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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 County and home demonstration...
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Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076874/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the year fiscal ending June 30 ..
Alternate Title: Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the year fiscal ending June 30 ..
Florida cooperative extension annual report
Physical Description: v. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Florida State College for Women
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1958
Copyright Date: 1958
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with 1929; ceased with 1958.
Numbering Peculiarities: The report of activities covers calendar year; financial statement covers fiscal year ending June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued in cooperation with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and Florida State College for Women.
General Note: Description based on: 1931 report; title from cover.
General Note: Final issue consulted.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076874
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01383825
lccn - 2007219422
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report of general activities ... with a financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30 ...
Succeeded by: Annual report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    County and home demonstration agents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Main
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
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        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
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        Page 70
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        Page 73
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        Page 76
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        Page 79
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        Page 86
        Page 87
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        Page 90
        Page 91
    Index
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text

























































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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30. 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
M. 0. WATKINS, DIRECTOR









1958 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE








REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1958
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1958









BOARD OF CONTROL

James J. Love, Chairman, Quincy W. C. Gaither, Miami
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
Joe K. Hays, Winter Haven James D. Camp, Ft. Lauderdale
J. J. Daniel, Jacksonville J. B. Culpepper, Ph.D., Executive Di-
rector, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for
Agrictulture 1
Marshall O. Watkins, D.P.A., Director
J. N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Director
Forrest E. Myers, M. Agr., Assistant to
the Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Admin. Mgr.
AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION
WORK, GAINESVILLE
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and
Head of Editorial Department
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor
William G. Mitchell, M.A., Assistant
Editor '
Jack W. McAllister, B.S., Assistant
Editor
K. S. McMullen, M. Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, M. Agr., District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., M.S.A., District Agent
C. W. Reaves, M.S.A., Extension Dairy-
man
T. W. Sparks, M. Agr., Assistant Exten-
sion Dairyman
Howard B. Young, M.S.A., Assistant Ex-
tension Dairyman
N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Hus-
bandman 1
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Extension Poultry-
man
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A., Asst. in Poultry
Husbandry
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
G. E. Williams, B.S.A., Asst. Supervisor
Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist
and Head I
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
R. L. Reddish, Ph.D., Associate Animal
Industrialist
K. L. Durrance, B.S.A., Assistant Animal
Industrialist
Thomas G. Herndon, M.S.F., Farm
Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S., Assistant Farm
Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Economist and
Head of Department
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Economist in Mar-
keting
R. A. Eastwood, Ph.D., Economist in
Marketing
Clifford Alston, M.S.A., Farm and Home
Development Specialist
C. C. Moxley, Ph.D., Associate Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist
and Head of Department
R. W. White, M.S.A., Assistant Horti-
culturist
S. A. Rose, M.S., Assistant Ornamental
Horticulturist
Fred P. Lawrence, M. Agr.. Citriculturist
William H. Mathews, M. Agr., Assistant
Horticulturist
Jack T. McCown, M. Agr., Assistant
Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, M. Agr., Boys' 4-H Agent
Grant M. Godwin, M. Agr., Assistant
State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
B. J. Allen, M.A., Assistant State Boys'
4-H Club Agent
'Cooperative, Other Divisions, U. of F.
In cooperation with U. S.


T. C. Skinner, M. Agr., Agri. Engineer
A. M. Pettis, M.S.A., Associate Agricul-
tural Engineer
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
Clyde R. Madsen, Rodent Control
Specialist 2
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agrono-
mist
S. L. Brothers, B.S.A., Assistant Agrono-
mist
James NeSmith, Ph.D., Associate Agron-
omist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops
Specialist and Head of Department
S. E. Rosenberger, M. Agr., Associate
Marketing Specialist in Vegetable
Crops
Mason E. Marvel, M.S., Assistant Vege-
table Crops Specialist
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Associate Vege-
table Crops Specialist
Bruce Barmby, M.S., Interim Assistant
in Vegetable Crops
James E. Brogdon, M. Agr., Entomolo-
gist
John H. Herbert, M.S.A., Soil Conser-
vationist
R. S. Mullin, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
Granville C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate
Soils Specialist
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home
Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Assistant to State
Home Demonstration Agent in Trainee
Work
Helen D. Holstein, M.A., District Home
Demonstration Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.A., District
Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, M.A., District Home Dem-
onstration Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Improvement Specialist
Elizabeth Dickenson, M.A., Clothing and
Textile Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, B.A., Home Indus-
tries and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, M.Ed., Girls' 4-H Club
Agent
Anne Elizabeth Thompson, M.Ed., Assist-
ant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Susan R. Christian, M.S., Assistant Nu-
tritionist Farm and Home Develop-
ment Specialist
Bonnie Bell McDonald, M.S., Assistant
Economist in Food Conservation
Alma Warren. M.A. in L.S., Assistant
Editor and Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Assistant
Health Education Specialist
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Extension
Nutritionist
Ruth E. Harris, M.S.H.E., Family Life
Specialist
NEGRO WORK, TALLAHASSEE
Floy Britt. B.S.H.E., District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., District Agent














CONTENTS


Director's Report .................................

Statistical Report -.....-. ..... .... --.......

Agricultural Economics .....................

Farm Management ........-... --.... ..

Marketing Activities ....................

Citrus Grove Management .............

Agricultural Engineering ..............

Agronomy .............. ............ --... .........

Animal Husbandry ...................... ....

Bee Culture ............. -.. --....

Boys' 4-H Club W ork ..................... ..

Citrus Fruit Culture .................. .......

D airying ............ -- ... .... --

Editorial Department ................-......

Entomology ............. ---- ....

Farm and Home Development ..............

Farm and Home Safety ...................-.

Farm Forestry -...............................

Ornamental Horticulture ...........-....-..-

Plant Pathology ...............................-

Poultry .............. .. ------

Soil and Water Conservation ...............

Soils ...-.....--............. ------ ---- ---

Vegetable Production and Merchandisi

Commercial Vegetable Production


Page

.........-- ....................----..........---- ....... .... 8

----- ----- -- --------- ---. 13

.....- ................- ---............. 17

.... .. .. .......................------ 17

-........ ...-- ...-........- ........ --.. 19

........ ----- .....-... -.-.. -...-...---.. 20

...........-. ------ ......---...-- ...--- 23

.. .........-... .....-...--....---.-.. 25

----- -- _------------- 27

... ..--......... ----. ------ --. --- 29

..-.-- ...- --------.......-- --.. 31

....... ------.............- ---......... -- 33

.--.-- .....- .......... -------------.. -- 35

...--..........---------........ ... ... 38

... .. ..... -........ -------- ........ 41

.. -- -- ...---- .- .......----- 43

............... ..... -----------.....---. 44

--- ------------- ---- ----- --- 45

...................------................... .............--- 47

......- -........ ................--- ----- 49

....... ......................... ----- --- 50

..-. .. ----.--- ... ..- .....~.- --.----. ... 55

----- ------ ---- --- ------------- ---- 57

.ng..... ............- ....... .......... 58
g ..................................... 58
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 8


Vegetable Gardening .......-..---- ----............. .............- ..----.. 59

Retail Merchandising of Fresh Vegetables ........................ ............ 60

Home Demonstration Work ............... ......-.................--. 63

Clothing and Textiles .. .......-........ ..-...........------ -... 66

Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist .................................--..... 69

Family Life Education ..-............ ...........-. ................... 71

Food Conservation ........-.. ..---------......... .......... .... ..... ----- 73

Girls' 4-H Club W ork ....... -....... .. ---------------....... ..---....- ...... 75

Health Education and Recreation .......... --------.~... ............... 77

Home Improvement ..... -- ..................-------------- --80

Marketing and Home Industries .....-.............. --....... .................... 83

Nutrition ........-........- .........- -----.. .......----.................... 86

Negro Farm Demonstration Work ..------ .............. .....................---.... 88

Negro Home Demonstration Work --...--.....-........ ..... --..-- .----- --- 90











COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1958)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua ..........Loonis Blitch..................Gainesville....Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua
(Asst.)....-....A. T. Andrews................----Gainesville-.Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ahrano
Baker........---.......A. L. Harrell................- Macclenny ...----------...........
Bay...................H. M. Carr...........-........ Panama City-
Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Bay (Asst.).....H. C. Gray....................-- Panama City..... -----..................
Bradford -........ G. T. Huggins .......-.......Starke................Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard ....-.....J. T. Oxford...................--Cocoa----.........-........-. Mrs. Sue B. Young
Brevard
(Asst.)..........H. W. Cunningham..--. Cocoa------...............Mrs. Norma B. Taylor
Broward ..........Robert S. Pryor ...........Ft. Lauderdale......Miss Louise Taylor
Broward
(Asst.) .........Frank J. Jasa....----...----F.. t. Lauderdale..Mrs. Mary L. Morgan
Broward
(Asst.)..........Lewis E. Watson ...........Ft. Lauderdale ...........................
Calhoun ....... Thomas B. Jones...........Blountstown....Mrs. Annie W. Finlay
Calhoun
(Asst.)........ Donald P. Laws...........Blountstown .-- -----
Charlotte ........ N. H. McQueen......----.... Punta Gorda .......... ----.............
Citrus.............Quentin Medlin ............. Inverness---............- Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Citrus (Asst.).William M. Knight.---.. Inverness ............- .......--
Clay...................Emmett D. McCall...-. Green Cove Springs-
Mrs. Margaret R. Nelson
Clay (Asst.) ....George M. Owens..........Green Cove Springs....................
Collier.........-.....D. W. Lander....----..........Everglades ...----- --.............-
Collier
(Asst.).........W. F. Wortman --...-- Everglades .......... .--------------
Columbia..........Neal M. Dukes....----.. Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.) ...... E. J. Cowen.------------------- Lake City .............. .... ............
Dade .........--......John D. Campbell.........Miami.....................Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)..Doyle E. Abbott.....-- Homestead........Mrs. Mary J. Wagner
Dade (Asst.)..Douglas M. Knapp........ Miami............Mrs. Helen B. McTavish
Dade (Asst.)..Roy J. Champagne....---Miami........Mrs. Marjory B. McDonald
Dade (Asst.)..Nolan L. Durre .......... Homestead .... ....Mrs. Erma Butcher
Dade (Asst.)-.William R. Llewellyn...Homestead ............. ------------..
Dade (Asst.)..Hugh C. Whelchel.........Homestead ...................... ......
Dade (Asst.)..Ralph E. Huffaker ---....Miami .................... ----------
DeSoto..............William L. Hatcher.......Arcadia.........Mrs. Postelle G. Dawsey
Dixie.............. Ben H. Floyd-............Cross City .....-....................-....
Dixie (Asst.)..Charles E. Rowan..----.- Cross City ..............--- -- -- --..
Duval...............James N. Watson..-...-- Jacksonville -........Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Duval (Asst.)_Francis L. Wilson.........Jacksonville-Mrs. Nannie M. Cochran
Duval (Asst.).James R. Yelvington.--..Jacksonville. ..Miss Mary L. Gallagher
Duval (Asst.).Thomas S. Braddock--..Jacksonville-.Mrs. Marvis C. Fordham
Escambia ..-.... E. Norbert Stephens.....Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia
(Asst.)..........Calvin A. Winter..........Pensacola....Mrs. Myndall H. Stanfill
Escambia
(Asst.) .........James H. Walker ........-Pensacola .....Miss Mary E. Lancaster
Escambia
(Asst.) ---.....Jennings B. Cooksey.....Pensacola ............- --------------
Flagler ..-........ Howard Taylor..............Bunnell -----.............--------------
Franklin...........W. C. Zorn....................-- Apalachicola ........ Mrs. Ann P. Jeter
Gadsden............John C. Russell..............Quincy.........Mrs. Marjory B. Gregory
Gadsden
(Asst.)......... Bernard H. Clark --........Quincy .......Mrs. Edwena J. Robertson








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Gilchrist ...........Leonard C. Cobb-...........Trenton -------
Glades...............Harold H. Cook..............M oore Haven ....................................
Glades (Asst.
Ind. Work)..Fred Montsdeoca........ Moore Haven....... Mrs. May 0. Fulton
Gulf................ -- Cubie R. Laird.............. Wewahitchka
Hamilton..........Rance A. Andrews.........Jasper.... .. ....Mrs. Wylma B. White
Hardee..............Jack C. Hayman...........Wauchula....Miss Marylou W. Shirar
Hendry....... ......Frank L. Polhill.............LaBelle ..... ....... ............ ............
Hernando...--- ...-.....--.....-- ---.......... Brooksville ..... Miss Myra Dot Vick
Highlands........B. J. Harris, Jr............ Sebring ........Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands
(Asst.) .......Jay D. Martsolf.......--....Sebring ............................ .......
Hillsborough... Alec White................Tampa...... ...... ..Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.)....... Paul E. Glasscock ....... -Tampa ...........Mrs. Mamie G. Bassett
Hillsborough
(Asst.)......... Jean Beem....................Tampa ...........................
Hillsborough
(Asst.).-........C. F. O'Quinn............---- Tam pa ..... ..........- .. ..............
Hillsborough
(Asst.)---.....R. D. Downs-....--...... Plant City......... Miss Mary E. Carter
Hillsborough
(Asst.)......... V. M. Caldwell-.............Plant City ......... ......
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........M. C. Jorgensen...........--Ruskin.............Miss Virginia R. Hill
Holmes-............C. U. Storey---............. -- Bonifay........Mrs. Sallie R. Childers
Indian River....Forrest N. McCullars...Vero Beach .........................
Jackson............ Woodrow W. Glenn.......Marianna ...........Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson
(Asst.).........Russell S. Rudd..........Marianna............Mrs. Jane R. Burgess
Jefferson.-.......Albert H. Odom.........-Monticello ...........Miss Fern S. Nix
Lafayette--.......W. 0. Whittle................Mayo..........Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Lake.....---....-----R. E. Norris............--.....Tavares...........Mrs. Marian Valentine
Lake (Asst.).--B. O. Bass..........---Tavares.............Mrs. Mary 0. Rowley
Lake (Asst.)---James R. Connell....---..Tavares....................Miss Ann A. Frier
Lee...............--.Johnnie F. Barco...-.... Ft. Myers .......--..... -----.......
Lee* (Assoc.).-D. W. Jones-....--....-Tice ----------.
Leon--.....-..--..----J. Lloyd Rhoden......-... Tallahassee-.Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Leon (Asst.)...-J. E. Thomaston .........Tallahassee......Miss Patricia D. Berry
Leon (Asst.)..--James E. Harris.... ....TTallahassee ................
Levy...--.....----..Wilburn C. Farrell........Bronson ...............--- ......... ..---
Levy (Asst.).--James B. Estes..............Bronson ........................... .......
Liberty..-------- Charles R. Smith..........Bristol ......... Mrs. Evelyn Presley
Madison..--------Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr.-Madison -...-..Mrs. Almon S. Zipperer
Madison
(Asst.)..--......H. T. Paulk.-..-----......-- Madison ......................-----
Manatee..--.......- Wilson H. Kendrick-... Palmetto ........Mrs. Ethel W. Hanson
Manatee
(Asst.) .....--.-E. M. Kelly.--........-..------- Palmetto......Miss Ruth Louise Milton
Manatee
(Asst.).-..-----T. E. Whitmore.......-.----Palmetto ......
Manatee
(Asst.) -------Robert G. Curtis........... Palmetto ..-----
Marion..----.......- Edsel W. Rowan .......... Ocala................. Miss Elsie M. Garrett
Marion
(Asst.).........William H. Jernigan.....Ocala..... ........Mrs. Elizabeth B. Furr
Marion
(Asst.)..........Everette H. Fischer ---..Ocala ...---------- ...-----------
Martin...............L. M. Johnson.................Stuart ........Miss Martha C. Burdine
Nassau...--.........Gordon B. Ellis.............Hilliard........Mrs. Evelyn I. Sabbarese

Also Associate Agent in Charlotte, Hendry, Glades and Collier.
[5]








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Okaloosa ....... F. A. McMillan, Jr........Crestview. .Mrs. Dora S. Stubblefield
Okaloosa**
(Assoc.) .......Jack D. Patten ..............Crestview ..............................
Okeechobee ......C. R. Boyles..............Okeechobee .-........................
Orange..............H. F. Swanson............... Orlando-...Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Orange
(Asst.)..........S. L. Brothers.................Orlando.........Mrs. Mary A. Moore
Orange
(Asst.) .......A. F. Cribbett-..............Orlando............ Mrs. Joyce M. Rine
Osceola............ J. B. Smith...................Kissimmee ....Miss Marilyn Dietrich
Palm Beach.....M. U. Mounts.............West Palm Beach..Miss Mary L. Todd
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........John H. Causey..............West Palm Beach-
Mrs. Elizabeth H. Pierce
Palm Beach
(Asst.)......... Rayburn K. Price..........West Palm Beach-
Miss Miriam I. LoPinto
Palm Beach
(Asst.)........Raleigh S. Griffis .........West Palm Beach........................
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........Charles S. Tucker.........West Palm Beach.......................
Pasco..............J. F. Higgins ..............Dade City.........Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Pasco (Asst.)..Luther L. Rozar-...........Dade City .....Miss Carolyn X. Painter
Pinellas.............Harry J. Brinkley......... Largo...... Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer
Pinellas
(Asst.).........G. M. Whitton, Jr........Largo....................Mrs. Nancy W. Riley
Pinellas
(Asst.)..........Theodore Gallo, III.......Largo .------
Polk...................W. Paul Hayman.........Bartow..............Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Polk (Asst.)... Paul A. Daly................. Bartow............Miss Mary Ann Rykard
Polk (Asst.)..-.Robert Yates..................Bartow ---------
Polk (Asst.). --Jackson A. Haddox......Bartow ...... ..
Polk (Asst.)-...James D. Pierce.......-..- Bartow ..................----------
Putnam -..........H. E. Maltby-..............Palatka .............Mrs. Esther F. Harper
Putnam
(Asst.) .........Ralph T. Clay, Jr....... ..Palatka -- .......
St. Johns.......... P. R. McMullen .............St. Augustine-...Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
St. Johns
(Asst.) ........-Paul L. Dinkins, Jr......St. Augustine .....................
St. Lucie ........--Charles D. Kime............Fort Pierce .......Mrs. Mary H. Bennett
Santa Rosa.......S. C. Kierce.......-.....- .....Milton .........Mrs. Barbara D. Payne
Santa Rosa
(Asst.) .........Aaron A. Hutcheson ....Jay ..................... ......
Sarasota ........Kenneth A. Clark..........Sarasota...............Mrs. Julia F. Foster
Sarasota
(Asst.) .........Hal Hopson ....................Sarasota .. --. ..... ............. ..........
Sarasota
(Asst.)..........Edwin S. Pastorius.......Sarasota .....................................
Seminole...........Cecil Tucker, II.............Sanford ...........Miss Myrtie C. Wilson
Sumter............0. M. Maines, Jr...........Bushnell --- -----
Sumter
(Asst.) ........Donald A. George -........Bushnell ........
Suwannee....... J. P. Crews...................Live Oak ....Mrs. Helen R. Hardiman
Suwannee
(Asst.)..........J. F. Fulm er...................Live Oak ...................... ... ..
Suwannee
(Assoc.) .......William H. Smith..........Live Oak .. ---......................
Taylor....-..........H. P. Davis...............Perry................Miss Ethel M. Paschall
Taylor (Asst.) William C. Smith, Jr....Perry ................... ......... ....
Union................William J. Cowen....-...Lake Butler ......................-........
** Also works in Santa Rosa County.








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)

Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Volusia.............T. R. Townsend.............DeLand ......................Mrs. Edna S. Eby
Volusia
(Asst.)..........J. N. Luttrell.........-.......DeLand .......- ........ ............. ...
Wakulla...-...... Lawrence D. Taylor.....Crawfordville ........... .......-........
Walton..............H. O. Harrison...............DeFuniak Springs-
Miss Betty J. Duckett
Washington..... Johnnie E. Davis............Chipley ........Mrs. Ruby S. MacDonald
Washington
(Assoc.)....... Lenzy M. Scott..............Chipley ------ ..........

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua...........English M. Greene ........Gainesville............Leontine Williams
Columbia..........McKinley Jeffers..........Lake City .............Virginia V. Dickens
Dade ..............--.. .................----- Miami..---......--...Victoria M. Simpson
Duval......... ............ .................... .Jacksonville..................Ethel M Powell
Gadsden .........-.Russell Stephens............Quincy...--............-- Ursula H. Williams
Hamilton.........-Isaac Chandler, Jr......... Jasper ............................ -......-
Hillsborough.... ............................. Tampa.........---- ..........Sudella J. Ford
Jackson..-....--...Virgil Elkins-----................ Marianna .................................
Jefferson--.........Robert Bryant, Jr....... Monticello ...............-- --- -- -----
Leon.............-....Richard A. Hartsfield...Tallahassee ....................Irie Mae Clark
Madison............James C. Miller.............Madison.......-....... Mirian O. Brown
Marion..............Eugene P. Smith............Ocala--...... .......... Sarah K. Thomas
Putnam ........................... .-------... --.. Palatka.....................Leala M. Reaves
Sumter..............Richard L. Bradley....... Bushnell ..............................
Volusia............. ... .....................DeLand...........-...... Ida T. Pemberton










DIRECTOR'S REPORT

M. O. Watkins, Director
J. N. Busby, Assistant Director
F. E. Myers, Assistant to the Director
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., District Agent

INTRODUCTORY SUMMARY

Increases and decreases are evident in 1958 reports from counties, as
programs and methods are adapted to changing situations and needs of
local people.
The trend toward increased numbers of families assisted by Extension
programs continued to be reported in work with rural non-farm and
urban people. The total number of families assisted by Extension pro-
grams increased sharply in 1958, from 326,246 in 1957 to 368,216 families
in 1958.
Extension workers reported 108,617 farm and home visits in 1958, an
increase of 3,776. There were marked increases in calls related to Exten-
sion work; office calls increased from 244,546 to 253,237 and telephone
calls increased from 320,388 to 361,554.
Numbers of news articles or stories prepared remained about the
same as in 1957 while television broadcasts made or prepared almost

.,Ac


Fig. 1.-A committee of the Florida Nurserymen's and Growers' Asso-
ciation visited the University to review Agricultural Extension Service and
Experiment Station programs in ornamental horticulture.









Annual Report, 1958


doubled in number. Radio efforts increased from 3,379 in 1957 to 4,180
broadcasts in 1958. Bulletins distributed increased from 634,711 to 682,970.
Adult result demonstrations conducted in 1958 added up to 4,551 as com-
pared to 4,317 in 1957. More meetings were held and larger attendance
was reported in 1958.
An increased number of voluntary leaders assisted Extension agents.
There were 2,829 training meetings held for this important group, with a
total attendance of 53,936. These leaders in turn held 6,770 meetings in
which attendance increased from 123,378 in 1957 to 176,408 in 1958.
In the area of production and marketing practices the largest number
of individuals were reported assisted with flowers and ornamental shrubs
(300,070). However, increases were significant in many other fields. For
example, in the crop area, 98,337 individuals were assisted with adopting
recommended practices in fruit production and marketing, as compared
to 66,716 to 1957. Individuals assisted with livestock problems remained
about the same in numbers.
Another increase was noted in numbers of individuals assisted with
planning and management of the farm business; 20,955 in 1956, 25,717 in
1957 and 57,089 in 1958.
Nearly twice the number of individuals or families were assisted with
the house and surroundings 118,326 as compared to 61,712 in 1957. The
number of families assisted with foods and nutrition increased from 72,573
to 84,524.
The number of 4-H Clubs in 1958 was reported as 1,670, or 81 more clubs
than in 1957 and 172 more than two years ago. Enrollment was up to
41,348 compared to 39,524 last year. The number of 4-H members com-
pleting projects in 1958 was 26,607, which was about the same as in 1957.
Total projects completed went up to 58,632 compared with 54,823 in 1957.

PROGRAMS
A careful look was taken at Florida's farm business operations during
the year. It was apparent that many of our commodities were being pro-
duced under some form of contract. Efforts were made to acquaint county
agents with horizontal and vertical integration. Following this, agents,
assisted by specialists, discussed pros and cons of contract farming with
farm groups in their counties. In addition, all agents were urged to watch
for adjustments of this nature in their counties.
Disastrous freezes in the winter of 1957-58 made it necessary to adjust
all Extension programs to meet this new situation. Many new growers of
citrus had never experienced serious cold injury in their groves and an
industry-wide educational campaign was launched on the care and handling
of cold-injured citrus. Some vetegtable growers lost as many as six or
seven successive plantings and when their crops were ready for harvest,
all were marketed at the same time, resulting in market gluts. Extension
staff members found it necessary to work closely with credit agencies to
assist this group.
Many herds of breeding cattle are dependent on pasture for much
of their feed in normal years. Freezes and floods destroyed pastures,
resulting in county agents and specialists having to develop emergency
feeding programs. Florida was designated as a disaster area for purposes
of utilizing the Disaster Relief Feed Grain Program on January 13, 1958,
and the Director of Extension was named coordinator of this program by
the Governor. The first phase of this program ran from January 13 to
January 25, with 80 carloads of grain being shipped in. The program was
extended through February 28, with an additional 74 cars being shipped
in, or a total of 154 cars of C.C.C. grain, which arrived in bulk carload lots.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The grain was corn and oats. Approximately 15,430,474 pounds were de-
livered. Eleven counties were approved for assistance, and 10 participated.
The Extension Service, through county agents in the participating
counties, set up county committees to screen applicants, issued instructions
based on regulations, arranged for unloading and delivering grain to stock-
men. Cattlemen bore the expense of unloading, including the purchase of
power machinery, bagging, labor, etc. Grain was ordered daily for the
participating counties through the Director of Extension to the C.C.C.
office in Dallas, Texas. In addition to the above program, the conventional
discount grain program was placed into effect in 31 counties and a 50%
reduction in freight rates on hay and feed was allowed by the railroads in
these 31 counties.
These programs threw a tremendous load on the Extension Service for
approximately 90 days. During this period the administrative staff and
the county agents in the 10 counties were almost completely occupied with
this work. Reports indicate that the Governor of Florida and the Admin-
istrator of the Commodity Stabilization Service in Washington were
pleased with the administration of the program.
Some home demonstration agents found it necessary to assist with pro-
grams to care for stranded migrant workers.
Educational work this past summer emphasized cultural practices to
aid citrus grove recovery; renovation of flood and cold killed pastures; and
planning ahead for winter feed reserves of hay and silage.
Florida's critical shortage of adult 4-H leaders resulted in holding more
leadership training meetings and the appointment of a state staff commit-
tee to develop a pilot program of leadership development. This committee
has begun developing a pilot program to be tried out in about six counties.
The administrative and supervisory staff continued to give major em-
phasis to program projection in Florida. Forty-five of the 66 counties hav-
ing Extension work in Florida have organized and have functioning pro-
gram projection committees. In these 45 counties there are 426 active
committees with 2,324 people involved.
A large number of problems were identified by the county committees.
A few general and some specific problems common to large areas of the
state are:
1. Farm operators need more broad training in the basic principles of
management and record keeping. This was reflected in a number of prob-
lems listed such as lack of records; inadequate care of farm machinery and
equipment; inefficient use of lime, fertilizer, and pesticides; a reluctance
to incur indebtedness to improve farm income; and not making comprehen-
sive use of available ACP programs.
2. Poor nutrition was reflected through problems such as a tendency
among teenagers to eat snacks rather than well-balanced meals; low per
capital consumption of milk; overweight problems particularly with older
people who have retired from active work; and deficiency symptoms among
young children, indicating a need for vitamins and minerals.
3. A serious need for trained volunteer leaders for 4-H Club work was
reflected in practically all counties.
4. Growing demands for Extension assistance by urban people. These
demands are primarily for assistance in ornamental horticulture, 4-H Club
work, and home demonstration work.
5. A strong and organized public relations program is needed by agri-
culture to inform the public of its problems and importance.
6. Information and help is needed on protection and recovery from dis-
astrous weather phenomena such as floods and freezing.








Annual Report, 1958 11

7. A lack of pride in communities and desire to cooperate in community
projects. This is even reflected in a lack of unity among families in some
cases.
8. Many agricultural problems were identified such as cost of pest con-
trol for vegetable production; parasite and disease control on livestock;
water control; and fertilization (placement, timing, grades, etc.).
9. Some marketing problems identified were erratic flow of fruits to
market, creating gluts and shortages; outlook information on vegetables
not being utilized; improper care of eggs between producer and consumer;
no attractive price differential between lard and meat-type hogs; and a
need for a survey to delineate marketing problems in vegetables.
10. Farm lands near urban areas are being taxed according to their
potential values as subdivisions and not their agricultural productive value.
Program projection committees recommended several courses of action
to help solve the problems identified. Some of these are outlined below.
In the case of taxation, organized agricultural groups were urged to
meet with tax assessors and legislators and work out a formula that would
permit taxation according to land use. An alternative solution suggested
was for each individual concerned to explore the possibility of intensive
production of high-value-per-acre crops.
Extension efforts were suggested for improving management of the
farm enterprise. These included using systematic record keeping pro-
cedures such as DHIA; intensive education on use of credit, use of current
production practices, and proper care of equipment; and education on
home and farm management principles.
Some suggested ways of improving nutrition included: make available
the services of a home demonstration agent in counties not presently
benig served; extend 4-H Club training to urban youngsters; find ways to
reach young married women with home demonstration education; encour-
age home gardens and orchards for rural families; and intensifiy educa-
tional program on milk drinking.
Many other solutions reflected serious thinknig such as: developing a
4-H leaders' program designed to attract young married couples working
as a team; using recreation as the medium for pulling families and com-
munities together; and Extension to provide leadership in continually in-
forming the people about agriculture, its importance and problems.
The majority of Florida's counties will not complete the program pro-
jection process until sometime in 1959. As a result, the full impact of this
planning has not been reflected in our Extension program. Certain trends
were apparent, however, and did result in some changes in program em-
phasis.
PERSONNEL
Close screening for qualifications necessary for specific positions often
limited the numbers of applicants eligible for employment in Extension
work.
The orientation conference, formerly held for the new agricultural per-
sonnel, was expanded to include new state and county home demonstration
workers. Thirty-three new workers participated in this 3-day training
activity.
Nineteen agricultural agents, 2 home demonstration agents and 4
specialists attended the 1958 Extension Summer School at the University
of Florida.
The entire state staff participated in a 3-day workshop on communica-
tions, receiving special training in the learning process, group action and
effective meetings. Training in this important area was extended to all








Florida Cooperative Extension


county workers during Annual Extension Conference. Subject matter
training meetings were held for area groups throughout the year.

SUPERVISION
District agents in agriculture reported administrative and supervisory
problems and situations to be the same in 1958 as in 1957.
Major supervisory accomplishments were in coordinating and integrat-
ing specialist and agent activities, urban Extension work, farm and home
development, and program projection. It was measured by evaluating and
checking results throughout the year.
Specialists received the guidance and cooperation of agents and super-
visors in preparing and presenting material. Agents were advised on avail-
able specialist assistance. Training needs were determined, and training
conferences conducted in the areas of most urgent need. Close cooperation
was given 4-H Club agents to further broaden and develop youth programs
and activities.
Assistance was given in the area of adapting agents' programs and pro-
cedures to meet the increasing urban load that has developed so rapidly in
certain areas. Rather than shifting program emphasis, expanded programs
were developed in balance with agricultural needs. District agents coun-
seled, encouraged, and attended group meetings, visited cooperators, and
kept in close contact with farm and home development work. Pilot work
in farm and home development continued and received considerable at-
tention.
Meetings, training media and individual contacts have been utilized by
supervisors to stress principles and objectives of program projection.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1957-58


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ..........................
Agricultural Marketing ...............-..
Bureau of Indian Affairs ......................



State Appropriation:
Legislature .....-............-- ... ........
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (actual) ............. --....
County Appropriation: ...................................
Grand Total ................-...... ........


.........$580,760.54
......... 19,920.00
....... 8,020.81


.$1,071,737.00


$ 608,761.35

$1,071,737.00


19,242.00 19,242.00
794,823.00 794,823.00
-................... $2,494,563.35


FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1958-59


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ........................
Agricultural Marketing .................
Bureau of Indian Affairs ...................

State Appropriation:
Legislature ........................ ........
State Trust Funds:
Incidental (Estimated) ............
County Appropriation ..................................
Grand Total ..................................


..........$ 623,428.55
---..... 18,730.00
--.....- 12,600.00


$ 654,758.55


..$1,122,837.00 $1,122,837.00


19,600.00 19,600.00
848,085.00 848,085.00
..... ................ $2,645,280.55


............
--------.-- -







Annual Report, 1958 13


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from White and Negro County and
Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm and home visits made .....................-- ......... .....-------- 108,617
Calls relating to Extension work:
Office ..........................- .... --.....- .... ... .--- 253,237
Telephone ............. .. .............. .---..---..... -- 361,554
News articles or stories prepared ........................................ 14,187
Broadcasts made or prepared.
Television ---------...........---........ .---- 914
R adio ........... ......-......... .. -.... ......... 4,180
Bulletins distributed ..--- ...........------------.- ---..........-.---- 682,970
Adult result demonstrations conducted .........................-..... ....... 4,551
Training meetings held for local leaders:
N um ber .........-.......-.. ............ ..-.- .... .... .... 2,829
Total attendance -....-.........-..-....-................... ..- 53,936
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Number .............-...-.........-.... ....-----..... 34,304
Total attendance ................................-... .. .............. 1,423,611
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
Number ........... - ..~-- ..................... 6,770
Total attendance .... ................... .......... .......... 176,408

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension Agents
with organization, planning and conducting of Extension work in counties:
M en ................ .......... ........... 3,920
W omen .........-.......-..........-........... 6,411
Older club boys ........... --...... ---... .............. 331
Older club girls ...... .................... ..................-- 1,823
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and marketing
practices in subject matter fields:

CROP PRODUCTION


Individuals assisted with:
G rain crops ................... .......-...........
Hay and other forage, pasture, range ...................
Cotton and other fibre crops ..................--------.
Tobacco ...-.................----.... . ....
Oil and sugar crops ---........... ....... -
Fruits and nuts ........... ---.... -
Vegetables, including potatoes ---..............----..
Flowers, ornamental shrubs ...............---------.....


-...................- 16,050
. ...........-..-.. 19,311
....-----. ... 5,807
............... 7,825
---------..... 5,719
-... .................. 98,337
---..........-...... 59,801
-.........--..........300,070


CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES


Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conservation and management.
Forestry ..--.----------...
W wildlife --.... --------------


---... 25,495
----. 9,217
-......... 3,570








14 Florida Cooperative Extension

LIVESTOCK
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and products ....................................... 14,011
Poultry and products ...............-....... .. .. ....-- ..-- --- 15,299
Beef cattle ....................----...................................... 23,465
Sheep and goats -..... ------....--... -----................ ---- 332
Swine ........-.........--------- ........... --.. ..........-- 14,988
Other livestock ....-----. --- ... ...-.......... -- ------- 2,589

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FARM BUSINESS

Individuals assisted with ................... ...................... 57,089

FARM BUILDINGS AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings ................... ................. ...................................... 3,651
Farm mechanical equipment ............................ ................. 6,193

THE HOUSE AND SURROUNDINGS, FURNISHINGS
AND EQUIPMENT

Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and surroundings ....--.... ----... ........... .................... 118,326
Furnishings and equipment ............-......................... ............ 38,908

FOODS AND NUTRITION, HEALTH, FAMILY LIFE AND SAFETY
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition ................................................ 84,524
Health --................--- --- ---- -... -----.......................... 39,589
Fam ily life ................. .. ........................................... 25,804
Safety .................. ------- ... .. ... ..................... 34,648

HOME MANAGEMENT, FAMILY ECONOMICS AND CLOTHING

Individuals assisted with:
Home management .... -----------------................ ..--................ 30,293
Fam ily economy ics ................. ...................... .......... ........... 30,098
Clothing .....-- ... -------..................... .................... 66,683

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION

Individuals assisted with:
Consumer information on agricultural products---...........................188,321

ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES
AND TO INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS

Formally organized groups assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Number .....---.......------ --..--------........... .......... 145
Members .....---.... .... ......--------...-.-------- ..-- ...... 21,962
Farm and home service:
Number ....-- .......--..-- ........ -- ---------............ .... 104
Members ..----- -- -----------------------...................... 21,959








Annual Report, 1958


Informally organized groups assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
Num ber ........-..........................
Members ...... ......... ----
Farm and home service:
Num ber .................... ---.........
M em bers -------..... .....--- ---------


PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS, PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES
ON WHICH AGENTS WORK


Citizenship activities .............--------------- --. .............
Developing and improving county or community organization...


Local projects of a general public nature:
General community problems .........-....
Improving health facilities ...-.............
Improving schools ................................
Improving churches -......................-...
Bettering town-country relations ........
Libraries .................. ... .... ... ........
R oads ......................... ........... ....
Telephones ............... .......................
Community centers ....................---.....
Recreation programs and facilities ......
Community beautification .................


---------.... ................ 22,681
.--......................... 22,836
................................... 10,680
----. ---.................. 11,918
------------................ 32,274

.................................... 3,185
...- ...............- .. 3,507
.. ...........--................ 14,016
-............................. 22,487
............................... 10,240


Regional or area development programs ............................
National programs ................. ............. .........
W orld affairs ................... .......................... -
Emergency activities ..................- .. .....-

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK

Number of 4-H Clubs -------------------............. .-----------.-- --.-----
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and completing projects:
Enrolled:
Boys-17,749; girls-23,599; total ...........----...~..............


16,229
15,194
7,622
13,895


....- 1,670



..... 41,348


Completing:
Boys- 11,679; girls- 14,928; total ...................................... 26,607
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm-8,538; rural non-form-5,152; urban ..................... 4,059
Girls: Farm-7,398; rural non-farm-7,933; urban ........................ 8,268
4-H Projects Completed:
Corn ......... .......................- -....... 1,487
Other cereals .............. -- . ...... ....... .......... 104
Peanuts ................. ---------------........ 336
Cotton .....--- ....-----.......... ............. 64
Tobacco ..................... ............... ...... 21
Vegetables .....---.. ................ ............. 4,366
Fruits ......-...--........- -. ---------- -........ -----..... 461
Range and pasture -------.............--- .... .. ........ 278
Other crops ............. .............-----.............. ........... 125
Soil and water conservation and management ...............................----------. 204
Forestry ........ ....... ......... ...... -...........- 701


........................ 165
- ..- ........ .... 5,847


78
5,736


..... 27,372
..... 35,164









Florida Cooperative Extension


Wildlife and nature study ...................... -.....
Poultry ............... ........ ---------------
Dairy cattle ................... .- .... .......-.........--
Beef cattle ........... ... ... ... ---. ..... ----.-.-----
Swine .............-..........-...--......------
Sheep ............-... -------------
Rabbits .................----...- ..........
Other livestock ....... ....... ... .....................
B ees ... ................................. ......... .... ..
Entom ology .....................................
Tractor maintenance ..................................-
Electricity -............... ......-- .. ------
Soybeans and other legumes .................... ......
Potatoes, Irish and sweet ........................ ....-...
Farm shop ...... --......................---- -----
Other engineering projects ..................................
Farm management ..................................-.. -
Beautification of home grounds .......................
Meal planning and preparation ................
Canning and preserving ................. --............
Freezing of food ............------------
Health, nursing, first aid .............................
Child care ................- --- ----


........... ...... 633
-.......-.................. 2,086
. ---.......- ..-.. ------ 1,269
- .................. 1,160
.......................... 1,735
... -... ....-- .... 16
- ...-.. ..... .. 606
--. .............. 229
.. ................ 182
- ..-- .... .......... 575
-- -.............- 591
..... ...... ...... 1,819
- ---- .......- 109
.---- .......- 298
-.-..- .- .. .... 62
.. .. .......- 21
--....---- ..-.. 23
.... .................... 2,679
-.........I .-- .....-........ 10,160
.......... ................. 77510,160
775
.............. ........... 566
...... .... ........... 2,002
. -. .....-....-.. .... 2,290


Clothing ...... ......... ......... ....- -------......... 9,140
Home management ................................... .......------------ 1,415
Home furnishings and room improvement .................................. 2,235
Home industries, arts, crafts .. .. .............- ....................... 1,611
Junior leadership ........ --. .......- --....-... -............. 946
All other .........................--------------- -- ----.... 5,252
Total projects completed ......................---..--..... -------.... 58,632

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION

Farm families making changes in agricultural practices.................... 35,040
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices.... 56,527
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices....................190,609
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices.................... 15,364
Rural non-farm families making changes in homemaking practices ... 37,237
Urban families making changes in homemaking practices................. ----99,017
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs......... 41,383
Total different rural non-farm families asst. by Extension programs 82,944
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs........243,889








Annual Report, 1958 17



AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT
C. C. Moxley, Associate Economist

Farm management Extension work during 1958 contributed to higher
incomes and more satisfactory living conditions for many rural families.
More than 57,000 different individuals were given assistance with man-
agement problems. These problems involved many different phases of
management on varied types of farms. Educational programs encom-
passing several approaches to management were carried on simultaneously
throughout the state.
Outlook.-The Florida Outlook Committee, comprised of 26 Extension
specialists and 6 members of other organizations, was established during
1958 to provide comprehensive and timely outlook information to pro-
ducers, handlers and consumers. This information was distributed by state
and county workers using television, radio, press and other media. During
1958, about 18,700 farmers and other individuals were given outlook infor-
mation either by personal contact, in group meetings, or by letters. Ex-
tension publications on this subject included "Florida Agricultural Outlook"
(Economic Series 58-1), "Florida Vegetables 1958-59" and other brief
supplemental reports. Increasing numbers of producers are using outlook
information in making more precise production plans and timely market-
ing decisions.
Rural Development.-Following completion of county-wide family sur-
veys by local leaders in the 2 pilot counties, the questionnaires were tabu-
lated by the Extension Service. Results were published and made avail-
able to state and county rural development committees and other inter-
ested parties. The problems brought to light in each county were analyzed
by local leaders. As a means of attacking local problems, the county
committees established subcommittees on agriculture, education, commu-
nity improvement, industry, finance, tourism, forestry, communications
and transportation, health, sanitation and welfare, recreation and beautifi-
cation, and publicity. These committees are actively functioning and mak-
ing progress toward solving county-wide problems. County and state Ex-
tension workers are strongly supporting and actively assisting local
leaders in the development of human and physical resources.
In 1 county, the educational programs of the Extension Service and vo-
cational agriculture and home economics were coordinated to make better
use of existing facilities and personnel. Recreation programs for farm
youth and the program for town youth were combined to form a more
comprehensive program for the county. Historical markers are being
erected and a unique waterfall is being publicized to bring additional
tourist dollars to the county. Fish and game preserves are being estab-
lished.
In one county, a widely expanded library service is bringing additional
reading material to rural farm and non-farm families. The agricultural
subcommittee is successfully carrying out an extensive campaign of soil
testing and liming. New agricultural enterprises are being explored and
better marketing facilities established.
Production Economics.-Florida farmers are using outlook information
and improved technology to make adjustments that help them operate








Florida Cooperative Extension


more efficiently and more profitably. They are practicing better manage-
ment as they increase the average size of units and the productivity of
land and labor. There has been considerable shifting of emphasis between
enterprises as producers apply basic farm management principles. They
are studying alternatives and making decisions based on facts. Extension
recommendations pertaining to specific enterprises are being related to
the overall business on the individual farm. Adoption of better manage-
ment is resulting in higher standards of living, including better health
and education.
Farm Accounting.-Through group meetings and personal contacts,
Extension workers taught families the mechanics of keeping records and
methods of analysis. In addition to supplying families with record ma-
terials previously published, the Extension Service designed and made
available to farm families a 5-year farm inventory record book. Though
many are keeping records primarily as an aid in reporting income for tax
and social security purposes, a growing number of farmers use records
for analyzing the farm business. Throughout the state, more than 7,960
farmers were given assistance during 1958 in keeping and analyzing farm
records.
Tax and Social Security.-The large increase in the number of income
tax reports filed by Florida farmers and in the number of farmers par-
ticipating in Social Security is partly the result of educational work by
Extension Service personnel. Numerous meetings with farm groups were
held at their specific request for instruction on income tax and social
security. Requests for tax information are no longer limited to tax-filing
time. This indicates that farmers are practicing year-around tax manage-
ment. As they become more aware of the insurance benefits of social
security, increasing numbers of young farm families are participating.
Radio talks, press releases, and group meetings were used by Extension
personnel to furnish information to both white and colored people through-
out the state.
Regulations on state and federal gasoline tax refunds were given wide-
spread publicity and Extension provided information on the proper meth-
ods for obtaining refunds. Nearly 7,000 farmers and other, individuals
were given assistance with income tax accounting, social security, and
related problems.
Other Activities.-Classes in family business were taught home demon-
stration leaders attending the State Home Demonstration Council Short
Course. Similar materials were presented to joint husband-wife meetings
of county home demonstration clubs. 4-H Club members attending the an-
nual 4-H Short Course had an opportunity to attend classes in farm busi-
ness.
In cooperation with State 4-H Club agents, materials were developed
for a 4-H project in career exploration. This project, designed for farm
and non-farm boys and girls over 14 years of age, helps young people
decide future careers by encouraging them to explore their own interests,
abilities and aptitudes, and to investigate various opportunities and re-
quirements of different careers in which they might be interested. The
project encourages young people to compare what they know about
themselves with what they find out about various career opportunities.
By being guided in procedure, but allowed to make decisions for them-
selves, the club members develop methods of making sound decisions.
Farm management personnel cooperated with vocational agriculture,
Farmers' Home Administration, Agricultural Stabilization Committees, Soil
Conservation Service, and other organizations in furthering the advance-
ment of agriculture in the state.







Annual Report, 1958 19

MARKETING ACTIVITIES
E. W. Cake, Economist in Marketing
Ralph A. Eastwood, Economist in Marketing

County agents indicated that they had assisted farmers in more than
78,000 instances during the year with marketing problems. They also esti-
mated that they had given help to 145 formally organized cooperatives
and another 165 informally organized groups, most of which were con-
cerned with marketing.
Work with New Producer Groups.-The Marketing Specialists were
able to take care of all requests for assistance in the organization of new
producer groups seeking to form marketing, bargaining, farm supply, edu-
cational or trade associations, or attempting to solve their marketing
problems with marketing agreeemnts or state laws. Twelve such new
producer groups were assisted, some of them quite extensively. Some de-
cided not to organize after information presented indicated it was unwise.
Other groups did organize, or accomplish the objectives which they had
in mind.
Work with Existing Producer Organizations.-Extension Marketing
Specialists had many opportunities to assist existing producer organizations
which were seeking to improve their operations, solve difficult problems,
change bylaws or accomplish other objectives. They still have a back-log
of jobs to finish for such organizations. Fifteen organizations were as-
sisted. Work with most of them involved giving advice at meetings, pre-
paring suggested changes in bylaws or operating plans, obtaining facts
and figures and preparing reports. Results accomplished by these groups
assisted, and the acceptance and utilization of material furnished them,
indicated an appreciation for Extension assistance and its value.
Youth Education on Farmer Cooperatives.-A 4-H Cooperative Awards
Program and an FFA Cooperative Activities Contest were conducted. The
Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives furnishes trips for award win-
ners. Expenses for 135 club members and their leaders were paid to a
3-day statewide 4-H Cooperative Institute, for 45 chapter members to a
5-day FFA meeting, and for 13 club and chapter members and leaders
to a national meeting in Pennsylvania.
Members of some 200 clubs and chapters taking part in the contests
learned a great deal about the farmer cooperatives operating in their areas
and elsewhere in the state and nation. They learned about the advantages,
possibilities, and progress of these organizations, which farmers use to
help themselves.
Dairy Products Marketing.-This phase of Extension marketing, con-
ducted for the most part at the invitation of county agents, continues to
expand. Wholesalers, retailers, and those in derivative industries did not
participate to any significant degree, although several of these took part
in activities sponsored and conducted by the Department of Dairy Science.
Earlier stages, such as producers and cooperatives, frequently sought edu-
cational services as 4 state-wide cooperative and trade associations and
1 county-wide cooperative incorporated during the year. Activities of and
concerning governmental milk price regulating agencies also continued
to be important opportunities for service.
Poultry Products Marketing.-Continuation of marketing activities
requested by county agents in conjunction with county poultry associations
marked this program. Wholesalers, primarily farmers' cooperatives, were
the highest production stage participating. Poultry farmers in the Tampa
area considered a cull hen marketing program and decided to defer. Sev-







Florida Cooperative Extension


eral county groups requested information on the poultry outlook and on
contract poultry farming.
Perhaps the activity begun which has most potential value concerns
benefits the entire industry and consumers would derive from consumer
and marketing research on eggs.
Citrus Marketing.-Summary reports of marketing research studies
concerning citrus were prepared and released to county agents and pro-
ducers. Discussions on citrus marketing were led by marketing specialists
at several citrus institutes, seminars, schools, and county grower meetings
called by the Extension Service. Industry and Experiment Station market-
ing authorities also were included as speakers.
Vegetable Marketing.-Two series of grower meetings to consider a
potato marketing agreement were held by the Extension Service, each
at seven different locations in the state. Several vegetable marketing firms
and State Farmers' Markets were given assistance on problems.
Field Crop Marketing.-Discussions were held with grower committees
in 5 counties on marketing problems faced by producers of field crops.
These committees with specialist help decided on the most effective actions
to cope with these marketing problems and included them in country pro-
gram projection reports.
Other Extension Marketing Work.-Other Extension marketing work
included: Assistance rendered in connection with various 4-H activities;
liaison and advisory work with the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives;
trips and conferences with Point IV trainees; assistance to county agents
and other specialists with the marketing phases of various institutes,
schools and seminars; handling of marketing subjects at county agent
training meetings; liaison and advisory work with the Florida Milk Com-
mission and Florida Egg Commission; marketing talks at several civic
club and general farm organization meetings; work with county agents
and other specialists on marketing phases of program projection; and many
other jobs of a general Extension nature.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist,
Agricultural Experiment Station
Production costs of citrus in 1956-57 decreased slightly from the pre-
vious season. Such costs were at their highest in 26 years during the
1955-56 season as measured by cost of production studies. An increase of
12 percent over 1953-54 brought the operating or cash costs to $206.43 per
acre in 1954-55. A further increase of 3 percent brought the average to
$212.28 per acre in 1955-56. This was an increase of 76 percent over 1949-50.
Production costs per acre on bearing groves increased each season from
1939-40 to 1946-47-seven successive seasons-then decreased for three
seasons to 1949-50. Since the latter season, there were increases in 1950-51
and 1951-52 over the preceding season, then a slight decrease in 1952-53,
followed by increases in each of the three seasons of 1953-56 and a decrease
of 6 percent to $201 in 1956-57.
Yields tended to increase over the period, a portion of which was due
to increasing average age of groves. Economic, weather and other condi-
tions resulted in commercial yield fluctuations on these groves of mixed
citrus. These accounts were started in 1931-32 and each of the first seven
seasons averaged less than 200 boxes per acre when average ages of trees
varied from 17 to 19 years. Yield averages were again less than 200 boxes
during the three seasons of 1939-42 when average ages were 20 and 21








Annual Report, 1958 21

years. The yield was 305 boxes in 1943-44 with trees at 23 years of age.
The average yield was below 300 boxes during the three succeeding seasons
and 321 boxes in 1947-48 with trees at age 25. In six of the eight seasons
since 1947-48 the average yields were above 340 boxes per acre, reaching
447 boxes in 1953-54 with average age at 30 years. The following season,
1954-55, the yield averaged 356 boxes with tree age at 31 years. The 1955-56
yield was 292 boxes, the lowest since 1949-50.
Yields by 5-year averages, returns above operating cost and average
age of tree were:
Age of Yield Returns above
Seasons Trees per Acre Operating Cost
1931-36 ....................... 18 126 $ 36
1936-41 ........................ 19 175 44
1941-46 ...................... 23 250 322
1946-51 ...............---.... 26 314 181
1951-56 .................. 30 359 117

The average yield for the five seasons of 1951-56 at 359 boxes per acre
was almost three times the 5-year average of 1931-36, more than twice the
1936-41 average, 44 percent above 1941-46 and 11 percent higher than the
1946-51 average.
The yield in 1955-56 at 292 boxes per acre was the ninth highest of 25
seasons on these groves, being exceeded in eight of the 10 most recent
seasons of 1946-56. Labor, power and equipment cost in 1955-56 at $103.60
per acre was the highest of the 25 seasons and more than 4 times such
cost in each of the 8 seasons of 1932-40 and more than 3 times such cost
in each of the 12 seasons of 1931-43. Money spent for fertilizer materials
averaged $59.81 per acre. This was the fourth highest such figure of these
seasons and more than 3 times the average for 4 of these seasons. Money
spent for spray and dust materials averaged second highest in 1955-56 at
$20.10 per acre. This was more than 5 times the average in the first 6
seasons and more than twice that for 16 seasons. State and county taxes
at $12.74 per acre were the highest of 25 seasons and were more than
twice those for 15 seasons. Taxes at $11.76 in 1931-32 were second to the
$12.74 figure for 1955-56.
Operating costs per acre averaged $214.97 per acre, the highest of the
25 season up to 1955-56. This figure was more than 3 times such cost in
10 of these seasons and more than twice that for 13 seasons. Interest at
6 percent on estimated grove investment was $65.82 per acre in 1955-56
and 1954-55. This was the highest figure of the 25 seasons. Total cost at
$280.79 per acre in 1955-56 was the highest of 25 seasons and more than
twice that for 13 seasons. Much of these increases in costs were due to
decreases in the value of the dollar. Some of the increases were due to
increasing age of trees requiring added expenditures for some items.
Increased yields tended to offset increases in per-acre costs. An operat-
ing cost of 51 cents per box in 1931-32 was not exceeded until 1944-45,
when a hurricane lowered the yield. Other seasons when this figure was
exceeded were in 1946-47 at 55 cents, in 1954-55 at 58 cents and in 1955-56
at 74 cents. There were 8 seasons when such costs were less than 40 cents,
6 season from 40 to 45 cents and 9 seasons from 50 to 55 cents. Cost per
box with interest on grove included was highest during the season of
1955-56 at 96 cents per pox with 1933-34 second at 91 cents. The season
with lowest such cost was 1943-44 at 41 cents. The 25-year average was
62 cents.
The on-tree price received for fruit in 1955-56 was $1.13 per box. This
was 11 cents more than the average for the 25 seasons and the eighth








22 Florida Cooperative Extension

highest price for the 25 seasons. Receipts per acre in 1955-56 were $330.28.
This season ranked eighth in this regard and was 32 percent more than
the average of $250.64. The highest price received for fruit was $2.02 in
1944-45 and the average for the 25 seasons was $1.02.
Returns above operating or cash costs per acre were $115 in 1955-56.
There were 14 of the 25 seasons with a lower figure than this. The distri-
bution of these seasons by returns above operating costs were:

$400 to $499 per acre....-- .........- ....-..........- .... ... seasons
300 to 399 per acre .................. ....... ............3 reasons
200 to 299 per acre....... .... .......... ...............2 seasons
100 to 199 per acre.................. ..................5- seasons
50 to 99 per acre.................................. ---6 seasons
0 to 49 per acre .. ---------...............-.........5 seasons
Less than 0 per acre.....................................2 seasons

There were 2 seasons when returns from fruit did not pay operating costs.
Orange production costs per acre tended to increase with age of trees.
Inflation contributed to cost increases. If calculated on a stable dollar
value, increases would be materially reduced during the last 15 years. Labor
rates and costs of power and equipment increased and changes were made
in cultural practices that affected per-acre costs. Fertilizer elements added
increased from 4 to 11 or more; yet, the per-acre cost for fertilizer in-
creased less than for labor, power and equipment.
Two publications, 12 different sheets of data and 2 form letters were
issued, representing 7,125 copies, or a total of 74,125 pages of material.
In addition, there were 15 magazine articles prepared and published in 2
Florida citrus monthly publications.








Annual Report, 1958


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
T. C. Skinner, Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, Assoc. Agricultural Engineer
S. E. Dowling, Ass't. Agricultural Engineer

Studies have revealed that 85 percent of all agricultural operations
have engineering implications. This places a tremendous responsibility on
the agricultural engineer while at the same time giving him almost un-
limited opportunities. Specifically, the agricultural engineering project is
responsible for work in the fields of farm structures, farm electrification,
power and machinery, soil and water, materials handling and crop pro-
cessing, farm safety, and 4-H Club activities.
Farm Structures.-During 1958 over 9,000 farm building plans and 1500
farm house plans were distributed to the rural people of Florida in response
to requests. Twenty-two plans were developed during this period, 11 of
which were special plans and 11 placed in the plan service for general
distribution. Three publications on farm structures subjects were released
in 1958. According to county and home demonstration agents' reports,
126,221 persons were contacted through the farm structures and farm
housing program.
Farm Electrification.-The work in farm electrification was primarily
with the promotion of adequate farmstead and farm home wiring and
*Resigned October 21, 1958.

Fig. 2.-An electric device is used in this citrus tree pruning
demonstration in Pasco County.


wi~ -









Florida Cooperative Extension


lighting, and the uses of electrical equipment on the farm, such as electric
chick brooders, electric pig brooders, farm and home water systems, elec-
tric fences, hotbeds, and various applications of motors.
County Extension workers reported that 2,830 people in 56 counties
were assisted in using electricity for income purposes and 1,788 people in
49 counties were given help in planning electrical systems. These workers
assisted 16,235 farm people in 52 counties with problems concerning home
furnishings and equipment.
Power and Machinery.-Eight clinics were conducted in cooperation
with subject matter specialists and county agents. Seven were citrus tree
pruning clinics and the other had to do with the combining, drying and
storage of corn. Total attendance at these clinics was 1,500 persons.
County agents reported that 6,193 persons were assisted with power and
machinery problems.
Irrigation and Drainage.-County agents were assisted on 43 occasions
with irrigation problems and on 5 occasions with drainage problems. Ex-
tension Circular 173, "How to Buy an Irrigation System," was published.
A state-wide irrigation clinic was held at which new practices and new
equipment were presented.
County agents reported that 3,283 farmers were assisted with irriga-
tion problems and 3,477 with drainage problems.
Safety.-The Associate Agricultural Engineer is also Farm Safety
Specialist. His report on that activity is on page 44.
4-H Club Activities.-The Agricultural Engineers assisted with 4-H
Club activities in the 4-H Tractor Care Program, the 4-H Farm Electrifi-
cation Program and the 4-H Farm Safety Program.
In 1958, 868 boys in 48 counties were enrolled in the 4-H tractor care
program. A state-wide leader training clinic was held at the University
of Florida. Ten district and 1 state 4-H tractor operators' contests were
conducted. The winner of the State 4-H Tractor Operators' Contest com-
peted in the Eastern United States 4-H Tractor Operators' Contest in Rich-
mond, Virginia, against boys from 21 Eastern Seaboard states.
The Associate Agricultural Engineer located a state sponsor, the Flor-
ida REA Cooperatives Association, for the 4-H electric program. Electrical
teaching materials for 60 counties were obtained from 17 electric power
suppliers. This material was used as follows: infrared brooders were used
to brood 20,000 chicks and 800 pigs, lamp kits were used to teach 8,000
people about good lighting, electric kits were used to teach 9,000 people
about electricity.
Two 4-H electric clinics were held at 4-H camps with 100 4-H adult and
junior 4-H leaders and Extension workers attending. A State Lamp Con-
test was held at Boys' Short Course with entries from all 10 4-H districts.
A Poultry-Electric Contest was held with awards presented at Poultry
Institute.
Classes in electricity were taught at Boys' Short Course and the Negro
Short Course. A total of more than $2,500 was provided by all Florida
power suppliers to further the 4-H Electric Program. There were 2,953
4-H members enrolled in electric projects, an increase of 410 over the
previous year, and there were 1,819 completions.








Annual Report, 1958


AGRONOMY

J. R. Henderson, Agronomist
James NeSmith, Associate Agronomist'
S. L. Brothers, Assistant Agronomist

The Agronomists worked in cooperation with other Extension person-
nel and through county agents and assistants in 66 counties in planning
and conducting educational programs relating to more efficient production
of field crops.
County agents were kept posted on latest developments relating to
field crop production through 6 training conferences, 1 each at Crestview,
Quincy, and Gainesville in January, 2 at Ona in May, and 1 at Gainesville
in June; field days at the Experiment Stations at Jay, Live Oak, Gaines-
ville, Ona, Belle Glade, and Ft. Pierce; individual conferences; circular
letters; personal correspondence; revision of certain sections of the Florida
County Agent Handbook; and a 3-week summer school course in field
crop production, for which 14 county agents and assistant county agents
registered and received credit.
The Agronomy staff, in cooperation with the District Agents and other
Extension specialists, assisted county agents in planning and staging
community and county meetings of farmers for presentation of outlook
information, research data, and Extension recommendations relating to
field crops; result demonstrations on varieties, fertilization, and control
of pests of field crops; production contests among adults and 4-H Club
members for demonstrating the value of recommended practices; and corn
shows and field crop judging contests in which 4-H Club members par-
ticipated.
The staff also assisted the specialists in Animal Husbandry in planning
and conducting the Fifth Annual Cattleman's Institute and one county
school each for cattlemen and swine producers; helped the specialists in
Dairying in planning and conducting a county school for dairymen and in
selecting state winners in the Florida Dairy Pasture Contest; and worked
with the Soils Specialist in the development of plans for schools on proper
use of lime and fertilizers in the production of field crops.
In addition, members of the Agronomy staff cooperated with the
Florida Department of Agriculture in its seed certification program;
with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations in the distribution of
Station-produced foundation seed; and with the Florida Agricultural Sta-
bilization and Conservation Committee in training of teams of state and
county workers in variety identification in connection with the tobacco
variety discount program.
Activities, in addition to those already mentioned, included preparation
and publication of 1 journal article, 2 Extension circulars, and numerous
mimeographed papers; making 14 radio talks and 1 TV film; preparation
and use of hundreds of slides for presentation of information at state,
area, and county meetings; and handling several hundred inquiries for
information on soils and field crops.
The Agronomy staff spent a total of 219 days in the field, of which
77 were spent on area- or state-level activities and 142 were spent in
assisting county agents individually.
Reports from county workers show that they spent a total of 9,960 days
on crop production. A breakdown of this activity, showing the number
of farmers assisted with various phases of field crop production, is given
1 Appointed June 16, 1958.








Florida Cooperative Extension


in Table 1. County reports on 4-H Club projects with field crops are
sumarized in Table 2.

TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF FARMERS ASSISTED BY COUNTY WORKERS WITH
VARIOUS FIELD CROP PRODUCTION PROBLEMS.


Problem


Grain
Crops


Hay and
Forage
Crops


Cotton and
Other Fiber
Crops


Oil &
Tobacco Sugar
Crops


Use of improved
varieties and strains 9,308 7,751 2,353 3,731 4,208
Use of fertilizers 9,276 11,032 2,902 3,980 3,128
Control of injurious
insects 5,988 5,739 2,799 3,788 2,685
Control of diseases 3,171 2,944 1,717 2,822 1,188
Harvesting, storing,
and curing 5,127 5,250 1,203 3,417 2,714
Efficient work
methods 3,247 3,119 970 1,477 1,611

TABLE 2.-SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS IN FIELD CROP
PRODUCTION.

Members Members Acres Involved in
Crop Enrolled Completing Completed Projects
Corn 1,907 1,487 3,996
Other cereals 152 104 814
Peanuts 443 336 1,059
Soybeans, field peas,
alfalfa, and other
legumes 152 109 753
Cotton 81 64 133
Tobacco 22 21 23
Range and pasture 381 278 3,644

Acreages, yields per acre, and total production are considered to be
good indicators of the effectiveness of Extension programs in crop pro-
duction.
Comparisons of 1958 acreage and production figures for the major
Florida field crops with those of 1948 or 1949 reveal some remarkable
changes during the past decade.
Florida farmers, in 1958, produced 140 percent more corn on 8 percent
fewer acres; picked and threshed more than two-thirds as many pounds
of peanuts on half as many acres; and sold almost as many pounds of flue-
cured tobacco on 32 percent fewer acres than in 1948. Similarly, they har-
vested almost 3 times as much hay on slightly fewer acres. The acreage of
oats harvested for grain in 1958 was approximately 6 1/3 times that of
1949, but total production was almost 8/2 times that of 1949. Similarly,
the acreage of soybeans harvested for beans in 1958 was 7 2/3 times
that of 1949, but total production was almost 10 times that of 1949.
Yields per acre in 1958, expressed as percentages of those of 1948 or
1949, were as follows: corn, 260; oats, 169; hay, 291; cotton, 177; peanuts,
142; flue-cured tobacco, 148; and soybeans, 125. Except for cotton, yields
per acre equaled or exceeded previous records.








Annual Report, 1958


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

J. E. Pace, Animal Husbandman
R. L. Reddish, Associate Animal Husbandman
K. L. Durrance, Assistant Animal Husbandman

Beef Cattle.-Emphasis was placed on the production testing program
initiated in 1957. Twenty-one herds were enrolled in this program and
weaning information was compiled on a total of 2,600 calves. Both pure-
bred and commercial producers cooperated.
Assistance was rendered 2 feeder cattle sales. Cattlemen were con-
stantly advised to produce animals that could be marketed as either
feeder or slaughter cattle. Assistance was given the Marion County Cattle-
men's Association in sponsoring the second graded bull sale ever held in the
state.
In cooperation with Dr. A. C. Warnick, Agricultural Experiment Station,
a series of pregnancy testing demonstrations was held in several South
Florida counties. At these demonstrations the importance of testing bulls
for fertility was also shown.
The fifth cattlemen's institute was held at Lake Placid during August.
Approximately 180 people attended. Also, cattlemen's schools were held
in Manatee, Lake and Madison counties. They were attended by 90, 40
and 85 cattlemen, respectively.
In cooperation with the Experiment Stations at Belle Glade, Ona and
Gainesville, 3 training meetings were held for county agents. Experiment
Station personnel outlined research work with beef cattle production and
gave results of experiments to date.
Throughout the year a principal activity of the Extension Animal Hus-
bandman was keeping county agents abreast of new and applicable infor-
mation.
Swine.-Under guidance of the Assistant Animal Husbandman, county
agents and farmers were kept informed of new developments that would
assist in marketing a larger number of swine from the breeding animals
kept. Through county agents, farmers were also kept abreast of the latest
developments that would assist them in improving feed efficiency and rate
of gain of their market swine.
A number of demonstrations was conducted illustrating the probing
method of determining the backfat thickness of prospective herd replace-
ments, especially boars. In addition, farmers were advised of the importance
of selecting both sow and boar replacements from large litters.
The importance of preventing anemia in young pigs while confined to
farrowing houses received considerable attention. The use of new products,
especially injectables, in preventing anemia was demonstrated on a number
of occasions.
Several demonstrations illustrated the importance of soybean meal as
a protein supplement in swine rations. The Assistant Animal Husbandman
also worked closely with county agents in assisting farmers in compound-
ing complete mixed rations rather than practicing the "hogging-off" of
crops as in past years.
With the Extension Agricultural Engineer, plans for equipment de-
signed for Florida use were made available to county agents and farmers.
In early September the third swine producers' short course was held
at the University. It was attended by more than 200 people. One swine
producers' school was held in Suwannee County.
Meats and Marketing.-Eight meats schools and 5 meat demonstra-








Florida Cooperative Extension


tions were held in counties. Attendance ranged from 50 to 75 people. Also,
in cooperation with the National Livestock and Meat Board, 5 meat infor-
mation schools were held on an area basis. These were held in West Palm
Beach, Tampa, Ocala, Jacksonville, and Crestview. Local arrangements
were handled by county and home demonstration agents.
Considerable time was spent in assisting small packers and meat pro-
cessors in improving their products. Owners of freezer locker plants were
constantly advised as to how to render a more efficient service.
A number of on-foot cattle and swine grading demonstrations was held.
Through county agents, cattlemen and farmers were advised of the most
profitable channels through which to market the various classes of cattle
and swine.
A number of exhibits was secured from the National Livestock and
Meat Board for use at fairs and shows. The editorial office of the Exten-
sion Service assisted in distributing these exhibits.
Assistance was rendered the Florida State Fair and the North Florida
Fair in promoting pork carcass contests. Also, assistance was rendered
in holding a beef carcass contest at the State Fair.
4-H Club Activities.-Throughout the year the beef breeding project
received considerable attention. Two area shows were held, at Kissimmee
and Tampa.
Four major steer shows were held, at Tampa, Ocala, Madison and
Quincy.
The 4-H swine show was held at Tallahassee during the last week of
October. Approximately 150 animals were exhibited by 4-H Club members.
As in previous years, livestock judging schools were held throughout the
state. The State 4-H Livestock Judging Contest was held in Tampa.
The state champion 4-H livestock judging team participated in the na-
tional contest in Chicago during late November. The Florida team finished
sixteenth among 29 teams competing. The Tampa Morning Tribune spon-
sored the team's trip to Chicago.
A hog and ham program for 4-H members was initiated on an area
basis. After the projects were completed the hogs were slaughtered and
the hams cured and smoked by the 4-H Club members. The hams were
exhibited in conjunction with an area youth show and were sold at auction.
A meats judging and identification contest was held in conjunction
with the Southeastern Fat Stock Show. In addition, three meats judging
and identification schools were held for 4-H Club members.
Assistance was rendered negro county agents in conducting several
4-H Club events.
Animal husbandry activities as reported by county Extension agents:

Sheep,
Beef goats and Swine Other
Cattle products Livestock
Number of voluntary local I
leaders assisting 692 54 572 157
Total number of personal
contacts made individually
or through meetings 92,053 811 31,087 6,429
Estimated number of farm-
ers and others assisted to
adopt recommended
practices 23,465 332 14,988 2,589
Estimated number of
farmers and others assist-
ed with production and
management 18,300 255 13,266 1,747








Annual Report, 1958


BEE CULTURE

John D. Haynie, Extension Apiculturist

National and State Honey Shows.-National and state honey shows
were staged as part of the Florida State Fair at Tampa in February, the
national during the first week and the state show during the second
week. Both were sponsored by the Florida State Beekeepers' Association,
with assistance from the Extension Apiculturist.
Sixty exhibitors made 120 entries in the national show. Eleven exhibits
consisting of 23 lots of foods cooked with honey were from Florida and
received 2 blue ribbons. Of 26 exhibitors and 53 entries in the honey and
wax exhibits, Florida had 15 exhibitors and 30 entries.
Five beekeepers had honey and wax exhibits in the state show. Many
others had lots of 1 dozen jars.
A quiz panel on bees and beekeeping equipment was shown at the State
Fair, the Citrus Exposition, the Central Florida Fair, and the Putnam
County Fair. The Extension Apiculturist staged or assisted with beekeeping
exhibits at 8 fairs.

Fig. 3.-The Extension Apiculturist (holding Geiger counter) demonstrates
to 4-H Club boys how to locate a radioactive queen bee.

V'W :k ar I









30 Florida Cooperative Extension

Second Annual Beekeepers Institute.-The Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice sponsored the second Annual Beekeepers Institute at Camp McQuarrie.
A program was planned and initiated in beekeeping to assist the beginner,
the hobbyist, the amateur and the commercial beekeeper. The use of honey
was stressed and prizes were awarded for the best foods made with honey.
4-H Club Camp Apiaries.-Fumigating rooms for the storage of empty
honey combs were built at Camps McQuarrie, Timpoochee and Cloverleaf.
Training meetings were held at these camp apiaries and 4-H Club members
camping were given instructions in beekeeping.
The 3 camp apiaries produced 1,998 pounds of honey, which was practi-
cally all consumed at the 5 4-H Club camps.
Field Service.-The Extension Apiculturist answered 546 letters furnish-
ing personal service in beekeeping. Eleven newsletters, the Hum of the
Hive, were mailed to 600 beekeepers.
Two hundred ninety-six 4-H Club members from 55 counties were en-
rolled in beekeeping projects; 185 members in 52 counties completed pro-
jects involving 782 colonies.
Beekeepers and other individuals, totaling 2,823, were assisted in the
care of bees, honey and honey products.







Annual Report, 1958


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

W. W. Brown, State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
B. J. Allen, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent

Participation has been the 4-H success story of 1958. Combined enroll-
ment of 4-H boys and girls exceeded 41,000 to establish a new record in
Florida. Extension workers have involved larger numbers of 4-H members
in club meetings, community activities, productive projects and method
and result demonstrations. Special 4-H events, such as short courses, sum-
mer camps, rally and achievement days, and shows and fairs, were more
numerously shared in by 4-H members state-wide. Merited recognition in
county, state and national awards programs challenged thousands of de-
serving 4-H boys "To Make the Best Better."
Organization.-Planning and carrying out 4-H Club work through the
10 4-H districts has facilitated the administrative, specialist, and county
staffs' programming to satisfy varying agricultural needs and interests.
It has also stimulated individual and team participation in special 4-H
events held on a district basis.
A gratifying uptrend in 4-H council work was achieved at county,
district and state levels. Meaningful leadership opportunities were accepted
and discharged by thousands of 4-H members, who learned first-hand the
principles of democracy. Officers of the State Boys' 4-H Council attended
a week-long planning meeting to chart courses of action and make more
effective their work.

Fig. 4.-Officers of the State Council of Boys' 4-H Club Work pose
with the director of Extension (left) and the dean of the College of
Agriculture following one of their sessions.








Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H Camps.-A total of 4,896 4-H members enjoyed a full week of in-
struction and recreation at state 4-H camps in Okaloosa, Madison, Marion,
Lake and Highlands counties. In addition, 2,059 adults and junior 4-H
leaders attended special subject-matter institutes at these 5 camps during
the period May 26-August 23. The standard staff for each camp included
a manager, lifeguard, recreation leader, kitchen personnel and a full-time
caretaker. Legislative appropriations made possible the continued im-
provement of building and recreational facilities.
Short Course.-"The University and You" was the theme of the 39th
Annual Boys' 4-H Short Course attended by 368 boys from 59 counties
June 9-13. Traditionally held on the University of Florida campus, short
courses have helped countless numbers of 4-H boys to become acquainted
with and later enter the University. Attendance at Annual Short Course is
a scholarship honor received only by those 4-H boys having outstanding
achievement records.
While on the campus, these young men had full use of University
facilities and were taught by college and Extension staff members. Agri-
cultural instruction was supplemented by appropriate campus tours and
recreational activities. Highest leadership opportunity for 2 delegates
from each county was provided by the annual state 4-H council meetings
held in conjunction with short course. Also, the state 4-H finals in public
speaking, lamp making, dairy judging, and tractor operation were held.
State-Wide Schools.-Forty-four counties were represented by 350
agents, adult and junior 4-H leaders at 3 leadership training camps at
Timpoochee and McQuarrie. These encampments provided opportunities
for fun and fellowship and improvement of local club and camp programs
through special training in leadership and recreation.
The Twenty-Third Annual 4-H Wildlife Camp was held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie, July 28-August 2, 1958. Eighteen counties were represented by
90 4-H Club members, adult 4-H Club leaders and Extension agents. In-
struction and practical experience were given in the fields of game, for-
estry and fresh water fish management. A special course in gun safety
was featured.
Continued support was given to 5 area judging schools which supple-
ment the state 4-H livestock program. In addition to qualifying county
teams for the state livestock judging contest, these schools provide timely
instruction on basic and current livestock judging techniques for agents
and 4-H members. Trained teams from 39 counties competed on an indi-
vidual and team basis in the state contest at the Florida State Fair.
The Thirteenth Annual 4-H Tractor Clinic was held in the Agricultural
Engineering Building, University of Florida, August 11-14, 1958. The pur-
pose was to provide adequate training in tractor care for older 4-H Club
members, interested adult leaders and Extension agents. This clinic pro-
vided instruction in how to conduct 4-H tractor programs in local 4-H
Clubs. This year 65 junior and adult leaders and Extension agents repre-
senting 13 counties attended this state clinic.
4-H Awards Programs.-Meritorious records were submitted by more
than 230 individual 4-H boys competing for state awards. Hundreds of
deserving 4-H members received district and county awards in forty dif-
ferent state and national awards programs. These awards ranged from
county medals, gift awards, trophies, etc., to college scholarships and trips
to National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago, Danforth Leadership Camp in
Michigan and National 4-H Conference in Washington, D. C. This year,
Florida had 2 national winners; each received a $400.00 college scholarship
and a trip to National 4-H Club Congress for his outstanding leadership
and project achievements in dairying and entomology.








Annual Report, 1958 33



CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE

Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist
Jack T. McCown, Assistant Citriculturist
Wm. H. Mathews, Assistant Horticulturist

Weather was the major factor in Florida agriculture during the year.
The disastrous effect of many hours below freezing was evident through-
out fruit-producing areas. The average temperature for December 1957
and January and February 1958 was the coldest ever recorded in Florida
for any three consecutive months. In spite of the extreme weather, the
citrus industry did not suffer as drastically as original estimates indicated.
During April, following the freezes, the USDA Marketing Service sur-
veyed more than a half million trees fronting on some 1,500 miles of
roads throughout the major citrus-producing areas to obtain an estimate of
the actual tree damage. Extensive damage, requiring heavy pruning, was
recorded for 16% of oranges, 12% each of grapefruit and tangerines.
Slightly over 2 percent of bearing orange, grapefruit and tangerine trees
were classified as showing no life. Practically all young non-bearing trees
were frozen into the bank.
The final market report reflected a sale of 115.9 million boxes of citrus
for an f.o.b. price of slightly over $267 million dollars-compared with 132
million boxes in 1956-57 which sold for $221 million dollars.
As a result of the bad weather, the Extension Service was called on to
put into operation emergency measures that would acquaint fruit growers
with conditions as well as the necessary cultural practices of pruning,
spraying and fertilizing their damaged groves.
Grower Recommendations.-During late December 1957, following the
first severe freeze, the Extension Service published Circular 174, Treat-
ment of Cold-Injured Citrus Trees. Some 5,000 of these circulars were
made available to growers and a number of radio, TV, newspaper and
magazine articles were released to further assist growers.
Pruning Demonstrations.-Because of the recent introduction of many
new type power tools that had not yet been seen and accepted by most
growers, the Extension Service held 9 pruning demonstrations throughout
the state to enable growers to view these many new tools and select the
ones that best suited their jobs. More than 1,500 growers attended these
demonstrations, where they not only viewed these tools in operation but
also received an actual demonstration by Extension personnel on the
correct method of pruning cold-damaged trees.

Fig. 5.-Many young groves were severely damaged by the extensive and
severe cold of 1957-58.








34 Florida Cooperative Extension

Regular Duties.-In addition to this emergency work, we were able to
carry our regular program of citrus and subtropical institutes, schools,
agent training, demonstrations, tours, program projection and youth
work.
Institutes.-Five institutes varying in length from one day to one week
were attended by an estimated 2,000 growers. During these institutes
growers are given the latest research in fruit production for their area of
the state.
Our regular Junior Citrus Institute for outstanding 4-H Club boys
was held again this year at Camp Cloverleaf. Sixty-four boys spent 5
days in camp "learning by doing" the work on our 4-acre grove at the
camp. This institute is filling a big need in our state. Boys who graduate
from these camps will be qualified for junior production managers or
should they decide to go to college will have an excellent foundation on
which to build.
Schools.-Five citrus schools (short courses) varying in length from
5 to 15 weeks were held and attended by 738 growers. These schools at-
tempt to teach growers the fundamentals underlying current research
recommendations.
Annual Summary of County Agent Activities.-According to this sta-
tistical report, a total of 144,136 individual contacts were made and 98,337
different people were aided in adopting recommended practices.







Annual Report, 1958


DAIRYING

C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairyman
T. W. Sparks, Assistant Extension Dairyman
H. B. Young, Assistant Extension Dairyman (in
Dairy Manufacturing)

The year saw marked improvement in several phases of the state's
dairy enterprise, as well as some problems. Better dairy herd practices
over a period of years have shown material results in the state's dairy
enterprise. In 1947 average milk production per cow in Florida was 3,830
pounds. In 1957 it was 5,370 pounds. This 40 percent increase was the
largest of any state, indicating improved dairy methods, better cows and
more efficient management.
Dairy Herd Improvement Program.-The dairy herd improvement
project increased in scope 15 percent each year the last 2 years. In No-
vember there were 20,635 cows enrolled in the dairy herd improvement
association (DHIA) program. The DHIA herds, in 32 counties, utilized
improved practices applicable to their respective situations.
This Extension project helped establish the break-even point for culling
cows and served as demonstrations to other herds on better feeding, cull-
ing, breeding for better herd replacements, and proving of dairy sires. It
provided teaching material for work with other dairymen. The 15 DHIA
supervisors, paid by the member-dairymen, keep the production, income,
and feed cost records and assist the dairymen in interpreting and using
them.
A remarkable example of improvement is shown by the Orange County
DHIA records. The association has operated 9 years and its average pro-
duction per cow has increased from 6,414 pounds milk (4.4% test) in
1949-50 to 7,918 pounds milk (4.5% test) for the 2,737 cows in its 16 herds
in the 1957-58 year. The value of product above feed cost has increased
$120.00 per cow.
The production record program of the state and nation serves to locate
the superior germ plasm among dairy herds by proving of bulls and cow
families. Sixty bulls were proved by Florida DHIA records.
Other Record Keeping Programs.-Initial efforts have been made in
developing additional systems of record keeping for herds not ready for
DHIA. Small numbers of herds were enrolled in Owner-Sampler and
Weigh-A-Day-A-Month milk recording in which the owner does the weigh-
ing and sample taking, with the record work done by a DHIA supervisor
or other person. These programs offer a method for record service at a
lower cost to dairymen than DHIA in that the owner does more of the
work and the records are 'not official.
Supervision of Advanced Registry and Herd Improvement Registry
Testing Programs.-The Extension Dairyman was superintendent of of-
ficial cow testing in the cooperative program with the national dairy
cattle breed associations. Most herds have changed from Advanced Regis-
try to Herd Improvement Registry testing. In November 1958 only 3
herds (38 cows) were on Advanced Registry test, while 25 herds with
3,071 cows were on Herd Improvement Registry test. All but 3 of these
herds were also enrolled in the DHIA program. A total of 6,749 registered
cows were on DHIA test in November, or 33 percent of the 20,635 cows on
DHIA test.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Artificial Breeding.-The artificial breeding program disseminates the
superior breeding of the better proved bulls found by the production record
programs to the rank and file of dairy herds. Approximately 70,000 cows
were artificially bred in the year ending November 30, 1958, with semen
shipped from large regional bull studs. Frozen semen has been used
almost exclusively during the year, thus giving dairymen and purebred
cattle breeders much more selection of the bulls in the bull studs.
Conception rates exceeded those of previous years when fresh liquid
semen was used.
This project, developed by the Extension Service, is now a commercial
project reaching almost one-third of Florida's dairy cow population and
is contributing greatly to Florida's improved dairy industry. Much prog-
ress remains to be made in further improvement of breeding, feeding and
management.
Management and Feeding.-Assistance was given by personal contact,
replies to letters, dairy schools and through the DHIA program in the
adoption of improved practices in the feeding and management of dairy
herds.
Dairy schools were held in 3 counties, meeting 1 night each week for
5 weeks. Attendance at these schools averaged 57 per class meeting. As-
sistance was given in conducting the University Dairy Herdsmen's Short
Course and the Dairy Field Day.
Ration calculations were made for many dairymen by correspondence
and by personal visits. Subject matter articles were prepared for maga-
zines, newspapers, radio and television. A 15-minute television film on
Breeds of Dairy Cattle was made on Florida dairy farms. Mimeographed
material was prepared on various phases of dairying. DHIA supervisors
gave first hand feeding assistance to dairymen cooperating in the DHIA
program. Assistance was given in other cases in planning changes in herd
management methods, pasture utilization, etc.
County agents' reports showed 5,862 farmers and 4-H members assisted
in feeding and management problems.

Fig. 6.-This pre-cast concrete slab bunker silo, being filled, helps a Winter
Haven dairy provide economical feed.








Annual Report, 1958


The Better Dairy Pasture Contest was carried out for the fifth year
with participation in 11 counties. The Efficient Dairy Production Contest
selected county, district, and state winners, on the basis of home-grown
pasture and forage, feeding practices, level and cost of production, in-
crease over previous year, herd health, and breeding for better herd
replacements.
Cooperation was given the state and federal disease control programs
in an educational way, including brucellosis, screwworm, and mastitis
control. County agents' reports showed a total of 4,416 farmers and 4-H
members assisted in disease and parasite control.
Florida Ranks Well in 4-H National Dairy Competitions.-The 4-H dairy
program gave training to 1,647 members, of whom 77 percent completed
projects involving 1,992 dairy animals. Four state-wide production con-
tests, 8 district 4-H shows, and a State 4-H Dairy Show were held. Florida
again had a national 4-H dairy achievement winner in 1958, as in 1957.
Also, 4 Florida 4-H cows entered in the national Jersey production con-
test placed in the top 12 in either milk or butterfat divisions, 1 placed
fourth in the milk division. The 4-H dairy project provides excellent youth
training and also develops animals as a source of needed family milk
supply or to sell to dairymen.
The Assistant Extension Dairyman trained the state 4-H judging team.
It placed sixth in the National 4-H Dairy Cattle Judging Contest with
the highest total reasons grade for its 4 contestants of any state. Nine-
teen of 26 Florida 4-H animals exhibited at the Mid-South National Junior
Dairy Show placed in the Blue Ribbon group.
Dairy Manufacturing.-Assistance was given by the Assistant Exten-
sion Dairyman in dairy manufacturing to 12 dairy processing plants ex-
periencing difficulties in operational or processing procedures and to 15
plants in teaching plant operators and quality control personnel the tech-
niques and quality tests to use for carrying out a good quality control pro-
gram. Asssitance rendered included the ADV test to help detect and
control the rancid flavor defect of milk, which has increased with the
advent of pipeline milkers and bulk milk tanks. Assistance has been
given in locating and correcting it both in milk plants and on dairy farms
experiencing the difficulty. Work was done with 13 plants on improving
sanitation. Sources of some serious problems were found and corrected.
Seventeen plants were assisted on milk flavor problems.
The dairy manufacturing specialist cooperated with state and local
health departments and other organizations in such projects as training
sessions for bulk milk haulers, various dairy short courses, and meetings.
He prepared a circular, Making Cottage Cheese in the Home, which was
printed.
Cooperation with Breed Associations and Other Organizations.-Co-
operative work for the improvement of Florida dairy cattle and of the
dairy business was done with state and national breed associations, the
State Purebred Dairy Cattle Association, State Department of Agriculture
Milk and Cream Division, State Health Department, state and national
livestock sanitary officials and with various state and local agencies and
organizations.








Florida Cooperative Extension


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
W. G. Mitchell, Assistant Editor
M. H. Sharpe, Assistant Editor
J. W. McAllister, Assistant Editor

Communications training of all Extension Service workers, state and
county, received added emphasis during 1958. The team which received
training in oral communications at Cornell University in the summer of
1957 presented-with the help of others-this training to state staff
members and later to all county and home demonstration agents, white
and negro.
Publications work continued to expand and news, radio and television
activities did not slacken.

NEWS AND FARM JOURNAL STORIES

Mimeographed 8-page weekly releases were continued to weekly news-
papers, farm papers, radio stations, agricultural workers and a few
dailies. As in the past, the service carried stories concerning the work
of the Agricultural Experiment Station and some USDA agencies, in ad-
dition to information from the Agricultural Extension Service.
Numerous special releases were mailed to daily newspapers and others
were released to them over Associated Press and United Press International
wire services.
From 2 to 3 "skeleton" stories were sent weekly to county agents, as
in past years, for filling in and handing to their newspapers.
Farm papers continued to make generous use of material from the
Florida Extension Service Editors. Two Florida journals printed 20 stories,
1 Southern journal printed three, and 4 national farm magazines pub-
lished four.
County and home demonstration agents in 66 counties reported pre-
paring 14,187 news stories for their local papers.

PRINTED MATERIALS

During fiscal 1957-58 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service printed
the largest number and largest quantity of new circulars in its history.
Demands for printed materials continue to grow, and funds for printing
are put to their best possible uses in an effort to supply these demands.
The small circulars continued to prove popular and easily mailed, and 6
new ones were printed in this size.
Three new bulletins, totaling 116 pages, were printed in an 80,000
quantity and 3 old ones, totaling 196 pages, were reprinted, also in a
total quantity of 80,000. Nineteen new circulars, 156 pages and 321,500
copies, were issued and 5, 34 pages and 74,000 copies, were reprinted.
Many of the reprints had been revised slightly to bring them up to date.
New publications are distributed to libraries, county and home demon-
stration agents and other workers as soon as received from the printer.
Subsequently they are distributed on request.
The publications committee continued to check manuscripts and make
suggestions regarding needed bulletins and circulars.
Miscellaneous materials printed included 4-H Club record books of
various kinds, judging cards, short course and institute programs, letter-







Annual Report, 1958


heads, certificates, franked cards, report blanks, window cards, franked
envelopes, mailing slips, and a final report of the Florida National Egg-
Laying Test.
County and home demonstration agents in 66 counties reported distrib-
uting 682,970 state and federal bulletins and other publications.
The Editor continued as distribution control officer for USDA publica-
tions distributed to Florida Extension workers.

TELEVISION MATERIALS

University of Florida television station WUFT went on the air with
complete programs November 17, 1958, and the Extension Service-Experi-
ment Station editorial office assumed responsibility for 1 30-minute pro-
gram each week. Our first was staged November 19. Each program consists
of a live demonstration, a filmed feature, weather summary and news.
Ten Extension workers have appeared in the 7 shows of 1958.
The television specialist continued making one motion picture film a
week, and approximately half of these featured Extension Service workers.
They were used regularly by four TV stations and intermittently by four
others. His records reveal that he made 19 Extension films and 4 joint with
the Experiment Station. He put sound tracks on 2 silent films made 2 years
ago and made 1 short "spot" announcement film featuring 4-H club work.
National recognition came to the Assistant Editor making films for
television (W. G. Mitchell) this year. He won a $500 educational award
given by the Farm Film Foundation as national prize for excellence in
film production on a limited budget.
County and home demonstration agents in 31 counties reported par-
ticipating in 914 televised programs.

RADIO BROADCASTING

The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, University station, began its 31st
year on the air November 11. In the 310 programs during 1958, Extension
workers other than editors appeared 221 times. The farm question box
was aired every Tuesday except one, home economics notes every Wednes-
day, weekly editorial every Saturday, and farm news highlights 304 days.
Two remote broadcasts were staged, 1 from Lake County Fair at
Eustis and the other from the annual Agricultural College Fair and Chick
and Egg Show on campus. A number of special features and interviews
were recorded during visits to various places in the state, such as the
official opening of the federal-state screwworm eradication program at
Sebring.
County workers in Alachua were featured each Saturday. Consumer
information received more emphasis during the year, particularly in the
field of meat buying.
A tape service of recorded farm features was sent to 4 participating
stations outside of Gainesville, and included 152 talks by Extension work-
ers. A number of spot announcements conveying Extension information
were taped and distributed.
Farm Flashes, containing 5 minutes of radio copy, were sent for 5
days each week to 52 Florida stations. The Florida Farm Review, a 5-
minute weekly summary of agricultural news and information, was sent
to AP and UPI wire services to be distributed on teletype to practically
all Florida radio and television stations.
Use of taped information from USDA (Agritape) was expanded.
County and home demonstration agents in 45 counties reported making
4,180 radio talks.








40 Florida Cooperative Extension

VISUAL AIDS AND MISCELLANEOUS

Considerable visual material was added during the year. It included
flannel-magnetic boards, additional camera equipment, additions to slide
libraries for the specialists and editorial office, hundreds of black and
white pictures, a series of colored transparencies illustrating the various
features in the Scope Report on Extension Work in the United States,
and numerous others. The half-time staff artist continued to prepare
illustrations for publications and other uses.
One assistant editor from Gainesville conducted classes in news writing
for girls attending the annual 4-H Club short course in Tallahassee 1
week in June.
Cooperation with various state and federal agencies was continued in
both news and radio fields. These included the State Soil Conservation
Board, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Committee, U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, county health department, the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, and others.
The Editor and 1 assistant (Mitchell) are employed half time by the
Agricultural Experiment Stations.







Annual Report, 1958


ENTOMOLOGY

James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist

The Extension entomology program includes cooperative work with
production specialists and research personnel in citrus, vegetables, orna-
mentals, agronomy, livestock, poultry and forestry. Cooperation was
given in eradication programs, including the Mediterranean fruit fly, the
imported fire ant and the screwworm. Other areas of work included 4-H
entomology and household and miscellaneous pests.
The Extension Entomologist cooperated closely with county agricul-
tural agents, growers, research workers, industry representatives, Exten-
sion specialists and other agencies. Results can be observed by noting
the 1958 statistical summary of teaching of insect control in counties
by agents and assisting agents.
The number of people assisted with insect problems as follows: (1)
Fruits and nuts, 33,423; (2) vegetables, 20,458; (3) flowers, ornamentals,
shrubs, 175,112; (4) beef cattle, 10,490; (5) swine, 7,967; (6) poultry and
products, 6,514; (7) dairy animals and products, 4,226; (8) grain crops,
5,988; (9) hay and other forage, pasture, range, 5,739; (10) tobacco, 3,788;
(11) farmers and other individuals assisted with control of general feeder
insects, 34,934; (12) families assisted with control of household insects,
45,827; (13) cotton and other fiber crops, 2,799; and (14) oil and sugar
crops, 2,685.
The above information does not include direct contacts made by the
Extension Entomologist, nor contacts made by organizations and agencies
cooperating with the Agricultural Extension Service.

Fig. 7.-The Extension Entomologist and the 4-H Club entomology
project state and national awards winner check on some of the specimens
contained in the project.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Work with County Agents.-Many insect problems were handled by
correspondence and by telephone, but assistance was given in the county
with certain activities such as schools, tours, and grower meetings in
citrus and vegetables, schools and other meetings in ornamentals and
livestock. Several trips were made to counties to help agents solve on-the-
spot problems.
The Entomologist discussed insects and the latest control recommenda-
tions at 2 county agents' training meetings in field crops and 1 in citrus,
in cooperation with other Extension Specialists.
Work with Industry Groups.-In addition to work with county agents,
the Extension Entomologist sends copies of Plant Protection Pointer re-
leases, revised recommendations and other pertinent information to indus-
try groups in the pesticide field. These materials are widely distributed
through the cooperation of the Florida Agricultural Research Institute.
The Entomologist made talks at Florida Seedsmen's and Garden Supply
Dealers Short Course, Annual Turf Conference, South Florida Pastorama,
Horticultural Spraymen's Association of Florida, South Florida Garden
Supply Dealers' Association, West Florida Seed and Garden Supply Dealers'
Association and at 2 commercial gardeners' schools.
Training Meetings and Schools.-Assistance was given other Extension
Specialists, county agents and other organizations and agencies in the
following: (a) 11 ornamental schools, (b) 10 citrus schools, clinics, insti-
tutes, tours, (c) 9 meetings of commercial spraymen, dealers, gardeners,
nurserymen, etc., (d) 4 livestock meetings, including the Annual Cattle-
men's Institute.
4-H Entomology.-The number of completed projects has increased
from 43 in 14 counties in 1953 to 575 in 46 counties in 1958. W. J. Platt, III,
Alachua County, won first place in the state and later became the first
national entomology winner from Florida. The national award is a $400.00
college scholarship.
Publications.-Assistance was given in the revision of the Citrus Better
Fruits Program Spray and Dust Schedule, Control of Pests of Field To-
bacco, Lawn Pest Control Guide, Guide for Control of Pests of Ornamen-
tals, and insect control recommendations for vegetables, livestock, etc.
Ten articles were published in The Florida Grower and Rancher, The Citrus
Industry, Florida Cattleman and Livestock Journal and Tropical Living
Homemaker and Gardener. Eighteen Plant Protection Pointer releases
were prepared and distributed and 12 Entomologists' Newsletters were
assembled and sent to entomologists of the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, College Entomology Department and State Plant Board.
Cooperation with Research Personnel and Other Agencies.-Consider-
able time was spent at the Main Agricultural Experiment Station and 32
visits were made to branch experiment stations to discuss and review
research and revise insect control recommendations. Several Plant Protec-
tion Pointers, circulars and magazine articles were prepared in cooperation
with Experiment Station entomologists.
The Extension Entomologist and other Extension specialists served as
an educational arm to complement the work of the Florida Livestock
Board and USDA in the Screwworm Eradication Program, also of the
USDA and State Plant Board in the imported fire ant and Mediterranean
fruit fly eradication programs.








Annual Report, 1958


FARM AND HOME DEVELOPMENT

Susan R. Christian, Farm and Home Development Specialist
Clifford Alston, Farm and Home Development Specialist

Farm and Home Development goals for 1958 were:
1. Help farm families achieve self-determined goals through learning
how to identify and solve problems, how to use resources wisely, and how
to apply sound business methods to operation of the farm and home.
2. Strengthen the total Agricultural Extension Service effort so that
more people are able to close the gap between their actual and proven
attainable levels of living.
Reports of county personnel indicate the farm and home development
method was employed with a total of 541 families during the year. This
represents an increase of 82 families over 1957.
The farm families involved included 116 with which the Extension
Service had little or no contact in the past. Families assisted just getting
started in farming numbered 86. Of the total, agents classified 126 as low-
income and 151 as part-time farmers.
Individual contacts only were used in helping 301 families develop their
original plan and assisting 308 families in putting their plans into action.
Group contacts only were used with 29 and 22 families, respectively, in
developing plans and putting plans into action.
Training of county personnel centered around personal contacts by the
project leaders. This type of training was carried out in 15 counties, and
37 conferences were held with the administrative, supervisory, and special-
ist staff relating to training in farm and home development.
Teaching material was prepared on attaining family goals, factors
affecting profits in farming, analysis of resource use, and exploring alter-
natives in using resources.
A business analysis approach with farm families was inaugurated for
the first time in 3 counties. This work entails a complete analysis of the
farm business, comparison with other similar farm businesses, locating
the weak and strong points, and exploring alternative courses of action
to strengthen weak points.
Group meetings were used in 3 counties in addition to personal contacts
with farm families. The use of outlook material, family planning, use of
farm and home records, and factors to be considered in attaining goals
were stressed.
Two 15-minute TV programs and 2 15-minute radio programs were
made dealing with farm and home development.
A farm and home development subcommittee on training developed
plans for training personnel in use of the method.
The research and teaching staff of the Agricultural Economics De-
partment reviewed information pertaining to management which was
prepared for county agents. They also reviewed and helped revise the
farm and home development worksheet and farm business analysis guide.
The staff gave a critical analysis of the suggested business analysis for
Manatee, Santa Rosa, and Okaloosa counties. Numerous conferences were
held with this department relative to needed research on input-output
information, problem recognition, and problem solving. Specialists in the
fields of farm management, agronomy, animal husbandry, dairying, and
poultry also cooperated in preparation of business analysis material.
E. P. Callahan, James E. Crosby, Jr., and Dr. Starley M. Hunter, Fed-
eral Extension Service, assisted in an evaluation of Farm and Home De-
velopment work.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM AND HOME SAFETY

Frances C. Cannon, Extension Safety Leader
A. M. Pettis, Extension Safety Leader

The Assistant Health Education Specialist and the Associate Agricul-
tural Engineer served as Extension Safety Leaders. They worked with
county Extension personnel and coordinated efforts in promoting safety
on the farm and in the home.
This year for the first time, at the suggestion of the Safety Leader, the
Governor of Florida issued a proclamation declaring National Farm Safety
Week as an official observance in Florida. Other national observances par-
ticipated in by Extension workers were Spring Clean-Up Week and Fire-
Prevention Week.
Extension Safety Leaders received in-service safety training at the
Farm Safety Institute and at the President's Highway Safety Conference.
Highway safety was taught and publicized at the meeting of the State
Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work. County home demonstration
agents held 17 leader training meetings on safety and these leaders in
turn held 351 meetings.
A 12-minute motion picture concerning falls was prepared for use on
TV stations, and the State Safety Leaders gave 2 live TV programs on
safety.
Ten thousand red hazard tags were sponsored by a feed manufacturing
company for use by 4-H members. This year's state 4-H winner, Mary
Ann Harrington, Lake County, was also a national winner. Thirty-four
county medals were awarded in the boys' phase of the program and there
were 1,582 girls enrolled in safety projects, with 1,007 completions.
During the summer camping programs, approximately 5,000 4-H mem-
bers were taught water safety and highway safety. At the annual wildlife
camp, 90 4-H boys, agents and leaders from 16 counties received safety
training concerning firearms, water, and woods. County Extension workers
reported that 19,459 4-H members in 62 counties received training in
safety during 1958.
County Extension workers devoted 848 days to safety, and 21,718
people in 54 counties were assisted with fire prevention practices. Families
adopted safety as follows: Safety practices, 34,648; fire prevention, 5,605;
accident prevention around home, 20,700; and accident prevention away
from home, 21,080.







Annual Report, 1958 45



FARM FORESTRY

T. G. Herndon, Forester
A. S. Jensen, Asst. Forester

Forestry continued to make progress in Florida's Agricultural Exten-
sion program. This statement is substantiated by the fact that County
Agents devoted 1,347 days to forestry work during 1958. This represents
a 26 percent increase over 1957. Only by such attention on the part of
county workers can the tremendous job in this field be accomplished.
This increased time devoted to forestry on the part of county agents
paid large dividends. The most obvious result was a 100 percent increase
in number of volunteer local leaders assisting agents with their programs.
These local leaders, without whose help little can be accomplished, now
total 422 in 44 counties. Total forestry contacts with individuals, either
singly or in meetings, increased by 8,000, resulting in an increase of 3,940
different individuals adopting recommended forestry practices. Likewise
in other areas of forestry work, agents' efforts showed excellent results.

Fig. 8.-The woodlands division manager of a large kraft paper com-
pany presents a 20-acre 4-H demonstration forest to the president of the
Clay Hill Boys' 4-H Club, as the Clay County agent and assistant agent
stand by.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Only in naval stores production did an appreciable decrease appear. A 1/3
decrease in producers was noted. This cannot be attributed to a lack of
effort, but must be charged to the general decrease in gum farming
activity being experienced throughout the naval stores belt.
One of the most encouraging phases of the farm forestry work during
1958 has been the response of the pulp and paper industry in support of
our 4-H Forestry Program. Four new 4-H demonstration forests totalling
140 acres were obtained from these companies. Each forest, bearing a fine
stand of timber, makes available excellent field laboratories for training
our youth in proper forest management practices. In each case, 25 percent
of the income is ear-marked for property improvement and 75 percent is
available for the youth education program as needed in each county.
In forestry and wildlife projects a notable increase was experienced
also. A total of 1,889 projects were carried during the year, as compared
to 1,575 during 1957. These youngsters planted in excess of a half million
pine seedlings and used almost 31,000 acres of forest land in their projects
during the year.
Assistance was rendered to 3,200 forest landowners in timber stand
improvement and timber harvesting. An additional 5,600 individuals were
assisted with tree planting, fire protection and other forest management
practices.
Mass media were used to an increased extent during 1958. Three 15-
minute forestry and wildlife movies for group instruction and TV showing
were produced with the able direction and production assistance of the
Extension Editorial Department. Radio talks presented over the WRUF
Florida Farm Hour and taped for distribution over the state totaled 24.
News releases on timely timber topics were increased to 265 during 1958,
as compared to a total of 30 during 1957. These resulted in increased
requests for timber production assistance. Our correspondence in this area
showed an increase of about 90 percent during the year.
Fair exhibits were drastically curtailed due to a lack of funds. Only
2 fairs were assisted with exhibits and these only on a very modest scale.
The forest industries continue to be the number 3 income producer
in Florida and the number 1 industrial employer. This excellent record
can be credited in large part to Extension's effort, particularly on the
county level.






Annual Report, 1958


ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE

E. W. McElwee, Ornamental Horticulturist
S. A. Rose, Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
R. W. White, Jr., Assistant Horticulturist

The specialists in ornamental horticulture assisted over 1,500 commer-
cial nurserymen, florists, turf growers, state personnel and other industry
and professional people on ornamental horticultural activities and prob-
lems through 57 group meetings and 192 personal visits. They assisted
62 county and home demonstration agents through training meetings,
workshops and office visits. They furnished training and information to
over 8,100 home owners, gardeners and home demonstration club mem-
bers through 130 meetings of landscape and gardening schools, clinics,
clubs and workshops and 86 home visits. Specialists prepared and pre-
sented or published 33 circulars, news articles, reports, leaflets and pro-
fessional papers, as well as participated in 19 radio and TV programs.
The three specialists in Ornamental Horticulture contacted individually
or through meetings over 10,000 people during 1958 and an additional
157,000 were similarly contacted through county programs in ornamental
horticulture.
Production of Ornamentals.-One- to 3-day short courses have proven
to be an excellent method of presenting the results of research, new tech-
niques, improved cultural practices and other information to the large
number of commercial producers and others interested in ornamental
and floricultural crops in Florida.
Annual short courses for growers, held in Gainesville and in Miami
for the past several years, were conducted again this year. In addition and
at the request of growers, a 1-day foliage growers short course was or-

Fig. 9.-Seminole Indian girls take up ornamental plants for carry home
and transplant from Camp Cloverleaf while attending camp.


a^s4, ,1
^isi

'-'"i *-*f ;' '`


I ~-
e
'r,

C1 ~YL~I-~lly~CI







48 Florida Cooperative Extension

ganized and held in Apopka to present information related specifically
to the production of foliage plants, a $10,000,000 enterprise in Florida.
Other short courses for growers in which specialists participated in-
cluded the Turf Conference and the Chrysanthemum Growers' Short
Course. More than 600 growers and industry personnel were contacted
through participation in these short courses and conferences.
Home Grounds Improvement and Landscaping.-The rapidity of popu-
lation growth in Florida, which is increasing at an annual rate of 200,000
new residents acquired from other states in addition to normal popula-
tion increases, and the sharp upswing in construction of new homes have
brought about a continuing and increasing interest in landscaping and
community improvement and beautification. Although 86 home visits were
made by specialists last year to assist home owners with specific home
grounds problems, it is not possible to honor all requests for personal
visits or for help with individual problems.
Twelve landscape and gardening schools and 70 other short courses,
clinics, club and group meetings were used to bring information to almost
9,000 home owners and gardeners so that they may be better able to work
out their own problems. In addition, radio, TV, publications, films, and
demonstrations have been used to furnish information on home ground
improvement and maintenance.
Four landscape plans were prepared for civic and public buildings in
the state as a result of the interest of several county agents and others
in city beautification.
Production and Management of Turf.-Major problems confronting
growers of over 6,000 acres of St. Augustinegrass are poor chemical
weed control and fertility practices.
The turf specialist, in cooperation with county agents and the soils
specialist, established demonstration plots in south Florida.
Demonstration plots of lawn grasses were established in west Florida
to help home owners in the selection of a lawn grass to fit their specific
requirements and to supply information on the fertilization of lawn grasses
on the heavier soils of west Florida.
Assistance was given in the renovation of 5 high school athletic fields
and the re-sodding of the Gator Bowl in Jacksonville.
Agent Training.-Progress was noted in agent training. For example,
the county personnel in Broward County this year used the information
and instruction gained from agent training sessions, previous schools and
information releases. They organized and conducted their own 8-week
landscape and gardening school with the help of selected local profes-
sional nurserymen, landscape gardeners and amateur gardeners. The
school was well received by the 60 home owners who attended.
Publications.-The demand for information on ornamental plants,
garden flowers, the care and maintenance of ornamental plants, and other
horticultural subjects has increased steadily. A monthly newsletter, "Rx
for Florida Gardens," was started this year and mailed to county workers
and others interested in information on landscaping, lawns, ornamental
plants and gardening. In addition, mimeographs and circulars on specific
subjects were prepared for distribution. A record book for home grounds
improvement and commercial ornamental 4-H Club projects was prepared.








Annual Report, 1958


PLANT PATHOLOGY

R. S. Mullin, Plant Pathologist

The Extension Plant Pathologist began work September 1, 1958, re-
placing Dr. D. M. Coe, who resigned earlier in the year. One of the
major activities of the new Plant Pathologist was becoming familiar
with Florida agriculture, its plant disease problems and control methods.
Plant Disease Identification.-Numerous plant disease identifications
have been made from materials received from county agents and individ-
ual growers, and from specimens referred to the Plant Pathologist by other
specialists. Most of the diseased plants have been ornamentals, with vege-
tables being second in number. Recommendations for treatment and con-
trol of the diseases were made.
Schools and Meetings.-The Plant Pathologist has participated in a
number of schools and meetings for growers of vegetable and ornamental
plants. Attempts were made to acquaint those present with some of the
more common plant diseases with which they were concerned and meth-
ods for their control.
Cooperation with Other Specialists.-The Plant Pathologist is serving
on the Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, and the Advisory Committee
of the Florida Vegetative Turfgrass Registration and Certification Pro-
gram. Several field trips with other specialists were made. On these trips,
with the county agents involved, plant disease conditions were examined
and methods for their control considered.
Other Activities.-On field trips a number of individual farms were
visited and plant disease problems of the particular grower discussed.
Several of the branch stations and laboratories of the Experiment Station
were visited and current research on plant diseases reviewed with the
individuals conducting the experiments.
Many people were assisted in adopting recommended practices in plant
disease control by Extension Service personnel. A total of over 166,000
were helped in one way or another, the great majority of these (over
113,000) being interested in ornamental plants. Fruits and nuts were
the next most popular group (over 24,000 individuals assisted) and vege-
tables, including potatoes, (over 16,000) were third. Cotton and other fiber
crops were the group in which fewest inquiries were received, just over
1,700.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
L. W. Kalch, Assistant in Poultry Husbandry
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
G. E. Williams, Assistant Supervisor, Fla. National Egg-Laying Test,
Chipley

GROWING PULLETS AND LAYING HENS

The commercial market egg and hatching egg producers spend 5 to 6
months in growing pullets from which they expect to make a profit from
eggs during the following 12 to 15 months. Factors stressed in growing
pullets include quality chicks, proper brooding management, feeding a
well-balanced ration, rearing pullets in a clean environment, and vacci-
nating to protect the pullets from fowl pox, Newcastle disease and in-
fectious bronchitis.
Florida flocks contained over 3 million laying hens producing an aver-
age of 208 eggs per bird per year.
Efficiency in production and marketing has been stressed, including
use of better birds, proper use of feed, importance of proper management,
and adoption of a lower culling rate. Poultry farms have increased the
size of their operations to better utilize mechanical equipment and to im-
prove labor efficiency.

BABY CHICK PRODUCTION

Forty-six commercial chick hatcheries with a capacity of 4,869,215, par-
ticipated in the National Poultry Improvement Plan, under which 319,409
birds were blood tested. Production of chicks in 1958 equaled that of 1957.
However, the egg-type chicks increased while broiler chicks decreased.
Most Florida hatcherymen have entered into a franchise agreement with
nationally known breeders.

BROILER MANAGEMENT

The number of broilers raised in Florida in 1958 is estimated at
11,298,000, concentrated in two areas-Northeast Florida and in and
around DeFuniak Springs in West Florida. Ninety to 95 percent of the
broilers grown were under some type of contract or working agreement
between feed dealers and/or processing plants and the broiler growers.
Sound broiler management practices stressed included the use of labor-
saving devices, use of the best chicks possible, improved feed efficiency,
reduced mortality and new markets and additional outlets.

TURKEY MANAGEMENT

Two changes in turkey management are: disappearance of small farm
flocks of turkeys and establishment of large commercial operations of
from 1,000 to 3,500 or more; and the increase in turkey hatchery capacity,
with a corresponding increase in number of breeding turkeys kept and
number of poults hatched. In 1958 the number of breeding turkeys tested
was 14,988. Six hatcheries with a total capacity of 195,500 were in opera-
tion.








Annual Report, 1958


Less than 20 growers in 1958 produced the bulk of the turkeys grown.
These growers have their own farm processing plants where they can kill,
process and package an oven-ready bird. Many of these are sold at retail
or direct to the consumer; the balance are sold at wholesale.

MARKETING EGGS AND POULTRY

Eggs.-The marketing of high quality eggs is very important and will
be of more importance as more eggs are produced in the state and mar-
keted in competition with quality shipped eggs.
The production, handling and marketing of quality eggs has been em-
phasized throughout the year. With production in the state on the increase,
more Florida eggs will be marketed through wholesale channels. These
wholesale channels handle eggs the year around at volume capacity. To
capture these Florida wholesale markets, the egg producer must produce
in quantity a quality product on a year-around basis. The operations of
cleaning, cooling, sizing, candling and packaging of eggs are performed
by the producer, egg dealer, trucker or co-operative.


Fig. 10.-Seminole Indian girls and boys start a poultry project, with the
aid of the assistant county agent and an assistant poultryman.

The poultry Extension staff, in cooperation with the State Marketing
Bureau, the Florida Egg Commission and the various county and state
poultry organizations, has stressed the importance of quality birds, proper
feeding, good management and proper care of eggs from nest to con-








Florida Cooperative Extension


summer. This program has brought about the construction of mechanically
cooled egg rooms on poultry farms (350 today), the purchasing of eggs
on a grade back basis and assembling eggs in large quantities to attract
large buyers.
Poultry Products.-The merchandising of poultry meat is now a very
specialized business. Practically all live poultry is sold to commercial
processing plants, where it is dressed and completely eviscerated and then
delivered to wholesalers and finally to retail stores. The retail stores today
can supply the housewife with ready-to-cook poultry, either fresh-dressed
or quick-frozen, in the sizes and weights she desires. In the retail stores,
the poultry is attractively displayed to catch the attention of the con-
sumer.
Broiler barbecues have been used as one means of promoting more
use of broilers. Seven broiler barbecues were held in Martin, Palm Beach,
Lake, Marion, Nassau, Pinellas counties and at the annual Poultry In-
stitute.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK

Poultry projects, among the most popular 4-H projects, provide an
opportunity to stress the importance of the poultry industry and to train
those interested in poultry husbandry. A total of 2,965 boys and girls
from 62 counties were enrolled in 4-H poultry projects.
Club members raised and managed their poultry flocks, kept records
on their operations, and exhibited eggs and birds in county, district, state,
and national contests. Thirty-six 4-H poultry and egg exhibits were judged.
A 4-H poultry project with the Seminole Indians on the Big Cypress
Reservation, deep in the Everglades, was established.
Four-H poultry judging contests were held at Eustis, Jacksonville,
Ocala, Tampa and Tallahassee, with 1,500 birds and 200 dozen eggs on
display. Twenty-four teams participated in the judging contests.
The 4-H Sears, Roebuck Foundation poultry project completed its 14th
year of operation. Twenty-one counties were active in this program during
1958, with a total of 20,500 chicks placed with 210 club members. This
project gives 4-H boys and girls practical experience in brooding, feeding
and managing chicks, in processing and marketing broilers, raising pullets,
managing the laying flock and processing and marketing eggs. A pullet
show was held in each county during the Fall months.
The 26th annual State Boys' and Girls' 4-H Poultry and Egg Show
and Judging Contest was held during the week of February 24-March 1, in
connection with the Central Florida Fair at Orlando. Florida 4-H Club boys
and girls exhibited a total of 1,314 birds (29 cocks, 79 cockerels, 314 hens,
475 pullets and 68 pens of broilers) and 192 dozen eggs. Thirteen teams
competed in the poultry judging contest. The Dade County team placed
first, followed by Orange County and Marion County boys. Jack Womack
of Dade County was awarded the $100.00 Florida Department of Agricul-
ture scholarship to the University of Florida or Florida State University
as the outstanding 4-H poultry club member.
The Dade County 4-H poultry judging team represented Florida in the
Invitational Interstate 4-H Poultry Judging Contest at Chicago on No-
vember 29. The Florida team placed fourth among 15 teams. Jack Womack
was third high individual judge and the team placed first in the produc-
tion and oral reasons classes.
Four-H judging schools were conducted on an area basis in Gainesville,
Jacksonville, Eustis and West Palm Beach for training county judging
teams.







Annual Report, 1958 53

Classes in poultry production for senior 4-H boys were held during the
week at the annual Boys' 4-H Short Course and classes concerning eggs
were conducted for girls at the annual Negro 4-H Short Course at Florida
A & M College in Tallahassee.
Arnold Lasota of Marion County was awarded the 1958 State Poultry
Achievement Award and a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress in
Chicago.
FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING TEST

Florida's National Egg-Laying Test completed its 32nd year of con-
tinuous operation, with 47 entries of 13 pullets each, consisting of 5 breeds
and cross breeds from 17 states.
Average feed consumption per pullet for the year (350 days) was 99.1
pounds. Egg production per pullet was 249.4 eggs weighing 24 ounces to
the dozen. Feed required to produce 1 dozen eggs was 4.7 pounds. A total
of 256.8 eggs were obtained from each 100-pound bag of feed used. The
high pen produced 3,898 eggs valued at 3,896.3 points. The high pullet was
a Single Comb White Leghorn which laid 342 eggs scoring 353 points,
missing only 8 days. Mortality was 5.2 percent.

FLORIDA RANDOM SAMPLE POULTRY TEST

There were 22 Florida entries of chicks in the Sixth Florida Random
Sample Poultry Test which covered the period from March 28, 1957, to
August 9, 1958.
Mortality was relatively low during the 160-day growing period, averag-
ing 2.3 percent. Feed consumption per pullet averaged 20.3 pounds.
The laying period covered 340 days. Egg production per pullet housed
was 226.8 eggs. Feed consumed per pullet for the year was 94.3 pounds.
Feed efficiency or feed required to produce one dozen eggs was 4.7 pounds.
A total of 253.2 eggs was obtained from 100 pounds of feed. It is of in-
terest to note that the range was from 217.7 to 296.0 eggs for each 100-
pound bag of feed. Mortality during the laying year was 10.65 percent,
ranging from none to a high of 26.7 percent.
The Seventh Florida Random Sample Test was started March 28, 1958,
with 24 entries of chicks. Data obtained for the 160-day growing period
include: mortality 3.2 percent and feed consumption per pullet housed from
19 to a high of 26 pounds. These pullets are now in laying houses, where
they will remain until the end of the test period or for a 340-day laying
period.
POULTRY INSTITUTE

The 17th Annual Florida Poultry Institute, sponsored in cooperation with
other state agencies and industry associations, was held during the week
of August 18-23 at Camp McQuarrie. The theme was "Quality-The
Watchword for Florida Poultrymen."
Over 360 poultrymen registered for some of the activities. Educational
and recreational features made this a gala occasion for all. Summer meet-
ings of poultry associations and the Florida Egg Commission were held
during the week.
OTHER STATE AGENCIES

The several state agencies engaged in poultry activities have worked
very closely with personnel of the Agricultural Extension Service in de-
veloping a more efficient program for the poultry industry of Florida.
These state agencies are the Florida Department of Agriculture, which in-
cludes the Marketing Bureau and the Poultry and Egg Division and the







54 Florida Cooperative Extension

Inspection Bureau; the Florida Livestock Board, which includes the Na-
tional Poultry Improvement Plan and the Diagnostic Laboratories; and
the Florida Egg Commission.

ASSOCIATIONS
There are 22 local poultry associations in the state. Subject matter ma-
terial is presented at association meetings. Poultry schools were held in
Escambia, Manatee, Marion and Pinellas counties. In Columbia County a
program was arranged for each monthly meeting. Members of the poultry
Extension staff were speakers at 46 meetings of these groups. Meetings
were attended in the following counties: Escambia, Okaloosa, Gadsden,
Columbia, Nassau, Duval, Clay, Marion, Sumter, Orange, Hernando, Pasco,
Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Palm Beach, Broward and Dade.
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, the Hatchery and
Breeder Association, and the Turkey Association have worked very closely
with the poultry extension personnel. Staff members have attended meet-
ings of these associations.
The Florida Feed Dealers' Association, another state-wide organization,
has worked with and assisted the personnel of the poultry Extension
staff in developing a strong poultry program for the state.







Annual Report, 1958 55



SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

J. H. Herbert, Jr., Extension Conservationist

While consideration is given to conservation of all natural resources,
particular emphasis is placed on soil and water. Conservation activities
consisted primarily of assisting county Extension personnel, agricultural
and home demonstration agents and their assistants, in the phases of their
programs which related to conservation. The major objective is to bring
to the attention of people-youth and adult, rural and urban-facts about
conservation, scope and importance of existing problems, individual and
group responsibilities, courses of action, assistance available, and other
pertinent information.
To realize this objective, the Conservationist held 79 individual confer-
ences with agents, made 6 radio talks which were taped for use by county
agents on their local radio programs, and spoke before the orientation
conference for new staff members, home demonstration agents in confer-
ence at the annual 4-H Girls' Short Course, and 7 local groups at the re-

Fig. 11.-Group at work in the second annual land judging contest spon-
sored by the Chipola River Soil Conservation District.








56 Florida Cooperative Extension

quest of the agent. The editors were furnished with timely information
for release to county agents, newspapers and radio stations.
County Extension personnel in 66 Florida counties assisted 30,271 indi-
viduals in adopting recommended practices. These practices include proper
land use, contour strip cropping, terracing, grassed waterways, water
supply, drainage, irrigation, use of soil amendments, use of fertilizers,
soil improvement crops, crop rotations, land clearing, and conservation
forestry plantings. County workers spent 1,815 days and attended 1,666
meetings in cooperation with county Agricultural Stabilization and Con-
servation Program Committees, Soil Conservation Districts, and the Soil
Conservation Service.
There were 7,211 4-H Club members who received from county Exten-
sion workers (both agricultural and home demonstration agents) definite
training in soil and water conservation. Of these, 204 individuals completed
projects in soil and water conservation involving 4,224 acres. There were 42
county award winners representing 24 counties in the national 4-H awards
program. Both of these figures exceed all previous records, indicating that
individuals are completing better quality projects and that better use is
being made of the national 4-H awards program. The state winner in this
area of project work attended the National 4-H Congress.
The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work elevated their
conservation committee from call to standing status. This indicates increas-
ing interest on the part of these individuals in the conservation of natural
resources. This is important from the point of view of getting this con-
sideration before a rather large segment of the people who would not be
reached otherwise.
Extension personnel cooperate with representatives of several state and
federal agencies in soil conservation district programs. County agricultural
agents serve as secretaries to the district boards of supervisors in 46 of the
59 soil conservation districts in Florida. County workers (both agricultural
and home demonstration agents and their assistants) cooperated in district
educational events such as speaking contests, farm tours, demonstrations,
field days, workshops, fair exhibits, public school programs and land judg-
ing events. One land judging event held involved 65 participants from 3
counties representing 4-H Club members, Future Farmers of America and
Boy Scouts.
The Chipola River Soil Conservation District board of supervisors re-
quested the State Soil Conservation Board to establish a state committee
with the specific purpose of setting up progressive land appreciation
schools and judging contests, beginning in separate soil conservation dis-
tricts and proceeding through areas to the state level, and the selection
of state winning teams. This committee is now ready to receive its sub-
committee report on mechanics and ways of making events uniform.
The Assistant Director of Extension and the Extension Conservationist
are members of the State Soil and Water Conservation Needs Inventory
Committee. The work of this committee is to receive instruction from the
Department Committee, train county committees and assist them in de-
veloping county inventories, review county reports, and finally develop
the Needs Inventory for Florida from the county reports.
County Agricultural Agents serve as secretary to the county committee
in 59 counties and chairman in 7 counties. Of these 66 counties, approxi-
mately two-thirds have been activated.








Annual Report, 1958


SOILS
Granville C. Horn, Soils Specialist
Extension work in soils was closely coordinated with the Experiment
Station Soils Department and Extension agronomic and horticultural spe-
cialists. The 4 major project areas where assistance was given were:
agronomy, ornamental horticulture, fruit crops and vegetable crops. The
primary work of the Soils Specialist was in gathering research data, in-
terpreting it and presenting the important parts to county agents, industry
groups and individuals. Information pertaining to soils, fertilizers, liming
and soil testing was given major emphasis.
Principal emphasis included working with production specialists on soil
testing and fertilizer recommendations; assisting with production prob-
lems; county agent training; schools; industry meetings; individual con-
tacts and lime-fertilizer demonstrations.
County Agent Training.-Assistance was rendered 3 area county agent
training schools for field crops. The agents were presented with latest in-
formation on soil testing, soil sampling, lime and fertilizer practices.
More than 100 different contacts were made with county agents and soil
problems were discussed. The 2 counties with soil testing facilities were
visited several times and certain technical problems were solved. A sub-
stantial step of getting the laboratories standardized with the central
laboratory in Gainesville was accomplished. Assistance was given in 10
other counties where pH testing is done by the county agent. Over 500
letters were written to county agents dealing with fertilizer and liming
recommendations and other soil problems.
Assisting Production Specialists.-Of the 151 days spent in the field,
61 were devoted to the agronomy phase, directly or indirectly with the
specialists in this area. Sixty-four days were devoted to the ornamental
horticultural phase, 16 to the vegetable phase, 6 to soil testing at the
county level and 4 to citrus. Ninety-three days were spent in the office
and several of these were used in conferences with various specialists in
planning and in solving their problems dealing with soils.
Schools and Short Courses.-Twenty-eight agronomy, ornamental horti-
cultural and citrus schools were assisted. Eight were agronomy schools,
16 were ornamental horticulture schools and short courses, and 4 were
citrus schools. Over 2,800 growers and home owners were contacted
through these schools and short courses.
Topics discussed were fertilizers, lime, soils, plant nutrition, cultural
recommendations and soil testing.
Meetings, Committees and Individual Contacts.-Eleven meetings with
industry groups were held. Several meetings to discuss soil testing and
fertilizer recommendations were held. Eight meetings were held with state
and federal workers. Twenty-one meetings were held with Soils Depart-
ment personnel, including staff meetings and seminars.
Demonstrations.-Thirty-nine fertilizer and lime demonstrations were
put out in 13 counties, 27 being field crop demonstrations on corn, peanuts,
tobacco, soybeans, rye, and pangolagrass. Eleven were in cooperation with
ornamental horticulture specialists and 1 was a vegetable demonstration.
Soil samples were taken from these areas and yields were obtained so that
soil test correlation could be made.
Miscellaneous Activities.-Many Florida and non-Florida student re-
quests for soil samples were filled. Requests for information on soils, soil
testing, lime and fertilizers were handled.







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND
MERCHANDISING

F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crops Specialist

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
James Montelaro, Associate Vegetable Crops Specialist
Mason E. Marvel, Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist

Commercial production of 22 major vegetable crops plus several miscel-
laneous vegetables in Florida in the 1957-58 season showed a decline from
the 5-year average in both amount harvested and dollars returned to
growers. The severe winter and lateness of harvest of several major crops
contributed to this decline. In spite of these reversals, the commercial
vegetable industry maintained an outstanding and progressing position in
the economy of Florida.
The total farm value of commercial vegetables was $146,466,000 from
370,200 acres harvested, with 73,530 acres lost. This was somewhat lower
than the 5-year average of 403,683 acres with an average value of
$169,155,000. A continuing trend toward more shipments by truck was
obvious, with 80,800 carlot equivalents moving out of Florida by truck
and 31,158 by rail for a total of 111,958 carlots shipped. Over 15,260 carlot
equivalents were either consumed or processed within the state.
Results accomplished by the Extension vegetable project with commer-
cial vegetables were through close cooperation with county agricultural
agents, growers, research workers, industry representatives, organizations
and other Extension workers. The results may be noted by 115,155 personal
contacts made by county agents and their staffs in 66 counties. The total
number of different farmers and others assisted directly or indirectly to
adopt recommended practices was 59,801, which indicates that on the
average these people were contacted twice during the year on vegetable
problems. Approximately 68% were assisted with production problems.
More than 1 phase of production was covered in each contact, because 32%
were assisted in the use of improved varieties, 43% received fertilizer in-
formation, 34% were assisted in insect control, 28% were assisted in
disease control, 14% were helped with harvesting, storing and curing and
12% were shown more efficient work methods.
The foregoing does not include direct contacts made by the Extension
specialists nor assistance given by other organizations and agencies co-
operating with the Extension Service.
The Extension specialists participated in 13 grower meetings, 13 field
days and tours and other events.
Preparation of material, planning and participation in the Fifth Annual
Vegetable Work Conference and the Seedsman's and Garden Supply Deal-
ers' Short Course were important phases of specialist activities.
Other specialist activities included preparation of several publications,
including a revision of Extension Circular 96B, Watermelon Production
Guide, Extension Circular 153, Commercial Vegetable Variety Guide, and
2 new circulars which will be published early in 1959 on Chemical Weed
Control and Hydroponic Growing of Vegetables.
Five newsletters (Vegetarians) and 2 circular letters (Vegegrams) on
individual crops were issued. Other mimeographed material was prepared
and issued for special uses.







Annual Report, 1958 59

The staff in commercial vegetable production is complete for the first
time since 1955, with the filling of the position of Associate Vegetable
Crops Specialist in June of 1958.

VEGETABLE GARDENING
Bruce A. Barmby
Joseph D. Norton 3
The program of home gardening was planned and carried out to make
all people more appreciative of what gardening can mean to the whole
family. This was accomplished through better training meetings, schools,
and clinics with the agents and their leaders and also through the devel-
opment of bulletins.
Much emphasis was placed on planning, training club members, and
conducting vegetable events within the counties. There were 6,498 mem-
bers enrolled in 4-H gardening projects from 66 counties, with 2,425 acres
of vegetable crops.
Demonstrations and exhibits were carried out and classes were taught
both at the boys' 4-H Short Course and at 4-H Camps (Cherry Lake and
McQuarrie).
For the first time, a state vegetable grading, judging, and identification
event was held. After much planning and training in the 21 counties, there
were 3 district events and 1 area event (covering 3 districts) held prior
to the state event in Orlando. St. Johns County team placed first and
was rewarded with a trip sponsored by FFVA to the National Contest at

SInterim appointment beginning June ,6, 1958.
SLeave of absence November 15, 1958.

Fig. 12.-These five 4-H Club boys and their assistant county agent
(left) and the assistant vegetable crops specialist participated in the
National Junior Vegetable Growers' Association convention.







rd ~k~a








Florida Cooperative Extension


the National Junior Vegetable Growers' Association's Convention in Biloxi,
Mississippi. The team placed seventh. Considering that it was the first
time in national competition and the keenness of the contest, they did very
well. One of the team members placed 19th as an individual within this
class. The preparation of 2 loan sets of colored slides, score sheets and
bulletins, especially "Know Your Vegetables," proved very useful, informa-
tive and helpful in training the teams throughout the state.
Radio programs and tapes, television films, and timely garden letters
to both the adult gardener and the 4-H gardener were prepared for use
and distribution.
The home garden survey was continued and the specialist attended
vegetable field days at many of the experiment stations.
In addition, the specialist worked in cooperation with and had con-
ferences with research workers, other Extension specialists, county and
home demonstration agents, district agents, commercial workers, state or-
ganizations (including the Department of Education and the FFA), at-
tended professional and committee meetings and answered office calls
and correspondence.

RETAIL MERCHANDISING OF FRESH VEGETABLES

S. E. Rosenberger, Associate Marketing Specialist in Vegetable Crops

Many activities and different approaches were involved in improving
the level of fresh fruit and vegetable merchandising. Retail and wholesale
fresh fruit and vegetable marketing agencies were assisted by providing
information and helping them interpret and apply research results and
other pertinent material. Retail marketing agencies for fresh fruit and
vegetables were assisted in making decisions with respect to the develop-
ment of a more efficient marketing system that will enable effective ex-
change of supply and demand information between consumers and pro-
ducers.
PROVIDING INFORMATION
A weekly set of vegetable merchandising guides was prepared in season
and sent to produce merchandising people in the Southeast, as well as to
consumer information specialists and agents in other states. These mer-
chandising guides were prepared from material supplied by the Federal-
State Market News Service and the Crop Reporting Service. The mer-
chandising guides are designed to summarize weekly each major commodity
situation on supplies and FOB prices reflecting conditions at both terminal
and shipping point areas.
Twelve different bulletins on improved handling methods or quality
maintenance were distributed in the quantity of about 50 copies each.
A tomato poster in color, "Let's Have Good Tomatoes," was prepared
and distributed so that "the trade" would have the correct fundamentals
for handling and ripening tomatoes of good quality. Nearly 3,000 tomato
posters were distributed, with many being sent to other states and Canada.
A temperature chart was prepared and distributed showing proper tomato
handling and ripening ranges, as well as temperature injury zones. All ma-
terial on tomato handling and quality maintenance was prepared in co-
operation with Experiment Station personnel in the departments of vege-
table crops and food technology.
Close to 5,500 instances of assistance to fruit and vegetable handlers
were reported in over 50 counties. This is a comfortable increase over last
year. Assistance with retail merchandising problems was reported in 446
instances in 38 counties. This, too, is a nice increase over last year.








Annual Report, 1958


Interpretation and Application.-The activities employed to help re-
tailers and wholesalers interpret and apply research results as well as
other pertinent material were confined to circular letters, operational
analysis and recommendations of marketing firms and the establishment
of result demonstrations.
There were 10 circular letters which either summarized or described
material of particular applications to the retail or wholesale trade.
Eight individual retail and 1 wholesale fresh fruit and vegetable
operations were analyzed for soundness of methods, handling efficiency,
and quality maintenance programs. These analyses were studied in great
detail and in most cases recommendations for improvements were pre-
pared with the assistance of the Extension Agricultural Engineer.
Three stores were set up as demonstration stores. All phases of fresh
fruit and vegetable merchandising were involved in the demonstrations but
most effort was centered on handling efficiency, quality maintenance, and
effective selling displays. The Federal Extension Food Merchandising
Specialist and an Oklahoma Agricultural Extension Service marketing
specialist helped establish 1 store as a demonstration. The other 2 demon-
stration stores were established by the project leader working out of the

Fig. 13.-Acceptance by the consumer is of vital interest to grower, handler
and merchandiser. Each can contribute to this acceptance.

__ I







Florida Cooperative Extension


county agent's office and the Extension Agricultural Engineer providing
drafting material and layouts.
Preliminary figures for 1 store were: Produce sales dollars increased
8.7%; produce dollar gross margin increased 8.6%, while the rate of gross
margin to sales remained about the same; produce department labor ex-
penses decreased 5.3%; produce rate of labor to sales was reduced 1.04%;
produce average ending inventory was 19% lower; store sales increased
11.5%; proportion of produce sales to store sales slipped by .21%, but
dried fruit sales had been discontinued as a produce item in the meantime.
Management Decision Making for Better Marketing Efficiency.-In an
effort to stimulate management decisions that would increase the level
of marketing and pricing efficiency, several approaches were attempted.
Circular letters were written, a state-wide grocers' convention program
was presented, a produce management school was conducted, and a con-
sulting service was provided for grocers and supermarket operators on
management, merchandising, and operations procedures.
Twenty-eight circular letters were prepared to suggest methods and
activities designed to take advantage of unusual or unique market situa-
tions for certain commodities.
At the Annual Retail Grocers' Convention, a 2-hour program was pre-
sented to a group of people representing around 400 Florida food stores.
It was designed to influence management decisions pertaining to tech-
niques of fresh produce handling for more efficiency.
In 1 location a produce merchandising school was set up for the key
personnel of 4 large supermarkets in an effort to train them for better
utilization of equipment and improved techniques for handling and quality
maintenance. The county agent cooperated in arranging and conducting
this produce school.
The consultation technique has proven to be one of the most effective
methods of influencing management decisions. The project leader was
available for consultation purposes at different times at the office, at
stores, in county agent offices by appointment, and at conventions, meet-
ings and elsewhere.







Annual Report, 1958


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Agent, in Training Program
Edith Y. Barrus, District Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Home Demonstration Agent
Helen D. Holstein, District Home Demonstration Agent

The home demonstration staff consists of 17 state and 97 county work-
ers. There were 52 white home demonstration agents and 32 assistants in
52 counties, 1 negro district agent and 12 negro county workers. A family
life education specialist was employed beginning February 1. A former
county worker is now carrying on home demonstration work with Seminole
Indians on 3 reservations.


Fig. 14.-Extension and business leaders congratulate Patsy Guthrie
and Phoebe Hodges as they leave for the National Club Conference in
Washington.

Fifteen counties are not served by home demonstration agents. Appoint-
ments and transfers this year included 11 home demonstration agents, 6
assistants, and 18 clerical assistants. Vacancies at the end of the year
include 2 state staff members, 1 county home demonstration agent, and
3 assistants.
Financial Support.-Funds from the Agricultural Extension Service
and from Florida State University provided for the State Home Demon-
stration Office. Florida State University furnished housing and equip-
ment for the professional and secretarial staff, contributed part of salary








Florida Cooperative Extension


funds for several of the state staff, and supplied additional funds for
travel expenses, secretarial help, demonstration equipment and supplies,
and the pre-service training program for prospective home demonstration
agents.
Additional funds from federal, state and county sources for the support
of home demonstration work during 1958 totaled $50,029.92 for salaries
(professional and clerical) and $10,633.00 for travel, equipment, special
events and operating expenses.
Expansion of Program.-In consideration of the tightened financial
situation throughout the state, major expansion in the home demonstra-
tion program was not pushed during 1958. Expansion in personnel included
the establishment of 1 new position for an assistant home demonstration
agent, re-establishment of the agent's position in 1 county, and addition
of clerical assistants in each of 2 counties.
Program Development.-Continued effort was made during 1958 to
involve local people in planning the county Extension programs, and to
place priority on major problems which affected large numbers of families.
Home demonstration and agricultural agents progressed in program pro-
jection with the people, and in working in a unified county program.
Home demonstration agents worked with individuals, families, special
interest groups, continuous organized groups such as home demonstration
and 4-H clubs and councils and many non-Extension organizations and
agencies. All agents attempted to base their county program planning
on situations in counties and communities; needs and interests of local
people; urgency of problems with which Extension should work; resources
and assistance available. District agents guided the county workers in
developing basic programs and worked with them and the specialists in
securing and using effective educational techniques and materials in their
teaching.
Significant progress was made in long-time program planning and in-
volvement of local people in carrying the plans forward. Work continued
in farm and home development, and rural development made noticeable
progress in the two pilot counties.
Leadership Development.-Recognizing that the most basic expansion
of the Extension program can be brought about by the activity of interested
and adequately trained local leaders, much emphasis in home demonstra-
tion work was laid on leadership development. The State Agent, district
agents, and other state staff members assisted county home demonstra-
tion agents with securing and training leaders. Special in-service training
for state and county home demonstration personnel in leadership develop-
ment included working on basic concepts of leadership and processes of
securing and developing many kinds of leaders for adult and youth work.
An enhanced understanding of the contribution local leaders can make
to Extension work was gained.
The 1958 statistical report shows that 1,935 meetings for training of
leaders were held. These leaders then assisted with home demonstration
teaching and other activities by conducting 5,573 home demonstration and
4-H club meetings.
Personnel Training.-All state staff members assisted in the planned
program of training for state and county home demonstration workers
carried on during 1958. Ten undergraduate home economics students
at Florida State University and 5 home economists received pre-service
training for county positions in home demonstration work; 1 agent re-
ceived orientation to the Florida program; the district agents gave induc-
tion training to 13 agents as they began their work in counties; 3 state







Annual Report, 1958


staff members received training after appointment which combined pre-
service and induction training for their respective positions.
All state staff members received in-service training in communications
and leadership development. All county home demonstration agents re-
ceived training in program analysis and evaluation, leadership develop-
ment and communications.
Other areas of training which involved most of the agents dealt with
several phases of program development for adults and youth, and new
information in subject matter. This in-service training was given in
state-wide, district, area, 2- to 3-county and county meetings, and in
conferences between state staff members and agents. Two hundred and
forty-seven in-service training events for state and county home demon-
stration workers were held.
Coverage of the Home Demonstration Program.-In the 52 Florida
counties in which home demonstration work is organized, the coverage
of the program is indicated by these figures from the 1958 statistical
reports (white and negro).
533 home demonstration clubs enrolled 14,217 members.
923 4-H clubs for girls enrolled 23,599 members.
208,969 home visits, office calls, and telephone calls provided assistance
to individuals or families.
1,655 radio, and TV programs, and 6,508 news stories were efforts
to reach people through mass media.
6,529 leaders were trained. Local leaders held 5,573 meetings with an
attendance of 133,032.
151,618 families received help from some part of the home demonstra-
tion program. Of these 52,601 were rural families; 99,017 were
urban.







66 Florida Cooperative Extension



CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Elizabeth Dickenson, Clothing and Textiles Specialist

Florida families continued to be interested in clothing and textiles.
Since they were spending a little less money on clothing, and some items
have continued to rise in price, better planning has been a necessity.
More homemakers are working outside the home and time for sewing
has been limited. Those who enjoyed sewing have found time to sew, while
those who prefer other household tasks have purchased the major supply
of their family's clothing.
Most families have had the desire to improve their appearance by
dressing suitably and comfortably for the occasion.
The specialist has helped families improve their clothing by assisting
them in planning home demonstration programs based on their problems
and needs. Agents have been taught skills and assisted in planning and
in training volunteer leaders and individuals.

Fig. 15.-Some of the delegates to a home demonstration club work-
shop cut and stitch their muslin dresses with the aid of the Extension
Clothing Specialist (standing right).








Annual Report, 1958


Home demonstration agents held 358 clothing and textile special in-
terest meetings and workshops for women and 362 for 4-H girls (white).
There were 23 for negro women and 45 for negro girls.
There were 990 women leaders and 647 girl leaders who helped others
with clothing problems. There were 6,514 women and 7,005 girls taught to
fit garments made at home (white). The negroes taught 1,337 women and
1,822 girls. These leaders had community groups as well as individuals
which they helped. Some reported teaching working mothers and women
with young children at night.
Adult 4-H leaders have taught younger 4-H girls how to get the most
out of their sewing machines. These 4-H girls met in the leaders' homes
and learned on the leader's machine. During 1958 2,396 4-H girls were
given this training. Each leader had attended a leader training meeting
conducted by the county home demonstration agent, where she learned
how to teach the 4-H members. This experience has been most satisfying
to agents, leaders, and 4-H members.
There were 1,467 white women and 3,498 white girls and 128 negro
women and 295 negro girls in dress revues held in the counties. This was
an increase of 230 white women, 562 white girls, 109 negro girls and a
decrease of 9 negro women over 1957.
Most of the clothing work was done through leaders. While they were
helping others they were growing themselves. Their appearance improved
as the leaders applied their knowledge to themselves and their families.
They also improved in their teaching skills and derived much satisfaction
from the results of their efforts.
Since one of the big problems in the eyes of the people was the need
to learn to fit themselves, much emphasis has been placed on fitting. Skills
learned and applied to home sewing have been used also to alter ready-
mades to make them fit better. The work has also created more interest
in having garments better fitted to the individual figure.
Families have also been taught how to judge ready-made garments for
all members. Learning the difference in quality and workmanship between
poorer and better made garments has helped families shop. 33,392 white
and 2,405 negro families were reported assisted in selecting and buying
clothing. They have also learned to judge garments made at home. Women
and girls who have assisted in judging community and county dress revues
have learned much about construction. This judging experience has also
shown them where more help is needed and has created a desire to learn
to do these things better.
People have developed in grace, poise, appearance, and skills and abili-
ties through the clothing and textiles work.
These statistics show some of the results of this program during 1958.

Counties Counties
Reporting White Reporting Negro
Girls enrolled ................................ 52 12,445 12 2,294
Girls completing projects .......... 52 7,276 12 1,864
Number of garments made ........ 48 18,205 12 5,672

White White Negro Negro
Women Girls Women Girls
1. Number of individuals re-
ceiving help on care of
fabrics and finishes .......--... 22,155 8,691 1,152 1,916
2. Families assisted with
laundering ............................ 17,008 873








Florida Cooperative Extension


3. With good grooming and
posture, and personal ap-
pearance ............... ... ...-

4. In selection, use and care
of sewing and pressing
equipment and with sew-
ing centers ............................

5. Estimated total number of
different homemakers and
other persons assisted di-
rectly or indirectly to
adopt recommended prac-
tices ...................... .... .....


38,003 (women and 3,204 (women and
girls) girls)



14,537 (women and 1,614 (women and
girls) girls)


62,505


4,178








Annual Report, 1958


ASSISTANT EDITOR AND VISUAL AIDS
SPECIALIST

Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

Mass communications played an integral part in 1958 in the con-
structive educational program conducted by the State Home Demonstration
Office of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service to reach and teach
Florida's mounting population about all phases of homemaking and family
life.
One of the primary purposes of the Agricultural Extension Service is
to prepare and distribute educational materials through newspapers, farm
journals, bulletins, radio, and television.
In 1958 home demonstration agents wrote 6,508 news articles, club
members wrote 3,348, agents and club members together prepared 801, and
341 articles about the home demonstration program were written by per-
sons outside this group. From the State Home Demonstration Office 225
news and feature articles were released. News pictures of home demon-
stration and 4-H Club events and personalities totaled 1,305. Full-page and
half-page pictorials totaled 118. Six special editions devoted to home dem-
onstration achievements were printed.
Forty leader training meetings in publicity techniques were held for
4-H reporters. Forty training meetings were held for home demonstration
club reporters.


Fig. 16.-Three club girls learn how to operate a press camera in a
4-H short course class.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Home demonstration agents broadcast 1,349 radio programs, while club
members put 147 programs on the air. Agents and club members presented
148 programs. Other interested individuals gave 108 programs.
State home demonstration staff specialists appeared on 31 television
programs and county workers on 306.
Agents and club members taped 289 recordings for use on radio. In
1958, 140 educational motion pictures and 244 filmstrips were shown.
Home demonstration agents distributed 399,906 bulletins.
Home demonstration agents, club members, and 4-H Club girls set up
579 educational exhibits at fairs this year. At achievement and rally days
2,880 exhibits were shown. During National Home Demonstration Week
187 exhibits were designed. During National 4-H Club Week 226 exhibits
were displayed. At other county events 744 exhibits were shown.
Home demonstration and 4-H Clubs maintained 8 libraries and assisted
with 69 others. Twenty-three counties borrowed books from the Florida
State Library. Families using home demonstration libraries totaled 447.
New home demonstration bulletins and leaflets printed in 1958 included
Using Cottage Cheese in Family Meals, Using Florida Citrus Fruits, and
Using Limes. Numerous mimeographed leaflets were prepared.
Magazine articles written by state Extension specialists, the Assistant
Editor, and home demonstration agents have been published in Florida
Grower, The Progressive Farmer, Tropical Homes and Gardens, Farm
Journal, and Florida Poultry Journal.
During 1958 the State Home Demonstration Office has gained a new
and wider public through the increased use of television. The State Home
Demonstration Office has presented a monthly television show over WTAL.
Response from this show has been gratifying. Numerous requests for
further information about topics presented on television have come to the
State Office. Thus we have been able to do considerable teaching through
television.







Annual Report, 1958 71


FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION

Ruth E. Harris, Family Life Specialist

The purpose of the family life education project is to strengthen the
already existing family-centered Extension program. The following have
been specific objectives:
1. To develop within the Extension organization a strong program of
family unity with a core of human relations from which would evolve an
understanding and appreciation of the significance of the family in the
present-day world.
2. To help develop a youth program based on the stages of growth
and development of youth.
3. To train both state and county Extension workers in the scientific
skills of psychological and practical approaches to the solutions of indi-
vidual and/or group problems through discussion and decision making
methods.
The family life education work has been guided by 2 committees com-
posed of personnel from both agricultural and home demonstration staffs.
Twelve counties were visited as part of the orientation process. This
provided an opportunity to get a view of the over-all Extension program.
All home demonstration agents except 1 had been met by the end of May.

Fig. 17.-A group of home demonstration club members plan a family life
program with their home demonstration agent (second from left).


-- ,-I
p..-___








72 Florida Cooperative Extension

The Specialist has worked in 9 counties. In each county an effort has
been made to interpret the family life education project in its broadest
sense. Program planning has been done in 4 counties, 3 of which will have
a major and 1 a minor in family life in 1959. Leader training meetings
have been held in 5 counties on "Understanding Ourselves and Others,"
"Child Guidance," "Take a Look at Yourself," and "Building Happiness in
Your Home." In 1 county the Specialist worked with local youth leaders
in planning a series of youth meetings in the area of family life.
Classes were held at 4-H Club and adult short courses. This provided
an opportunity for more leader training. Twenty-two received certificates
from the adult short course. There were 202 girls in both the regular and
rotating classes at 4-H Club Short Course.
Twelve leaflets have been prepared for the use of home demonstration
agents. They included discussions of child guidance, parent-teenager rela-
tionships, preparation for retirement, and inter-personal relationship.
Three 4-H Club camps were attended, where classes in family life
were taught. Two were joint camps.
Meetings with farm and home development families in 2 counties were
attended. An illustrated talk on "The Importance of the Family Planning
Together" was given.
About one-third of the Specialist's time was spent in an orientation
program.







Annual Report, 1958


FOOD CONSERVATION

Bonnie B. McDonald, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation

The program in food conservation is a part of the total foods and nu-
trition phase of home demonstration work in Florida. The philosophy of
food conservation adhered to by the 3 specialists who carry on the foods
and nutrition work is quite broad-encompassing all measures which tend
to conserve the maximum nourishment from the available food supply.
This philosophy permeates the entire foods program and is concerned with
the production and preparation as well as the storage of foods.


i'


'I


Fig. 18.-A 4-H girl judges canned fruits,
meats and vegetables.

This year saw an upsurge in home storage of food by canning. The
economic slumps as well as the extensive food losses from last winter's
freezes were mainly responsible for th's increase in the use of canning to
conserve a larger supply of food for family use. The high cost of foods
motivated more homemakers to practice the skills and techniques which








74 Florida Cooperative Extension

had been taught in their club meetings. A total of 1,167,074 pints were
reported canned during the past year-a marked increase over the 945,323
pints reported for 1957. At the same time the conservation of the home
food supply by freezing reached an all-time high, totaling 1,334,304 pints
for fruits and vegetables alone.
During the year only limited training of agents and leaders in food
conservation was done by specialists. Among the activities carried on in
this phase of work were: training workshops for agents in some counties;
special work with agents and community canning plant operators in
counties where canning plants exist; work in the training kitchen at the
State Home Demonstration offices for agent trainees; and work as re-
quested with foreign students who are working in the State on various
training programs. Many bulletins were distributed and much information
on canning and freezing was given directly in response to mail requests.








Annual Report, 1958


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

Emily King, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Ann Thompson, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent

This year there were 23,599 girls enrolled in 923 4-H Clubs. The girls
gained ability to assume more responsibility and pass subject-matter
information on to others. This program helps 4-H Club members to become
better family members and more interested citizens in their communities
and counties.
State 4-H Club Short Courses.-The theme for the 43rd Annual State
Girls' 4-H Club Short Course at Florida State University was "4-H Makes
Our Best Better," planned and developed on the basis of the purposes of
Short Course. These programs were:
1. To provide opportunity for growth and development of our 4-H
Club girls.
2. To effect better public relations on local, county and state levels.
3. To deepen the appreciation of 4-H Club work.
4. To promote a recruitment program.
Leadership was the keynote of the 1958 Short Course. Besides the
leadership training, the 431 4-H Club girls and 33 adult leaders received
in their intensive subject-matter classes, each was given a special assign-
ment such as assisting with special programs.
There were 170 4-H Club girl, 16 local leaders, 12 negro home demon-
stration agents and 1 negro district home demonstration agent in attend-
ance at the 37th Annual State Short Course for Negro Girls and Boys at
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in Tallahassee, June 2-7.
State Girls' 4-H Club Councils.-The State Girls' 4-H Club Council met
during short course. Representatives from 42 counties shared ideas with
each other about work being accomplished in their respective counties.
The girls gained experience in working and cooperating with girls of their
own age group. The executive committee met twice during the year to
make plans and carry out responsibility at the State Fair, as well as
make plans for their state meeting.
The Negro State Girls' 4-H Club Council held 4 sessions during their
week of annual 4-H Short Course.

Fig. 19.-Girls' 4-H Short Course promoted recruitment, public relations,
education and citizenship for development of 4-H girls.








Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H Camping Program.-There were 2,875 4-H Club girls who camped
during the 9 1-week camping sessions held for girls at the 4 district 4-H
Club camps and the Dade County camp. The 4-H Club camping experience
is valued as another opportunity for training junior and adult 4-H Club
leaders, and for recognition of achievements of 4-H Club girls and leaders.
Recognition Program.-Recognition is for the purpose of giving credit
for work well done and encouraging a person toward greater achievement.
Recognition was given through 10 district demonstration days held simul-
taneously on March 15. Girls who were county winners gave dairy foods
and other demonstrations, presented speeches and displayed their talent.
Twenty-one girls and 2 adults received state honors provided through the
awards' program for Florida 4-H Club girls.
State 4-H Committee of County Home Demonstration Agents.-This
committee is made up of the home demonstration agents who are chair-
men of the 10 4-H Club districts, the 2 state girls' 4-H Club agents, the
3 district home demonstration agents, and the State Home Demonstration
Agent. This committee was organized with the purpose of improving 4-H
Club work with girls in the state by cooperative planning, evaluation of
results and discussion and understanding of mutual problems.
Home Demonstration Clubs and Councils.-Adult home demonstration
club members, as individuals and as organized groups, have perhaps given
more encouragement, inspiration and actual assistance to the 4-H Club
program than any other Extension group through their cooperation and
leadership.
Leader Program.-In the leadership phase of the program, 1,823 4-H
Clug girls accepted responsibilities in their local groups, and 640 women
worked in different ways with 4-H Club girls.
Fairs.-Four-H Club girls exhibited and participated in county fairs,
county youth fairs, Florida State Fair, Central Florida Fair, North Flor-
ida Fair, Greater Jacksonville Fair, and many other county fairs.
Cooperation With Other Organizations.-Cooperation with the purpose
of better understanding is most important, so time was spent this year
attending conventions and meetings of other groups with 4-H Club repre-
sentatives. County home demonstration agents attended the State Farm
Bureau meeting and the Retail Merchants' Federation annual meeting
with 4-H Club representatives.
University 4-H Club Girls.-The State Home Demonstration Office
sponsors this group as a means of helping 4-H Club girls continue to
develop their head, heart, hands and health. The club has a year's planned
program, and offers its services to assist with county, district and state
events.







Annual Report, 1958


HEALTH EDUCATION AND RECREATION

Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist

The increased interest and awareness of county staffs in health educa-
tion has resulted in growing interest among planning groups in their
health needs. This is evident in county annual reports for 1958.
As counties perfect their program projection planning, people will be
able to recognize and work on their real problems. This year 10 counties
carried health or recreation as a major or minor emphasis. Their programs
included such activities as starting a committee to obtain a health center,
sponsoring cancer films in each community of the county, and securing
a youth center.
Weight control has been a continued topic of interest. The Assistant
Health Education Specialist assisted 7 counties in this phase of health.
This included supply information, speaking to special interest groups,


Fig. 20.-A 4-H local leader and club girl received "inside information"
from a State Board of Health dentist during short course.








Florida Cooperative Extension


moderating a panel at achievement day, and speaking to a county council
open meeting.
An effort was made to help agents make provisions for and require
physical examinations for campers before summer camps. The Florida
Rural Health Committee, Florida Medical Association, and Florida State
Board of Health offered their assistance. While the 1,631 girls and 384
boys who did receive physical examinations before camp this year is an
increase over last year, still that is only 37 percent of the total 4-H Club
members who attended camps.
Definite training in health, nursing and first aid was received by 4-H
Club members. The health improvement project was taken by 1,816 4-H
girls and 192 4-H boys, with 1,125 girls and 127 boys completing their
projects.
Monthly subject-matter materials were prepared and sent to county
and assistant home demonstration agents for use in radio, press, TV,
counseling, and leaders' reports at meetings.
The Florida State Board of Health, Bureau of Dental Health, has been
most helpful in setting up this phase of our program. Numerous confer-
ences were held with the director of the bureau and his dental health
educator. As a result of these conferences, arrangements were made for
the dental health educator to conduct a class at Girls' State Short Course.
The dental mobile unit and dentist also were present. Six pieces of material
were prepared jointly (the 4-H Leader Suggestions which the State Board
of Health printed), the negro dentist spoke at negro agents' conference,
and the dental mobile unit and dentist spent 4 weeks at one of the 4-H
camps.
During the home demonstration agents' meeting at Girls' 4-H Short
Course, the Specialist discussed with the agents all these plans and
exhibited available resource material. The first week the dental unit was
in camp the Assistant Health Education Specialist was there to assist in
setting up procedures and to orient the dentist in 4-H and camp philosophy
and policies. The dentist not only examined the teeth of all boys and girls
in those 4 weeks of camp, but also talked with them individually while
they were in the chair. He also presented an assembly program.
Examinations made during the 4 camps revealed that 375 boys and
girls of the 490 examined needed immediate dental care. In addition to
dental caries, these examinations show that a large number of the chil-
dren have diseases of tissues surrounding the teeth, and that malocclusion
occurs among many.
The Specialist spent 25 percent of her time in the area of recreation.
Problems receiving attention were: (1) need for a wider variety in indi-
vidual recreation, (2) more recreational activities as a family, (3) more
enjoyable meetings, and (4) places in community where youth may get
together for recreation.
Subject matter materials were prepared on recreation to give the
county home demonstration agents and their leaders ideas on activities
in recreation. Other activities of the Specialist in promoting recreation
were: (1) 5 leader training meetings, (2) participated (by teaching or
leading recreation) in 4 district camps, (3) advised camp recreation di-
rectors in all 4 district 4-H camps, (4) led family night recreation pro-
gram in Hamilton County, (5) ordered and distributed craft supplies for
camps, (6) planned and directed fun night at Senior Council, (6) assisted
with planning and directing of fun night at 4-H Short Course, and (7)
assisted in planning and carrying out 2 recreation leadership camps.
A Florida State University Recreation Department faculty member
taught a recreation class at 4-H Short Course. A University of Florida








Annual Report, 1958


recreation faculty member taught a similar class at Women's Short Course.
These classes and the training meetings held by county staffs added to the
development of the individual, as well as the recreation program.
In many clubs throughout the state family recreation is fostered by
having some type of recreation at each home demonstration club meeting
that can be enjoyed then as well as later at home with their families.
Family night suppers, picnics for the family, Christmas parties, and oyster
roasting are typical of activities held.
Carry-over has been good from the 3 recreation leadership camps held.
These week-end camps were planned and directed by the state girls' and
boys' 4-H Club staff, district agents, Extension Nutritionist and Health
Education Specialist. The agents and 4 older boys and girls from each
county attended and received training in ceremonies, assisting on the
water front, outdoor recreation, assemblies, and night programs.
Recreation as an individual project was carried by 1,575 4-H girls, with
838 completing. Many clubs carried on recreation projects also, including
such activities as making stuffed animals for a children's hospital, making
tray favors for hospitals, carrying craft materials to mental hospitals,
and sponsoring a fund-raising program to start a voluntary fire depart-
ment.
Uppermost in the minds of Extension personnel is the importance of
providing opportunities in which people may grow. Such opportunities were
made possible through training 1,037 health leaders who later conducted
meetings on health.








80 Florida Cooperative Extension



HOME IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program in Florida is designed to meet the
needs of the people for comfortable, convenient, attractive and well-
managed homes to enable them to live more satisfying lives and become
better citizens.
The program was planned and carried out in 54 counties by white and
negro home demonstration agents. Aid was given by specialists, state ad-
ministrative staff, voluntary local leaders, other individuals, and senior
and junior councils of home demonstration work. Information was pre-
sented through 4-H and women's clubs and special interest meetings,
tours, achievement days, and home visits. Work was also carried on with
other organizations and persons and through press and radio.
House and Surroundings-Furnishings and Equipment.-To improve
housing conditions, create a desire for a higher standard of living, pro-
mote good health, and help bring about satisfying home and family life,
people were assisted with (1) building, remodeling, and repairing homes;
(2) adding conveniences to meet family needs; (3) beautifying the home
and surroundings; (4) furnishing the home for comfort, convenience,
and beauty.
Family Living.-To help people improve family living, information was
given on (1) making satisfactory adjustments to living conditions; (2)

Fig. 21.-This county exhibit at the annual meeting of the State
Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work revealed how home demon-
stration club members can improve their homes satisfactorily and inex-
pensively.









Annual Report, 1958


managing the income to meet needs of the family; (3) making wise use
of credit; (4) using human and material resources to improve the quality
of family living; (5) adding to the family income in kind or cash; (6)
practicing orderly, systematic and efficient work habits, including every-
day good housekeeping; (7) providing security for old age; (8) arranging
for medical and dental care; (9) providing and using opportunities for
religious, civic, educational, and recreational activities; and (10) knowing
more about matters of law, banking, and investments as they affect the
family.
Consumer Education.-People were assisted in making better use of
their resources through (1) learning to make wise decisions when buying
household supplies, equipment, furnishings, and building material; (2) de-
veloping skills in building and in repairing and refinishing floors, walls,
work surfaces, furniture, and woodwork; (3) reading and understanding
labels, specifications, guarantees, and directions for care and use of
equipment and materials used at home; and (4) following recommended
practices for use and care of same.
Home improvement activities promoted through the Extension program
and some of the results are listed below. These figures represent work of
men, women, girls, and boys-white and negro-for 1957 and 1958:

1957 1958
Total number of persons contacted individually or
through meetings .....-.......-----------............-............--220,665 231,977
Estimated total number of different families, home-
makers or other individuals assisted directly or
indirectly to adopt recommended practices ..-.....-.....183,689 217,625

Families, Homemakers and Other Individuals
Assisted With
Building a new house ....... ............-.....---....... ... 1,364 1,280
Remodeling or repairing the house........................ 6,602 5,951
Improving kitchen and laundry.....................-.......... 6,748 5,683
Improving storage space .....-----.................... ..... 9,666 8,235
Selection, installation with care of:
(a) Water and/or sewage system .........-..... 2,439 4,784
(b) Cooling systems ...............................- ..... 1,241 1,876
Planning electrical systems ................................... 2,370 1,788
Landscaping home grounds --..............---................... 36,524 91,654
Selection, use and care of home equipment
(other than sewing) .............................-- ......... -- 15,644 16,235
Selection, use and construction of home
furnishings --- -----.......-.. ------....--........... 12,621 17,217
Repairs, reconditioning and care of home
furnishings .............................--- --.... ................ 13,010 11,378
Furniture arrangement and use of
accessories -......--------. ------- ..........---......... 15,195 15,801
Color schemes and wall finishes ........................... 12,664 13,709
Floor finishes ..---......--------- ---.................. ...... 4,201 7,783
In arriving at management decisions --.........-.... 9,546 11,048
In improving housekeeping methods .--..........--... 19,577 16,892
With family laundering ...............................-......... 16,973 17,881
In the use of rural family outlook information.... 7,423 7,470
With family financial planning ......-------.......-.....- 5,155 19,873
With keeping and analyzing home records........ 4,477 4,128








82 Florida Cooperative Extension

W ith family legal matters .................. ............. 4,550 7,470
With legal aspects of farm business .................... 1,866* 1,427
With obtaining and using credit ........................... 2,496* 3,102

4-H Club Work is designed to stimulate the interest of girls in learning
to do simple home tasks well, in making their homes more beautiful, com-
fortable, and convenient, both inside and out, and in becoming well adjusted
members of their families and communities. Listed below are activities
and results for 1957 and 1958:
1957 1958
4-H Club members
receiving definite training in:
Money management ......------........................... 11,736 12,211
Beautification of home grounds**--enrolled...... 4,081 3,992
Home Management (Good Housekeeping)-
enrolled ....----- ------................... .................. 1,712 1,956
Electricity**- enrolled ...--......-.......... .. ............. 2,543 2,953

Special training in management, art in the home, and electricity was
given to 4-H girls, voluntary local leaders, and home demonstration agents
numbering 500 at the annual 4-H Girls' Short Course. Others in the coun-
ties were assisted through leader training meetings, 4-H Club and junior
council meetings, and home visits.
Requests for help with home improvement have increased during the
past few years. Apparently the home demonstration agents, assisted by
the home improvement and other Extension specialists, will need to train
more voluntary local leaders and help provide opportunities for them to
help in their communities.

Home demonstration reports only.
** Boys and girls, in cooperation with Extension Horticulturists and Associate
Engineer.







Annual Report, 1958 83


MARKETING AND HOME INDUSTRIES

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

People continued to be concerned with the problems of extending and
increasing income. This project's objective was to help people solve in-
come problems. Facts about consumer goods and ways to improve man-
agement practices were presented to the general public through television,
radio programs, news articles, and leaflets. Information about producing
and marketing agricultural and home-produced products and services, as
well as about consumer goods and management of all resources, were given
individuals and groups.
Consumer Information, Management, and Family Economics.-In the
consumer information phase, major emphasis was on buying foods, equip-
ment, ready-made clothing, household textiles, and house furnishings. In
management of resources, emphasis was on managing time, energy, and
money. Families were assisted with problems concerning selection, pur-
chasing, and "making versus buying" decisions. In family economics,
financial planning, banking, investments, use of credit, insurance, social
security, and family legal affairs were emphasized.
County Extension agents devoted 1,527 days to home management and
family economics. They estimated that 60,391 different persons adopted
improved management practices as a result of their efforts.
Home Industries, Arts, and Crafts.-Home industries were developed
to supplement family income and to provide profitable leisure-time activi-
ties or part-time work for the old and very young family members. Home
demonstration agents assisted 123 persons with developing supplemental

Fig. 22.-Three 4-H Club girls study management of time, energy and
money in a short course class.




Tlv,'e thIrq' to pj..I!




STIM l T TI T1iL






h"1 ,.J f lil vC t

T., ,
,- .: '
V _" '' J.l'


C '







Florida Cooperative Extension


sources of income on the farm. In 35 counties, agents assisted 2,373 per-
sons with producing agricultural and handicraft products for market.
One thousand two hundred and ninety of them marketed standardized
products and 1,438 improved the quality of products sold. Eight hundred
and eighty-nine individuals were assisted with marketing home products
(arts, crafts, etc.) through roadside or other farm retail markets.
Four-H and home demonstration club members in 31 counties reported
receiving a total of $254,072.35 from sale of food products, plants, flowers,
handicraft articles and services such as baby sitting, catering, and sewing.
In addition to the cash received for their products, many families con-
tributed home-made products to charity and community drives in place
of cash. During 1958, clubs and county councils earned $18,803.00 at com-
munity money-making activities. These earnings were used to improve
club and community buildings, promote 4-H and home demonstration
work, make contributions to health drives, and help needy individuals
and families.
The demand for learning craft skills was met by helping people know
and apply art principles to homemaking and by helping them create and
pr-oduce articles for family use, gifts, and sale. All craft activities were a
definite part of a basic family living program. Seven hundred and eighty-
six volunteer leaders actively assisted with this part of the program.
Agents, leaders and specialists in 48 counties assisted 12,369 families
with practices incident to the production of arts and crafts.
Marketing Activities.-People who worked closely with home demon-
stration agents looked to them for guidance and assistance in marketing
farm products. Home demonstration agents devoted 103 days to marketing
agricultural products. They helped 8 organized cooperative and 20 infor-
mally organized groups with marketing. A total of 3,299 persons were
assisted by home demonstration agents with some phase of farm market-
ing, including preparation for market, outlook and market information,
arranging to sell, and selling. Agents estimated that 188,321 persons re-
ceived consumer information on agricultural products.
Program Development.-The marketing and home industries program
was integrated with related subject matter. In 51 counties, the program
was planned and developed by members of the Agricultural Extension
Service, volunteer leaders, home demonstration and 4-H Club members,
and others working cooperatively.
Volunteer leaders assisting with this program included 857 in home
management, 639 in family economics, 72 in marketing of home products,
and 786 in home arts and crafts. Agents conducted 122 leader training
meetings in management and family economics and 199 in home arts and
crafts. Six thousand two hundred and twenty-seven leaders attended these
meetings.
Leaders received subject matter information, developed production
skills, and learned how to present information to others. Training was given
in (1) improving consumer buying practices; (2) using the basic principles
of management to improve practices concerning use of time, energy, and
money; (3) managing family business affairs; (4) making quality products
of palmetto, bamboo, palm spathes, pine needles, cattail rush, cypress
knees, reed, and other native materials; (5) improving standards, packag-
ing, and labeling of home products; (6) interpreting laws and regulations
concerning the marketing of products; (7) making toys and games from
scrap and gifts from inexpensive materials; (8) making personal acces-
sories, such as bags, hats, and jewelry; (9) making accessories for the
home, such as copper planters, wooden bowls, trays, stools, lamps and
lampshades, and rugs, and refinishing furniture; (10) planning, arrang-








Annual Report, 1958 85

ing, and evaluating exhibits for county fairs, achievement days, and
other special events; (11) planning club and council programs based on
problems of people and getting more people to assist with the planning.
Leaders who received training taught others. They held 1,411 meetings,
attended by 19,902 persons.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized management of
time, energy, and money; using consumer information when selecting
foods, clothing, textiles, equipment, house furnishings, and cosmetics;
using improved practices and methods when producing articles for sale
or for gifts; and keeping more accurate and complete records. There were
1,956 club members enrolled in home management projects and 12,211
members received definite training in money management. A total of
2,051 members enrolled in home industries, art, and crafts completed
7,920 articles.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NUTRITION

Alice L. Cromartie, Extension Nutritionist
Susan R. Christian, Assistant Nutritionist Farm and Home
Development Specialist

The Extension nutrition staff has assisted all counties with program
planning throughout the year and made a concentrated effort to reach
all major and minor emphasis counties. Among the most important achieve-
ments in 1958 was the comprehensive training of agents in nutrition,
better equipping the agent to do her job.
The Nutritionists assisted agents in program planning through analyz-
ing local situations, identifying problems, and developing a basic food and
nutrition program for the county. Eleven counties were assisted with
major emphasis and 14 with minor emphasis program planning. With a
planning group or with the agent alone, the Nutritionist assisted in setting
up study topics which would help solve county problems. From these
planning sessions, agent and Nutritionist were able to decide on scope
of subject matter to be covered, to list cooperating agencies to be involved
in implementing the program, to decide which printed and illustrative
materials would be used in the programs, and which of these were to be
developed by the Specialist. Programs to be given by trained leaders
were set up and leader development sessions planned. Special interest

Fig. 23.-The State Senior Council family food chairman (left) and a
woman editor of a national magazine discuss a food exhibit at the council
meeting.








Annual Report, 1958 87

groups were also planned with Nutritionist's help and in some groups the
Nutritionist planned to assist the agent with direct teaching.
As a result of this type planning, programs have improved and the
training of leaders and provision of opportunities for their functioning
has been accelerated. This was evident in the agents' reports on leader-
ship training, and also in the nature of programs planned.
Sixteen thousand, eight hundred and eighty-seven homemakers reported
more vegetables in family meals and 13,482 used more dairy foods in
main dishes, beverages, and salads. Weight control has been included in
program plans and this year a total of 10,115 people were assisted with
this problem through the organized club program and special interest
groups. Since a large segment of Florida's population falls into young
children and senior citizen age groupings, programs have been planned
to emphasize nutrient needs of these groups. Agents reported reaching
14,292 families.
Specialists assisted agents in 22 county leader development sessions.
Twenty-eight counties had leadership development workshops conducted
by agents after planning sessions with the Specialist. Leadership develop-
ment workshops in food conservation resulted in 657 local club meetings
being given by leaders. Agents held 106 leader development meetings in
food and nutrition and there were 699 local club meetings given by leaders
as a result of this training. There were 67 leader development workshops
on gardening and/or fruit plantings. Leaders gave 240 local club meetings
and 16 radio and/or TV presentations on gardening.
At the Annual State Senior Council Meeting and Short Course the
Specialists conducted leader development classes in food fact and fallacy.
The instruction was aimed at inspiring the participants to carry the infor-
mation back to local communities or clubs. As a result, agents report
that leaders have carried the information back through 129 club meetings,
8 radio or TV programs and 46 special interest groups.
Program planning has been based on cooperative assistance of the
Gainesville Staff in such subject matter areas as home gardens, poultry,
dairying, meat animals, and meat cutting. This year reports indicated
that there were 4,364 home gardens raised and 4,308 families producing
poultry and eggs for home use.
All or part of the milk supply was produced by 3,544 families. Five
area meat schools were sponsored by Extension workers in cooperation
with the National Live Stock and Meat Board. These schools were aimed
at the professional level, including teachers, butchers, restaurateurs, Ex-
tension agents, and school lunch personnel.







88 Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
J. A. Gresham, District Agent
The AgLicultural Extension Service program for negroes was under
the direct leadership of 10 negro county agents, in Jackson, Gadsden,
Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, Alachua, Marion and Sumter counties.
The program was determined and executed through close cooperation
with community leaders, advisory councils, specialists, and the office of
the supervising agent.








r1b












Igat


___-


Fig. 24.-These Negro boys and their Negro county agent (center) are
proud of their prize-winning pigs.








Annual Report, 1958


Financial support for the program was increased in Gadsden, Leon,
Jeffeison, Columbia and Marion counties. All counties gave assistance in
transporting 4-H Club members to the state 4-H short course and state
4-H Club summer camp.
The annual state conference for agricultural and home agents was held
on the campus of Florida A. and M. University September 15-19, with
all negro Extension agents in attendance. This was a workshop type con-
ference and all persons attending participated.
One state 4-H Club short course was held on the campus of Florida
A. and M. University June 3-7, with 318 club members attending. All
activities were in charge of 4-H Club members except for group instruction.
Four 4-H Club boys attended the Regional 4-H Club Camp in Washing-
ton, D. C., August 10-18, because of their excellence in leadership and
project work.
Two district 4-H Club market swine shows were held October 16-17,
at Gainesville and Monticello. Premium monies were donated by the State
Department of Agriculture and Alachua and Jefferson county commis-
sioners.
One state-wide corn improvement show and a swine judging contest
was held by 4-H Club boys at the North Florida Fair October 29 to No-
vember 1, with premium monies provided by the State Department of
Agriculture and the North Florida Fair Association.
Six 4-H club teams representing 6 counties conducted 8 team demon-
strations at the State Fair. One youth achievement day program was
held jointly by New Homemakers of America, New Farmers of America,
and the State 4-H Club organization. The Howard Blake High School
Band furnished music for this event.
Two county Extension agents attended the special summer school for
Extension workers at Prairie View State College, Texas, June 1-28. Two
others attended classes at Florida A. and M. University, Tallahassee.
A state-wide farmers' and homemakers' conference was held on the
campus of A. and M. University, December 5, with 220 farm people in
attendance. This conference was held jointly by the university and the
Agricultural Extension Service.
Negro county agents reported 1958 activities as follows:
Farm visits ... ......... .... ........... ............. 5,740
Office calls ---........... -.... ................... 6,517
Telephone calls ..................... ......-........... ... ... 4,236
News articles or stories prepared .............................. 163
Broadcasts made or prepared ................ .................. 10
Bulletins distributed .......................... .. ..... ........ 13,285
Adult result demonstrations conducted........................ 169
Training meetings held for local leaders.................... 54
Attendance ...................................................... 1,227
All other adult meetings held or participated in.... 185
Attendance ................-- .....- .... .... ........ 6,822
Y. W M work ................ ..... ......... -. 36
Attendance ......................... ........ ... 676
4-H Club work ............-----................ 395
Attendance ... ................... ...................... ........... 19,601
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders............ 89
Attendance .. ---.............- ...-.... ....... 1,626
Y. W M W ork ............-----. ............... 33
A attendance ................... ....... ......... ... 398
4-H Club Work ........---------........ ...- ....... 140
Attendance ........... .... .. ... ...................... 4,931







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration work for negro women and girls is established
in 12 counties: Alachua, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Gadsden, Hillsborough,
Jackson, Leon, Madison, Marion, Putnam, and Volusia. With the excep-
tion of Dade, these counties are located in the general farming area of
the northwestern and central sections of the state.


Fig. 25.-Their 4-H Club work offers Negro girls important training
in wise buying.

Special emphasis has been placed on in-service and pre-service training
of negro home demonstration agents as follows:
The 12 negro home demonstration agents received special training in
4-H Club work, with the State Girls' 4-H Club Agent serving as consultant.
Special pre-service training was given the two new home demonstration
agents. During this 10-day training period: The state office gave guidance
along the line of Extension policies, procedures, and background material,
the district office guided the new agents in office management, report
making, and plan of work, and a negro county home demonstration agent
assisted the new agents with field and office management from a county
level.
The annual conference for county agricultural and home demonstra-
tion agents offered an opportunity for all agents to improve themselves
professionally. The theme of the conference was: "Becoming More Effective








Annual Report, 1958


Through Better Communication." As a result of this training, home dem-
onstration work in all counties concerned has been greatly improved.
In carrying on the Extension program in 1958, negro home demonstra-
tion agents made 3,507 home visits; received 5,975 office calls; had 7,851
telephone calls; published 218 news articles; and distributed 22,354 bulletins.
As a result of Extension influence, 7,151 negro families adopted recom-
mended practices in improving their homes and surroundings; 4,178
families changed practices in providing family clothing; 8,582 families
made improvement in food production, nutrition, and health; and 2,600
families adopted improved methods in safety.
Adult Program.-The negro Extension program was designed to meet
the needs of Florida negro families. Agents reported a total of 86 organized
adult home demonstration clubs with an enrollment of 2,070 members;
held 816 method demonstration meetings with 12,011 attending; conducted
40 adult training meetings with 678 attending; held 20 county-wide meet-
ings with an attendance of 550; organized 11 adult county councils with
243 members and 565 volunteer leaders assisting in promoting the home
demonstration program. Homemakers from 12 counties assisted in setting
up a creditable state home demonstration exhibit at the Florida State Fair
and 245 families participated in 19 county home improvement tours.
4-H Club Activities.-Negro home demonstration agents reported 131
organized 4-H Clubs with 4,610 enrolled; 4-H Club girls enrolled in 12,531
projects with 9,600 completions. In addition, agents held 59 4-H training
meetings with 1,220 attending and 1,237 method demonstration meetings
with 41,856 in attendance.
Sixteen 4-H Club girls won state honors in the 1958 awards program;
4 outstanding 4-H Club girls won free trips to the 1958 Regional 4-H Club
Camp in Washington.
One State 4-H Short Course with 198 4-H Club girls and 19 4-H
leaders attending was held; 4 district camps had an enrollment of
396 girls and 25 leaders; a State 4-H Council for Negro Girls was organ-
ized with 24 county council officers from 12 counties participating; 22
4-H Club girls gave 11 team demonstrations at the State Fair; 8 4-H Club
girls gave 4 team demonstrations at the North Florida Fair; and 12
4-H Club girls were honored by the State Fair Association for meritorious
work done in their various counties.








Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


Accounting, farm, 18
Agents, county, 4
home demonstration, 4
Negro, 4
Agricultural Economics, 17
Agricultural Engineering, 23
Agronomy, 25
Allen, B. J., 31
Alston, Clifford, 43
Animal Husbandry, 27
Apiculturist's report, 29
Artificial breeding, dairy, 36
Arts and crafts, home, 83

Barmby, Bruce A., 59
Barrus, Edith Y., 63
Bee culture, 29
Beef cattle, 27
Beekeepers' Institute, 30
Britt, Floy, 90
Broadcasting, 39
Brogdon, James E., 41
Broiler management, 50
Brothers, S. L., 25
Brown, W. W., 31
Buildings, 23
Bulletins, 38
Business analysis, 43

Cake, E. W., 19
Camps, 4-H, 32, 76
Cannon, Frances C., 44, 47
Carter, Bonnie J., 80
Cattle, beef, 27
Chick production, 50
Christian, Susan R., 43, 86
Circulars, 38
Citrus fruit culture, 33
grove management, 20
marketing, 20
Clothing and textiles, 66
Conservation, food, 73
soil and water, 55
Consumer education, 81, 83
Cooper, J. Francis, 38
Cooperatives, 19
Corn, 26
Councils, 4-H, 31, 75
Cromartie, Alice L., 86
Crops, field, 25

Dairy herd improvement, 35
Dairying, 35


Dairy manufacturing, 37
Dairy marketing, 19
Dickenson, Elizabeth, 66
Director's report, 8
Disaster relief feed grain
program, 9
Disease, plant, 49
Dowling, S. E., 23
Drainage, 24
Durrance, K. L., 27

Eastwood, Ralph A., 19
Economics of production, 17
Editorial, 38
Editorial and visual aids, 69
Egg-Laying Test, 53
Electrification, 23
Entomology, 41

Family business, 18
Family life, 71, 80
Farm accounting, 18
demonstration work, Negro, 88
electrification, 23
forestry, 45
journal stories, 38, 70
management, 17
Farm and home development, 43
safety, 44
Farm and home visits, 8
Feed grain program, 9
Feeding, dairy, 36
Field crops, 25
Financial statement, 12
Florida National Egg-Laying
Test, 53
Food conservation, 73
Forestry, 45
4-H, agricultural engineering, 24
agronomy, 26
bees, 30
boys, 31
cattle, 28
dairy, 37
enrollment, 9
entomology, 42
girls, 75
marketing and home industries, 85
poultry, 52
soils and water, 56
Furnishings, home, 80


Godwin, Grant M., 31








Annual Report, 1958


Grading, judging and identifying
vegetables, 59
Grady, Eunice, 63
Gresham, J. A., 88
Grove management, 20

Hamilton, H. G., 17
Harris, Ruth E., 71
Haynie, John D., 29
Health education, 77
Henderson, J. R., 25
Herbert, J. H., Jr., 55
Herndon, T. G., 45
Holstein, Helen D., 63
Home demonstration agents, 4
demonstration, Negro, 90
demonstration, program
coverage, 65
demonstration work, 63
grounds, 48
improvement, 80
safety, 44
Horn, G. C., 57
Horticulture, ornamental, 47
House furnishings, 80

Irrigation, 24
Insect problems, 41
Institutes, citrus, 34

Jamison, F. S., 58
Jensen, A. S., 45
Judging schools, 32

Kalch, L. W., 50
Kendall, Gladys, 83
King, Emily, 75

Landscaping, 48
Lawrence, Fred P., 33
Leadership, 64

McAllister, J. W., 38
McCown, Jack T., 33
McDonald, Bonnie B., 73
McElwee, E. W., 47
Machinery, 24
Management, dairy, 36
farm, 17
Manufacturing, dairy, 37
Marketing activities, 19, 84
eggs and poultry, 51
meats, 27
vegetables, 60
Marketing and home industries, 83
Marvel, Mason E., 58
Mathews, Wm. H., 33


Meats, 27
Mehrhof, N. R., 50
Merchandising vegetables, 60
Mitchell, W. G., 38
Montelaro, James, 58
Moore, J. S., 50
Moxley, C. C., 17
Mullin, R. S., 49

National Egg-Laying Test, 53
Negro farm demonstration work, 88
Negro home demonstration work, 90
NeSmith, James, 25
News releases, 38
Norton, Joseph D., 59
Nutrition, 86

Organizations, 19
Ornamental horticulture, 47
O'Steen, A. W., 50
Outlook work, 17

Pace, J. E., 27
Personnel, 11
Pettis, A. M., 23, 44
Plan service, building, 23
Plant pathology, 49
Poultry, 50
Poultry Institute, 53
Poultry marketing, 19
Power, 24
Printed materials, 38
Production economics, 17
program development, 64, 84
projection, 10
Programs in counties, 9
Pruning citrus, 33
Publications, 9, 38, 42, 48

Radio broadcasting, 39
Random sample poultry test, 53
Reaves, C. W., 35
Records, dairy, 35
Recreation, 77
Reddish, R. L., 27
Rose, S. A., 47
Rosenberger, S. E., 60
Rural development, 17

Safety, 44
Savage, Zach, 20
Schools, 32, 34, 42, 49
Sharpe, M. H., 38
Short course, boys' 4-H, 32
girls' 4-H, 75
Negro 4-H, 89, 91
Sikes, Anna Mae, 63








Florida Cooperative Extension


Skinner, T. C., 23
Social security, 18
Soils, 57
Soil and water conservation, 55
Sparks, T. W., 35
Statistical report, 13
Supervision, 12
Swine, 27

Tax and social security, 18
Television materials, 39
Textiles and clothing, 66
Thompson, Ann, 75
Training, 11, 48, 57, 64, 69
Turf management, 48
Turkey management, 50


Vegetable production and
merchandising, 58
Vegetable, commercial
production, 58
gardening, 59
retail merchandising, 60
Visual aids, 40, 69

Warren, Alma, 69
Weight control, 77
White, R. W., Jr., 47
Wildlife camp, 32
Williams, G. E., 50

Young, H. B., 35




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