attendance at the class meetings was
113 per night. The attendance and interest have
shown that schools of this nature are valuable. More
schools are planned for the future.
More than 2,000 citrus growers and professional
agriculturists attended one or more of the five County
Agent-Grower, Extension-conducted institutes. Vary-
ing in length from 1 to 5 days, these offer informa-
tion on subjects ranging from the development of
poorly drained soils, through production management
and marketing, to a comprehensive study of industry
and national trends.
Although it is an ornamental horticulture problem,
the Extension foresters receive many requests for in-
formation on what native Florida trees make good
shade and ornamental trees. They have available a
mimeographed list showing suitable native trees to
plant for shade, beauty, and wildlife on several types
of soil. A mimeographed list of protected native trees
and shrubs is also a popular item.
The dairy manufacturing specialist, in coopera- -
tion with the Florida State Board of Health and a
county health department official, worked with sev-
eral dairymen in Southeast Florida who were having .
a milk quality problem. Recommendations were made
that corrected the problem and improved the quality
of milk produced and handled on these particular
Result demonstrations and tours are still prime
-\teaching devices. Extension fruit crop specialists
x\ \iin. with county agents and others assisted in
over 100 such demonstrations and tours.
Many cooperative Extension and research demon-
stations have been established in chemical weed con-
trol, fruit setting experiments, the use of maleic hydra-
zide to produce dormancy, and other such fields.
The operator of a large dairy plant-knowing the f
value of good flavored milk-requested the assistance
)of the dairy manufacturing specialist in setting up a
flavor control program. A program involving the ADV
Chemical test and other methods was established...
This assured the operator of maintaining or improv-
ing the quality of his products for the consumer.
In certain areas of Florida deer are damaging pine
seedlings. During the year the assistant Extension for-
ester worked with the forest manager on the With-
lacoochee State Forest in Citrus County where deer
damage to planted pines is serious. Methods of
treating seedlings with deer repellent prior to plant-
ing were studied, as well as protection for established
To help citrus growers, production managers, and
others better understand the science underlying cur-
rent recommendations, specialists and County Agents
conducted 6 schools. Classes met for 2 hours one night
per week from 5 to 9 weeks, depending on the sub-
ject and school. Approximately 600 attended these
The Gilchrist County 4-H Club Council recom-
mended that all 4-H members over 14 years of age
enroll in the Career Exploration Project in addition
to their regular 4-H project work. The council be-
lieves the career exploration project will be one way
4-H members can prepare themselves for assuming
At the request of 1 of the Florida Association
of Soil and Water Conservation District Supervisors'
area vice presidents', the Soil Conservation Specialist
arranged a tour of several research projects related
to soil and water conservation at the Florida Agri- -
cultural Experiment Station's Main Station.
This was the first known tour in Florida arranged
specifically for soil conservation district supervisors
to see Experiment Station soil and water management
The 10-year period from 1950-1960 saw the 4-H
Demonstration Forest program greatly expand. In
1950, only 3 4-H forests had a total area of 800 acres.
In 1960, 17 4-H Forests boasted a total acreage of ,' .
1,440. In 1950, 300 boys were enrolled in forestry
and wildlife projects. In 1960, 1,816 boys were en-
rolled,, with 21,452 acres of forestry projects reported
by county agents.
Several agricultural commodity groups in High-
lands County have formed the Highlands County Ag-
ricultural Council to promote agriculture.
These are: Cattlemen's Association, Citrus Advis-
ory Committee, Bulb Grower Association, Soil Con-
servation District, Farm Bureau, and Agricultural
1 Conservation and Stabilization Committee.
In the past, some of these organizations have du-
plicated efforts. Under the leadership of the Agricul-
tural Council, they will unify these efforts and work
with Extension as a team. The results should be
benefits to agriculture.
During the past year the Florida Forest Service
expanded its farm forestry program. Now 26 farm
foresters work in over 40 Florida counties. In many
cases such as Duval and Hillsborough counties, the
farm forester and county agent share the same office.
This successful cooperative arrangement means that
both agencies are kept well informed about the activi-
ties of the other, can avoid overlapping and duplica-
tion of effort, and can channel educational forestry
work and intensive forest management work in to
their proper places.
Urbanization of the Naples area has put a heavy
demand on the Extension Service ornamental pro-
granlm. Homeowners and commercial ornamental busi-
nessmen rely more and more on the Extension Serv-
Extension has used mass media, clinics, personal
contact and group meetings to disseminate timely and
accurate information needed by the public. For in-
stance, the Naples and Everglades area was a hurri-
cane disaster area. Many properties were inundated
by salt water. County agents consulted immediately
with people on renovation of their property. They
used mass communication media as well as personal
The Extension Service has provided and encour-
aged participation in homeowner clinics, commercial
lawn maintenance clinics, annual turf conference, and
annual orchid growers conference.
For several years the Extension foresters have col-
lected and distributed catalpa seed to interested 4-H
Club members and landowners for fence post plant-
ing. Several good catalpa post plots in various Flor-
ida counties have resulted from this program.
Another effect of this venture appears to be a large
number of fish-bait plots. These contain one or more .;
catalpa trees, whose leaves nourish countless catalpa
worms-excellent bream bait.
West Floridians have long known the value of
this fish bait. But with the spread of the catalpa tree
to other parts of Florida, other people are discovering
the joys of catalpa worm fishing.
Vegetable specialists keep county agents, grow-
ers and others informed on the proper use of pesti-
cides through letters, news releases, grower meetings
and county agent training sessions. They emphasize
the dangers of overproduction, competition and high
costs through acreage marketing guides, Vegegram
letters and grower meetings. Specialists informed
growers of the possibilities in growing different or
new crops such as, onions, carrots, bunching onions,
cantaloupes, lima beans and strawberries.
An increase of nearly 500 percent in one year's
time is a very health advance in any line of busi-
ness. This is the record of Holmes County farmers
in their soil testing program during 1960. In 1959,
they collected and sent to the State soils laboratory
only 124 samples. This year, that figure was over
Negro Extension Work
MAKING SAUSAGE MEANS MORE INCOME
During the fall and early winter months, Willie
and Mrs. Proctor are 2 of the busiest farm people
in the state. That is because they grind about 15
hogs a week into sausage links and smoke it. Hun-
dreds of customers buy this sausage at grocery stores
in the area, or directly from the Proctor smokehouse.
Instead of being kept busy grinding, smoking and
delivering sausage, the Proctors probably would be
under-employed like thousands of other small farmers
in Florida, if they had not hit upon the idea of
selling smoked sausage.
The idea did not come to the Proctors easily or
quickly. It took the depression of the 1930's to get
them headed in that direction. Before that, they had
quit farming and had moved to Caryville, nearly 75
miles away, where Mr. Proctor worked as a barber.
As the depression set in, customers came less frequent-
ly for hair cuts and shaves, and some stopped coming
altogether. So the Proctors returned to their commu-
nity near Quincy and used part of their savings to
make a down payment on their farm.
Within a few years, they began to realize that
they were not going to earn a living from their farm
by growing cotton, tobacco and sweet potatoes on
their 161 acres. Gradually, they dropped cotton and
turned to corn and hogs. At first, their corn yields
averaged only 12 bushels to the acre. But in the early
1940's their county agent encouraged them to plant
a hybrid variety and to use more fertilizer. Today
their corn yield averages 38 bushels per acre.
Their agent also gave them pointers on raising
hogs through improved breeding. At first, the Proc-
tors were satisfied to sell a few hogs at the market.
But 1 year at hog killing time, they ground up a
few dishpanfuls of sausages and smoked some of it
in casings the way their parents had done. As is cus-
tomary in some farm areas, they gave their neighbors
a bit of fresh meat and later a little smoked sausage.
The neighbors came back to buy more sausage, and
the Proctors were in business.
Now they grind 3 to 10 hogs every week and
market them as smoked sausage. Mr. Proctor esti-
mates that he grinds as many as 500 hogs in some
years. "It takes 70 acres of corn and then some to feed
them out," he says.
The Proctors raise pigs from their 12 brood sows
and buy about 300 head more every year. They would
like to grow more corn, but just don't have the time.
However, they are placing more emphasis on improved
Siul,i the Proctors are busy all year round grind-
ing and smoking sausages for 19 stores and their local
customers, they are busiest at Christmas time, when
their sales almost double. They are doing the kind
of thing that might help other small farmers increase
For A Tall Girl-
Martha Dunlap, a 4-H Club girl for 2 years, is
tall for her age and has difficulty in purchasing
clothes to fit her as well as she would like. She asked
advice of her 4-H Club leader and the Negro Home
Demonstration Agent. The conclusion was for her
to try making her own clothes. She talked with her
mother and the agent visited and talked with Mar-
tha's mother; her mother expressed immediately the
desire for Martha to take clothing as her 4-H project.
This experience has proven worthwhile for Martha
and her family. Martha began making skirts, and
then a blouse. After she learned the technique of
making skirts and blouses, she began making play
clothes and school clothes. At first, Martha had trou-
ble putting in her zippers, but she was determined,
so she had to take out and replace only one zipper.
Martha is now making most of her school clothes
and some of her better dresses. She is also making
clothes for her mother and helping her sister Mar-
garet with her clothing problems. Martha is con-
tinuing her clothing project this year, as she wants
to learn to sew well.
Martha presented her 4-H record book in the
state awards program and was the recipient of a
medal and certificate.
Better Family Living
Sunny Haven Home Demonstration Club of Dade
County has attacked several very serious problems
affecting club members and families in the commu-
nity. Members have planned activities involving mon-
ey management, home improvement, clothing and
Discussions and demonstrations on the family
budget led to planning for wise use of the family's
income. The club discussed housing costs and found
this common problem-balloon mortgages, which were
being carried by most of the families.
The Jake' Russells were 1 of the families among
this group. Besides this very serious problem, they
had a growing need for additional space in the home.
Mrs. Russell learned to manage more effectively; im-
prove the home through the application of her knowl-
edge and skills in areas where an outlay of money was
not essential; and to plan wisely in other areas where
money was a necessary item.
In family planning she decided to begin a home
improvement project. Immediate plans were to rear-
range furniture, repair and slip-cover furniture rather
than buy new pieces, paint the house and move
laundry activities out of the kitchen. Long-range
plans included providing room additions for living
and sleeping space, and installing more adequate
Some of these plans involved the spending of
much needed money. Besides a large payment on the
present mortgage was due. This led this family to
seek another source of financing for their home. This
was accomplished, monthly payments were made less
and some money became immediately available for
This family's success was noted by others. As a
result, interest grew in the community in planning to
solve their own problems. Group training activities
were planned. Women learned to measure and cut
fabric, cover cording and assemble slip covers. Train-
ing was also given in other areas of home improve-
Meanwhile, the Russell family has completed the
1. A long-range plan for making desired home im-
2. Furniture rearranging
3. Repairing furniture
4. Painting house inside
5. Improving lighting
6. Making slip covers for furniture.
ENJOYING A NEW HOME
Mrs. Eurmer Thomas feels that she is receiving
dividends from her labor in the form of satisfaction.
She has achieved her dreams of a comfortable, con-
venient and modern home. Extension helped through
the Negro Home Demonstration Agent.
For many years, Mrs. Thomas had hoped to own
a home and enjoy labor saving devices and conven-
iences. The old family home is located in the Mt.
Tabor Community and is surrounded by 60 acres of
land. Mrs. Thomas and her husband lived in the old
family home until he died 3 years ago.
Following the death of husband and father,
the family's real estate was divided. Mrs. Thomas'
share of land was 20 acres.
The ensuing months were devoted to managing
her income and time carefully and making detailed
plans for building a modern home. In the spring of
1960, the new home in which she now lives was
started. She was able to move into her completed
new home before the beginning of the summer.
The house is of wooden construction. It includes
a living room, dining room, kitchen with modern ap-
pliances and built-in cabinets, two bedrooms with
closets and a bathroom. She has an electric pump.
The Negro Home Agent in Columbia County has
given encouragement needed, through Mrs. Thomas'
participation in Home Demonstration Club work, for
her to have achieved her goal with satisfaction.
SUMMARY OF ALL EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Farm fajuiil.s nmaI.u chianle- in agricultur.al pr.acticcs
Rural n'rn-f.iroi. nuiii,' mLakiri, chajnge- in agrncultural practici-
I rban n[.1 iiii,. nii ikin i arg. in agricultural practices-
Fuarm famnili,-; jkir~.a.u ,.h,.Ianr in tlorni,.kingr praiti(ce,
Rural intn-f.arrn farn hi. making change, inr hon-nimaling prdtices
L'rb.ir l.,nilic jt irl.inr Iailn e in hmiiinimaking pratlices
Tnit.l dld.ird.nt farn .iiili.sl, awjeited b\ E\tr nsln- prnoramis
T- t.il dJirrEit riral rir.-farnim famnii,. a.i.ted b E\xtlnion procranis
Total dili, r.nit urb in faiiiilii-s .isi d b\ E\tenrion program
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1959-60
Bureau of Indian Affairs
State Trust Funds:
Grand Total 2,743,146.00
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1960-61
Bureau of Indian Affairs
State Trust Funds:
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White and Negro County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm and home visits made
Calls relating to Extension work:
News articles or stories prepared
Broadcasts made or prepared:
Adult result demonstrations conducted
106,273 Training meetings held for local leaders:
279,108 Total attendance
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Exten-
sion Agents with -organization, planning and conducting of
extension work in counties:
Older club boys 477
Older club girls 1,806
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and
marketing practices in subject matter fields:
Individuals assisted with:
Hay and other forage, pasture, range
Cotton and other fiber crops
Oil and sugar crops
Fruits and nuts
Vegetables, including potatoes
Flowers, ornamental shrubs
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conservation and management
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and products
Poultry and products
Sheep and goats
PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
OF THE FARM BUSINESS
Individuals assisted with
FARM BUILDINGS AND
Individuals assisted with:
Farm mechanical equipment
THE HOUSE AND SURROUNDINGS,
FURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT
Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and surroundings
Furnishings and equipment
FOODS AND NUTRITION, HEALTH,
FAMILY LIFE AND SAFETY
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition
FAMILY ECONOMICS AND CLOTHING
Individuals assisted with:
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Individuals assisted with:
Consumer information on agricultural products
ASSISTING FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES
AND INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS
Formally organized groups assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Farm and home service:
Informally organized groups assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Farm and home service:
PARTICIPANTS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS,
PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES ON WHICH AGENTS WORK
Citizenship activities 40,562
Developing and improving county or community organization 45,862
Local projects of a general public nature:
General community problems 18,481
Improving health facilities 20,369
Improving schools 11,052
Improving churches 9,880
Bettering town-country relations 32,720
Community centers 13,019
Recreation programs and facilities 31,761
Community beautification 11,780
Economic services 3,587
Regional or area development programs 13,556
National programs 29,143
World Affairs 20,499
Emergency activities 20,613
Number of 4-H Clubs
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and
Boys 17,604; girls 24,937; t
Boys 11,345; girls 17,011; t
Boys: Farm-7,636; rural non-farm-5,465;
Girls: Farm-6,407; rural non-farm-8,826
4-H Projects Completed:
Range and pasture
Soil & water conservation and management
4-H CLUB WORK
4-H Projects, Continued
Wildlife and nature study
Soybeans and other legumes
Potatoes, Irish and sweet
Other engineering projects
Beautification of home grounds
(Continued Next Page)
4-H Projects, Continued
Meal planning and preparation
Canning and preserving
Freezing of food
Health, nursing, first aid
Home furnishings and room improvement
Home industries, arts, crafts
Total projects completed
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PEOPLE: 1960
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A, Director
Joe N. Busby, B.S.A, Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant Director
Frank S. Perry, M.Agr., District Agent
William J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A, District Agent
Kenneth S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
Shaw E. Grigsby, Ph.D., Training Specialist
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head of Editorial
William G. Mitchell, M.A., Associate Agricultural Editor
M. Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Editor
Steve D. Pugh, Jr., B.S., Assistant Agricultural Editor
Woodrow W. Brown, M.Agr., State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, M.Agr., Associate State Boys' 4-H Club
B. J. Allen, M.A., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Gordon H. White, Jr., M.S., Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club
Clarence W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairyman
Thomas W. Sparks, M.Agr., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Extension Dairyman
Tony J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist and Head1
James E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
Robert L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
Kenneth L. Durrance, M.Agr., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Charles B. Plummer, Jr., D.V.M, Extension Veterinarian
Alfred H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head1
Fred P. Lawrence, M.Agr., Citriculturist
Jack T. McCown, M.Agr., Assistant Citriculturist
William H. Mathews, M.Agr., Assistant Horticulturist
Frank S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops Specialist and Head'
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
1 Cooperative, Other Divisions, U. of F.
'In cooperation with U.S.
Stanley J. Pieczarka, Ph.D., Assistant Vegetable Crops
Edgar W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and
James L. Taylor, M.S.A., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Francis L. Wilson, M.Agr., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
Norman R Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Head1
Julian S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
Lester W. Kalch, M.Agr., Assistant Poultry Husbandman
Henry G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agriculturist Economist and Head&
Edwin W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Ralph A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist, Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Farm and Home Development
Clisby C. Moxley, Ph.D., Associate Economist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist
David W. Jones, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Shelby L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, B.S., Assistant Farm Forester
John H. Herbert, Jr., M.S.A., Extension Conservationist
Thomas C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
Dalton S. Harrison, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
James E. Brogdon, M.Agr., Entomologist
Robert S. Mullin, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Soils Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Associate Marketing Specialist
in Vegetable Crops
Kenneth M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Vegetable Marketing Specialist
Howard C. Giles, Ph.D., Livestock Marketing Specialist
FOARD Oi CONTROL
J. J. Daniels, Chairman James D. Camp
James J. Love Frank M. Buchanan
Dr. Ralph L. Miller Joe K. Hays
S. Kendrick Guernsey Dr. J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director
David R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager'
Clyde R. Madsen, B.S., Rodent Control Specialist'
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Fla. Nat'l. Egg-Laying Test,
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Assistant to State Home Demonstration
Agent in Trainee Work
Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home Demonstration Agent
Eloise Johnson, M.Ed., District Home Demonstration Agent
Susan C. Camp,. M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Catherine A. Knarr, M.S., Home Management and Family
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and Textile Specialist
Roberta V. Halcomb, M.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Ann Elizabeth Thompson, M.Ed., Acting State Girls' 4-H
Ruth L. Milton, M.S., Acting Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club
Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Industries and Marketing
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Alma Warren, M.A. in L.S., Assistant Editor and Visual Aids
Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Family Life Specialist
NEGRO WORK, TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt, M.S., Negro District Home Demonstration Agent
Joseph A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Dade (Asst. Mktg. Agt.)
A. T. Andrews
A. Luther Harrell
Horace M. Carr
G. T. Huggins
James T. Oxford
H. W. Cunningham
Robert S. Pryor
Frank J. Jasa
Lewis E. Watson
Thomas B. Jones
Charles A. Saunders
N. H. McQueen
William M. Knight, Jr.
Emmett D. McCall
George M. Owens
Donald W. Lander
William J. Rarden
Neal M. Dukes
Hilton T. Meadows
John D. Campbell
Doyle E. Abbott
Nolan L. Durre
William R. Llewellyn
Louis J. Daigle
Roy J. Champagne
Ralph E. Huffaker
William L. Hatcher
Ben H. Floyd
Charles E. Rowan
James N. Watson
James R. Yelvington
Thomas H. Braddock, Jr.
E. Norbert Stephens
Calvin A. Winter
James H. Walker
Green Cove Springs
Green Cove Springs
Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano
Mrs. Roberta C. Hicks
Mrs. Emma S. Benton
Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Mrs. Sue B. Young
Mrs. Dorothy W. Terry
Miss Louise Taylor
Mrs. Mary L. Morgan
Mrs. Annie W. Finlay
Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson
Miss Sandra L. Reese
Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman
Miss Olga M. Kent
Mrs. Erma L. Butcher
Mrs. Helen B. MacTavish
Mrs. Marjory B. McDonald
Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey
Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Miss Sybil D. Magness
Miss Mary L. Gallagher
Mrs. Josephine Cameron
Miss Ethel Atkinson
Miss Leeta Joy Coffey
Miss Paula J. Shoemake
Glades (Indian Work)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Howard Taylor, Jr.
William C. Zorn
John C. Russell
Bernard H. Clark
Leonard C. Cobb
B. O. Bass
Cubie R. Laird
Rance A. Andrews
Jack C. Hayman
Frank L. Polhill
Charles R. Smith
Bert J. Harris, Jr.
Jay D. Martsolf, Jr.
Paul E. Glasscock
Clarence F. O'Quinn
Robert M. Davis
Robert D. Downs
M. C. Jorgensen
C. U. Storey
Forrest N. McCullars
Woodrow W. Glenn
Russell R. Rudd
Albert H. Odom
Edward J. Cowen
Robert E. Norris
William M. Nixon
Herman D. Bowers
Johnnie F. Barco
J. Lloyd Rhoden
Ernest R. Wheaton
James E. Harris
Wilburn C. Farrell
James B. Estes
J. E. Thomaston
O. R. Hamrick, Jr.
Harvey T. Paulk
W. Harper Kendrick
Earl M. Kelly
Robert G. Curtis
T. E. Whitmore
Edsel W. Rowan
Alto A. Straughn
Everette H. Fischer
L. M. Johnson
Gordon B. Ellis
Jack D. Patten
Clifford R. Boyles
Henry F. Swanson
Albert F. Cribbett
Robert B. Christmas
William E. Colburn
James B. Smith
M. U. Mounts
John H. Causey
Charles S. Tucker
Rayburn K. Price
Raleigh S. Griffis
James F. Higgins
Luther L. Rozar
Harry J. Brinkley
Theodore Gallo, III
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
W. Palm Beach
Mrs. Ann P. Jeter
Mrs. Marjorie Gregory
Mrs. Edwena Robertson
Mrs. May O. Fulton
Mrs. Wylma B. White
Miss Annie Sue Elmore
Mrs. Dot V. Rooks
Miss Betty J. Duckett
Miss Lora Kiser
Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett
Miss Mary E. Carter
Miss Virginia R. Hill
Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Miss Fern S. Nix
Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Mrs. Marian B. Valentine
Mrs. Nancy S. Fox
Miss Mary J. Hodges
Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Mrs. Evelyn C. Presley
Mrs. Earlece Greenawalt
Mrs. Rebecca S. Cook
Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer
Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Miss Elva Louise Sears
Miss Elsie M. Garrett
Mrs. Elisabeth B. Furr
Miss Martha C. Burdine
Mrs. Evelyn I. Sabbarese
Mrs. Dora Stubblefield
Mrs. Marjorie L. Knight
Miss Janet G. Davidson
Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Miss Marilyn Dietrich
Miss Mary L. Todd
Mrs. Laura B. Burgard
Miss Miriam I. LoPinto
Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Miss Joanne Caldwell
Mrs. Charlotte Lattimer
Miss Jo Ann Tilley
St. Johns (Asst.)
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
Santa Rosa (Asst.)
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
G. M. Whitton, Jr.
W. Paul Hayman
John W. Hunt
James D. Pierce
H. E. Maltby
Ralph T, Clay, Jr.
P. R. McMullen
Paul L. Dinkins, Jr.
Hugh C. Whelchel, Jr.
S. C. Kierce
A. A. Hutcheson
Kenneth A. Clark
Hal C. Hopson
Edwin S. Pastorius
Cecil A. Tucker, II
Ernest C. Lundberg
Donald A. George
Larmar A. Bell
J. P. Crews
Judson T. Fulmer
W. H. Smith
Henry P. Davis
William C. Smith, Jr.
William J. Cowen
T. R. Townsend
James N. Luttrell
Lawrence D. Taylor
H. O. Harrison
Johnnie E. Davis
Lenzy M. Scott
Mrs. Cora H. Meares
Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Mrs. Rita G. Hilton
Mrs. Esther F. Harper
Mrs. Mary Sue Gann
Miss Nettie R. Brown
Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Mrs. Barbara D. Payne
Miss Vernita A. Hurd
Mrs. Catherine H. Love
Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Mrs. Dorothy Classon
Mrs. Ethel Thompson
Mrs. Edna S. Eby
Mrs. Virginia Clark
Mrs. Ruby S. MacDonald
NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
English M. Greene
Russell H. Stephens
Isaac Chandler, Jr.
Robert Bryant, Jr.
James C. Miller
Eugene P. Smith
Richard L. Bradley
Miss Leontine Williams
Mrs. Virginia Gardner
Miss Victoria Simpson
Mrs. Ethel M. Powell
Mrs. Ursula Williams
Miss Sudella J. Ford
Mrs. Pearl G. Long
Mrs. Irie Mae Clark"
Miss Deloris M. Jones
Mrs. Sarah K. Thomas
Miss Leala Mae Reaves
Miss Ida T. Pemberton
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Florida State University
and United States Department of Agriculture
M. O. WATKINS, DIRECTOR
YOUR FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVI