• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties
 Current Mongolian postal rates
 Soviet censorship on international...
 Some notes on the A.N. Dobrolyubov...
 New facts about the "numerals and...
 April/May 1921 issues of the Republic...
 April/May 1921 issues of the Republic...
 Report on "Saint-Petersburg...
 Review of literature
 Use of Russian postal stationery...
 One more item of mail from Bessarabia...
 Meter postmarks of the Navy of...
 About the Charity Postage Stamps...
 Obituary: Dr. Ronald Zelonka
 Romanov-Zemstvo combination...
 Issues of stamps of the Russian...
 Customs procedure in the Estonian...
 Postal and money order markings...
 Two more examples of Registration...
 Trans-Siberian Mail Service
 Non-standard oval markings of Postal...
 Battle of Stalingrad: philately...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider. No. 60.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00060
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider. No. 60.
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: Russian
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 2007
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Europe -- Russian Federation
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00060
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Current Mongolian postal rates
        Page 6
    Soviet censorship on international correspondence in the 2nd half of the Great Patriotic War
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Some notes on the A.N. Dobrolyubov stamp of August 1936
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    New facts about the "numerals and dots" postmarks of the Russian Empire
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    April/May 1921 issues of the Republic of Armenia
        Page 26
    April/May 1921 issues of the Republic of Armenia
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Report on "Saint-Petersburg 2007"
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Review of literature
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Use of Russian postal stationery of old design after 1918
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    One more item of mail from Bessarabia in 1918
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Meter postmarks of the Navy of the USSR
        Page 49
        Page 50
    About the Charity Postage Stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Obituary: Dr. Ronald Zelonka
        Page 54
    Romanov-Zemstvo combination covers
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Issues of stamps of the Russian Empire with a chalky network 1908-1914
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Customs procedure in the Estonian SSR
        Page 85
    Postal and money order markings of the Tuvan ASSR
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Two more examples of Registration on Travelling Post Offices
        Page 90
    Trans-Siberian Mail Service
        Page 91
    Non-standard oval markings of Postal Wagons with two numbers of the routes at the beginning of the 20th century
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Battle of Stalingrad: philately and postal history
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text




51MIHIK


ThE POST-RIDER


N2 60


September 2007


Th CANAdiAN SociETy of RUSSiAN PhilATEly


Printed in Canada







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY

OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada



CSRP Website: http://www3.svmpatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider(svmpatico.ca
"The Post-Rider" N2 60. September 2007.
Contents:
2 Editorial: Pricing trends in our areas of collecting
2 Special Notes, also at 6, 12, 35, 48, 49, 50, 74, 77, 78, 111
3 An ethnographic viewcard sent from Chita in 1906 to Amherstberg, Ont., Canada Andrew Cronin
4 Zemstvo Varieties: Twentieth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
6 Current Mongolian postal rates Dr. D.J. Voaden
7 Soviet censorship on international correspondence in the 2nd. half of the Great Patriotic War Per-Christian Wall6n
12 Some Notes on the A.N. Dobrolyubov stamp of August 1936 Andrew Cronin
15 New facts about the "numerals" & "dots" postmarks of the Russian Empire Dr. A.M. Sarkisian
26 The April/May 1921 issues of the Republic of Armenia; corrected errors of 4t. & 5th. issues Dr. A.M. Sarkisian
Chassepot Pictorials Armenian Republic; 1t. .& 2nd. Essayan sets of the Armenian SSR
32 Report on "SAINT-PETERSBURG 2007" Andrew Cronin
34 Review of Literature
36 Use of Russian postal stationery of old design after 1918 Alexander Eprstein
47 One more item of mail from Bessarabia in 1918 Alexander EpStein
49 Meter postmarks of the Navy of the USSR V.Berdichevskiy
51 About the Charity Postage Stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society L.G. Ratner
54 Obituary: Dr. Ronald Zelonka
55 Romanov-Zemstvo Combination Covers John D. Myke
57 The issues of stamps of the Russian Empire with a chalky network 1908-1914-D.Gotvan' D. Anosov,A. Ignatenko
85 A Customs Procedure in the Estonian SSR Henry Blum
86 Postal and Money Order Markings of the Tuvan ASSR Andrew Cronin
90 Two more examples of Registration on Travelling Post Offices Rabbi L.L. Tann
91 The Trans-Siberian Mail Service Official excerpt unearthed by Henry Blum
92 Non-standard oval markings of Postal Wagons with two numbers of the routes 20t. Cent. Dr.V.G.Levandovskiy
99 The Battle of Stalingrad: philately and postal history Salvador Bofarull
112 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos Zolotonosha Alex Artuchov

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

Copyright 2007. The copyright of all the issues of "The Post-Rider" from Nos. 1 through to 60 was transferred on
10th. September 2007 to The Rossica Society of Russian Philately.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily
those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators
*

















Editorial
PRICING TRENDS IN OUR AREAS OF COLLECTING
In monitoring the Russian activities on e-Bay, it would seem that two distinct trends have now emerged:-
(a) There is an overall steady rise in the pricing of philatelic and postal history material in all sectors, as a result of the
general improvement of the economy in the Russian Federation. In other words, a strong Middle Class has now
emerged there and it is apparent that affluent philatelists in the mother country are steadily buying back Russian and
Soviet items. At last checking, that trend has seen the Anti-War set of 1 January 1935 (Scott 546-550) going for USD
500.00 mint never hinged and the National Militia stamp of December 1941 (Scott 859) being bid up to USD 127.00
mint. They were always scarce..
(b) There are also extreme cases where the increases are so high, that they could not possibly be due to the demand
from collectors. Rather does it come from persons wanting to put their assets into items of international value, because
they fear that their enterprises and companies may soon be renationalized. A good example is the beautiful
Chelyuskin set (Scott C58-C67), catalogued recently at USD 165.00 mint never hinged, which went for USD 2000.00
including buyer's premium (!) at a recent Cherrystone auction.
Further extreme examples have already been featured in "The Post-Rider" No. 58, p. 24 and the moral of the story
appears to be: get the material you need before prices go completely out of sight. In short, we collect because we are
philatelists and we do not let politics obscure our vision.

A Special Note of Thanks:
Your editor is highly gratified that he has received
much positive reaction and kind comments regarding
this our final issue No. 60 of "The Post-Rider". Your
editor did his best. Unfortunately, other specialist
societies have also run into the same operating
S difficulties as us and the Internet appears to have
something to do with it. All four of the CSRP
Coordinators are very proud of having been able to
publish 60 issues of our Journal "The Post-Rider"
regularly over the past 30 years and featuring more than
5000 pages of solid and original work. Our Journal is in
major philatelic libraries around the world and we feel
that such a widespread presence will serve as a very firm
basis for future research by philatelists in our fields of
interest.
On a final note, we are showing herewith from our
A archives a photo taken in 1979 in Toronto of our four
Coordinators namely from left to right:
Patrick J. Campbell, Rev. Rabbi L.L. Tann, Alex.
Artuchov and Andrew Cronin.
SPECIAL NOTE: Price alterations in our fields of collecting
Supplementing what has been said already in the Editorial above and in announcing the appearance of Volume
5, 2008 Edition of their catalogue, the Scott Publishing Company has advised that 5200 (!) price changes have been
inserted for Russia and Associated Territories; a truly monumental task. That project indicates a major revision of the
more than 7000 stamps listed in our areas of collecting and many of the reevaluations are still below the realizations
indicated on eBay! In short, the trend in pricing is still upwards and what more can we say?
2 THE POST-RIDER/ aMMWK N! 60
September 2007





CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or Xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

AN ETHHNOGRAPHIC VIEWCARD SENT FROM
CHITA IN 1906 TO AMHERSTBURG, Ont., CANADA
by Andrew Cronin.


Native types of
Transbaikalia, No. 28.
Gods in masks at the
"Tsam" festival.
"Zame", la fete des
Bouriates. Les dieux
Smasqu6s.


Tenbi nHopoAneB-'b3a6aa.bmH. A. -28.
Bora sBb m iih a na paania ,Ra .ii'.--,Z&me la Iate des Boariatea. Lee dieuz mraqusa.


OTpblTOe IHCbMO. -


Carte Postale


Mscno .a coppecnomOenuiu. o Adpect.

/ r cv)^ .......... .....................



..... .......... ......... ............. ...






A. 2D BI qH1
\OTor "a A i. y3HegOBa Bib fHTg.


Collecting viewcards was an international hobby around the early years of the 20 Century, with clubs
coming into force to facilitate exchanges, as we can see here. The surface foreign rate for cards was low (4 kop. = 2
cents U.S. = 1 penny stg.) and there was an even lower charge of 2 kop. if sent as printed matter. The example shown
here was 44 days in transit. The photographer and publisher of this card was A.K. Kuznetsov of Chita. The APN club
member No. 2872 was Hermann Kelder, who was obviously well-educated in German. The subjects in the photograph
were Buriat Mongols and it would be interesting to see who were the other natives and tribes photographed in that
series by A.K. Kuznetsov during that pre-WW1 period.

THE POST-RIDER/IMHIIK N 60 3
September 2007


c~--~-- -II~





ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: TWENTIETH INSTALMENT
by G.G. Werbizky.
It is coincidental that this instalment is the last in the series and that "The Post-Rider" goes into "Suspended
Animation". This series began in No. 40 of the journal. What is shown here is what I have in my collection. There are
undoubtedly many more varieties in collections all over the world. It was a pleasure and an honour to contribute
continuously in the twenty issues of "The Post-Rider" an esteemed journal. However, everything in this world has a
beginning and an end.


Fi. 1: Shadrinsk, Perm' province.
Chuchin No. 24, enlarged 200% with
inverted centre. I know of no other
Zemstvo stamp with inverted centre.
Gryazovets, Vologda province,
Chuchin No. 91 is known with
Inverted outer frame.


Fig. 3: Perm' province.
Chuchin No. 34, enlarged
200%. Lower horizontal
perforation is displaced
significantly downwards.


Fi. 2: Shadrinsk, Perm' province.
Chuchin No. 25. The left stamp is
perforated through the middle; the
right stamp is imperf at top and on
left side, also with perforation
through the middle.


Fi. 4: Shadrinsk, Perm' province.
Trial print, printed on both sides;
"printer's waste", enlarged 200%.
Single colour: dark blue.


Fig. : Shadrink, Perm' province. Chuchin No. 36, enlarged 200%.
Horizontal strip of four, imperforate between..


THE POST-RIDER/IMIMUHK JY 60
September 2007





Wenden,, in the former Russian region of Livonia, had many of the characteristics of the Zemstvo postal services,
although it had no Zemstvo structure. During the Soviet occupation of Latvia, the region was called Vidzeme and it is
known today as CEsis. Because of the similarities with Zemstvo issues, Wenden varieties are also being included.


f.^'I l Fig. 7: Stanley Gibbons No. 10. On the stamp at left, the green
S; colour is missing on the arm with the sword, On the stamp at
Right, the green colour is displaced downwards.

Fig. 6: Tte-btche pair.
According to the Stanley
Gibbons catalogue, these
stamps are essays.









S.Fig Stanley Gibbons No. 14. There are many varieties
41 of this stamp and all are printer's trials. The block of four
ir is imperforate (the issued stamp was perforated 11.5).
-- The frame is double on the single stamp.
Comments about Zemstvo catalogues
The so-called Chuchin catalogue of Zemstvo stamps was issued in Moscow in 1925 and, until quite recently, it
was the only catalogue available. About 20 years ago, J. Barefoot Ltd. In England did us all a great favour by reissuing
the Chuchin catalogue with significantly improved illustrations, which were placed with each Zemstvo and not all
together as in the Chuchin catalogue.
The official title of F. Chuchin was "Commissioner of the State Philatelists' Organisation in the USSR". He
was also the supposed editor of the catalogue, but in fact he was a party appointee and not a philatelist with knowledge
of Zemstvo stamps. The catalogue was prepared by philatelists of that time.
The exchange of stamps between collectors in Soviet Russia and philatelists abroad was not direct, but had to
go through the "Central Control Office for Exchange Abroad" = "IeIHTpajnmIH i KorrpoJi HniH IIyHKT no
sarpaHawmoy o6Meny". As an example of this activity,Fig. 9 shows a cover with a facsimile signature ofF. Chuchin
2-004 i-.,cw Gu e oi ,h O-. ,,-t a--.,,-\ St.r.b...-a.. te-ca;1' t i
.. ,-. V "*", Q ,i ,-, --, .- t' --' t l 'A .'
', '-, "" &"' "i^' *
et






II~"oCo 14. fit P. .









THE POST-RIDER/aIMIHK 60 5
CSetemberBA 2007


approving this particular exchange between Soviet Russia and France.
Quite recently two (!) excellent Zemstvo catalogues were published in Russia. The first one carries the date as
2004 in Moscow. The authors are Y.E. Gurevich, O.K. Poltorak and I.A. Strebulaev and the catalogue has the title:
"KaTaIor MapOK 3eMCKHX nowr Poccm 1866-1919" ("The Catalogue of Zemstvo Stamps of Russia 1866-1919").
The second catalogue appeared in 2006. The -compiler and- editor, as stated on the front page is V.Y. Solov'ev. Both
THE POST-RIDERI/JMIIIK X 60 5
September 2007






catalogues are printed on chalk-surfaced paper and the stamp illustrations are in colour. They are quite complete, but
there are differences in data and in description of some stamp issues. One should therefore have both catalogues. In
fact, the two catalogues supplement each other.
*
CURRENT MONGOLIAN POSTAL RATES
by Dr. D.J. Voaden.
Further to my notes on "Mongolian Registered Mail" in "The Post-Rider No. 57, pp.117-118, the present
postal rates are quite different from those of a year ago. The current rates as at August 2007 (I am assuming weight
steps of 10 grammes = 1/3 ounce) are:- Foreign letter: Togrog 1100 (postage 1000, tax 100); Foreign Postcard Tg 880
(one uses 800 postage, but pays Tg 80 extra in tax); Letter in Ulaanbaatar Tg 260 (230 + 30); Letter within Mongolia
Tg 440 (400 + 40).. For registration, the cost is Tg 1500 ADDITIONAL to the postage, making it Tg 2600 for a
foreign letter. The "temporary" stamps with non-denominated capital letters, which appeared last year or the year
before are now valued thus: A Tg 230; i Tg 800; B Tg 400; [ Tg 1000'.
I sent a friend here a letter typed in Mongolian to his P.O. address and it got there (stamp A), but the black cds
was in English, reading "Mongol Post", with the date and below "UB"with a number and a probable GPO backstamp,
very pale red in Mongolian, with only a part legible of the word "IIIYYjIAH" = Postage.
I had a rare opportunity to go south to Dalandzadgad and hoped to get a cds of that city. I sent a registered
letter to the UK, but the cds read in Mongolian letters "O F" and a number (for Omni Gov, i.e. the aimag or province),
rather than the town. Sent a letter to UBfrom Mandal Gov City, but not seen yet.
To round off the discussion, a view card is shown below of the Ulaanbaatar GPO = "TOB IIYYJY]AH".


SPECIAL NOTE:


*..~ *. *
A rare Imperial perforation variety wilia(KhFarkov Trident overprint
The emphasis in Ukrainian philately has primarily been on studying the various Trident
overprints. One such example recently acquired was the 1-rouble Arms Type of Russia with a
Khar'kov Trident and a line perforation that looked unusual: it measured 11%. The basic
Russian stamp with that perforation is listed as Scott No. 68a and catalogued in the Scott 2008
catalogue at US$500 mint (!). The stamp had been bought as a Khar'kov Trident and the cost
was minimal. The moral of the story is that it pays to check the basic Russian stamp when
purchasing tridents. The possibility cannot be excluded that the basic stamp was originally
imperforate and may have been subsequently perforated in Khar'kov during the Trident period.
Ironically, the stamp has on the back the mark of the Ukr.Phil.Ver. e V. in Germany!


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No 60
September 2007






Soviet censorship on international correspondence in the second half of the Great Patriotic War
by Per-Christian Wallin.
In Russian articles not much has been written about censorship on mail going to or from USSR during
WW II. This article is trying to systemize some of the information the author has collected about this
theme.

Letters to and from the USSR have from July 1942 to the end of 1945 a special cancel, the "double circle"
cancel. It is in use from July 1942. It consists of two circles with the text "BOEHHAI I_ EH3YPA
CCCP", with a fraction, consisting of a letter and a number, in the middle (see ill. 2). The fraction has a
number as the numerator and one or two letters as the denominator. Except for the Baltic States, which
have it the other way around. This censor marking type was only used on international correspondence..

The markings were used at some cities near the border of the USSR. They are struck on the back of
envelopes and on the address side of postcards/postal stationeries. For letters they are sometimes
accompanied with a censor strip, with the text "IIPOBEPEHO IEH3YPOII". But mostly they are sealed
with glue.

On some few letters I have observed that the stamp has been removed. Is this done by the censor, or is it
just a coincidence that the stamp has fallen of or been removed for some other reason? If we study
Illustration 1, it is very likely that the censor has removed it. The correct postage for this card is 30 kop.,
but it is only franked with 20 kop. It is easily seen that one stamp is missing (parts of the cancelled date-
stamp are missing). The interesting fact is the stamp of the receiving office, which is covering parts of
where the stamp was placed. This means that the stamp was removed after the postal stationery was
delivered at the post office, but before the addressee received it. Another interesting fact is the receiving
address, American Joint Distribution. This was a Jewish organization that helped Jews in the USSR by
sending food to them. This card is a confirmation that the recipient has received sugar and other "stuff'. I
have gotten some other cards with the same address, and most (if not all) have lost the stamps. It looks
like that there was a list of persons/organizations that got more thoroughly checked by the censors. Was it
some kind of black list in existence? Both the Germans and English censors operated with such lists.



i -------- --- Z-- '17" -- --

T ..RI ...H.. .


... .... ... ....... ... ......S p ...... .. ...
I~t VhA(








OT.PABA I -.TE C .-.. .- *P .. ... ..i 4_ Mi C ..... B A .. A ... E.. 0 BP 1 ".:EHi ,


de .'expcdiu J /r^ ^^ O :r


Ill. 1: Sent from Ashkhabad to Palestine. Stamp removed by whom?

THE POST-RIDER/aMIiMHK N2 60
September 2007






Some previous articles on this subject are trying to make some sense out of the censor numbers. These
numbers are most likely only an identification number for the censor, and the scarcity of some numbers is
only indicating the language known by the censor. E.g. for Moscow, we usually find the numbers 29 and
36 for letters sent to English-speaking countrieswhile the high numbers 101, 106, and 107 are found on
German POW cards. Likewise to Palestine (Hebrew/Yiddish) I have seen the number 40.

Let us go through the different places that used these cancels and take a look of the types and periods
used. The litera is in parenthesis after the city name. All dates are based on my own items and articles in
the reference section. They are subject to change.

Ashkhabad (A)
This marking is mentioned in the article from Shmuely [1]. It is shown in Ill. 2. The censor numbers that
have been registered so far are: 1, 3
The period in use is from 21st of May 1943 (, Shmuely [1]).

Alma-Ata (A-A)
The markings used in Alma-Ata are shown in 111.3. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 2, 3,
4,5, 8, 11,13
The period of use is 20th of January 1945 to some later date in 1945.







CCCp o C9 aCCG

Ill. 2-5 Censor cancels used in Ashkhabad, Alma-Ata, Arkhangel'sk and Baku.

Archangel'sk (A-K)
See Ill. 4 for the markings used in Arkhangel'sk. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 2, 5
The period in use is May 1943 to 11th of March 1945.

Baku (B)
See 111. 5 for the marking used in Baku. The censor number that has been registered is: 3
The period in use is from 18h of September 1944 (Shmuley [1]).





9 A



Ill. 6-9 Censor markingls used in Vilnius, Vladivostok, Yerevan and Kiev.

Vilnius (B-c)
See Ill. 6 for the markings used in Vilnius. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 3, 9
The period in use is 20h of August 1945 to 26th of December 1945.
8 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N2 60
September 2007







Vladivostok (B)
See Ill. 7 for the marking used in Vladivostok. The censor number that has been registered is: 2
Only one letter has been registered with the date 12t of April 1944.

Yerevan (E)
See Ill. 8 for the markings used in Yerevan. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 1, 5, 11
The period in use is 30th of October 1942 to 23rd of April 1945.

Kiev (K)
See 111. 9 for the markings cancel used in Kiev. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 10, 11,
12, 21, 26, 30, 33, 34
The period in use is 8h of December 1944 to 10th of July 1945.

Ay / -J4



0 C 1


Ill. 10-13 Censor markings used in Leningrad, L'vov/L'viv, Minsk and Moscow.

Leningrad (Ji)
See 11. 10 for the markings used in Leningrad. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 1, 4, 7,
16, 17, 19, 22, 23
The period in use is: 24th of December 1944 to 12th of December 1945.

L'vov/L'viv (JIB)
See 111. 11 for the markings used in L'vov/L'viv. The marking is mentioned and illustrated in the article
by Vinokurov [3]. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 2, 5

Minsk (MIc)
See 111. 12 for the marking used in Minsk. It differentiates itself from the cancel used in Murmansk such
that it does not have a hyphen between the id letters. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 3,
9,21
The period in use is: 12th of August 1945 to 24th of September 1945

Moscow (M)
This is the main censor office for mail.
It comes in several different diameters and shapes.
See Ill. 13 for the marking used in Moscow, This censor marking exists in different sizes and shapes; see Ill.
14. The cancel with censor id 55 exists also in another shape where the inner circle is more circular. It is
evidently a rubber stamp.
The censor numbers that have been registered are: 3, 5, 7 12, 14 26, 29 33, 36, 39 45, 51, 55 57, 63
65, 67, 69, 70, 75, 76, 81- 84, 89, 96, 97, 99, 101, 106, 107
The period in use is: 16th of July 1942 to 18th of October 1945.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIEHK NJ 60 9
September 2007















Ill. 14 Different sizes and shapes for the Moscow markings.

Murmansk (M-K)
See Ill. 15 for the marking used in Murmansk. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 2, 3, 4
The period in use is: 29h of March 1944 to 1st of April 1945.

Odessa (0)
See ill. 16 for the marking used in Odessa. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 11, 17
The period in use is:









Ill. 15-17 Censor markings used in Murmansk, Odessa and Riga.
CD 'aI_ 0 Iv,



See Ill. 15 for the marking used in Murmansk. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 2, 3,4
















Riga (P-a)
See Ill. 17 for the marking used in Riga. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 1, 3, 6
The period in use is: 15 of November 1945 to 18h of November 1945.



This marking is mentioned in an article by Metzner [2], referring to an article by M. Nolte.




cTA-yc 4 e



Ill. 18-19 Censor markings used in Tashkent and Tbilisi.

Tashkent (T)
See Ill. 18 for the markings used in Tashkent. The censor numbers that have been registered are: 2 6, 7,
10
The period in use is: 13th of May 1944 to 14th of July 1945.
This marking has the same "litera" as Tbilisi, but they are easy to differentiate. In the Tashkent cancel, the
fraction line points to O and P, BOEHHAS IEH3YPA is in capital letters, and the T is bigger. The
10 THE POST-RIDER/MIlHK N_ 60
September 2007
September 2007






marking from Tbilisi points at the B and the A, BoeHHaS IJeH3ypa has only the first letter as a capital and
the T is lesser in size.

Tbilisi (T)
See Ill. 19 for the marking used in Tbilisi. The censor number that has been registered is: 4
The period in use is: ????
The marking used in Ill. 19 does not have the inner circle that all the other strikes have: If it is just a bad
impression of this marking, or if it is like this is unknown. It is shown as the author has found it. All other
articles show it as a typical marking with the inner circle.
In many articles the censor marking for Tashkent/Tbilisi has been erroneously identified with the first or
second city. The marking in 111.18 was found on a card sent from Tbilisi to Iran; it is shown in Ill. 20.
Illustration 20 shows a card sent from Iran to Tashkent, Uzbek SSR. It has an arrival cancel from
Tashkent, and a censor marking with id number 4 (illustrated in 20). The censor id number is the same as
in 1111. 18, but the markings are of different types. It has been observed on several cards/letters sent from
Tashkent with the type of marking shown in 111.18, so it is clearly used in Tashkent.

An interesting comment to the Iranian postcard is; why and when was the stamp removed? Is it
coincidental, or is it the same reason as in I11.1?

Ulan-Ude (Y-Y)
This marking is mentioned and illustrated in the article by Vinokurov [3].

There is a similar marking used in Romania, with the litera "P". It has been omitted in this overview,
because it was not located in the USSR.








--
AL I.:' ." ':' !_ .










Ill. 20 Tashkent and Tbilisi censorships with identical censor numbers.

References:
[1] M. Shmuely: Soviet Censorship and other Markings, Rossica 112
[2] Dr.W.Metzner: Sowjetische "Doppelkreis"- Militarzensurstempel auf Kriegsgefangenenpost 1943-
1945, AGZ Rundbriefll0 / 2001
[3] B. BnHOKypOB: BoeHHaa ieIH3ypa B CCCP B nepnone BeimKoii OTe'ecTsenimo BoimI.
E(DuaTeJ i ceHTSI6p ,,2003.
[4] A. Cronin: "Soviet Circular Censorship Markings","The Post-Rider" No. 58, pp. 104-105.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHKW N 60 11
September 2007






SOME NOTES ON THE A.N. DOBROLYUBOV STAMP OF AUGUST 1936
by Andrew Cronin.
There are some unusual characteristics about this stamp (Scott 589; Gibbons 727), as follows:-
(a) It was cancelled to order with a "Stalino" postmark, so the date of 20.7.36 could be regarded as arbitrary, as we will
see below.
(b) The Scott and Gibbons catalogues both state that the first day of issue was 13 August 1936, but we see in Fg. 2 an
airmail cover with 80 kop. postage, sent on 12.836 by an American engineer John B. Pawel in Leningrad to his wife
in Moscow. More about him later.
(c) Just to muddy the waters further, the first two initials of Dobrolyubov's name in the design are erroneous; instead
of the Cyrillic "A.H." (Latin A.N.), they should be Cyrillic "H.A." (Latin N.A.: i.e. Nikolai Aleksandrovich). Judging
from. the scarcity of postally used copies of this stamp, the error was apparently noticed quickly and the stamp had
limited postal usage for that reason.
In addition, the stamp was issued in two line-perforations: 11 and 14 and there is a watermark pattern in the
margins of the printed sheets. Postal usages are now listed in chronological order to try to determine the distribution of
stamp supplies, as well as of the two perforations-
20.7.36: STALINO cancellation-to-order, perf. 11 (Fig. 1). The date makes no sense compared to the postal usages.
12.8.36: JIEHHHITPAJ IIEHTPAJIbH. Y3EJI (Fig. 2) from Pawel to his wife with a pair perf. 14 in the postage.
14.8.36: Postcard from Leningrad to the U.S. with the Dobrolyubov stamp perf. 14 Fg. 3).
15.836: Surface letter Moscow to the U.S. from Pawel to a friend in Hudson Falls, with strip of 5 perf. 14 (Fig. 4).
15.8.36: Another same-day usage from Moscow, but from another office in the city, perf. 14 (Fig. 5).
17.8.36: Registered surface philatelic exchange letter Moscow to Munich with a perf. 14 in the postage (Fg. 6)
-.836: Surface letter Leningrad to U.S. from Pawel to his wife with vertical pair perf. 14 (Fig. ).
5.9.36: Internal letter from Odessa to Moscow with vertical pair perf. 14 (Fig. 8).
11.9.36: Loose stamp cancelled KHIB-IIAJIAI_ IIOHEPIB / OBJI. 3JIIT HIJIATEJIICTIB; perf. 14 (Fig. 9).
9.1036: Surface letter from Pawel in Orsk to his wife in Hudson Falls with vertical pair perf. 14 (F 10).
8.1136: Loose stamp from Moscow perf. 14 (Fig. 11).
19.1136: Postcard from Essentuki to Tbilisi with affixed stamp perf. 14 ig. 12). Overpaid by 2 kopeks.
24.11.36: Loose stamp cancelled Leningrad; perf. 11 (Fig. 13).
5.12.36: Loose stamp cancelled Tbilisi; perf. 14 (Fg. 14).
24.437: Surface postcard from Tbilisi to the U.S.; perf. 14 (Fig. 15).
It can be seen from the listing above that practically all the frankings were with the perf. 14 stamp, also that
the Dobrolyubov stamp was in circulation for at least 150 days and then mostly in Leningrad and Moscow.
Finally, the design of the stamp should be studied to determine constant plate flaws. In short, a lot of work
remains to be done in studying this unusual issue. Nm- %_
*
SPECIAL NOTE: --- ---...-.- .BHOs.





CORROS DE MENDCL 1

In praise of Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev
An internationally recognized Russian scientist of the 19m.Century, Dmitrii Ivanovich was first honoured in
philately by several Soviet issues in the period from 15 September 1934 to 20 June 1969, while Bulgaria followed suit
with a 13 st. commemorative and a special postmark dated 14.3.1984 on the 150th. Anniversary of his death (see
above). He was famous for his construction of the Periodic Table of the Elements, allowing him even to predict the
existence of additional elements, which had not yet been discovered. An excerpt from the Table is shown on the
Bulgarian stamp above. Quite apart from his fame in the Russian scientific world, he has now been commemorated
philatelically in Spain this year by a 30-cents stamp for the centenary of his death from a design by J. Garcia Martinez.
There are many Soviet stamps honouring famous foreign scientists, artists, literary figures etc. and it is nice to see a
country in the Western World returning the compliment.


12 THE POST-RIDER/IMImHK N2 60
September 2007





















Fi. 5: Moscow
15.8.36


Fig. 2: Leningrad
12.8.36


fi2. 4: Moscow
15.8.36


Fi. 6: Moscow
17.8.36
THE POST-RIDER/NIMIUIHK N 60
September 2007


20.7.36.










"Z L S












S---.8.36


Fi. 8: Odessa
5.9.36


j;'' .... te j ..... I,// ^ "




J..7.-






* ..- ; -,



Fi. 10: Orsk
-9.10.36


Fi. 13: Leningrad
24.11.36


. 12: Essentuki
19.11.36


Fig. 11: Moscow
8.11.36


Fig. 14: Tbilisi
5.12.36


Fig. 15: Tbilisi
24.4.37


THE POST-RIDER/[MIHIK M 60
September 2007


Avl-NI NT URI S Tg
^^^^*-MOSOWMO-fTELP-T-Bk^^B1


^

t^&






NEW FACTS ABOUT THE "NUMERALS AND DOTS" POSTMARKS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
by Dr. A.M. Sarkisian.
Without exaggerating, it can be said that the investigative work in the area of the postal history of the "dots
and numerals" postmarks of the Russian Empire continues to remain one of the most fascinating, from the point of
view of new discoveries. It should be underlined here that this field of collecting is popular not only among us in
Russia, but also abroad.
As is known, the first "dots and numerals" postmarks were introduced in Russia in January 1858, immediately
after the first postage stamps were put into circulation. In all the inhabited points of Russia where postal operations
existed, there were allotted numbers and various forms of postmarks, depending upon the status of the post offices.
The cancelling devices consisted of a number, framed by dots and featured specific geometric figures. The cancellation
of postage stamps by dots postmarks to prevent attempts of them being used for a second time to defraud the Postal
Service was regarded as more effective in comparison with the annulment by hand by pen and ink and by pre-stamp
markings.
There are examined in the present article just the postmarks intended for the postal stations along the roads
within the territory of the Russian Empire as well as for the post offices abroad (the postal agencies of the Russian
Company of Navigation and Trade: POIuHT).
As of the summer of 1858 and with the subsequent Circulars of the Main Administration of Posts No. 147 of
31 May and No. 157 of 17 August 1858, there began to be introduced postmarks in triangular form with trimmed
covers, which were supplied with numbers from 1 to 1700. Up to the second half of October 1858, the numbers
allotted to each postal station (up to and including No. 622) existed in consecutive numeration, according to provinces
and other large administrative and territorial units, with a listing of the postal stations in alphabetical order. As of 24
October 1858, the addition of subsequent numbers was carried out on the basis of the opening of postal stations at one
or other inhabited point, as well as for the agencies of ROPiT (Russian Company of Navigation and Trade).
The statistical data on the basis of known postal Circulars have been preserved only up to the year 1863. The
final postmark allocated to a specific post office of No. 847 was authorized by an official document. It is a paradox
that, for unknown reasons, "blank spots" remained for Nos. 659, 570, 812 and 823 to 827, the assignments for which
were not recorded in the statistics. Those postmarks, as well as those from Nos. 848 to 1700 have remained a large
segment for the creative search by many collectors in determining their territorial locations.
Several Russian and foreign investigators on Russian postal history have been able to identify on the basis of
philatelic material several numbered postmarks. A significant article by Dr. Alfred H. Wortman: "Dots postmarks -
New information" was published in the BJRP No. 38 in March 1966, wherein 41 previously unknown and deciphered
postmarks were found by British philatelists.
From the Russian publications, it surely follows to note the fundamental work of V.A. Kalmykov, titled "The
Numeral Postmarks of Russia" ("Soviet Collector" Manual, No. 26, 1988), which turned out to be the basis for further
investigations on this subject. That also brought to light the discoveries of the Russian collectors Ya. M. Vovin, K.D.
Efremov and B.A. Kaminskii, in addition to V.A. Kalmykov in determining the geographic location of yet five
previously unknown postmarks.
During the past few years, some most interesting information has been published in "The Post-Rider" in a
series of articles by Alex Artuchov under the title of "The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt", mentioning therein the
discoveries of the foreign philatelists Asst. Professor D. Jay, A. Kiryushkin, M. Lam, Ing. Z. Mikulski, M.R. Renfro,
P.E. Robinson and also our Russian countryman Professor A.S. Ilyushin.
On the whole, the number of "dots" markings determined from Nos. 848 to 1700 has barely reached 100
examples and there still remain quite a few questions, not only regarding the specific linkage of a numeral postmark to
the location of that particular post office, as well as to whether that number had been utilized by the Postal
Administration.
The identification of unknown numeral postmarks as the means of cancellations was made possible by the
appearance of a clear strike of the date-stamp with the name of the inhabited point (station), according to the location
of the post office of dispatch and, in a case where that was absent, by the appearance of a notation with the name of the
postal station, applied by the postal clerk as a rule by hand on the back of the letter.
As a result of the investigations carried out by the author at the present time, it has become possible to set out
the deciphering of the territorial locations of 10 hitherto unknown postmarks, which are listed hereunder in Table 1.
In studying the previously published articles on this subject and on the basis of additional reference data and
philatelic material, the present author has uncovered some inaccuracies in the linkage of postmarks to the postal
stations and in the names of the post offices (see Table 2).
The present author has also found on loose stamps unknown strikes previously unrecorded in the literature:
Nos. 898, 902, 928, 941, 973, 984, 1061, 1138, 1177, 1188, 1264, 1367, 1369, 1394 and 1403.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMI(HK No 60 15
September 2007





In the process of studying the investigations published in Russia and abroad of the "dots and numerals"
markings of the postal stations on the routes, one is struck by the thought that, up to the present time, they have not
been systematized into the types of differences in the configurations of the dotted frames. In studying the numerous
strikes on postal sending, pieces and loose stamps, as well as using scan techniques, the present author has exposed
the basic types of the postmarks. The greatest distributed type of strike (Type 1) is found on the great majority of the
philatelic material (see Table 3).
16 THE POST-RIDER/aPMIIHK N2 60
September 2007


Tahle 1


Number of Name of Province District
postmark postal stn
659* KjieMeHmeBo MOCKOBCKaa Py3CKHIi

1065* Ha6ammn~i HIeTpoKOBCKaa JIacKCKHa

1099* BycKOBCKaA KeneiKcaa CTOIIHHImKHI

1137* PaxoB Jho6mncKaa ?

1235** HHKOJICKaaS BinazHMHpcKa, IIOKpOBCKHHI

1247** PaxHb-JIecoBs e HnoAnoJmcKasl IMnojIbcKiHi

1249** BonocoBCKaa CaHKT-leTep6yprcKaa IeTepro4c)KHl

1250* BHayra KocTpoMcKas KHIemeMcKHil

1266** Jaroexx THJInHccKaI CHTHaxcKHI
Ha norTOBOM Tparre THnMHc-Hyxa
1284* Xoniyi BjaaAnHMpcKaa BI3HHKOBCKHIU


Strikes discovered earlier, butunplaced: .
** earlier unknown strikes
Table 2 Ta6Jnufa 2

Noted earlier in the literature. Corrective data
Number of
postmark Name of Province Name of Province
-postal stn. [ postal stn
89 KyKyeBcKaH BaTcKaa CyHcKaH BarcKaa

634 IIHxToBCKaa BArcKas MopaBHHcKaa BaTcKaa

647 HaTOKOBHtICKaSH ICKOBCKaa HaHHKOBMIH 1ncKOBCKaq

821 Y3H BArcKaa YHHHCKoe BITrcKaa

858 XHMHHRIiHHMeHKH? BjiaAHMpcKaa (OMHHKa BjianHMHpcKas

895 yrTOBO fnorrascKaa qHyHOBO BojnmmcKaa

1255 Fopoesa MHHCKaS KpacHonoJIccKaa ?


Ta6Jnma 1





-Basically, the postmarks of Type 1 have identical; sizes with slight deviations (see F. ) and also the same
quantity of dots, depending upon the quantity of digits in the number. The first type can be divided into subtypes
(which are not described in this article), differing in the internal dimensions, the quantity and diameters of the dots, the
height of the digits and other characteristics.
The basic parameters for the sizes of the Type 1 postmarks are given in Fig. 1.


PHcyHOK 1
Fig. 1.
A B b H h
17,5 -18,5 MM 25,5 26,5 MM 19,5-20 MM 16,5-17,5 MM 8,5-9 MM
The basic characteristics for the number of dots in the Type 1 postmarks dependent upon the digits, are set
out in Tables4 & 5.


Table 4


TaGmrua 4


THE POST-RIDER/IaMIIIHK N2 60
September 2007


O Quantity of dots along the upper trimmed corer: 2
S** Quantity of dots along the trimmed corners at bottom: 3
* ** *o%* Quantity of dots along both inclined sides: 8
0* Quantity of dots along the base side: 7-
00 1 Total quantity of dots within the frame: 53
Single digit
TYPE 1


Table 3


*1 **
0 e 0 o0 a5 _
e 7 t 4.1 Q* ** **-** ol *

****** ******..... ******** ***..* **


Single digit, Two digits Three digits Four digits ,
TYPE 1


- Ta6xn
ua 3





Somewhat assembled strikes, but with a different quantity of dots along the trimmed comers at bottom should
be regarded as being in Type 2, as well as along the upper trimmed corer (Type 3).
From the postmarks shown in Type 2and recorded earlier, there has been found and determined by the author
another postmark No. 659 for the postal station of Klement'evo in Moscow province (see Table 6).


Table 6


*



00* *

Three digits

TYPE 2


Ta6jrma 6


A: 14,5 MM
B: 22 MM
B: 13 MM
H: 16,5 MM
h: 9 MM
Quantity of dots along the upper trimmed corer: 2
Quantity of dots along the trimmed covers at bottom: 4
Quantity of dots along both inclined sides: 7
Quantity of dots along the base side: 5
Total quantity of dots within the frame: 43


Among the postmarks at the disposal of the present author as being in Type 3 and recorded earlier, there is the
known postmark No. 213 of the postal station of Domanovichi in Minsk province (see Table 7). It should be noted here
in the course of analysis of a similar office and the explanation of the credibility of the existence of such a type, there
were investigated postal sending with clear and complete strikes.
Table 7 Ta6mnua 7


*\%0%

**O*0 **
********i




Three digits

TYPE 3


A: 14,5 MM
B: 25 MM
B: 19,5 MM
H: 15MM
h: 9 MM
Quantity of dots along the upper trimmed corer: 3
Quantity of dots along the trimmed corners at bottom: 3
Quantity of dots along both inclined sides: 7
Quantity of dots along the base side: 7
Total quantity of dots within the frame: 47


Dotted frames differing from the basic type are found on some postmarks, which were placed in postaLuse
after September 1863. Thus, postmark No. 964 of the postal station at Dzhulok in the Syr-Dar'ya region (General-
Governorship of Turkestan) is shown as Type 4 (see Table 8).








18 THE POST-RIDER/IMII HK !_ 60
September 2007


Table 5


Quantity of dots along the upper trimmed corner: 2
* Quantity of dots along the trimmed covers at bottom: 3
0.: Quantity of dots along the base side: 8
*o* o Quantity of dots along the base side:7
Multiple ds Total quantity of dots within the frame: 49
iMultiple digits .1
TYPE 1


Ta6mna 5





Table 8 Ta6JuIa 8
A: 17,5 MM
.,* B: 25 MM
0. W B: 17,5 MM
H: 17,5 Mm
Sh: 8,5 MM
*** 0* 4* Quantity of dots along the upper trimmed corer: 2
Quantity of dots along the trimmed covers at bottom: 4
Quantity of dots along both inclines sides: 11
Three digits Quantity of dots along the base side: 9
Total quantity of dots within the frame: 78
TYPE 4 Note the types of "dots": circular and rhomboid-

The non-identified postmark No. 970, which has been found, may unfortunately be placed under Type 5. It
was noted in an article by A. Artuchov in the journal "The Post-Rider" (No. 48, 2001). The present author has three.
examples of this strike on loose postage stamps in two colours: black and pale blue. The number of dots in the framed
number'of this postmark exceeds that of all the previously described types (Table 9).


Table 9


Ta6nmia 9


**:
*,
*50 *
** ... *
.. .-9
0-9970..


Three digits

TYPE 5


A: 16 MM
B: 24 MM
B: 18MM
H: 17,5MM
h: 9,5 MM
Quantity of dots along the upper trimmed corer: 3
Quantity of dots along the trimmed covers at bottom: 4
Quantity of dots along both inclined sides: 13
Quantity of dots along the base side: 14
Total quantity of dots within the frame: 105


The present author does not believe that the methodology set out here for sytematising according to types the
"numerals and dots" postmarks of the postal stations along the routes aspires to be the complete reflection of their
variety. New finds cannot be excluded, as well as the appearance of postmark strikes in such configurations which
would lead to the necessity of introducing additional criteria for their classification into further type varieties.
On the basis of the previously published literature and with the recording of new data in the present article, a
master list of the identification and determination is now set out of postmarks of Nos. 848 to 1700 .(see Table 10);-


Table 10(


Ta6jnma 10


HoMep Name of Province, Region,
mTeMnea locality --. Post Office Abroad. -
849 Name of locality not determined
852 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
854 KpacHnli AIp CaMapercaa
856 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHo
857 HasBaHHe MecTHocTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
858 (OMHHKa BRjaAHMHpciKa
860 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
869 BploHn KaInymccaa
870 Ta6pH3? Ilepcli
874 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTR He ycTaHOBJIeHo
879 Ha3BsaHe MecTHocTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
880 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHo
883 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
884 Hsa3BHHe MecTHocTe He ycTaHOBjieHo
THE POST-RIDER/fIMi( HIK NJ 60






886 KeICeiH Iynrepn 3cTJianH cKas
887 PanianyHrepH 3cTJIHHncxaa
889 Ha3saHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeno
890 Oppncaap ? JIHJanIscxacK
895 qyanoBO BOJIbHCicaa
896 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaRHOBeHO
898 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHoBJIeHO
899 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHoaneHO
900 HoBoceJsiHl Beccapa6cGaa o6a.
(rnpeo6pa3oBaHa B ry6epmno B 1873 r.)
902 Ha3BaHHe MCCTHOCTH He yCTanoBJieHO
904 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHoajneHO
908 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBjieHO
909 Ha3saHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
911 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJieHO
912 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
913 HasBai ee MecTocTHO He ycTaHOBJaeno
915 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJieHo
916 Ha3saHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
918 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJenHO
922 HaBsaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
924 Ha3BaHHe MecTHocTH He yCTaHOBneHO
925 HasBaHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBjIeHO
926 Pan 3cTJIanHcKaa
928 Ha3BaHHe MecTHoCTH He ycTaHoBneHO
929 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJieHO
932 IKaL HankH CHM6HpcKan
936 Ha3BaHHe MCCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBneHo
937 Ha3BaHHe MecTHocT He ycTaHOBjeHo
940 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
941 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieno
943 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieno
944 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBIenHO
951 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
953 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
957 Ha3saHHe MecTHocTH He ycTaHOBJIneH
962 HapnHn MHncxam
964 Aiyneie CbIp-LapbsiHcaa o6a.
TypKecTaHCioe reHepan-ry6epHaTopcTBo
S(c mon 1867 r.)
968 Ha3BaHHe MCCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
970 Ha3saHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJneHO
973 Has3BaRHe MeCTHraocTH ne yCTaHOBJIeHO
978 Ha3BsaHHe MecTHocTH He ycTaHoBjieno
978 Ha3BsHHe MCCTHOCTH HeyCTaHOBJleHO
979 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJeHO
981 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
20 THE POST-RIDER/DaMIHK N2 60
September ,007




984 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJneHO
985 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
987 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
988 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJieHO
989 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJieHO
990 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
991 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
992 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjneHO
993 IpecT-KyaBCKHH BapmaBcKars
997 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
998 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1000 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1004 OceHIHHbI BapmaBcKaR
1005 PaAeeB BapmaBcKarI
1010 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1011 CaHHHKH BapmaBcKasi
1013 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1014 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1015 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBjieHO
1016 I]exolHHOIK BapmaBCKaar
1017 A6JIoHHa BapmaBcKaR
1019 BajapbIxoB KaJIHmcKan
1020 BJIamKH KaJIHIIncKaa
1021 BapTa KaJIHmcKaR
1024 A3JIOnImHH KejIelKas
1026 ja6be /,o6pa/ioM6e (?) KajnHmccaH
1027 3TyHCKaaI-Bojisi KajnIIIcKa
1028 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1029 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1030 KIneHaHOB (KIneqeB?) KaJinHIcKaa
1031 Kaiolana KajHmIcKIca
1034 O30pKOB KaJnHImcKaR
1036 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1037 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1039 TypeK HeTpoKoBCKan
1040 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBnjeHO
1041 CoMnoJIbHO KaHjimHIKaS
1042 TypeK ? KarIImcKaa ?
1043 YHeeB KainmcKraa
1044 _eKOB KaJIHmIcKaR
1045 HIafeK KaaiHicKasI
1046 AjeKcaH)apoB-JIeHHlnKHfi HeTpOKOBCKaIa
1048 Bpme3HHIla IIeTpoKoBCKaR
1051 3aBepne HeTpoKoBcKan
1052 FopIKKOBHIHbI IeTpOKOBCKan


THE POST-RIDER/hIMIB(HK N 60
September 2007


121




1053 SKapKH HeTpoIKOBCKaR
1055 3eJleB IIeTpoKOBCKca
1057 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yTaHOBJIeHO
1058 KJIOMHHIbLI IeTpoKOBCKas
1059 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1060 KOHCTaHTHHOB IeTpoIOBcKaH
1061 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1062 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1063 Ha3BsHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJieHO
1064 HoBoe MecTo HeTpoKOBCKaa
1065 IIa6HNHHHrbI HeTpoKOBCKaH
1067 POKHIIHHbI HeTpOKOBCKcaH
1070 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJieHO
1071 ToMameB PaBCKHfi HeTpoKOBCKaa
1075 OpnoBO
1078 3JloTopHH (?) JIOMXMHHCcKa (?)
1080 3BoJieHb PaAOMCKaR
1081 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1082 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1089 KJIHMOHTOB PafoMcMKa
1090 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJieHO
1091 HIpHcyxa PaAoMcKaH
1097 IIHHAAoBen PaAoMcKca
1098 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJneHO
1099 BycKOBCKaHi Keaieircan
1100 BOA3HCJIaB KejnemKan
1101 Bonb6poM KejaelKaa
1103 3asInommfHIb (?) PaAoMcKaa
1105 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1106 KomHInbI KeJienKan
1109 HIIHHIia KeeJIteKaa
1110 Ha3BsHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1111 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJieHO
1112 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1113 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1115 XMeJI]HHK KeJieUKan
1116 ToMamoB-3aMoCTbCKHIi JIIOG6MHHCKarI
1117 Ha3BaaHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOB.jeHO
1121 Has3BaHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1122 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1124 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
1127 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1128 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1130 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1133 IexHa (JIeHHHO?) JIIO6JIHHCKaH
THE POST-RIDER/IIMJIIK N2 60
22 September 2007





1135 Onone JIIo6JIHHCKaR
1136 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1137 PaxoB ?
1140 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1142 1144 lIe6p~emHH JIiO6JHHCiKas
1145 IO3e4oB JIIo6JiHHCKan
1146 eCTICOB/MIInOB (?) JIo6JiHHCKar
1154 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1162 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1173 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1177 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1178 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1180 MajKIHH .JIOMMCHHCIKa
1185 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1187 Ha3saHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1188 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1193 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1195 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHo
1196 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1198 HeycTaHOBJieHHaA AreHTypa POrHT ?
1199 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1201 CeiiHbl CyBaIKCKIca
1202 Cepee CyBaJacIcaa
1203 COHOIuKHH CyBaaJKKaa
1204 CyBaJIKH CyBarIKcKaR
1208 BbIcoco-Ma3oBeIK JIoM~uHHCIcKa
1219 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1221 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1225 Tyance 3eMSna qepHoMopcKoro BOHcKa
c Hos6ps 1860 r. nepenMeHOBaHa B
ICy6aHcKyio o6I.
1227 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBnjeHO
1228 HapMOHCKaI/HapMOHKa KasaHcKaR
1229 Ha3saHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1231 Ha3BaHHe MeTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1234 Hajex BJIakHMHpcKan
1235 HHKOJIbCKaSI BJiafHMHpcKaa
1244 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1247 PaxHbI JIecoBbie HIIoooibcKaa
1248 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1249 BonocoBCKaH CaHKT-IIeTep6yprcKaq
1250 BHkyra KocTpOMCKaa
1255 KpacHono KCKIa ?
1256 AyHaeBUlbI HIIooaJbcKaH
THE POST-RIDER/HMII(HK NJ 60 23
September 2007




1260 TypKH CapaToBcKan
1264 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1265 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1266 JIarogexH TnQJIHCCKaR
1267 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1268 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1270 HoBoqepiKyTHHo TaM6oBCKaH
1272 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1273 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1277 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1280 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1284 Xojiy, BjiaaHMHpcKan
1286 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1287 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHO
1288 MarymeB CapaToBcKar ?
HoBroponcKaR?
1289 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1290 FOHqHq e CelaJIeKaa
1291 TepecnoJa CeAneuiKaH
1296 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1300 BoropoAmRK I HmeropoAcKaa
1305 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1306 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1307 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1308 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1314 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1324 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1325 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBjieHO
1329 EAlHHAII Beccapa6cKiaa o6i.
(npeo6pa3oBaHa B ry6epHlO B 1873 r.)
1330 JIaHABOpOBO BHJIeHcKaH
1332 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yTaLHOBJIeHo
1333 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1334 MomcefHin KoBeHCKcaI
1335 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1342 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1345 EKaTepHHHHmITaAT CaMapcKas
1347 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1351 riOBHO neTpOKOBCKaa
1352 BopoxyA3Hpccan ?
1361 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1362 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
1363 (DajiemTbl Beccapa6crca o6Ji.
(npeo6pa3oBaHa B ry6epHHIO B 1873 r.)
1364 JIeM3ajnl JIHIJHHpaHlCKaH
1365 llJIoic JIH JISIHgCKcaS
24 THE POST-RIDER/MI[M IHK N 60
September 2007







1367 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1368 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1369 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1382 Ha3saHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1385 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo
1390 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBieHO
1393 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJseHo
1394 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1396 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJeHO
1400 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1402 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJieHO
1403 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJeHo
1406 Ha3BaHHe MecTHCTHO He ycTaHOBineHo
1409 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He yCTaHOBAIeHO
1410 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBBJeHO
1413 TeiKOBO BaaAlHMHpcKan
1415 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJIeHO
1425 HoreJioce KoBeHcKaR
1434 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJieHO
1444 Frly6oKoe BHJieHCKaa
1445 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJneHO
1451 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He yCTaHOBJIeHO
1467 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaaOBJIeno
1481 Ha3BaHHe MeCTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJneHO
1507 Ha3BaHHe MecTHOCTH He ycTaHOBJeHo
1663 Ha3BaHHe MecTHocTH He ycTaHOBJIeHo


In conclusion, it should be noted that very interesting discoveries remain still yet before this subject for
Russian postal historians, notwithstanding the almost 150'. anniversary of the introduction of the first Russian postage
stamp and of the "numerals and dots" postmarks.


Literature:
1. IIpHKa3 Xs 147 no FiasBnoy ynpanBneHmo nonr. 1858 r.
2. MecaueenoB Ha 1858 roa. CaHi'r-Herep6ypr.
3. MecauocjoB Ha 1863 rox. CaHnr-fleTep6ypr.
4. B. KaiMblKOB. HoMepHble notrroBbe urreMnejm PoccaH.
(, M., M 26, 1988 r.
5. M. ~(6HH. 1noTOBbie uTeMnenn PoccHlicKOfl HMnepHH.
C.neTep6ypr. 1993 r.
6. B. Jlo6aMeBcKHll. O6inerocyAapcrneHHle MapKH POCCHH
BblnycKoB 1857-1879 roosB.
, M., NX 14, 1976 r.


7. A.Kiryushkin, P.Robinson. Russian Postmarks. 1989 r.
8. The Post Rider. No 37, 1995 r.
9. The Post Rider. No 39, 1996 r.
10. The Post Rider. No 41, 1997 r.
11. The Post Rider. No 48, 2001 r.
12. Ashford. The Imperial stamps used in Transcaucasia.1972-1985 r.r.
13. MecraHe yspe~KeaHma norroBo-Tejerpa4Horo BeAoMcra
C.lerep6ypr, 1907 r.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK Ns 60
September 2007








April, 1920 May, 1921. Republic of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sarkisian.
Corrected Errors of the Fourth and Fifth Issues


5 Rouble, Type 3 (error)
corrected
to value only of 3 Rouble
block of four,one stamp with a
complete 3 R. surcharge
RR Unlisted by & 0


0
p.127
RRR


10 Trouble (error)
corrected
with 5 R. (Type 3)


25 kop. perf.
surcharged
5 R.Type 3 (error)
corrected
with 10 R.
RR Unlisted by & 0


3 Rouble (error)
corrected
to value only of 5 R. Type 2,
block of four,one stamp with
R a complete 5 R. surcharge


10r 5r

10 Trouble (error)
corrected
with 5 R. (Type 3)


0
p. 126
RR


3 Trouble (error)
corrected
to value only of 5 R. Type 3.
block of four,one stamp with
R a complete 5 R. surcharge


0
p. 127
RRR


35 kop. perf. bearing a Small sized
Unframed monogram surcharged
with complete 5 R. Type 3 (error)
corrected
with inverted "10r" value only.
c.t.o. Erivan, April 1921


0
p.126
RR


10 Trouble (error)
in pair with normal.
corrected
with 5 R. (Type 3)


Complete
5 R.Type 3 (error)
corrected
with inverted
"10r" value only
at top and bottom


26 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHKM 60
September 2007








November, 1920. Chassepot Pictorials. Republic of Armenia

Recess-printed by Chassepot Printing Works in Paris from the designs
prepared by Arshak Fetvatgian by order of the Armenian Government.
Delivered to Erivan in late November 1920. Were not postally used


Engraved artist's design of the centre
for the low values


Essay in Yellow of the
adopted design with no value


Essay in Slate-violet
not adopted


Essay in Slate-purple of the
adopted design with no value


Die proofs in Black of the adopted designs
for the low values


THE POST-RIDER/IHMl IHK N2 60
September 2007


I I-








November, 1920. Chassepot Pictorials. Republic of Armenia


Engraved artist's design of the centre
for the 40 Rouble & 70 Rouble values


Die proof of the center
in Blackish-brown


Die proof of the center
in Brownish-black


Die proof of the 40 Rouble frame
in Blackish-brown


Die proof of the 50 Rouble frame
in Black












Proof of the whole 50 R. stamp
in Brownish-black


THE POST-RIDER/aIMmHK MN 60
September 2007


Die proof of the 70 Rouble frame
in Black


Proof of the whole 70 R. stamp
in Brownish-black


Proof of the whole 40 R. stamp
in Blackish-brown


I


0








The First Essayan set. S.S.R. of Armenia


Prepared by lithography by the Essayan Printing Works in Constantinopol late in 1921
from the designs prepared by Sarkis Khachatourian. Delivered to Erivan in December 1921


4 n' _.i
~i\ l t : -"" l- j I
:11 ,'.! (" .SJ


Proofs of the basic stamps in issued colours on chalky paper without gum


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK ~N 60
September 2007


bl f~~ii


u. I~usuI v-l






It
'I


The defect (a break in the frame line at the left bottom corner)
of the 20,000 Rouble original die proof in black
The 69-th stamp in the pane..The complete sheet in two panes of 9 x 8


The defect (a dotted break in the frame at the right corner )
on the 25,000 Rouble original die proof in black
The 63-th stamp in the pane.
The complete sheet (normal or in Tete-Beche) in two horisontal panes of 8 x 8


The variety
of the Fourth Issue 3/35/20,000 stamp


The variety of the basic unsurcharged
25,000 Rouble stamp


The variety
of the Second Issue 50/25,000 stamp


THE POST-RIDER/IIM1I K J 60
September 2007


30


The First Essayan set. S.S.R. of Armenia


The defects of the original lithographic dies
causing the subsequent recurrent varieties of the issued stamps













The variety of the basic unsurcharged
20,000 Rouble stamp








The Second Essayan set. S.S.R. of Armenia


Prepared by lithography by the Essayan Printing Works in Constantinopol late in 1921
from the designs prepared by Sarkis Khachatourian. Delivered to Erivan in February 1922.






































2^-IJ --M15 ... -I














The basic issued stamps printed in both Rose and in dark shade of Bluish -Slate at two panes on white or slightly
creamish paper with a slight mesh, horisontal or vertical. Pale straw coloured gum. All values imperforated only.
Had been revalued to Gold Kopeck by overprinting late in March 1922 and used for the Third (Famine Relief) Issue.
The entire stock of the basic stamps was surcharged. Unoverprinted stamps of utilised denominations are scarce
(concluded).
THE POST-RIDER/AMIHHK No 60
September 2007






REPORT ON "SAINT-PETERSBURG 2007"
by Andrew Cronin.
It was announced during the staging of "WASHINGTON 2006" that the Union of Philatelists of Russia had
requested and received FIP Patronage for a World Philatelic Exhibition to be held in the Russian Imperial City of the
White Nights 19 to 25 June 2007, in honour of the 150". Anniversary of the issue of the First Russian Stamp. It
generally takes two years of hard work to get an exhibition of that size up and running but, in this case, the Organising
Committee had everything in place within six months, aided by massive application of computerized techniques. The
exhibition was over-subscribed, as it was strongly supported by the international philatelic community. It was staged in
four locations, including the Postal Museum and they were all fortunately in walking distance of each other.
Needless to say, the hospitality and amenities were outstanding and the many specialists in Russian Philately
and Postal History in attendance were too numerous to mention. The results set out hereunder testify to the importance
of the Exhibition. Quite apart from the beauty of the city, your editor was most impressed by the excellent behaviour of
the Russian children in general; such a contrast to their noisy and boisterous counterparts in the West. Now the results:
Grand Prix d' Honneur: Michael Ho China, the Small Dragon Issue and its surcharges.
Grand Prix International: P. Chirakiti The First Classic Issue of Siam.
Grand Prix National: I. Gorskii The Rural Postage Stamps of Russia 1865-1900.
LARGE GOLD MEDAL:
Luis Alemany: The Russian Administration of Finland.
Dmitrii Frenkel': Airmail Stamps of the RSFSR and USSR 1923-1940.
Igor' Gorskii: The Rural Postage Stamps of Russia 1865-1900.
Dmitrii Nikitin: From the history of the Zemstvo Post of Russia.
Dr. Arnol'd Ryss : Charity Letter Sheets of the Russian Empire.
Dr. A.M. Sarkisyan: Dotted Numeral Cancellations of Imperial Russia.
Shlomo Stern: Postage Stamps of the RSFSR 1917-1923.
GOLD MEDAL:
V. Bubnys: Lithuania 1918-1937.
V. Dabols: Pre-adhesive Postal History of Livonia.
V. Glushchuk: Russian Stamps 1858-1917.
I. Kirzhner: Khar'kov Provincial Postal Service 1780-1935.
E. Laveroni: Chelyabinsk to Irkutsk.
A. Mramornov: Early Postmarks of Russia 1765-1815.
A. Mramornov: Stamps of the Civil War in Russia 1918-1924.
R. Nagapetyants: Postal History of Armenia.
R. Nummela: Finland 1885-1917.
D. Polyakov: USSR-USA From Space Race to Cooperation.
Dr. Ivo J. Steijn: The Memel Rates up to 1843.
A. Strebulaev: Letters to Russia by Ship.
V. Tyukov: The History of Russian Empire Postmarks 1782-1917.
V. Tyukov: Special Postmarks of the Russian Empire.
LARGE VERMEIL MEDAL:
Dr. T. Berger: Registration in Tsarist Russia.
A. Cheung: The Russian Post Office in China- the overprinted issues.
D. Crocker: Ukraine the Trident overprints.
E. Eichenbaum: Stamps of the Russian Empire 1848-1915.
K. Filobok: Airmail of the RSFSR and USSR 1922-1941.
D. Grinfelds: The "3-Star" issues of Latvia.
V. Grinfelds : Airpost Issues of Lithuania.
V. Grinfelds: Latvian TPOs; Rates, Routes and Cancellations.
Prof. S. Imperato: Italy to Russia to Italy: Pre-UPU.
A. Levin: Russian Mute Cancels of WWI.
Ba'oer Mai:'Mongolia 1872-1926.
H. Robisch: Austrian POWs in Siberia during WWI.
A. Saren: Postal History of the Orel Region (Literature).
D. Tsytkov: Russian Steamship Mail in the Azov, Black and Mediterranean Seas.
Union of Philatelists of Russia: "Collector" Handbook Nos. 42/43 (Literature).
E. Uspuras: The Railway Postal Services in Lithuania 1861-1949.

32 THE POST-RIDER/ IIMHKL I N 60
September 2007






A. Vinogradov: Russian Field Post 1914-1918; Handbook/Catalogue (Literature).
V..Zagorskii: Specialised Catalogue of Postage Stamps of the Russian Empire
V. Zhokhov: The Olympic Traditions will live.
VERMEIL MEDAL:
S. Arakelov: Philatelic Bibliography of Armenia, issued in 2003 (Literature).
V. Andreyuk: Man and the Forest.
N. Banfield: Imperial Russian Censorship of Foreign Printed Matter (1-frame exhibit).
V. Bobrikov: The History of Postal Mail in the RSFSR 1917-1923.
E. Chuluundorj: Postal History of Mongolia 1848-1948.
I. Druzhinin: GULAG Mail.
Y. Eliashiv: The Postal History of Latvian Airmail 1921-1940.
D. Johnson: Tsarist Arms Issuesl857-1917.
R. Jonitis: Latvia.
A. Kenips: TPOs Rates, Routes and Cancellations on Latvian Territory.
M. Kiskin: Russian Postage Stamps 1908-1923.
L. Kolosov: The Old Letters of Belarus'.
M. Kossoy: The Return of Mail in the USSR in Wartime 1941-1945 (1-frame exhibit).
H. Kupec: The Postal History of the Russian Empire- Parts I, II & III (Literature).
E. Laveroni: The "Poezd" and "Pochta" marks of St. Petersburg (1-frame exhibit).
E. Liesis: The First Lithuanian Postal Issues of 1918-1919.
"Marka": The philatelic magazine :Filateliya 2006 (Literature).
H. Meyer: The History of Airmail in the RSFSR and Soviet Union.
A. Pushkin: 20 years of Russia 1917-1937.
J. Radcliffe: Rossica Society Journal 2006 (Literature).
L.G. Ratner: Articles on the Postal History of Russia (Literature).
A. Saran: Postal History of Orel Guberniya.
D. Skipton: A Short History of the Rossica Society 1929-1968 (Literature).
V. Solov'ev: Specialised Catalogue of Russia and the USSR 1857-1991 (Literature).
"Standard Collection": Catalogue of Postage Stamps- Russia, RSFSR, USSR 1857-1991.
V.Zhokhov: The Origin of Ice Hockey in the 20th. Century.
LARGE SILVER MEDAL:
"Belpochta": Postage stamps of the Republic of Belarus' 2005 (Literature).
G. Chudesova: Walking around Petersburg.
I. Druzhinin: Airmail of the USSR.
A .Golovshchinskii: It must not be forgotten.
D. Karasuk: Thematic Catalogue ofNapolean Buonaparte (Literature).
M. Kossoy: Articles from philatelic journals (Literature).
M. Kokushin: The Air Fleet of Russia.
H. Lukaschewitz: Postcard and Official Postal Forms of Latvia 1918-1940.
A. Makarin: The Order of St. George as a Symbol of Valour in Russia.
V. Novoselov: Zemstvo on CD (Electronic).
J. Ozoligi: Conception of Peace in Europe 1919-1939.
V. Petrov: This Day of Victory.
A. Strygin: The Encyclopaedia of the World of Stamps (Electronic).
"UKRPOSHTA": Book- "The Beauty and Greatness of Ukraine".
J-M Verhalle: Russian Manned Space Flights.
P-C. Wallen: Soviet Censorship during WWII.
G.G. Werbizky: Ostarbeiter Mail in WWII (1-frame exhibit).
G.G. Werbizky: Ostarbeiters (Literature).
"Marka Ukrayini": Journal "Philately of Ukraine".
SILVER MEDAL:
R. Copetti: Red Flag on the Snow.
SILVER-BRONZE MEDAL:
T. Devyatova: Fauna of Udmurtiya.
G. Nagolnov: Stories about the Postal Service in Simbirsk (Literature)
S. Petrosyan: The Wild Life of Armenia.
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIMIHK N 60
September 2007






W. Sperlich: The First Steps of the Soviet Tractor Industry.
D. Ustinov: The Centenary of Russian Submarines in Philatelic Literature (Book).
BRONZE MEDAL:
A. Arakelyan: Armenia.
B. Batbileg: People and Horses.
S. Chadrabaal: Gengis Khan.
M. Dorjkhorloo: Intercosmos.
V. Kudrin: Catalogue of Postal Stationery Envelopes of Belarus' (Literature).
A. Nikitin: Catalogue of European Fauna Vol.6-6.
E. Plume: Latvian Specialised Catalogue 12~. Edition (Literature).
A. Pogosyan: The Culture of Armenia.
E. Polskoi: The First Cosmonaut.
A. Sanders: Russian Museum.
P. Solov'ev: Fame of Russia.
A. Strygin: "World of Stamps" magazine 2007 Edition.
D. Ustinov: Hares and Rabbits.
S. Zuev: History of the Simbirsk Post Office.
It can be seen from the Listing above that our areas of collecting were extremely well represented at "SAINT-
PETERSBURG 2007"!
*
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Hu4iopManuonHmHm ElIoJeTeH b Je 20 06mecTBa 4D Bulletin No. 20 of the St. Petersburg Philatelic Society, SPb. 2007). A softbound booklet of 54 pages in A5 format
with 12 articles and including 8 pages of illustrations in colour. The articles refer to subjects of St. Petersburg interest,
prepared by an Editorial Board of seven officers, three of them women in an edition of 320 copies and in Russian,
with translations into English of the titles. There are many snippets of data about St. Petersburg throughout the text,
which has been set up in a most professional manner. Available from the CSRP at USD 4.00 postpaid.
Vorwaerts zum Sieg!: Illustrierte sowietische Feldpost des zweiten Weltkrieges (Forward to Victory! Illustrated
Soviet Field Post of the Second World War), by Alfred Pflueger. Issued softbound on 316 pages 145 x 205 mm. in
German by the author with additional explanations in English and Russian on high quality chalk-surfaced paper.
Printed in colour throughout, this catalogue is divided into three parts: I One-sided Postcards; II- Envelopes & II -
Letter sheets. Available from the author at Eckenheimer Landstrasse 13, D-60318 FRANKFURT/MAIN; e-mail
albert.pflueger(-online.de for USD 50.00 postpaid. Two further volumes on Light Letters and Two-sided Postcards
(picture postcards) will follow in 2008 and 2009, containing 350 pages each.
This comprehensive work is therefore strongly recommended, while the illustrated material priced throughout
is also of great historic interest. What quickly becomes evident is the intense patriotism demonstrated by the Russian
people in standing up to the barbaric invasion of the Axis Powers. At least most of all Nazi casualties in WWII were on
the Eastern Front and the German General Staff realized within the first couple of weeks of the campaign that a fatal
mistake had been made in attacking the USSR. Even in the worse part of that period, the Soviet CTABKA (General
Staff) remained united in contrast to the Armies of the Western Allies in 1940-1941.
KOJUIIEKIIHOHEP JNoNJ 42-43 ("The Collector Manual" Nos. 42-43). A softbound volume of 424 pages in A5
format, issued in Russian in an edition of 800 copies by the Union of Philatelists of Russia, Moscow, 2007.
If ever there is an example of the vitality of Russian philately and postal history in the mother country, then
this volume is it. There are 29 articles in this issue, all of them of unbelievably high standard. The leading Russian
philatelists are represented here with additional information on the "Dots & Numerals" postmarks; Imperial Arms
Type issues; Control Marks of the Khar'kov Zemstvo; Zolotonosha Stamp,Types; Zemstvo Bisects; Automobile postal
history; Military Railways in the Caucasus; Internal Enemy of the Imperial Russian Army; Field posts in South Russia;
Four Packets of the Don Region; Field Posts on the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts; the "Gold Standard" set; Moscow
Provisional Postmarks 1992-1993; Submarine History and Revaluations of the Sverdlov Region. The final twelve
articles cover Deltiology, Numismatics, Bonds & Vouchers, Badges and Bookplates. Quite an extensive selection!
Interested readers should contact e-mail in English or Russian at solsl46i@phys.msu.ru.
noIITOBble IeIblmuie Bemn AJibMaHax NJ 4 (Postal Stationery Almanac No. 4), Moscow, 2007. A softbound
edition of 256 pages with a printing of 500 copies in A5 format, this manual is the organ of the Club of Lovers of
Postal Stationery. Enquiries may be addressed once again to solsl46i@(phys.msu.ru.
Once again we have been presented here with a wide range of subjects from 43 authors, as well as interesting
announcements ; photos from the "Moscow 1997" and "Saint-Petersburg 2007" World Philatelic Exhibitions showing

34 THE POST-RIDER/HMIHI(K N2 60
September 2007






our CSRP member Jean Walton together with Dr. A.A. Ryss, in pointing out the salient features of his wonderful
Large Gold exhibit of "Charity Letters with Advertisements".
In addition to all the data of Russian interest, this issue also contains a 25-page article by Professor Saverio
Imperato, featuring the well-known "Cavallini" postal stationery sheets issued by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1819,
being the first examples of such a class of collecting in philately.
Boenno-noJIenan Horra B POCCHH 1914-1918 (Field Post in Russia 1914-1918), a handbook-catalogue by Ardalion
Vinokurov and Alexander Eprtein. A softbound volume of 195 pages in 200 x 290 mm. format, available from either
of the two authors by e-mail at ardalionv@yahoo.com or alep(anet.ee (A. EpStein).
The text of this work is essentially in Russian and is helped by an explanatory forward in English. There are
also many hundreds of illustrations of postmarks, postcards and covers throughout, making it easy for collectors with a
limited or lack of knowledge of Russian to follow what it going on. This work is so thorough that it will be the
standard reference for years to come.
Editorial Comment: In reviewing the vast information present in the Handbook-Catalogue above, the depth of
penetration into the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Russian Armies in 1914-1915 becomes evident. That was partly
due to the fact that much of the population in Austro-Hungary was of Slav ethnic origin and they mostly had no
stomach for fighting their Russian opponents in WWI. An interesting example was the Russian advance into the
Carpathians in the eastern tip of what is now Slovakia early in 1915 at Medzilaborce, where FPO No. 10 operated.
That area is also known as the "Pryashivs'ka Rus', with a strong Ukrainian presence. In the period between the two
World Wars and following the example of Carpatho-Ukraine proper, the language referred to as "Rusinskii"
(Ruthenian) was also utilized in the eastern tip of Slovakia, as shown here:-


OKRESNY SOD V MEDZILABORCIACH


D R 7/'u7-is 3 .0 a,
"L -E

Konzul1i repui eko-SlovenakeJ. '
Coneulat de la N~publique Tcheeo-Slpu ovique f .. r7

J..-.

101 o r o n^ ^
-- ................. ......... ........ .......
1J.s.. I
Ve urfaara.-ports hradene.


This is a registered sending from the District Court at Medzilaborce, showing also the circular official cachet in Slovak
and Rusinskii. Sent on 10 April 1939 with a franking of 5 korun, it was addressed to the Consulate of the
Czechoslovak Republic in Toronto, even though the republic no longer existed, as it had been destroyed by Hitler on
15 March 1939!
On a final note and looking over the Russian philatelic literature reviewed above, the sheer volume and
erudition displayed by the various authors are remarkable and due in part to being now able to delve into. some of the
archives, with the corresponding important results. Russian philately and postal history can more than hold its own
internationally!
SPECIAL NOTE:
An early Soviet imperforate variety
This 8-kopek stamp in the set commemorating the 10th. anniversary of the
PKKA (Workers' and Soldiers' Red Army) was apparently sold in 1928 at the
Baku post office and is rare. The variety is poorly cut, but the margins are
wide enough on at least two adjoining sides, including the sheet margin.


THE POST-RIDER/IHMIIIK N2 60 35
September 2007







USE OF RUSSIAN POSTAL STATIONERY OF OLD DESIGN AFTER 1918
by Alexander EpStein
Prior to 1919, the postal stationery of the old design continued to be sold freely at the post/telegraph
establishments of the former Russian Empire at the former price and used for mail. Their stocks consisted,
first of all, of stamped Postal Stationery cards of the 1909- (single 3 and 4 k and double (with paid reply) 3+3
and 4+4 k) and 1917- issue (5 and 5+5 K) with an overwhelming majority of the latter. The remainders of the
Romanov Jubilee PS cards of 1913 included mostly the 4 and 4+4 k cards. Besides, but in considerably less
quantities, there remained also stocks of stamped PS envelopes of different issues (mostly 1914) with face
values of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 H 20 k and PS letter-cards 3, 7 and 10 k. The negligible remainders of PS wrappers
were practically withdrawn from sale still earlier.
Because of the repeated changes of the domestic and foreign postal rates starting from 15 August
1917, this postal stationery, especially postcards, were subject to affixing adhesives supplementary to the rate
in force. The postal stationery was sold at post offices often with the adhesives affixed to them. Also official
formula cards were sold at the post usually with adhesives affixed.
As of January 1919 in the RSFSR and later also in some other Soviet republics of that time
(Ukrainian, Latvian, Lithuanian-Byelorussian) free forwarding of ordinary mail both to inland and abroad
was declared (although there were actually no postal connections with foreign countries up to the summer of
1920). This concerned ordinary letters of the first weight category (to 15 g) and postcards. The free
forwarding was not applied to ordinary printed matter. Delivery of heavier letters as well as registered,
declared value etc mail remained subject to franking.
The status of postal stationery remained unchanged almost three months more but its stocks were
withdrawn from the postal establishments for the revaluation as early as in December 1918. The change in
status was by the circular letter of People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs (PCPT) of the RSFSR No.
1_-357/1762 of 21 March 1919 [1]. It ran as follows:
"The sale of stamped postcards and envelopes with various tariffs is to be stopped with the
introduction of free forwarding ofpostcards and letters up to 15 g by the posal service.
Because of lack of postcards and envelopes of private manufacture in sale on the market, the
People's Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs considers it possible to allow the local postal/telegraphic
establishments to put on sale for the public all the stamped postcards, letter-cards and envelopes at a
uniform procurement price existing for these materials, namely:
stamped postcards 4, 3, 4, 5 k. and others. at 10 k;
stamped postcards double (with reply) 6, 8 and 10 k. at 20 k.;
stamped envelopes and letter-cards ofall patterns 6, 4, 8, 11, 15, and 21 k at 20 k..
When selling stamped postcards, letter-cards and envelopes to the public, the tariffprice of the latter
is to be annulled by the officials ofpostal establishments by crossing it out manually or in any other way at
the discretion of the local establishment".
Let us note that the envelopes and letter-cards were sold earlier with a surtax of 1 k against the face
value of the imprinted stamp, hence the values 6, 4 k etc. It was meant evidently under the stamped cards of
/4k the official postcard formulars sold earlier at 1 k for 4 copies. There was actually no stamp on them. One
can suppose therefore that the postal administration meant under the stamped postcards its official issues,
rather than the postcards privately manufactured. By the way, it called often as blanks also the stamped
postcards, i.e. there was no settled terminology yet.
Also it attracts attention the significant addition "... and others" after the enumeration of the
postcard face values. What was meant under it? Two assumptions are possible. First, it could be the PS card
of the Provisional Government pattern (as the 5-k postcard) with a face value of 20 k in blue that
corresponded to the postal rate in force from 28 February to 14 September 1918. Its specimen was approved
as early as 5 June 1918 [2] and the order for printing was accepted by the State Printing Work "Expeditsiya
Zagotovleniya Gosudarstvennykh Bumag" on 2 July [3]; however, it did not appear on sale by the beginning
of 1919 yet (one should remember that the rate for this kind of mail had been halved as from 15 September;
that made this postcard unnecessary by that time). It is not excluded, however, that manufactured copies of
this postcard were already lying at the PCPT storerooms.
Second, there could be meant the postcards with provisional surcharges made on the all-Russian PS
cards by the postal administrations of some anti-Bolsheviks governments (Don, Ukraine) which at the
beginning of 1919 remained in use in the regions occupied by the Red Army.
The above-cited circular letter prescribed also the order of the revaluation. For example, the
following act of the Soltsy Post/Telegraph Office (Petrograd province) witnesses, how it took place [4]:


36 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK No 60
September 2007







"On the grounds of the direction of the PTDA (Postal/Telegraphic District Administration A.E.) of
4.1V.19 under No. 14225 which had taken stock of the postcard and stamped envelope blanks available at the
office and found there by 10 May ,the date of reception of the decree on increasing the selling price of the
available cards of the 3-kopeks face value at 1,800 pieces and 5-kopeks at 3,500 pieces with a total value of
229 roubles according to the tariffprice and 530 roubles according to the new price.
Decreed after ordering the blanks as consumption by the face value and entering them as income by
the new selling price to draw up the present act, which copy forward to the PTDA and Petrograd General
Post Office (Pochtamt).
The authenticity is confirmed by the signatures of the officials at the post office".
Properly speaking, the principle of carrying out this revaluation did not differ from as to how postage
stamps were revalued later (100 times in March 1920 etc). However, while the stamps retained their franking
force according to the new value as well, it was another matter with the postal stationery, since the same
circular letter stressed that"... the procurement cost rather than the postal tariffs for forwarding letters by the
post is collected for the stamped postcards, envelopes and letter-cards being sold". However, it was not so
understood everywhere as, is evident from what is .said hereunder.
Contrary to the recommendations of the circular, postal stationery items with the imprinted stamp
crossed over or annulled in another way are rarely found. In an overwhelming majority of cases, the
collectors have to do with items having the imprinted stamp quite untouched (Figs 1, 2). Nevertheless, there
are found also overprints or manual inscriptions of the new value, which will be discussed a little later.
It is worth mentioning also that the introduction of new prices for postal stationery made the free
forwarding of ordinary mail at that instant rather illusory. As any private trade in Soviet regions was
practically abolished by that time, the senders were forced either using their old reserves (if they had any) or,
for instance, manufacturing home-made envelopes even out of old newspapers or, finally, purchasing the
necessary postcards, envelopes and other stationery at the post office. And if the ordinary postcard rate was
10 k prior to the introduction of "postage free" delivery and the sender could buy for this price a postcard
with the stamps at their face value, he/she was to pay now the same 10 k for the blank. It was only a little
easier with the letters: if it cost before was 25 k., the sender paid now 20 k. for an envelope or letter-card, i.e.
he/she saved as much as 5 kopeks. It should be mentioned for the sake ofjustice, that the postal rates were at
that time rather low in comparison to the general cost of life; however, the income of the overwhelming
majority of people was extremely low too.
The appearance of privately manufactured blanks in sale at the post to supplement the exhausting
stocks of official issues is one more peculiarity of this period. Earlier, privately manufactured postcards or
letter-cards were not sold across the postal counter. It is unclear also, what in particular one meant under
such blanks. They could be either blanks ordered by the post office from private printing shops or stocks
requisitioned from the former private dealers and printing shops in the frame of the "military communism"
policy and handed over to the post office.
Later on, the postal blanks were repeatedly re-valued in connection with the increasing inflation. For
instance, the circular letter of PCPT RSFSR No. 1U-1219 of 25 October 1919 raised the price for unstamped
postcards (formulars) and notifications of delivery to 25 k. and for envelopes to 50 k. [5]. This was soon
extended to the stamped envelopes, money transfer forms, parcel cards and postcards by the circular letter
No. 1-1336 [6]. All this was connected evidently with the rise of postal rates at the beginning of November.
A few months passed, and a new rise of prices followed. The circular letter of PCPT No. 1 12/167 of 23
March 1920 fixed the price of stamped and unstamped postcards as well as unstamped envelopes at 1 r [7]. A
little later, also stamped envelopes were added [8]. Let us be reminded that the postal rates were increased
again in March 1920, although the free delivery of ordinary mail remained.
All these PCPT circular letters were duplicated then by postal/telegraphic district administrations as
well as those of Moscow and Petrograd General Post Offices. Something was considerably delayed. For
instance, the prices for blanks of postcards and envelopes were fixed officially at 10 k. only as of 1 June in
the Ukrainian Soviet Republic where its own PCPT existed from April 1919 [9]. In practice, only postal
stationery items overprinted with the Ukrainian trident were used at the postal/telegraphic establishments of
the Ukraine.
On the other hand, there is evidence that the measures provided by the circular letter No.IU 12/167
were taken some time still earlier. For instance, there has been found a PS card with the Khar'kov-type
trident overprint and new value "10 KOP." and message written on 9 March that was sent on 13 March 1919
from Khar'kov to Tambov. The overprinted face value is covered by black ink in conformity with the
requirements of the above-mentioned circular, although the latter was issued a little later (F. 3). Some other
PS cards are found with such a kind of overprint but mint. There was no specific PKPT yet in the Soviet
Ukraine at that instant and its postal establishments acted probably at their own discretion, being guided
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK NH 60 37
September 2007





























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THE POST-RIDER/1MIjIIK J, 60
September 2007


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sometimes by instructions of the local communication bodies and the PCPT of the RSFSR. The free
forwarding of ordinary mail was introduced there as early as 8 February 1919 r [9].
As noted above, there exist
Postal stationery overprinted with a new value
It was the Chuchin catalogue [10] that mentioned the first such overprints; there was such a note at
the end of the chapter dealing with the PS cards of Russia (without concrete data): "Various postal
establishments issued postcards overprinted with a new value". The most well-known by this day are
undoubtedly those with the violet handstamp in 2 lines "10 KOP." made on PS cards with face values of 3,
3+3 and 4 k. of the 1909-issue, 4+4 k. of the 1913-Romanov Jubilee issue, 5 and 5+5 k. of the 1917-issue
(Fig. 4). The catalogue of stamps and postal stationery of the RSFSR [11] lists also formula postcards with
this surcharge.
For the first time, these postcards were listed in the Ascher postal stationery catalogue [12], while the
Chuchin catalogue published later limited itself with the above-cited note. Later on, they entered also the
Higgins & Gage [13], Michel [14] and, at last, the postal stationery catalogues published in Russia rather
recently [11, 15]. In the Russian-language literature, they were described for the first time in the work by S.
Blekhman and V. Pantyukhin [16].
All these sources date this issue to 1918. There exist two points of view as to its origin. It was
considered originally that it had been made in connection with the introduction of the 10-kopek rate for
ordinary postcards as from 15 September (the catalogues [12-14, 16] state an increase in the rate, although
the contrary actually took place there). However, such postcards are known to have passed through the mail
only from May 1919 onwards and almost exclusively from Petrograd (ig. 5) (true, there exist also cards
with Moscow cancellations, also from a considerably later period, but they were sent only by philatelists).
Therefore, V. Mogil'nyi [17] was the first who stated another point of view, namely that this surcharge was
only a local sign of revaluation converting the PS cards into formulars according to the circular letter No. IU-
357/1762. This point of view was supported later by V. Pantyukhin [18] who proposed to regard them as
formula cards rather than as full-value PS cards. Nevertheless, the matter does not seem so simple.
The postcard depicted in Fig. 6 passed through the mail in Petrograd registered. The tariff for
registered postcards was at that time 35 k. and if counting the total franking together with the supplementary
adhesives, it turns out that the 10-kopek surcharge was taken into account; this should not happen if the
postcards were a mere formular. Therefore, one cannot exclude the version that these postcards were
prepared actually in 1918 in connection with the introduction of the 10-kopek rate (consequently, the
imprinted stamp remained valid) but put in use as long ago as the late spring of 1919. It should be noted for
the sake of justice that there are found also registered postcards with this surcharge mailed in Petrograd also
in 1919 but franked with adhesives to 35 k., ignoring the surcharge. Items with such rankings are found
from other localities as well (first of all, from Moscow) but sent by philatelists.
Unfortunately, I did not succeed finding in the funds of Petrograd General Post Office, Petrograd
Post/Telegraph District and Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs of the Union of North Region Communes
stored in the Central State Archive of St. Petersburg anything that would point to the origin of this issue.
Only the order for the accounting department of the Petrograd General Post Office No. 728 of 1 November
1919 [19] can serve as indirect evidence that these postcards were issued actually in Petrograd. It reads:
"In addition to the Order for Petrograd Pochtamt of 29 October 1919 z. under No. 76 (that
duplicates the corresponding circular letter of PCPT RSFSR No LI -1219 as to the revaluation of unstamped
postcards A.E.), collect 25 k. for postcards with the imprint of 10 kop. and 50 k. for those with the imprint
of20 kop ".
Evidently, this can concern only, respectively, the ordinary and double postcards overprinted 10
kop., since no such postcards with this face value were issued earlier, and no face value at all was mentioned
in the PCPT circular letter No. IU-1336. Also the circumstance that it is said in this order just about a stamp
(imprinted A.E.) attracts attention, and this can be interpreted as recognition of that these postcards were
actually stamped PS cards.
Another overprint, large-size figure "10" in blue remains almost unknown up to now. I discovered it
first on a mint 3 + 3 k. double PS card of the 1909-issue (Fg. 7). Later, the same overprint was found on an
official formula card of the Petrograd Post/Telegraph District used locally in Petrograd in October 1919 (Fig.
8) that showed seemingly the place of its issue. However, the matter was not finished yet. There surfaced
from the stocks of the Popov State Communication Museum in St. Petersburg PS letter-cards of the 1914-16
issue with a quite similar overprint but "20". One of them was registered at Pavlovsk, a suburb of Petrograd
with a supplementary franking by adhesives to 50 k according to the tariff for registered letters then in force
(Figs 9, 10).* Thus, at least, this letter-card was used as a formular.

THE POST-RIDER/IIMMIHK N2 60 39
September 2007











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40 THE POST-RIDER/LHMI NK 60
September 2007


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* The author expresses his sincere gratitude to L. Ryl'kova and N. Andreeva, museum research workers for granting a chance to look through the
corresponding materials stored in the museum.
Strictly speaking, the overprint of a new value on the imprinted stamp is a direct infringement of the
circular letter No. U-357/1762 that merely provided for its (i.e. stamp) annulment. If the new value was not a
tariff price, it should be indicated if necessary by an overprint in any place other than the imprinted stamp;
otherwise, this would mean a new tariff value according to the common practice. Therefore, it is not
surprising that confusion arose when using such postal stationery as registered mail.
There are known also some other cases of local revaluation made on the imprinted stamp. For
instance, a handstamp surcharge "10" in black on the 5-k PS card of the 1917 issue used at Ostashkov on 22
May 1919 and another, mint 3+3-k PS card of the 1909 issue with a numbering machine overprint "010" in
black are described in an article by I. Alexandrov [20]. Unfortunately, they are not illustrated. An imprinted
stamp of the same 5-k. PS card overprinted "10 kop" and cancelled by an oval postmark of the TPO No. 234
Moscow-Novosokol'niki is depicted in the catalogue [15]. Finally, a 3-k. PS card of the 1909 issue with a
manual surcharge "10 k" by black ink and supplementary affixed 35-k. adhesive of the South Russian
"Edinaya Rossiya" set used at Stavropol' in October 1919 was offered and sold once at the Ebay. Since the
35-k. stamp corresponded to the ordinary postcard rate in force in the regions then occupied by the White
South Russian forces, the postcard itself was used as a blank; however, it was revalued undoubtedly at an
earlier date still tinder the Soviet administration.
At last, it should be mentioned that the PS cards of the 1909 issue with a black typographic overprint
"10" (Fig. 11) must not be included among such revaluations as it was done in [15]. This surcharge was
made actually in Rostov-Don in November or December 1918 by the postal administration of the Don
Republic.

The 20-k PS card of the Provisional Government pattern (Fig. 12) still remains a mystery as
well.
As noted above, the purpose of issue as well as the date of approval and sending this postcard to the
press are known. However, there remain still unknown the exact time of putting it in use and the peculiarities
of its postal use during the initial period. The majority of the catalogues list this postcard after the issue with
the "10 KOP" surcharge and date it in 1918 (it is listed before that issue in [16] but shown only as the
specimen approved for print). However, if the first is correct, the year of issue indicated there does not
correspond to reality. It was not in use in 1918, and there were found no copies yet that passed through the
mail even at the end of 1919. The earliest of known cancellations is dated 7 February 1920 [21].
It is surprising that this postcard became known to the postal stationery collectors as late as in 1924
as result of the business trip of K.K. Kirschstein, a member of the Expert Bureau of the Organization of
Plenipotentiary for Philately and Paper Money "for philatelic research" to Leningrad, where it was on sale as
a formular with application of the corresponding cachet [22]. It is difficult to imagine such ignorance, having
before us a number of such postcards which passed through the mail both in Moscow and Petrograd as well
as in other localities in 1920 and later!
Also some aspects of its postal use remain a mystery. There are no questions as to ordinary mail: its
free delivery remained till mid-August 1921 and such postcards did not then require franking (Fig. 13). It is
their use as registered that raise questions. Registered postcards from that period are extremely scarce on the
whole, and I know of only two 20-kopek postcards of this kind from Petrograd and Moscow (both in the V.
Pantyukhin collection). Both are franked with adhesives to 3 r.,which corresponds to the rate of 1/5
November 1919 officially proclaimed [21, 23].
It should be noted that this rate differs from the corresponding rates of the previous (of 15 September
1918/1 January 1919) and next (10/20 March 1920) tariff sets by the circumstance that it does not include the
weight charge (however, present for letters also in this set), which should be 1 r. This is in contradiction to
the principle of forming the postal rates in the free-post period. Actually, there are also two registered
postcards from that period in my collection from very different places (Votkinsk and Serpukhov), both
franked with adhesives to 4 r. as it should seemingly be [24]. The difference is only that both were the 5-k.
PS cards of the 1917 issue in this case. So, what is the matter?
A hypothesis suggests itself here that the 20-kopek PS card was originally put in use especially for
registered mail and its selling price was 1 r. (contrary to other PS cards converted into formulars which cost
then only 25 k.), and this was taken into account when franking such a postcard.
Of course, one cannot draw any conclusions basing on such a negligible amount of the available
material. Unfortunately, there is absolutely lacking any mention of this postcard both in the official
periodical of that time "Collection of Decrees and Instructions for the People.s Commissariat of Posts-and-
Telegraphs" and documents of the postal administration looked through in the State Archive of St.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIK N 60 41
September 2007





























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42 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK No 60
September 2007








Petersburg. Probably, such materials that could either confirm or refute this hypothesis are available in the
Moscow archives but they should be looked for and found by an inquisitive researcher.
There exists also the problem of advisability of extending the term "postal stationery" itself.
According to the classical definition, postal stationery should have necessarily a stamp design imprinted on
it. Later, a corresponding text replacing the stamp, e.g. for legal post-free mail, was added to such a
definition [24]. Formulars are not considered postal stationery. However, such an approach is being eroded
now, and formulars are accepted at philatelic exhibitions in the class of postal stationery. Let us remember
also that the listing of PS cards in the Chuchin catalogue starts with a postcard formular (although unpriced),
issued before the first stamped postcard, and all the postcard formulars issued by the Central Postal
Administration of Russia are listed in the Higgins & Gage catalogue [13]. And to what category should be
attributed the 20-kopeck postcard which has every feature of postal stationery or e.g. the locally revalued
postcards described above?
As mentioned above, the official postcard formulars were often sold at post offices in 1917-18 with
an adhesive(s) affixed to them to match the corresponding postal rate in force, and these postcards were sold
for the price equal to the total face value of the affixed stamps without any surtax for the blank. Such a
practice was provoked probably by local shortages of stamped postcards connected with the fact that the
State Printing Works interrupted manufacturing the PS cards in the spring of 1917 because of the shortage of
cardboard. Essentially, such formulars with affixed stamps are fully equal in rights to the PS cards, although
it is usually impossible to prove that the particular postcard formular was purchased at the post officejust in
this state (Fig. 14).
Therefore, it is proposed to include the formulars in the conception of "postal stationery", dividing
the latter into stamped and unstamped (postal formulars) postal stationery; in some cases they can turn into
each other. This concerns only official issues, i.e. those issued or ordered by the postal service. Private
formulars are not included in this connection if only they have not a cachet pointing to their belonging to the
postal service (see later).
However, the troubles connected with the 20-kopeck postcard do not end with this. Under the
conditions of the developing New Economic Policy (NEP), the free delivery of ordinary mail was abolished
as from 15 August 1921. The postal rate rose drastically: for instance, forwarding of ordinary inland
postcards required 100 r and registered postcards 1100 r. (instead of the former 10 r). The stamped
postcards converted earlier into blanks were to be now franked with stamps on the full tariff cost (Fig. 15).
However, something strange was happening with the 20-kopeck postcard on this stage.
Fig. 16 shows such a postcard sent on 23.09.21 from Lyskovo-Privolzhskoe, Nizhnii Novgorod
province to Moscow. While the rate was 100 r, the card was franked with 4 20-k. Imperial definitive
officially revalued to 20 r. in March 1920. As a postage due cachet is missing, this means that the imprinted
stamp design was also taken into account to 20 r. One may, of course, assume a postal clerk's mistake in this
case. However, there is another example as well.
A similar postcard was used locally in Moscow on 24.08.21 (Fig. 17). Any adhesives are missing, so
the postcard was subject for postage due. However, it is the amount written in the 'to pay' cachet that is
surprising. One can see that the postal clerk wrote in initially the figure "500" that corresponded to the
double rate for an ordinary letter. Then he noticed his error, erased this figure but wrote in "160" rather than
"200" as should be expected. Thus, the imprinted stamp was taken into account for 20 r. in this case as well.
Was this a mistake again or was something real behind this? A search in the archives could help as well.
There is also a known example of an official local revaluation of postcards in this period. Strikes of
the official cachet of the People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs-and-Telephones of Belorussia was
applied to the 5- and 5+5-k. PS cards of the 1917 issue, revaluing them conventionally to 100 and 200 r,
respectively [25] (Fig. 18). We have in this case an example of the reverse conversion of formulars into
postal stationery in the classical sense.
The persisting inflation and rise of postal rates should naturally lead to raising the prices for the
blanks as well. Indeed, the circular letter of PCPT No. 43/10408 of 25 October 1921 fixed the price for
blanks of private manufacture at 100 r. for single cards and 200 r for double cards [26]. The corresponding
decree as to the official (postal) blanks has not been found yet.
The next circular letter No. 43/319 of 22 March 1922 [27] fixed the selling price of single and double
postcards with and without imprinted stamp at 2 k. in the pre-war currency, which equalled to 3,000 r. at that
instant. This followed soon by a new circular letter under No. 43/387 of 6 April [28] that fixed the prices in
paper roubles, including for the materials of private manufacture: stamped and unstamped envelopes,
stamped and unstamped single postcards, stamped and unstamped letter-cards, wrappers, money transfer
cards, single parcel cards, notifications of reception, and blanks for application at 50,000 r., stamped and
unstamped double postcards and double parcel cards at 100,000 r. There were repeated also all the provisions
THE POST-RIDER/aIMII[HK N 60 43
September 2007








of the initial circular letter of 1919 concerning the method of annulling of the tariff value on stamped
postcards, envelopes and letter-cards.
Curiously enough, the tariffs introduced as from 15 April 1922 fixed the ordinary postcard rate at
20,000 roubles thus totalling 70,000 r together with the blank. However, the PS cards were sold in the "good
old times" at their tariff value and the formulars with a negligible surtax. One returned to this practice as late
as from 1924. An increase (and sometimes also decrease when the fixed price turned out too high) of prices
for formulars continued also later in connection with the galloping inflation.
Beginning from about the end of 1922, there appeared on the postcards as well as on other postal
formulars cachets pointing to their belonging to either a postal/telegraphic district (or communication district
as they became to be designated as of 1922), provincial communication department, general post office,
post/telegraph office, etc. Such a practice existed for blanks of money transfer and parcel cards up to 1917.
In this case, their necessity proceeded evidently from the fact of frequent revaluations and, consequently, the
necessity to protect the financial interests of the post. The corresponding decree has not been found yet, but
these cachets were mentioned in the circular letter of PCPT No. 25/1580 of 20 October 1923 [29], which
indicated in part that "postcards of private and former official manufacture being in hands of citizens
without the established cachet should be forwarded when paid for according to the rate fixed for letters".
However, the application of such cachets was stopped as of 1924 in connection evidently with the calculation
of postal rates and prices in the hard currency.
These cachets are very different by their shape and colour, they were applied usually in the upper
part of the blank (on postcards, most often over the imprinted stamp on the right or the coat-of-arms on the
left) (Figs 19-2 b)Some known examples of such cachets on stamped postcards are listed in the following
table:


Text Shape Colour Postcard
3k 3+3k 5k 5+5k 20k
EJIaHK MOCK. f-Ta In two lines, within black X x
(Blank of Moscow Pochtamt) rectangular frame
45x18 mm, stylized
design depicting
sickle and hammer,
posthorns etc on the
left.
EinaHK MOCKOBCKOFO In two lines, within black x
OKpyra CB3mI rectangular frame
(Blank of MOSCOW 60x18 mm,
Communication district) post/telegraph
emblem: posthorns
and crossed arrows
on the left.
IETPOFPAICKIH Circle with a violet, X x
IIOqTAMT / 6naHK diameter of 32 mm, greenish
(PETROGRAD POCHTAMT/ text circumferential blue
blank) and in the centre
(serials "a" and "b") inside a smaller
circle.
Post/telegraph
emblem: posthoms
and crossed arrows
over the central
text.
YITPABJIEHHE CEB. 3AII. Circle with a violet, x x
IIOIT. TEJIEFP. OKPYTA. / diameter of 37 mm, greenish
BJIAHK text circumferential blue,
(ADMINISTRATION OF and in the centre brown-lilac
NORTHWEST inside a smaller
POST/TELEGRAPH circle.
DISTRICT / BLANK)
(serials "a" and "b")
BJiaHK BITCKoro Fy6oTrejna In two lines violet x
CBa3H Fig. 20.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK N 60
September 2007








(Blank of Vyatka Province
Communication Department)
EBiaHx YnpanBeemH In three lines, violet x
TypKecTaEcKoro IHo. within rectangular
Tenerpa$. OKpyra frame 44x19 mm,
(Blank of Turkestan stylized picture of
Post/Telegraph District) coat-of-arms on the
2 _left. Fig.21.
Pa3am, / Fy6. OTA. / BnaHm Circle with a black X
(Ryazan' / Province diameter of 17, text
Communication Department) circumferential and
Fig. 21a in the centre.
EJIAHK BepxHe-BojDKCKoro In three lines violet X
OKpyra CBS3H
(BLANK of Upper Volga
Communication District)
BJIAHK HIKxHe-BomJKCKoro In four lines black, x x
OKpyra CBams, AcTpaxam,, 4 violet
(BLANK of Lower Volga
Communication District,
Astrakhan' 4)
BJIAHK KHEBCKAFO In two lines, within black x
nIOqT-TEJIEFP. OKPYFA** rectangular frame
(BLANK OF KIEV
POST/TELEGRAPH
DISTRICT)
BJIAHK XAPbKOBCKOFO In three lines, black X x
nI.-T. OKPYFA ** within rectangular
(BLANK OF KHARKOV P/T frame 38x25 mm
DISTRICT) with beveled
covers Fig. 21b.
EnaHK KoMHccapHaTa HoTrr H A single line black x
TenerpaDoB 3aKaBKca3b
(Blank of Commissariat of
Posts-and-Telegraphs of
Transcaucasia)
BJIAHK TYJIbCKOH HIIO.- In two lines inside grey-violet x
TEJI. KOHTOPbI oval
(BLANK OF TULA P/T
OFFICE)
KHEBCKASI II.-T. In two lines, within violet X
KOHTOPA YCCP *** rectangular frame
(KIEV P/T OFFICE USSR
BnaHK YnpasBeHHR Circle, grey-violet X
repHoMopcKoro OKpyra circumferential text
CBx3H ***
(Blank of Black Sea
Communication District
Administration)
EKaTepHH6yprcKaa n.-T. K. / In two lines inside violet x X
BJIAHK rectangle
(Ekaterinburg P/TO / Blank


* Found also on 7-k letter-card of 1914 issue.
** Found also on postcards overprinted with the Ukrainian trident and new value "10 kop". E
*** Found only on postcards overprinted with the Ukrainian trident and new value "10 kop".


xists in two sizes.


The following cachets are found still on formulas (inc. those of private manufacture), but they can
undoubtedly exist on stamped postcards as well:


BJIAHK TaepcKoro teHTp, n./T. npeanp.
BJIAHK OpnoBCKOFO noqT.-Tenerp. Orpyra
BniaaH BopoHeccKoro IIHoToBo-TenerpadHoro OKpyra
EnaHiK IO.B. OKpyra CBan3


(BLANK of Tver' central p/t enterprise)
(BLANK of Orel post/telegraph District)
(Blank of Voronezh Post/Telegraph District)
(Blank of SE Communication district)


THE POST-RIDER/ IMIIHK N2 60
September 2007






IjianH IOro-BocToqHoro OKpyra HapoHoR CBa3H (Blank of Southeast District of People Communication)
POCT. OKPYTA CB13H (ofROST(OV) COMMUNICATION DISTRICT)
BJIAHK POCTOBCKOH H/A OBJIACTHOI IIOTTOBOf4 KOHTOPbI (BLANK OF ROSTOV-DON PROVINCE
POST OFFICE)
BJIAHK 3AIIAAHOFO OKPYFA CB313H (BLANK OF WESTERN COMMUNICATION DISTRICT)
JnaHK CEBEPHOFO OKPYFA CB13H1 (Blank of NORTHERN COMMUNICATION DISTRICT)
< BOJDKCKO-KAMCKOFO OKPYFA CBI3H1 / Ka3aHr ("BLANK" of VOLGA-KAMA
COMMUNICATION DISTRICT / Kazan')
BnaHK YpajbcKoro HoqTOBo-TejerpaiH. OKpyra (Blank of Urals Post/Telegraph District)
YnpasieHHe lepHoMopcKoro OKpyra CBS3H (Blank of Black Sea Communication District)
BnaHK OaeccKoi I'o7Toso l KOHTOpLI ((H)) (Blank of Odessa Post Office ("I")
JIoAeiHononicKaa IotTOBo-TenierpaDHaa KoHTOpa (Lodeinoe Pole Post/Telegraph Office)
BJIAHK IAJIhHE-BOCTO4HOFO OKPYTA CBR13H (BLANK OF FAR EAST COMMUNICATION DISTRICT)


f I C'LLTOBM I KA





A...








By the circular letters No. 25/995 of 7 July and No. 25/1070 of 23 July 1923 [30], the PCPT
prescribed to put in use the stocks of old PS cards of the Imperial and Provisional Government designs only
within the borders of the USSR already created by that time, covering the coats-of-arms by Soviet stamps of
the corresponding face value. However, these instructions were not infrequently followed only partly or not
implemented at all: such postcards were widely used for the mail abroad as well (Fi. 22), especially after
issuing in December 1923 the first PS card ofthe USSR destined "exclusively for the internal mail" [31]. At
many postal establishments, the coat-of-arms and/or the imprinted stamp was/were covered by cachets of
different shape and design ). Such blanks were finally withdrawn from use as late as 1926.
It should be noted also that the circular letter of PCPT No. 25/10762 of 31 May 1923 restored the
monopoly of the postal service (People's Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs) for "issuing postcard
blanks both with and without imprinted stamp" [32].
All the said above does not concern the regions of the former Russian Empire, which were ruled at
either time by various governments and administrations opposing the Soviet administrations. Somewhere,
e.g. in Estonia, Latvia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, after their own stamps had been issued,, they were also used
as blanks (in Latvia, by overprinting with an additional text); in other regions (e.g. Northwest and South
Russia, Siberia), postal stationery continued to be used at the face value up to 1920 or were supplied with
distinctive overprints either indicating the new value (Ukraine, Don) or without such a distinction (Far East).

References
1. <,
N 1, 1919.
2. C. BnexMaH. IlepBaa coBeTcKas nowToBaA KapToqKa. O> 1970, N2 3, 13.
3. 10. PygHHKOB. IlepBas noqTroBa KapToqxa PCOCP. <> 1987, N2 5, 34-35.
4. IleHTpajmbHbmi FocynapcrBeHHLIii ApxHB CaHKIT--IeTep6ypra, 40oHA 918, ormcb 1, geno 1050, n. 19.
5. o 5, 1919.
6. <oB>),
X2 6, 1920.
7. <>,
X2 7, 1920.
8. <>,
N 8, 1920.
46 THE POST-RIDER/e N o 60
September 2007






9. < 1919.
10. O.F. qyqni (non pea.). KaTanor noIrTOBbIX MapoK H ienJIbHmx Beiefi. Bbm. 1, OcHOBHaA Poccua.
M., 1925.
11. P.C.O.C.P. CneIanjmH3poBamHHii KaTanor IIOITOBHIX MapOK 1918-1923. CTaHAapr-KonneKrma, 2
H3A. Cn6 2005
12. Dr. S. Ascher. GroBer Ganzsachen-Katalog 1926. Verlag Robert Noske, Borna-Leipzig, 1926.
13. Higgins & Gage. Priced Catalogue of Postal Stationery of the World. 1970.
14. Michel Ganzsachen Katalog Europa. 2002
15. LenHbie Be~mH pyccKOri norrTi 1845-2000 rr. M., 2001.
16. C.BnexMaH, B. IIairnoxmH. CTraHapTHbIe rnoqTOBae KapTroqKH CCCP. >
N! 13, 1975, 47-63.
17. B. MorHirbHbli. 1-OrTOBaa npHpoga HainesaTKH <10 KOIn. Ha MapKHposaHHbix KaproTKax PoccmH.
<<(DwiaTejiHa CCCP> 1989, No 3, 44.
18. B. narrioxHH. Onn6Kxe KaTanoroB 70 ner! (O KapToqRax c pyqHori nHOneroBoii HalneqaTKoi (10
Kon.). <> 1995, Ns 3, 48-49.
19. IleHTparimnH rFocyAapcTBeHmHi ApxHB CamrT-lerTep6ypra, (ogg 947, ormcb 4, Aeno 32, n. 906.
20. H. AneKcaHApoB. HeMsBecTHbie npOBH3opHH 1918 roxa. @tnaTenia CCCP>, N2 10, 1986,
21. A. IHBaxHo. O nO'TOBOHi KapTorKe PCOCP. <> 1992, No 1,
25-26.
22. flepBaa uejImHaa Bemi PCOCP. < 23. A. AKyjnaiHH. XoTenocb 6bi yTronHHTb... 1992, N2 1, 23-
24.
24. A. 3nurreiiH. 3araaKH nOrTOBbix TapH4oB. 1992, No 1, 27-
30.
25. C. BjiexMaH, B. lIaHnoxHH. IoqTroBbie KapToI9KH, H3AaBaBmHeca MeCTHbIMH ype)AeHHAMH CBR3H
CCCP. < N17, 1979, 3-24.
26. <>, N2 40-41, 1921.
27. < 28. BiIonneTeHb HKHnT>), N! 11, 1922.
29. <, N! 40, 1923.
30. ), N2 26, 1923.
31. H. HHKaHopoBa. OHH 6buIH nepBbiMH. < No 2, M., 2006, 50-62.
32. BionnieTeHb HKIHT>), No 21, 1923
*
ONE MORE ITEM OF MAIL FROM BESSARABIA IN 1918
by Alexander Epltein.
The postal relations in Bessarabia, which had been occupied by Romanian troops, but prior to its final
incorporation in the Romanian State, i.e. in the period of the short-lived Moldavian People's Republic, have been
studied very little. Dr. Dan Grecu [1] states that, in this period (Periods 1 and 2, according to his classification), the
former Russian post offices continued their operations, but almost no examples have been found. A local postcard
from Kishinev posted in May 1918 was shown in [2]. Unfortunately, that postcard did not allow us to draw clear
conclusions about the postal rates prevailing there in those days. However, one more appropriate postcard has now
surfaced, as shown here on the next page. That item was handled on 23 April 1918 at the postal/telegraphic office of
Orgeev and addressed to the village of Kobylka. The franking consists of five imperforate 5-kop. Imperial stamps with
a total face value of 25 kop. The stamps are postmarked by a standard Russian double-ring "bridge"-type canceller
with the serial letter "6". Again, a question arises about the postal rate.
The short message represents an Easter greeting. Starting from the postal rates of the Provisional Government
as at 15 August 1917, such greeting cards, with a message included up to 6 words, had to be treated as letters. That
rule was retained both in the Soviet Russian rates of 28 February 1918 and for the rates of the Ukrainian People's
Republic as at 15 January 1918. The latter's rate for ordinary letters (and consequently for greeting postcards) was just
25 kop. One may therefore conclude with a high degree of probability that the postal rates of the Ukraine were in force
in Bessarabia as well. It is interesting that the franking consists of a horizontal pair and a strip of three 5-kop. stamps.
It looks as if the pair was first affixed in the proper place on the right, coming to 10 kop. for an ordinary postcard.
However, the sender then learned that sending a greeting postcard cost more and further stamps were added.
References
1.Dr. Dan Grecu:"The beginnings of the Romanian Posts in Bessarabia in 1918";"Post-_Rider" N 45, 62-66,Nov. 1999.
2.Alexander Ep~tein: "An item from Bessarabia in the Period of Troubles"; "Post-Rider" N- 56, 72-73, June 2005.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No 60 47
September 2007














"One more item of mail from Bessarabia
in 1918".
See the description on the previous page.


* '* * * * * * *


The Anichkov Bridge in St. Petersburg.


Situated where the Nevskii Prospekt crosses the Fontanka River, the bridge is famous for the bronze sculptures
placed at its four comers and executed according to the designs of Baron Peter Klodt in 1841. The sculptures show in
various poses a man taming a stallion (it is important to note that a stallion is a male horse). The tour guides do not tell
the tourists that, at each corer, there are two testicles assigned to the man and two to the stallion and there is hence a
total of 16 male specialities. The local population therefore refers to the structure as "The Bridge of the Sixteen
Balls" (MocT llIecTHaanTa Safi). Count them up, dear children; it checks out.
At least one view card was printed commercially before WWI with a good view of the bridge and sculptures
and, in 1991, the Russian Federation issued a postal stationery envelope with a face value of Ir. 20k., showing one of
the covers with its associated man and stallion. See above.
In visiting St. Petersburg, don't forget to be photographed on "The Bridge of the 16t Balls" and straighten out
your tour guide! It is the least you can do and the truth will come out.

48 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIM HK NM 60
September 2007


SPECIAL NOTE:


* *






METER POSTMARKS OF THE NAVY OF THE USSR
by Vladimir Berdichevskiy.
The ruling circles of the Navy of the USSR (BM4 CCCP) during the period of its existence in the pre- and
post-war years changed their designations and subordination on several occasions, Those changes were reflected on
mail primarily by the application of meter postmarks. So far as is known to me, such postal items have never been
described anywhere. For that reason, I wish to fill in that gap, possibly not even completely. Several such items are
shown in this article. First of all, some notes on the chronology of the name changes (1):-
-In 1923, there was founded the unified HAPKOMAT (People's Commissariat) for Military and Naval Affairs within
the People's Commissariat of Defence of the USSR.
-In 1937, there was founded the People's Commissariat of the Navy (HK BM4)
-On 25 February 1946, the People's Commissariats of Defence and of the Navy were united in the People's
Commissariat of the Armed Forces of the USSR, which had already in March of that same year been reorganized as
the Ministry of the Armed Forces of the USSR.
-In February 1950, that Ministry was divided in two: the Military Ministry of the USSR and the Ministryf the Navy of
the USSR.
-And finally in March 1953, the designations were united into one: The Ministry of Defence of the USSR.
Now to the postal examples:-
There is shown in Fig. 1, a cover from official mail, with the address of the sender specified as "The 3rd.
Section of the Administration of Affairs of the People's Commissariat of the Navy of the USSR". The letter was sent
by registered mail (written by hand as "3aKa3Hoe" at upper right) to the Tambov province and cancelled with a meter
marking in red with the text "MOCKBA 175 / HAPKOMAT / BOEHHO-MOPCKOFO / DJIOTA CCCP", together
with the date 11.10.40 and the rate: "60k.". That amount corresponded with the rate in force in the period from 6.2.39
to 15.9.48 for an intercity registered letter [2, p. 58]. The postmark of arrival (Platonovka in Tambov province,
13.10.40) is on the back of the cover.
A cover from official mail is featured in Fig. 2 were the address of the sender is given as "YIIC BMW". The
letter was sent by ordinary mail to Vladivostok and cancelled by a meter postmark in red with the text "MOCKBA
175 / HAPKOMAT / BOEHHO-MOPCKOFO / 4JIOTA CCCP" and dated 14.10.42 (wartime period), with the
rate shown as "30k.". That corresponded with the rate in force from 6.2.39 to 15.9.48 for an ordinary intercity letter [2,
p. 58]. The postmark of arrival (28.10.42) is on the back of the cover.
We have in Fig. 3 an official letter (at upper right there is the cachet "CJI3T KEBHOE"), where the address of
the sender is stated as "The Financial Section of the Naval Forces". The letter was sent by ordinary mail to
Chelyabinsk and cancelled with a meter postmark in black with the text: "MOCKBA 175 / B.(OEHHO-)
M.(OPCKHE) C.(HJIbI) M.(HHHCTEPCTBA) B.(OOPY)KEHHbIX) C.(HJI) CCCP", dated 4.12.47 (post-
war period) and with the rate "30k.".That corresponded with the rate in force in the period from 6.2.39 to 15.9.48 for
an ordinary intercity letter [2, p. 58]. The postmark of arrival 9,12,47 is on the back of the cover.
A cover is featured in Fig. 4 as an official letter from the Editorial Board of the newspaper "RED FLEET", the
organ of the of the Ministry of Armed Forces of the USSR. The letter was sent by ordinary mail to Odessa and
cancelled by a meter marking in black with the text: "MOCKBA 175 / B.(OEHHO-) M.(OPCKHE) C.(HJIbI)
M.(HHIHCTEPCTBA) B.(OOPY)IKHHbIX) C.(HJI) CCCP" and dated 15.2.50 (post-war period), with the rate
given as "40k.". That corresponded with the rate in force in the period from 10.9.48 to 31.12.60 for an ordinary
intercity letter [2, p. 58]. The postmark of arrival (11.2.50) is on the back of the cover.
It can be assumed that someone among our readers have other similar meter markings.
Literature:

1. httpJ//allrefsru
2. B.KAPJIHHCKHH. ( aHjinaTejiCTHIqecKoe HccjieAoBaHHe (apaHIHpOBKH imIeM PC(ICP
H CCCP (1917 1971). CoBeTcifii KonjreKtIHOHep, MocKsa, "CBa3l,", 1971, N29.
,* *
SPECIAL NOTE:
It pays to advertise!
Here we have philatelic advertising by two dealers in
London, England towards the end of the 19tb. eo
Century, using the back of an Imperial 5-kopek
revenue stamp. Other such examples must exist. O ET


THE POST-RIDER/HMIVIHK JN 60
September 2007










rr
IJ1t" I. -- l -





i -:/ ^ *: 1 : '* t \l,, _7.
.- .A /. -1







IM
-.-4






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; ,, -.M % I




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P"EC'I: ', ,. .R;'af-.. aeFig 3.F


SPECIAL NOTE: Reply half of a card inscribed in Czech. French & Russian


Sent from Citoliby,
Bohemia 24.10.17 to
POW Anton Kopliva
at Agryz Stn.. in
Vyatka province. The
note in Czech at
bottom reads "Always
write your address in
ink, the surname and
first name always in
Latin letters, otherwise
in whatever alphabet.
Underline the surname.
It is always necessary
to write also the rank
and regiment in which
the prisoner served",


THE POST-RIDER/ISMIIHK N2 60
September 2007


.lns BO finnrnHHblnbb. Po j -e prisonni iirre,'
P -ro vhdl. ajatce. <,- '4


Do Ruska.,


IOqT. C-T.dBr/ /t. __ C4 '^-t 4~o .',
Posledai po-ae g j p


Boen ootRsa ancorty __/_-f __." a ___-___ ,,
Zujatci
nJna a qacTb
HodDost a pluk
Svoji adresa pilte vidy zaeteloa iuk:,iusteum, pfijmeni a jrinar vidy latinkon, ost.altn
die moinosri azbakou. PMijreni podu-'hivejri. Nutno vzdy psiti tdi hodnost a pluk,
v kterdnm zajateq slouzil.






ABOUT THE CHARITY POSTAGE STAMPS OF THE IMPERIAL WOMEN'S PATRIOTIC SOCIETY
by L.G. Ratner.
The story of the issue and utilisation
----... .. of the stamps of the Imperial Women's






-.--------- ---- --I.. No. 1/1972), with additions to it by Professor
PacyHOK 1 Fi. K. Berngard and V. Aloits. However, new
documents have been found in the archives
of the Postal Administration, allowing us to supplement the subject. In expounding upon them, it is necessary to recall
the data already known.
In the autumn of 1914, the Minister of Internal Affairs authorized the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society to
issue charity stamps which, as they were called in those days: "Patriotic Postage Stamps" in the face values of 1, 3, 7
& 10 kopeks, with a surtax of 1 kopek on each stamp Fig. 1). The surtax was intended for the benefit of the soldiers
and their families.
The designation of the stamps, their appearance and face values were announced by the Postal Administration
in a Circular No. 55 from the Director of the Main Administration of Posts and Telegraphs (FYIaIT), dated 18
September 1914. There was described therein the order of circulation of these stamps, as follows:-
"1. The stamps are being issued in the values of 1, 3, 7 & 10 kopeks.
2. The sale prices of the stamps are designated with a surtax of kopek in the face value of each stamp.
3. Postal articles of all classes.., can be franked with the patriotic postage stamps..., whereby there will be taken into
.account only the face values and not the sale prices of the patriotic stamps.
5. The utilization of the patriotic stamps and the payment by them of postal sending instead of applying ordinary
stamps, is not by any means to be regarded as being obligatory.
7. If the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society finds it necessary to put on sale the patriotic stamps at the post offices,
then it may send supplied to the post offices as a deposit.
9. As a measure of the sale of the deposit of the patriotic stamps, it may be supplemented by means of the requisition
of new stamps on account of the sums collected, keeping back for the benefit of the post office the amount of 5 .....
kopeks for each 100 copies of the stamps sold..
10. The new stamps may be acquired....from the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society, to which money is being sent by
a postal money order".
For the proper dispatch of money for the stamps that had been sold and for the acquisition of of a new supply
of patriotic stamps, a typographed print of the address of the recipient was placed on money-order blanks (Fig 2).

OTP73NOR KYnOiH
O .lEPEBO,'b no nO TB 5 .::

.HO y Y ...... .............. P. ... .
(y..a .pB.oA). ----.-
M p.- .noApo6oomi- aApe- M waren:
......... .... .. .. A ., n^, 0 a. a
SS TyO Ba OTAtn- 3aBtARstaHiRn
raTpioTHLecKHMH nlOITOB. MapKaMM
Ka. ennpi. HMnEPATOPCKArO ,
)eHCKaro narpornTHMecaro Odu.ecra.
c7y9a Iz.TPorPA,4'b,
Emnrtepu.uulr i ?iiricnaiaa. a. A. 29.
CayXc6Hira OTM-TIEH.






PHcyHOK 2 Fig. 2.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIHeHK N 60 51
September 2007






It was planned to issue the charity stamps on coloured papers. The specimens of stamps were approved by the
Vice-President of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society on 17 October 1914 and, on the same day, handed over to
the Despatch Office of Preparing State Papers (EZGB). On 11 November of that year, the Society began to accept the
prepared stamps from the EZGB and on 13 November they were received at the Petrograd GPO. The stamps went on
sale there for the first time in the country and the documents allow us to fix the exact date and place where these
stamps went into postal circulation: 17 November 1914 in Petrograd.
In those days, the charity stamps were actively dispersed throughout Russia by their holders. At the end of
November, G. Stol'berg, the Manager of the charity postage stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotica Society, made
an announcement regarding the value of the supply of stamps for Petrograd and Moscow, namely 10,500 roubles,
which comprised the average for sales in a 4- to 5-day period.
Notices were placed in the post offices about the sale of stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society and


about the permission of paying for postal mail by them (Fig.3)





nOHTOBbII nlATPIOTHMECKI



MAPKH
NHMlEPATOPCHArO HleHcarao NaTplOiTHecOaro OuilecTBa

B'b nOJIb3Y CHPOT'b BOHHOB'b
-pia.Pnpomand no-n. m-ap..
An on Birar pow o an^oionl.iuna momap..
pemo7.10 (npocml n AFOTCAa-
o, 6.Appom > H np-), HP, Al-oo apSrtami oT I.
PAtHT Ch ObIUKHOBEHHbl- -A *nSl AS B no -nluer a
MH ncHTOBUMH MAPKAMH. lK nob3y CUPOTh BOHHOBi.

P-cyHo- 3 i-gL'.
HeIyHOK 3 F g.


.
The Minister of Internal Affairs authorized the
sale at the post offices only of stamps of the Imperial
Women's Patriotic Society to be affixed to letters.
However, there are cases known where the postal
officials advertised the sale of charity labels of other
organizations and allowed them to be placed on
letters, For example, in March 1915, the Head of the
1st. Department for the Transmission of Mails by
Railways wrote: "in some offices of the Postal &
Telegraphic Administration charity labels are being
sold, issued by the Khar'kov Ladies' Committee for
the Construction of Field Hospitals.....Posters are,
displayed, in which there is specified that such labels
are to be affixed on a letter or envelope....". The sale
of such labels and their application on postal
sending was forbidden. Taking into account that
similar references appear in the documents on several
occasions under various dates, some quantities of
_ labels from other charity organizations could have


gone through the mails.
The: author of the present article has seen similar labels on letters,left uncancelled by a postmark. It should be borne in
mind that the labels of various charity groups, which were affixed to letters and had gone through the post, could not
be regarded as having paid any postal rate; only the stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society enjoyed that
privilege.
As the EZGB could not continue to issue the charity stamps on coloured papers, the Imperial Women's
Patriotic Society sanctioned the specimens of these stamps on white paper. The date of this new approval is given in
the literature as 18 December 1914. However, in setting up the order for the second issue of the charity stamps (Fig.4)


Fig. 4.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMHIHK N! 60
September 2007


PHcyHoR 5 Fiz. 5.


7-







f .


PHcyAOK 4






including on other documents of the EZGB, it is evident that the Vice-President of the Society permitted the printing
(i.e. authorized) of new specimens on 16 December. The accompanying letter (reference) with the samples of stamps
and the order arrived at the Receiving Department of Orders of the EZGB and were recorded there on 18 December
1914. On the next day, the samples were handed over to the Printing Department of the EZGB for execution.
The distribution of the charity postage stamps of the second issue began in February 1915 and the GPO in the
capital received for disposal 120,000 stamps "printed on white paper".
The stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society evoke especial interest in bearing the overprinted word
"OBPA3E1'b" (= SPECIMEN); see (Fi. 5). The Postal Administration did not send to the post offices of the
country specimens of stamps and postal stationery blanks, issued according to their orders. The Postal Department
(from 1884: FYIHIT) restricted itself to a wordy description of them in the Circulars. Nothing further was required, as
they were distributed under postal seals in the same way as for money operations.
The "OBPA3EI'b" overprints known to collectors on stamps and postal stationery blanks were prepared according to
the orders of the Postal Administration and carried out by the EZGB as a rule for its own purposes; preserved under the category of
of control examples in the technological process and in the transfer to custody of new samples of issued production, etc. Many
documents confirm that. However, not even one document has been found with a request of the Postal Administration regarding
the addition to the stamps and blanks of the word "OBPA3EIb" belonging to it, or in transferring to it such specimens.
Normally, the overprints on the samples remaining at the EZGB from 1877 onwards were in red colour. In January of that year, the
Director of the EZGB ordered that: "....in order to prepare samples .... The word 'OEPA3ElU 'is to be placed upon on them in
red ink". However, instances are known in which the word "OBPA3EILb" was applied in other colours or by perforation.
Another procedure was adopted for the stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society. In ordering a supply
of these stamps from the EZGB, the Society asked that a portion of them be prepared overprinted with the word
"OBPA3EIKb". Such an overprint was made of 160,000 copies of stamps on coloured paper and 260,000 copies on
white paper. The overprint was carried out for the perforated stamps in black (dark blue) and for the imperforate
version by a perforation with the relevant word. In contrast to the stamps distributed independently by the Society, the
specimens were forwarded to the TFYInT (Postal & Telegraphic Administration) for dispatch to the post offices. On
19 November 1914, FYIIHT sent to the Petrograd GPO 400 copies of specimens of the Imperial Women's Patriotic
Society and proposed "that these specimens (not intendedfor sale) be provided to the subordinate post offices ".
There is in Fig. 6 a set of such specimens accompanied by
a letter dated 27 November 1914 with the 1-kopek on
-/ ,' .......-?- cream paper; the 3-kopek on rose; the 7-kopek on straw
0mAN. r"* .and the 10-kopek on pale blue The 1-, 3- and 10-kopek
nE, nIu stamps were perforated 13% and the 7-kopek 134: 13/%:
Ao o..... c ... o 413 /2;.13 1/4(previously not recorded). The authenticity
/ ........ on a ." was verified by several means: by perforation gauges,
-0 no 2fa .... 01 checking the line perforation and by comparison with the
stamps perforated 13%. Professor K. Bergard wrote as a
S0 .supplement to the article by Yu. Rudnikov referred to
COpaan k.po1 se ,peCs,,m,. "a s.. above that, upon finding sheets with missing perforations,
they were corrected. Professor Berngard noted that
3a c ... .- "regarding this, the possibility is not excluded of using a
Line perforator with another gauge". Hence, there has
S- ./ .recently been found a perforation on the 7-kopek stamp
S'with the overprint "OBPA3EIU ',' being one of these
Srare examples. The colour of the overprinted word
PHcynoK 6 Fi6 "OBPA3EI1b" is black and it measures 23.5 x 3.5 mm.
There was sent at the beginning of March 1915 at the post office of the Baltic Railway Station a letter with
specimen stamps of all values on white chalk-surfaced paper (second issue). The perforation on the 1-and 10-kopek
values was 121 and on the 3- and 7-kopks: 11/2. The overprint "OBPA3EI0 L"' was placed in the middle of the
stamp area, measuring 23.5 mm. x 3.5 mm. The colour of the overprint on stamps of the second issue is quoted in the
literature as dark blue. Here, the dark blue colour appears in the inscription on the 10-kopek stamp. On the stamps of
the other values, the inscription is definitely in black, even in examining from various angles and with differing
illuminations. Whether there were overprints initially in black or if the blue shade had faded and disappeared is not
known.
The stamps of the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society were officially utilized in the capacity of postage
stamps during 1914-1917. In that period, one could prepay with them all classes of mail, sent both within the country,
as well as to abroad. A registered wrapper is shown in Fig. 7, sent in 1915 from Warsaw to Poltava. There is in Fig. 8 a

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIMHI K N 60 53
September 2007






letter sent from Petrograd to Ingen
S.. ...... (Holland).
S'. In August 1917, the Ministry
.. of Posts and Telegraphs announced
that "In connection with the changed
i;' ; Governmental structure.... the sale of
patriotic postage is being
terminated".
SIt was proposed that the
Mi'_ i .- unsold charity stamps be sent to the
A, ,. p s, f ~ Stamp Department of the Postal
: -c-. .../ ,afO A-.4i "A'P / .Administration and that the money
y 7. 7 for the stamps sold be handed over to
PcyHoK 7 the Local Treasury. It can be
assumed that the revolutionary
events in October 1917 put a stop to
the execution of that particular
\ instruction. The return of the stamps
and the handing over of the money
S- -- -. continued into 1918 and, in
:: \ December of that year, S.
calom Kashchenko, a member of the
Collegium of the People's
Commissariat of Posts and
... Telegraphs ordered that "all unsold
S '' patriotic stamps ....be immediately
S.\. sent to the name of the People's
Commissariat of Posts and
,Telegraphs.... together with the
money realized from their sale".
.The stamps prepared for the
S" Imperial Women's Patriotic Society
S:"- and remaining at the EZGB as at 3
March 1918 were handed over to the
Postal Administration. On that day,
S P. Tolmachev, the Manager of the
PHcyHOK 8 8. Stamp Department of the Ministry of
Posts and Telegraphs received the
following quantities of charity postage stamps:- 1 kop.: 7,096,000 copies; 3 kov.: 3.876,000 copies;
7 kop.: 1,542,000 copies; 10 kop.:33,768,500 copies.
The stock of these stamps was sent from Petrograd to Penza, to where the Stamp Department and other
portions of the EZGB were evacuated over a period of 3 to 4 months. The remaining specimens of the charity postage
stamps at the Printing Department of the EZGB in Petrograd in the amount of 8 sheets (i.e. one sheet of each value on
coloured and white papers) were sent in November 1919 to the Goznak Printing Works in Moscow.
Editorial Comment: There is no doubt that, during their period of validity, these unusual and attractive charity stamps
were very popular with collectors everywhere and full sets on showy registered covers were sent. Because of their size,
line perforators had to be used and a series of perforation errors resulted. These charity stamps are also a great issue for
plate study and, in spite of their size, they were printed in sheets of 100 stamps. The well-known "broken lance"
variety appears four times on sheets of the 10-kopek value, thus proving that the basic block of 25 units was repeated
three times to build up the printing sheet. Usages are also of great interest, mainly from the Russian post offices abroad.

OBITUARY:
Ronald Zelonka, PhD
Just as we were going to press, we received the shocking news that our member in
Oakville, Ontario had suddenly passed away. Ron was a leading collector of
Ukrainian philately and postal history and his expertise and knowledge will be
greatly missed. Our sincere condolences go out to his wife and family.
54 THE POST-RIDER/IMII iK No 60
Spntmmhpr 2107






Romanov-Zemstvo Combination Covers
by John D. Myke.
One of Leonard Tann's latest articles in the Post-Rider No.59 page 96 had
a few paragraphs on Romanov-Zemstvo covers. He also had a short article on
these combination covers in the Rossica journal 140-141. At that time he stated
these items while not rare are reasonably scarce. As he points out, Mr.
Stenshinski collected for years & had only four of these in his collection. My
point of reference is probably even leaner than his, Mr.Oleg Farberge's
collection. For those members who have the auction catalogue (Corinphila
Dec.5,1999) one can see there are 1700 plus lots of superb items, stamps &
covers of unusual quality. In all that material there were only two lots with
Romanov-Zemstvo combinations on cover, Lot 2061 Perm' to Narva & Lot 2623
Vyatka to Sweden. The first item is now in my collection. The second is not.
This is probably one of those times in my life when I wished I had listened to
my wife; she said I should increase my bid on this item if I really wanted it.
Alas, I did not and someone else was willing to pay sFrl600, 100 more than I to
own this cover. Having reviewed all my sources & archives from auction
catalogues, journals, other collections that I know of and my own, I have seen
perhaps a dozen of these covers. That is probably in line with Leonard's
comment that they represent a very small percentage of the total number of
Zemstvo covers. However, that is not to say that they are rare but they
certainly are scarce. It is just that we.do not seem to have members show them
if they have this material, which is the purpose of this article.
Fiqs.l & 2 show the front & back of the Faberge registered cover mentioned
above going from Perm' to Narva bearing on the reverse a badly centred 2 kop.
rose Zemstvo with a cancel March, day unknown,1913 in violet and a pair of 7k
Romanov stamps cancelled with a date of March 4, 1913. There is an arrival
cancel on the reverse Narva, March 7,1913. The front shows a Perm' circular
date stamp March 4,1913 with a registration label Perm' Post & Telegraph
Kontora. Perhaps the Perm' Zemstvo stamp was also canceled onthatdate?
The second item Figs.3 & 4 is a cover from Azletskaya volost via Kadnikov
(registration label on front) to Kirilov, addressed to the Kirilov Rural
District Assembly. This item was from the Stenshinski sale (David Feldman
Dec.4-7, 2002),lot 20452. The reverse shows a 3K Kadnikov Zemstvo stamp
cancelled with a large violet oval "Kadnikov Zemstvo Post" date stamp
Dec.13,1913. The handwriting in the upper left says "It needs another 7k" which
was added as a 7k arms issue and it looks like it was cancelled with the same
date as the pair of 7k Romanovs, which were added and cancelled Dec.28,1913.
There is also a Kirilov circular date stamp for arrival Dec.31,1913. Since
Zemstvo mail was a weekly service, the time'of travel to get into the Imperial
post was not unreasonable.
The final cover I have, figs. 5 & 6 shows a registered cover from Lipovaya
Dolina, Poltava Province, franked on the reverse with a strip of three 7k
Romanovs and a further three 3k arms issue for a total of 30k which means a
larger than normal registered item. These are all cancelled with a circular
date stamp Aug.10, 1916. There is also a circular transit cancel, Poltava Aug.
12 ,1916 on the reverse. The Zemstvo stamps are a pair of Gadyach 3k green
stamps tied by a violet cachet "Gadyach Zemstvo Post" with a middle bridge
reading "Andreevka" and are also on the reverse. The Zemstvo stamps have been
added slightly over the Imperial stamps, as this item was being delivered into
the Zemstvo district.
My thanks to Dave Skipton for some translation assistance and also to
George Werbizky for comments concerning Zemstvo mail.





THE POST-RIDER/HMIiHIK N 60 55
September 2007


































































































THE POST-RIDER/HMIHIK Ns 60
September 2007


Fig. 1.


A1 1328
.. h' i B I Bb


~~~~~( jIjjij~ba :: 1 o /ttctoQ

P/


~i~ L1dC:


ri k


.suI.



''-" / ') =, .
9 f, t # ,, "irc .- 4 /- r -,


'-t- .7 "7 / E .a "


Fit. 4.


. /
,-.4<
/,- 3 ir


I


Fig. 5. .Fig. 6.






THE ISSUES OF STAMPS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE WITH A CHALKY NETWORK 1908-1914
by D. Gotvan', D. Anosov & A. Ignatenko.
As of the beginning of the 20 Century, data kept coming in from the post offices to the Main Administration
of Posts & Telegraphs (GUPiT) about the cleaning off and bleaching of the postmark on stamps, in order to use them
for a second time. The Postal & Telegraphic Administration became interested in the possibility of preparing special
inks for the postal cancellers, which it would be impossible to remove from the stamps, or in the utilization of special
postmarkers, the strikes from which would be unsuitable for reusing stamps At the same time, it was suggested to the
Despatch Office for the Preparation of State Papers (EZGB) that it find methods of preparing postage stamps with a
fugitive ink that would break down upon being cleaned off or bleached. As a result of much work at the EZGB, a
method was proposed of overprinting stamps with a protective network of chalky lines in the form of a vertically
inclined rhombus.
Specimens of postage stamps in the values of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 1520, 25, 35, 50 & 70 kopeks, as well as
Ir., 3r. 50k., 5, 7 & 10 roubles were confirmed by the EZGB on 25 October 1907, as well as by the Minister of Internal
Affairs P.A. Stolypin on 13 August 1908 for the final colours on genuine paper. In August 1908, the GUPiT ordered
new postage stamps from the EZGB and it announced in the Government Gazette of 18 September 1908 that stamps in
the values of 7 and 10 kopeks would go into postal circulation at the end of 1908. Actually, the first supplies of the
stamps went on sale in December 1908.
The stamps of this issue were utilized for more than a quarter of a century from 1908 to 1923, thus in the
periods of war, revolution and the first years of the Soviet regime. The issues from 1908 to 1912 are characterized by
high standards of polygraphic preparation and quality. From then on, the stamps of this issue are found in numerous
shades, which do not permit an exact description, especially after 1915, when the import of inks from Germany was
impeded and after 1917 terminated once and for all. The quality control was weakened in the years of war and
revolution, as a consequence of which a great quantity of defective issues went into postal circulation. From 1917
onwards, all stamps of this issue were reprinted by the Provisional and Soviet Governments.
Data about the first period of the issue of stamps with a network of chalky lines were provided by the authors
in previous numbers of the "Kollektsioner" Handbook.. A more complete tabulation is set out in the present article as
the "Inventory of the sheets of postage stamps of the Russian Empire with a chalky network issued in 1908-1912",
together with information about essays, proofs and specimens of the stamps of this issue.
With a view to economizing on paper in the 1911-1912 period, the EZGB changed the size of the printed
sheets of stamps. As of that time, a watermark was placed on one of the vertical margins at left or right on sheets of
100 stamps of the kopek values. Having said that, the years of 1911-1912 may be regarded as the beginning of a new
period of issuing stamps with a chalky network.
However, that period was of short duration. Due to the going into circulation of the Romanov Jubilee stamps
and also by putting on sale the charity stamps for the benefit of the soldiers and their families issued in November
1914 by the Imperial Women's Patriotic Society, as well as the post-free postal relations with the Army on Active
Service over a period of two years (1913-1914), the Postal Service did not order supplies of definitive stamps.
In renewing the preparation of stamps of the 1907 series, permission had to be obtained again from the
Emperor. That was received on 11 March 1915 and GUPiT resubmitted orders to the EZGB for the preparation of
postage stamps, except for stamps in the values of 7 & 14 kopeks, which were already not required for the payment of
postal sending in connection with the change in postal rates on 15 September 1914.
The values of 7 and 14 kopeks were examined in the first place in studying the characteristics of the stamps of
this period with a watermark at left or right of the sheets, which had not been ordered in 1915 from the EZGB and
doubtless placed in this period, as well as stamps in the values of 7 and 14 kopeks, overprinted 10 and 20 kopeks
respectively, as placed on those stamps in January 1917.
In studying the relevant material, it has been determined that the stamps are distinguished by an excellent
polygraphic preparation. However, because of the wear and tear of some positions on the printing plate, the impression
of the eagle in the coat of arms is less prominent. The colours are darker, the paper is of good quality and of medium
thickness, with white gum.
> All sheets of stamps in the value of 7 kopeks with sheet !Nos. '1,' 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 & 8 have control markings in
the form of horizontal or vertical bars in the colour of the stamp (blue; for the known plate numbers of the 7-kopek
5% value, see the illustration herewith on p, ).
The control bars are absent on sheets of stamps of this value with the plate number "1" (see again the
illustration. On the margins of sheets with plate number "2", there are two bars placed vertically at left and right on the
sheet; for plate numbers "3" and "4", there are three control bars above, below and in the centre; with the plate
numbers "5", "6", "7" & "8": two control bars above and below. All the known sheets of stamps with plate number "2"
have a chalky network in yellow. There are no control bars are on sheets of stamps examined of the 14-kopek value
THE POST-RIDER/aMIIHK N2 60 57
September 2007











1 '




3I-
3 __


6 I

I. j I
\ Ij ;:

8


Plate Numbers 1 to 8 for the 7-kopek value


THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIHK N 60
September 2007


..,e lm
14'.


""""` "'~``"'"'''':


j i
~-i~-i3i---


I


.






with watermark at left or right, nor are there any plate numbers.
Utilising the features noted above, there were identified and placed in this period sheets of stamps with the
values of 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 20 and 50 kopeks. The sheets of the 1, 2 & 7 kopeks are encountered relatively often, those
of the 3 & 4 kopeks are rare and only a few sheets are known of the 20- and 50-kopek values, while the 10-kopek
value with a horizontal control marking below the stamp is known on a letter.. Sheets or part sheets of stamps in the
values of 5, 15, 25, 35 and 70 kopeks with control bars on the margins of the sheets have not come to light.
Sheets of stamps in the values of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 kopeks with watermarks at left and right on the margins of the
sheets are analogous in the shades of colour, control markings and quality of printing to the same values in the issues
of 1908-1912 with the watermarks above and below, but without the imprint of the printer.
Sheets of stamps are known of the 3-kopek value perforated and of the 4-kopek imperforate with vertical bars
on the margins of the sheets and also the 15-kopek value with horizontal and vertical control markings as part of the
issues of 1915-1918.
Literature:

1. B.B.JIo6aqeBcKHi < r.r.>> c6opHHK COBeTCKHI KoJAIeKIMHOHep>), ?J" 14-17, 1976-1979.
2.C.B. IIpHrapa HlojmcKOM> Hbio-HopK, 1941.
3. E.Fomin >, MioHxeH, 1997.
4. j.FoBTBaHL, A.AHOCOB O Hajimcax THmorpaIrHa H Apyrnx KOHTpOJIbHbli 3HaKaX Ha InoIIax
JICTOB HnITOBLIX MapOK c MeCOBOi~ ceTKoii 1908-1912 r.r.>>, c6opHHImH KojueKUHpoHep>, N2X236-
37, 2001. NNX40-41, 2005.
5. B.KaMHHCKHii <(TapH4)i AopeBoJnmoro1HHHo PoccIn>> c6opHmK (COBeTCKHl
KoJUIeKiHOHep>>, X22 22-24.
6. B.KaMHHCKHic <(IIpoBH3opHH PCDCP>> c6opHHK (KojUeKIHoHep>> 2 29, 1993
7. AyKir OHHumH KaTaJior KOJUTeKiAm MapOK PoccHlCKOii HMnepHH M.JhomrimHIa.
Notes IIpHMeqaHHnu:
1. I-puHnmbie coKpaugeuus:
I. rpaBbRH yrojin jcra MapoK; I: sheet comer at eight
JI. jeBLAi yron Hmcra MapoK; JI: sheet comer at left
F. ropH30oHTaJ HO; r: horizontally
B. -BepTmHKaJbHo; B: vertically
S- npo'epK HeT cBeeHHAi.

2. B Karanore 3.InQoMHHa npu eAemfl HaancH THnorpa(DiH, o KOTopax aBTop~I Ta6jIImu cBeemiiHH He UMeior:
1 Kon. Kpen.Tmn. 1910. Kinne N~2, Kpen.Tum. 1910. Kimne N24;
2 ron. Kpef.THm. 1909., Kinne N~1, KpeA.Tun. 1910., Krmnne N21, KpeA.Tmn. 1910. Krmme No2;
14 Kon. Kpen.THn. 1910.;
15 Kon. Kpen.THn. 1911. Knme N2; All these inscriptions are imprints of printeries
20 Kon. Kpen.Tun. 1911.; listed by E.P. Fomin, about which the present
25 Kon. Kpef.THn. 1911., authors have no data
50 Kon Kpef.THn.1910.
3. JIHCTmI MapoK c HaanHcaMH "XyA.neq.MacTep. BHKTOp N 8", "XyA.THn.AMepHxa 2N235"- BumycKH nocne 1915 r.
IlepBbIH nepHno 1908-1912 roab. rFnaBmiM OTJn'urHTeJIr M inpH3aKOM JIHCTOB "IlepBOro nepHOfa" Bam~jeTca
HaJnqHe BOlmaHoro 3HaKa CBepxy uJIH cmry JmCTa. BcTpeqaiOTrc iHcTrbi TOJIbKO c BOAIbIM 3naKOM CBepxy aru cMIOy (m-3a cABura
jHcTa npH neqaTaHHH).
JIlacTm nO3HImtH N9.4 15 Kon, N 10.2 20 KOIn MeioT xaparrepHne npH3HaKH JIHCTOB nepBoro nepHofa, a TaOKe HaAnHCH
Kpen.THn. 1912 TO cBHAieTeJnIcTByeT 06 ou~i6omHOfi TpaKTOBKe KaTajioraMH 3.0oMHHa, M.JorIIonra H pasOM apyrix aBTOpOB
rnpogoJxHrTeJ.HOCTHT nepBoro nepHoAa BbmycKa MapoK c MeJIOBOit ceTKoii 1908-1911 roai.
Sheets of stamps with the imprints "XyA. Hen. Macrep. BHKTOp N2 8" and "XyA. Tan. AmepHKa N2 35" were issued after
1915.
First Period 1908-1912: The main distinguishing feature of sheets of the "First Period" is the presence of a watermark at the top
or bottom of the sheet. They are found with a watermark at top or bottom (because of a shift of the sheet during printing).
Referring to the Table 1 that follows, the sheets listed under No. 9.4 for the 15-kopek value and No. 10.2 for the 20-
kopekhave the characteristic features of sheets of the First Period and also the inscription "KpeA. Tan. 1912", which attests to the
erroneous interpretation of the catalogues of E. Fomin, M. Liphschutz and other authors regarding the continuation of the First
Period of the issue of stamps with a chalky network in 1908-1911.


THE POST-RIDER/5lMII[K N' 60 59
September 2007






TaG6nmua 1
Table 1: Ta A
IIepeeHb JIHCTOB nHOrTOBblX MapoK PoccHiCKOR HMnepHH C BepTHKcaIbHOH
MeJIoBOH ceTKOf, H3LaHHblX B 1908-1912 roaax.
Inventory of sheets of postage stamps of the Russian Empire with vertical chalky network issued in 1908-1912
o HaxnHHcb Imprint Plate Control markings (bars)
n/ locale No. (noaoch)

1 Kon
1.1 KpeA. Tun. 1908. II. F. 2 Hooc HeT =No bars
(c ipyraool TonKOH nocne 1908)



.................................................................... .. ..... ... ... .......... .................










1.1.1 Kpef. THn. 1908. 1. F. 2 Hoioc Her = No bars
(c KBaapaTHOl TOmxon nocae 1908)



pe.A. Tuni 19081



1.2 Kpel. Tim. 1909. rF. Hojioc HerT No bars






( r-l I
-$
... ..... ... .........













60 THE POST-RIDER/M IIlH No 60
September 2007






Kpeg. THu. 1910 A. B. 3



*..~........ ......... .......... .... ........







~ ~ ~ V -am'.- ~ .
96 M
... ..... .. .
I _0IT '
=.~-~E i '_-*~ B* -*--.
.*1*n......................................


Two horizontal bars in the colour of the
stamp; one at top and one at bottom

S_-.,ca U,-a._ "g a Eiria .ia,.- _. c;.,tV ;za-
.............. ........ ...... ..... ....


.-I I



~, i


Kpen. Tun. 1911


JI. B.


Horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp


u
pi
c
r3
F
13
3

r

ct


442

...... ..... ...




3 '. -


1.5 Without Imprint HI. 5 Vertical bars in the colour of the stamp

.f____ __, Ax. .


5;- -. ','j'O -C -3
*I: su f *I I : I 1. 1|


Without imprint


Vertical bars in the colour of the stamp


Ix _


THE POST-RIDER/ILMIfIK N 60 61
September 2007


~s~E~';~8~Bilm~8srrrmr~~


~basss ~ 1 11 M ~bI9""ls8r.r







2 Kon
2.1 Kpef. Tun. 1908. H.r A Honoc HeT= No bar











K)pe.i. Tin 190s.

2.2 KpeA. THn. 1909. H.F. A Hojioc HeT = No bars
2.3 Kpeg. Tim. 1909. H.r. B lonloc HeT =No bars










KDeA. Tun. 1909.

2.4 Kpef. Tun. 1910. I. B. 4 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the -
stamp; one at top and one at bottom
























62 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIHHK N 60
September 2007






2.5 Kpeg. Tun. 1911 r. AI. B. I Three horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp;
at top, bottom and in the middle of the sheet





,.1













2.6 Kpei. THn. 1911 r. I.B. 3 Three horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp;
at top, bottom and in the middle of the sheet

........... ........................................... ..... ...................... ......




...................................... .. .....




......................... ...................,.-.......... .





2.7 KpeA. Tun. 1911 r. A. B. 4 Three horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp
at top, bottom and middle of the sheet







..... . .. . .








2.8 Without imprint JI. 7 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the
stamp; one at top and one at the bottom
9I











THE POST-RIDER/SIMIlHK X 60 63
September 2007
stmp;oea o n n ttebt


- -


--






3 KOtn
3.1 Kpe. THn. 1909. I. F. 4 HIooc HeT = No bars







4
Flpc'n. Tnu. 1909.

3.2 Kpe. THun. 1909 5. r. 5 IoJoc HeT = No bars






5
IKpeAn. TuII. 190.

3.3 Kpen. THn. 1910 I. r. 1 lnooc Her = No bars





Ia















64- THE POST-RIDER/5IMHHK Ni 60
September 2007
S- --




3.4 Kpef. Tgn. 1910 n.r. 2 IIonoc HeT = No bars











64, THE POST-RIDER/aMIMlK : 60
September 2007





3.5 KpeX. THn. 1911. n. F. 6 ionoc HeT = No bars









6
KptA TH 111.


3.6 KpCen. THn. 1912. I. F. 8 Hon oc HeT = No bars















.... ..... ............. ......... ...............

.. ,' : -
.lpeA., TFm. 1912. -








3.8 Without ilmprinti II. F. 5 Two vertical bars in the colour of the stamp
..........I.. ............ ............ ........... .........1... -........... ........ .......... ..................





.- 1

a '10

3.8 Wfthout igmlrinti F IL r. 6 Two vertical bars in the colour ofthe stamp


















THE POST-RIDER/SIMMIHK N 60 65
September 2007







4 Kon


Kpeg. Tun. 1909.


H. F.


IIonoc HeT = No bars


I OPwi Ino 9 e


Kpea. Tan. 1909.


H. F.


KpeA. 'nT u. 1o b .


Ionoc HerT = No bars i


0 IgoM iT.


Kpeg. Tan. 1910.


n.r.


HIIooc Her: No bars


.................. ............... ............


0. : .


Kpen. Tun. 1910.


n. r.


Honoc HeT =No bars


66 THE POST-RIDER/MIIHIK N 60
September 2007


Tu'; T n. 1910.l


Ky~ Il'~tr. 1910.


'`''''''''' "'''" ''''" '''''' '"'''
I





4.5 Kpea. THn. 1911.


n.r. 1


onJoc HeT No bars


811I


KpeA. THn. 1911.


Ippec. THn. 1911.


HonJoc HeT


Honoc HeT = No bars


THE POST-RIDER/HMIHHK Ng 60
September 2007


lilleiii. Imll 1911.


A jiPIUIA41 i. g


~...-......~ ........;...~.~~~. ; ; ~~-...~.


111




































































68 THE rUSt-I UwHKiHVUnM j' ou
September 2007






XyA. Tun. 1909. HI. B.





_. Ui a ,
4 /,s


b~iS&y^ -'J Si MOM
VO :I


4 Vertical bars in the colour of the stamp







... .. '. fli .. .


6.5 Xya. THn. 1910. -I. B. 2 Vertical bars in the colour of the stamp



'm mi- B .










mo lw l lmmi


s, '
"'i .... "-?, I


KpeiHTH Til. 1910. JI. B.
Ss i&



4A l ed~i.l Sl'?n : .pp,"'PK*i Tl^j~j



HjjftT^ rji^ i i^^ fa..................f'pj A *


I Two horizontal bars in the colour o-f the stamp,


RE I



.. . .. .. .. .. .
Nr. ,iJi iN !N


THE POST-RIDER/HMIHHK N2 60
September 2007


6.6

v
a
x

)B
c3

a


so
r-


__


~ I ;I ri




6.7 KpelHrTH Tmn. 1910. .1 B. 2 Horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp
















6.8 KpejlHm. Tan. 1910. A. B. 3 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp

M w E -E ME M-1 [-W, MM

It
i














i ..............
.C^ igei 16i .*' i 'Jj'








I i,. j "

6.9 Kpejtimi. Tun. 1910. .A1. B. 4 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp







ve 3 -.
... ........ .
















70 THE POST-RIDER/aMmIIK N2o 60
September 2007





6.10 KpeaHTH. THn. 1910. JI. B. 5 HorizontaTbars in the colour of the stamp


. . .





acTH icTa 6e m y6

......... ma I M." 1 3 eflm ma r Em




6.11 KIpenHTH. THn. 1911 r A. B. 2 Horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp
6.12 Kpe HTH. Tr. 1911 r JI. B. 3 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp






II-





6.12.1 I43BecTeH o~m 3K3emlJImW A1. B. 3 Horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp
qacTH JIHcTa 6e3 3y6I.OB

There is known one example of a part sheet imperforate
c-












THE POST-RIDERJIMIMK N2J 60 71
September 2007





4 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp


ini


mt


6.14 KpeAnHT. Tni. 1911 r.


I. B.


5 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp


. iowmBE



~ s _____ aD



MOW


-i
a
-3


c
! ^


6.15 KpenHTH. Tun. 1911 r.


JI.B.


6 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp


-------- rqwr w-m m mra



8=5 el =.tAm MM ~ 3
%. ... ........

I11~I IIIN


THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK N2 60
September 2007


~ 1P~s~~d~ ~p~Fp--~-~ -~i,-~p ~p L d ~ Ip

---- -


~RL~4L~IIp ,b _


JI.B.


6.13 IKpe~lwm. Mau. 1911 r.


* -


~
IC~
c;
j
54
-3
e


s

C;b


M124M
IMLM-1 --. M E
CA FITI.i 'i -Si i T,--, q- -


W no; i
Mea I
Mi M" Ins.
.... ... ... ..... .



Mi Ijimi,


In OM



'v e IM go- 'I
















-m: a


6.17 KpelwTrn. THn. 1911 r.


colour of the-stamp


Ie 49


C





Itf
a-'
a-


Without imprint


Vertical bars in the colour of the stamp


THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHHK Ng 60
September 2007


6.18


r=l, ~d~ I 'I --IC~s Illdlcl Lr-, I -- II1P


~a~B I: cl --1 '"6' L --II


.lam =..





SM an





5 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp


5


6.20 .Without imprint JI. 6 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp







6


6.21 Without imprint JI. 8 Two horizontal bars in the colour of the stamp.





---^-----K ^ ----- sm ---n
8


* *

SPECIAL NOTE: The Tiflis City Post stamp in recent literature
Reference is made to "Philatelie", the monthly magazine of the Federation of German Philatelists, Issue No.
361 of July 2007, which took the Grand Prize in 2002 for the most outstanding philatelic journal in Europe. Available
from the Head Office of the German Federation at:Bund Deutscher Philatelisten e.V, Mildred-Scheel-Str. 2, D-53175,
Germany; E-Mail info(bdph.de.
This particular number shows in colour on the front cover a view, apparently of the Cathedral of the
Resurrection in St. Petersburg, as well as an excellent illustration of the Tiflis City Post 6-kopek stamp, both being
obviously linked to the recent World Philatelic Philatelic Exhibition "ST. PETERSBURG 2007" held in the "City of
the White Nights". Among the contents of the journal, there is a truly magnificent article by Wolfgang Maassen on pp.
24-28, titled "The First Postage Stamp of Russia". Herr Maassen gives valuable details about the three known copies
of this outstanding rarity, as well as including the text of the announcement from the official "Caucasian Calendar" of
1858, p. 151.
Herr Maassen also has five other articles and notes in this same issue of "Philatelie", ranging from
Erinnophilia to the Classical Stamps of Newfoundland, thus displaying an astonishing range of philatelic knowledge.
He is also Officer-in-Charge of the Editorial Office at Postfach 57, D-41364, Germany; E-mail info.@phil-creativ.de.
*

74 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N-E 60
September 2007


6.19 Without imprint










KpeA. Tmu. 1909.


Kpen. Tun. 1910.


n. r.


10 Kon


IIonoc HeT = No bars


H. F.


IIOIoc HeT = No bars


7.3 Kpea. Tan. 1911.


H. F.


~~~- - - --:-~



a a -.r a
*aAf ~ l!al a


lIonoc Her = No bars


a
a a a a S
.- a a
.. a a a ~n*n~ a
- a a a a
* a a a
* a a
a.- a a r a l.ya a
S
,a a a I. I a
a a a a


.......................................- .. ...........................
.......................


..
. ..
n-- 7- -- -" .... .


1peA. Tun., 1911.


:Impfint unknown













I


n.


Ionoc HeT = No bars


THE POST-RIDER/SMImHK N 60 75
September 2007


--


------------- ---- .-.---.-.*~.~--. .-~--~rr;


11


.............


fille'k. 1,1111. 1909.


lil ~e~lllill







14 Kon


8.1 Kpe4. TnH. 1909 r.








IkpeA. Tnn. 1909 r.


Without imprint


JI. .


Horizontal and vertical successive bars in the colours of the stamp


--~~81 LI ----c~s -s


I Horizontal and vertical bars in the colours of the stamp





. ... .


Without imprint Jl. 2


Imprint unknown ,


Horizontal and vertical bars in the colours of the stamp


JI. I Ionoc HeT = No bars


76 THE POST-RIDER/MaMIHK N2 60
September 2007







15 Kon
9.1 KpeA. THn. 1908 r. JI.F. 2 Horizontal and vertical successive bars in the colours
of the stamp







Kper. Tfn. I 10, r.



9.2 KpeA. TIn. 1909 r. JI.T. 4 Horizontal and vertical successive bars in the colours
of the stamp








Epe,. Ton. 1909 r.


9.3 Kpeg. Tni. 1910. JI.r. Honoc HeT = No bars

9.4 Kpe;. THn. 1912 JI. F. None Ionoc Her = No bars






........ .into acco.n... ......... t....e current .... a fr Ru.-sa. m l






SPECIAL NOTE:



Taking into account the current rising demand for Russian material of
all kinds, readers should be made aware of the relatively common
forgeries of the 10O. Anniversary of the Soviet Airmail Service 1923-
1933 set, issued in February 1934. The earliest warning appears to
have been published in Gibbons' Stamp Monthly for December 1951,
Sp. 43. They are easily recognizable by the perforation (line 11 V2), as
EAORIT a To well as the duller impression of the colours, the poorer quality of the
paper and the absence of a watermark.

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No 60 77
September 2007








'KpeA. Tnm. 1910.


JI.T.


20 Kon.
None,


Honioc HeT = No bars


KpeA. Tim. 1910.


Kpea. Tmn. 1912.


I.r.


None


* *


IIojoc HeT = No bars


* * *~ *


SPECIAL NOTE:
Registered letter No. 7 from Pskov to Haiphong: unusual destination


Letter weighing "I j. "
(= 14 grammes or V
ounce) sent from
Pskov 2.1.97 O.S. (=
14.1.97 N.S.) via
Italian TPO/RPO
Pontebba-Bologna
17.1.97 N.S. to
Haiphong, Indochina
3.3.97 N.S.


78 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK JNo 60
September 2007


10.1


10.2


7 '' f :. .k ,- -


S -a2


4,c;!=

g&44e-.


so.-


~- a


. ,.


i
i
F i r
r I
I~sb~~ ~Bl~r~~ie
r i e i j







25 Kon


Kpe;j. Inn. 1908.


None


IIonoc eT = No bars


35 Kon


Kpen. Tun. 1910.


None


Iojioc r eT= No bars


KpeA. Tun. 1910.


KpeA. THn. 1911.


None


Honoc HeT,= No bars


THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK N2 60 79
September 2007


11.1


12.1


12.2


Kpej. THI. 1908.


v2 Won








50 xon


Kpex. Tnm. 1908.


None


HIIooc HeT = No bars


I)eA. 90
Kpe,. Tin. 1908.


Kpefx. Tun. 1909.


HIIooc Her = No bars


peA. T.an. 190..


CeA. Tim. 1909.


70 Kon
14.1 Kpen. Tnn. 1910 JI.. flnooc neT, = No bars


14.2 Without imprint None IIonoc eT No bars

............. ........................................ .... ... .'. n ............





................. .......... ........... ................. ...............i....... i ii....................... i.....i


80 THE POST-RIDER/NIMIIJHK N2 60
September 2007


13.1


S .


13.2


i


c-










KpeA. Tmn. 1910


JI.r.


1 py6nb


None


Vertical bars in orange


Vertical bars m brown


15.2 Without imprint


?- I


Without imprint


SVertical interrupted bar in brown


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMmK N2 60
September 2007


15.1


15.3


--- -- ----- ?


-- ----- ---Y --- -----Y- -- ---- ----


I 4







ESSAYS, PROOFS AND SPEC S OF STAMPS WITHOUT A CHALKY NETWORK
by D. Gotvan', D. Anosov & A. Ignatenko.


Essays and Proofs: :- -"




1- kopek proof in blue- 2- kopek essay in
green without a black on thick paper
chalky network, x. .. (33 x 41 nunm.) without
perforated 14% x 142. ... a chalky network


S- kopek proof in orange on card (34 x 43 .) without a chalky network
5 kopek proof in orange on card (34 x 43 mm.) without a chalky network
5 kopek proof in purpeindigo on card (35 x 41 mm.) without a chalky network
5 kopek proof in red-purple on card (38 x 49 mm.) without a chalky network
5 kopek proof in red-purple on card (39 x 50 mm.) without a chalky network
5 kopek proof in carmvioet on card (34 x 40 mm.) without a chalky network
5 kopek proof in cark green on card (39 x 50 mm.) without a chalky network
5-kopek proof in dark green on card (35 x 40 mm.) without a chalky network ......
5 kopek essay in orange on thick paper without gum and without a chalky network, perforated 141/ x 14/2.

7 kopek essay in pale blue with three pearls and without gum or a chalky network, perforated 14 1/ x 14 .
7 kopek essay in green on thick paper without gum or a chalky network, perforated 14 % x 14 %.
7 kopek proof in black on glossy paper (38 x 56 mm.) without a chalky network
7 kopek proof in black on card (35 x 40 mm.) without a chalky network
7 kopek proof in blue-green on card (33 x 39 mm.) without a chalky network
7 kopek proof in blue-green on card (26 x 34 mm.) with a chalky network
7 kopek proof in blue on card (33 x 40 mm.) with a chalky network
7 kopek proof imperforate without gum or a chalky network


10 kopek essay in blue, perforated 14 x 14 on paper without gum or a chalky network
10 kopek essay in blue on ordinary paper (50 x 64 mm.) without a chalky network


15 kopek proof in bright blue, perforated 14 x 14 % on paper with gum and a chalky network
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIllK N 60
2 September 2007


:2.
Ii

si






i
~r
i -: --e I~slsaa;rsrrr~.-;_

li-l-j(
~C:



~
-',-
--;.-






:;: 'Il~cPbB~s~a --1


: ~'-r;~ "-:
-i
c"
:: ~'~: .rl

; ;-


r ;.



''



`'"'~
r .


r"'._~ '_'d

-









~r--.i
~;


~i~l


-

.1


i



;=



















































































































RTHEPOST-RIDER/HMIM(K MN 60
September 2007


83;


:.-- -;_


)



-ir

-?. 2;r
?~.



-:~

""
.r.

: .


ail


QW., AM















10 Kon. npo6a B cHHrM ABere Ha npocroi
6yMare (50 x 64 Mm) 6e3 MeJIOBO4 ceTKH





15 KOn. npo6a B cBeTJIo-cHHeM IBeTe nep4qopaIaH
14/4 x 14 % Ha 6yMare c KiceeM H MenjoBOH-ceTKOI


Specimens:
All the known specimens are imperforate with the perforated word "OBPA3EITb" applied horizontally on ten stamps.
The paper and the arrangement of the watermark on the sheets correspond with the issues of the stamps with a chalky network in
the 1908-1912 period. Sheets are known of the Specimens with the imprint in the upper margins of the dates, corresponding to the
issues of the following face values:-
5 kopeks : 1910 March 10 kopeks: 1911 May 35 kopeks: 1910 February 70 kopeks: 1910 January
7 kopeks: 1909 February 25 kopeks: 1910 February 35 kopeks: 1911 April 70 kopeks: 1911 May
7 kopeks: 1911 March 25 koneks: 1911 March 50 koneks: 1910 Janmarv


One such example is shown in the illustration herewith;-


Among the Specimens, there are sheets known wit htypographic imprints which have not been recorded in Table 1 and they are
shown here:
7-kopek value with the imprint "KpeagTH. THn. 1911 r.", Plate No. 2.
15-kopek value with the imprint "Kpen. THU. 1910 r.", Plate No. 2.
15-kopek value with the imprint "KpeA. Tmn. 1911 r.", Plate No. 1.





84 THE POST-RIDjER/MIHHK N2 60
September 2007


I~


JF . .










































A:~dT



S -I
Pl~L LOM!CALJS


Kpea. Tmin. 1910.











7 Kon. KpeHfTH. Tim. 1911 r. KIiIiUe J92;
15 Kon. Kpea. Tim. 1910 r. Kjirme .NX2; i
S15 KOn.- Kpen. Tun. 1911 r. Kjmte N I. -pe : -T. i L .1r..




* ,


AA CUSTOMS PROCEDURE IN THE
SESTONIAN SSR by Henry Blum.
SThe registered letter shown here left Voru on 8,7,68
for Finland, but it was intercepted en route at the
'fo
Tallinn Customs House, as can be seen by the boxed
S a green label at top right front. The Russian inscription
measures 70 x 19mm.and reads: "TO CUSTOMS
INSPECTION". That is confirmed by a three-line
violet cachet on the cachet, also in Russian and
do~._ translating as: "TALLINN CUSTOMS HOUSE /
Liable to be returned to the sender / Basis:
Impermissible enclosure"and measuring 52 x 12mm.
.- At least the contents were not confiscated, as Soviet
stamps were enclosed and a detailed report in
.... Russian was included covering the infraction.
S Philatelic exchanges were supposed to go through a
*.AmnHi~HuA T PIM R Control Office in Moscow. Other examples of
o..aI,..-, T ~r.T m,1,.. .%. Customs Inspection should certainly exist and are
_" ." -worth looking for.


noAaezu bCI1paYJ ~UpaBE'IoM,3,.
SOeOBaune; e&o03BoaegBW smoze.a'- Actual size.

*




THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIK N 60
September 2007






POSTAL AND MONEY ORDER MARKINGS OF THE TUVAN ASSR
by Andrew Cronin.
On 10 October 1961, the Tuvan "ABT. OBJI." (Autonomous Province) of the RSFSR was elevated to the
status of an ACCP (Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic)and that change was soon reflected in the postal and money
order markings. The ACCP and CCCP (USSR) designations continued to be applied at least up to 1994, i.e. for a
further three years after the political changes leading to the formation of the Russian Federation, of which the
"PECHYBJIHKA TYBA" (Tuvan Republic) is now part. By the way, a recent news report has noted that the
President of the Russian Federation, V.V. Putin, was on vacation in Tuva in August 2007.
The title of the present article indicates its scope, being devoted to a comprehensive Listing of the markings
with the Soviet designations ACCP and CCCP. They may be classified as follows:-



Q X
011,712 .




Fige 2. Fig. 3. Fie. 4.

(a) The replacement of the "ABT. OBJI." abbreviation by the initials ACCP and, for the postmarks, having a fully
"enclosed" date-bridge and an outer diameter of 25 mm. (Fig. 1).
(b) Later on, apparently in the 1970s, a second series of cancellers was issued with an "open" date-bridge consisting of
a horizontal line above and below the date (Fig.2). That type ofpostmarker continued to be applied until 1994 and had
the same outer diameter of 25 mm.
(c) Three of the post offices: Bai-Khaak, Kyzyl and Saryg-Sep had machine cancellers consisting of a postmark die
and three wavy lines in parallel (Fig. ).
(d) The money-order cachets were in the "tombstone" style, standard throughout the USSR and,.for the offices in
Tuva, utilized a separate numbered series of 7 digits, in contrast to the 6-digit postal codes (Fig. 4).
(e) Each post office in Tuva was presumably provided with
SI two rectangular cachets inscribed in Cyrillic and Latin letters
.. .cL- 1 'k1 for application on registered mail. They were in Cyrillic for
__ ~1 j "E '- }I \i '---- domestic mail and Latin letters for the international service
(Fig. 5). There are interesting cases of applying the wrong
Cachet to a specific registered item!
In setting up the Listing which follows, reference has been made to the following sources:-
(1) A. Cronin: "Some Notes on Tannou Touva", The N.S.W. Philatelic Annual, Sydney, Australia 1954, pp. 13-19.
(2) "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste", UPU, Berne, 1951.
(3) "Nomenclature Internationale des Bureaux de Poste", UPU, Berne, 1977.
(4) "Post*Code: Universal Postal List of Localities:ZJPU, Berne, 1997.
(5) V. & I. Florenskii and A. & Yu. Serebryakov: "Provisionals and the Postal Service of the Republic of Tuva;journal
"Filateliya" Nos. 4-5/1999, pp. 38-40 and 40-41".
Some of the material recorded hereunder from the collection of the present author was acquired from the estate
of the late Viktor Indra of Czechoslovakia. Over the years, he sent off preaddressed and and prefranked covers and
cards to localities in Tuva, with a request in Russian that they be returned by registered mail at the low Soviet bloc
postal rate of 10 kopeks per item. See Fig. on the next page for one of his requests, written in somewhat
ungrammatical Russian! Some of his mailings came back unregistered and Mr. Indra had a most unfortunate habit of
drawing in by hand a registration designation to complete the picture (Fig. 7). That has muddied the waters, as we do
not know whether such offices may not have had registration facilities at that time.
Needless to say, many of the place-names refer to nomadic and pastoral occupations and confirm that Tuvan is
a language in the Turki family. Thus, the term "ak-sy" occurs frequently in the Turki-speaking world and means
"white water". There also exist Tuvan words of Mongolian origin, which is not surprising as Mongolia is just next
door and both countries have adherents to the Lamaist form of Buddhism.
Another linguistic feature reflected in the markings is the relatively recent lengthening of vowels in the place-
names: Teli to Teeli and Tora-Khem to Toora-Khem. Moreover, the spelling of Samagaltai was changed to Samogaltai
for some reason.
In setting out the Listing, special thanks are due to Messrs the Florenskiis and Serebryakovs for the work they
86 THE POST-RIDER/aIIHKM N2 60
September 2007









i e -

.,- .. 7 a .

















have done in recording Tuvan ACCP postmarks. Their additional discoveries are acknowledged hereunder in the
"Notes" section as "F-S". Now to the Listing:-
Office Serial Postal Money Ordel
Name Letters Code Office No. Notes









IADYR-KEZHIG 6 ? ? Not in UPU Listings 1977 1997
AK-DOVURAK a, 6, 6 668045 149-15-08



AK-TAL ? 668215 ?
AK-TURUG 6 ? 149-03-05 Not in UPU Listings 1977, 1997
ALDAN-MAADYR a ? ? Not in UPU Listins 1977 1997
ARYG-BAZfHI 6 668133 ? '
ARYG-UZUU a .9 149-03-08
ARZHAN a, 6 668511 149-02-02
__ 3 '*__











BAI-DAG 6 668381 ?









BAI-KHAAK a 668310 149-09-00
BA-KHAAK 668310 149-09-00 ffice No. Machine canceller; see Fi. 3 previous page
BAI-TAL ? ? ?
BALGAZK 6 668045 149-09-11







BALGAZYN K1 a 668342 149-09-11 Renamin_ ofBalgazik
BARLYK SOVKHOZ a 668043 ? F-S
BAYAN-KOL a, 6 668238 149-14-08
BAZI-TU-AAAK a, 6 668114 149-05-05
BELBEI DAR a ? ? Not in UPU Listings 1977 1997
ARYG-BAZYG a 66813362 ?













BERT-DAG 6 668361 ?
BOYAROVKA a 668421 149--0








BULUN-TEREK ? 668212 ?
BUREN-BA -KHAK a, 6 668511 149-02-02
BAI-DAG 6 668381 ____________







BAIU-KHEA a, 6 668310 1
BAI-KHAAK 2 668310 149-09-00 Machine canceller; see Fig. 3 previous page
BAI-TAL ? _________
BALGAZIK __ 6 668342 149-09-11
BALGAZYN a, 6 668342 149-09-11 Renaming of Bal azik
BARLYK SOVKHOZ 6 668043 _? F-S
BAYAN-KOL a, 6 668238 149-14-08_____________ ----- ---




BAZHHEAAAK POa,6 668114 149-05-05R/ 60





September 2007 87
BELBEI a Not in UPU Listings 1977. 1997
BELDIR-AKRYG a ~ ?
BERT-DAG 6 668361 -
BOYAROVKA a 668421 -
BULUN-TEREK _? 668212 ?
BUREN-BAI-KHAK a, 6 668412 149-04-02
BUREN-KHEM a, 6 668422 _______________________________3
THE POST-RiDER/I5IIpM K Ne 60
September 2007 87


L ~






Office Serial Postal Money Order
Name Letters Code Office No. Notes
CHAA-KHOL ? 668211 ?
CHADAN a F-S
CHADAN _668110 149-05-00
CHAL-KEZHIG a 668315 ? Not in UPU Listings 1977,1997
CHERBI 8, 0 668351 ? F-S
CHIRAA-BAZHI 6 668111 149-05-02
CHIRAA-BAZHI M- 1 (!) 668111 149-05-02 F-S
CHODURAA a 668233 ?
DERZIG-AKSY a, 6 668414 ? F-S
DURGEN 6, a 668318 149-09-12
ELEGEST SOVKHOZ a, 6 667902 ? Not to be confused with Ust' Elegest
ERBEK 6 668500 ?
ERGI-BARLYK a 668042
ERZIN a, e 668380 149-12-00 Also handled mail for Saryg-Bulun
FEDOROVKA Recorded only in UPU 1951 Listing
IIME 6 668115 149-08-04
IL'INKA a, 6 668413 149-04-01
KAA-KHEM a, z,,), u 668070 149-14-00
KARA-KHAK a, 6 668350 149-14-04
KARA-KHOL' a 668030
KHADYN a 668513 149-02-06
KHAIYRAKAN a 668116 ? 0 36mm.; Dzunkemchik District; F-S
KHAIYRAKAN 6 668236 ? _29mm.; Ulugkhem District; F-S
KHAMSARA a 668550 ?
KHANDAGAITY a 668130 ?
KHONDERGEI a,a 668113 ?
KHOVU-AKSY a, 6, 6 668330 149-01-05
KHOVU-AKSY 1 ? 668330 (?) 149-01-06 (?)
KHUNDUSTUK a 668420 ? F-S
KOCHETOVO a, 6 668314 ? F-S
KOK-CHYRAA ? 668230 ?
KOK-KHAAK a 668411 ? F-S
KUNGURTUK ? 667903 ?
KYZYL a, 6, e, 667000 149-01-00 Also Machine 3 wavy lines as in Fig. 3
4Malpn,p __________
KYZYL 1 a, 6, 667001 149-01-01
KYZYL -2 a 667002 149-01-02
KYZYL -3 6 667003 149-01-03
KYZYL-4 6 667004 149-01-04
KYZYL- 5 a, 6 667005 149-01-05
KYZYL -6 a 667006 149-01-06
KYZYL -7 6 667007 149-01-07
KYZYL- 8 a 667008 149-01-08
KYZYL -9 a 667009 149-01-09 Airport;. 29mm.; F-S
KYZYL -10 a 667010 149-01-10_
KYZYL 11 6 667011 149-01-17 Error! M.O.O. should be 149-01-11
KYZYL DAG a 668013 ? F-S
KYZYL MAZHALYK a 668040 ?
KYZYL-MAZHALYK z 668040 ? F-S
MEDVEDEVKA a ? ? Not in U.P.U. Listings 1977, 1997
MEZHEGEI a 668312 149-09-08
MEZHEGEI z 668312 149-09-08 F-S

88 THE POST-RIDERI/MIIHK J 60
September 2007






Office Serial Postal Money Order
Name Letters Code Office No. .. Notes
MOREN a ? ? Not in UPU Listings 1977, 1997
IMUGUR-AKSY a 668020 149-13-00
NARYN a, 6 668384
SAGLY a ? ? Not in UPU Listings 1977,1997
SAMAGALTAI 6 668360 149-07-00 -No25mm.; second vowel is "A"
SAMAGALTAI e 668360 149-07-00 -e429mm.; second vowel is "A"
SAMOGALTAI 6 668360 149-07-00 -E25mm.; second vowel is "0"
SARYG-BULUN ? ? ? _Recorded only in UPU 1951 Listing
SARYG-SEP a, 6 668410 149-04-00 F-S; also "u" machine pmk wavy lines
SARYG-SEP a, 6 668410 149-04-00
SARYG-SEP 1 a 668410 149-04-00
SARYG-SEP 1 6, 6 668410 149-04-00 F-S
SHAGONAR a, e, M 668210 ?
SHAGONAR 6, 6, b 668210 ? F-S
SHEKPEER 6 668046 ?
SHIVILIG a 668517 149-02-09
SHIVILIG 6 668517 149-02-09 F-S
SHUI 6 668012 ?
SHURMAK 6, e 668364 ?
SIZIM a, 6 668416 149-04-03
SIZIM a 668416 149-04-03 F-S
SOSNOVKA a 668311 ? F-S
SUG-AKSY a 668118 ? Recorded in UPU Listing 1997
SUG-BAZHI ? 668423 ?
SUK-PAK 6 667901 149-14-06
SUSH a 668515 ?
SUT-KHOL' M-1(!) 668118 ? F-S
SYSTIG KHEM Recorded only in UPU 1951 Listing
TALDY-KURGAN -149-01-09
TARLAG a, 6 668512 ?
TELI 6 668010 149-11-00 _
TEELI a, 6, z, b 668010 149-11-00 Double vowel "EE"
TEVE-KHAYA a, 6 668117 149-05-13
TORA-KHEM a, 6, z, 668530 149-06-00
TOORA-KHEM a 668530 149-06-00 Double vowel "OO"
TORGALYG ? 668132 ? Ovyur District
TORGALYG 6 668232 149-03-02 Ulug-Khem District; 029mm.
TSELINNOE ? 668340 ?
TURAN 6,6,2,6,e,-e 668510 149-02-00
TURAN x 668510 149-02-00 F-S
TURAN-1 6 668510 149-02-01 _
USPENKA a 668313 ? F-S
UST' BUREN a, 6 668415 ?_
UST' ELEGEST a 667902 ? Separate office from Elegest Sovkhoz
UYUK SOVKHOZ a 668514 ?
VLADIMIROVKA 6 668343 ?
YRBAN e 668541 ?__


* *

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK NR 60
September 2007






TWO MORE EXAMPLES OF REGISTRATION ON TRAVELLING POST OFFICES
by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
Here are photocopies of 2 Romanov reg'd on TPO/RPO No. 2 Helsinki-St. Pbg covers that I obtained from an
auction recently. Note the two different types of registration label. Nice!


L L



~I P
--4-,:



r -
r orro 4;1 hTrrrl



A; No-






0 ~----r"'

Z _rt;_r -,'
-iS '-j -
7 'zr





P. Ip. ick.

:"-X:

LL

4n1
__ __ 49-~~


'-RIDER/IMIIHM K N2 60
September 2007


90


'W:


Pre-WWI usage of
internal reg'd mail (7
kop. + 7 kop.) Night
Sen ice as noted by
filled-in black dot
below the date and
also on reg'n label: Y
= "'o = Night (Finnish)
and N = Natt = Night
(Swedish).

























Ditto, also a
reg'd item but
with WWI rate
increased to 10
kop. internal
mail plus 10
kop. reg'n fee.






THE TRANS-SIBERIAN MAIL SERVICE
(Excerpted from "The Post Office", published by order of the Postmaster-General of Great Britain, June 1911, pp. 62-
63 and presented here by Henry Blum of Toronto).
The question of sending mails via Siberia was first considered in the year 1896, when a scheme was advanced
by the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits for the institution in the course of a year or so from that time of a
transit service to Vladivostok. The service involved conveyance by steamship on the Amur. It was calculated that the
Sleeping Car Company would want help from the British Government to the extent of 81,000 a year and it was
decided that the scheme was too visionary to admit of the necessary support being given by the Government.
It is probable that at this time little, if any correspondence from this country, was being sent via Siberia. The
Russian Post Office transmitted correspondence, but the railway was incomplete and, over considerable parts of the
journey, conveyance was effected by caravan or other means. The time of transit from this country under such
conditions was about six to eight weeks to Vladivostok and five or six weeks to Peking..
It was not until 1902 that the Russian Post Office announced its readiness to receive correspondence from
Postal Union countries and the conditions as to rates &c, which would be applied to such correspondence. The transit
charges were fixed at a high rate and, in explanation, the Russian Post Office stated that the Chinese Eastern Railway -
the railway joining the Siberian line on the northern frontier of Manchuria was worked by a private company in a
territory outside the Postal Union.
The Russian Post Office subsequently announced the 1t. of October 1903 as the date for the opening of the
Mail service. The time of transit from Moscow was given as about 16Y2 days both to Vladivostok and to Dal'nii with a
promise of an early acceleration. Arrangements were made for the dispatch of letters and postcards if specially marked
"Via Siberia" and fully prepaid. A similar course was followed by the German and other continental post offices.
In April 1904, theTrans-SiberianMail Service was suspended because of hostilities in the Far East. It was not
re-opened until February 1907. The Russian Post Office announced that the service would be twice a week from
Moscow, the time of transit thence being about 12 days to Vladivostok and that, for the time being, no mails could be
sent by the line running south from Kharbin to Tientsin, Peking and Hankow via Kuanchentszy. The use of the service
was restricted as before to specially superscribed letters and postcards. An additional mail train once a week from
Moscow was shortly afterwards put on. The route of Kuanchentszy was opened to mail traffic in October 1907 and
afforded rapid transit for mails for places on the Chinese railways. In 1908, arrangements were made for transmitting
mails for Shanghai (containing correspondence for other important districts of China) via Kuanchentszy and Dal'nii
(Dairen), as well as via Vladivostok, by which route they had hitherto been sent exclusively. On the institution in 1909
of the present Japanese Packet service twice a week from Dal'nii, the Vladivostok route was given up for Shanghai
mails. These are now transmitted from London by the Dal'nii service in 17 days.
Editorial Comment: Further to the previous discovery by Mr. Blum of the brochure "The Trans-Siberian Route and
Connecting Lines", as reproduced in "The Post-Rider" No. 59, pp. 6-11, it can now be confirmed that it was compiled
and issued by Thos. Cook & Son, Limited in London in 1934, being printed by "The Shanghai Times". Many thanks
are due to Mr. Blum for unearthing the two sources of the Thos. Cook brochure of 1934 and the data contained in "The
Post Office" of 1911,as reproduced above. We now have valuable background information about the transmission of
mails on the Trans-Siberian Railway.
*

3EMCKASI nIOITA 1OJITABCKAFO Y3THA
The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even.
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) pos(pai(i, payal)e Io the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at lie Society atldress.


THE POST-RIDER/ISMIHK JM 60
SeDtember 2007






NON-STANDARD OVAL MARKINGS OF POSTAL WAGONS WITH TWO NUMBERS OF THE ROUTES
AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20T. CENTURY by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
In my article under reference [1] herewith, there were described two non-standard oval markings of postal
wagons (IIB) with two numbers of the routes: "POTI *98-97*SAMTREDrI in 1914 and "GRANITSA-
ZOMBKOVITSY 25/26 SOSNOVITSY / A" of 1912. Those date-stamps are essentially differentiated from the
types of markings of the 3rd. Period, with digits inserted in the upper part, specifying the number of the forward or
return routes [2].
Not so long ago, my collection was already strengthened with postal sending with two types of oval markings
of postal wagons (IIB) and with two numbers denoting the routes. In order to touch on the completeness of the
subject, an analysis is given of the previously published data, as well as of the recently found markings of this type.
1.Forward and return route Samtredi-Poti of the Transcaucasian Railway Line.
1.1.The "SAMTREDI-POTI 97-98/*" marking.


As the Transcaucasian Railway Line began
with the construction of the Poti-Tiflis route,
which was opened in 1872, the first section
of Poti-Kvirily went into operation one year
earlier. On this short route shown in the map
excerpt in Fig. 1.1 [3] with a distance of 62
versts (1 verst roughly equal to 1 km., or
approx. 40 miles in all), the following
stations were added [4]: Samtredi, platform
Loshadinnyi Broad, Abasha at 13 versts (8
miles), platform Nosyri, Novo-Senaki at 26
versts (16 miles), Kvaloni, Cheladidy at 48
versts (30 miles) and Poti at 62 versts (40
miles). There was shown only a portion of
this marking dated 30 December 1912 in
reference [5], reading "....DI-POTI 97" and
our esteemed colleague P.T. Ashford was not
able to identify it as a marking with the two
numbers of the route.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 1.2, franked with
the 1- & 2-kop. Arms Type, cancelled with
the earliest known oval marking
"SAMTREDI-POTI 97-98/*", 4 April
1912. This card was addressed to Kutais,
Boys' Classic High School, to Shaliko
Gegenava, Pupil of the 8h. Class, whereby
the address was written in Russian and the
text of the message in Georgian, except for a
an inserted phrase in Russian: "...again prose
after such poetry".
Another card in Fig. 1.3 was sent abroad
franked with 2- & 3-kop. Arms Types, being
cancelled with two clear oval markings:
"SAMTREDI-POTI 97-98/*" on 1 June
1912, the address being written partly in
Russian and partly in Czech: "To Austria,
Czechia, Podybrady, Boguslav Blafek,
Teacher". The text reads in Russian: "Dear
Boguslav Frantsevich, I have just got rid of
the cursed exams and I hasten to write you a
letter. I am well. I am going now to Abasha
(railway station at 13 versts /8 miles west of
Samtredi: V.L.)for two weeks and then I am
going to Belogory (a station at 79 versts/50


I L-< I M


?/4e M


Fig. 1.2.


Postkarte Carte postal
\V,' i po.,lverein Union pntale universelle
Ccrrespondenz- Karte Dopisnice
Levelezo- Lap Korespondencni lislek
,Dopisnoca a ores
I Bsc C lUito


/YIYl 'Lxrol- IDT-DMU /r/


-tt A rs~c'
'1 01CJ1 Az ^7'& ytZ '#i- 71 ?



-A---- z~ AS>-^ ^a A-
7 n3)ls/~ \f
^n-sIt^ *n-^^^G -^C


Fig. 1.3.


THE POST-RIbERIaMUlJHK J_ 60
September 2007


y~ ^
.. .... ....... .......



.. ..' / .
... .... ... ....L^... -c& ^ -^... ....... .....
u7ex,/cp, a 3'/r 3:0 a^3^;z






Route numbers (98 97M written with a hyphen

4 MPEMO


Fi. 13a. 14.
-^*sS-L''


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C


I10I TOB. AH I-,UPT?qIRA.:-' ., '"


-^ <- "- ^ .......



-7 ^.- -,-_,%k i .g~g'7 .^^g-^ ^ ^ ........... ......

.-- ---- .'-* _^ ..-...-^" ..'J .-
F-^- .^ <
^^:^B^'^ ^^..j:^^^
/II '^T^C^'JL-^'^^ ^-f ^^ ^>,/ .^ ,
r^-^ 4~ ^-?^; ^i?.^
J~, ^< -L-^-PkZ-->- ^..^ .g,-- ---

^^cs w^^ Js^ ^^^


Fi2. 1.5.


PW. 4 98 xPoti-Samtredio with postage due PWmark without word OPOSTAL, /4/*



BCEMlPHup ICIOTOBElfl CiOt ,
.. -..l rii. Posrale Lnvrr'e'e R h'
L'n vr rselle 'u.
OTKpbIToo nNcbO. Carte ts '

.. A -




4,
I = -i _^- % -
-,~ /7*,^_ --^^


4The only
example of due
mark is known


1905 underpaid postcard from Poti, Kutais gub. to Tuapse (25.07), Chemomor. gub. bearing 2 kop.
canceled by oval d.s. (18.07) (65 km route) charged postage due of
2 kop. with due mark
Fig. 1.5a. THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK JN 60
September 2007


~igL5b.


Jul. 190_5-1906
PW x 98 (*)


-... I






miles east of Samtredi and at 37 versts/26 miles west of the Mikhailovo Station on the Transcaucasian Railway Line
(L.V.).
The type of the date-stamp "SAMTREDI-POTI 97-98/* (Fig. 1.3a) measuring 31.5 x 26 mm., the application
of which had only been known in 1912 has the following features:
(1) It has the two numbers of the route.
(2) The numbers of the routes have been placed not between,, but after the names of the terminal stations of
.....the route.
(3) The uneven number of the route is specified first and, after the hyphen, the even number.
The characteristic peculiarities of this marking are the large letters and figures and their height of 4 mm.
1.2.The marking "POTI*98-97*SAMTREDI/*"
In the article noted in reference [1], the author described for the first time the oval marking for the return route
"POTI*98-97*SAMTREDI/*" of 16 August 1914., found on a postcard addressed to Kiev ands with the transit one
line marking of the platform at Makarenko on the Catherine railway line. This very interesting sending has been
repeatedly displayed by the author at international exhibitions (Fig. 1.4).
Fin. 1.5 demonstrates yet another card in the collection of the author with the very rare marking "POTI*98-
97*SAMTREDI/*" of 30 July 1914, which is half a month earlier. The height of the letters and figures of the text of
this marking is 3.0 mm. This card is addressed to "Signakh/ To TheHigh-Born/ Ol'ga Ivanovna Mylovaya/ to the wife
of the forester".An excerpt with the transit marking of Tiflis of 1. August and the arrival postmark of Signakh-b Tiflis
province of the following day is shown in reference [6]. Signakh was a district town of Eastern Georgia at 103
versts/66 miles from Tiflis and with a population in 1914 of 16.000 inhabitants [6].
The author knows of yet another card with a strike of a postal wagon marking dated 19 November 1914,
arriving at Samtredi on the following day.
The date-stamp "POTI*98-97*SAMTREDI/*" measuring 30.5 x 25.5 mm. is known to the author on three
postal sending in 1914, being also irregular, in that the return and forward numbers of the route start with an even
number and, after the hyphen, with an uneven number.
For the sake of comparison with the circular earlier markings of the numbered postal wagons of the 1 s. Period
(with the date in three lines) and applied up to 1880, the two numbers of the route were specified after the words:
"Postal Wagon No.", starting with the uneven number for the forward journey and, after the hyphen, with the even
number for the return journey.
1.3.The marking "DOPLATIT'NAGON No. 98.
There is in Fig. 1.5a, there is an illustrated postcard which has been repeatedly displayed in the exhibit of the
author at international philatelic exhibitions, franked as a "Printed Matter" sending with a vertical pair of 1-kopek
stamps and sent from Poti via PW No. 98 "Poti-Samtredi" to Tuapse. Since the message on the back exceeded the limit
on the number of words for a printed matter sending, the alert siding official of the postal wagon applied a postage-due
marking "DOPLATIT' / VAGON No. 98", measuring 28.5 x 20 mm. and charged 2 kopeks postage due, i.e. a fine of
double the discrepancy for the 3-kopek rate for postcards. This postage-due marking, known in one example, has to be
regarded as a non-standard type, as the noun "wagon" is not accompanied with the full or abbreviated adjective
"postal", which was traditional for that type of marking.
Hence, for the forward and return routes of Poti-Samtredi and Samtredi-Poti during the period 1903-1914,
there was allotted three types of oval PW date-stamps and one for postage due. Moreover, only the earliest one of
them: "POTI 98 SAMTREDI/*" measuring 31 x 24.5 mm, the utilization of which is known from 3 December 1903
to 15 January 1907, corresponds to the standard type of oval PW markings of the 3rd. Period, upon which the number
of the postal wagon was placed between the names of the terminals of the route.
Note how varied were the non-standard oval postal wagon markings applied in this short exotic
Transcaucasian route.
2.The Blagoveshchensk-Chita route of the Amur and Trans-Baikal railway line
There is shown in Fig. 2.1 a postcard franked with a 3-kop. Arms Type cancelled twice with a hitherto
unrecorded oval marking "BLAGOVESHCHENSK No. 244-243 CHITA/4" of 11 May 1916, measuring 30.5 x 28.5
mm. (Fig. 2.1a). This card is addressed to Alekseevsk / III block, apt. 5 / near the watch-tower / to Sofia Ivanovna
Nikol'skaya. There is to the left of the stamp the arrival marking ALEKSEEVSK AMUR/b of 12 May. Judging by the
text of the message: "...don't be surprised if it was brought to Blagoveshchensk from Bochkarevo ". The card was sent
more quickly from one of the stations in the Blagoveshchensk-Bochkarevo network, with a total distance of 100 versts
/63 miles. The distance from the junction station of Bochkarevo to the terminal station of Chita came to 1574 versts /
985 miles (Fig. 2.2) [7].
The characteristics of this oval marking are as follows:-
(1) After the number sign JNthere is first stated the even (return) and after the slanted fraction the uneven (forward)
route numbers.
94 TE POST-RIDER/IMIMHK N 60
September 2007





















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THE POST-RIDERI5MMIIK N2 60 95
September 2007

























1912 postcard sent to Krakov bearing 3 kop. canceled by oval d.s.
aGRANITSA-ZOMBKOVITSI 25 / 26 SOSNOVITSI / A., (29.08)
Fi2. 3.1a.








K -ARTE. '


....... ... ........ ...... ... .

^.e-fc ^ /t^ 'c ,- -, .,,",-



,- ,,, :.... ^e_, e e,---



Fig. 3.3a.








P-1






26

Fip. 3.3c.

THE POST-RIDER/IMII~HK N 60
September 2007


Fig. 3.1.


Fig. 3.2.


Fig. 3.3b.




(2) There is in the lower part of the marking the digit "4".
It should be noted that, in the supplement [8], a similar marking was included, dated 4 December 1917, but
with the digit "2" and a much later application is also known to the author. Fig. 2.3 features a postcard sent from the
Ukrei station neighboringg the Kuenga station), situated at 328 km/206 miles east of the station at Chita. It is
addressed to Moscow and franked with a 5-kopek orange-brown postage stamp of the Far Eastern Republic, which was
cancelled with the oval marking "BLAGOVESHCHENSK No. 244/243 CHITA / 2" of 4 July 1923 (Fig. 2.3a).
It is interesting to note that the Far Eastern Republic was founded on 6 April 1920 as a buffer between Soviet
Russia and Japan and existed until 19 November 1922. This card therefore is an example of a sending with a late
application both of the postage stamp and of the oval PW date-stamp including two numbers.
The unique markings placed in this section extend the investigations of the author about the postal markings of
the Amur Railway Line, as published in reference [9].
3.The Granitsa-Zombkovitsy-Sosnovitsy Route of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway Line
This short route bordering on Austria in the south-western Petrokov province consisted of two sections with a
few stations [4]. The first section: Granica-Zombkovitsy had a length of 13 versts/8 miles (with the station of
Strzemeszice between them) and running towards the north in the direction of the Czestochowa ststion at a distance of
72 versts/47 miles from Granitsa, while the second section was the small branch line Zombkovitsy-Sosnovitsy running
in the south-west had a length of 16 versts/10 miles (Fig. 3.1) [7].
In his article in reference [1], the author described a postcard with the dispatch marking "GRANITSA-
ZOMBKOVITSY 25/26 SOSNOVITSY / A" dated 29 August 1912 (see Fig. 3.1a).
A postcard is shown in Fig. 3.2 franked with 1- and 2-kopek stamps cancelled with the dispatch marking
"GRANITSA-ZOMBKOVITSY 25/26 SOSNOVITSY / A" with the latest known date of 4 April 1914. This card,
the address and text of which were written in the Polish language, was sent to Zawiercie in the Petrokov province
where, judging by the arrival marking, it was delivered on the same day.
The peculiarities of this oval marking with the dimensions of 31.5 x 26.5 mm. are the following:-
(1) The double number of the route is inscribed in the style of an ordinary arithmetic or "two-stage" fraction with very
small figures "25" and "26", the height being 1.2 mm.
(2) The serial letter in the bottom part of the marking differs from the postmarks described in the present article.
(3) The text of the left part of the marking "GRANITSA-ZOMBKOVITSY" has a small height of 3 mm., while the
portion at right: "SOSNOVITSY" has a greater height of 3.5 mm.
Judging from all the above, the anomaly of the markings on the corresponding PW routes did not have a
unique appearance. If it was intended to prepare one type of an anomalous marking, there appeared after some time yet
another non-standard marking for this route. There is in Fig. 3.3a a postcard, sent in 1908 from the Tyrol to Moscow
(14 August), franked on the address side with an Austrian 5-heller stamp with the dispatch date of 23 August N.S. / 10
August O.S. The message states: "I am leaving from the Tyrol, wonderful beauty and grandeur all around". There is
illustrated on the back the beauty and grandeur referred to (Fig. 3.3b), with an added note: "Greetings / N. Serikov /
10-VII" and a further stamp was affixed, which was cancelled two days later with the earliest known PW transit
marking "GRANITSA-ZOMBKOVITSY / 26" of 12 August 1908 O.S. There is on this marking (Fig. 3.3c) an
anomalous lower position of the number "26" of the route and also, very rare for the PW oval markings, the
designation of the month "ABF." (August), instead of the figure "8". In that way, this early marking with the unusual
insertion of the number of the route became the forerunner of the non-standard marking for this route with a double
number.
Apart from the postmark type, the card which has been described is interesting in the same way for the Russian
oval transit PW marking. By this time in Russia, they had practically stopped applying them on postal sending. In this
case, we are indebted to this strike being placed on the second stamp and not cancelled by the Austrian postal clerks.
Thanks to the Russian official at the siding, he cancelled this stamp on PW No. 26.
4.A comparative analysis of the non-standard oval PW markings with the two numbers of the routes
The markings described in the present article are set out in the Table with an analysis of the types of
inscription, the places denoted by the double numbers and the designation of the periods of their application.

Railway Line/ Form of inscription and/' Specific period of
Marking Route Length place of double number application
In the marking
CAMTPEI4H-IIOTH 97-98/* 7 Uneven-even & 4.4.12-30.12.12
Transcaucasian/ By a hyphen after station ..
IIOTH*98-97*CAMTPE,)H/* 62 versts in one stroke Even & uneven & 30.7.14-19.11.14
between stations
BJIATOBEHIEHCKI 4.12.17-4.7.23
244/243 9HTA/ 2 Amur & Trans- By slanted fraction Even/uneven &
IJIATOBEIIEHCK"b ~2b Baikal / 1574 in one stroke between stations
244/243 qHITA/ 4 versts 11.5.16
THE POST-RIDER/JSIMlHK N 60
September 2007







rPAHHIIA-30MBKOBHILI Warsaw-Vienna Vertical "two- Uneven/even and 30.7.12-4.4.14
25/26 COCHOBHIIb/ A Rlwy/ 29 versts stage" fraction between stations

Note: The markings inserted in thick digits in the Table constitute the earliest and latest dates of their application, as
found by the author [10].
In this way and up to the present time, everything is described with just what is known about three routes of
the Russian PW system, with a simultaneous designation on them of the forward and return routes.
Conclusions
1, There is described the earliest known marking of 4 April 1912: "SAMTREDI-POTI 97-98/*".
2. There is described the earliest known marking of 16 August 1914: "POTI*98-97*SAMTREDI/*".
3. There is described the earliest known marking of 11 May 1916: "BLAGOVESHCHENSK N2 244/243 CHITA/4".
4. There is described the latest of the known markings dated 4 April 1914: "GRANITSA-ZOMBKOVITSY 25/26
SOSNOVITSY/A".
5. There is described the earliest of the known markings of 12 August 1908: "GRANITSA-ZOMBKOVITSY / 26".
6. A comparative analysis has been given of the PW oval markings of three described routes partly by recording their
double numbers. levandovskiy @yahoo.com
.JHTepaTypa Literature
1. V.G.Levandovskiy "Something about PW Postmarks of the branch line Poti-Samtredi". The
Post-Rider, No 50, 2002.
2. LHpKynJIp FjnaBHoro ynpaBneHa noTrr H TenerpaDonB N 9 oT 3 4eBpaJi 1903 r. <06
H3MeHeHHH o6pa3uoB mTreMnefneH Aia noMeTM KoppecnonIeHumH H flar KBHTaHImOHmXHb
KHmr, a TaKioe neqaTefi Ia AOKyMeHTOB H Ino'rOBOFO AenOjrpOH3BOACTBa>.
3. HyMepHaA KapTa K IlorTOBOMy opoXHHKy, mIl. 1897 r.
4. OQnmmHaibnHbil yKa3aTenjb Aenie3HoAOopoXKHIx, napoxoAHMlix i ApyrnH naccawxapcKHx
coo6meHHiA. 3HMHee AtBHxeHme 1911-12 r. noa peA. H.JI. BpIoji. C.-IIeTep6ypr, 1911.
5. P.T. Ashford "Postal cancellations of the Transcaucasian Railway", 1994.
6. P.T. Ashford "Imperial Russian Stamps Used in Transcaucasia", part III, Tiflis gub., BSRP, 1978.
7. )KenejHie e Aoporn Poccim. HWA. O-Ba >, 1918 r.
8. A.V.Kiryushkin and P.E.Robinson "Russian Railway Postmarks", 1994 & Addenda and Corrigenda
2006.
9. V.G.Levandovskiy "The history of Amur Railway creating and its early postmarks". Rossica,
No 142, 2004.
10. V.G. Levandovskiy "1000 and one finds in Russian Railway Postmarks", POCHTA, N2 40,2007


* *


BIBLIOGRAPHY, Salvador BOFARULL
1) Hist6rica Academia Hispinica de Filatelia
Beevor, Anthony, Stalingrad, Viking, 1998, y Penguin, 1999.
Craig, William, Enemy at the Gates, the battle for Stalingrad,
Readers Digest, 1973. Hay traducci6n francesa: Vaincre
ou Mourir a Stalingrad, Robert Laffont, 1974.
Garcia Valifio, Rafael (Teniente General), La Campaiia de
Rusia. Tomo 60 de Historia de la Segunda Guerra Mun-
dial. Edit. Idea, Madrid, 1958.
Nekrasov, Victor, Dans les tranchdes de Stalingrad (tra-
ducci6n del ruso).
Piekalkiewicz, Janus, Stalingrad, Bedrterinz Verlag.
Miinchen, 1977.
Simonov, Constantin, Les jours et les nuits de Stalingrad
(traducci6n del ruso).
Tolloi, Comandante, En Russie avec l'Armie Italienne (tra-
ducci6n del italiano).
Varios (29 autores), La Grande Guerre Nationale de l'Union
Sovidtique 1941-1945. Editions du Progres. Moscd, 1974.
Werth, Alexander, The Year of Stalingrad. London, 1944.
Werth, Alexander, Russia at War 1941-45, A.Werth, 1962.
Hay traducci6n castellana, Rusia en la Guerra 1941-
1945. Edit. Grijalbo, Madrid, 1967.
Wieder, Joachim, Stalingrad: Memories and Reassessment,
Cassel, 2002.
Yeremenko, Mariscal A. I., Stalingrad, Moscd, 1961
98 THE POST-RIDE


* *


2) Filatilica y de historia postal.
Cecchi, Aldo, L'Organizzatione della posta military italiana
in Russia, Quaderni di Storia Postale, no 1, 1982.
Gericke, Bodo, Die Deutsche Feldpost im Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Archiv fur deutsche Pbstgeschichte. Heft 1, Darmstadt, 1971.
Heineman, Gfinter y Pflager, Albert, Felpostbestimmungen
und Felpostnummem der Rote Armee ab 1.4.1943, estu-
dio del Philatelistischen Arbeitsgemeinschat Russland/
UdSSR. Frankfurt, octubre 2003.
Hinrichsen, Horst, Die deutsche Feldpost, Organisatuion
und AusrUstung 1939-1945, Podzun-Palla, 1998.
Kannapin, Norbert, Die deutsche Feldpost, Organisation
und Lokalisation, 1939-1945, OsnabrCick, 1979.
Kannapin, Norbert, Die deutsche Feldpostubersicht 1939-
S1945. Osnabrfck, 1980-1982.
Michel, Handbuch-Katalog Deutsche Feldpost, 1937-1945.
Minchen, 2002 (4a edici6n).
Minister della Difesa (italiano). Ufficio Storico, I service logistics
delle unit Italiane al front Russo, 1941-1943. Roma, 1975
Sauer, Stalingrad-Feldpost 1942/43, en Deutsche Feldpost
1939-1945, Rundbrief 42, septiembre 1987, pp 1516-
1523; Rundbrief 56, mayo 1992, p A 21b.
Stratowa Wulf, Kein Friede in Stalingrad: Feldpostbriefe
1941-1942. Viena, 1995.
Varios autores: Articulos sobre el tema en distintos nime-
ros del boletin de la "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutsche
Feldpost 1939-1945" de Colonia (K6ln)6.
;R/SIMIllK No 60


September 2007






THE BATTLE OF STALINGRAD: PHILATELY AND POSTAL HISTORY
by Salvador Bofarull.
(Reprinted from the Spanish magazine "Revista de Filatelia", issues of September to December 2003 by kind
permission of the author and of the Editor, Sr. Carlos Echenagusia of Madrid, Spain)
Stalingrad (I): A brief geographic introduction
--. 4cAooUD. For the Spanish medium, Russia is a great and unknown
..! area. Actually and thanks to television and tourism, something
E' 9lp about it is becoming known, but there still persist old errors and
T? ...' C -".prejudices. The changes in the names of the localities have no
i doubt increased the confusion. Stalingrad, formerly Tsaritsyn and
.. MSit now Volgograd;. can get confused with Leningrad (which in turn
S.has been called Fort Nyenschatz, St. Petersburg and Petrograd).
Both places are at a distance of 1500 km./935 miles from each
D ".ilii.iia other, one of them to the south-east of the country and the other to
I \ ithe north-west. A glance at the map is sufficient for clarification.
i In the philatelic area, this confusion has led sometimes to
S. N ridiculous situations (1).
D6..". Historical introduction
Before the fall of the Tsarist r6giime, the peaceful town of
SMAR Tsaritsyn on the winding banks of the Volga benefited by its
.MAR p'.. privileged position in the river communications of the country
SNE :GR"O --- and developed incipient industries. In the Civil War, the remnants
.. of the Tsarist Army, with the military support of the Western
The front line in August 1942: countries, attempted to reestablish the former regime and the city
Map of the author recovered a special strategic interest, being the object of furious
battles. IosifVissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Stalin) was prominent
in them and his participation was decisive in the victory over the
counter-revolutionaries. From then on, the city was rebaptised
Stalingrad (2).
i FRight in the middle of the Second World War on 22 June
1941 Nazi Germany launched a surprise attack on the USSR in
the so-called Operation Barbarossa, whose objective was the
t- n_.. roir 4f. pV,,, di d67, rapid occupation of the European part of the country to the west
-.3 frt, e o f Am of the Ural Mountains and the annihilation of the Soviet military
f eof rJTA power and economy. The invasion appeared unequal, followed by
Sccar"mm er e ,rw AMra~so fcr victory after victory, with the apparent annihilation of the Soviet
ais g d6al Aidar voho sc 4. Army. However, Leningrad in the north and Moscow in the
cttiio ais a t&;i centre resisted heroically and could not be conquered. That upset
ofi-p"T" i. 5'~suAc.'st the plans of the Nazis, who directed their attack towards the
rO inspm former r g ,e lIart, of t south-east with the intention of seizing the Caucasus and its
free peopkle- hir gelornous itory-
s~tmmd aie t~jf in sin r d petroliferous riches. The key to that operation was the city of
marked the turning point in tte Stalingrad. On 19 August 1942, the German Sixth Army under
wdr of th e Allic.d .'tions against the command of General von Paulus began the attack at
the forces of daression. Stalingrad, which was besieged on the 25 of the same month
_. / ../. A,'/ /.~= (3), after a devastating bombardment, in which all the available
German air force was employed (4).
.s,.. ___ ____ The attacking German troops totalled 49 divisions, 4 of them
Diploma of the U.S. Government, praising' motorized and 5 armoured. Added to them were the Italian 8t.
the defence of Stalingrad and signed by Army, the 3r., 4th. and 6th. Romanian Armies and the Croatian
President F.D. Roosevelt 369h. Infantry Regiment. In the city, the battle went on street by
street, house by house, room by room, brick by brick, in the greatest urban battle known in history. On 14 September,
the Germans conquered the centre of the city, installing themselves in the strategic hill of Mamaev Kurgan, whose
summit dominated the whole of Stalingrad (5). The battle was extraordinarily bitter in the industrial suburbs, where the
Germans attempted to conquer the Tractor Factory (6), the Barrikada Machine Design Factory and the Red October
Metallurgical Works. The aerial superiority of the Luftwaffe in this first phase of the battle was absolute: the Soviet
aircraft responding to the battle were systematically shot down. Meanwhile, the Soviet ground forces attempting to
THE POST-RIDER/5MIHIHK MN! 60 99
September 2007




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