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 Front Cover
 Background
 Overview
 Posters
 Archival material
 Objects, chapbooks, pictures,...
 Other items of note
 Back Cover






Title: Brazil's Padre Cicero : views from the Ralph della Cava gift to the UF Libraries
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076828/00001
 Material Information
Title: Brazil's Padre Cicero : views from the Ralph della Cava gift to the UF Libraries
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Affiliation: University of Florida -- George A. Smathers Libraries -- Department of Special and Area Studies Collections
Publisher: Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Publication Date: 2007
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Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076828
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Background
        Page 1
    Overview
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Posters
        Page 5
    Archival material
        Page 6
    Objects, chapbooks, pictures, miscelaneana
        Page 6
    Other items of note
        Page 6
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text

UFf UNIVERSITY of
UF IFLORIDA
George A. Smathers Libraries
Department of Special and Area Studies Collections
Latin American Collection



Brazil's Padre Cicero:
Views from the
Ralph della Cava Gift
to the IUFLibraries







The Ralph della Cava Gift on


Padre Cicero and Popular


Religion in Brazilian Northeast


Background


The gift of Ralph della Cava to the University of Florida
Libraries (henceforth designated as the RDC Collection)
consists of varied holdings on the social, religious and
political history of the Brazilian Northeast.

Among its more prized components and dimensions are
hundreds of late 19th-century and early 20th-century
archival and printed sources, many rare and unique, that
deal with the life and times of Padre Cicero Romdo Batista
(1844-1934) and the popular religious movement he
inspired.

A Roman Catholic priest, "defrocked" by church authorities,
a sometime political office holder, and most oft-described as
a "miracle-worker" by rich and poor alike, this controversial
cleric has bequeathed a hotly contested life and legacy. For
better than a century now, both partisans and scholars have
studied, interpreted and debated them. Backland bards
and artisans enshrine them in poetry, music and folk art.
And each year, some two million pilgrims converge from
all points of the compass on the one-time crossroad of
Juazeiro do Norte, now the second largest and richest city
in the State of Ceard. There the tomb and the church of
this erstwhile nonagenarian, deceased for more than seven
decades, hold out for many the hope of miracles.

At the heart of the controversy was an alleged miracle. It
took place for the first time in 1889: the consecrated host
administered by Padre Cicero to a pious woman, Maria
de Ara6jo, turned into blood. Declared to be the blood of
Christ, shed once again to redeem the world; it recurred
periodically for a decade.

Church authorities protractedly condemned the
phenomenon and its interpretation as blasphemous
and heretical; some branded it a hoax. Eventually, the
Vatican itself intervened, suspending Padre Cicero


from orders, rescinding his power to administer the
sacraments and eventually threatening him outright
with excommunication, conditions he struggled for the
remainder of his life to reverse.

But, the poor and dispossessed of the Brazilian
Northeast, subject (even today) to social and political
exclusion and exploitation, condemned to seeking
out a meager livelihood, and left abandoned to the
destructiveness of recurrent drought, descended on
Juazeiro in the tens of thousands in search of work,
dignity and a better life, here and in the hereafter.

Who better than Padre Cicero to redeem their hopes?
During previous climatic crises, which claimed thousands
of lives, he remained in place, succoring nature's victims,
while government leaders and foreign-born clergy fled to
the safety of coastal cities. His reputation for selflessness
preceded the notoriety of the miracles and so endowed
them and its chief protagonist with credibility beyond any
and all condemnation. It earned him, moreover, enduring
admiration and the unswerving loyalty and affection of
generations of admirers.

Within a decade, the influx of drought victims, economic
migrants and pilgrims transformed the small hamlet into a
thriving agricultural, artisan and commercial center. It also
acquired the dubious reputation of a "New Jerusalem," a
holy city where work and prayer indeed predominated, but
one in which holy men (beatos) also roamed the streets,
dispensing "blessings" and cures, while other believers, in
expectation of the last days, gathered in flagellant societies
and "celestial courts" During ensuing decades, real and
alleged deviation from orthodoxy would compel two
bishops and a string of parish priests assigned to Juazeiro to
denounce the city as a den of fanatics and Padre Cicero their
recalcitrant patron.


COVER PHOTOS:
"Visita dos romeiros ao Juazeiro" (author unknown; probably from 1960s). Traces humble peasant as he seeks Padre Cicero for blessings.
"Padre Cicero" (portrait) inscription on verso indicates he then was about 80 years old thus dating picture from 1924.
'A beata que viu meu Padrinho Cicero sexta-feira da Paixdo" (author, Jos6 Pacheco; undated). Local woman has vision of Padre Cicero; invokes
image of Maria de Araiijo, the communicant from 1890s miracles and claims.






And yet within twenty years of the miracle, thanks to
Juazeiro's growing wealth and region-wide economic
influence, the hamlet would achieve autonomy as a county
(municipio), become embroiled in the vicissitudes of state
and national politics, and see its celebrated cleric projected
into secular controversies just as bitter, contentious and
unresolved as any ecclesiastical.

For example, was not Padre Cicero as political enemies
contended the author of the seizure at gunpoint of the
area's coveted copper deposits in 1908, the mastermind of
the overthrow of Ceard's state government in 1914, the
protector of Lampiio, the greatest of the Northeastern
bandits that roamed and ravaged the backlands during the
nineteen-twenties, and until his death in 1934 the
"kingmaker" of Ceard's governors?

Detractors knew no limits: they further suggested that
Padre Cicero may have illicitly dispersed the generous
offerings of his impoverished followers, personally profited
from the construction of great dams and new railroad lines
to which he, as the undisputed "labor czar" of a vast region,
dispatched countless brigades of grateful workers, and had
misused the extensive land holdings which he acquired
through donation or purchase.

Of course, apologists were not wanting: they insisted
Padre Cicero had become surrounded indeed, exploited
- by a coterie of self-seekers. There were, for example, Dr.
Floro Bartholomeu da Costa, the adventurer-physician
from Bahia in search of political power and who, in effect,
became the cleric's "alter-ego" and rose to the high office of
federal deputy; the itinerant Franco-Belgian engineer and
aristocrat, Conde Adolpho Van den Brule who crossed the
Atlantic in search of riches; and last but not least, the beata
"Mocinha" (Joana Tertuliano de Jesus), the protective
major-domo of the cleric's household who, especially during
his last decades as his health faltered and sight failed,
controlled the comings and goings of job seekers, politicos,
foreigners and pilgrims.

Today, more than seventy years since Padre Cicero's death,
his devotees continue to honor him. The annual pilgrimages
that until recently were vehemently attacked by church
leaders grow in numbers and frequency, while a new bishop
has seized the day to declare them a pastoral mission of
capital importance. In contrast to his predecessors, the
prelate even petitioned Rome in 2005 to "rehabilitate" Padre
Cicero and submitted as proofs of his fidelity to the See of
Peter the life-long service he rendered the poor and his long
and arduous pursuit to have his priestly orders restored.

Nor have scholars recoiled from reexamining past issues as
well as taking on the larger questions of social
transformation, which often transcend personalities. Since
the late nineteen-seventies, they have gathered to do so
most notably at three international conferences. Meanwhile


they, myriads of graduate students and innumerable writers
and journalists, have contributed to an annually expanding
bibliography as they return again and again to the
persistently controversial historical question that is "the
Juazeiro of Padre Cicero'"


Overview

Ralph della Cava's gift to our Libraries at UF include books,
journals, newspaper issues, as well as critical archival
materials such as Padre Cicero's personal correspondence and
that of diverse ecclesiastical authorities. There are also rare
photographs, broadsides, taped interviews, and artifacts
(such as medals, statues, and similar religious images).

The collection was assembled over the course of more
than forty years, but especially from 1962 until 1975 when
Dr. della Cava undertook his own major work on the life
and legacy of Padre Cicero and of the religious and social
movement that is inseparable from him. These resources
also speak to the systematic effort and dedication of one
historian to uncover the realities behind legend, error and
partisanship and replace them with a new and truer account
of a complex and controversial past.

Presented here is a sampling of some of the rare or unique
materials of the RDC Collection.

Note: during the course of the last century the original name
of the hamlet, Joaseiro, underwent several orthographic
changes. Among the most recurrent are Juazeiro do Norte
(to distinguish it from the eponymous city in the State of
Bahia), and today's official designation, Juazeiro do Norte.
In the listing which follows, citations correspond to the
spelling found in the original source.

I. Monographs
(published and
unpublished)

"Album de Juazeiro do
Norte" 1951. 68 p.
Provides biographical
background on
individuals involved in the
ecclesiastical controversy.

"Album hist6rico do
Seminario Episcopal do
Crato" Rio de Janeiro;
1925. 243 p.
Similar to the item above,
but applicable to the 'A biografia e morte de meu
city of Crato, Juazeiro do Padrinho" (author, Jos6 Ayres Fliho;
Norte's historic political 1934). Written just after death of
and economic rival. Padre Cicero; very rare & very fragile.






Alencar Peixoto, Joaquim, Padre. "Joazeiro do Cariry"
- Fortaleza; 1913. 227 p.
The author, a political ally at the outset of Juazeiro
do Norte's quest for political autonomy from Crato,
subsequently turned despondent over his failed bid to
become Juazeiro's first mayor (prefeito); perhaps out of
revenge he claimed that the blood on the host received
by the communicant was due to a mouth infection,
and that the alleged miracles were a hoax. He branded
pilgrims as criminals, bandits, and low class troublemakers
and refers to Padre Cicero as a 'califa' a mere worldly
powerbroker. Alencar Peixoto's work is the first in a long
line of calumnious attacks on the alleged miracles and its
protagonists.

Araijo, Antonio Gomes de, Padre. "Apostolado do
embuste" Crato; 1956. 62 p.
Purports the miracles were the result of chemical alterations
perpetrated in a premeditated hoax by close associates of
Padre Cicero. This work led the Archbishop of Fortaleza
to ban all public discussion by detractors and defenders of
Padre Cicero among the clergy.

Barros, Jos6 Goes de Campos. "A ordem dos penitentes"
- Fortaleza; 1937. 12 leaves.
A transcription of an out-of-print memoire by the military
officer charged with the routing of an allegedly unorthodox
religious settlement at Caldeirdo, led by Jos6 Lourenco,
a beato and devotee of Padre Cicero's. The text was
personally typed and offered to Ralph Della Cava by Alba
Frota, a childhood friend of the renowned writer, Raquel
de Queiroz, and one of the "three Marias" in the latter's
eponymous novel.


"Joaseiro e o Padre Cicero"

The UF copy is signed by
the author, then a federal
deputy from Ceard, who
delivered this defense of
Padre Cicero at a session
of the Brazilian National
Congress.

Dinis, Manuel.
"Misterios do Joazeiro"
Joazeiro; 1935.
Former teacher calls Pe.
Alencar Peixoto's charges
against Pe. Cicero 'gross
exaggerations;' he also
accuses Dr. Floro of
misuse of public funds.


Portrait of Floro Bartomomeu Costa


"Execucgo do testamento do Padre Cicero Romio
Batista e Inventario do Dr. Floro Bartholomeu da Costa:
documents em fac-simile" Fortaleza; 1997. 164 p. (1st
printing: Fortaleza, 1977)
This facsimile edition of Padre Cicero's last will and
testament and an accompanying inventory of the personal
property of his "alter-ego," Dr. Floro Bartolomeu da Costa, is
considered the only authentic version currently in print.

Lourenco Filho, Manoel Bergstr6m. "Joaseiro do Padre
Cicero" Sao Paulo; 1926. 221 p.
A pioneer of free public education, the Paulista author
deprecated the paucity of primary schools in Juazeiro, put
in doubt Padre Cicero's mental faculties, deprecated the
miserable conditions of the city and in so doing helped
perpetuate the impression of Juazeiro's backwardness and of
Pe. Cicero's culpatility for it.

Macedo, Manuel, Padre. "Joazeiro em foco" Fortaleza;
1925.
This native son, appointed pastor of Juazeiro do Norte's
church of Our Lady of Sorrows, spoke for many other native
sons who politically opposed Dr. Floro, an outsider, charging
him with corruption and having made Padre Cicero his
virtual captive.

Morel, Edmar. "Padre Cicero, o santo do Juazeiro" -
Rio de Janeiro; 1946. 247 p.
One of Brazil's best-known correspondents of, among the
first, now defunct, nation-wide newspaper chains, the
Didrios Associados, Morel drew an ambiguous portrait
of Padre Cicero. Praise for the cleric's devotion to the
infirm and destitute was offset by the insinuation that his
adeptness in managing finances and his acuity for business
may have been less than selfless. In the end, the volume
rekindled on a national scale more than a decade after the
nonagenarian's death some of the controversies that were on
their way to extinction.

Oliveira, Antonio Xavier de. "Beatos e cangaceiros"
- Rio de Janiero; 1920. 248 p.
Xavier de Oliveira, a native son of Juazeiro, lost the election
for federal deputy to Dr. Floro. Resentful of the outsider's
hold over Padre Cicero, he blamed Dr. Floro for the alleged
vacuum in public authority in Juazeiro and also, in no small
way, for the widespread criminality and religious heterodoxy
within the region. So enduringly injurious was this work to
Juazeiro's image, it is said the author never again set foot in
his birthplace.

Theophilo, Rodolpho. "A sedicio do Joazeiro" Sao
Paulo; 1922. 275 p.
Scientist, novelist and standard-bearer of the urban middle
classes of Fortaleza, Ceard's capital, Theophilo vehemently
denounced Juazeiro's role in the armed deposition of Franco
Rabelo, the first, but short-lived, elected executive of the
state. He polemicized whether Padre Cicero's entry into


Costa, Floro Bartolomeu da.
- Rio de Janeiro; 1923. 182 p.







politics was not for
the citizens of Juazeiro
a worse scourge than
drought and dismissed
him as the inspiration
for many political and
common crimes.

II. Special format
items (Broadsides,
separate newspaper
issues, & flyers)

a. Padre Cicero's death

"Pe. Cicero Romio
"ABC do Padre Cicero no centenCrio Batista: missa do
do Ap6stolo do Nordeste: sua vida e 7o. dia" (1 flyer;
more (author, Lcio Virzea; 1944) 24 x 17 cm.; 1934)
Announcement that a
special mass was planned
for July 26, 1934 to mark the death of Padre Cicero; it urges
the public to conduct itself in silence and with dignity.

"Uma saudoza lembranqa do velho amigo e antigo
secretario do Revdmo. Padre Cicero Romeo Batista" -
(1 flyer; 25 x 17 cm.; 1934?) Eulogy is offered by Jos6
Ferreira de Menezes to Padre Cicero.

"Aos amigos e correligionarios do inesquecivel Padre
Cicero Romio Batista" (1 flyer; 24 x 18 cm.; 1934)
- Reaffirms the political works of Pe. Cicero, recently
deceased, and urges all his supporters to close ranks
behind Dr. Juvencio de Santanna; the names of Antonio
Pita, Jos6 Ferreira de Menezes and others who endorsed
this call are affixed at bottom.

b. Church Matters

"Correio do Cariry: o orgam do Partido Republicano" -
(51 x 37 cm.: 11 de junho de 1905) A two page issue of
the weekly newspaper published in Crato, containing an
editorial calling on families to practice civil marriages prior
to formal Church marriages. In many ways the Church saw
Brazil's move from imperial government to republicanism
as a foreign and Protestant-inspired movement. At head of
front page in ink: D. Joaquim Jos6 Vieira, Bispo do Ceari.

"Jornal do Cariri" (65 x 44 cm.; 25 nov. 1905)
- Published in Barbalha, this front page newspaper issue
transcribes texts of telegrams of best wishes to Pe. Cicero
as reports announce that he can once again say mass
throughout the diocese.


c. Political life

"Boletim: os nossos covardes inimigos, igualmente ao
despudorado Padre Macedo, ja vio esmorecendo" (1
flyer; 24 x 14 cm.; mid 1920s ?) Defends Floro Bartolomeu
from verbal attacks by Pe. Macedo; this promises that Dr.
Floro will unmask the campaign of lies being put forward.

"Telegrammas da Gazeta do Joazeiro ..." (1 broadside;
40 x 15 cm.; mid 1920s ?) Reports on Pe. Macedo, and
possible misuse by him of Church money: 'cade o dinheiro
do commercio do Crato?'

"Telegrammas da Gazeta do Joazeiro" (1 broadside;
18 x 14 cm.; mid 1920s?) Uses derogatory term "Padre
Bexiga Preta" for Padre Macedo.

"Titulo de eleitor" (23 x 17 cm.; 1924?) Voter registra-
tion card registering Joao Vieira Ramos, in Juazeiro; dates
penciled on verso mark use in 1924, 1926 and 1928 votes.

"Boletim" (1 broadside; 40 x 14 cm ; mid 1920s?) -
3 telegrams reproduced: 1 of which is addressed to Coronel
Vicente Linhares that contest statements from Padre
Macedo accusing Dr. Floro as author of numerous murders.

"Protesto" (1 broadside; 38 x 22 cm.; 1925) Hermelinda
Correia de Macedo defends herself and family member
Padre Macedo in land squabble with Pe. Cicero.

"Boletim: a miseria do malvado Padre Macedo e de seu
vil comparsa Jose Geraldo" (1 broadside; 41 x 27 cm.;
1925) Delineates several reports of worsening relations
between Pe. Cicero, Floro Bartolomeu and Jos6 Geraldo da
Cruz, with accusations of death threats from both sides.

"Boletim: a traicio no seu mais alto grio" -
(1 broadside; 42 x 17 cm.; mid 1920s?) Labels Jos6 Geraldo
da Cruz a traitor for calling Pe. Cicero a liar.

"Boletim: Jos4 Geraldo desmente o Padre Cicero" -
(1 flyer; 19 x 15 cm.; 1925) Relates Padre Cicero's request
for a written public apology from Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz; Jose
Geraldo insists he did not send telegram with Pe. Macedo
insulting Pe. Cicero.

"Uma recommendacio do Rvmo. Padre Cicero Romao
Baptista aos romeiros" (1 flyer; 20 x 15 cm.; 1930?)
- Promotional flyer from Jose Ferreira de Menezes offering
services to pilgrims, and stating that he alone is authorized
by Pe. Cicero to acknowledge their letters and offerings.

"Boletim: discurso proferido pelo Pe. Cicero por
ocassiao de receber uma grande manifestacio do povo
como protest is diatribes publicadas no O Nordeste
pelo Pe. Manuel Macedo ..'" (1 broadside; 32 x 18 cm.;
mid-1920?) Defends Dr. Floro as a physician, not merely
an adventurer.






"0 Padre Cicero concede uma entrevista .." -
(50 x 33 cm.; 20 sept. de 1925) Issue of the newspaper,
O Cear ; interview addresses clash with Pe. Macedo over
gambling (jogos), and other matters.
"Boletim: telegrammas recebidos e enviados pelo Dr.
Floro Bartholomeu ..." (1 broadside; 36 x 15 cm.; 1925?)
- Messages regarding political attacks in regional press and
steps for response.

d. Continuing Legacy

"Terceira denunciacio: Monsenhor Juviniano Barreto,
o maior inimigo de Padre Cicero, do Juazeiro, dos
romeiros e dos Padres Salesianos" (1 broadside; 38 x 22
cm.; 1948?) Describes how in 1917, on orders from the
Bishop of Crato, Monsignor Juviniano obliged Pe. Cicero to
recant in the church square the alleged miracles.

"Outras faganhas: Monsenhor, o maior inimigo do Padre
Cicero, do Juazeiro e dos Padres Salesianos" (1 flyer;
29 x 18 cm.; 1948?) Reports that Monsignor Juviniano
drew his greatest satisfaction from order banning Pe. Cicero
from performing priestly duties; calls on pilgrims to stay
away from Monsignor Juviniano.

"Monsenhor Juviniano Barreto, o maior inimigo do
Padre Cicero ..." (1 broadside; 30 x 22 cm.; 1959?) -
States that Monsignor Juviniano wanted to destroy statute
of Pe. Cicero erected in the main square, ordered priests
sympathetic to Padre Cicero to leave the Cariri, and is the
number one enemy of pilgrims and of progress for Juazeiro.

"Jose Marrocos" (1 broadside ; 33 x 19 cm.; 1956) Reprint
of eulogy & profile of the life and work of Jos6 Marrocos
written by Padre Alencar Peixoto at time of Marrocos's
death in 1910; print statement reads: devulgacio do gremio
literario 'Jos6 Marrocos' do Instituto 24 de marco, da
Sociedade Padre Cicero, Juazeiro de Norte, Ceard; rumors
over the years have tied Dr. Floro to the sudden death of
Marrocos (poison).

"A voz do Santuario: orgio do Santuario do Sagrado
Coracqo de Jesus" (32 x 22 cm.; 1 de outubro de 1964) 2
page issue of newsletter under direction of Pe. Gino Moratelli;
calls for all to turn to God, as Pe. Cicero had "dreamt".

"Programa das festividades que serdo realizadas por
ocasiao da bencao e lancamento da pedra fundamental
do Santuario de Nossa Senhora das Dores de Fatima
em Juazeiro ..." (33 x 22 cm; 1955) 4 p. event program
highlights formal links to Portuguese shrine of Fatima,
with intent of construction project to create a similar holy
place. Message from Pe. Demoutiez reads: "Juazeiro estA
verdadeiramente 'Fatimazado".

"Aviso do Padre Cicero Romao Batista a prop6sito dos
acontecimentos que breve virfo sobre a terra"


(1 broadside; 34 x 24 cm; abril, 1964). Text dated 1920, but
with 1964 distribution date added in pencil. Pe. Cicero speaks
of military, the anti-Christ and a worldwide civil war initiated
in Russia.


Posters

"Campaign corruption poster with no title" (26 x 31
cm.; 1960s?) Cartoon lampoons typical rural land boss,
shown dragging poor, muzzled peasants to voting box.

"Mario Rosal para deputado federal" (24 x 33 cm.;
1960s?) Campaign poster, with portrait, pointing out
candidate's ties to the long-deceased Padre Cicero.

"Nordeste" (104 x 75 cm.; 1963) Print by Lina Bardi;
Bahia.

"Stop the repression and tortures in Brazil" (58 x
41 cm.; 1970) Color poster from International Union
of Students; calls for April 12 as a day of solidarity with
people and students of Brazil struggling against military
dictatorship; date from signature of artist.


~ ... .t
Xik


I -i I-
266 fe: 4


"Floro Bartolomeu" shown 4th from left is Dr. Floro, an associate
of Padre Cicero who many felt was corrupt and scheming. Photo
probably from 1914 during rebellion of Juazeiro against state
authorities, an insurrection that drew criticism to Padre Cicero and
Dr. Floro for hiring bandits to do political killings.







Archival material

Over the course of five months in 1964, Dr. della Cava
microfilmed, using a number of hand-held 35mm cameras,
a variety of materials contained in several institutional
and personal archives in Juazeiro and Crato that had
previously been closed to the public. In all, the resulting
documentation filled 17 one hundred foot reels relevant
to the life of Padre Cicero, the history of Juazeiro and the
course of the social and religious movement that arose and
flourished in the Cariry region between 1889 and 1934.

In 2005 the University of Florida had the original negatives
regenerated and three positive sets copied in order to
preserve and insure the usability of their contents for future
generations.

In 2006, one of the positive sets was presented to the
Universidade Regional do Cariry of Crato and Juazeiro,
while service copies were retained at UF, assuring access
to them to U.S. researchers. The entire regenerated master
copy is being stored under proper preservation conditions
by UF Libraries.

The principal archives are:

Arquivo do Bispado do Crato (Crato, Ceari) contains key
ecclesiastical documentation.

Arquivo do Colegio Salesiano (Juazeiro do Norte, Ceard) -
contains the extant personal correspondence of Pe. Cicero.

"O Rebate" newspaper issues covering 1909-1911; from
personal collection of Pe. Cicero Coutinho, Juazeiro do
Norte.


Objects, chapbooks,
pictures, miscelaneana

The RDC collection holds excellent examples of medals,
popular religious icons and statuary, and other images of
Padre Cicero (and Maria de Araijo, the communicant).
There is also a variety of souvenir items with Padre Cicero's
likeness eagerly acquired by pilgrims and tourists, such as
key changes, tokens, artisanal ceramics, postcards, and a
special 1944 commemorative postal envelope marking the
centennial of Padre Cicero's birth (1844).

Another notable item in the RDC collection is a nearly full,
1920s vial, in its original packaging, of"Balsamo da Vida"
(the elixir of life), a popular and widely sought after cure-all
produced by the one-time political opponent of Dr. Floro,
Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz, and sold exclusively at his Farmicia
dos Pobres in Juazeiro do Norte.


There are dozens of chapbooks a kind of pulp, pamphlet-
like, book of poetry which recount in verse both
traditional tales and the latest headlines. Hawked by
troubadours at fairs and markets throughout the Brazilian
Northeast, several in the collection deal with Padre Cicero
and events of his life; others the story of Lampiao, the
so-called bandit king of Brazil's rugged sertao; still others
the time-honored tales of romance and heroism.

Until the wide-spread use of photographs, the covers of
chapbooks were illustrated with exceptional woodcuts,
rendered by renowned engravers, whose original designs
and engraving blocks are coveted treasures.

The RDC Collection also holds a number of pictures and
portraits of Padre Cicero and associates, some originals and
some limited copies. It is important to point out here that
many of the rare books in the RDC Collection also contain
pictures and portraits.


Other items of note

A handwritten note from Padre Cicero dated 1922 on his
personal stationery.

Several binders of typed copies of telegrams to and from
Padre Cicero (the bulk from the years 1912-1916; from
originals in the possession of Dr. Francisco do Nascimento,
Fortaleza)

Interview with Jose Ferreira de Menezes (unpublished; 1964;
70 leaves) Transcript of RDC's conversation with self-
taught lawyer (rabulo) who, raised in Pe. Cicero's household,
became Dr. Floro's personal secretary.

Taped interview with Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz, a contemporary
of Padre Cicero (ca. 90 minutes; recorded in 1974), offering
firsthand accounts & insights into personalities of Padre
Cicero, Floro Bartolomeu, Beato Jose Lourenqo, and other
central figures.






^ Photo of the celebrated beat, Maria
de Araiijo, taken at the height of the
S "religious question" of Joaseiro, ca. 1891-
1898. (Courtesy oflD. Amilia Xavier de
Oliveira ofJuazeiro do Norte, Cearai).






Compiled by Ralph della Cava, Richard Phillips and Paul Losch.
-2007.







Archival material

Over the course of five months in 1964, Dr. della Cava
microfilmed, using a number of hand-held 35mm cameras,
a variety of materials contained in several institutional
and personal archives in Juazeiro and Crato that had
previously been closed to the public. In all, the resulting
documentation filled 17 one hundred foot reels relevant
to the life of Padre Cicero, the history of Juazeiro and the
course of the social and religious movement that arose and
flourished in the Cariry region between 1889 and 1934.

In 2005 the University of Florida had the original negatives
regenerated and three positive sets copied in order to
preserve and insure the usability of their contents for future
generations.

In 2006, one of the positive sets was presented to the
Universidade Regional do Cariry of Crato and Juazeiro,
while service copies were retained at UF, assuring access
to them to U.S. researchers. The entire regenerated master
copy is being stored under proper preservation conditions
by UF Libraries.

The principal archives are:

Arquivo do Bispado do Crato (Crato, Ceari) contains key
ecclesiastical documentation.

Arquivo do Colegio Salesiano (Juazeiro do Norte, Ceard) -
contains the extant personal correspondence of Pe. Cicero.

"O Rebate" newspaper issues covering 1909-1911; from
personal collection of Pe. Cicero Coutinho, Juazeiro do
Norte.


Objects, chapbooks,
pictures, miscelaneana

The RDC collection holds excellent examples of medals,
popular religious icons and statuary, and other images of
Padre Cicero (and Maria de Araijo, the communicant).
There is also a variety of souvenir items with Padre Cicero's
likeness eagerly acquired by pilgrims and tourists, such as
key changes, tokens, artisanal ceramics, postcards, and a
special 1944 commemorative postal envelope marking the
centennial of Padre Cicero's birth (1844).

Another notable item in the RDC collection is a nearly full,
1920s vial, in its original packaging, of"Balsamo da Vida"
(the elixir of life), a popular and widely sought after cure-all
produced by the one-time political opponent of Dr. Floro,
Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz, and sold exclusively at his Farmicia
dos Pobres in Juazeiro do Norte.


There are dozens of chapbooks a kind of pulp, pamphlet-
like, book of poetry which recount in verse both
traditional tales and the latest headlines. Hawked by
troubadours at fairs and markets throughout the Brazilian
Northeast, several in the collection deal with Padre Cicero
and events of his life; others the story of Lampiao, the
so-called bandit king of Brazil's rugged sertao; still others
the time-honored tales of romance and heroism.

Until the wide-spread use of photographs, the covers of
chapbooks were illustrated with exceptional woodcuts,
rendered by renowned engravers, whose original designs
and engraving blocks are coveted treasures.

The RDC Collection also holds a number of pictures and
portraits of Padre Cicero and associates, some originals and
some limited copies. It is important to point out here that
many of the rare books in the RDC Collection also contain
pictures and portraits.


Other items of note

A handwritten note from Padre Cicero dated 1922 on his
personal stationery.

Several binders of typed copies of telegrams to and from
Padre Cicero (the bulk from the years 1912-1916; from
originals in the possession of Dr. Francisco do Nascimento,
Fortaleza)

Interview with Jose Ferreira de Menezes (unpublished; 1964;
70 leaves) Transcript of RDC's conversation with self-
taught lawyer (rabulo) who, raised in Pe. Cicero's household,
became Dr. Floro's personal secretary.

Taped interview with Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz, a contemporary
of Padre Cicero (ca. 90 minutes; recorded in 1974), offering
firsthand accounts & insights into personalities of Padre
Cicero, Floro Bartolomeu, Beato Jose Lourenqo, and other
central figures.






^ Photo of the celebrated beat, Maria
de Araiijo, taken at the height of the
S "religious question" of Joaseiro, ca. 1891-
1898. (Courtesy oflD. Amilia Xavier de
Oliveira ofJuazeiro do Norte, Cearai).






Compiled by Ralph della Cava, Richard Phillips and Paul Losch.
-2007.







Archival material

Over the course of five months in 1964, Dr. della Cava
microfilmed, using a number of hand-held 35mm cameras,
a variety of materials contained in several institutional
and personal archives in Juazeiro and Crato that had
previously been closed to the public. In all, the resulting
documentation filled 17 one hundred foot reels relevant
to the life of Padre Cicero, the history of Juazeiro and the
course of the social and religious movement that arose and
flourished in the Cariry region between 1889 and 1934.

In 2005 the University of Florida had the original negatives
regenerated and three positive sets copied in order to
preserve and insure the usability of their contents for future
generations.

In 2006, one of the positive sets was presented to the
Universidade Regional do Cariry of Crato and Juazeiro,
while service copies were retained at UF, assuring access
to them to U.S. researchers. The entire regenerated master
copy is being stored under proper preservation conditions
by UF Libraries.

The principal archives are:

Arquivo do Bispado do Crato (Crato, Ceari) contains key
ecclesiastical documentation.

Arquivo do Colegio Salesiano (Juazeiro do Norte, Ceard) -
contains the extant personal correspondence of Pe. Cicero.

"O Rebate" newspaper issues covering 1909-1911; from
personal collection of Pe. Cicero Coutinho, Juazeiro do
Norte.


Objects, chapbooks,
pictures, miscelaneana

The RDC collection holds excellent examples of medals,
popular religious icons and statuary, and other images of
Padre Cicero (and Maria de Araijo, the communicant).
There is also a variety of souvenir items with Padre Cicero's
likeness eagerly acquired by pilgrims and tourists, such as
key changes, tokens, artisanal ceramics, postcards, and a
special 1944 commemorative postal envelope marking the
centennial of Padre Cicero's birth (1844).

Another notable item in the RDC collection is a nearly full,
1920s vial, in its original packaging, of"Balsamo da Vida"
(the elixir of life), a popular and widely sought after cure-all
produced by the one-time political opponent of Dr. Floro,
Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz, and sold exclusively at his Farmicia
dos Pobres in Juazeiro do Norte.


There are dozens of chapbooks a kind of pulp, pamphlet-
like, book of poetry which recount in verse both
traditional tales and the latest headlines. Hawked by
troubadours at fairs and markets throughout the Brazilian
Northeast, several in the collection deal with Padre Cicero
and events of his life; others the story of Lampiao, the
so-called bandit king of Brazil's rugged sertao; still others
the time-honored tales of romance and heroism.

Until the wide-spread use of photographs, the covers of
chapbooks were illustrated with exceptional woodcuts,
rendered by renowned engravers, whose original designs
and engraving blocks are coveted treasures.

The RDC Collection also holds a number of pictures and
portraits of Padre Cicero and associates, some originals and
some limited copies. It is important to point out here that
many of the rare books in the RDC Collection also contain
pictures and portraits.


Other items of note

A handwritten note from Padre Cicero dated 1922 on his
personal stationery.

Several binders of typed copies of telegrams to and from
Padre Cicero (the bulk from the years 1912-1916; from
originals in the possession of Dr. Francisco do Nascimento,
Fortaleza)

Interview with Jose Ferreira de Menezes (unpublished; 1964;
70 leaves) Transcript of RDC's conversation with self-
taught lawyer (rabulo) who, raised in Pe. Cicero's household,
became Dr. Floro's personal secretary.

Taped interview with Jos6 Geraldo da Cruz, a contemporary
of Padre Cicero (ca. 90 minutes; recorded in 1974), offering
firsthand accounts & insights into personalities of Padre
Cicero, Floro Bartolomeu, Beato Jose Lourenqo, and other
central figures.






^ Photo of the celebrated beat, Maria
de Araiijo, taken at the height of the
S "religious question" of Joaseiro, ca. 1891-
1898. (Courtesy oflD. Amilia Xavier de
Oliveira ofJuazeiro do Norte, Cearai).






Compiled by Ralph della Cava, Richard Phillips and Paul Losch.
-2007.








































Nlir-dllin %I, ah tinmrngn
P\jclrc oininionh~t


Sponlsort d by the oUniver.itv ot Florida George A. Spnathers Liblaries, the Howte Society,
the UF Center for Latin American Studies, and the UF Depa tinret of Relgion

UF UNIVERSITY of
UFFLORIDA
George A. Smathers Libraries
Department of Special and Area Studies Collections
Latin American Collection
www.uflib.utl.edu/LAC




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