• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: A restatement of CSRP...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - ninetenth...
 A Georgian postmark of Greek...
 About the dates of issue and printings...
 Some comments to philatelic...
 Russian foreign letters before...
 The mysterious 1-gGr. postage:...
 The issue & usage in Russia in...
 Khar'kov local postal vans
 The December 1922 fourth issue...
 Items of philatelic interest culled...
 The return of mail in the USSR...
 The mail of the personnel of the...
 The enquiry and information postal...
 Some additional notes on Tuva
 Soviet circular censorship...
 Report on "Washington 2006"
 Mail from European Russia to the...
 Review of literature
 Two items of Zemstvo and Canadian...
 The Japanese and other interventions...






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00057
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: June 2006
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00057
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: A restatement of CSRP aims
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - ninetenth instalment
        Page 4
    A Georgian postmark of Greek interest
        Page 5
    About the dates of issue and printings of the first Soviet postage stamps (Russian text)
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Some comments to philatelic shorts
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Russian foreign letters before 1844: The accountancy with Prussia and the Netherlands
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The mysterious 1-gGr. postage: Prussian parcel post at Netherlands grounds
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The issue & usage in Russia in 1915-1919 of currency exchange tokens in the form of jubilee stamps
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Khar'kov local postal vans
        Page 35
    The December 1922 fourth issue of the Armenian SSR
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Items of philatelic interest culled from early Tuvan primers
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The return of mail in the USSR in wartime 1941-1945
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The mail of the personnel of the Soviet navy (1941-1945) - continuation
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The enquiry and information postal service
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Some additional notes on Tuva
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Soviet circular censorship markings
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Report on "Washington 2006"
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Mail from European Russia to the Far East
        Page 109
    Review of literature
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Two items of Zemstvo and Canadian interest
        Page 111
    The Japanese and other interventions in Siberia
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text




IM IIHK


No 58


June 2006


ThE CANAdiAN SociETy of RUSSiAN PhiLATEly


Printed in Caiada


ThE POST-RIDER






THE CANADIAN SOCIETY

OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada




CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider@sympatico.ca
"The Post-Rider" o_ 58. June 2006.
Contents:
2 Editorial: A restatement of CSRP Aims
2 Special Notes, also at 10, 12. 24, 26, 62, 93, 100, 103
3 Correspondence with Canada: A censored registered letter Moscow-Montreal early in WWII. Dr.V.G. Levandovskii
4 Zemstvo Varieties: Ninetenth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
5 A Georgian postmark of Greek interest A. Cronin
6 About the dates of issue and printings of the first Soviet postage stamps (Russian text) L.G. Ratner
11 Some Comments to Philatelic Shorts A. Epstein
13 Russian foreign letters before 1844: The Accountancy with Prussia and the Netherlands E. Berger
25 The mysterious 1 gGr. Postage: Prussian Parcel Post at Netherlands Grounds E. Berger
27 The issue & usage in Russia in 1915-1919 of Currency Exchange Tokens in the form of Jubilee Stamps L.G. Ratner
35 Khar'kov Local Postal Vans Rabbi L.L. Tann
36 The December 1922 Fourth Issue of the Armenian SSR D r. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian
40 Items of Philatelic Interest culled from early Tuvan Primers Alan Leighton
44 The return of mail in the USSR in wartime 1941-1945 Meer Kossoy
63 The Mail of the Personnel of the Soviet Navy (1941-1945) continuation Meer Kossoy & V. Berdichevskly
85 The Enquiry and Information Postal Service Professor A.S. Ilyushin
101 Some additional notes on Tuva .O.P. Sel'nikov
104 Soviet Circular Censorship Markings A. Cronin
106 Report on "Washington 2006" A. Cronin
109 Mail from European Russia to the Far East Francis Au
109 Review of Literature
111 Two Items of Zemstvo and Canadian Interest Edward Klempka
112 The Japanese and other Interventions in Siberia Edward Klempka

Correction to the Table of Contents for "The Post-Rider N 57, re p. 39:
By an unfortunate oversight, the article "About the Assignment of Numbered 'Dots' Cancellers to Postal Stations" by
L.G. Ratner was regretfully omitted and your editor apologises for this mishap. It is the first time that this has happened
and please amend your copy of "The Post-Rider" eN 57 accordingly.

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

Copyright 2006. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this
issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those
of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.



















-- -- Editorial
A RESTATEMENT OF CSRP AIMS
It is most important in these troubled times that we reiterate what The Canadian Society of Russian Philately
stands for. Right from our inception in 1977, we have maintained a reputation as a moderate and multicultural philatelic
society on the international scene, devoted to the philately and postal history of Russia and associated areas.
Coupled with that approach is the inclusion of items of interest in the areas of Russian culture and language, as
such knowledge surely leads to a greater appreciation of the material that we collect. It seems safe to say that there is no
other investigative field, together with the extensive associated philatelic literature, that can be compared with ours. As a
result, some outstanding collections have been formed and and exhibited internationally, gaining very high awards.
Russian and related items are also featured frequently in the catalogues of the major international auction houses, with
outstanding results.
Our magazine "The Post-Rider" is a journal of record, with over 4000 pages of original and solid research
already published on a huge variety of subjects, being as objective as possible. That is part of our policy of being non-
political and, like our fellow Canadians, we avoid any contact with extreme views. In short, if you have an axe to grind,
then our Society is not for you, as we are philatelists first and foremost and our goal is to solve problems. All of the
foregoing comes under the heading of what is called in Russian "o6Men OIbITOM" (an exchange of experience). Enough
said.

SPECIAL NOTE: THE "LIMONKA" (15-kop. Peasant) IN A USED BLOCK OF FOUR

Further to the note in "The Post-Rider" No 57, p. 4 about this rare stamp on wove paper and
perforated 14/2 x 15 (Scott N2 287), it has recently appeared in a German auction in a previously
unrecorded block of four, with the cancellation "LYUBINO-POSELOK TOB. 2.12.25 a" in the
Old Spelling. It is unique so far and probably worth around USD 750.00 at the very least.
S. To avoid confusion, it should be noted that the 15-kopek "Peasant" definitive occurs in three
versions, namely: (a) Harrow-perforated 14Y2 x 15 on wove paper (Scott N2 287, which is the
rarity). (b) Harrow-perforated 12 on wove paper (Scott NM 287a common) and (c) Harrow-
perforated 12 on watermarked paper (Scott M 315, which is common). The rare "Limonka" is
thus easy to recognize by perforation alone and covers should always be checked for that variety,
Sas the catalogue listings can easily be overlooked
t--if*- --" "'* *l *l *~ *


SPECIAL NOTE:


_. I

.

... .- .. .


WHAT KIND OF A STAMP IS THIS?


by G.G. Werbizky.


A European philatelist sent me this illustration, enlarged to
200%, with "1 P" at top (= 1 rouble?) and "P A II Y" possibly
standing for Russian Anarchist Postal Administration and
showing its leader Nestor Ivanovich Makhno) at bottom.
Information, please!
Editorial Comment: The design also includes at centre right the
Hammer & Sickle emblem, so it is unlikely that this was an
Anarchist label. Further notes are invited about this problem,


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N 58
2 June 2006





CRRflIr1?(EPCIN1NC WI~H CANADA


"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or Xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.
4
A CENSORED REGISTERED LETTER MOSCOW-MONTREAL EARLY IN WWII
by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.
The handstamped address shows that there was a noticeable volume of mail from the Bank of
Foreign Trade of the USSR to the Jewish Immigrant Aid Society of Canada in Montreal. This
letter paidthe correct 50-kopek foreign surface rate plus the 1-rouble airmail surtax t total
Ir. 30k. and left Moscow on 4.9.40. Judging from the backstamps, it was first censored in Ottawa
on 28 October 1940, then put on the Ottawa to Montreal TPO/RPO to arrive in Montreal the next
day. A most interesting sending!


'S
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THE POST-RIDER/IMIIUHK N2 58
June 2006


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SMOSCOU ELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS. ROSCOMBANK MOSCOW
aRmoscou '-,,,o,+,
64_3 REGISTERED
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JEWISH IMMIGRANT AID SOC-L-Y -

OF CANADA N

MONTREAL, *:.>
S.---...------ 4226 St. Lawrence Bouiev rd
t til"elY" ,-""> ..... :


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ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: EIGHTEENTH INSTALMENT
by G.G. Werbizky.

This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties., stared in "The Post-Rider" N2 40. Where a given Zemstvo is omitted,
it mean s that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties do not exist. It is hoped
that reader will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos.What is shown here is what I have in my collection.

Author's Note regarding the previous instalment:
IA the previous issue of "The Post-Rider" 3N 17, I showed Perm' in Perm' province, Schmidt XN 20, the 1919 Sovdep,
issue. What I did not state was that the thin horizontal line is the line of two sheets of pappr glued together. That variety is
not described in the Gurevich, Poltorak & Strebulaev catalogue. Similar varieties, like #t of porisoglebsk XN 3p. are
included in the above-mentioned catalogue,


Pereslav, Vladimir province.


Chuchin NM 1 on green paper.
Partial sheet showing two tete-
beche pairs. The sheet is 3 x 4 in
one direction and 3 x 4 reversed.
According to A. Artuchov, this
block thus represents the middle of
the sheet.







Priluki, Poltava province.


Chuchin N2 7. Vertical block of
four tete-beche. The two arrows
point to the guide holes.


Podol'sk, Moscow Province.

i "




--------- .
.S.


Chuchin M2 4. Tete-beche
pair. Similar to NX 6,
which is also a tete-beche.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK JN 58
June 2006


Chuchin M 9. In the word
"ITO)OJIbCKA '", the
letter "'I" has been used
instead of"b". See arrow.


Chuchin J~ 7. Block of 6
with two tete-beche pairs.






A GEORGIAN POSTMARK OF GREEK INTEREST
by Andrew Cronin.





t -


order card shown above, sending 40 troubles from Kolkhida, Georgian SSR 14.11.1990 to Riga in Latvia. The











present-day Republic of Georgia in Transcaucasia was known in the Greek Classic Period as Cochis/Cochida.
Order Office 023-71-36.
C Col i e tlg i lie it t





very tame indeed. A












As a young man, Jason had asked for the return of the kingdom, of which his father had been
Yourover at the island of Lemnos, where Ortheyodox Christian and his attention was recently attracted by the loal women (ahem!!). The ship theney-
order card shown above, sending 40 roubardanelles and the Sea of Marmara out into the Ponto Riga Euxeinos Latia. The







"Hopresent-day Republica", now known as the Black Sea), eventually arrive inthe Greek at Classic Period as Colhis/Colhida on the eastern shore.
AfNoter many adventures, the dragon was charmed to sleep and bilingual cachet for the Colehiece to return home
withOrder Officthe Argonauts, again surmounting many difficulties.023-71-36.







ColThere are several conflicting versions in thked wimytholog the stry about Jason's later life, including his
involvement wiway, the gods in that awfumythology were assigned a wholthe childrange of humad by Jason, but that is and foiblther story.
Ancient Greeks and the subject this so vate st that it makes "The Lord of Grethe Rings" trilogy by J.R. Tolkien looks)
andAs a young man, Jason had asked for(Hippocrates of Cos, the rof Medicine andof the authkingdom, of whicthe Hippocratic Os fath).er had been
dispossessed and, to get rid of him, Pelias asked him to g who remained in Colehis/Cida to fetch the Golden Feeeeida, rather than return
homguarded daybe we should take DNA samsleeples dragon. Jason agreed and asked Argus to build a ship with 50 oars, without!









*
was therefore named "Argo". The prestigious erew included Hercules and was composed of Argonauts
















THE POST-R0DER/II M! 1'_* 58 5
*-'''"'' "''**f ___ ___ *i"''i''_J. l "irrT^^ ir_ "----


































June 2006








JL PaTrep L. Ratner
Camnr-HeTep6ypr, Poccam S-Petersburg, Russia
ABOUT THE DATES OF ISSUE AND PRINTINGS OF THE FIRST SOVIET POSTAGE STAMPS
by L.G. Ratner (original Russian text).
0 JIATAX BhmYCCKA H THPAIKAX IIEPBhIX
HIOTOBbIX MAPOK COBETCKOH BJIACTH.

IlepnBbe oIwOBmBe MapKH cOBaercKo BJtacTH HOMHIajaMH 35 H 70 KoneeK,
BbmeAU~e e B notrosoe o6pameHme B 1918 roay, HeOfHOKpaTHo onmcaHM B pocCHfCKOfl H B
3apy6eamHofi arrepaiype. HasHBaeMne "pyKa c MeCoM, pa3py6amoman ierm", B "KaTanore
nowqrosix MapOK CCCP", 1983 r., OHH HMeHyIorcTI KaK "nep6bzi peeomoijouonumbi 6binyCK
notmoex. MapOK PCPCP" H noMemeruH nox HOMepaMH 1 H 2 (pHc. 1, 2).






..... ....

PHC. 1 PHC. 2

IepBoe BpeMA yKaaaaHHme MapKH cHrajamc] BaimycKOM BpeMemHoro npaBHTeJIbcra
KepencKoro, HO nocie TraTeit IO. IIapMenoBa, B. KapamaCKoro, I. Ma3ypa H T.A. 6b U
oTHecem i K BLmyCKY coBeTrKOro nepHoAa. OcHOBHbie nyIHKTm Hx pa6oT:
pHcyHKH MapOK co3aaaH P. 3appummmeM B 1917 roAy upa BpeMeHamo
npamBHreJlbce, HO He 6iuIH yTBepa[emIe H He H3roTaBjiHBajCb;
B Hanarie 1918 rosa npoBeaeHb KOHKypcm Ha co3aamHHe aTpH6yrHKH H
peKBH3HTOB HOBOi rocyAapeCTBetmHO Bjiacr. B TOM nIcne 6imui npeAcTrasine
npoe rcm HOBuX MapoK, oracKO Hapo~mAH~ KOMHccapHarT norr H TenerpaDoB
(HKHLtT) He HcnoJi3SOBan HX, OTAaB npe unorreme palHee co3aHHaIM
o6pa~saM P. 3appHmmma;
22 MaJ 1918 rona "peaoaotuonnHte no'moebie .uapKu nomuHvnanzo 35 u 70
KoneeK" yrBepxgcemni HapKOMoM HOwT H Tejerpamon B. floA6eJmcKHM.
yTBepAIeeHnHbe HM o6pa3 sb xpa~rrca B IaeHTpamhnoM My3ee CBaiS HMemH
A.C. IfonoBa;
HsroTOBjneHnme npH coBercKoif BJacTH, MapKH c pHcynHKOM "pYKa c Meqo,
pa3py6aioinaa rerm" HoMHHanaM M 35 H 70 KoneeK nocrymani B nowroBoe
o6panemem B nepBayo ro2onBUmEHy HOBOHn BjaCTH 7 Hos6pa (25 orir6ps no
crapoMy cTrHJo) 1918 roaa;
yKaamHme MaprKH aBjU SIao nepBsuM coBerKHMM Ino'rOBuM MapKaMH.
3m HrTepecHbe H cepbe3mhie pa6oTm mIeim HeAocTaTOK: npH HX HaIIcaHHH
npacTrnHecaK He HcHomJIb3Bajmcm apxHBom e AOKyMemir. B peayJmTaTe, TOHb-ne aThI
H3roTosnBeHHa H THpaaKH MapoK OCTraJCb HeH3BecTHbIMH. KpoMe Toro, Bi3bmaeT coMHemHe
oa0om3HaHocTr aTMr Bbrxoaa HX B no'TOBoe o6pamea~ e 7 Hoa6pa 1918 roaa.
InoHCK HeaoCTramoIHx CBsCemiHH 06 3THX MapKax aBTOp craThH Ben B apxHBHmX
AoKyMenrax 3KcneawfmsI 3arroTBJeHEm rocynapCTBeHHLx ByMar (33rB). 3,1ec
coxpanuHHmc KHiHr yreTa roTOBOi4 IpolyKMMH, KHHTH 3aaBoK, upeAcTasBineHix
MHnmcrepermoM now H TeieerpagOB (no3gaee HKfIUT), H 6yxrarrepcKce cBepKH.
CumiacKofi H 6yxrajrrepcr f e yqeTm ccKysqumi r craTbH o6HnmeM mgap, oHaaKo, lamor
HaH6oJee To'mIyo nHHopMaumo. Ho, no nopE.cy.


THE POST-RIDER/MIMIHK JN 58
June 2006








Pemenie o unpHMeHemH HOBbi o6pa3soB MapoK HOMHaHana~ 355Ko H 70 KOn
6mnuo upHH ro B MmmcTrepcTBe nO'wT H TejerpadOB BpeMeHHoro npaBnnTenb TBa, nBHnMO, K
cepeA~ne rera 1917 roAa. B nocJIeaeM 3aKa3e Ha HaroTOBaeHle MapoK KoneeCqmHb
AOCTOcHCTB crapL x pHcyacoB OT 24 monR 3Too ro a yKa3aHM HOMalian 2, 3, 5, 10, 15,20,
25 H 50 KoIneeK MapOK crapsix o6pa3qoB M HOMnraamH l 35 H 70 KoK0eeK B 3TIft 3a8BKe Her.
3aKa3 Ha nHarTamHe HOBOiR 35 Konee'noti MapKH THpaxcoM 600000 InCTOB
(60000000 3K3eMimnpoB) 6inm clea 6 cea m 6pr i 1917 roaa. 3axa3 Ha n3mroOmBnee HOBOi
70 KoneeHnoit MapKH B KOjnrecTBe 150000 JIHCTOB (15000000 3K3eMIImpoB) AarTpoBan
14 oxKra6pa 1917 rosa.' AaTy yrBepaitemsa o6pa3soB HOBax MapOK ycraHOBHim He
ylajiocs, HO no ycraTOBJIeHHOMy noparly 3aaBKK Ha H3rOTOBJeHHe MapOK MorJIH
noAaBaTbca TOJ3oKO m nocJe corJImcoBamHH H yrBepAena HX npoeKTOB. 06e 3aaBKIH
Upeac rasBJrem B 33FB Ao oKTr6pbCKO~ peBoJxuoiu 1917 roaa.
K KOHmy roAa 3317B BsmycTjna 31300000 3K3eMImImpOB MapOK 35 KoneeHtoro
focTOHHCTBa, H3 Hax 13900000 3IseMimapoB nepeAazao noTroBOmy BelotMrBy, a 17400000
MapOK OCTaJIHCb B 3KCnemIIAIH. MapKH HOMHHaJIOM 70 KoneeK, 3aKa38HHm e
neiocpeacTBeHHO nepeA peBomnonerli 25 OKrm6pf 1917 rona, B aTOM rony H3roTBHm He
2
ycHenJl.
B TeeHHme MHorax ner crxratoci, wro BpeMemHoe npaBffenjcrBo He yroepaajro
H He B mycxKajo MapKH HOBOro o6pa3sa. BKuxMO, H3 nojmIrn ecKax coo6paxcemHi pemium
3a6brrE yrBepaRennH e QD. qyswma: "39mu MapKtu. 6wou uszomoeJewx BpeMteHnwa
npaeumelbcmboM Kepenccoeo..." ("KaTaJior nowronBix MapOK H ieJtsHLnX Bellkef. OcHOBHaE
PoccHa", 1928, 78). HaiiAeen e B apxnaax AOKyMemRT noraBepIaawK T MHeHne
Q. yyqui a, c oroBOpKOr, HTo 3ro 6wio TOJIbKO HaqajioM HCTOpHH BsmycKa MapOK C
pHcyHKOM "pyxa c MeqoM, pa3py6atomax ax en".
C Hasana 1918 rosa noaTa PoccnfiCKOl Q)efepaum a HcnubrrTh Baja pyio HexsaTKy
3HaKOB Io'rrOBOfi OulaTr MapOK He XBaTaJIO ,UIf IIepecuManlHr nTOBBM OTn~pawIBJHH, HO
oHH emie npaMeHmanjJC H AJ cJyiKe6Hx geneaef. B aiHape 3roro roAa nowroBoe BeAOMCTBo
rncanro: "...e nacmoautee epeu brccnebuzfuz 3aeomoaieunu Focy&apcmaenwux ByMae
ucnbilrtbaem 6ojabUoe sampyOHenue e useomoejlenuu 3HwaKc noimoeoa onnambi..., npuwee
3HaKu 3mu o6xodesmca qpesewuatio dopozo..." ("IIo'rroo-Texerpanmi xKypHan", XN 1,
1918, c. 4). Hcxoam H3 3TOro, HKInIT AonJ1eH 6sm crpoHTb CBOIO 3MHCCHOHHyWo noJmITHry c
y1eToM 3anacoB irorroBrs m MapoK Tex aHm HHmIX HOMBHHaJOB, yme uHMBIIH Me B 331 EHn B
KJaAoBab MapotHoil 3KcneIaBH.
He HMeR B03MO KxOCTHr IpeaBHnerm TeMn HanaBm eltca HH 4JImnIa, HKIFHT A ByM
3aRBKaMH OT 13 arpe.m H 17 anpeJa 1918 rosa 3axa3an B 33rB rpoMazgHue THpaxKH MapOK
HoMHHanamm OT 2 KoiieeK so 10 py6ierf. IIoa 38Ka3 B MocKBy 6~uI omnpaBNaem HMeBmHect
B 33FE 3anacbi. B qacTHocTH, noIroBbix MapOK HOMHHaBIOM 2 KonefltK 6Imo oTnpasBeHo
18000000 3K3., 35 KOITeeK craporo o6pa3a 23300000 3K3., 50 KOreeK 13300000 3K3. B
3afBKe'OT 17 anpeia HKIHl T TaKxe npocan omTycTi~ eMy 50000000 3K3eMirapOB
35 KoneeiH xin H 20000000 70 KOreemixK norITOBInx MapOK HOBoro o6pa3ua. CaenaHmmn
HKRnT B anpejie 1918 roAa 3aKa3 Ha H3roTOBJneHHe 6oJ mmx THpamcefi MapoK HOBOro
o6pa3sa TamKxe noffrepwacTaer, qwo 3rra MaplK 6ISm yrTepIaeHt paHee.
Ho B My3ee CBA3n nMeHH A.C. nonoBa xpaarrca HarjieeHHn e Ha nacnopry o6e
MapKH HOBoro o6pa3na HOMnHajIaMH 35 H 70 KoneeK C noi9ArCBr HapKOMa nHor i
TejierpaqOB B. Hoa6eJmcKoro, yTnepATBmero Hx 22 Mas 1918 roAa, TO ecT 6ojee qeM Ha
Mecai Io3lHee noatH 3aaBKH Ha H3WirTOBjrHHe AiJHH MapOK (pic. 3). CoseBCKOIf BJIaCTH
(TaKIoe KaK BpeMeHmoMy npaBHTenLCTBy B 1917 roay) 6 rUr HymHI CBOH MapKH. Hcxofla H3
cKa3aRHoro Biune, npHxoAmHca CrraTa- rro BTOpHqHoe yTBepaxAenHe o6paf3oB MapOK C
pHcyHKOM "pyKa c MeqOM, pa3py6aiomana x He ", HMejio ejieao BbBeCTN 3TH MapKH H3 pamHa
KpeaTypHt BpeMeHHoro npaBHrenJbcTBa H unpaaTb KM craTyc peBomonHoHHbIX MapOK
coBeTCKOH BJiaCTH.


THE POST-RIDER/ IMII(HK N 58 7
June 2006












-

--








PEc. 3 (par-te"T. YMe"muneno
BHOBi H3rOTOBJIeHHb1e norTOBbe MapKH HOBOro o6pa3ia HOMHHajiOM 35 KIIeeK
Ha1aian nocTynaT B Knaj=oByIo roTOBBix H3AeejnI 33rB c KOHIa aBrycTa 1918 roAa. Jo
B aycKa HX B o6palmeHe norroBoe BeAoMcrTo nonyRnuo 39000000 3K3eMnII poB.
HnoTOBbIe MapKH HOBOro o6pa3ua HOMHHaJIOM 70 KoneeK I1pHHHMamICb KJIaAOBOir rOTOBbIX
H3aejrn~ 33fB c cepeanmm aBrycra 1918 roAa, a pacnopmaeHHe MapoqHof i 3KCnelaIw
HKTHT B cenrN6pe Mecae 6wbo ornpaBneHo 18400000 3K3eMnlapOB.
B nocjieyionie roma MapKH c pHeyHKOM "pyKa C MIqOM, paspy6aroumaq ienb" He
neqaTajmcb, HO HeKOTOpa~ qacTm BbmycKa B Te'eHHe eIe IABX JIeT xpaHacb B 9331E. Bce
KaTaJiorH uIHlUy, HTO THpa8KH IaHHbX MapoK He H3BeCTHb. BHOBb HafeHHAue apxHBHme
AoKyMeRTh nO3BOjInlOT RHa3Bs b HX TO'Hyro nHwpy:
63323000 3K3eMaInu pOB Ian O n OBOirs MapKH HOMHnaaOM 35 KoneeK (B
TOM Hmacje B 1917 rony 31300000 3K3.) H
18959000 3K3eMiuIJpOB 70 KoneeK.
CBeAeHEH no KOJZIIeCTBy H3OsTOBJIeHHB l H IrepefaHnha x noTOBOMy BeflOMTBay
MapOK no roaaM npHBeAemH B Ta6mne No 14.


* B 1918 r. HKTInT noj.nyvun apoK 6oa.me, Rle oTmearauHO B 3TOM rO fy, T.K B
MapoK, H3roToBieamxm B 1917 r.


Hyxa7o Ao6aBHsT, wro npH BbBmo3e B 1921 rory ocTaTKOB MapoHtHotr poEyKur H c
)a6pHnx "3CFO3HA" (TaK B rrO Bpemn Ha3bmasmaac 33FB) B MocKBy 6imo onipaBieHo no


8 THE POST-RIDER/IIMUIK N_ 58
June 2006








600 3K3CeMINmpoB (T.e. no 6 JuIcroB) MapOK HOMHHaiaMH 35 H 70 KoneeK. BH BMO, OHH
xpaHmUHCB, 8Ka o6paanuo, noToMy tro B pacqeT Tapaxa, npenHasaHaeHaoro Ai HKITT, He
BKJJIIOaJHCL.
Bo BCex Kaaiorax An AI AiHHrm MapoK yKa3a o: "neqaTs Tanorpa)cKaa". Ho marae
He rOBOpHTrc, BO CKOTJIKO IIpeMOB BbmOJIHUMacb 3T~a neqaTb. ToqRIx CBeAeHenH 06 3TOM He
Ha#ieHo, HO ,o KOCB HHoIM IIPH3HaKaM MOzHO npegInojioamTrRT, roT MapKH neqaTaiJHC B XABa
HpHeMa. B BeAoMocTH 3HaKOB lnoqrBOi oILaTbi, xpaHaiuxcs B 1921 rony Ha 4a6pmKe
"3COr3HA", CKa3ano5:
norTOBbx MapOK HOBOro o6pasua 1-i neiamori ceraK 3445400
noarOBmx MapoK HOBOro o6pa3na 2-ii neHaTaoi cenrK, roTOBmx, 35K 600
noTroBLX MapoK HOBOrO o6pa3ta 2-i neIarTHo cerTK, rOTOBmX, 70K 600
3zecb BERHO, qTo Anr MapoK npomeminHx TOJlbKO nepByio neqaTHyio cenry, tame
He yKasa3 HoMHmaa, a anm npomeImamx BTOpyio cerKy CTOHT He TOJIbKO HOMHBHaj, HO H CJOBO
"rOTOBbIX".
HeKoTopre KaTraiom yK3BBmaKOT Ha nermpe Tpaxa MapKH X2 1 H ABa THpama
MapKH X2 2. Taxoe yrBepa HeHHe Henj3s crra Tb npaBHJhHIIM. MapKa lOCTOHHCTBrOM
35 KoneeK neqaraTacC MaKCHMmyM B aByx THpaxaax, B 1917 H 1918 roaax. Mapca
AocroHHCTBOM 70 KoneeK neqaTanach OAHHM THpax~oM TOJIbKO B 1918 roxy, upHqeM B
TeqeHme oeHb KopopOToro nIepHnoa BpeeHH. YTBepaemeffe o erempex THpamax nepBor
MapKH H aByx THpaxax BTOpofi MapKH Ba3BaHO HeeKOTOrpMH OTJNIIMHm B pHcyHKax 3THX
MapoK, 3a8HMaIOIHx o01HaKOByio nosq3HHO Ha jicrTax. 3T OTJIHqr a B03HIHKj OTroro, rTO
rnpHxorLHjoc ne'aTaTh 6ojmmoe KOJHieCTBO MapoK eceCAHeBHO (HanpIMep, 2 cerHT6pA
1918 roaa 6bmo nepenano B KnaLoByio rOToBHuX wr3entm 33B FS n neqaToro oTreenem
1300000 3K3eMIuIapOB 35 KoneeaHORi MapKH, 3 ceHTm6ps 800000, 4 ceHra6pa 700000,
5 cenra6pa 1000000 H TA.). AJn exceHen~oro raroToetHHam TaKoro KoHqRecTra MapOK
Heo6xoAJUMO 6u~o neqaraTb ix Ha 3 4 Mammnax. 70 KoneeqHae MapKH caaBajmcb B AeiHb B
cpeAneM no 500000 sK3eiuIapoB; aim Hx neqamraim 6LuHo aocraroio 2 nerHaaH x Maman.
EcTecTseHHo, OTTacKH MapoqHnx JIHCTOB 3aBHce m OT H3rOTOBJIeHHIX AI Ka)1Aofi
neraTnoft MammaHHHI neEaT x d4opM (crepeoTHnoB), KOTopme rMeJ~i Te Iuam Rue pa3JmmlHa,
H oco6emHocTeri HacrpomiKH KamAofi H3 3THX M8IIHH.
C MapKaM H "pyKa c MenoM, pa3py6amomaa Isens" CBa3aH emle O mH, He Ao KoHma
H3yeHHnMi BOnpoc, 3TO AaTa nocrynIIJeHH ax B norrBoe o6pamieme. MapKa
ImmL poBsanocB BanycraTb B o6pamenHe B AefHb nepBori rooBUImHb oicr6pbCCKO
peBomoniHH. PeBomonua npoH3omna B PoccmH 25 oKra6pa 1917 rosa. B 4eBpane 1918 rona
crpaHa nepenuia Ha Trcqer BpeMelH no rpHropranKOMy KajreHaapio, H Tenepl rOAoBinHma
peBomoMu npHxoHmiacb Ha 7 HoA6pa. B Haqane oKra6pa 1918 roAa HapKOM norT i
Tejeerpa4oB B. flo~6ejmCKHmc noArmcani ipKyjapHyro TeaerpaMMy, B KoTopot yca3aj, rro
peBomnoiNommie MapxH AoJDCI nocrynmrr B o6pamenHe 25 OKrT6ps. 11 OKxT6pa
IInoaBJacb HOBaR npKynT Haa TeierpamNa 3a InoIXnHCbO rueHna KOmjuerHH HKIHaT
C. KameHKo. OHa yro~mana, rTO "Hoebue peasooquouHbIe .Maprcu dowCHU nocmynumb
o6paulenue 25 oKma6phA cmapoeo cmuns (arB.: To ec 7 Hoa6pa HOBOrO CTHAJ, no KOTopOMy
B 3TO BpeMa maia Poccis), Kro )no mopwcecme saeoeeaHuu pa6oe-KpecmbAn1Hcofi eacmu".
TeKCT TerlerpaMMM 3a InoW HCBro C. KaneHMKO 6Hn ony6mJKOBaH B cypHajie "OHmiaTeJim
CCCP", X2 11 12, 1968 r., H c 3TorO BpeMeHMH aaToir BLnycKa B noqTOBOe o6paieHnne
peBomoJIoUoHHx IIoqTOB~sa MapoK HOMHHanaMH 35 a 70 KoneeK cquHaeTcZ 7 Hno6pS 1918
rofla. Ho B 3TOM ace HOMepe 3Toro we AypHaja 1. Ma3yp B cTraTe "nepBlM
peBOJounHOHHMM L- nosjBeKa" nnmer, qro Ha 3THX Mapxax "nau6otee pannuat notmoebli
utmemneAb 27 oKmA6pA 1918 eooa. On ecmb u 6 moel KosjneKquu". Ecn 3Tro TaK, TO MapKa
noaBHmncb B noroBso o6paimeHHH Ha 13 Ameti parHme HaMeHnemoro cpoKa, TO ecrb
25 Kira6pa 1918 roaa no HOBOMY CTHaO.


THE POST-RIDER/HMImHK MN 58
June 2006








Kpoe Toro, H3BeerTH, 'ro y KOJLReKIHOHepoB ecTr TH
we mapKH, norametHHae BeCHao im eJeTOM 1918 ro0a; caMoe
paHsee ramemne Ha 70 KoneeqHoiI Mapse 30. XII.1917. He
waBarceb B IIpHIHHM TrKHX rameHHi (onIIMH Ka noOBoro
pa6oTHrKa, dajimnHBi mTeMnenIb H T.n.), HaH6oaee npocro
penmrT Bonpoc Aui 70 ionee'ufMx MapoK. Orm HaJqa
neqaTarabc B 331F TOJIbKO co Bropoi nIOIOBHma aBrycra 1918
SroAa, a BnepBble OTnpaBIeMH B MapoHMayl 3KKneCsnIo HKIIHT
24 ceerri6ps rroro xe roua. To ecrT rameHHa Ha 70 Konee'nHax
MapKax c 6oniee parHeii laroii nHmnorca ne rocroBepHmaM Ha
pHc, 4 MapKH HOMHHaJiOM 70 KoneeK, c KamIeHzapHwM rameHHeM
OT 25.2.18; B 4eBpane 1918 roAa 3THa MapoK eme He
cymeeTBoBano. Caoxamee oensTb noUmanimHnoCr rameHmi BeCHIm
man jiea 1918 rosa Ha MapKax HOMHHaiOM 35 KoneeK, TaK KaK
OHH B OrpOMHOM KOJInHeCTBe HaXOAHMHC B pacnopmIeHnH
Pc. 4 YMeHmneHo HI-HT ywe B 1917 roy. OaHaKO B odHaaHJbHoe nIOroBoe
o6pameaHe OHE nocrynmm BMecTe c 70 KoiieesMHMR MapKaMH H
6onee pammU e rameHma amKoC BIm3bIBaIOT 6oJImoe COMHeHre.
loAwoA wrorr KasaHHOMy B craThe o MapKaX c pHcyHKOM "pyKa c MeqOM,
pa3py6aMonMaa iernb", MO)HIO cAejamT BMBOAM:
unpHopTer B co3anaHH MapOK npHHaawewaT BpeMeHHOMy npaBHRTe CTrBy
Poccmi;
BTopnHoe yTrepx~aeHRe 3TH MapOK HapKOMOM noWrr H TeIerpa4oB
B. f1oa6ejmCKHu nepeasoAHjio HX B pa3spR peBsomonoIHHx coBercKHx MapOK;
BnepBre MapKH HOMHmHanOM 35 KoneeK 3aKam3aH B 33IB BpeMeaHim
npaBrTeJnrCTBM; nonim nonoBHHa HX THpaxa oTnenaTaHa B 1917 roAy;
MapKH HOMHHaaOM 70 KonIeeK BnepBte 3aKa3aHT B 331B BpeMeHmHM
npaBHTeirr cTOM; ax THpax oTneqaTaH nocne BToporo 3aKa3a B 1918 roy;
B TeleHHe 1917 1920 roosB HKUaT rnoaymmi 63323000 3K3eMiun poB
noTOBbIx MapOK HOMHHaJIOM 35 KoneeK H 18959000 3K3eMIuapoB
70 KoneenmBx MapoK.
CTrafa BO MHOrM MeHIerT HnTOpmoH BmycKa MapOK c pHcyHKOM "pyKa C MeqOM,
pa3py6afroIaa ienm" HnommanaMH 35 H 70 KoneeK H Bo3Bpamaer najiy nepseHCTBa B
orTomemne 3THX MapOK BpeMeHHoMy npaBnrTejbcTy Poccna. TaKOBmH DaKT .

1 .ewrrpaJIHb fi rocyapcrBem rm apxis Camer-Herep6ypra (ITA CH6), 4)OH 1255, onMCe 5, A. 39 "KHara
16. nT-HT', jL 8.
2TaM ze, n.52; 4.1255, on. 5, A. 58 "KHmra Mamcrepersa no-T a Teaerpad4o", a 6.
I3 LA Cn6, 4. 1255, on. 3, a. 67 "Knra MX 14. nolrrowoe sHaKH", n. 251, 252, 256.
SB Tra6Jne rcnomaooBaHa cBeaeHRa K13 eJr: IFA CH6, 4. 1255, on. 3, A. 67, 97, 110; 4). 1255, on. 5, z. 39,
58.
5 UIIA CH6, 4. 918, onL 1, a 1089 "O npHmarTm1 3HaKOB noroBoli or ara c 4Sa6pHlK "33ro3a". a. 2
,- *
SPECIAL NOTE:
RUSSIAN WEB SITES & E-MAIL ADDRESSES OF INTEREST
Russian Humour and Satire www.anekdot.ru In Russian
Stars of the White Nights in St. Petersburg www,mariinsky.ru Orchestras, Ballet & Opera May 10 to July 19
Astoria Hotel in St. Petersburg www.toccofortehotels.com
Moldavians in Canada moldovacanadacommunitv(yvahoo.com
Caspian entertainment www.baku.rulcity/toronto In Azerbaijani and Russian
Gray Whales of Sakhalin www.shell.com/alexander Dr. AlexanderRutenko
Peterhof www.peterhof.org Peterhof Palaces
Tsarskoe Selo www.tzar.ru Tsarskoe Selo Palaces


10 TRE POST-RIDER/aMMK N 58
June 2006





SOME COMMENTS TO PHILATELIC SHORTS
by Alexander EpStein.
The Post Rider No. 56

Michael Ercolini
1) Russian "Control" Markings
The following is said about these markings in a detailed paper on the underpaid mail by L. Ratner
("Sovetski Kollektsioner" No. 28, 1991, 45-60):
"Representatives of the postal administration checked periodically the correctness of tariffmg of the
underpaid mail handled at postal establishments. In a number of localities, a special marking was
applied to the mail under control ... These markings were used evidently from the end of the XIXth
century when instructions about the necessity of checking the correctness of postage due were given
for the first time; they are known of different forms and sizes". Three examples of such markings
are illustrated in that paper.
Hereunder are some more examples from my collection:
Origin Destination "Control" type Message status
Riga 11.12.11 Sevastopol' 16.12.11 Circular "CeBacT. IHorr. Ten. KoHTpojn" Unfranked, hence 6
kop to pay applied at
fir Riga
St. Petersburg Simferopol' 20.1.14 2-line "CHMOEPOInOJIb/KOHTPOJIb" Unfranked, hence 6
17.1.14 kop to pay applied at
Fi2. St. Petersburg
Gomel 3 (or 13).8.15 Kherson 14.8.15 2-line "KOHTPOJIb Unfranked, hence 6
AonIJIATHlDCb/XEPCOHh" kop to pay applied in
transit at Zhlobin-
Fig. 3. Vokzal
? written on 25.07.17 Poltava ? Boxed 3-line in Ukrainian (!) Unfranked, to pay 4
"If.IATHIO/fEPEBIPEHO/fIOJITABCK. kop applied at an
S4Oq____T. K-PA" unknown locality


Fit 1. Fin. 2.,


Q@ CARZTE POSTA~LE' .
TOBAR KAPTT0K Y, I







o~~ tu~~Cj L.ef44J,2ne r~ia4 ~ l~1:
:. I 4 _,,_
b~q(~cu y~CI' D74? =
PW D22 .1~


Fig. 3.
F-- ~THE POST-RIDER/IAMIIHK NK 58
June 2006


Fig. 4.







Please note that all these control markings were applied at the place of destination. The last two
examples are of a special interest themselves. The first of them was written at Lokhov, a railway
station east of Warsaw on 25 July 1915. It was just the time of Russian- withdrawal from Poland, so
the card was first handled a few weeks later in Gomel and then taxed in transit at the station of
Zhlobin. The last item is little understandable. Why the text in Ukrainian in 1917? True, one of
three illustrations from Ratner shows a similar marking but from Odessa; however, the year of use
is not indicated (might be from the Soviet period). Besides, the postage due of 4 kop would
correspond to the privileged rate for postcards to army introduced from 1 February. Indeed, the
postcard was addressed to a military school in Poltava, but the privileged rate had been abolished as
early as the end of March of the same year 1917, so the card could be sent free.
2. Postcard variety.
No, the "1" represents no variety: there was no such special issue for Finland. It is merely a sorter's
marking which colour coincided incidentally with that of the postcard itself.
Andrew Cronin Field Post cards to Kuokkala.
Ten days were an average term for the mail from Far East to reach Finland. Thus, if there is actually
a dating error, it can be on the other card (a month is too long if only not an unforeseen obstacle).
Or, maybe, is there 28. VI rather than VII? this would be normal.
The Post Rider No. 57
Raymond Pietruszka. Volga Famine Relief cover (p. 109, Fig. 5)
By January 1922, the foreign letter rate was 5000 r plus 5000 r for registration. 1250 r was the rate
for inland registered letters. Thus, this cover could not pass through the mail officially.
My theory is, if the markings are genuine, that the cover was prepared as some kind of souvenir (i.e.
actually fake), probably, by the TPO clerks for their former colleague in Riga and delivered to him
(if delivered!) privately by another clerk from a Latvian TPO when handed over at Sebezh where
exchange of mail took place. Undoubtedly, many railway post officials were acquainted with each
other when working in these routes in the previous years._
S* _*
I' -- ...... j ....SPECIAL NOTE:


Adrecr idle katre anda
Kohtul
tlci (h.J0n nr...




kordUna%, map ni I
ElrgI. ~~
b5iu Teid I.xII
k'od I T nr, !cu

KohuI pFneb poolkele tite e'1r4.la 1-64
vajhlrIuhd t~endad a%- kIhr, (%'NFSV TsPK
I 68ja 118) : e
V..


paragraphs and an imprint at bottom left
that 20,000 copies of this form were
printed in Tallinn in January 1948. Note
the rate paid: 10 kop. for local delivery
+ 45 kop., presumably for delivery only
to the. addressee. Many thanks are due
to our member Henry Blum, who is
Estonian and who kindly translated the
text. Comments would be appreciated.


kvhu .?I14z


0 ,i ,-C '/, re-7. .
.. ...... ........


A Legal Advice from Estonia.
This Form JN2 8 is in a postcard format
(160x110 mm.) on pale brown paper and
is unusual for the Soviet period as the
text is entirely in Estonian. It was sent
on 25.6.48 to a local resident of PIrnu to
be present at the Civil Court 30th. June.
There is an underlined note at top left
front that this Court Order must be
delivered specifically to the addressee.
There are on the back four legal


.orm nr !
- Iohruk-ute .isi~iih3


Kutse j8rgi mitteilmumise tagajirjed


I Ohe poole 1113eji I'.1 l-:tian minedlmumire, 'Ille k.:,hta .1-ohtle
',on teada, et temple i:.' l-ue I .ie antud, ei t-l.ta al| a'itlmst ega
otsustamist.(VNFSV' TiPK : '--
12. 6,emr pole (h,.eia ia i-ostja-. m-niIlmumiel lira I aijluate
p.shitrEeta I-u. nedlr ei ole saabunud avaldust asija rutiniieks nende arr,
c-lek', lul.atal-e arj arutamine'edasl. 'Kui m."lemad pooled on L,.ilulate
pphjusteta jilnud ilmunmata teistkordse kutse peale, siis teeb kohus maffruse
S.asjs menerld: l.pete a .VNFSV'TsPK Ibb).. '.
3 fl.'.ju Ar te pFbhj4ittei ilmumata jisnud tunnistajat .iJdl.e esime-
Ssel. koral karistada rahatrahyiga, teisel korral manrata ta cunJtormiele }a.
. .ri;:adi rahitr.luiahi kahekordses .suruses (VNFSV TisFK 40).
4. iA:iratndiai (eksperti) v6idakse m6juvate p6hjusirta mitteilmumie
eest karistada kobtu poolt A inrri, irs (VNFSV TsPK 'I I.


S Tsrststrl kk, Tallin 20000 I 4s


12 THE POST-RIDER/ISMIMIK NJ 58
June 2006








Russian foreign letters before 1844
The accountancy with Prussia and The Netherlands

By Erling Berger

In the Post-Rider No 44 (June 1999) there has been published an article dealing with Russian letters
to the whole of Western Europe 1822-1844. The present article is dealing with:
The 1766 Prussian domestic tariff having influence until 1844
Letters sent to England via Holland. The Dutch transit postage was noted in a strange way.
A mysterious 1 gute Groschen postage near Arnhem

Applied currencies
Prussian Groschen (Pr.Gr) or Polish Groschen (Groszy) or Groscher: 90 pieces to a
Thaler. Lit(4). They had a bit higher value (4%) than the
Silver Kopec, 100 pieces to a Rouble.
Kopec Assignat, paper money, which around 1820 had a much lower value typical 25% of
the Silver Kopec
Silver Groschen (Sgr): Prussian currency since 1822 at 30 pieces to a Thaler. The Silver
Groschen was exactly equal to 3 Prussian Groschen.
Gute Groschen (gGr): Prussian currency at 24 pieces to a Thaler. The gute Groschen had a
value 3% lower than 4 Silver Kopecs.

Four Silver Kopecs or four Prussian Groschen are close to one gute Groschen.

Border Postage
The Immersatt border postage of 1%2 Pr.Gr: This was an amount, which Russia paid to Prussia
to compensate the expenses, which Prussia had to maintain the postal road to Russia. This is
described directly in Article VI in the 1821 convention between Prussia and Russia. The same
Article says that "until now" only letters to/from the Baltic were charged at the 1 V2 Pr.Gr border
postage. Yet, in the period 1808-1822 where we don't observe it, Lit (9,10) After 1822 all
Russian/Baltic letters were charged.

At the border between Prussia and the Netherlands we have observed a 1 gGr border postage in
the period 1815-1822. This is a quite new discovery. We must later describe it in detail,

Second Numbers or SN
Redu-SN
At the reverse side of letters to/from Russia; to/from Western Europe sent before 1844 we see a
combination written like this: 347 109%
The "347" is simply a Letter Bill List Number. The other ciphers show us the postage expressed in
Prussian Groschen, Polish Groschen (Groszy), Groscher or Silver Kopecs for the stretch between
Polangen (vis-a-vis Memel) and an office in Western Europe. Per tradition we use the term "Second
Number" or for short SN for this postage

Which one of the units was applied?
Dr. Ivo Steijn has found a Letter Bill List, a Carta from 1679, where Polish Groschen were
applied. Lit (4).
In the 1821 convention Russia/Prussia is laid down that Pr.Gr should be used for
accountancy. This might indicate that the Second Numbers found on mail 1822 44 were in


THE POST-RIDER/IHMIIHK N 58
June 2006








Pr.Gr and not in Silver Kopecs. The Prussian 1822 tariff for Russian letters- listed in Table
1 is noted in Pr.Gr. It is of very little importance which currency was used.
SIn the 1790 Moscow Taksa we can see that the foreign share is claimed in Silver Kopecs.
For the stretch through Prussia to Emmerich for which the Prussian domestic postage was
11 gGr the Russian postal Service claimed 44 Silver Kopecs from the Russian
correspondents or 4 Silver Kopecs per full gGr. This would not be enough to cover an
eventual Prussian claim of 4 Pr.Gr per gGr. From this we learn that the SN around 1790 was
expressed in Silver Kopecs.

The term of Second Number, SN, is very handy to use, so we shall apply it in the rest of this article.
I now introduce a new term: The Redu-SN, which is the SN, but the 12 Immersatt border postage
(if any) has been subtracted.


The main objective of the article:
We shall try to prove that for letters paid in Russia to/from Western Europe before
1844 there existed the fixed relation of 4.00 between the Redu-SN and the postage for
the Prussian inland stretch in expressed in gute Groschen.

We shall try reconstructing the 1766 Prussian tariff for Memel.

These ideas were introduced in Lit (4) where the two authors W.J. de Jongh and I.J. Steijn are
recommending a careful checking

Known tariffs
Russian tariffs
The 1790 Moscow Taksa in Silver Kopecs valid also for foreign destinations. Lit (2)
The 1816 Finland Foreign Taksa. Lit (3)
The 1822 Memel Taksa for foreign destinations expressed in Kopecs Assignat. Lit (3)
The 1840 St.Petersburg tariff for foreign destinations expressed in Kopecs Assignat. Lit (6).
Here we find regulations for franking to a few destinations, which are not listed in the 1822
Memel Taksa, for example to England, Denmark and Switzerland.
Prussian tariffs both valid until 1844 Lit (5)
The 1822 tariff for mail from Russia expressed in Prussian Groschen
The 1825 tariff for mail to Russia expressed in Silver Groschen. The 1825 tariff was used
for letters paid in Prussia; the 1822 tariff for letters paid in Russia.
Netherlands tariff
The 1817 tariff to all Prussian destinations from Emmerich, Cleve, Aachen & Trier

In Lit (1) we can read that the Prussian Postal Service used Silbergroschen as early as from 1822.
Here I must add that the Silbergroschen could not in general be introduced at once for mail that
needed accountancy with neighbour states. The Prussian Circular C48 shows that as late as 1.1.1825
Prussia still used the former tariffs [in gGr and Pr.Gr, my remark] for settlement with other states,
for example with Th.u.Taxis (a German Post organisation), The Netherlands and Russia.


We shall try reconstructing the 1766 Prussian tariff for MemeL

The Prussian inland tariff was changed in 1712, 1766, 1822 and 1824.


THE POST-RIDER/EIMHIHKJRN 58
June 2006








There was a small change in 1822, but this was merely an introduction of the Silbergroschen where
the new postage was found by multiplying the old "gute Groschen" values by 1.25. Then followed a
rounding up to the nearest /2 Sgr.

Example: Memel Berlin
1766 tariff: 8 gute Groschen
1822 tariff: 8 x 1.25 = 10 Silbergroschen

Table 1 shows two tariffs
1. The left tariff is the amount, which Russia had to pay to (settle with) Prussia for a franked
letter sent from Russia to Prussia or an unfranked in the opposite direction. Example: For a
franked letter from Riga to Berlin: Russia will pay (reimburse) 33% Pr.Gr. to Prussia
2. The right column shows the amount that the Russian sender shall prepay for the stretch from
the Russian border office of Polangen to the destination in Prussia. Example: For a franked
letter from St.Petersburg to Berlin: The sender pays 66 down to Polangen plus 201 Kopecs
Assignat for Polangen Berlin

The offices in Table 1 are selected:
From the bigger offices to avoid the extra payment from a smaller office to a bigger one.
So the offices form a East-West straight line
So we in the 1790 Moscow Tariff find as many of the same Prussian destinations as
possible.


Von und nach 1822 1822
Fiir franco-Correspondenz nach Memel Taksa
und fur Porto-Correspondenz aus (Russisch)
Russland
Per Memel
Per Memel Pr.Gr. Kopecs Assignat
Memel 1%' 9
Konigsberg (Pr) 13% 81
Elbing 15/% 93
Danzig 19% 117
Stettin 27% 165
Demmin 31 189
Berlin 33 2201
Baruth 37% 225
Wittenberg 39/2228
Hamburg 41% 240
Magdeburg 411% 249
Halberstadt 41% 249
Minden 43/% 261
Wesel 45% 273
Emmerich 45% 273
Elten & Sevenaer 47%2 285
Arnheim & Cleve 49% 297

Koln 49%1 297
Aachen 51'/2 309
Table 1 Original data


THE POST-RIDERI/MIIHmK 58 15
June 2006








For postage calculated from Memel.
We subtract the border tax of 1 Prussian Groschen / 9 Kopecs Assignat
The inserted 1790 Moscow Taksa consists of original data.
Von und nach 1822 1822 1790
Fiur franco- Memel Taksa Moscow Taksa
Correspondenz nach (Russisch) (Russisch)
und fur Porto-
Correspondenz aus
Russland
Preuss. Gr. Kopecs Silver Kopecs
Assignat
Memel 0 0 0
Konigsberg (Pr) 12 72
Elbing 14 84
Danzig 18 108 18
Stettin 26 156
Demmin 30 180 30
Berlin 32 192 32
Baruth 36 216 36'
Wittenberg 38 228 38
Hamburg 40 240 40
Magdeburg 40 240 40
Halberstadt 40 240
Minden 42 252
Wesel 44 264 44
Emmerich 44 264 44
Elten & Sevenaer 46 276
(Zevenaar)
Amheim & Cleve 48 288

KOln 48 288
Aachen 50 300
"" '" ^"


Table 2. Known examples ot"franco Barutl" always have "3S" (Into given by Ur. LvoSteijnU
We see that we can obtain the amounts in column nr 2 by multiplying the numbers on the left by six.

Example: Memel- Magdeburg
The left column shows 40
The column nr 2 shows 240, which equals 6 x 40

This is very useful, because the Russian 1822 Memel Taxe shows the postage to the most of
Western Europe.

I believe that we are close to the Prussian 1766 tariff for Memel. Lit. (1) Page 757 gives these 1766
values: 1 1/ 2 21/2 3 4 5 5/2 8 gute Groschen.

Based on these values:
We now pose the theory that the 1766 tariff was made of steps of /2 gute Groschen

We shall now concentrate on the left column in Table 2. The currency is Prussian Groschen: 90
pieces to the Prussian thaler.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIUHK N_ 58
June 2006










An amount from Russia to Prussia of... .....is close to..... ...and is exactly
4 Silver Kopecs 1 gute Groschen 1.034 gute Groschen
2 Silver Kopecs 2 gute Groschen 0.517 gute Groschen
When Russia paid an amount of 4 Silver Kopecs to Prussia
this equalled 1 gute Groschen plus 3.4%.
We do not know if Russia paid in gGr or in Silver Kopecs.

An amount from Russia to Prussia of..... .....is close to..... ...and is exactly
4 Prussian Groschen 1 gute Groschen 1.067 gute Groschen
2 Prussian Groschen V2 gte Groschen 0.533 gute Groschen
When Prussia received an amount of 4 Preuss.Groschen from
Russia this equalled 1 gute Groschen plus 6.7 %

In connection with the fact that the 1766 tariff has steps of /2 and 1 gute Groschen we can calculate
the 1766 tariff by dividing the values in the left column of Table 2 by four. Here we must consider
What did Prussia want? Should Russia pay more, less or the same as the Prussian inhabitants did for
a certain stretch inside Prussia? Prussia would ask to have more or the same. The Russians using the
Prussian Groschen could not pay exactly in steps of one (or a half) gute Groschen, but if they paid
by 4 Prussian Groschen per gute Groschen then the Russians paid a little too much (6.7%). We still
do not know for sure in which currency the SN was written

For letters born in Memel.
Von und nach 1822 Confirmed in Lit Confirmed
(1) By
Now in gute Figure....
Groschen
Memel 0
Konigsberg (Pr) 3
Elbing 3V2
Danzig 44/
Stettin 6V/
Demmin 7V2_
Berlin 8 8 guteGr
Baruth 9
Wittenberg 9/2
Hamburg 10
Magdeburg 10
Halberstadt 10
Minden 10'/2
Wesel 11
Emmerich 11
Elten & Sevenaer 11 V
Arnheim & Cleve 12 Figure 1

K61n 12
Aachen 12V/2 Figure 2
Table 3

We must remember that Minden, Koln and Aachen were outside Prussia before 1815.


THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK NK 58
June 2006









We see a perfect match for Memel-Berlin in Table 3
Table 3 shows 8 gGr for Memel-Berlin
H von Stephan in Lit (1) gives 8gGr for Memel-Berlin

We see a perfect match for Memel-Berlin in Table 2
Table 2, Column 1 shows 32 Pr.Gr. for the stretch Memel-Berlin, which has the confirmed
postage of 8gGr. So the "32" Pr.Gr. is a symbol of the actual postage: We just have to divide
the "32" Pr.Gr by four. H von Stephan Lit (1) gives 8gGr for Memel-Berlin.
Table 2, Column 3 shows 32 Silver Kopecs for the stretch Memel-Berlin, which has the
confirmed postage of 8gGr. So the "32" Silver Kopecs is a symbol of the actual postage: We
just have to divide the "32" Silver Kopecs by four.

We see nine perfect matches for nine Prussian offices from Memel in Table 2
Table 2, Column 3 shows the postage for the stretches from Memel to nine different'
Prussian destinations. So the nine values in Silver Kopecs are symbols of the actual postage:
We just have to divide the values in Silverkopecs by four.

Figure 1 shows a "12", which must be the postage in gGr for Memel-Arnhem
Figure 2 shows indirectly a "12%", which must be the postage in gGr for Memel-Aachen


Conclusion:
Table 3 must be the 1766 tariff for MemeL
If we have the Redu-SN then we can find the original number of gute Groschen by
dividing the Redu-SN by four

We see a peculiar thing in Table 3 when we are approaching Amhem from the East. After we have
passed Emmerich (border office vis-t-vis Amhem) we see that the postage has increased by one
gGr when we reach Amhem.

Finland was under Russian regime 1809-1917. We have checked if the 1816 Tariff from Finland to
foreign destinations via Memel is of any help in reconstructing the 1766 Prussian tariff. The
conclusion is that we can't find any useful info from the 1816 Finland Tariff










For a beginning let us consider a fine example. (Oddbjrn Solli Collection)







18 THE POST-RIDER/HMIHK NK 58
June 2006














*; .. ^/f: -^'7




S/ ;r5- ^^ .^^^*
^ ^ :-^ -^ .. Y .% i_ .- ". .-
W








Franco tout RIGA
FRANCO MEMEL
14.APR
de Heeren
PLoopuyt & Co te
Schiedam
22/3
12

50-60'/2



Figure 1. 1825 Riga (Russia) Schiedam (Holland) via Prussia
The Netherlands share is 2% gute Groschen, so the 12 must be the Prussian inland share: Memel-
Netherlands Border.
On the reverse side we see
The 50 is the Letter Bill Number
We see the SN of 60% Prussian Groschen, which covers:
Immersatt border postage: 11/2 Pr.Gr.
Memel-Arnhem: 48 Pr.Gr. or 12 gGr
Dutch postage: 4 Stuivers or 11 Pr.Gr. or2% gGr
We see the "factor 4" between the Redu-SN and the total amount in gute Groschen



We now move to the period from 1815 to April 1822 a time when no Immersatt border postage
was claimed.


THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHK N 58
June 2006


























rzgure A. 03.rctcrswurg AVu.Auc.IoI -vcrvIcrs oDcig"uwiJ. riauKicu tu iawIumc. 172 jL.tc
Redu-SN = SN = 75, Prussian share 18 % gGr
Again we see the "factor 4" between the Redu-SN and the amount in gute Groschen
We reduce the postage to a single letter:
18 /4 turns into 121 gute Groschen
75 turns into 50 Prussian Groschen
Border mark: MEMEL 8 JANR (1822)
Struck in Aachen: FRANCO GRAENZE
Border mark: HENRI CHAPELLE (Belgium)
We conclude: The stretch Memel-Aachen has the postage of 12% gGr. The 1817 tariff annexed to
the convention Netherlands/Prussia confirms this: Across Prussia from Aachen to Memel has the
postage of 121/2 gGr

We now turn to the notes, which James Van der Linden wrote in 1989 in Lit (7). From the period
1818-1821 he gives nine examples from the Baltic and Russia all of which have the Redu-SN of 50.
Out of the nine examples two letters are heavy: A double letter and a 2'/2 Letter

The double letter shows Front 25 (gGr) Rear: Redu-SN 100
The 2/ letter shows Front 37 (gGr) Rear: Redu-SN 125

Again we observe the relation: The Redu-SN divided by four gives the Prussian postage in gGr


THE POST-RIDER/HMII(HK N2 58
June 2006






































Figure 3.1821 Libau (Baltic) Schiedam (Holland) via Prussia
Sent outside the Post to Memel where it was posted March 10t 1821 by C.W.H. Neumann
We see 12 gute Groschen (see Figure 1). This must be the Prussian inland share: Memel-
Netherlands Border (Amheim). The 1817 tariff annexed to the convention Netherlands/Prussia
confirms this: Across Prussia has the postage of 12 gGr.

Origin mark: MEMEL 10 MARTS (1821)
Struck in Emmerich: FRANCO GRAENZE (Franco Border)
Border mark: .....Arnhem

Surprisingly we see an extra 1 gute Groschen, which we did not see in Figure 2 for Aachen.
We must conclude that Prussia in this special case claimed an extra gute Groschen from the sender.
We now must turn to the notes, which James Van der Linden wrote in 1989 Lit (7). From the period
1817-1821 he gives 7 examples from the Baltic and Russia all of which have the Redu-SN of 52.

Again we observe the relation: The Redu-SN divided by four gives the Prussian postage in gGr

The extra 1-gGr on the Netherlands border by Arnhem have been observed 1817-1821

This extra gute Groschen is a big help in understanding the next letter in Figure 4, which is taken
from an eBay auction Dec. 2005


THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHK h_ 58
June 2006

























f 3/12


Figure 4 1824 Russia Manchester via Holland (taken from an eBay internet auction)
We see 12 gute Groschen (see Figure 1). This must be the Prussian inland share: Memel-
Netherlands Border (Arnheim). The Netherlands transit was 2 gGr (3 Stuivers) as laid down in the
1817 convention Netherlands/Prussia, but we see a "3". The question is: Is the "3" expressed in gGr
or in Stuivers?

Here we will turn to the reverse side that shows a SN of 61 V2 or a Redu-SN of 60. We divide the 60
by 4 and get 15 gGr. The "3" is therefore expressed in gGr. Figure 5 gives an even better
explanation.




Literature
1. H von Stephan: "Geschichte der Preussischen Post", Berlin 1859
2. W.J. de Jongh: "The Moscow Taksa 1783"; The British Journal of Russian Philately Nr 81
3. Esa Mattila: "Suomen Postimaksuja 1810-1875" Espoo 1994
4. WJ. de Jongh & I.J. Steijn: "Russian mail to the West, 1693-1843"; The British Journal of
Russian Philately Nr 75
5. Prussian Circular Nr. 31 of 1837. Here all valid tariffs were gathered.
6. Fred Goatcher in "Postal history" No 263 page 86
7. James Van der Linden in "Postgeschichte" nr.38 page 4
8. W.J. de Jongh "The two-number code on Russian Mail to the West, 1822-1843"; The British
Journal of Russian Philately Nr 69
9. W.J. de Jongh "The two-number code on Russian Mail to the West"; The British Journal of
Russian Philately Nr 72. The important time-table is corrected in:
10. The British Journal of Russian Philately Nr 74


THE POST-RIDER/HJMIIIK N" 58
June 2006




















"" -- .
(2 '


'.:-" :S.%--: I- : -'-- "
-Q. .. 1





tN
_-"-^*.Oy l -" -. .-, ..y : -.- ^--

f': : :.;.'- :--t:-^-.".'"-. i" .-.' : : -: ,, :
'. .- :. "-' w1^ -" "- -:: -i ;-=


i -
s',_


-, ". -. .-
t -- -





^^-f i: :


-' t, 4*t
.g t





r
-_. -_






7)7


'L --- -_ -
;-- :.... L "
" 4 '.": -,.;-:--. .-; ._


f4'/


The lower part of the figure is an enlargement of the lower left corner showing 4% where the "f'is short

Figure 5. 1826 Riga-London via Amsterdam. Heavy letter: 1% Letter.
(Oddbjom Solli Collection)
SN is 92 /4; Redu-SN is 90
The Prussian share up to the Netherlands border
(1 /x 12) is omitted 18gGr
Netherlands transit 4 /2Gr
Total 22/2 gGr (4 x 22 equals 90)

A member of the DASV has objected to this. He claims that the 4 are in Stuivers, because the
Netherlands transit for a single letter is 3 Stuivers. For a 1-letter then: 4/2 Stuivers. An
eventual Netherlands share in Stuivers would be in whole numbers never containing a fraction,
so the 4 cannot be in Stuivers,


THE POST-RIDER/JMIIHIK JN 58
June 2006


W. --s.- Will Wo. 100015blaw


-- ---- s ^ r --------- --- __ -. ------- -f








Furthermore the rule of"we can find the original number of gute Groschen by dividing the
Redu-SN by four" again denies the theory that the 42 might be in Stuivers.

For a single letter Prussia since 1815 claimed an extra gGr from Russia, in total 3 gGr, passing
only 2 gGr to the Netherlands.


Discussion of the 1-gGr border postage for letters crossing the
Prussian/Netherlands border at Arnhem:

In the period 1815-1822 we see the Redu-SN of 52 on Russian letters sent prepaid FRANCO
GRAENZE to The Netherlands. The "52" Silver Kopecs/Pr.Gr. is equal to 13 gGr: 1 gGr more
than the 12 gGr postage to Amhem. The Figure 3 confirms the existence of the extra IgGr even
if this particular letter was posted in Memel and not in Russia.

The mysterious 1-gGr postage can possibly be recognized via the Russian letters to England
being sent "Franco the Netherlands Coast". It is laid down in the 1817 Netherlands/Prussia
convention that the Netherlands transit was 2 gGr (Valid until 1826)

This 2-gGr-transit rate can be found in the Prussian 1766 tariff in Lit (1) and in the Moscow
1790 tariff in Lit (2). Yet, for letters to England we see the Redu-SN of 60 both in 1821 and
after 1822. This indicates the postage of 15 gGr. Moreover we see the inscription f3/12 pointing
at 12 gGr to Arnhem and 3 gGr for transit Netherlands. Here we must confront ourselves by the
fact that the Netherlands transit per convention is limited to 2 gGr. Could it be the mysterious 1-
gGr that still can be found here?

The Netherlands had in those days no official parcel post. The canals were full of boats being
willing to perform this service. Prussia and Russia had well established parcel posts. Prussia
was allowed to erect a parcel post office in Amhem (Netherlands). I believe it happened around
1817. A new Prussian office at Netherlands grounds may have confused the Prussian postmen.
Another reason for confusion is that Prussia in 1807 by the emperor Napoleon was pushed
backwards behind the River Elbe. In 1815 Prussia should establish in short time the old postal
routes towards the west The mysterious 1-gGr may have arisen from this confusion.

I have gathered useful information to this article from Dr. Ivo Steijn, Oddbjom Solli and J.Chr.Lei
for which I express my gratitude.
*
SPECIAL NOTE: ..ww.www.



Recent I 0O in r
Cherrystone
Auction
Realizations.

See also p. 93.

/AAUA4A' Rf:Dn;


Center Inverted, cat. $9,000; 5r Wide 5" variety, cat. $5,000;
realized $88,000 realized $30.800


THE POST-RIDER/ SIMMlHK N_ 58
June 2006


Cat. $20,000; realized $23,650
Inverted Overprint


* *


-III









News about
The mysterious 1-gGr postage
Prussian Parcel-Post at Netherlands Grounds
By Erling Berger

Around my article: "Russian foreign letters before 1844 / The accountancy with Prussia and
The Netherlands" it has been possible to find additional information on the subjects.

The mysterious 1-gGr postage.

Important information has been found in the 1814 Convention between Prussia and Netherlands. In
those days the political situation in Europe was awaiting the decisions of the Vienna Congress.
Between Netherlands and Prussia the geographic facts were like this near the Prussian office of
Emmerich.

Arnhem Huissen Zevenaer Elten Emmerich
0 0--0 0-O 0

In 1814 Prussia erected Post offices in all these towns, even an office in Arnhem (a parcel-post
office); and it was Prussia that performed the transportation with their horses and wagons.

Article 10: For letters to Great Britain: Prussia must pay three Stuivers for Netherlands transit
(exactly two gute Groschen). The Netherlands border office at the coast is Brielle. .

Article 14 says that a local letter between Amhem and Emmerich shall be taxed by two Stuivers.
This equals 1.33 gute Groschen (gGr).

In those days there was no postal convention between Prussia and Russia, but we guess that the
necessary agreements were made up between the postmasters in Memel and Polangen. (We know
that agreements must have existed, because prepayment of international mails was possible)

Since 1766 Russian letters to Holland had to be prepaid by 11 gGr for Memel-Emmerich, and I
mean that this postage 1814 became valid again after the Napoleonic Confusion. In article 14 (see
above) we observe for Emmerich-Arhem the postage of 1.33 gute Groschen. This gives a total of
12.33 gGr up to Arnhem and I will later on prove that Prussia rounded up and claimed 13 gGr from
Russia and even from the Prussian correspondents.

In 1817 the United Netherlands and Prussia made up a convention that introduced more normal
relations on the border. The total prepaid postage between the two parties had two shares:
Prussian inland postage to/from Emmerich. Memel-Emmerich 12 gGr
Netherlands inland postage from/to Arnhem. For Arnhem proper: 1 Stuiver (0.67gGr)
The earlier postage (1.33gGr) for Emmerich-Anhem was now split up and distributed between the
two parties. Now there was claimed no postage for the stretch Emmerich-Arnhem. Letters to Great
Britain still have a Netherlands transit postage of 2 gGr








THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHIK MN 58 25
June 2006









We have two indications that Memel-Arnhem had the postage of 13 gGr before 1822:
On the rear of Russian letters to the Netherlands sent Franco Netherlands border (to
Amhem) is written "52" Silver Kopecs which is very close to 13 gGr.
A letter posted 1821 in Memel proper had a note in the lower left corer: "1 / 12". This
must consist of 12 gGr up to Emmerich. The Netherlands share is noted as "l"gGr, which
legally could be settled with the Netherlands by one Stuiver. Here I must emphasize that Ivo
Steyn helped me a while ago suggesting that the "1" must be a foreign share.

Mails 1817-1843 from Russia to Great Britain. We add these shares:
Memel-Emmerich 12gGr
Amhem proper 1 Stuiver, 0.67gGr
Netherlands transit, 3 Stuivers 2.00gGr
In total 14.67 gGr, which Prussia rounded up to 15 gGr of which 2.67 gGr is for the Netherlands.

We have two indications that Memel NL coast had the postage of 15 gGr before 1844:
On the rear of Russian letters to the Great Britain is written "61 /2" Silver Kopecs. We
subtract the 11/ Immersatt border postage and find 60, which is very close to 15 gGr. Before
1822 we also see "60", from the time when no Immersatt postage was levied.
On the front we see "3 / 12" of which 12gGr as above is the Prussian share. The Netherlands
share is noted as "3" gute Groschen, which legally could be settled with the Netherlands by
three Stuivers (2.67 gGr).

As a strange coincidence the foreign shares beyond Prussia: The "1" and the "3" may be regarded
as both in Stuivers and gGr.

Prussian Parcel Post at Netherlands Grounds.

In a 9-page, article Deutsche Postagenturen in den Niederlanden in the Swiss journal
"Postgeschichte' C.Muys writes that in 1814 Prussia was allowed to erect a parcel post office in the
Netherlands town of Amhem.
* *
SPECIAL NOTE:
"Kazpost" at "Washington 2006".-

You can buy these postage stamps in our
internet shop: http://eshop.kazpost.kz
by credit card











The young Kazakh lady JSC "Kazpost", 152 Bogenbay batyr Street, Almaty 050012,
was also fluent in Russian! Republic of Kazakhstan. Tel. (3272) 793448, Fax (3272) 790944.
E-mail: philatelyv uzpoo.kazpost. http.//www.kazpost.kz.
26 THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHK N- 58
June 2006






JI. PaTHep L. Ratner
CaarT-neTep6ypr, PoccM St-Petersburg, Russia

BhIIYCK H IIPHMEHEHHE B POCCHH B 1915 -1919 TFOAAX
PA3MEHHbIX AEHESKH2 IX 3HAKOB B BIIHE IOBEHIEflHMIX MAPOK.
("The issue and usage in Russia in 1915-1919 of Currency Exchange Tokens in the form of Jubilee Sramps".
by L.G. Ratner. The English translation will follow in "The Post-Rider", No 59)
OGasCHaa nomaeanme B PocCHH B 1915 roay 6yMaxamx cypporaTOB Meagoii H
cepe6psHoi MOneTbI KoneemHbx AOCTOHHCTB (pa3MeHHoAi MoHeTI), Ynpamannoni~m
3KcneaIIHHei 3aroToBJeHHll FocygapcTBemHix ByMar (33rB) H. TaBHmaapoB incai:
"Bcjiecmeue 6blcmpozo ucre3Hoeenu Ha pbiHKe cepe6pRmoi u meHnoU pa3Menuou Monembl
npaeumejibcmeo 6bmycyaceno 6bUO ebinycmumb e o6pautenue 6ymaicmble mnameoiCHble 3HaKU
deyx munoe Ka3siaeHcKue SnaKU (6o0bl) e 1, 2, 3, 5 u 50 KoneeK Ha 6yMaze c 6obdHbUWU
s3aKaMU upa3MeHHbie MapKU, o6pa3ya io6wuefuiHbx noMmo0bx MapoK... 6 10, 15 u 20 KoneeK
Ha 6onee npouwoi 6yMaze".
Cseaeami o 6yMaxamx AeHexanmx 3HnaKa B BHAe ioGieMmixHH MapOK B
Q4HjiaTeJHcTnHecKofi nHrepaType Mano. HeKoTpyo opyo HH4)pMamHo o HHX MOmO HairI nm
B KJIaccHReCKoii CTaTe B. KaMmcKOro "HOqTOBHe TapHnd BI AopeBOJMOHOHHOii POCCHH"
(c6opHHK "CoBeTCKHil KOJUieKI~oHep", N 27, 1989 r.). Ho apxHBume AOKyMeHTHt,
HCnOJnI3OBaHHIe B cTaTe no AaHHOa i TeMe, saKaRHIHBaIOTCa HnaraIM 1917 roaa. 3TO TOJIBKO
nepsa IonoIOBHHa HCTOPHH BbmycKa. KpoMe Toro, OKa3ajiocb 3a6aTHM, wrro B. KaMnmCKH~
na3ssaeT TOrHyIO aaTy H3roToBaeHHI pa3MenHHAx MapoK-geHer 1, 2 H 3 KonefiHK 1915 roA.
KaTanorn no-npex)aHey OTHOCTr HX THpaac K 1916 roay. H T.n.
HaHMenoBanHH 6yMaxacmx nIaTeam, x 3aaKOB Konee9HhMx AOCTOHHCTB B 1915 -
1919 roaax OTjnaajnmci OT HaHMeHoBauIi, HCnojnT3yeMax B HacToamee BpeMA. BmnycK,
Ha3bIBaeMmbIi cefqac "MapKH-eeHbrH", HMeJi B TO BpeMaI MHorO HasBamHH, HaHGo3nee TOHOoe H3
KOTOpLx "pa3MeHHme AeHexamme 3HaKH B BHnae o6nueiemHIX MapOK". B CTraTe BLnycKH
Ha3bIBaIOTCH TaK, KaK OHH same BCero HMeHOBajIHC B O(HIHagIbHbIX AOKyMeHTaX Tex JeT:
MapKH-geHbrH "pa3MenHHe MapKH", a 6yMaxamue aeHex~a e 3HaKH (6oHm) "pa3MeHHMIe
Ka3HareficKHe 3HaKH".
Hcnoj msoBaHHIe B aaHHOH cTaTbe apxHBHIe AeOKyMeHTI 33rB, MnHHCTepCTBa
(HHIaHcOB, Focy.apcTBeHHoro BaHKa PoccHa H EjaBHoro YnpaBaieHHa nowr H TeJIerpa4oB
(FYIIHT) no3BojiomoT AaTr AocTaTOTHO TOIHoe onHcaHHe BLmycKa H npHMeeHHaC B 1915 -
1919 roAax pa3MeHmix MapoK, lorKa3aT, HX npaBo npmHMeHarr a B noTOBMX gejIsx,
ycTpaHHT HMeBsnmecI HeTosHocTH. 3aKOHHmocT HCnoJO30BaHHSI 3THX MapOK B nIOTOBOM
o6pamnemm 6yeT noiasana RmExe.
Be3ycJoBHO, .III 4)rHJaTeJIHCToB npaKTirrecKHi HnHTepec HMeIOT pa3MeHnIe MapKH,
daKTHRecKH npomeAmHne norry, a TaKme 11noaOBbe oTnpam eHHas c TaKHMH MapKaMH. Ho
o6SuIe CBeAeHmu no HCTOpHH HX BImycKa MOryT npeAcTaBJIiTb HTrrepec ATi Bcex.
Pa3MeHHme MapKH H3roTaBJIHBaJIHC H upnHMeHaUmHCB OHOBpeMeHHO C pa3MeHHBIMH
Ka3HaweIicKHMH 3HaKaMH (6oHaMH), H nHOIIHOCTbIO OTAeJmTb HX pyr OT apyra Hejnb3A.
o03TOMy B cTaTbe AaaH HneKOTopue caeaeHHn o pa3MeHHnMX Ka3HaneiicKHX 3HaKax.
3aKa3bI Ha IIOAroTOBKy IpOeKTOB H BbImycK AeHexKHOfi MacCm 33rB noJIyaJiaa OT
Oco6eHHoi KanHgeJipHH no KpeAoHTHO qTacTH MaHHCTepcTBa 4HHaHcOB (Aanee TOJIBKO
MHHHCTepCTBa 4HnHacoB) HuI OT FocyzapcTBeHHoro BanKa PoccHH, KOTOp~ii B 3TOM cjnyae
ccBunacS Ha cooTBeTcTByionmee pacnoparmeHHe MHHHCTepCTBa 4HHaHcoB.
IIogroTOBHTIremHue pa6omTb no H3roTOBJIeHmIo pa3MeHHbi Mapox H pa3MeHHbix
Ka3HaqeficKHx 3HaKOB Haqaj9Icb B 33FB 1 ceHTrs6p 1915 roga noa pyKOBOACTBOM cTapmero
xyAoxaHHKa no xygomaecTBeHHo rpa4bnaecKOi qacTH P. 3appHiH ma.
B Haaiane ceHrra6ps B mHacTepcTBe QbHHancoB He 6 uio elHHoro MHeHHa o TOM, qeM
H B KaKHx nponopnIUx BOcHOJIHmIT HexBaTKy MeAHUx H cepe6paHmix MOHeT KOIIeemHbX
ocToHHcTB. B 3TH mI 33rB noinymana 3aKa3bI Ha noAOTOBKy npoeKToB KaK pa3MeHHw I
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N 58 27
June 2006







MapOK HOMHHaJOM 10, 15, 20 H 50 KOneeK, TaK H pa3MeHHHIX Ka3HRae'iCKHX 3HaKOB 5, 10, 15,
20 H 50-TH KoneeiHoro gocTOHHcTBa.
MapKH Ain BnIycKa B KaqecTBe pasMenHHx AeHer G6bmI Bb6pamHb no npinmne HX
He6oJmmoro popMaTa. Bjarogapa 3TOMy, 3KCnIIeeHIIH Moria neq9aaTa MapKH B 3HaRHTreJIHO
6onmmeM KoJLm ecTBe, HeM 60Hbi TorO we AOCTOHHCTBa (H, CJIeAOBaTeJIhHo, Ha 6oJnimyio
cyMMy). Ce6ecToHMocTb pa3MeHHbx MapOK 6iuIa HaMHoro HHKe, qeM pa3MeMHnx
Ka3HateficKHx 3HaKOB: no LeHaM HImoH 1919 roaa 1000 3K3eMluipOBB MapOK 10, 15 mm 20-TH
KoneewHoro AocTOHHCTBa o6xoHrJelCb 3KcneAkHIHH B 36 KoneeK, 1 H 2-x KoneeqHHlx -38
KoneeK; TaKoe wKe KoJ~ecTBO 50-TH KoneeIHMX 60H B 35 py6nefi. MapoHirie npoeKTb
inaTec)KHIx 3HaKOB rOTOBHJIHCb C HCIIOJI30BaHHeM io6HIieiHbMi MapoK, BbimyHeHHbX K 300-
JIeTmo AoMa PoMaHOBbIX. OHH GuIM HaH6ojiee yfo6Horo pa3Mepa H, rmaBHoe, B 3313 no
3saaBIeHHHIM HOMHHaJIaM HMeJIHcb roTOBle KOMIIeKThI CTepeoTHnoB 3THX MapOK no 100
3K3eMIJInpOB Ha JHCT, qTO pe3KO coKpaimaJIo BpeMs nI1ArOTOBKH K BLmyCKy.
HI3roTOBJneHe pa3MeHnix MapOK HOMHHaIOM 10, 15 H 20 KoneeK (PHC. 1-3)
Haqnaocb B cepemHHe ceHTA6pS 1915 r. Ha o6opoTe 3THX MapOK neHaTanca yrsepcAeHHnfi
MHHHCTepCTBOM @HHaHCOB TeKCT (pHC. 4). Pa3Mep HapyKHoHi paMKH o6opomHOTI CTOpOHm
pa3MeHHbix MapOK B 10, 15 H 20 KoneeK 20 x 26 MM. B nocaeCHHe mm CeHTa6pS Ha'anacb
nepegaaa pa3MeHHbix MapOK 10, 15 H 20-TH KoneeHmoro AOCTOHHCTBa H3 33rB B
FocynapcTBeHHMn i BaHK. 30 ceHTA6ps 1915 roAa raseTa "IIpaBHTenicTBeHHCmi BecTmHK"
coo6nnma o nocTynimeHan aHnHix MapOK B eHeCKHoe o6panieHHe.





SMapOK HO MHHoe-
-. -- ------ ---T ---




B 3TWO wc BpeM51 B 3KcnexjnwHI rOTOBHJMICB o6pa3mbI Pa3MCHHbix MapOK HoMHHajIoM
1, 2 H 3 KoneiiKH. 12 oKTar6pA 1915 roAa yTBepxcKeHHue pHcyHKEH KJIHIe ImeBOi H
o6opoTHoiA CTOpOH MapOK (pHc. 5 8) 6UIH nOJiyteHMI H3 MHHHCTepCTBa dHHaHCOB
oAHoBpeMeHHo c pacIiopSDKeHHeM o6 H3rOTOBJIeHHH aRHH1HX MapOK. Pa3Mep paMKH
o6opoTHoi CTOPOHbI BlnyIIeHHbix no 3THM o6pa3iaM MapoK- 19 x 25 MM.



.:' i "on.




PHC. 5 PHC. 6 PHC. 7 Pnc. 8

06braHO pa3pa6omca o6pa3noOB H HaxiafKa TexnoniorHecKoro nponecca sainMasm B
33rB or 3-x go 6-TH MecameB. McHcIOJb30BaHHe roTOBbx CTepeoTHnoB no3sojnino
sHaawHTejEHo ycKopHTb 3Ty pa6oTy.
HecoMHeHHO, 4)HnaTeiHCTOB HHTepecyeT saKOHHOCTb omnaTmI noroBbi
oTnpaBJneiH paMeHHmMHa MapKaHH.
Hx npHMe'eHHe AMn noauOoro o6pameami cqHanaoc B03MOeHhIM eme B nepHnoa
noaroTOBKH 3RaKa3aHHr I o6pa3IOB. 12 ceHTa6pa 1915 roaa Yrpasmoiao'ni 33rBe roaopa o
STHE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N2 58
28 June 2006






Heo6xOgHMOCTH COrnaCOBaHHsl 3TOrO BbImyICKa C MHHHTepCe TBOM BHyTpeHHHX (en (B COCTaB
KOTOporo BxoHAiO TYIHT), OTMTerI: "....MapKu cneyuajibHozo Ha3HavenH (aBT.: TO eCTI
pa3MeHHbIe MapKH) ... 6ybym ynompe6&AmbcA maKice 6 eude 3HnaKo notmoeou onambi".2
H3BecTeH paA AoKyMeHTOB, CBI3aHHbXK C OInaTOiiH OHTOBOi KoppecInoHAeHni
pasMeHH MH MapKaMH.
4 oirA6ps 1915 r. TYIIHT ony6JHKOBaJ B ra3eTe "IIpaBHTejirCTBeHHbI BecTHHK"
coo6meHHe o TOM, wTO "pas3enHble Mapru npeHanatHaeHbi rw xoIc6eHuwR Kcaecmee
paseuHHno Monembi, u HaKAeu6amb 3mu MapKu Ha notimo6ble omnpaeieHwi ...He caebyem".
Coo6mieHHe 6oio BocnpHHaTo Kax 3sanpeT Ha HCInOJIb3OBaHHe pa3MeHHbix MapOK B IIOHTOBbX
Uejax; B HeKOTOpux raseTax IIOABHJHCB BO3MymeHmIae OTKJIHKH. FYHHT npmiuocib faT
pas3acHeHHs no AaHHOMy Bonpocy.
8 oKrs6ps 1915 r. HaqajmmHH FJIaBHOrO YnpaBjneHma oTnpaBmi Tenerpa(QoM
npeAnacanHe no norIOBOMy Be.gOMCTBy, o6iacHaiomnee, Hrro rup oniaTe "...notmo6blt
omnpaejenufi ...pa3MeHHblMu MapKaMu, eblnyuYeHHbzIU MUHucmepcmeoM QbUHaHcoe,
maKo6ble noOiCexaam 6ecnpenaimcmeernoMy npueMy".
Bonee noApo6 o o TenJerpanHM pacnopamemiH HanarimHna r-YIIHT
paccK~asaH B CTaTbe JA. KysHenosa "IIorroBoe o6pamemee pa3MeHmax "MapoK-AeHer"
(cypHan "OaHnaTreJ CCCP", 2N 8, 1974).
14 oKrr6ps 1915 roAa ra3eTa "IpaBHTejeicTBeHHmi BecTHHK" noMeCTHEa HOBOe
coo6imeHHe FYIHT: "...o6bieaieHue o moM, umo pa3MeHHble MapKu He cJleyem Haw)eueamb
Ha noimoeble omnpaeAeHuA umeajo yfeib o nputajacumb HaceieHue He noJIb3s06abCi smuMu
MapKcMa 6 Kacaecmee 3HaKO6 noWnmoeou onIambi. ...o6bA6sjiaeueM He ycmaHaejiu6aiocb
nocjaeOcm6ufi dmiU nmu, onnamueuux 3muMu M.apKaM nomo6bze OmnpaealeHUR. ... ceM
noumoso-menezpatpHblM jCnacmRM yKasano nepecburamb nomoebte omnpa6neHui,
onnateHHbie pa3meHHblu MapKamu".
H3BecTHb H ApyrHe coo6nmeHHa noAo6Horo poaa. TaK, HaaRaHHHK 3 oTAeia
nepeBo3KH noIr no ceine3Hb M foporaM pacnopaqnaca: "...e cayiae ynompe6aenuw
pa3MeHHbix MapoK dRis oniambi nobmoebax omnpaeaieHuiu cumamb onaamy npawMlbHou.
BMecme c meM npenjaeaio pahlccHuAmb ny6jiuKe, umo pa3MeHHble MapKu nHaiUeueamb Ha
notmoebie omnpaeRenuu ... e cjieOyem".3
B. KamHHcIKH H J. Ky3HnenoB nmnyT, ro pa3pemeHHe npHMeHIan3 pa3MeHHme
Map c 1, 2 H 3 Konee'moro AocTOHHCTBa JI noHII TOBsX IeIneji HeH3BecTHO. B. JIo6ateeBcKHfi
(c6opHHK "CoBercKIKH KOJaUneKHOHep", No 17, 1979, a. 45) yKa3bmaeT, wro pa3MemHie MapKH
3THX HOMHHnanoB BmnycKa 1917 r. "oobuyfuabHnozo notimoeozo o6paugeHuw He UMmenu".
)KeIanHHe HaiTH KaKoe-TO OTAeCbHoe paspemeHHe Ha nIIOTOBoe HCIOJIb3OBaHHe pasMeHHLx
MapOK B 1, 2 H 3 KOneiiKH He IIOHaTHO.
AOKyMeHT noTrroBoro BefOMCTBa, nO3BOJisom He npHMeHaIT pa3MeHHeI MapxKH a
oriaTmi nooTBOTo KoppecnoHAeHmHH, BhimIH nocje nocryniieHHn B o6paneHHe TaKHX MapOK
HOMHHanOM 10, 15 H 20 KoneeK H BO BpeMH noIroTOBKH K BbmycKy pa3MeHHux MapOK 1, 2 H
3-x Konee~Horo T ocTOHHCTBa. B TeKCTax, pa3pemaioimx npHMeHeHHe STHX MapOK Xnu
HOiTOBBLx nejeii, He yKa3aRHM HOMHHaJIbI MapOK H HeT 3aapeneHHii Ha HCnOJ>s3OBaHHe KaKHX-
am6o HOMHHaniOB. Pa3pemeHHe ynoTpe6anrr pa3MeHH~Ie MapKH OTHOCHJIOCb KO BCeM
HOMHHaaaM. [oniiojHTeJTEHiX yKa3aHHa noTrOBMM [HHOBHmKaM He Tpe6OBaJIocb.
)KeJiaHHe TYHHT orpaHHHma npHMeHeHme pa3MeHHBn X MapoK Ha nolrrOBrX
oTnpaBJieHHAx onpaBaHO H a noJIe o6LsacHHMO. FocyaapcTBeHHOMy Ka3HaqeicTBy 6bmo
upaKTHrecKH BCe paBHo, Ha rro noTpalqema geHrH: Ha ouILaTy TOBapoB HJIH Ha nepecJmIK
nIHCMa (T.e. Ha onnaTy no'roBIX ycnyr). IppH oiuaTe no'roBBsX oTnpaBjeHHit pa3MeHHMMH
MapKaMH OHO y6rrKa He Hecio. Apyroe nojoioceHe 6hLo y noqroBoro BefOMCTBa: npH
HaKxefiKe pa3MeHHmx MapOK Ha IHCbMO IIO TOBbe MapKH y FYIIHT He noKynanHmC, H xeHmrH
3a nepecbUmKy B nowroBBfi OoxoA He nocTynanH. Ho noTroBoe BeCoMCTBo He Morno
3aIpeTHTr HCIIOJo3BaHHe pa3MeHHmX MapOK, TaK KaK Ha HX JmIeBoi cTopOHe 6buIo CJOBO
"noqTa", H, KaK BHAHO H3 CKa3aHHOro, pa3MeHHbIe MapKH HMeJIH paBO Ha o4)HnIHajnHoe
norTOBoe o6paigeHHe.
THE POST-RIDER/h5MIHIHK N* 58 29
June 2006







B nepBoi noJIoBHHe HOI6ps 1915 rosa rocyAapcTBeHrHi BaHK upocEi 33FE
yBeJHnrrT H3roTOBieHHe pa3MeHHMM MapoK HOMHHajOM 10, 15 H 20 KoneeK. Ho B 3aIHCKe
3aBeAyioijero Tnorpa#cKHM OTejeeHHeM 9KcneAHgHmH oTMeqaJIocb, Trro "...e3 ceHne6no
cbaemca no 1 Mwuiuony Mapoc e 3, 2 u 1 Konefi'u, Komopble neHamaiomci Ha mex mIce
Mautunax. ...ycuwenua3 cdaaa MapoK 6 10, 15 u 20 Koneec moiocem 6bzmb ocyuyecmeaena
JIUUtb 3a cem coomeemcmeennozo yMeHbuenusI cbau MapoK a 3, 2 u I KoneuiKu".
3Ta 3anHcKa 6buia OAHOH Hs3 npHHH, Bh3BaBLHX epecMoTp 3MHCCHOHHOH
nHOJHTHKH MHHHCTepCTBa 4HHaHcoB. 22 Hos6ps 1915 r. FocynapcTBeHHmii BaHK o6paTanca K
33FB: "...pas3Meunbie MapKU 1, 2 u 3 Koneevnozo 6ocmouncmea ...He 6ybym blfnyuzeHbl u3
6aHKoecKux Kacc. ...TocybapcmeeHHbzi EaiHK npocum 33FE npeKpamumb nevamaHue
pa3MenHbix MapoK OocmouHcmeoM 1, 2 u 3 KoneiKu".4
H3roToBjieHHbIe o 3TorO rmciMa pa3MeHHme MapKH B 1, 2 H 3 KoneiimH B 1915 -
1916 rr. B o6pamneHHe He nocTynaiH. 06 Mx HCnOJlb30BaHHH B 1917 roAy 6yzer CKa3aHO
mi-ce.
B 1915 r. 3KcneHOeH nepeaana FocyAapcTmeHHoMy BaHKy pa3MeHrme MapKH:
1 KOn 27000000 3K3. 10 Kon 150000000 3K3.
2 Kon 21000000 3K3. 15 Kon 100000000 3K3.
3 Kon 20500000 3K3. 20 KoH 100000000 3K3.
rYocne IpHHaITrI pemeHHa o 3aMOpaaXMaHHH BbmycKa pa3MeHHbix MapoK B 1, 2 H 3
KoIefiKH HeKOTopoe HX KJIHmrecTBO OCTaJIOC B 33IB:
1 Kon 26750000 3K3.
2Kon 13420000 3K3.
3 Kon 13375000 K3.5
ByMara Aisi neiaTH pa3MeHHbDi MapoK B coBpeMeHHOii JrTepaType HMeHyeTcA
"Kapmon" an "mocuuKu Kapmon". B AOKyMeHTax 33FB roaopnMHocb 06 H3roTOBjneHHH 3THX
MapOK Ha "6yMaze N2 3" HJUI Ha "niomHnoi 6yMaze". KaTaror nog peAaKxiner (D. 'IyHmHa
("KaTaJor HnorTOsBI MapoK H eJIbNmHiX BeImei. OCHOBHaa Pocces", MocKsa, 1928) HnmeT,
wro pa3MemBne MapKH neqaTanacc "Ha oqenb nvomnof 6yMaze".
Ha noJTix JHCTOB, HO Kpairefi Mepe, qacTH THIpaca c IaneBoi H o6opoTHOH CTopOH
ecTb KpacAmara nonoca (pHc. 9). UTBeT KpacKH TaKori InojocM coBHnaaeT c IBeroM KpacKH
H3o6paxeHHsI Ha nImueBOH Hm o6opOTHOH CTopoHe, COOTBeTCTBeHHO.
[leHTpoBKa oTrHCKa o6opoTHOi CTOpo HbI 3aBHceJIa OT TOTHOCTH yKIca1KH
nepeBepHyTrix JMHCTOB H HaCTpofiKH ileqaTaloiHix MaiJTH. 3Ta TOTHOCTb qacTO 6imua He
BICOKO(i H pHcyHOK Ha o6opoTe HepegKO CMeC eH K KpaAM MapKH (pHc. 10). [IpH
nep4opHposaHHH pa3MeHHiX MapoK npHxoAHjlocb "ycpeLJrr~H cAisr, H3-3a qero cHMMeTpHa
H3o6paxceHHa Ha JHImeBoft CTOpOHe TaKxae HHorXa HapymanacB (pHC. 11).


'I '. "

H I MAteT-b xomAe-
SWr-sie Hapa-Ht Cb
pasMiatHoi ce-
pe6pen.o MoHe- l''.


PTC. 9 PHC. 10 PHC. 11

KaTaajor yKa3b BaIOT, wTO pa3MenHme MapKH ineaTaIHCb no 100 3K3eMIuiapOB Ha
iHcTe. 3TO AefiCTBHTreJHO TaK, InpHMeHHTejb HO K H3roTOBJIeHHIO AaHHbi MapOK Ha MaInIX
neqaTHLx MamIHax, Ha3IBmaeMMX "aMepHKaHKaMH". Ho pa3MeHHBie MapIK neqaTamrHC, eme
Ha 6ojmnmx MamHHax, THna "KaTpejn", npeAHa3HaemHHix AJAi BLmlycKa 6yMaxmUix AeHer,
4opMaT KOTOpbx 6 ,aI 3HarITembHO Kpymnee; neqaTHoe noJne y TaKHX MamHH 3aHHMaOI
MHOro 6ojmmyio njiomnaa. liAi ee noinoro HcnoJn30BoaHLa 4 DopMt H3 100 CTepeoTHnoB
30 THE POST-RIDER/IaMIIMK NX 58
June 2006







KaAaa coeaHHUmIHCB B eAnHHmi 6JOK, H 3a OAHH nporoH Ha jmCTe neHaTanocs 400
3K3eMIUIIpOB pa3MeHHlX MapoK. CBeAeHma 06 H3roTOBJIeHHH 6OIbmx JIHCTOB C 3THMH
MapKaMH nofTBepcatoTca H B yqeTe rOTOBOH npoWyricq TaK, B mone 1919 roAa
Tnnorpag4cKoe oTAeneHie nepe~gano Ha ymarrnoKeHe, KaKi 6pax, pa3MeHHme MapKH. B
oTMeTKe o npneMe yxa3ano:
10 Kon. 4 JncTa = 1600 3K3.
15 Kon. 8 JIHCTOB = 3200 3K3.
20 Kon. 8 JmCTOB = 3200 sK3.6
KaK BmaHO H3 3sanncn, Ha KaacOM JEcTe HaXOMoHJIch no 400 3K3eMUIaIpoB MapOK.
B peBpane 1917 roAa 33FB yxe He Morna BbmoJMnIT BCe 3aKas3 H3 6yMarH
co6cTBeHnoro npwroToBjiemH Bumo pemeHo 6yMary a~r pa3MeHHn X Ka3uHaqeiCKnx 3HaKOB
no-npexCHey roTOBrTb B 3KCIneElmH, a xmi pa3MeHHm x MapoK noKyllaTb.
B Haaane MapTa 3Toro roAa FocyapcTBemHHs BaHK, o6paTHBnmrcb B 33rB c
sanpocoM, nHcan: "...cpe6u HaceaenutH ...pacnpocmpaHwnucb cnyxu o noAeienuu pas~MeHbix
MapoK Ha 6yMaze xybzuezo Kaqecmea, KaKoebie mapcu npunuuaiomcA 3a spabwuuebize".
B oTBere 3KcnemIenx oTMeqajiocb, rro pa3MeHHie MapKH "nepeoe epeMR
newamanucb Ha 6yMaze co6cmeenHozo uszomoaneHm, Ho same ...na nomynuol. EyMaza no
eneutHeMy eauy pasuumc a6 omoenKe, na ee nosepxuocmu 6ojbtue numeH, copuHOK u Opyzux
de&peKmo6".
He cnpanmBacb c o6beMOM pa6oT, 33rB npe no~aio a saMeHmT 6omi 1, 2 H 3
KoneeHHoro AocToHHCTBa pa3MeHHiaM MapKaMH, HCIInoJn3ya 3anac H3rOTOBICeHHix, HO "He
eblzyuteHHbix e o6paulenue 1 Kon 53750000 3K3., 2 Kon 34420000 3K3., 3 Kon 33875000
3K3.".
FocyfapcmBemmgH BamH cornacHncIa c TaKHM npeAnoKeHHeM. IIpo6neMa B03HHaIa
jmHih H3-3a CXOACTBa pacIBerOK pa3MieHHX MapOK B 1 H 2 KonetIKH C HaXOAMlIIIMHCI B
o6pameHiHH MapKaMH B 15 H 20 KoneeK. AJua pemeIna Bonpoca rocynapeTBeHHBi BaHK
npe nioxmCIu "Ha jnuifeou cmopone 1 u 2 Kon. mapoK omneiamamb tepnoU KpacKoU KpynHbLM
uwpuqmo.M tiuqpblr U bocmouncms, nobo6Ho moMy, KaK na ceMuKoneeHnblx noTmoGbJX
MapKax omneiamana emecmo iuO pbi "7" 'Iyuipa "10". Ha 3TOM AxOKyMeaTe HMeercS noMeTa
P. 3appmmma OT 25 aBrycTa 1917 r.: "K Hanecenwo zpubpa na Hnuyeeof cmopone Mowcem
6bimb npucmynaeno ceifac ace".
21 cerrs6pa 1917 r. 6bmuo nonlimcaHo "IlocTaHoBjenHe BpeMeHHoro
nIpaBHTeJIBCTBa":
"1. Ipedocmaeumb MuHicmepcmey OuHancoe eblnycmumb e o6pauzenue
uMerouquiicA sanac pas~MewHbx MapoK oOCmoUHcm6OM 6 Olny, oee u mpu KoneimKU,
us3omoeeunHbix cozaacuo nocmanoeaenwo 6bbieueeZ Coeema MuHucmpoe om 25 ceHnm6pA
1915 zooa, ...c naneceHueM Hua nueyegyo cmopony maKoebix MapoK bocmouncm6eoM 6 oby u
bee Koneiiu vepnofi KpacKoi yu fp, pa3MepoM bo nqmHamznamu mwumuuempoe eblcombt,
omeetalouqux docmouncmeyyKa3samiHbx MapoK... ".9





1 1

PHC. 12 PHC. 13
IIpaxTHqecKH BMCOTa IH43p, HaHOCHMb X Ha j.rneByIo CTOpOHy pa3MeHHbIX MapOK B
1 H 2 KoneiaKI, cocTaBJmna 9 MM (pnc. 12, 13).
FocynapcTBemmHH BaHK BepHyJI B 33FB Bsecb anac HMeBmnxca y Hero 1 H 2
KoneemHix pasMeHHbix MapOK A J HaAIneCaTKH Ha IHImeBoi CTOpoHe Ii4p HOMHHaraa. HacT,
THE POST-RIDERI/MIIHIK 58 31
June 2006








oTneqaTaHHoro B 1915 r. TIpaxca 3THX MapOK xpamnac B 3KcneaHiHH H 9 OKTs6pa 1917 r.
YnpaBiiso wfi 33FB H. TaBauigapoB pacnopsaHncas nepenaTr H3 KnaAoBoii rOTOBiHX
H3AeMndi B THmorpa(ccKoe oTAejieHme "pa3Meunbie MapKu e 1 u 2 KoneiiKu dnA HuaoIcenuR
qupp na iuygeeoi cmopone".
TaKHM o6pa3oM, Ha Bce pa3MeHHbie MapKH 1 H 2 KoneemHoro AOCTOHHCTBa,
H3roTOBJIeHHIe B 1915 r., 6ui HaJInoKeH rpH4 Hx CTOHMOCTH.
IHo3TOMy gamHHbe MapKH 6e3 HaAneqaTKH ImHp HoMHHmaa BCTpeiqaoTca Kpaiie
peeAKO. B. JIo6aqeBKHIf B CTaTbe "O6mIerocynapcTBeHmie nowroBse MapKH PocCHH"
(c6opHHK "COBeTCKHIH KOJUeKLHOHep", No 17, 1979) npHCBOHnJ HM cTeIIeH peAKocTH P.
IIpH TOM OH ImmIHeT, wro "oyenKa "P" npe)ycMampueaem RCHUbtiU meMneab 2awenuH c
...bamofi 1916 1917 zz.". Ha pa3MeHHmix MapKax, He BbHmyleHHMX 3a Inpeejmu
rocyAapcTBeHHoro BaHKa, nmTeMinej c TaKOfi AaTOfH MOTr T GlT IIOCTaBJieHbI JIHIII
HCKyccTBeHHO B 6onee no3Asee BpeMa. 3Aecb xe anHa oneHKa 3THX MapoK Ha IIHCMax PPP.
TaK KaK pa3Men e MapKH HOMHHaanoM 1 H 2 KOInefKH 6e3 HaaleqaTKH Ha HX JmmeBofi
CTOpoHe iH4Qp HOMiHana B o6pameHHe He iocTynain, TO ICbMa c nono6musMH MapKRaM TaK
)Ke HMelOT, HO KparmHer Mepe, HCKyccTBeeHHaf xaparrep.
B. KaMHHCKHfi immeT B yKasamHOfi paHee cTaTBe, rTO
"He6oJbuwoe KoAuMecmeo nucmoe pas3MenHbc MapoK 6 1 u 2 Konei Ku
orasanocb 6 o6pauzeHuu 6e3 HadnevamoK". B oKyMeHTrax TaKHX CBeAeHHm
HeT. Bepormeri Bcero, 3TO oAHa H3 HnjaTeJiHCTHecKHX CKa3oK,
o6i asmomaa noliB neHme amHix MapOK y KojuIeKIHoHepoB. IIocTyHTb B
o6paeeHHue c IpoInyKOM HaIIeqaTOK MOrJI TOJIbKO IIOqOBbie MapKH,
npHHmMaBnmeci OT 33F3B IpocTiM IepecqeToM KomJIeecTBa JIHCTOB B
na'Kax. eleHbr H npHHHMaamcb FocynapCTBeHHIm BaiHKOM HaMHoro
cepbesHeii; sAecb yiHTbBajHCB H IInpocMaTpHBaJIHCi no OTAejTbHOCTH He
TOJIbKO JIHCTbI, HO H pa3MeHHHe MapKH Ha JIcTe. Coxpamumcb
AOKyMeiuHT FocyAapCTBeHHoro BaHKa, OIHCIBalIOIHe 3TOT npoiXecc H
coo6~aioInHe o Bo3BpaTe JIHCTOB IpnH HajuaaH ,ame oAHofi 6paosBaHHOHi
MapKH. KpoMe Toro, BO Bce 4uHHaHcoBme CTpyKTypM B ICbHiaIn Cb o6pa3mibI
H3roTOBJneHHBuX eHer H, corjacHO npaBHMajM geHexHoro o6paineHHa,
mo6oe 4QHHaHCOBoe yqpexaeHHe PoccHH, nonymimee HecTaHapTmue
aeHIbr, H3lMmano HX H3 o6opoTa H BO3BpamlaRo B FocynapcTBeHHam BaHK.
To ecTb nocTymveHHe B AeHeKcHBiil o6opoT JImCTOB pa3MeHHnIx MapoK B
1 H 2 KonefrKH 6e3 HagieqaTKH nH4p HOMHHana HepearnjHO. SJBauacb
aeHea)CHIMH 3HaxaM H He nOCTYIHB B o6pameHHe, InonacT K
KoJUineCKOHepaM oHH Mor~n c 1919 r., Koraa B 3KcIIegAHIm oTMeqaJIRci
cjyqaH xameanxs pa3MeHHinm MapoK H HX CTepeoTUnOB HIH nocie BbXOfa
H3 o6paigemn H3 6paca, ocraBmerocA B 33rB.
IIpH OInoroTOBKe K H3roTOBJeHHmo HOBUX pa3MeHHbix MapOK 1, 2 H 3 KoneeqHoro
AOCTOHHCTBa 3KcnelHRe peKOMeHAOBaIna 3aMeHHTb rep6 Ha o6opoTe KpynaHIMH m@paMH
HOMHanJa MapoK H IIpeaeTaaHJia KoppeKTypHLm OTTHCK o6OpoTHof
CTOpoHI 3THX MapoK. FocygapcTBemHHli BaHK oAo6pHui o6pa3eI OTrHCKa
HII B InocieaneHi eKane oKi'r6pa 1917 r. npocmi 33rFB HaqaTb neiaTaHme
KOlHlinH.I pa3Memlix MapOK B 1, 2 H 3 KonIefKH c HOBIM Kjmme o6opOTHOHi
in.er CTopOHlI Ali BCeX Tpex HOMHHaIOB. Ha pHc. 14 HOBoe Kjmme MapKH 2-x
xoMAeHie Ha- KoneemHoro AOCTOHHCTBa.
pa.e Cb ~ C tA-
Ho oweoT. Pa3MeHHbIe MapKH Bcex HOMHHaJIOB HMeJM 3y6IOBKy 13 4.
S-i-I H3BeCTHBI 6e33y6IrOBBie 3K3eMIuIupbi, BeposarHef Bcero, H3 6paKa 33FB;
PHC. 14 OTneqaTaHHbIli JIHCT C KaKHMH-JIm6o HeAOCTaTKaMH OTfeJIbHbIX MapoK, He
nepiopHpoBaJIca, a ornpaBiacas B 6paK. KpoMe Toro, no KpairHeH Mepe,


THE POST-RIDER/MIIDHK Ni 58
June 2006








qacTb noxmneHHBx H3 3KcneminHHH
S pasMemHix MapOK (B smHape 1919 r.
Snponano 10000 MapOK 20-TH KoneeInoro
SOCTOHHCTBa H T. A.) nOXHmajIHCB gO HX
SnepQopHpoBaiHH, qTO, BHAHMO, TaIOKe
Scnoco6cTBOBano nosiBneHmo y
t KOJIJIeKiHOHepOB 6e33y6IoBLIX
le NepaRt c, ; 3K3eMILUIpOB.
Scp3tao c- .,rm'a BcneAcTBHe orpoMHoro KOJIHmIeTBa
pegp.no0 s oc- y c';M. BfmycKaeMofi 3KdcnAHugee npoIyKlHH,
Tok. : TexHonorraqecKHi KOHTpOJLl 6Bii ocnaa6neH.
Ha jn IeBOH CTOPOHe HeKOTopux
ipa3MeHHIx MapOK ecTb cneAb 3aTeKaHHI
PHC. 15 YBejmneHO -In ocna6neimH KpaCKH. 3TOT HeAOCTaTOK
BCTpeaercsia Hna o6OpOTHOi CTOpoHe MapoK
(pHC. 15).
Tax ce BCTpeqaioTcS pa3MeHHme MapKH c
muoxo npo6rrroi nep4opaiueH (pnc. 16). .i
B. JIo6aqeBCKHAi OTMeqaeT, KaK ; "
pa3HOBHAHOCTI, HAH leaTKy y3KOH H KOPOTKOHi IH4)QpM c;iO, "
"1" Ha pa3MeHHOH MapKe B 1 KonejlKy nocnieAHero
B IycKa. -
Bee KaTa~orH yKa3bIBRIOT Ha 6oJIbmoe .- i -
KOJIHmeCTBO D4)aJTCH4HKaTOB, BmOJIHeHHBIX KaK B
ymep6 eneHemcoR cHcTeMe PoccHH, TaK H B ymep6 16
4qHreaTenmcTaM.
TaicKe H3BeCTHbI ajmcHnIHKaTbI BbIym eHHbIe, BHEHMO, B repMaHHH c
uponaraHaHCTCKO Iejimio, c COOTBeTCTByloniHM TeKCTOM Ha o6opoTHOic CTOpOHe (pHC. 17).
-:--- -- -- _- -,- --. "-:.- --- -


-' ten. .iMte' ., XomA
:- I nic napaeHt e apaat c
:-. rpa6emom, 06-- 6auporoD ce.
.Maonao apasn- pe6pnoio MOte-


PHC. 17
B KOHue 1917 Haqane 1918 rr. GbUIH npeAoKJeaHH0 o saMeHe 50 KoneewHMX 6OH
(H3-3a MaccOBoro noIBjmeHI a I amJIbIHBmX) Ha pa3MeHHbie MapKH Toro KXe AocToHHcTBa, a
TaIme o BbmycKe pa3MeHHnX MapOK HOMHHaJIoM 35 H 70 KoneeK, 1 H 3 py6nm. 3TH
npeanomaeHHa He 6mbu peajnHOBaHbI. B CBa3H c nlepeMeHHor nojnrrIecKOra BJIacTH B
POCCHH, OTKa3 OT HCnOJo30BaOHHa HOBbIX HOMHHanOB io6HeJbmiIX MapOK HOCHJI
HgeonorHiecKHH xapaKTep.
KaK HH CTpaHHO, BHIIYCK pa3MeHHiix MapoK npoon~JacaJca He TOJIBKO B 1918 roxy,
HO H go cepeAHH~ 1919 r. B 3TOM rogy 3KcneAHmmH nepeanaa HapomfHMy BaHay (aBT.:
B 1918 r. FocyAapcTBeHHbMi BaHK POCCHH 6imn nepeHMeHoBaH B HapomibIfi BaHK PocCHiicKOi
DeAzepanHH) MapKH AOCTOHHCTBOM B:
1 Kon 8337500 3K3. 10 Kon 313479600 3K3.
2 Kon 9468000 3K3. 15 Kon 54451400 3K3.
3 Kon 3593000 3K3. 20 Kon 182483500 3K3.10


THE POST-RIDER/ IIMIIHK N_ 58
June 2006








HofroTOBKa AeHeXCKHBX 3HaKOB HOBOH BJIaCTH Haqajnacb B Hoa6pe 1918 r., a HX
npHMeHeHHe B MapTe 1919 r. JieHexamIe 3HaKH npeazcHei BJacTH Tarxce HaXOAHJHmcb B
o6paneHmH. BcnencTBHe orpoMHnoi HH1IsHH pasMeHHbe MapKH TepSm noiKynaTeJnHyIo
cnoco6HOCTm H BCKOpe nepecTami npHMeHarIcs. C MapTa 1920 rofa oHH o4nIHmajnHO
JmnHjmca npaBa nepecb aTmcs no norre cornacHo nocTaHOBJieHmo COBeTa HapomHix
KoMHccapoB (CHK), B KOTopOM roBopHJocL: "lo6wzeiHube fapcKue MapKu c nopmpemaMu
yapef u37bAmb U3 o6pauqenuu 3a uenHado6nocmblo". Ho pa3MeHHnue MapKH IBJmWAmc
AeHBraMH, H Apyrofi MapTOBCKHfEi eKpeT CHK noaTrepaIn 3aKoHHOCTb X nIpHMeHeHHA KaK
eeHer: ",eueaicHnbe 3HuKU cmapbix o6pa3sioe coxpanHiom nnameawnyio cuny u uMeiom
xoiacOeuue ...enpe)b do cnequaulbHOzo nocmaHOaneHuW". H3 AeHeexmoro o6pamneHHi
pa3MeHHLie MapKH GUMIH H3ThSI oceIHio 1922 roaa.
3aKaH9HBaar CTaTbO, MO)KHO cAejiaT BBIBOIM:
1. Pa3MeHHie MapKH BCeX HOMHHajIOB, HaxoAnHBmHec B o6paeneHHH, HMeJm
omHiarnmHoe npaBO Ha HcnoJ3oBaanne B InorOBbux iejix.
2. B 1915 rofy cocTOuaIc nepBai BsmycK pasMeHHLix MapOK, BKJIIO9aBmHH MapKH
mecTH gocTOHHcTB: 1, 2, 3, 10, 15 H 20 KoneeK.
Pa3MeHmIe MapiM B
10, 15 H 20 KoneeK neqaTajmcb c ceHTa6pa Mecana, B o6painemae nocryimm
30 ceHTi6pa;
1, 2 H 3 KoneIIKH nesaTas1Jc B OKrr6pe Hoa6pe.
MapKH B 1 H 2 KonefAKH B o6pameHHe He nocrynanm, 3 KoneHKH HnoTryniH B
o6pamieHHe B cerra6pe 1917 roAa.
B KaTaJIOrax AaToH BHmIycKa TeX HJIH HHX InoHTOBbIX
MapOK o6BrHO Ha3bIBaeca TI aTa BBhycKa HX B nIIOTOBoe o6pameHHe. A~uI
pa3MeHHbix MapOK 1 H 2 KoneemHoro OCTOHHICTBa, He HaXOAHBIIIHXC B
o6pamneHHH, 3TO 6yAeT, BHmHMO, HaqaniHaA AaTa HX H3rOTOBjieHHS H
nepegawH B FocyfapcTBeHHmi BaHK, TO ecTb OKicrs6p 1915 roAa.
3. B 1916 roxy npoAomKanoc& neqaTaHHe H npHMeneHHe pa3MeHHmx MapOK 10, 15 H
20-TH KoneeWHoro lOCTOHHCTBa.
Pa3MeHHmue MapKH AOCTOHHCTBOM B 1, 2 H 3 KoneimKH He H3rOTaBJIHBaJIHC H B
o6pameHHn He 6bIum.
4. B ceHrra6pe oicra6pe 1917 roAa H3roTOBjeH BTOPOfi BbnycK pa3MeHHax MapOK,
3aKwmoaBma HCa B H8aneHaTKe mHQp HOMHHUIa na meBooi cTopoHe MapOK B 1 H 2 KoneiIKH,
BumelIAHX B 1915 roAy. Pa3MeHHme MapKH BToporo BnmycKa noCTymnuiH B o6pamueHHe B
OKTm6pe 1917 roAa. OHioBpeMeHHO HaaniH npHMeHarrcS pa3MeHHIe MapKH AOCTOHHCTBOM
3 KoIIneKH, OTneIaTaRHHbe B 1915 roay.
C 4eBpain 1917 roAa nepBUr BBmycK pa3MeHHbx MapoK 10, 15 H 20-TH KOIIee9Horo
aocTOHHCTBa ne'aTancs Ha noKyimHoi 6yMare xygmero KanecTBa.
5. C OKirs6pa 1917 roga neqaTanca TperH BabmycK pa3MeHHuX MapOK B 1 Kon. (c
rpHaOM HOMHHma Ha na meBoH cTopoHe), 2 KOH. (c rpH4OM HOMHHna Ha mmna eBoi CTOpoHe) H
3 KOII., C HOBIM pHCYHKOM oopoTHnoi cTopoHI. B o6pameHHH c HOa6pa 1917 roAa.
B TeleHHe 1917 roda npoomJDKajioc, npHMeneHHe pa3MeHHnu MapOK 10, 15 H 20-TH
Konee9Horo AOCTOHHCTBa.
6. B 1918 1919 roAax H3roTaBjml anjHCB pa3MeHHiue MapKH B 10, 15 H 20 KoneeK, a
TaOKe 1, 2 H 3 KonefiKH TpeTrero BbmycKa.
B o6pameHHH HaxoArmncb pa3MeHmHie MapKH:
10, 15 H 20 KoneeK nepBoro BBnycKa;
1 H 2 KoneieKH BTOporo H TpeTmero BBmycKOB;
3 KoneliiG nepBoro H TpeTbero BblyCKOB.


THE POST-RIDER/IMmIIK N2 58
June 2006








1 IermrpajrmalH rocyAapcTseHHui apxiB CaHnr-HeTep6ypra (I-TA CII6), )OHnA 1255, onImC 1, ieno 273
"IlepemacKa c HapoIHnIM KoMnccapoM MHucrepcrBa 4)HHaHcoB no Bonpocy wroTBnieHHa KpeLmauxI 61neTOB
H pa3MeHHiX MapOK", JIHCT 1.
2 IemTpan.HArm rocynapcrseHHBim HcTOpHqeCKHR apxHB CaHEr-IIeTep6ypra (LVUA CII6), 4. 1458, on. 2,
A. 1141 "Ho Bupa6oTKe, mroToanemno H OTnyCKy oco6Mx 6yMaxamHx pa3MeHBmX 4enexH Mx 3HaKOB", j. 11.
3 LHA CII6, 4). 1641, on. 1, A. 404 "lUpiymnspr H A pyre npeImecaHx HaqajnmHHKa 3 oTiena", j. 41.
4 IVHA Cn6, ~4. 1458, on. 2, A. 1141, n. 60, 67.
5 TaM ace, n. 483.
6 IIA CII6, 4. 1255, on. 3, A. 82 "Knara la. ByMara Ka3HaqeflcKHx H pa3MeHHbM 3naKOB", Ji. 20.
7 ITIA CI6, 4. 1458, on. 2, A. 1141, n. 501, 504.
s8 IA CII6, Q. 1255, on. 1, A. 31 "06 H3rroTBneHHH pa3MeHHbMX MapOK B 1, 2 H 3 Kon. BMecTO Ka3Haqe~cKHX
3HaKOB", R. 11.
9TaM ice, n. 41.
10 IFA CII6, 4). 1255, on. 3, a. 81 "Ka3HaeHCicKHe H pa3MeHnme 3HaKH H io6Hneieiue MapKH", jm. 81 165.
*. *
KHAR'KOV LOCAL POSTAL VANS
by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
Khar'kov had a number of important railway lines radiating from it, namely Khar'kov-15/16-Moscow; Khar'kov-
19/20-Rostov/Don; Khar'kov-37/38-Odessa; Khar'kov 59/60-Sevastopol' and Khar'kov-159/160-Balashov. All these are
well-knownand documented, but are nevertheless nice to find on cards and covers.
However, the Khar'kov Railway Postal Department also operated three local routes, as they were under local
administration. They were:
Khar'kov-Merefa, on the line running south-west to Ekaterinoslav.
Khar'kov-Dergachi. on the line running northwards to Belgorod.
Khar'kov-Lyubotinon the line running west to Poltava.
The first two above: Khar'kov-Merefa and Khar'kov-Dergachi have been recorded, but are decidedly scarce. The
last one: Khar'kovLvubotin known from the 1915 Post Office Listing, has not been recorded until now. I am delighted to
show it here to readers of "Yamshchik / The Post-Rider". It is a magnificent item, a postcard sent on 10 January 1917 to
Kaluga, with two immaculate oval postmarks reading "XAPbKOB'b-JIIOBOTHHIb / IIO'T. BAT. a". They are
struck on the Romanov franking of 2-kop. + 1-kop., being received in Kaluga two days later. This unnumbered railway
postmark has now been recorded and, if any other collector has an example of this scarce postmark, I would be delighted
to see it.


THE POST-RIDER/sHMIHK Nh 58
June 2006








December, 1922. Fourth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian.
Gold kopeck surcharges due to a shortage of low denomination stamps

The use of the Second Issue surcharged 15 kop./250 R. as 1 Gold Kopeck stamps
without any distinctive manuscript alterations.


The pair of 250 R. bearing 15 kop. Type 1 on a Registered intersity letter from a small town Tauz-Kala, 25.5.1923 to
Erivan, 7.06.1923, affixed by the Postmaster as 1 kop. stamps without altering the original 15 kop. surcharge by means
of manuscript "K", thereby composing the correct 12 Gold kop. total rate. The only known commercial cover.


36 THE POST-RIDER/LIMIIlHK NI 58
June 2006









December, 1922. Fourth Issue. S.S.R.
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian.
2 kop. surcharges by rubber (Type 1) handstamp in black ink and in


of Armenia

manuscript in red or violet ink


The basic unsurcharged imp. 500 Rouble
in Tete-Beche pair
The variety of the 1-st stamp on both panes


Type 1 in black on imperf. 500 Rouble
Tete-Beche pair postally used. RRRR
The variety of the 1-st stamp on both panes







,,4,




500 R. imp. Rose
Script alteration in violet ink of
the original 20 kop. surcharge

On cover RRR p.2320


U I U


500 R. imp. Brown
Script alteration in red ink of
the original 20 kop. surcharge


(


A copy of 500 R. with 2 kop. Type 1 and a copy of 500 R. bearing 20 kop. rubber overprint revalued to 2 kop. by script
alteration in violet ink of the original 20 k. surcharge used on an Ordinary intercity letter sent from Djelal-Ogly, 31.03.1923
to Envan. 3.04.1923 franked at the total correct 4 Gold kop. rate. Famine Relief tax not charged due to official mail.


THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHK J 58
June 2006 37


7


. .w
a 4 L -4


I


I --I---- Ir









December, 1922. Fourth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian.
3 Gold kopeck surcharge in manuscript in violet ink


Perf Deep-Carmine


Brown-Lake, postally used in Shakhtakhty,
in Nakhichevan autonomous district
Due to incomplete "3" of "35"
"3k" alteration is applied all in manuscript


RRRR O
p.233


kt. -'


BlrsuJ
iE'ry~p


Z i 'a.
I~L1'ii~iURr
a~ju urul fa .~urUIP:pb -I -...-
4~ra..mtji~~b~,~rdI u~~~


Iil~eu k Knfl.'A, ~~CLUYancne-mua u-Vquup,egaa r: 4nyirlfa~eIih


IN. ',N I' I- :

TIJRLUIj.u b ;imuLhblj. iJlIp.Piqnj._ 15-pq iarrr
eq- PeIanitnx: Azhlxtnonh. 15-a j.
wiIin~ljiaiI" kUW & JUn i
ljf~k1 4iI gLwrur up~jfnLIj


A copy of imperf. of 35/20,000 r. revalued to 3 gold kopeks in manuscript in violet ink. Ordinary newspaper
wrapper, sent from Aleksandropol' on 21.04.1923 to Erivan' and franked at the correct 3 gold-kopeek rate.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIUK Ne 58
June 2006


Rosr?-Carmiinil


-r I II*~~~._.~ 1. T- -C ----CPTII


~e~.3 ~crss~


I


38


~. glP k










December, 1922. Fourth Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia
by Dr. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian.
Gold kopeck surcharges due to a shortage of low denomination stamps

3 kopeck surcharge by a metal handstamp in black ink


Deep-Carmine
Double strike, one inverted


Brown-Lake


35 Gold kop. surcharge
revalued to 3 Gold kop.


A copy of imperf. 20000 Roub. revalued by 3 kop. metal handstamp used on a Registered foreign letter
sent from Erivan. 19.12.1922 to Halle,1.01.1923 in Germany, franked at the correct 27 Gold kopeck rate
The 3/20000 stamp and the left flap lifted and regummed by the censor, the stamp closed tear in process.
The earliest recorded commercial cover with the Fourth Issue adhesive.


(to be continued).


THE POST-RIDER/IAMI(HK Je 58
June 2006


7. *


t -~-- -.--- --


1


Ch


I I


a I


11 113


- - - - - -


CIBIIII~IL~ C -4-- e~lsarsaspl


~pSr___ __ ---- --_..~-~aranea~8


I.


m


.........
ULWllqWls



zDO







Items of Philatelic Interest Culled from Early Tuvan Primers
by Alan Leighton (Bochum, Germany)


Until the rise of Soviet influence in Tuva, the Tuvan language had no means of written expression, all writing
having been done in the Mongolian, Tibetan, Chinese, or Russian languages. During the 1920s, there were
experimental writing systems for Tuvan devised by Tuvan lamas, but only when Soviet linguists devised a Latin
alphabet for Tuvan (as part of the Soviet campaign to inculcate upon the Tuvans a national identity separate from
Mongolian) did literacy in the Tuvan language really take off. Several primers were published in the 1930s to
introduce school children, and also adults, to the new alphabet.
Many years ago, I placed an order at the Interlibrary Loan desk of the local university library for a number
of these early primers. After a wait of several months, the books (or in some cases microfilms) started to trickle in
from the Lenin State Library (now the Russian State Library) in Moscow. It is fascinating to browse the books to see
what the authors felt their audience would be familiar with, and what they felt needed more extended explanation.
One aspect of literacy which some of the primers deal with is writing letters evidently an unfamiliar
procedure for school children in those days. Fig. 1 shows the description of how to do it, taken from one of the
primers:


-70-


.Ura',-tep uruqlar algbrzbp turgan: .kbZbl
partizan irem Sbbrap, mendi caagaj!"
Xural toozulgan soonda uruolar koncuq eeryp
turgas. revolustu(q br Lrlap turgannar.

-- .,
iL.-2i


Cagaa.
Po xyn pistin skolanbn surukcularb Samaga-
Idaj skolazbnbnr surukcularhnga cagaa pizip peer
tep toktaattblar. Kitceel ertte peerge, toozaabs
cbqlbp algaS, mbndbco cagaa pizip algan-pis:
Frgim ester!
Tyyn pis TbBanbn revoluzunun pajbrbn erttir-
" diBis. 01 ulu lustun muimunda pistir. arattarnb feodaldar tar-
lap turganbn polgas lamalar megelep turganbn
am ekki pilip aldbBbs. Pisti, eerenmezin tees.
feodaldar ezegeer Skola turguspajbn turgan. Ka-


rangb kizini tarlap megeleer tees, pistin adalarb-
Bbstb karangaa edilep coraan.,
Pistin' paSkbBbs, arattar kancap. kargbstarnb
ojlatkanbn todargaj tomaktanbp pergen. Pis tooza-
Bbs pot poduuuska arattbn tajzbnnarb-pile udur
xyrezir tee?, padblga'ses pcrgcn polga lamalarnb
pyzyreBejin ekki eerenir polgan-pis.
Sler uluol paji.rnb kancap erttirgcn-sler, piske
pizip. peritler. Xarbbnarnb algan soonda, slerge.
cyny azbldap turganbBbstb todargaj pizip peer-pis.
Slerge eStin pajbrbn cedirges, ekki eereniri-
nerni kyzeer tur-pis.
1933 c. ijyl a. 9 x.
STozu 1kolazhnbn surukcularb.
Cagaanb pizip algas, cogum kancaldbr ulam-
ctdp corudarbn kbm-taa piles 'poorga, paskb-
Bbska paardbBbs. Pak'bBbs piske ajttbp pergen:
cagaan, pizik xaniblga sukkas, CbpSbrga., pizik
xaBbnbnl ta8tbIga paar cerinin adbn piziir uzurluoq.
10 kepejekthi markazbni cbbpbrga), po$taga apparbp
peer xerek. Pis monu mbncangan-pis.
Mbndbol cyee appargan:'

Tees-xem kozutun

Samagaldaj ,kolabzbnibn
eorentirleritige


Tozu fkolazbnbtq oerenirlerinden.


Fig. 1: "Cagaa" 'A Letter'; from Lopsang 1933, pp. 70-71.







40 THE POST-RIDER/J[MIIHK N- 58
June 2006


1..


r






The text might be translated thus:
A Letter.
Today, the students of our school decided to write a
letter to the students of Samagaltai school. After our lessons
had finished, all of us gathered together and wrote this letter:
Dear Friends!
Yesterday we celebrated the festival ofthe anniversary
of the Tuvan revolution. We prepared for a long time for this
big day. We have now come to know well that before the
revolution, the feudal lords used to oppress the poor workers,
and the lamas lied to them. To prevent us from becoming
educated, the feudal lords did not build schools. In order to be
able to oppress and cheat the uneducated people, they kept them
in the dark.
Our teacher explained to us in detail how the workers
drove out the despots. We all promised each other to struggle
against the enemies of the workers, not to believe the lamas,
and to study well.
Please write back to us and tell us how you celebrated
the holiday. Once we have received your reply, we'll write back


and explain what we have been working on.
With comradely regards, we wish you good studies.
9 July 1933 The Students of Tozhu School

Well, now we had written the letter, but because no
one knew how to send it, we went to our teacher. Our teacher
explained to us: You have to put the letter into an envelope, seal
it, and write the name of the place you want to sent it to on the
outside of the envelope. Then you have to stick a 10-kepejek
stamp on it and take it to the post office. We did as he said.
And it became a thing like this:
[See the illustration of the envelope in Fig. 1.]
Tes-Khem District
To: The Students of Samagaltai School
From: The Students of Tozhu School
Now on your own write to the students of another
school write about how you observed the anniversary of
Lenin's death.


This little story appeared in substantially identical versions in two primers: Alaverdof 1931 (pp. 54-56), and
Lopsang 1933 (pp. 70-71). The spelling and lexical differences indicate to the Tuvan linguist how the language
developed in the short space of two years. What might interest us in this regard is the replacement of Mongolian-based
words with newly-concocted Russian-based ones (e.g. "revoluzun" for "xuBbskal", 'revolution'), a phenomenon also
reflected by the introduction of the word "pogta" to replace the Mongolian-based "suudal". (The updated story,
however, did not reflect the rise in postal rates from 10 kep. to 15 kep. for a letter sent to a destination within Tuva.)
Both stories indicated that Tuvan letter-writing etiquette called for placing the date at the end of the letter. (The letter
in the 1931 story shows the form of the date as "20 1931 cblda", which by 1933 had mutated to the form seen above.)
The illustration included with each story showed the envelope addressed in the typical Russian fashion (with the
destination listed "backwards" relative to the Canadian way, but more logical from the standpoint of delivery; and with
the return address at the bottom, below the address); the place for the stamp was shown at the upper right often not
followed in practice, if the few remaining covers are anything to go by. It is interesting that no postmarks of the two
post offices implied by this little story Samagaltai and somewhere in Tozhu province, probably Toora-Khem -
are known from this early date.

One primer Lopsang 1933 lists the eight districts into which the Tuvan People's Republic was divided
at that time, but does not list their chief towns, each of which presumably had a post office. The districts, as given in
Tuvan orthography in the primer, are given below, along with the post offices known [or presumed] to exist at that
time. (Unfortunately, I have not yet found any map which shows clearly and reliably the district boundaries as they
stood during this period of the TAR, so I am not sure which district the town of Balgazyn ("Palgazan") should be
assigned to.)
1. ParLbn-xemcik (Baryyn-Khemchik, 'Western Khemchik'): KYzbl-Mazalbk (Kyzyl-Mazhalyk), [Teeli].
2. Ceen-xemcik (Ch66n-Khemchik, 'Eastern Khemchik'): Cadaana (Chadan).
3. Uluo-xem (Ulug-Khem, 'Big River'): Sagaan-ArLq (Shagonar).
4. Tandb (Tangdy, 'Mountain Taiga'): [Paj-Xaak (Bai Khaak)], [?Palgazan (Balgazbn) according to 1993 district
boundaries].
5. Tees-xem (Tes-Khem, 'Tess River'): Samagaldaj (Samagaltai), [?Palgazan (Balgazhn) according to 1930s
district boundaries (with some imagination Palgazn is not on the 1930s map as such)].
6. Kaa-xem (Kaa-Khem): [Sarbol -Sep (Saryg-Sep, previously Znamenka)], [?Palgazan (Balgazbn)], [Xaraal (a gold
mine within the Tozhu district boundaries as shown on the maps of the 1930s and 1993, but located in Kaa-Khem
district by the 1968 gazetteer; in any case it was serviced postally via Sarlq -Sep)].
7. Pii-xem (Bii-Khem): Kbzbl (Kyzyl), Turan.
8. Tozu (Tozhu, or Todja): [Toora-Xem (Toora-Khem)].


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK NM 58
June 2006






The Tuvan primers all have beautiful illustrations woodcuts and
line drawings many of which are based on photographs I have seen
elsewhere. In other cases I have not seen the original photograph, but the
similarity between the drawings in the primer and other drawings seen
elsewhere (on Tuvan postage stamps, for example) hint at its existence,
perhaps in the ethnographic archives in Moscow. Figs. 2 and 3 show two
examples of such similarities between the pictures in the primers and
Zav'yalov's stamp designs. Note the proper Tuvan spelling of CYRMIT-
TAZb, not GYRMITTAZI as on the stamp. (In modem Tuvan Cyrillic
orthography the name is now HYPMHT-IA)KbI, and today's Latin version
would more properly be written as Chiirmit- [or Jiirmit-] Dazy.)


Cemzek
Fig. 3. "Cemzek" 'Ammunition' (from Alaverdof 1931, p. 20), and the 50 kep. stamp from
the 1935 "Landscape" series. The horseman furthest to the right in the group of hunters
served as the model for the stamp; the hunter's head was turned to the side on the stamp, but
other details such as the stance of the horse and the clump of grass are identical to the
illustration in Alaverdof. Presumably both the book illustration and the stamp were copied
from a photograph. (Oddly enough, the stamp illustrates more appropriately the little story
which accompanied the picture in Alaverdof: "Now our hunters are coming together. Also,
they are sending someone to the coop [cooperative hunting enterprise] to get bullets and
ammunition. The coop gives out bullets and ammo on credit." So the rider in the background
of Zav'yalov's stamp might be fetching more ammunition for the hunter in the foreground.)


TAR Ministerierinin ceailelininr
targazb CYRMIT- TAZb.
Fig. 2. "Chairman of the TPR Council of
Ministers, Chuirmit-Dazy" (from Lopsang
1933, p. 67), and above it, a detail of the 2
kep. stamp from 1936.


As pointed out by Andrew Cronin in the Postrider no. 50 (June 2002), p. 62, there is a design error in the
1 kep. stamp from the 12th ("Jubilee") series, which depicts the TAR coat of arms: the Tuvan word for Proletariat
is mis-spelled as PROLETAPLARb instead of the correct PROLETARLARb. Mr. Cronin says, "The designer
obviously confused the Cyrillic 'P' with the Latin 'P'." The confusion of the two alphabets does indeed seem
obvious, but as this same mistake can be found on the coat of arms illustrated in a Tuvan primer from 1934, and even
on the banknotes of the 1935 series, it seems the mistake was not made by the designer of the stamp (probably
Zav'yalov), but by the artist (or artists) who designed the original coat of arms for the Tuvan Arat Republic. See
Fig. 4 for these three versions of the coat of arms, including an enlargement of the word in question.


42 THE POST-RIDER/HIIMIIIK N 58
June 2006


G'V ~CR MITZI













..TAR _
LtoasmF Sp- o 1934~ p0 g




i. 'ZA t :" ; "^:p: *" +, ."* .. *













1. Primers:
Alaverdof [Aa ,ep ,Bo], K.A., et al. 1931. Pioneer. Moscow: "eHTpaJIbHe HaT .cTo Hapo" o CCCP.
,, ,,.,,,-...., ',,'/ A.T BE









Sedip-ool, T. 1934. Caa Oruk. luq:' ulus k'r y~yk [New Path: Reader for Adults]. (Kyzyl): TAR Kultur"'-," .'.--'".







2. Philatelic Literature:
CBs.Fig. 4: Three ver(Discussion ofTuvan post of tfie TAR oat of arms, p.all with the same mistake (P instead ofR).27.)
UstinovskiiLeft: Postage stamp from 1936V.N.2000. Ty: edi-oo 1934, 40. Right: Moscow. Banknote, of known postmarks,







Referencespp. 31-40.)
Primeraps:












ThFa Arat Respubliktin Xelair Curuu. [Hand-drawn map of the TAR at the scale of 1:1,000,000, hanging in the
Alaverdof[A. aBe T B], K.A., et al. 1931,000,000. Pioneer. Moscow: IDeHTpaJibasoe Hyx6a aeobCTe3 H apTo r CCCP.
Lopsan et al. 1933. (Conrenltainsi [Let's Study]. (Kyzyl):15 districts of Tuva Kyryneni.) Nom CogaadCeri [Tuvan State "Book-
Production Place"].
Sedip-ool, 0 T. 1934. Caa Oruk: lu ulus kr y [New Path: Reader for Adults]. (Kyzyl): TAR Kultur
Minister Cerini Nom Cogaadhester Kildizi [TPR Ministry of Culture, Department of Book Production].
2. Philatelic Literature:
Blekhman [CommiexaH], S. 1.the1976. Tuvan oHtextsgivenby aMr.Leightonare AaBo TyCc Moscow: g e II J
<>. (Discussion of Tuvan post office locations, p. 27.)
Ustinovskii [YcT1HOBCKHi], V. N. 2000. Tya." 3,iaKHrHo rioHf oja Thi Moscow. (Table of known postmarks,
pp. 31-40.)
3. Maps:
TiBa Arat Respubliktin Xelmir Curuu. [Hand-drawn map of the TAR at the scale of 1:1,000,000, hanging in the
museum in the village of Kochetovo, Tuva.] (The map has no date, but uses the Latin Tuvan alphabet, which
strongly implies its creation in the 1930 s.)
Pec = ch; = ghKa T "g"); 1993 [Map, 1:1,000,000]. Moscow: e urepa; = muffHa led "i" y6a eon the Russian KaTorpa -
PoccHH. (Contains an inset showing the 15 districts of Tuva.)
4. Gazetteer:
"OcHOBHbie reorpacpraqecKHe Ha3BaHHa TyBHHCKoI ACCP". Contained in TyBHHcKo-PyccKHHf CjioBapI
(Moscow: H39. <, 1968), pp. 636-646.

My thanks go to Brian Donahoe, Erfurt, Germany, for the Tuvan translations and for an introduction to the mysteries of Tuvan linguistics,
and to Simon Winchester for providing a 13 x 18 cm photograph of the 1930s map of the TAR.

Editorial Comment: As the Tuvan texts given by Mr. Leighton are A a B b Cb c D d E e' Ff GgfQ 010o If Jj
in the Unified Latin Turki Alphabet, it is set out here with English Kk LI Mm Nn 0o G a PIP Pr Ss'
equivalents, where they differ from Western usage:- T t U u Vv Xx Yy Zzz b

C = ch; 7, = gh (soft "g"); 0 = German d; S = sh; Z = "s" as in measure; i. = muffled "i" as in the Russian '%i%" -q = ny


THE POST-RIDER/IMIUHK N! 58
Jube 2006







THE RETURN OF MAIL IN THE USSR IN WARTIME 1941-1945
by Meer Kossoy (Israel).
In the period of WWII (1941-1945), the multimillion population of the USSR was called into the ranks of the Red
Army or evacuated to the Rear of the country from the territory occupied by the German Wehrmacht (Army), The war
disrupted families, relatives and friends. During that terrible time, people experienced deep perturbation, as they had no
information about the life, health and fate of their loved ones. They tried to receive such information by mail, sending
numerous letters or postcards. For example, just the Military Postal Service (from now on in the text: BIII) delivered to
the Army on Active Service up to 70 million letters per month. In total for the years of war, the MPS/BnnI handled and
delivered about 6000 million pieces of mail, among them being 5794 million ordinary letters, 52.4 million registered
items and 4.5 million letters with declared value [1]
Each letter to the Front strengthened the morale of the fighters and encouraged them in the battle with the enemy.
The postal service between the Rear and the Front had an important political meaning, as well as maintaining morale.
That was why, from the first days of the war, the Government took measures for ensuring the uninterrupted work of the
MPS/BIfhI, In spite of the difficult conditions at the Front and in the Rear, a decision was still taken even in the first
months of the war, in accordance with which it was forbidden to mobilize postal transport for other purposes, including
military. In order to accelerate the delivery of mail to the Front, it was permitted to couple postal wagons to the passenger
trains and military echelons passing through, as well as a range of other measures.
In spite of great difficulties linked with wartime conditions, the Postal Service attempted to deliver each letter to
the addressee. However, that was not always possible for many objective reasons. In cases where it was not possible to
deliver mail to the addressee, the Postal Service ensured its return to the addressee.
The return was carried out according to specific regulations, in addition to the application of various official
postal markings or handwritten notations, which were placed on the mail.. Up to the present time, such official cachets
and manuscript notations have hardly been studied and they have not been written up in the philatelic literature.. There is
only one publication [2] known to the author, in which Yu. Lur'e showed some postal sending with the texts referring to
the return of mail and also one postcard with such a marking. In the present case. the absence of information in the
literature may be partly explained by the rarity of the philatelic material bearing official cachets and handwritten notes
about the return of mail.
The aim of the present article is to explain the reasons for the return of mail, as well as to study and illustrate the
official cachets and handwritten notes on such mail. We will now deal with some reasons for the return of mail.
THE FIRST REASON came about as a result of the occupation by the German armies of a considerable amount of the
territory of the USSR. Postal communications with the occupied territories were broken and the mail addressed thereto
was liable to be returned to the sender.
As an example, the address side of a registered letter J2 724 is shown in Fig. 1 which was franked with five
definitive: 15+10+5+10+20 = 60 kopeks, which covered the postal rate for the transmission of a registered letter.. The
stamps were cancelled with the dispatch marking LENINGRAD / 22.6.41. The date on the postmark is of considerable
historical interest regarding the USSR, as that was the day that the War broke out.
The letter was addressed to the town of Rezekne in Latvia. It should be noted that even in the first days of the war,
Latvia was partly occupied by the advancing German forces. For that reason, the letter could not be delivered to the
addressee and it was returned to the sender. Therefore, the address of the recipient in Rezekne was crossed out in red
pencil and a notation was written in violet ink, reading: "Back to the sender / see the back" (the address of the sender was
written on the back). In accordance with the notation, the letter was returned to the sender. That is confirmed by the
arrival marking of Leningrad 7.8.41 on the back of the cover.
In designating the above reason, the mail was returned to the sender in very many cases. To explain the
reason for return, official cachets were prepared in-some of the larger towns and applied to the mail together with
handwritten notations.
The address side of a cover sent from Naval Postal Station X2 1104 at the Baltic Fleet is featured in Fig. 2
with the dispatch marking reading "MOPCKAI IIOqTA X2 1104 / 19.10.4" with serial letter "a'.
During the period of the War (1941-1945), the mail from the Army to the Rear and in the return direction was
sent free of charge. In order to confirm the right of post-free franking for a letter, a triangular cachet in violet was applied
with the text reading: "IIoqTOBIii mSHmHK / H.K.B.M.O." (P.O. Box / People's Commissariat of the Navy).
It should be noted that cachets with a similar text had to be placed on mail in accordance with the postal
regulations set out, in the pre-war period. After the beginning of the War, the presence of such a cachet was not required.
It can be assumed that the cachet on the cover in Fig 2 was applied by reason of ignorance of the new postal rules.
The letter was addressed to the Ukraine, which at that time had already been occupied by the German forces. For
that reason, the letter could not be delivered to the addressee and a cachet in black was therefore applied to the cover with
a text in three lines within a rectangular frame, reading: "TO WHERE (with a space for writing the address). It'is being


THE POST-RIDER/5MIHIIK N_ 58
June 2006






sent back by arrangement with the HKO (People's Commissariat of Defence)'; see the additional cachet in Fig. 2a
Further on in this article, the colours of the cachets will only be specified if they differ from black.
In accordance with the instruction on the cachet, the letter was returned to the sender. The arrival marking:
"MOPCKASI HnOTA ? 1104 / 1.12.41" with serial letter "6" is on the back of the cover.
We have in Fi. 3 the address side of a cover franked with three definitivess: 10+15+30 = 55 kopeks (apparently,
such a franking may be explained by the fact that it weighed more than 20 grammes (roughly 2/3 ounce), being cancelled
with a dispatch marki\ong reading MOCKBA 2.12.41. The letter was addressed to the town of Kaluga, which had already
by that time been occupied by the German forces. For that reason, the letter could not be delivered to the addressee and it
was returned to the sender. The address in Kaluga was therefore crossed out with a green pencil and a four-line cachet
was placed on the cover and reading: "Returned / because of the impossibility / to deliver it to the destination / Signature";
see the additional cachet in Fig. 3a.
In accordance with the instruction on the cachet, the letter was returned to the sender and the arrival marking of
Moscow 12.12.41 is on the back of the cover. Also on the back there is a strike in black of a Unified Censorship Cachet
(the initials in Russian are YIIII) applied by Censor NM 22; see the additional cachet in Fig. 3b. for which the colour is
black, as previously specified.
The author has applied the term"Unified Censorship Cachet" to the type of censorship marking showing the Arms
of the USSR and a standard text in two lines, reading: "IIPOCMOTPEHO / Boerioi IJeH3ypof" (Examined by the
Military Censorship), below which there is additional information about the number of the censor (from one to five
digits), or a fraction is given, in which the numerator contains data about the point where the censorship was carried out,
while in the denominator we have the number of the censor.
A supplementary showing has been made in this article by the author of the various types of censorship markings,
in order to illustrate the activity of the Military Censorship during the War (1941-1045). From now on in this article, the
Unified Censorship Cachets will not be shown by drawings, but there will only be specified the number of the censor, or
the fraction on the marking. There will be illustrated other types of censorship markings, which differ from the Unified
Censorship Cachets.
Fi. 4 features a postcard with an impressed stamp (I. Druzhinin Cllection, Russia), which was dispatched
21.10.41 from Moscow to an address in Volchansk, a town in the Khar'kov province in the Ukraine and already occupied
at that time by the German forces.. For that reason, the letter could not be delivered to the addressee and it was returned to
the sender. A rectangular cachet was therefore applied to the postcard with the text reading: "TO BE RETURNED / To
where (with a space in two lines to write in the address) / Moscow Section for the Conveyance of the Mails / at the Kursk
Railway Station"; see the additional cachet in Fig. 4a.
In accordance with the postal regulations, the mail always had to be returned to the inhabited point specified in
the return address and not the locality shown on the postmark of dispatch. There is no arrival marking on the card.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 5, with the two definitive 10+15 = 25 kopeks cancelled with the dispatch marking of
MOCKBA 30.7.42. The card was addressed to Temryuk (in the Krasnodar District), which had already been occupied at
that times by the German forces. For that reason, the card could not be delivered to the addressee and it was returned to
the sender. A slip of paper was therefore glued to the postcard and a rectangular cachet in four lines was applied to the
slip, reading: "To be returned on the basis / of an arrangement with the HKC (People's Commissariat of Communications)
/Worker at the Bauman Junction / of Communications in the city of Moscow"; see the additional cachet in Fi. 5a.
It should be noted that, in many cases, the official stamp or handwritten notation of the instruction were often not
applied to a postcard or envelope, but on a slip of paper, which was then affixed in the top left corer of the card or cover.
In accordance with the instruction on the cachet, the card was returned to the sender, with the arrival marking
reading: "Moscow 27.8.42".There is on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet with the fraction: "MOCKBA / 275" (the
numerator stated the point of censorship and the number in the denominator was that of the censor); see the additional
cachet in Fig. Sb.(top of p. 48).
In the opinion of the author, the cachets shown in Figs. 2 to 5 and also the cover in Fi. 1 with the date 22.6.41
may be placed in the 4t. Category of Rarity, when evaluating in a 5-point system.
THE SECOND REASON for returning mail was linked with cases where the addressee had been killed or had
disappeared without trace. It should be noted that it was forbidden to write on postal sending the words "killed" or
"disappeared without trace". Instead of those words, a handwritten notation about the reason for returning the mail was of
the type: "JOCTABHTb HEBO3MOHO" (Delivery Impossible).
As an example, a postcard with an impressed stamp is shown in Fi. 6 in which the 20-kopek value was cancelled
with the dispatch postmark of Sterlitamak 3.10.41. The card was addressed to Field Post Station N! 145 (the Russian
initials from now on are: IIITC) 2 JHO (2nd, Division of the National Militia), with the arrival marking reading
"IIOJIEBAS IIORTA XN 145 / 6.12.41" (Field Post Office N2 145).
The addressee had been killed and the postcard was therefore returned to the sender. For that reason a report was

THE POST-RIDER/JIMIHK M 58 45
June 2006










4 0













.eN .
C I.
; :I'



Fi0..1.

......... ii '- i ; -.84` 'i -,




















3fcnopR~v~ejLj5P j HKa,, CS. -K.'
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,A~ocagL


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June 2006


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BoaspauaeeTCA ,o0paTtio no
pacnopgI)KeMibo HKQ

Fii. 2a. o pa ae aa
~~8~L13 o 3 B p aiulae-Tc s, 3a'
HFBOZMOM~HOCT~jO x.CTa -
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M CIO B cEcHA OTaen niepeB0 3KOi lOfbI

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Fig. 5.






affixed With the text of instruction in three lines reading: "Being returned Sterlitamak/ cannot be/ delivered / (signature
below)". The postmark of dispatch from the Field Postal Station: "IIOJIEBAA IIOTTA N2 145 / 7.12.41" was applied
in the message area. There is no arrival postmark of Sterlitamak. There is on the card a non-standard censorship cachet
(the Russian initials henceforth in the article are: HYIIIJ); see the additional cachet in Fin. 6a.
We see in Fig. 7 a postcard with an impressed stamp of 20 kopeks, which was cancelled with the dispatch
postmark of Sverdlovsk 24.12.43.The card was addressed to the Front at Field Postal Station X_ 48226. Once at the Front,
the card was sent in the normal way via the Field Postal Sorting Point (Russian initials: BIICII). That was confirmed by
the transit marking, reading: BFICII N 22 / 24.12.43". The coincidence of the dates on the postmarks of dispatch and the
MPSP allows us to determine that BICHI N 22 was situated in Sverdlovsk. The card was delivered to the addressee,
with the postmark of arrival reading: "IIOJIEBAI IIOqTA (Field Postal Service) / 5.1.44; the marking is not clear.
The addressee had either been killed or had disappeared without trace and a notation was therefore made on the postcard
in red pencil, reading: "Delivery / impossible" with a signature below. The address of the Field Postal Station was
therefore crossed out, as well as that of Sverdlovsk in brown pencil. There is a large capital "B" in front of the address,
being the Russian initial standing for "To be returned". The card was returned to the sender, with the arrival marking
reading Sverdlovsk 12.1.44. There is on the card a violet Unified Censorship Cachet with the number 04830, of the type
shown in Fig. 3b.
Fi. 8 illustrates the address side of a registered cover JM 293, which was franked with 4 x 15-kopek definitive to
total 60 kopeks, in accordance with the postal rate for the dispatch of a registered letter. The stamps were cancelled with
the sending postmark of Leningrad 28.7.43. The letter was addressed to the Front at Field Postal Station 42060, with the
transit of the MPSP / BICICI XM 2 / 22.8.43 on the back of the cover, as well as the arrival marking "IIOJIEBA5I
fIO'TA 27.8.43" (the postmark is not really clear). The addressee had either been killed or had disappeared without
trace and, for that reason, the letter was returned to the sender A report was therefore affixed to the cover, with the text
stating in three lines: "Returned, Leningrad / delivery / impossible / two signatures below". The dispatch marking of the
Field Postal Station 42058 / 30,8.43 was applied in the message section.. The postmark is of significant interest as it bears
a number consisting of five digits. Such cancellations were utilized only for postmarking registered mail (declared value,
registered, parcels and money-order items), or together with the instructive notations applied in returning mail.
In accordance with the instruction, the letter was returned to the sender, with the arrival marking on the back of
the cover reading Leningrad 10.9.43, together with a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet and the number 05012; see Fi.
3a for the cachet type.
In the opinion of the author, the postcard featured in Fig. 6 (with a designated sending in 1941 and an "open"
address given as "2nd, Division of the National Militia", as well as the cover in Fin. 8 (specifying the postmark of a Field
Postal Station with a number in five digits) should be placed in the 4h. Category of Rarity and the postcard in Fig 7 in the
3rd. Category of Rarity in the Five-Point System.
THE THIRD REASON for the return of mail was the departure of the addressee from his military unit, namely to receive
treatment after having been wounded. During the period of the War, many servicemen were wounded and were sent for
treatment to a hospital or to the Rear. In the military units, the address of a wounded soldier being sent for treatment was
unknown and the mail was therefore returned to the sender with an instructional marking reading: THE ADDRESSEE
HAS GONE AWAY. ADDRESS UNKNOWN.
We have as an example in Fig. 9 a postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp (under the report) and cancelled
with the dispatch marking of Leningrad 7.5.44. The card was addressed to the Field Postal Station 16100 R and bears
the transit marking of "MPSP / BIICII JN 2 / 9.5.44". There is under the report the arrival marking of the Field Postal
Service 1.6.44. The addressee had gone away from the military unit and, as a result, there is a pencilled notation in the
upper left corner, reading: "Gone away / 2/VI / signature". The card was returned to the sender and, for that reason the
address of the Field Postal Station was crossed out, together with that of Leningrad in pencil. A report was affixed to the
card and a four-line cachet was applied thereon, reading: "TO BE RETURNED / To Leningrad (the city has been written
in ink in the cachet) /The addressee has gone away / address unknown / Postmaster at Military Postal Station M
(signature)"; see Fig. 9a for the additional cachet.
There is in the cachet at the end of the fourth line a text in two lines, reading "Date/Stamp". That inscription
followed the instruction that, in returning mail. it was necessary to apply on the cachet the circular date-stamp of the Field
Postal Service. That instruction was obeyed with the application of the dispatch postmark of the Field Postal Service,
reading: "HOJIEBAA IIO'TA 6.6.44". In accordance with the text in the cachet, the card was returned to the sender,
with the arrival marking reading "Leningrad 19.6.44". There is also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet
with the number 01028 of the type shown in Fig. 3a.
A cachet with a text similar to that in Fig. 9a but in a different font is featured in Fig. 10 on a triangular letter.
According to the message, that letter was sent from Astrakhan on 9.8.41 and addressed to Military Postal Station 911. The
addressee had gone away from the military unit and the letter was therefore returned to the sender. A cachet in violet was
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIOK N 58 47
June 2006












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Fig. 10a.


THE POST-RIDER/AMIHlK No 58
June 2006






therefore placed on the letter; see the text of the cachet in Fig. 9a. In accordance with the text in the cachet, the letter was
returned to the sender, with the arrival marking reading: "Astrakhan' 14.10.42". There is on the letter a Unified
Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction: 15/36; see Fig. 10a for this additional marking.. The numerator of the fraction
specifies that the letter was examined by the military censorship at MPSP/BIICTI M15, while the denominator shows the
number of the censor.
A postcard is featured in Fig. 11, in which the addresses of the sender and recipient are the same as those in Fig.
9. with the postmark of dispatch being Leningrad 29.2.44 and the transit marking reads MPSP/BIICII 2 / 29.2.44. The
coincidence of dates for the postmark of dispatch and the MPSP allows us to determine that MPSP/BfICII N2 2 was
located in Leningrad. The addressee had gone away from the military unit and the card was therefore returned to the
sender. A report was therefore affixed to the card and a cachet was placed thereon with a text in four lines, reading: "To
L(eningra)d (name of the city written in ink) / BECAUSE OF THE DEPARTURE / OF THE ADDRESSEE /
POSTMASTER OF THE OFFICE / Signature"; see the additional cachet in Fig. 1 la. In contrast to Fig. 9a, the cachet in
Fig. a lacks the text: "Address unknown". In accordance with the text in the cachet, the card was returned to the sender
with the arrival marking of Leningrad 13.3.43.There is also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the
number 01039; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking:. the top left corner of p. 48.
In the opinion of the author, the cachet for the return of mail from the Military Postal Station may be placed in the
4". Category of Rarity and the cachets in Figs. 10 & 11 in the 3rd. Category of Rarity (the category has been lowered
because of the absence on the report of the Military Postal Station marking), when evaluating in the 5-Point System.
Most of the Military Postal Stations did not have a special cachet for the return of mail and, in its place they added
a handwritten notation of the type reading: "ADDRESSEE HAS GONE AWAY". The texts of the notations were not
uniform and differed from each other in the various Military Postal Stations.
As an example, we see in Fig. 12 a postcard, which was addressed to Military Postal Stationl6056-D (on Figs. 9
& 12 the address was different: MPS 16100-R). The postmark of dispatch was Leningrad 28.5.43 and that of arrival:
"ITOJIEBA5I IIOITA 8.7.43". There is a notation in green ink under the report slip on the card, reading: "The
addressee has gone away and it is unknown where (signature)" and, for that reason, the card was returned to the sender.
An instruction was therefore written on the report, reading :"To be returned / to Leningrad / because of the absence of the
addressee / Postmaster of the Military Postal Station / (signature)". A dispatch postmark of the Military Postal Service
reading "ITOJIEBASI IIOITA 26.7.43"was applied to the text of the report
In accordance with the text of the instruction, the card was returned to the sender, with the arrival marking reading
Leningrad 8.8.43. There is a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet on the card with the fraction 2/112; see Fig. 10a for this
type of marking. The numerator of that fraction specifies that the card was examined by the MPSP/BITCII M 2, while the
denominator showed the number of the censor.
The portrait of Dmitrii Donskoi (1350-1389) is shown on the card; he led the armed struggle of the Russian
people against the Mongol and Tartar conquerors and destroyed them in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. There is under the
portrait the noted call of I.V. Stalin: "May the manly image of our great ancestors Aleksandr Nevskii, Dmitrii Donskoi,
Kuz'ma Minin, Dmitrii Pozharskii, Aleksandr Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov inspire you in this war".
A postcard is shown in Fig. 13 with the impressed 10-kopek stamp cancelled with the dispatch marking reading:
"Yukamenskoe Ud(murt)ASSR/ 14.6.43". The card was addressed to Military Postal Station 75665/1 and, under the
report, bears the transit postmark of MPSP/BIICII M 17 / 17.6.43, which was apparently situated in Chekyabinsk. There
is no arrival marking.. The addressee had gone away from his military unit and that was confirmed by the text of the
report: "The addressee is not / in the unit (signature below)". The report was written on grey-blue paper, upon which there
is a partial text of a label in a rectangular frame reading: "To be sent up to MPSP/BIICTI ...../ to the report. / Military
Unit ? / Postmaster of the Military Postal Station X-,,,.". The report has been affixed to the upper left corner of the
postcard and it is not visible, as another report covers it. In Fig. 13 the report has been temporarily moved down from the
upper left corner, in order that the text may be seen. The addressee had gone away from his unit and the card was
therefore returned to the sender. For that reason and above the first report, another report was affixed with an instructional
text in four lines, reading: "To (be returned) Yukamensk Udm, / because of the departure / of the addressee from the unit
MP (signature below)". The report was written on the back of a label for the return of mail. There is on the label a text in a
rectangular frame reading: "TO BE RETURNED / TO (a line for writing in the address) / Addressee has gone away /
address / unknown / Postmaster of the Field Postal Service / space for the circular date-stamp"; see Fig. 13a. It should be
noted that the text of this label_practically coincideswith the text in the cachet; see Fig. 9a.
The dispatch marking of the Field Postal Station has been placed on the text of the report and reads:
"IIOJIEBAAI IIO'TA 30.6.43". In accordance with the instruction on the report, the card was returned to the sender,
with the arrival marking reading Yukamenskoe 8.7.43.There is on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet with the fraction
17/33; see Fig. 10b for that type of marking.The numerator of that fraction specifies that the postcard was examined by
the military censorship of MPSP/BIICII 2 17 and the number of the censor is in the denominator.

THE POST-RIDER/IHMIHK X 58 49
June 2006

























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THE POST-RIDER/iMIIHKI No 58
June 2006


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17. THE POST-RIDER/lMIHKJ NL 58 Fig. 17a.
June 2006


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A postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp is shown in Fig. 14 cancelled with the dispatch postmark of
Kazan' 16.8.43. The card was addressed to Military Postal Station XN 17296 and bears the transit marking "'JIABHbH1
BITCI 19.VIII.1943" (Main Military Postal Sorting Point, which was in Moscow). The sender was absent from the unit
and, for that reason, a note was written in black pencil on the card, stating: "He has gone away unknown / to where
(signature)". The card was therefore returned to the sender. A report was for that reason affixed to the card with a
instructional text in three lines, reading "To (be returned) to Kazan' (text crossed out / He went away / unknown to where
(with two signatures below)". The dispatch postmark of the Military Postal Station was placed on the report and read:
"IIOJIEBAA IIONTA 39469 / 8.10.43". The postmark is of considerable interest, as it has a number in five digits. In
accordance with the instruction, the card was returned to the sender, with the arrival postmark reading Kazan' 23.10.43.
The card also bears a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the number 13893; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
We see in Fig. 15 the address side of a cover from Lodeinoe Pole (Leningrad province) 4.3.45 and addressed to
Military Postal Station 75751-U, together with a transit marking reading: MPSP/BHICII 2J 2 / 4.3.45 (located in
Leningrad) and an arrival postmark of the Military Postal Station, reading: "HOJIEBA5I nIOITA 6.3.45" (see the
postmarks on the back of the cover in Fig. 15a). The addressee was absent from the military unit and that was confirmed
by the text of the report, reading: "Gudzyanskii (surname of the addressee) at / Military Postal Station 75751-U. /He has
gone away / address unknown (date 16.03.45 and a signature below)".
Instead of a circular date-stamp, a violet cachet was placed on the text of the report, reading: "Military Unit / Field
Postal Service 75751-U / For / packets". That marking is of significant interest, as it bears a five-digit number of the
Military Postal Service. In accordance with the text of the first report, the addressee had gone away from the military unit
and the letter was returned to the sender. A second report was therefore affixed above on the cover with the instructional
text reading in three lines: "To (be returned) to Lodeinoe Pole / Leningrad prov. / in accordance with the report (two
signatures below)". In order that the text of the first report would become visible, the second report is shown rotated a full
180 degrees. It was written on the back of a label made of grey-green paper. The text of the label reads in a rectangular
frame: "To be returned / To (space for writing in the address) / because of dissolution of the military unit by the Military
Postal Station / Postmaster / circular date stamp". In accordance with the instruction on the report (see Fig. 15a), the letter
was returned to the sender, with the arrival marking reading : Lodeinoe Pole,Leningrad (province) 19.3.45.. There is also
on the cover a Unified Censorship Cachet in green with the number 22904; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking
A postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp was cancelled with the dispatch marking reading: Molotov
31.10.42. The card was addressed to Military Postal Station 211 and bears a transit marking: MPSP/BIICII N2 17 /
3.11.42, together with the arrival marking: "IIOJIEBASI IIOH TA N2 211 / 7.11.42." The addressee was absent from the
military unit, apparently at Military Postal Station 211 (see the note on the right side of the card). The card was not sent to
the specified address, but returned to the sender. A report was therefore affixed to the card with the instructional text
reading: "To be returned / to Molotov / in accordance with the report (signature of the postmaster of the MPS below)".
The dispatch marking of the Military Postal Station was placed on the text of the report and reads: "IIOJIEBASI
IInOTA N2 211 14.11.42". In accordance with the instruction, the card was returned to the sender, with the arriving
marking reading: Molotov 21.11.43, together with a Unified Censorship Cachet N! 46; see Fig. 3b for that type of mark.
A cover is featured in Fig. 17, which was sent from Moscow 29.6.44 and addressed to Military Postal Station
14145, with a transit marking reading: "TJIABHbIIf BIICII 30.6.44" (Main Military Postal Sorting Point, which was in
Moscow). There is no arrival marking.. The addressee had gone away and that is confirmed by the text on the back of the
cover: "He went away / to the hospital (signature below)". For that reason, the letter was returned to the sender. The
address of the MPS was therefore crossed out and a report was affixed to the cover with the text stating: "To be returned
to Moscow 68 / the addressee has gone away / to the hospital (two signatures below)"
During the wartime conditions, there was a shortage of various goods, including of paper. Every scrap of paper
had to be utilized and, as an example, this report was written on the back of a label taken from a military post-packet. That
is confirmed by the postmark on the label, reading: "MPSP/BnICII N 5 / 2.7.44"; see Fig. 17a. The dispatch marking of
the Military Postal Station was placed on the text of the report and read: "InOJIEBA5I IIOHTA 02929 / 5.7.44.". The
postmark is of significant interest, as it bears a number in five digits. In accordance with the instruction on the report, the
letter was returned to the sender, with the arrival marking reading Moscow 14.7.44. There is a Unified Censorship Cachet
on the cover with the number 21225; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
During the wartime conditions, the return of the mail from military units was sometimes even carried out
in the lack of the relevant cachets or report with instructions about returning. As an example, a "triangular" letter is
illustrated in Fig. 18 which was sent from Makhach-Kala, Dagestan ASSR 31.1.42 and addressed to Leningrad, P.O. Box
N2 710 (to a student of a military school). An arrival marking is lacking, but there is a text written at first in pencil and
then in ink and reading: "Addressee has gone off to the Fighting Forces /(below is the date 24/11I and a signature). As he
had departed, the letter was returned to the sender. For that reason, the address in Leningrad was crossed out, as was also
that of Makhach-Kala and there was written in front of them the capital letter "B" (being the first letter in the Russian "To


THE POST-RIDER/RIIMIIHK 58
June 2006




















Fig. 19.


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THE POST-RIDER/HISIIWHK No 58
June 2006






be returned". The arrival marking reads: Makhach-Kala Dag(estanskoi) ASSR 25.4.42. There is also on the letter a
Unified Censorship Cachet in violet, but the number cannot be read; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
In the opinion of the author, the postal sending featured in Figs. 13, 14. 15 & 17 with samples of the return of
mail from the Army on Active Service may be placed in the 4t. Category of Rarity, since in the reports of returns, there
are interesting postmarks with five-digit numbers, or reports written on special labels. The sending in Figs. 12, 16 & 18
should ne in the 3rd. Category of Rarity per the evaluation in a 5-point system.
FOURTH REASON for the return of mail was linked with cases of regrouping as a result of heavy losses of men in the
military subdivisions, as a result of which they also terminated their activity and utilization of their Field Postal Stations.
During the period of the War, all the mail from the Rear to the Army on Active Service was sent through the
BITICI (Military Postal Sorting Points), which were located in the Rear or close to the Front and also via Military Postal
Bases (in Russian initials: BITB). There was information at the Military Postal Sorting Points and Military Postal Bases
about the locations of the relevant military units and the utilization of their Military Postal Stations. In the case of a
regrouping of a military unit, such information was immediately handed over to the Field Postal Sorting Points and
Military Postal Bases. Upon the arrival of the mail at the MPSP and MPB, for example to the address of a Field Postal
Station, the number of which was missing in the listing of the existing ones, such a postal sending was to be returned to
the sender. As for the return of mail not from a Field Postal Station, as was shown earlier in Figs. 6 to 17 and from
Military Postal Bases or Military Postal Sorting Points, there was ensured a significant precision and acceleration in the
process of return. The circular date-stamp of a Military Postal Base was applied to the report and the official cachet of a
Military Postal Sorting Point on the postal sending. The reports and cachets of return had a characteristic text, reading:
BO3BPAIIAETCAI 3A BbIBbITHEM AJIPECATA (It is being returned because of the departure of the addressee.
It should be noted that the circular date-stamps of the Military Postal Bases are rarely encountered on mail and
especially on reports of return. As an example, we see in Fig. 19 an envelope upon which the 30-kopek definitive was
cancelled by the dispatch marking of Chkalov 5.3.42. The letter was addressed to Field Postal Station NX 932 and bears a
transit marking: MPSP/BIICII X2 19 / 25.3.42 (Military Postal Sorting Point NM 19 served the Southern Front). There is
no arrival marking of the Field Postal Station. In accordance with the instruction on the report "It is being returned /
because of the departure / of the addressee", the letter was returned to the sender.. The return was carried out, not by the
Field Postal Station, where it was required to deliver the letter according to the address, but from an intermediate point of
a Military Postal Base. That is confirmed by the dispatch marking placed on the text of the report and reading: "BIIB
JIHT (EPA) AM / 21.6.42". The postmark of arrival at the sender reads Chkalov 27.6.42.
There is on the cover a Unified Censorship Cachet with the fraction 19/28 (see Fig. 10a for that type of marking).
The numerator of this fraction specifies that the letter was examined by the military censorship of MPSP/BUCICTI J 19,
while the denominator gives the number of the censor.
We have in Fig. 20 a postcard with an impressed 10-kopek stamp (M. Grinberg Collection, Russia), which was
cancelled by the dispatch postmark of Molotov 18.9.41? (the marking is poorly struck). The card was addressed to Field
Postal Station NX 695, but there is no arrival marking. In accordance with the affixed label with the text of the report, the
card was returned to the sender at Molotov. The reason for the return was specified in the report: "He went away to
another military / unit". The return was carried out not by a Field Postal Station, but by a Military Postal Base. That is
confirmed by the dispatch marking applied on the text of the report and reading: "BIIB JIHT.(EPA) AIl 7.10.41"
There is on the card aNon-standard Censorship Cachet; see that additional cachet in Fig. 20a.
In the opinion of the author, the postal sending featured in Figs. 19 & 20 and which bear reports about the return
of mail, together with the circular date-stamp of a Military Postal Base can be placed in the 5'h. Category of Rarity per the
evaluation according to the 5-point system.
As was stated above, the return of mail sent from the Rear to the Army on Active Service was carried out not only
from a Military Postal Base (such sending are found very rarely), but far more often the return was carried out by a
Military Postal Sorting Point. As an example, Fig. 21 shows a cover made of dark grey paper, on the back of which there
is the dispatch marking of Leningrad 14.4.45 and the transit postmark of MPSP/BIICII XN 2 / 14.4.45 (which was in
Leningrad). The letter was addressed to Field Postal Station 2M 37387, but it did not reach the addressee and it was
returned by Military Postal Sorting Point N2 2. That is confirmed by the framed rectangular cachet in violet with the text:
"IT IS BEING RETURNED / because of the departure / of the addressee / Postmaster of the office / Military Postal
Sorting Point"; see this additional cachet in Fig. 21a, together with the arrival marking of Leningrad 28.6.45. There is on
the cover a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number 26104; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
An official letter is given in Fig. 22 in an opened out state, which was sent from Hospital N 1030 to the address
of the Commander of Military Unit N- 43748. The dispatch marking reads: Semenov, Gor'k(ovskoi province) 26.7.45.
The letter was addressed to Field Postal Station 43748, but it did not reach the addressee and it was returned from Military
Post Sorting Point X2 1 (which was in Moscow). That is confirmed by a cachet with a text in a rectangular frame reading:
"IT IS BEING RETURNED / because of the departure of the addressee / Postmaster of the office / MPSP"; see the cachet
SFin 22a. THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK MN* 58
54 June 2006








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Fig. 26a. TH E PO ST -R EDER/SJM 1I( K N2 58 F z 2 .5
June 2006






In comparison with the cachets in Figs. 21a & 22a, it is evident that they have a Unified text and the differences
consist in the arrangement of the texts in three or two lines. There is no arrival marking, but the date of return: 6.8.45 was
written on the cover, together with a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number 12545; see Fig. 3b for that type of
marking..
A letter-card is shown in Fig. 23, which was sent from Moscow 20.12.45 to the address of Field Post Station N2
40275. The letter-card did not reach the addressee and was returned from the Main Military Postal Sorting Point, which
was located in Moscow. That is confirmed by a framed rectangular cachet with the inscription: "IT IS BEING
RETURNED / because of the departure of the addressee / Main MPSP ROZANOVA"; see that type of additional marking
in Fig. 23a. There was a characteristic peculiarity in the cachets of the Main MPSP in that they were "personal" and the
surname was specified in the text of the cachet.. In accordance with the instruction in the cachet, the letter-card was
returned to the sender and the arrival marking reads Moscow 13.1.46. There is also on the letter-card a Unified Censorship
Cachet with the number 22874; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
A cachet, similar to the one in Fig. 23a, but with the surname "KOVALEVSKII" is shown in Fig. 24 on a
"triangular" letter (I. Bryun Collection, Russia), which was sent from Leningrad and addressed to Field Postal Station
53183. In accordance with the instructional text in the cachet, the letter was returned to the sender, with the arrival
marking reading Leningrad 27.7.45". There is a Unified. Censorship Cachet on the letter with the number 22874; see Fig.
3b for that type of marking.
A cachet, similar to the one in Fig. 23. but with the surname "KOZLOV" is featured in Fig. 25 on a_"triangular"
letter (M. Grinberg Collection, Russia), which was sent from Novosibirsk and addressed to Field Postal Station 06009. In
accordance with the instructional text on the cachet, the letter was returned to the sender abd arrived back in Novosibirsk
14.2.45. There is on the letter a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number 05671; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
In the opinion of the author, the cachets for the return of mail featured in Figs. 21 to 25 can be placed in the 3".
Category of Rarity,.per the evaluation in a 5-point system.
FIFTH REASON for the return of mail was linked with cases of not specifying or with an incorrect direction in the
address number of a Field Postal Station, as such numbers were often changed in wartime. As an example, we have in Fig
26 a postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp, which was cancelled with the dispatch marking of Bolotnoe,
Novosibirsk province 23.9.41. The card was addressed to Field Postal Station 33 and that number was apparently missing
in the listing of active Field Postal Stations, or was mistakenly regarded as the number of a sapper company, so the card
was returned to the sender. A framed rectangular cachet in violet was therefore applied to the card, reading: "IT IS BEING
RETURNED / for not specifying the Field Postal Station number / Director of the office / MPSP 17(then a line for the
signature"; see Fig. 26a for that type of additional marking (the Military Postal Sorting Point 17 was situated in
Yaroslavl'). In accordance with the instruction on the cachet, the card was returned to the sender with the dispatch
marking: "BHCII XM 17". The arrival marking reads: Bolotnoe, Novosibirsk province 1.1.42. There is on the card a
Unified Censorship Cachet; see Fig. 26b for the additional cachet.
We have in Fig. 27 a slip of thick paper, which substituted as as a postcard, as there was a shortage of paper in
wartime.The dispatch marking on the card reads Kazan' 29.5.43 and it was addressed to Field Postal Station 9298 T, but it
was returned to the sender because of an incorrect specification of the address (at that time, the Field Postal Stations had
numbers in five digits, but only four were given in the address}. In the process of returning, the FPS address was crossed
out with a blue pencil and a framed rectangular cachet was applied, reading: "IT IS BEING RETURNED / because of an
incorrect specification/ of the number of the Field Postal / Station / Director of the office / 1t. Military Postal Sorting
Point"; see the additional cachet in Fig. 27a. In accordance with the instructional text in the cachet, the card was returned
to the sender, with the arrival marking reading: Kazan'24.6.43. There is also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet with
a fraction and reading Kazan' 15/8 ( the numerator specifies the place where the censorship was carried out and the
denominator has the number of the censor); see Fig. 5b for that type of marking.
An illustrated postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp is shown in Fig. 28. which was cancelled with the
dispatch marking of Moscow 15.3.44. The card was addressed to Field Postal Station 1101, but it did not reach the
addressee and it was returned by the Main Military Postal Sorting Point in Moscow. For that reason, the address of the
Field Postal Station was crossed out and the address of the sender in Moscow was underlined with a red pencil. A framed
rectangular cachet in red was applied on the postcard, with the text reading :"IT IS BEING RETURNED / because of an
incorrect specification / of the Field Postal Service / Director of the office / of the Main MPSP"; see Fig. 28a for the
additional cachet in that type. In accordance with the instruction on the cachet, the card was returned to the sender with
the arrival date reading Moscow 27.3.44. The card also has a UnifiedCensorship Cachet with the number 10804; see Fig.
3b: for that type of marking.
Fig. 29 features a postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp, which was cancelled by the dispatch marking of
Moscow 23.5.44..'The card was addressed to Field Postal Station 53305 and bears the transit postmark of the Main
Military Postal Softing Point 23.5.44. The card was returned to the sender and, for that reason, the address of the FPS was

56 THE POST-RIDER/ IMIIHK N 58
June 2006









T7p OClMOTPelo Boe uoi1. U1eNypol



Figy. 26b.


Fig. 27.


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Fig. 30a.


-Flg. 30. THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No 58
June 2006


B 0 3 B PAL,A ErTC F
38 Henp8BHJIbHblM yKSa3aHeM
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THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHIKN 58
June 2006


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Crossed out and the address of the sender in Moscow was underlined with a red pencil. The capital letter "B" (being the
initial letter in the Russian word "It is being returned") was written on the card and a red cachet with a rectangular frame
was applied, reading: "It is being returned / for an incorrect designation / of the post office number / Director of the office /
Main MPSP"; see Fig. 29a for this additional type of marking. There is an error in the text of the cachet: in the word for
"number"; the letter "e" is missing. In contrast to the other cachets, the designation "Field" is lacking before the term
"Postal Service" in the text of this example. In accordance with the instruction in the cachet, the card was returned to the
sender and the arrival marking reads: Moscow 5.6.44. There is also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet with the
number 10842 and, side by side, an additional censorship cachet with a large capital letter "fI".
Fig. 30 shows an official letter in an opened-out state, which was sent from Hospital N2 1030 to the address of the
Commander of Military Unit N 83089. The dispatch marking reads: Semenov, Gor'kii province, 26.7.45". The letter
was addressed to Field Postal Station 83089, but it did not reach the addressee and it was returned from the Main MPSP in
Moscow. That is confirmed by a framed rectangular cachet with the text: "IT IS BEING RETURNED / because of an
incorrect designation / of the number of the Field Postal Service / Main MPSP Lebedeva"; see the additional cachet in Fi
30a. There is no arrival marking, but the exact date of return 9.8.45 was recorded on the letter.
A cachet, similar to the one in Fig. 30a. but with the surname ANDRASOVA is shown in Fig. 31 on an official
letter, which was addressed to Field Postal Station 75561, with the dispatch marking reading: Semenov, Gor'kii province,
23.2.45". The date of return is specified on the letter as 9.8.45 and there is a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number
27578; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
In the opinion of the author, the cachets for the return of mail featured in Figs. 26 & 29 can be placed in the 4h.
Category of Rarity, and Figs. 27, 28, 30 & 31 in the 3rd. Category of Rarity per the evaluation in a 5-point system.
SIXTH REASON: The return of mail during the reorganisation of a Field Postal Station. Such an example was described
by Yu. Lur'e, see reference [2, Fig. 51. He wrote::"...The 8t. Rifle Division suffered especially heavy casualties and
maintained the defence of Smolensk. The remaining living fighters and commanders were assigned to other units. A
cachet was applied on the mail sent by the fighters of the 8 Division (Field Post Office 33), reading: "It is being
returned/ because of the reorganization / of the field postal station / Director of the office of MPSP N2 26"; see the card in
Fig. 32 (copied from reference [2] Fig. 5). There is on the postcard a dispatch marking for the return of mail, reading
"MPSP N2 26 / 22.2.42. (Military Postal Sorting Point Mb 26 was apparently located in Kazan' and it served the Stalingrad
Front). It should be noted that the postcard featured in Fig. 26 was also addressed to Field Postal Station 33 and was
returned to the sender. In the opinion of the author, the cachet shown inFig. 32a can be placed in the 4t. Category of
Rarity per the evaluation in a 5-point system.
SEVENTH REASON:The return of mail because of the expiration of the holding time. We looked above at the
characteristic cases of the return of mail from the Army to the Rear. It should be noted that there also took place in the
Rear numerous cases of the return of postal sending and they were linked with the fact that the War dispersed family
members, relatives and friends in various inhabited points of the enormous territory of the USSR. In parting, people did
not know what their new addresses would be. At the most, they knew only the city where they intended to live. When
they parted for that reason, it was agreed to send mail to a particular city, giving as the address: "General Post Office.
Poste Restante (To be called for)"..
In accordance with the postal regulations, the mail addressed to Poste Restante (To be called for) was held at a
post office for a period of one month (sometimes even less). In the case of the expiration of the holding time and the non-
appearance of the addressee to receive the mail, it was returned to the sender. Special cachets existed in some post offices,
which were applied on the mail being sent back.
As an example, we see in Fig. 33 the address side of a registered letter 673 in which two stamps totalling 60
kopeks were cancelled with the dispatch marking: "Kurovskoe, Moscowprovince 12.10.42". The letter was addressed to
"Ufa, Post Office, Poste Restante" and the arrival marking reads Ufa 19.10.42. The addressee did not appear for the letter
and it was returned after one month to the sender. For that reason, the address in Ufa was crossed out and the address of
the sender in Kurovskoe was underlined. A cachet was applied on the back of the cover, reading: "It is being returned
because of the expiration of the holding time / and the non-appearance of the addressee for receiving / Postmaster (the
date 21/XI written in ink plus a signature)"; see Fig. 33a for that additional marking. In accordance with the text specified
on the cachet, the letter was returned to the sender.and the'arrival marking reads Kurovskoe Moscow province 9.12.42.
There is also on the cover a Unified Censorship Cachet with a fraction, reading: "MOCKBA /401"; see Fig. 5a for that
type of marking.
An envelope with the word BOHHCKOE (= Military Letter) is featured in Fig. 34 and it was sent from Field
Postal Station 04085 to the address: "Makhach-Kala, To be called for". The dispatch marking reads "IIOJIEBAI
IIOHTA 24.7.43" and that of arrival: "Makhach-Kala Dag(estan) ASSR 10.8.43". The addressee did not appear to
receive the letter and, after the expiration of the holding time, it was therefore returned to the sender. For that reason, the
address in Makhach-Kala was crossed out and the address of the Field {Postal Station was underlined, placing a capital

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHMK M 58 59
June 2006







letter "B" (the initial Russian letter for the term "It is being returned")..A framed rectangular stamp was placed on the
letter with the text: "IT IS BEING RETURNED / because of expiration of the holding time / and the non-appearance of
the addressee / Director of the office (signature)"; see Fig. 34a for that additional marking.. The arrival postmark is absent,
but there is on the letter a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number 06407; see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
Fig. 35 features the address side of a cover with the 30-kopek stamp cancelled with the dispatch marking of
Leningrad 10.12.41. The letter was addressed to "Kazan', General Post Office, Poste Restante..." The cover is
backstamped with the arrival postmark of Kazan' 16.12.41._The addressee did not appear for the letter and, as a result, it
was returned to the sender upon expiration of the holding time. For that reason, a report was affixed with a framed
rectangular cachet reading: "To Leningrad (name of the city written in ink) / Because of expiration of the / holding time /
and non-appearance of the addressee / 21.1.42 (date written in ink) / Signature"; see the additional cachet in Fig. 35a..
The arrival marking of Leningrad is absent and there is a slip of paper on the back, sealing the cover after examination by
the censorship, together with a machine non-standard censorship cachet of Leningrad; see Fig. 35b for that type of
additional marking.
The cachets were prepared under local conditions and, for that reason, they differed from each other. Grammatical
mistakes are sometimes even encountered in the texts. For example, in comparing the cachets in Figs. 33, 34 & 35. one
can notice the different spelling for one and the same term, as follows:-
On Fig. 33: He aBKOH_(separated words); On Fig. 34: He iBKH (another case ending); On Fig. 35: neIBKOi (one word).
The address side of a cover is illustrated in Fig. 36 where the 30-kopek stamp was cancelled by the dispatch
postmark of Leningrad 5.11.41. The letter was addressed to Rostov-on-Don, with the arrival marking of 16.11.41 on the
back of the cover. The addressee had gone away from Rostovv-on-Don to Tbilisi, to where it was necessary to forward the
letter. For that reason, the address in Rostov-on-Don was crossed out and the new one written in, namely:"Tbilisi / Poste
Restante". An additional report was affixed to to the cover and read: "It is being sent to Tbilisi / 17.XI (signature)". The
addressee did not appear in Tbilisi for the letter and, for that reason, it was returned to the sender after the expiration of
the holding time. Yet another report was therefore affixed on the cover with the text: "It is being sent to Leningrad" and a
further framed rectangular cachet reading: "It is being sent back / because of expiration of the holding time / Co-worker
(signature)"; see Fig. 36a for this additional marking.. The arrival marking of Leningrad is lacking, but there is on the
back of the cover a slip of paper with a machine non-standard censorship cachet; see Fig. 35 for that marking,
We have in Fig. 37 a postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp, cancelled by the dispatch postmark of
Novosibirsk 31.3.45. The card was addressed to "Leningrad, General Post Office, Poste Restante", arriving on 11.4.45.
The addressee did not appear to receive it and the card was therefore returned to the sender upon expiration of the holding
time. As a result, a rectangular framed cachet was placed on the card with the text: "IT IS BEING SENT / because of the
expiration of the holding time"; see Fig. 37a for that additional cachet. The cachet differs from most of the known
examples, as the Russian term has been changed from BO3BPAIIIAETC5 to HAIIPABJIIETCI. The arrival
postmark of Novosibirsk is absent, but there is on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the number 00343;
see Fig. 3b for that type of marking.
In the opinion of the author, the cachets shown in Figs. 33 to 37 can be placed in the 3rd. Category of Rarity per
the evaluation in a 5-point system.
Most of the post offices did not have cachets for the return of mail and, to fulfill the requirement, manuscript
notations were placed on the correspondence. As an example, we have a postcard in Fig. 38 which was sent from Field
Postal Station 68311-V to the address: "Belomorsk, Main Post office, Poste Restante". A dispatch postmark is absent on
the card, but the message specified the date as 15.3.43. The arrival marking reads Belomorsk K(arelo)-F(inskoi) SSR
18.3.43. The addressee did not present himself to receive the card and it was therefore sent back to the sender upon
expiration of the holding time. As a result, a report was therefore affixed to the card with the text: "It is being returned to
Field Post Office 68311 / because of expiration / of the holding time / and non-appearance of the addressee / two
signatures below". The dispatch postmark of Belomorsk, Karelo-Finnish SSR 13.5.43 was applied on the text of the report
and there is a transit marking of MPSP/BICITI Xs 14 6 14.5.43 (MPSP XN 14 was situated in Kirov and served the
Karelian Front). In accordance with the text on the report, the card was returned to the sender, with an arrival marking on
the back reading "IOJIEBA5I IIOITA 16.5.43". The card also has a weak strike in violet of a Unified Censorship
Cachet with the fraction VT/28 (the numerator specifies the point of censorship at the Military Postal Base with code
letters VT, and the denominator shows the number of the censor; see Fig. 38a for that additional censorship marking.
Special paper labels of a pre-war type were utilized in sending back the mail. As an example, we have in Fig. 39 a
postcard with an impressed 20-kopek stamp, which was cancelled with the dispatch postmark of Leningrad 22.7.41. The
card was addressed to "Vichuga, Ivanovo province, Main Post Office, Poste Restante", arriving on 29.7.41. The addressee
did not present himself to receive the card and the card was therefore returned to the sender. For that reason, a dark blue
label was affixed to the postcard, with the text written as: "(To) Leningrad / because of expiration / of the holding time /
date 4.IX and signature". In accordance with the specified text on the label, the card was returned to the sender, arriving in
Leningrad on 20.9.41.
60 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHIK N 58
June 2006








B --
3a13ereH'ieM ;poKaxa-
Kew x RemoA agpecaro
19 35a.


Fia 35a.


IPOCMOTPEHO

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Fig. 38.




nPOCMOTPEHO IrNN
BOEHHO UEH3YPO1 I'exq
Fki. 40a. -
THE POST-RIDER/IMMIHIK N 58
June 2006


JIL31 [E6A PECK4-oqJuj h4PT(.qncj npo HtgELIO.tl kAP[ CHEIV (TIPALIE-
I -I


- jI~ -- ;/ ?. JC'
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Fig. 39.


Fig. 40.


r.







Fig. 40 shows a registered postcard X2 339, upon which two stamps with the values of 30 + 20 kopeks to total 50
kopeks were cancelled with the dispatch postmark of Moscow 14.8.41. The card was addressed to Klin, Moscow
province, where it arrived 21.8.41 (the stamps and postmark are covered by a report). The addressee had gone away from
Klin, but he had left at the post office a declaration that his mail be readdressed to Yaroslavl'. For that reason, a report
was affixed to the card, with the text reading: "It is being sent to Yaroslavl' / Central Post Office / Poste Restante /
according to his declaration (signature)". The dispatch postmark reads: Klin, Mosc.(ow Province) 8.9.41 and that of
arrival: Yaroslavl' 11.9.41. The addressee did not appear to pick up the mail and the card was therefore returned to the
sender upon expiration of the holding time. For that reason, the address in Yaroslavl' was crossed out and above it there is
written the instruction: "It is being sent to TUSHINO, Moscow province, where it arrived 21.10.41. There is also on the
card a non-standard censorship machine cachet of Moscow; see that additional marking in Fig. 40a.
In the opinion of the author, the postal sending illustrated in Figs. 38 & 39 can be placed in the 2nd. Category of
Rarity and that in Fig. 40 (taking into account the double return and interesting non-standard censorship cachet) to be
placed in the 3". Category of Rarity per the evaluation in a 5-point system.
The author expresses his sincere thanks to I. Bryun, M. Grinberg, I. Druzhinin and V. Levandovskiy (all of
Russia) for extending the possibility of becoming acquainted with the materials in their collections and for the permission
to publish those data.
Listing of the stipulated designations
BITII BoeHHo-nojneBaa no'ra : Military Field Postal Service.
YIJJII YHrm HHpoBaHHn~i ieH3ypHbIH urreMneJn1: Unified Censorship Cachet
nIIC IIojeBaa norTOBaR craHnu a: Field Postal Station
HYLjII HeyImHQmnpoBamHim nieH3aypHIAf mTreMnenm: Non-standard censorship cachet.
BHCI BoeHHO-noTrOBBi copTHpoBoMHJmi nyHKT: Military Postal Sorting Point
BIIB BoerHo-noTrroBaA 6a3a: Military Postal Base.
Listing of Literature
1. HI,, IcypieB "PA3BHTHE CBI31S H CCCP", MocKBa, 1967, CTp. 241.
2. 10. JIypbe "AOCTABHTb HEBO3MOXHO", Oa.maTejna CCCP, 1977, X2 1, crp. 54-55.
** * * *
SPECIAL NOTE:
A postcard-receipt from the "Canadian Aid to Russia Fund"


CANADA
,CANADIAN AlI TO -USSIA POSTAGE PAID
A F PORr PAYt
FUN 0 1
NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
ROOM 205. STAR E'UILDING. TORONTO. ONT No. 384T 5
No /" TORONTO

DATE ,

YOUR CONTRIBUTION OF 5 .. -
TO THE CANADIAN AID TO RUSSIA FUND IS .
1I GRATEFULLY ACr:NOWLEDGE-D AND \7C WISH TO .
THANK YOU FOR THIS DONATION -*
Z H. F. SKEY. TRE4A5uRER


/4 NOTE ...

DEDUCTIBLE FOR INCOME T"1 PUI.POSES VITHIr THE /"
A LIMITATION T Ao THE T4>.I F L STT'IUTES. N









6T THE OOST-RIDERTHMIITK EC 5T
Th text is epanatory and printed on light brown stock, the card measuring 155 x 90 mm. The donation of
Can. $15.00 in 1942 was substantial and then equivalent to a week's wages for many Canadians. It is noteworthy that the
receipt was issued on 31 December 1942, i.e. just over one month after the Red Army had encircled the German Sixth
Army and other Axis forces at Stalingrad. The rest, as they say, is history.


62 THE POST-RIDER/aIMlMHK N! 58
June 2006






THE MAIL OF THE PERSONNEL OF THE SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945) continuation
By Meer Kossoy & V. Berdichevskiy(Israel).
6. Organisation of the work of the Military Censorship in the Baltic Fleet (1941-1945)
In accordance with the law regarding state security and military secrets, all postal sending to the Army on Active
Service dispatched during wartime, as well as to the Navy and including the opposite direction, had to undergo military
censorship.
It can be assumed that, up to the beginning of the War, there was not in the USSR a tightly organized system of
military censorship. In order to carry out censorship, it was necessary to set up a network of points, to which the mail had
to go for verification. Centres came into being with such points for the sorting of mail in the large towns and in the main
railway stations. Later on, when the system of Field Postal Stations began to function, the basic points for carrying out
military censorship became Military Postal Sorting Points and Military Postal Bases, through which all mail proceeded
from the Rear to the Army on Active Service, as well as to the Navy and also in the opposite direction.. It should be taken
into consideration that, in performing the censorship at the postal sorting centres in the towns or on the railway stations, it
was always required to select from the general mass of mail those items addressed to the Army on Active Service or to the
Navy. In performing censorship at the Military Postal Sorting Points or at the Military Postal Bases, it was not required in
so doing to accelerate the work of the military censors.
The documentary standards for the organization of the military censorship in the 1941-1945 period were secret
and practically unknown up to the present time. There were a few articles published in the literature about the work of the
Field Postal Service, among which the questions of censorship were also looked at, among other subjects.. With regard to
that problem, the censorship in the Navy Postal Service was by no means treated in practice.
An attempt to investigate the censorship cachets utilized in handling the mail of the Navy Postal Service sent from
Hanko was made by A. Osyatinskii in the article ([13] (1*). He described three censorship markings, which occurred on
such mail, but only one of them was illustrated. They will be shown below in the present article in Figs. 3. 4 & 8) on
sending of the Navy Postal Service, not connected with Hanko. He stated that these censorship markings were applied at
Military Postal Sorting Point M 1108 where the contents of the mail were checked by the censor. As it turns out, they
were applied on the mail upon examination in Leningrad.
There should be cited among the most interesting publications specifically about the questions of military
censorship, the articles by A. Vinokurov [14, 15]. Unfortunately, the questions regarding the censorship of the mail of the
Navy Postal Service were not separated out and there were shown only three types of censorship markings linked with the
Navy, which were not on postal sending. The subject now being examined here was also not covered in the articles by M.
Shmuely [16] and D. Skipton [17, 18].
1* For the convenience of readers, listings of the abbreviations in the literature are set out at the end of the present
material, being taken from reference [8] as additions. The numbering is continued in the literature references.
The absence of documentary standards in philatelic investigations in the literature impels the present authors to
describe the censorship of the Navy Postal Service on the basis of the known philatelic material. However, the quantity of
Navy postal sending is extremely limited, as a consequence of their relative rarity. In addition to circular date-stamps,
there are also censorship cachets on most of the Navy sending, which are known to the present authors from June 1941
onwards.
The cachets of the military censorship do not refer to the discharge of postal functions; they are official markings.
However, it can be claimed that the study of censorship cachets is necessary, as it helps to understand better the work of
the Navy Postal Service. For example, in some cases, only the censorship cachet allows us to determine through which
Military Postal Sorting Point or Military Postal Base the mail of the Navy Postal Service was forwarded.
Censorship cachets will be looked at in the present article, which have been encountered on the basis of the mail
of the Navy Postal Service. For other classes of correspondence, for example from the Army on Active Service, such
censorship markings should only fall into the category of exclusion.. For that reason, it is especially important not to
accentuate the attention to the censorship cachets of the Military Postal Sorting Points or Military Postal Bases which,
during the wartime period were encountered on various classes mail, including that of the Navy Postal Service. The
censorship cachets of the Military Postal Sorting Points on mail of the Navy Postal Service were shown previously in [19,
Figs. 11 17, 42.45 & 491 and those of the Military Postal Bases in [19, Figs. 24.26, 43 & 441.
It should be noted that an especially large quantity of various censorship cachets is to be found on the mail of the
Red Banner Baltic Fleet and several of them differ from the censorship cachets utilized by other fleets. For that reason, the
present authors have decided to investigate the censorship cachets of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in a separate section of
this article.
The diversity of the censorship cachets in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet can be explained by the fact that Leningrad
was the most importatant strategic city of the USSR and regarded as the "second capital". The fleet participated to the
greatest extent in the defence of the city during the period of the 900-day blockade, such that the preservation of secrecy


THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIHK 3 58
June 2006










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THE POST-RIDER/AMIHIIK NQ 58
June 2006


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Fig. 2.


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assumed a special meaning.
In the first months of the War, there were still not confirmed the texts and form of each censorship cachet. They
were not prepared in a centralized order during that period, but under local conditions. That brought about a great variety
of such cachets. In most cases, the censorship cachets bore the text "IIpocMoTpeHo BoeHHof ileH3ypoH" (Examined by
the Military Censorship) Also, that text was placed on the cachet in one or two lines, with or without a frame and with or
without the coat of arms. There were in addition various differences in such cachets and they did not have distinctive
features, whereby there could be specified in what town, Military Postal Sorting Point or Military Postal Base the mail had
been read by the censor. As stated earlier in reference [19], such censorship cachets were placed by us in the group of
"Non-standard Censorship Cachets" (HYIIII) for that reason. According to the general rule, the censorship cachet was
applied on the address side of a postcard or on the back of a cover. However, there were various deviations from such
rules. Let us look in the first place at the uilisation of Non-standard Censorship Cachets at the Red Banner Baltic Fleet..
6.1. Non-standard Censorship Cachets (HYIfIII)
One of the earliest and rarest Non-standard Censorship Cachet known on mail of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet is
shown in Fig. 1 (a cover with such a cachet has already been shown in reference [8, Fig. 25], but the censorship marking
was not surveyed at that point). The envelope is featured in an opened-out state with the dispatch c,d,s, of Leningrad
3.8.41 and the arrival c.d.s. of Moscow 21.8.41, but the c.d.s. of the Navy Postal Station is lacking. However, there is a
triangular cachet in violet for post-free transmission, with the text reading: "Red Fleet / letter / Post-free / PO / 316" and
that allows us to specify that the letter was sent from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. According to the text on the censorship
cachet the letter "Was examined/ by the Military Censorship", with the text in two lines The fact that the letter was
examined in Leningrad can be confirmed by a characteristic practice: a slip of paper on the back of the cover bore a strike
of the censorship cachet. According to the information of the authors, Leningrad was the only place where a slit was made
on the back of an envelope to allow the military censor to examine the contents. Upon termination, the letter was enclosed
back in the envelope and the slit was resealed with a paper slip, struck with the censorship cachet. This method of opening
an envelope differed from the procedure adopted in most of the other towns in the USSR.. In carrying out censorship in
those towns, a slit was made, not on the back of the envelope, but a thin strip was cut off at the side of the envelope.
Finally, the place of incision was smeared on the inside with glue and the cut sealed by pressing.
There is on this cover a rare machine Non-standard Censorship Cachet in black with four smooth and even wide
lines, between which there is the described text on the slip of paper (Fig. la); (from now on, the black colour of the
censorship cachet and of the c.d.s. will no longer be specified). The period of application of this cachet is known to the
authors during July-August 1941. It is encountered mainly on civilian mail, dispatched from Leningrad during that period.
It is found only exceptionally on the mail of the Navy Postal Service and it can be assumed that this machine Non-
standard Censorship Cachet was utilized at the Leningrad General Post Office to seal the envelopes with a slip of paper
after having undergone censorship..
We see in Fig. 2 an envelope in opened-out state with the dispatch postmark of Leningrad 1.8.41 and that of
arrival of Kronshtadt 1.8.41. In other words, the letter was sent from Leningrad and arrived in Kronshtadt on one and the
same day. There is no marking of the Navy Postal Station but, in the address of the sender there is specified: "Leningrad -
306" and that allows us to confirm that the letter was sent from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
The fact that the letter went through the censorship in Leningrad can be confirmed by the characteristic feature of
the slip of paper on the back of the cover, with an impression in red of the machine censorship cachet of the type shown in
Fig. a. In the opinion of the authors, the censorship cachet (Fig. a can be placed in the 5th. Category of Rarity when
evaluating in the 5-point system. It should be taken into consideration that, in this and other examples further on in the
text, the authors are specifying only the relative rarity of a censorship cachet and it also influences the relative rarity of a
postal sending of the Navy Postal Service.
In evaluating the scale of influence, we will look at a cover of the Navy Postal Service without a censorship
marking (Example 1). The cover was assigned the 4t. Category of Rarity according to the evaluation in a 5-point system.
We will compare it with other covers with similar postmarks of the Navy Postal Station with a censorship marking of the
3rd. Category of Rarity (Example 2). In that case, the rarity of the cover can be regarded as "4 with three pluses +++".
And finally, we will compare it with the third cover (Example 3), with a similar postmark of a Navy Postal
Station and a censorship cachet, as shown in Fig. la. In that case, the rarity of the cover may be regarded as "4 with 5
+++++".
Figure 3 illustrates a cover in opened-out state, with the stamp cancelled by the c.d.s. of dispatch of Leningrad
3.30.41, with that of arrival on the back reading "MOPCKASI IIO'TA N2 1104 / 7.10.41" (Navy Postal Station J24
1104 of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, which was located in the village of Lebyazh'e). Apencilled notation was placed on
the address side of the cover, reading "Cottage of Maksimov", together with the date 7.10.41. A Military Sub-Unit NJ 864
was apparently at that location and the date specified when the letter was handed over to the addressee from Navy Postal
Station X2 1104.
THE POST-RIDER/fMIUIlIK N- 58
June 2006 65











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THE POST-RIDER/IMIUHK N2 58
June 2006


Fig. 8&


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According to the text in the censorship cachet, the letter was "IIPOCMOTPEHO / BOEHHOIl
IIEH3YPOIfI" (Examined by the Military Censorship in Leningrad, with the text of the cachet in two lines). That can be
confirmed by the characteristic feature: a slip of paper on the back of the cover with the machine impression of a Non-
standard Censorship Cachet (Fig.3a), with three wavy lines below and above the text. The period of application of the
cachet is known to the authors as August to December 1941. In the opinion of the authors, the censorship cachet in Fig. 3a
can be placed in the 4t. Category of Rarity when evaluated in the 5-point system. That cachet apparently replaced the one
shown in Fi. la and was utilized at the General Post Office in Leningrad for sealing the letters by affixing a slip of paper
after going through the censorship. It is possible that such a substitution was evoked by the necessity of unification since,
in that period, most of the Non-standard Censorship Cachets had 6 or 7 wavy lines and not four straight lines, as given in
Fig. la. The postal sending with the cachet in Fig. 3a was featured earlier in reference [8, Fig. 1].
We have in Fig. 4 the cover of a local letter in an opened-out state, with the stamp cancelled by the c.d.s. of
dispatch: Leningrad 8.9.41 and on the back that of the arrival c.d.s. of Leningrad on the same day. There is specified in the
address of the sender the designation of the Navy Postal Station JM- 1105, which was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and
situated in Oranienbaum. There is a historical date on the postmarks, as 8b. September 1941 was the first day of the
blockade of Leningrad, which went on for 900 days.
In accordance with the text of the censorship cachet, the letter was "Examined by the Military Censorship" (in one
line). That can be confirmed by the circular date-stamps of Leningrad, as well as the presence of the characteristic feature:
the slip of paper on the back of the cover, impressed with a Non-standard Censorship Cachet in violet (Fig. 4a and five
straight lines below and above the text. The period of utilization of the cachet is known to the authors as August 1941 to
January 1942. In the opinion of the authors, that cachet in Fig. 4a can be placed in the 4e. Category of Rarity when
evaluated in the 5-point system. The cachet is encountered mainly on mail of the Field Postal Service and the Navy Postal
Service. For that reason, it can be assumed that it was utilized at Military Postal Sorting Point XN 2 in Leningrad for the
stamping of the affixed slip of paper after having gone through the censorship. The postal sending with the cachet in Fi.
4a was shown previously in reference [8, Fig. 4.
We see in Fig. 5 the back of a cover, upon which the addresses of the sender and recipient are similar to those in
Fi. 3. The stamp on the address side was cancelled by the c.d.s. of dispatch of Leningrad 19.10.41. The back of the cover
has the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA JN 1104" on 20.10.41, together with a Non-standard Censorship
Cachet in violet on a slip of paper of the type shown in Fig. 4a. In contrast to Fig. 4. there is on the cover an additional
violet cachet in the form of the number :43" (looking along the arrow, the height of the cachet is 10 mm.). That apparently
was the specific seal of the military censor with his own number.
There is also on the back of the cover a penciled notation reading: "Suburb of Troitskaya / Warehouse", which
can be assumed as being the place where the Military Sub-Unit JN 864 was located while the date of 22.10.41
specified when the letter to the addressee was handed over from the Navy Postal Station N 1104. If we compare the
handwritten notations in Figs. 3 & 5. it can be noted that 15 days had gone by and that a new location of the Troitskaya
Suburb appeared in the address of the recipient, instead of the former "Cottage of Maksimov".
Fig. 6 features an envelope in an opened-out state, upon which the the stamp is cancelled by the dispatch c.d.s. of
Leningrad 22.10.41.There is on the back of the cover an arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAA IIOMTA JN 1104 /
25.10.41", as well as a Non-standard Censorship Cachet in violet on a slip of paper (Fig. a) and also a cachet in violet
with the number "33" (looking along the arrow, the height of the cachet is 10 mm.).
The examples in Figs. 4 to 6 demonstrate that the Non-standard Censorship Cachet in Fig. 4a is normally found
on the slips of paper It was apparently utilized at Military Postal Sorting Point JS 2 in Leningrad and was a specialized
cachet for stampiing the envelopes after their examination by the military censor.
Fig. 7 shows in an opened-out state a letter-card with a patriotic text on the address side, reading: "The Red Army
and all our people are carrying out a victorious FATHERLAND WAR! For the Mother Country, for honour, for liberty!".
Letter-cards of this type (with lines of tearable perforation along three sides ) were issued at the beginning of the War, but
did not enjoy wide distribution and are thus encountered relatively rarely. That may be explained by the difficulties that
arose in carrying out the censorship: the letter-cards had to be torn along the lines of perforation and then sealed on three
sides (as an example by comparison, the letter-card was torn open and was sealed only on one side).
In contrast to the letter in Fi. 6. which was sent from Leningrad to Military Postal Sorting Point N2 1104, the
letter-card went through the mail in the opposite direction. It was cancelled with the dispatch c.d.s. reading "MOPCKAS
IIOHTA N2 1104 / 4.10.41" and that of arrival at Leningrad on 8.10.41, together with a Non-standard Censorship Cachet
of the type shown in Fig. 4a. There is on the address side of the letter-card a cachet in violet bearing the figure "5"
(looking along the arrow, the height of the cachet is 6 mm.) and it is assumed to be the personal cachet of the military
censor. The cachet with that figure and the Non-standard Censorship Cachet were applied on various sides of the letter-
card (in contrast to Figs. 5 & 6, where both cachets were only on the back of the cover).
In marking postcards, which were sent from a Navy Post Office or a Navy Postal Station of the Red Banner
THE POST-RIDER/ IHMIHK N 58 67
June 2006






Baltic Fleet, a different type of Non-standard Censorship Cachet was utilized.
As an example, a postcard is shown in Fig. 8 on which the stamp has been cancelled with the dispatch c.d.s
reading "MOPCKASI IIOHTA J 1001 / 22.9.41".(Navy Post Office N 1001was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and
situated in Kronshtadt), together with the arrival c.d.s. of Leningrad 25.9.41. There is on the card a Non-standard
Censorship Cachet with the text in two lines in a rectangular frame, reading: "Examined / by the Military Censorship"
(Fig. 8a. The period of usage known to the authors is September 1941 to October 1942. In the opinion of the authors, the
Non-standard Censorship Cachet in Fi. 8a can be placed in the 4t. Category of Rarity when evaluated in the 5-point
system. A cachet with the figure "3" (13 mm. tall) has been applied on the back of the card and that was apparently the
personal seal of the military censor. The cachet differs in height (13 mm.) from the similar cachets on envelopes, where
they were 10 mm. tall and for the letter-cards only 6 mm. high. A postal sending with the cachet shown in Fig. a was
featured previously in reference [19, Fg. 3].
We see in Fig. 9 a postcard cancelled with the dispatch postmark reading: "MOPCKAI IIOITA X 1104 /
5.12.41" and that of the arrival c.d.s. in Shabunichi, Molotov province 7.1.42. It bears a Non-standard Censorship Cachet
in violet (of the type shown in Fig. 8a) and also a cachet in violet with the figure "7" (looking along the pinnacle, the
height of the cachet is 13 mm.).
Fig. 10 shows an opened-out envelope, on which the stamp has been cancelled by the dispatch c.d.s. reading:
"MOPCKAA IIOHTA J- 1104 / 16.11.41". There is on the back of the cover the arrival c.d.s. of Leningrad 23.11.41,
together with a Non-standard Censorship Cachet in violet (of the type featured in Fig. a) and also a cachet in violet with
the number "41" (looking along the pinnacle, the height of the cachet is 13 mm.).
The type of Non-standard Censorship Cachet as given in Fig. 8 is characteristic for postcards, but not for
envelopes. It was apparently applied in exceptional cases on an envelope, possibly when it was discovered that the flap
had not been sealed.. In such a situation, it was not necessary to open the envelope and after slitting, affix a slip of paper
and apply the Non-standard Censorship Cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 4a).
There were shown above in Figs. la. 4a & 8a Non-standard Censorship Cachets, which were only found only on
mail of the Navy Postal Service in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet It should be taken into consideration that, already in June
1941, an attempt had been made to unify the censorship cachets. In the majority of cases, they were in the style of the
Non-standard Censorship Cachets, as shown in Fig. 4a, but there were differences: the lines were not straight, but
consisted of 7 wavy lines, 3 of which were above the text. Such cachets were not prepared at a central point, but in an
individual fashion under local conditions. For that reason and in spite of an external resemblance, practically all of them
differed from each other. As an example, the length of a cachet varied from 85 to 120 mm. and the height from 21 to 35
mm., while the quantity, shape and parameters of the wavy lines, type and height of the letters, length of the text, size of
the coat of arms etc. all varied.
The Non-standard Censorship Cachets with wavy lines are not characteristic for the Navy Postal Service in the
Red Banner Baltic Fleet, but they are found in.exceptional cases. As an example, a postcard is shown in Fig. 11 with the
dispatch c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKA5 IIO'TA M 1111 / 25.12.41" (Navy Postal Station I 1llllin the Red Banner
Baltic Fleet was located in the village of Ust'-Izhora) together with the arrival c.d.s. of Leningrad 29.12.41. This postcard
had already been published in reference [8, Fig. 311, but the Non-standard Censorship Cachet was not looked at there. The
card was struck with a Non-standard Censorship Cachet in violet with the coat of arms at left and with the text "Examined
by the Military Censorship" between 7 wavy lines (3 above the text and 4 below; see Fi. 1 la). The application of such a
type of Non-standard Censorship Cachet is known to the authors in the period from July 1941 to March 1942. In the
opinion of the authors, Non-standard Censorship Cachets with wavy lines (of the type shown in Fig. 1 la) can be placed in
the 4h. Category of Rarity upon evaluation in a 5-point system. The cachet in Fig. 1 la was apparently applied at
Kronshtadt. The cachet of this type is also known in blue.
There were shown in Figs 1 to 10 Non-standard Censorship Cachets, which were characteristic for the mail of the
Red Banner Baltic Fleet, as well as for being sent only from Leningrad to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet (or in the opposite
direction) and also within the Baltic Fleet. On the mail sent to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet from other towns of the USSR
(except for Leningrad and its province), Non-standard Censorship Cachets were normally encountered at the places of
dispatch or at the Military Postal Sorting Points, which differed from those displayed in Figs. 1 to 10. In the majority of
cases, the Non-standard Censorship Cachets on mail from other towns had the type of marking shown in Fig. 11 a but
differing from it by the number of wavy lines (from 4 to 8), the size of the cachet and lettering, as well as other
parameters. The Non-standard Censorship Cachets sometimes had not wavy, but straight lines and even another text:
instead of "IIpocMTpeHo" "IIpoBepeHo" ("Verified" instead of "Examined").
As an example, we have in Fig. 12 a postcard with an impressed stamp, postmarked with the dispatch c.d.s. of
Yerevan' 27.10.41 and the arrival c.d.s. of"MOPCKASI IIOTA N2 1107 / 16.3.42" (Navy Postal Station X2 1107 was
in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and located at the Place of Arms in Oranienbaum). The postcard has an interesting Non-
standard Censorhip Cachet with the text "Examined by the Military Censorship"between six straight lines: 3 above and 3
68 THE POST-RIDER/HMI HK Nf 58
June 2006













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TfiE POST-RIDER/JlMflMllK N2 58
June 2006


* 9,/t'a.~..rn~~oog. .

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below (see Fig. 12a) and below it the initials "AK" have been written in red pencil; it is assumed that they are the initials
of the censor.. The Non-standard Censorship Cachet was applied by a military censor at Military Postal Sorting Point N2
8, through which the mail from Yerevan' was forwarded to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
A postcard with an impressed stamp is featured in Fig. 13 (E. Bryun Collection, Russia), on which the stamp
design is cancelled by the dispatch c.d.s. of Yerevan' 22.12.41; the arrival c.d.s. reads: "MOPCKASI IIOUTA J~- 1107 /
31.1.42". There is on the card an interesting Non-Standard Censorship Cachet, with the text reading in a rectangular frame
"Examined by the Military Censorship" between four wavy lines (2 above and 2 below; see Fig. 13a). In contrast to most
of the known Non-standard types, the number "35" of the military censor is given under the text between the wavy lines.
It is assumed that the Non-standard cachet was applied either at Yerevan' or at Military Postal Sorting Point X- 8, through
which the mail from Yerevan' was dispatched to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. In the opinion of the authors, the Non-
standard Censorship Cachets shown in Figs. 12a & 13a can be placed in the 4h. Category of Rarity upon evaluation in the
5-point system.
6.2. Unified Censorship Cachets (YIlIl)
There was a series of deficiencies in the applications of the Non-standard Censorship Cachets, the principal one
being that they were "mute", i.e. it was not permitted to specify which particular censor and at what particular place a
postal sending was verified. It should be taken into consideration that the censor bore a personal responsibility for the
contents of the mail verified by him. It was therefore necessary to have information about him and that is the reason why,
together with the Non-standard Censorship Cachet, the individual number of the censor was sometimes encountered on
the mail. Such deficiencies were practically all removed when there were put into service "Unified Censorship Cachets",
which were of a "standard" type.
With the designation "Unified", the authors are referring in reference [19, page 45] to the type of censorship
cachet, which had the following features: the coat of arms of the USSR; the emplacement below the coat of arms of a text
in two lines, reading "EXAMINED / by the Military Censorship", with an additional characteristic in the form of a
number or fraction, in the numerator of which there could be numbers, letters or the name of an inhabited point and, in the
denominator, the number of the censor.
6.2.1. Unified Censorship Cachets with one- to three -figure numbers
It can be claimed that Unified Censorship Cachets with 1 to 3-figure numbers replaced on envelopes the Non-
standard Censorship Cachets of the type shown in Fig. 4a and on postcards by Non-standard Censorship cachets of the
type given in Fig. 8a. As an example, we have in Fig. 14 the back of a cover, where the addresses of the sender and
recipient are completely similar to those featured in Figs. 3 & 5. There is on the address side of the cover the dispatch
c.d.s. of Leningrad 28.10.41 and, on the back, the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAAI IIORTA Jo 1104 / 1.11.41" and a
Unified Censorship Cachet in violet (Fig. 14a) with the number "318". The period of usage of such a cachet is known to
the authors from August 1941 to October 1942. In the opinion of the authors, Unified Censorship Cachets with 1 to 3
figures can be placed in the 3rd. Category of Rarity upon evaluation in the 5-point system.
The following feature can be noted in the utilization of the Unified Censorship Cachets. While the Non-standard
cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 4a was applied on a slip of paper and then affixed to the envelope after having been
examined by the military censor, the Unified types were applied not on a slip of paper but in some free space on the cover.
There is on the cover a notation handwritten in ink, similar to the one featured in Fig 5 as: "Troitskaya Suburb", together
with the date 4.11.41.
Fig. 15 illustrates the back of a cover, having the addresses of both the sender and recipient completely similar to
those in Fig. 6. There is on the address side of the cover the dispatch c.d.s. of Leningrad 25.11.41 and, on the back, the
arrival c.d.s. "MOPCKAII IIOITA No 1104 / 29.11.41" and a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the number
"339" (of the type shown in Fig. 14a). In comparing the covers in Figs. 15 & 6, it is evident that the Unified Censorship
Cachet with a number was utilized instead of a Non-standard Censorship Cachet (of the type shown in Fi. 4a).
We see in Fig. 16 a cover in opened-out state, which was sent from Kurgan (the dispatch c.d.s. is lacking). There
is on the back of the cover the c.d.s. of Military Postal Sorting Point JM 17 / 18.2.42 (MPSP M 17 was located in
Yaroslavl'), as well as the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAqI nIIOTA N 1101/ 9.3.42" (Navy Postal Station .2i 1101
was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and based in Leningrad) and together with the Unified Censorship Cachet NJ2 28 (of
the type shown in Fig. 14a). The Unified Censorship Cachet was apparently assigned to tthe military censor of Military
Postal Sorting Point 2M 17.
We have in Fig. 17 an opened-out triangular letter, bearing the dispatch c.d.s.: "MOPCKASI IIOMTA M2 1101 /
29.7.42" and that of arrival: Aleshinka, Kalinin province 8.8.42, as well as a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number
"92" (of the type shown in Fig. 14a).
Fi. 18 demonstrates in an opened-out state a cover, bearing the dispatch c.d.s. of "MOPCKAqI IIOTl A N_
1104 / 28.7.42" and that of"MOPCKAAI IIOITA XN 1107 / 31.7.42", as well as a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet
with the number "92" (of the type shown in Fig. 14a). It is known that, in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, mail from one
Navy Postal Station to another was transmitted via Military Postal Sorting Point JN 2, which was located in Leningrad. It
70 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIUHK N 58
June 2006






below (see Fig. 12a) and below it the initials "AK" have been written in red pencil; it is assumed that they are the initials
of the censor.. The Non-standard Censorship Cachet was applied by a military censor at Military Postal Sorting Point M
8, through which the mail from Yerevan' was forwarded to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
A postcard with an impressed stamp is featured in Fig. 13 (E. Bryun Collection, Russia), on which the stamp
design is cancelled by the dispatch c.d.s. of Yerevan' 22.12.41; the arrival c.d.s. reads: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA JM 1107 /
31.1.42". There is on the card an interesting Non-Standard Censorship Cachet, with the text reading in a rectangular frame
"Examined by the Military Censorship" between four wavy lines (2 above and 2 below; see Fig. 13a). In contrast to most
of the known Non-standard types, the number "35" of the military censor is given under the text between the wavy lines.
It is assumed that the Non-standard cachet was applied either at Yerevan' or at Military Postal Sorting Point N2 8, through
which the mail from Yerevan' was dispatched to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. In the opinion of the authors, the Non-
standard Censorship Cachets shown in Figs. 12a & 13a can be placed in the 4". Category of Rarity upon evaluation in the
5-point system.
There was a series of deficiencies in the applications of the Non-standard Censorship Cachets, the principal one
being that they were "mute", i.e. it was not permitted to specify which particular censor and at what particular place a
postal sending was verified. It should be taken into consideration that the censor bore a personal responsibility for the
contents of the mail verified by him. It was therefore necessary to have information about him and that is the reason why,
together with the Non-standard Censorship Cachet, the individual number of the censor was sometimes encountered on
the mail. Such deficiencies were practically all removed when there were put into service "Unified Censorship Cachets",
which were of a "standard" type.
With the designation "Unified", the authors are referring in reference [19, page 45] to the type of censorship
cachet, which had the following features: the coat of arms of the USSR; the emplacement below the coat of arms of a text
in two lines, reading "EXAMINED / by the Military Censorship", with an additional characteristic in the form of a
number or fraction, in the numerator of which there could be numbers, letters or the name of an inhabited point and, in the
denominator, the number of the censor.
6.2.1. Unified Censorship Cachets with one- to three -figure numbers
It can be claimed that Unified Censorship Cachets with 1 to 3-figure numbers replaced on envelopes the Non-
standard Censorship Cachets of the type shown in Fig. 4a and on postcards by Non-standard Censorship cachets of the
type given in Fig. 8a. As an example, we have in Fig. 14 the back of a cover, where the addresses of the sender and
recipient are completely similar to those featured in Figs. 3 & 5. There is on the address side of the cover the dispatch
c.d.s. of Leningrad 28.10.41 and, on the back, the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAAI IIO TA M 1104 / 1.11.41" anda
Unified Censorship Cachet in violet (Fi. 14a) with the number "318". The period of usage of such a cachet is known to
the authors from August 1941 to October 1942. In the opinion of the authors, Unified Censorship Cachets with 1 to 3
figures can be placed in the 3rd. Category of Rarity upon evaluation in the 5-point system.
The following feature can be noted in the utilization of the Unified Censorship Cachets. While the Non-standard
cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 4a) was applied on a slip of paper and then affixed to the envelope after having been
examined by the military censor, the Unified types were applied not on a slip of paper but in some free space on the cover.
There is on the cover a notation handwritten in ink, similar to the one featured in Fi. 5 as: "Troitskaya Suburb", together
with the date 4.11.41.
Fig. 15 illustrates the back of a cover, having the addresses of both the sender and recipient completely similar to
those in Fi. 6. There is on the address side of the cover the dispatch c.d.s. of Leningrad 25.11.41 and, on the back, the
arrival c.d.s. "MOPCKAI IIOHTA MJ, 1104 / 29.11.41" and a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the number
"339" (of the type shown in Fig. 14a). In comparing the covers in Figs. 15 & 6, it is evident that the Unified Censorship
Cachet with a number was utilized instead of a Non-standard Censorship Cachet (of the type shown in Fi. 4a).
We see in Fig. 16 a cover in opened-out state, which was sent from Kurgan (the dispatch c.d.s. is lacking). There
is on the back of the cover the c.d.s. of Military Postal Sorting Point N2 17 / 18.2.42 (MPSP gN 17 was located in
Yaroslavl'), as well as the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKASI IIO'TA gN 1101/ 9.3.42" (Navy Postal Station NJ2 1101
was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and based in Leningrad) and together with the Unified Censorship Cachet J~N 28 (of
the type shown in Fig. 14a). The Unified Censorship Cachet was apparently assigned to tthe military censor of Military
Postal Sorting Point JN 17.
We have in Fig. 17 an opened-out triangular letter, bearing the dispatch c.d.s.: "MOPCKAJI IIONTA N2 1101 /
29.7.42" and that of arrival: Aleshinka, Kalinin province 8.8.42, as well as a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number
"92" (of the type shown in Fig. 14a).
Fig. 18 demonstrates in an opened-out state a cover, bearing the dispatch c.d.s. of "MOPCKASI IIOqTA N2
1104 / 28.7.42" and that of"MOPCKASI IOrTA JN 1107 / 31.7.42", as well as a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet
with the number "92" (of the type shown in Fig. 14a). It is known that, in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, mail from one
Navy Postal Station to another was transmitted via Military Postal Sorting Point J~ 2, which was located in Leningrad. It
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK N2 58
June2006 71
















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THE POST-RIDER/IJMIIHIK J 58
"June 2006


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can therefore be assumed that the Unified Censorship Cachet with the number "92" belonged to a military censor at
Military Postal Sorting Point M 2.
We have in Fig. 19 a postcard with the dispatch c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKA5I IIO TA X 1101 / 9.10.42" and a
Unified Censorship cachet with the number "92". According to information held by the authors, the date of 9.10.42 on the
c.d.s.is one of the latest periods of use of a Unified Censorship Cachets with 1- to 3-digit numbers. There is also on the
card a weak strike of the arrival c.d.s., which cannot be read.
Attention should be drawn to the following fact: there are three sending shown in Figs. 17 to 19, which were sent
from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet at various times and by various senders, but on each of them there is one and the same
number "92" of the Unified Censorship Cachet. It can be assumed that this cachet with the number "92" belonged to a
military censor at Military Postal Sorting Point JM2 2, who specialized in examining the Navy mail sent from the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet.
6.2.2. Unified Censorship Cachets with the numerator of a fraction given as "KB("
The Unified Censorship Cachets with 1- to 3-digit numbers apparently did not permit the specification of a
particular censor in carrying out censorship, as the numbers on the Unified Censorship Cachets could be repeated at
various places. It is therefore suggested that Unified Censorship Cachets were put into use with fractions, in the
numerators of which there was the abbreviation "KB4)" (Russian initials of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet) or the
designation of other places where censorship was carried out.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 20 which has the addresses of the sender and recipient completely similar to those on
Fig. 19. There is on the card the dispatch c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKA I IIOHTA J~- N2 1101 / 10.10.42" and, on the back,
the arrival c.d.s. of Pishchalkino, Kalinin province 18.10.42.
In comparing the dates on the dispatch c.d.s., it is evident that the postcard in Fig. 20 was sent on 10.10.42, i.e. on
the next day after the card in Fi. 19. The difference in dates is just one day, but there is between them a fundamental
distinction. There is in Fig. 20 a new rare type of Unified Censorship Cachet with a fraction, in the numerator of which
there is the abbreviation "KBIQ" and, in the denominator, number "11" of the censor (Fig. 20a). The period of usage is
known to the authors as October 1942. In our opinion, the Unified Censorship Cachets with the fraction bearing the
abbreviation "KBO" in the numerator can be placed in the 5"'. Category of Rarity upon evaluation in a 5-point system.
There is in Fig. 21 a postcard with the dispatch c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKASI IIOHTA JX2 1104 / 12.10.42" and
that of the arrival c.d.s. reading: Shabunichi Molotov province30.10.42, together with a Unified Censorship Cachet with a
fraction, in the numerator of which there is the abbreviation "KBI3" and, in the denominator, the number "12" of the
censor (in the type shown in Fi. 20a).
In comparing with the postcard in Fig. 9, it can be noticed that they have the same addresses of the sender and
recipient, but there were placed upon them various types of censorship cachets: a Non-standard Censorship Cachet (of the
type shown in Fig. 8a) and a Unified Censorchip Cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 20a). It can be assumed from this that
the Non-standard Censorship Cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 8a) was changed in a much later period to a Unified
Censorship Cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 20a). It is necessary to note here that, in the interval between the periods of
utilization of these censorship cachets, a Unified Censorship Cachet with a number was put into use of the type: 1 to 3
digits (see Fig. 14a). That is evident, when comparing Figs. 19 & 20.
6.2.3. Unified Censorship Cachets with the capital letter "B in the numerator
It should be noted that, according to the information held by the authors, the Unified Censorship Cachets with
fractions and in the numerators of which there was the abbreviation "KB'4", had a very short period of utilization: not
longer than one month. Such a short period of activity can be explained by the fact that, in October 1942 and with the aim
of preserving secrecy, there were put into service new rules for addressing Navy mail and, on the circular date-stamps, the
text "MOPCKA5I IIOMTA" (Navy Postal Service) was changed to "IIOJIEBAI IIOqTA" (Field Postal Service).
However, the numbers for the Navy Post Offices and Navy Postal Stations remained in use.
The new rules of addressing forbad the specification in the text of the address of the name of the fleet. Also in
conformance, the designation could not be permitted of the fleet and on the Unified Censorship Cachets. That is the
reason why, in order to preserve secrecy, the Unified Censorship Cachets with the abbreviation "KB4" were 're-
engraved" and the letters ""K" and "D" excised. In that way, a new type of Unified Censorship Cachet appeared with a
fraction bearing only the capital letter "B" in the numerator and the number of the censor in the denominator.
As an example, we see in Fig. 22 a postcard, which has the address of the sender and recipient, similar to those in
Figs. 19 & 20. However, in compliance with the new rules, the dispatch c.d.s. has the text: "IIOJIEBAAI IIOMTA MN
1101 / 1.2.43" (Field Postal Station N lOlwas in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet Base in Leningrad). The arrival c.d.s. is
on the back of the card and reads: Pishchalkino, Kalinin province, 12.2.43. There is also on the card a Unified Censorship
Cachet in violet with a fraction, in the numerator of which there is the capital letter "B" (being a re-engraving of the
initials "KB(E") and, in the denominator, the number "16" of the censor (Fig. 22a). The period of usage of this cachet
known to the authors is from November 1942 to June 1943. In the opinion of the authors, the Unified Censorship Cachets
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIWHK Ng 58
June 2006 73























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THE POST-RIDER/SMII HK N_ 58
June 2006


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with fractions, in the numerator of which there is the capital letter "B", can be placed in the 3rd. Category of Rarity when
evaluated in the 5-point system.
A letter-card in opened-out state is featured in Fig. 23 with the heading "BOHHCKOE" (= Military Letter). It
has a dispatch c.d.s. reading: "IIOJIEBAAI IIOMTA XN, 1105 / 25.2.43" (Field Postal Station X 1105 was in the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet and located in Oranienbaum), as well as the arrival c.d.s. of Aleshinka, Kalinin province / 10.3.43,
together with a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction, in the numerator of which there is the capital letter
"B" and, in the denominator, the number "53" of the censor (of the type shown in Fig. 22a).
6.2.4. Unified Censorship Cachet with fractions, having the number "2" in the numerator
The postal sending shown in Figs. 20 to 23 allow us to confirm that there was normally a Unified Censorship
Cachet with a fraction applied on the mail sent from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet to the Rear (with the exception of
Leningrad), after having been examined by a military censor, with the numerator showing the abbreviation "KB)" or just
the capital letter "B" after re-engraving.
On the mail sent from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet to Leningrad (and in the opposite direction), or transmitted
within the sub-units of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, there was normally placed the Unified Censorship Cachet of Military
Postal Sorting Point NM 2 (located in Leningrad), after having been examined by the military censor.
As an example, we have in Fig. 24 the back of a cover, on which the addresses of the sender and recipient are
completely similar to those in Fig. 18. The letter was sent from Navy Postal Station X', 1104 (there is no arrival c.d.s.) to
Navy Postal Station JN 1107. There are on the cover a transit c.d.s. of Military Postal Sorting Point 2 2 / 1.10.42 and that
of arrival, reading "MOPCKA5I IIO'TA M 1107 / 1.10.42" and also a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the
fraction, in the numerator of which there stands the number "2" (that of the Military Postal Sorting Point), together with
the number "42" of the censor in the denominator (Fig. 24a). The period of usage of the cachet is known to the authors as
from June 1942 to March 1943. In the opinion of the authors, the Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions showing the
number "2" in the numerator can be placed in the 3". Category of Rarity, when evaluated in a 5-point system.
In comparing with Fig 18. it can be inferred that Unified Censorship Cachets with 1- to 3-digit numbers (of the
type shown in Fig. 14a) were replaced by Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions, in the numerator of which there
stood the number "2" (= the number of the Military Postal Sorting Point) and, in the denominator, the number of the
censor (Fig. 24a).
As an example of the transmission of the Navy mail from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in Leningrad via Military
Postal Sorting Point 2N' 2 there is featured in Fig. 25 a postcard, whereby in accordance with the new rules, there is in the
text of the dispatch c.d.s. the inscription "IIOJIEBAJI IIOHTA J 1107 / 21.3.43" (Field Postal Station M 1107 was in
Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the island of Gogland), instead of the text: "MOPCKASI IIOHTA J 1107" (F. 24 There
is also placed on the card the arrival c.d.s. of Leningrad 26.3.43 and a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction,
in the numerator of which there stands the number "2" and, in the denominator the number "220" of the censor (of the
type shown in Fig. 24a).
6.2.5. Unified Censorship Cachets, with "LENINGRAD", or the names of other towns in the numerator
If the mail from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet to Leningrad was normally examined by the military censor of
Military Postal Sorting Point JN 2 in Leningrad, then the mail going in the opposite direction from Leningrad to the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet would normally have been examined by a military censor, who apparently was stationed in the Sorting
Point of the Leningrad General Post Office.
As an example, we see in Fig. 26 a postcard, on which the stamp has been cancelled with the dispatch c.d.s. of
Leningrad 11.1.43. There is also the arrival c.d.s., reading: "IIOJIEBASI IIOHTA N 1107/ 16.1.43", together with a
fraction, in the numerator of which there is the place where the censorship was carried out, namely LENINGRAD and, in
the denominator, the number "173" of the censor (Fig. 26a). The period of usage of the cachet is known to the authors as
from August 1942 to March 1943. According to the information held by A. Vinokurov [14], Unified Censorship Cachets
with the names of other cities are known from February 1942. In the opinion of the authors, the Unified Censorship
Cachets with fractions, in the numerator of which there is specified the place where the censorship was carried out (e.g.
Leningrad), can be placed in the 3". Category of Rarity, when evaluated in the 5-point system.
As an example of a Unified Censorship Cachet with the name of another town, we have in Fig. 27 a cover in an
opened-out state with the dispatch c.d.s.ofYerevan 8.2.43. The letter has the address of the recipient similar to that shown
in Fig. 26. There is also on the cover the arrival c.d.s. reading: "IIOJIEBAAI IIOHTA X2 1107 / 10.3.43" and a Unified
Censorship Cachet with a fraction, in the numerator of which there is specified the place where the censorship was carried
out, namely :EPEBAH and, in the denominator,we have the number "158" of of the censor (of the type shown in Fig. 26a.
In Fig. 28 we have a triangular letter in an opened-out state, with the dispatch c.d.s. reading Pokrov, Moscow
province. 21.3.42. On the back of the letter there is the machine transit c.d.s. of the Main Military Postal Sorting Point
23.3.43 (the Main MPSP was in Moscow) and the arrival c.d.s.reading: "IIOJIEBASI IIOLTA M 1105 / 27.3.43", as
well as a Unified Censorship Cachet with a fraction, in the numerator of which there was specified the place where the
THE POST-RIDER/SIMI(iK N? 58 75
June 2006


















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THE POST-RIDER/HMHUGK N 58
June 2006


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censorship took place at "MOCKBA" (Moscow) and, in the denominator, the number "158" of the censor (of the type
shown in Fig. 26a). It should be noted that the mail addressed to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, which had been examined
by the censor at the point of dispatch (27)} or in transit by a Military Postal Sorting Point (Fg. 28), did not go through a
repeated verification in Leningrad/
6.2.6. Unified Censorship Cachets, which had been "re-engraved"
In order to maintain secrecy, there were put into effect as of 1 April 1943 new rules for the transmission by the
Field Postal Service, which called for the addressing of mail according to a 5-digit number of the Field Postal Station. For
ordinary mail, the circular date-stamps started to bear the ext "IIOJIEBAAI IIOqTA" (Field Postal Service) without
number and all Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions were replaced by similar types with 5-digit numbers.
It shooud be taken into account that it took some time to go over to the new types of of circular date-stamps
(without numbers) and to the Unified Censorsship Cachets with 5-digit numbers and, for that reason, the process was not
carried out immediately. In the first period up to July 1943, the old types of circular date-stamps and of the censorship
cachets continued to be utilized together with the new types but for that, they were "re-engraved":-
1. The 1- to 4-digit numbers and the sign "&" were excised from the c.d.s. of the Field Postal Stations.
2. On the Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions, the information was excised in the numerators, such as the capital
letters "B", "BIIB", the numbered Military Postal Sorting Points, or the name of the town.
As an example, we have in Fig. 29 a postcard on which the addresses of the sender and recipient are similar to
those in Fig. 23 but the addressing was carried out under the new rules. Instead of "IIIIC M 1105, Unit 9898", there is
specified a new 5-digit number: "IIC 22930B" and the card was cancelled with the new type of circular date-stamp.
Instead of the canceller with the text ""IIOJIEBASI IIO'TA M 1105", the dispatch c.d.s. is now "'OJIEBAAI
IIO'TA / 7.6.43" (without a number). The arrival c.d.s. on the card reads: Aleshinka, Kalinin province, 20.6.43,
together with a "re-engraved" Unified Censorship Cachet, in the numerator of which the capital letter "B" has been taken
out, as well as the number "16" in the denominator (Fig. 29a). The period of application of the cachet is known to the
authors from April to June 1943. In the opinion of the authors, the "re-engraved" Unified Censorship Cachets of the Navy
Postal Service can be placed in the 4t. Category of Rarity, when evaluated in the 5-point system.
A postcard is featured in Fig. 30 on which the addresses of the sender and recipient are similar to those in Fig. 25
(i.e., sent from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet), but the addressing was done according to the new rules. The dispatch c.d.s.
reads "IIOJIEBAI IIOITA / 23.4.43 (without number) and that of arrival: Leningrad 29.3.43. There is a "re-engraved"
Unified Censorship Cachet on the card (of the type shown in Type 29a) and it is evident that, in the denominator, the
figure "2" has been dug out as the number of the Military Postal Sorting Point in Leningrad.
6.2.7. Unified Censorhip Cachets with 5-digit numbers
As was stated above and with the aim of preserving secrecy, as of 1 April 1943 and instead of Unified Censorship
Cachets with fractions with the names of the towns, the numbers of the Military Postal Sorting Points or code letters of the
Military Postal Bases in the numerators, there were put into service new Unified Censorship Cachets with 5-digit
numbers.
As an example, we have in Fig. 31 a letter-card headed "BOHHCKOE" (Military letter), on which the addresses
of the sender and recipient are similar to Figs. 23 & 29. The dispatch c.d.s. on the letter-card reads "IIOJIEBASI
IIORTA 15.12.43" (without number) and, on the back, that of the arrival c.d.s., reading Aleshinka, Kalinin province,
23.12.43, as well as a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with the number "01554 (Fig. 31a). The period of usage of that
cachet known to the authors is from July 1943 up to 1946 (and possibly even later). In the opinion of the authors, the
Unified Censorship Cachets with 5-digit numbers of the Navy Postal Service can be placed in the 2nd. Category of Rarity
when evaluated in the 5-point system.
In comparing Figs. 23. 29 & 31, it is evident that the types of Unified Censorship Cachets were subsequently
changed regarding the fraction with the capital letter "B" in the numerator, in that the fraction was "re-engraved" to read
"-- / 16" and the 5-digit number "01554" was added.
A postcard is illustrated in Fig. 32 in which the addresses of the sender and the recipient are similar to those in
Figs. 29 & 30. The dispatch c.d.s. reads "IIOJIEBASI IIOqTA 30.12.43" (without a number)and that of arrival:
Leningrad 1.1.44, together with a Unified Censorship Cachet with the number "08076" (of the type shown in Fig. 3 la).
In comparing Figs. 25. 30 & 32, it isevident that the Unified Censorship Cachets were subsequently changed with
the fraction "2/220" modified by "re-engraving" to read now "-- / 247", together with a 5-digit number "08076".
A postcard is featured in Fig. 33 with the dispatch c.d.s. reading Kazan' 16.7.43 and a transit marking
"TJIABH-bIf BnICI 20.7.43" as well as an arrival c.d.s. "IIOJIEBAAI IIOHTA 26.7.43" (without number) and
together with a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a 5-digit number "13596".
A triangular letter was shown earlier in Fig. 28 with the transit marking reading "FJIABHblH BIICII" (Main
Military Postal Sorting Point, located in Moscow), together with a Unified Censorship Cachet with a fraction, in the
numerator of which there was specified the point where the censorship was carried out: MOCKBA (Moscow). In
THE POST-RIDER/JIMIIHK N- 58 77
June 2006






comparing with Fig. 28 it can be noted that the transit marking of'TJIABHbII BIICI" is also found in Fig. 33. It can
be suggested by analogy that the Unified Censorship Cachet with the number "13596" belonged to the military censor in
Moscow.
7. Censorship of the Navy mail in the Black Sea, Northern, Pacific & other Fleets (other than the R-B Baltic Fleet)
The organization of the work of the military censorship in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet was looked at quite
thoroughly in the previous section. The military censorship in the other fleets was organized along the same principles as
in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, but there were some differences in its work. Those differences can be explained in that all
sub-units of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet were located in Leningrad, or around it in the immediate vicinity. For that reason,
all the mail of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet went through the military censorship primarily through Military Postal Sorting
Point Ns 2, which was located in Leningrad and carried out simultaneous functions, both as in the Rear and as a Frontal
Military Postal Sorting Point. Moreover, one of the greatest centres for verifying censored civilian mail functioned in
Leningrad.
In contrast to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, the sub-units of the Navy in the other fleets (Pacific, Black and
Northern) were normally stationed not only at considerable distances from each other, but also far away from large towns
and railway stations, where there were military censorship points at the mail sorting centres. Those sub-units of the Navy
not only did not have personnel from the Military Postal Sorting Points, as was the case for Military Postal Sorting Point
N2 2 for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, but were situated at considerable distances from the Military Postal Sorting Points.
Because of the distances involved for the sub-units of the Navy regarding the censorship centres in the towns, Military
Postal Sorting Points or Military Postal Bases, as well as other reasons, the necessity arose to organize the work of the
military censorship in a different way, differing somewhat from what operated in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
The plan examined the organisation of the centres (points) for carrying out the military censorship directly to the
Navy Post Offices or Navy Postal Stations. It should be noted that the points for carrying out military censorship were not
organized for each Navy Postal Station. Some of the Navy Postal Stations did not have such points and, for that reason,
they forwarded the incoming mail to other Navy Postal Stations, where there were military censorship points..
Linked with those times, various types of Non-standard and Unified Censorship Cachets are encountered on the
mail of the Navy Postal Service. In conformity with the procedure adopted earlier, we will look at the censorship
markings found on Navy mail.
7.1. Non-standard Censorship Cachets (HYIII)
In the first months of the War, the censorship cachets were distinguished by the great variety of types, hence the
specific designation stated here. Such cachets did not have definitive features so that one could specific in which town,
Military Postal Sorting Point or Military Postal Base the mail had been examined by the military censorship, Some Non-
standard Censorship Cachet types had already been looked at earlier on the mail of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. In this
particular section, we will look at examples of the applications on mail from other fleets of Non-standard Censorship
Cachets, rather than from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
As an example, we see in Fig. 34 the back of a cover with the arrival c.d.s. of Gor'kii 28,4,42 and a Non-standard
Censorship Cachet with the text: "Examined by the Military Censorship" between 7 wavy lines (3 above and 4 below).
The dispatch c.d.s. on the address side of the cover reads : "MOPCKAI IIOITA N2 1007 / 12.4.42" (Navy Post Office
No 1007 was in the Black Sea Filet at Sevastopol').
The back of a cover is featured in Fig. 35 with the arrival c.d.s. of Baku 22.9.41, together with a Non-standard
Censorship Cachet in violet, reading "Examined by the Military Censorship" between 7 wavy lines (3 above and 4
below). The 30-kopek stamp on the address side of the envelope is cancelled with the despatch c.d.s. of "MOPCKAJI
IIOITA No- 1007 / 12.9.41".
In comparing Figs. 34 & 35, it can be noted that the Non-standard Censorship Cachets placed on the covers
resemble each other, but there are some differences between them. For example, the wavy lines have various
configurations of the "ripple" and the cachets have different heights (21 mm. & 22 mm. respectively); different lengths
(66 and 68 mm.), as well as other differences. These cachets do not have distinctive features, whereby it would be
possible to determine at what place (a town, a Military Postal Sorting Point or a Military Postal Base) these letters had
been examined by a military censor. In the opinion of the authors, this one apparently originated in Sevastopol'. The
differences found in the Non-standard Censorship Cachets can be explained by the fact that each censorship point had
several cachets. They were prepared in complex wartime conditions, so that it was difficult to experience all the
parameters one by one. Moreover, there was no necessity to do so.
A cover with an interesting Non-standard Censorship Cachet was shown by I. Druzhinin in his article: reference
[6, Fig. 41 and a copy of the same is shown in Fig. 36. The dispatch c.d.s. on the address side of the cover reads
"MOPCKBRI HIOTA JN- 1135 / 28.8.41" (Navy Postal Station 2M 1135 was in the Black Sea Fleet and stationed at
Kerch'), together with a triangular cachet, confirming the right to the post-free transmission of the letter. The arrival c.d.s.
of Moscow 5.9.41 is on the back, together with a Non-standard Censorship Cachet with the text reading "EXAMINED"
78 THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIlHK N! 58\
June 2006













Fig. 38a.


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THE POST-RIDER/JMIflIK -N 58
June 2006


SnTPOBA5f KAPTO9KA

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BY THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP between 8 wavy lines (4 above and 4 below), a cachet bearing the number "150"
(see along the pinnacle, with the cachet 13 mm. in height), together with a triangular censorship cachet with the text
"+I1EH3OP / MN 1/ BMCII MN 1138/" (see along the pinnacle; for the cachet see Fig. 36a).
In comparing Figs. 34. 35 & 36, it can be noted that the Non-standard Censorship Cachets with wavy lines may be
distinguished between each other not only by the configuration of the lines, sizes of the cachets and letters, but also by the
number of the lines: 7 or 8. Apparently, the Non-standard Censorship Cachet with 8 wavy lines was the cachet of the
military censor in Kerch' and the cachet with the number "150" was his own private one. The triangular censorship cachet
was evidently the private one of the military censor who examined the mail at Navy Postal Station N 11356
The cachets shown in Figs. 34 to 36, as well as those known from the literature [4] confirm that, already in July-
August 1941 an attempt was undertaken to unify the censorship cachets and, as a sample, a type of cachet was prepared
with the coat of arms at the left side with the text "Examined by the Military Censorship" between wavy lines.. Most of
the Non-standard Censorship Cachets had 7 lines, but some are also known with 4 to 8 lines, as well as others with
straight lines.
Fig. 37 features a postcard with an impressed stamp (I. Bryun Collection, Russia) on which the stamp was
cance;lled with the dispatch c.d.s. "MOPCKAI IIOqTA N- 1107 / 27.8.41". There is also on the card the arrival c.d.s.
of Kostroma 3.9.41 and a Non-standard Censorship Cachet with the text "Examined by the Military Censorship" between
7 straight lines (3 above and 4 below).
That same card was sent from Navy Postal Station X-N 1107, which served the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and was
located on the island of Gogland. The censorship markings on the mail of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet were looked at in
some detail earlier in this article. It can be claimed that the Non-standard Censorship Cachet with 7 straight lines is not
characteristic for mail from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. It can then be regarded that this censorship cachet was applied,
not at Military Postal Sorting Point JM 2, but at some other place. In accordance with the plan set out earlier, the mail from
the Army on Active Service directed to the Rear was transmitted via a Military Postal Base. It can be assumed that the
Non-standard Censorship Cachet with 7 straight lines was applied by a military censor at a Military Postal Base. The
authors do not have documentary confirmation, but they have several indirect proofs, which allow them to suggest that the
Non-standard Censorship Cachet with straight lines was applied at a Military Postal Base or at a Military Postal Sorting
Point, while the Non-standard type with wavy lines was a cachet of the military censor at a postal junction in a town, for
example at Sevastopol'.
We have in Fig. 38 a special postcard for the mail coming from the Army of Active Service (I. BryunCollection,
Russia) on which the dispatch c.d.s. reads: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA XJ- 1008 / 30.10.4" (that Navy Post Office was in the
Northern Fleet and located in the village of Polyarnnyi), together with the arrival c.d.s. of Leningrad 11.11.41 and also a
Non-standard Censorship Cachet in violet with the text "EXAMINED BY THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP" in a
rectangular frame between four straight line (2 above and 2 below; see Fig. 38a).
An envelope in an opened-out state is illustrated in Fig. 39 with the dispatch c.d.s. "MOPCKASI IIOqTA 2No
1008 / 13.11.41" and that of the arrival c.d.s.for Gor'kii 26.11.41, as well as a Non-standard Censorship Cachet in violet
with the text "EXAMINED BY THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP" in a rectangular frame between 4 straight lines (of the
type shown in Fig. 38a. There are on the cover two additional cachets in violet with the numbers "10" & "11" (with a
height of 10 mm.). They were apparently the cachets of military censors with their own individual numbers. It was
uncommon that there would appear on a cover two different personal cachets of the censors. The appearance of two
cachets can be explained by the fact that the first censor carrying out the verification of the letter, could not make a
definitive decision. He would have consulted another censor who was his superior, who would come to a decision about
the dispatch of the letter and, as a proof of such a decision, added his own private personal cachet. It is also possible that
the second cachet was applied by his superior, who carried out a selective verification and supervision of the quality of the
work of the military censors.
In comparing Figs. 38 & 39, it can be noted that the postcard and letter were sent from the same place: Navy
Postal Station N4 1008, but to two different addresses: Leningrad and Gor'kii. One and the same type of Non-standard
Censorship Cachet (Fig. 38a) was placed on these two sending. It can therefore be inferred that the Non-standard
Censorship Cachet was applied, not at the point of arrival, but at the place of dispatch. It was apparently the cachet of the
military censor, serving at the Navy Post Office J 1008, or at a Military Postal Base, which was also possible.
In the opinion of the authors, the Non-standard Censorship Cachets in Figs. 34 to 39 can be placed in the 4t.
Category of Rarity when evaluated in a 5-point system.
7.2. Unified Censorship Cachets (yImll)
Early on in the article, the Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions were looked at, in the numerators of which
there was specified the place: the town, Military Postal Sorting Point or Military Postal Base, where the censorship was
carried out. and, in the denominator, the numbers of the military censors. Apart from the types specified, there was a


THE POST-RIDER/ASMInIIK N_ 58
June 2006






limited period of utilization of the Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions, in the numerators of which there was stated
the place where the censorship was carried out: '"KBQ)" (after re-engraving: "B").
Most of the Navy sub-units in the Black Sea, Northern and Pacific Fleets were distant from the verification
centres of censorship in the towns, Military Postal Sorting Points or Military Postal Bases. For that reason, the possibility
was allowed to carry out the military censorship at the Navy Post Offices or Navy Postal Stations. As an example, we see
in Fig. 40 a postcard with the dispatch c.d.s. "MOPCKASI InOTTA JN 1130" (Navy Postal Station JM 1130 was in the
Black Sea Fleet and located at Tuapse) and the arrival c.d.s. is absent. There is also on the card a Unified Censorship
Cachet in violet with a fraction, in the numerator of which there is given the number of the Navy Postal Station "1130",
where the censorship took place and, in the denominator, the number "7" of the censor (Fig. 40a). Such a type of Unified
Censorship Cachet replaced the Non-standard Censorship Cachets as of February 1942 and is encountered on the Naval
outgoing mail of all the fleets, except for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
There is shown in Fig. 41 a triangular letter with the dispatch c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAI IIOITA JN 1132 /
23.5.42" (Navy Postal Station X- 1132 was in the Black Sea and located at Novorossiisk), as well as the arrival c.d.s. of
Moscow 4.6.42.There is also on the cover a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction (of the type shown in Fi.
40a), in the numerator of which there is specified the number of the Navy Postal Station "1132", where the censorship
was carried out.
We see in Fig. 42 a triangular letter with the dispatch c.d.s. "MOPCKAI IINOTA M 1007 /4.6.42" and that of
the arrival c.d.s. Ufa 12.6.42. There is also on the letter a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction (of the type
shown in Fig. 40). in the numerator of which there is shown the number "1132" of the Navy Postal Station, where the
censorship was carried out.
Another triangular letter is featured in Fig. 43 with the dispatch c.d.s. "MOPCKASI IIOITA MN 1132 / 27.6.42"
and that of the arrival c.d.s.: Ufa 4.7.42.There is also on the letter a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction (of
'the type shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of which there was specified the number "1007" of the Navy Post Office.
Mail of the Navy Postal Service was shown in Figs. 40 to 43, sent from the sub-units of the Black Sea Fleet,
where there were Unified Censorship Cachets with fractions, in the numerators of which there were given the numbers of
the Navy Post Offices or Navy Postal Stations where the censorship was carried out and, in the denominators, the numbers
of the military censors. In analysing such mail, one can note some peculiarities in studying the postal service and
censorship.
1. In the address of the sender of the postcard in Fig. 40 there is specified Navy Postal Station Jo 1130 and in the dispatch
c.d.s. the markings of Navy Postal Station N2 1130 and its associated Unified Censorship Cachet; i.e. there is on the card a
complete conformity of the address of the sender, of the dispatch c.d.s. and of the Unified Censorship Cachet.
2. In the address of the sender in Fig. 41 there is specified Navy Postal Station M 1135 and for the c.d.s.: Navy Postal
Station JN 1132 and the Unified Censorship Cachet with J~- 1132. On the letter, the c.d.s. and the number of the Unified
Censorship Cachet match with each other, but not the address of the sender.
3. In the address of the sender in Fig. 42 there is specified Navy Post Office M 1007 and for the c.d.s.: Navy Post Office
M 1007 and the Unified Censorship Cachet with MJ 1132, i.e. the address of the sender and the c.d.s. match with each
other, but not the number of the Unified Censored Cachet.
4. In the address of the sender in Fig. 43. there is specified Navy Post Office JX 1007 and for the c.d.s. Navy Postal
Station J' 1132 and the Unified Censorship Cachet with JN2 1007; i.e. the address of the sender and the number of the
Unified Censorship Cachet coincide, but not that of the c.d.s.
In comparing Figs. 40 to 43, it is seen that, out of the four examples demonstrated here, only the first sending is in
complete conformity of the address of the sender, the c.d.s. and the number of the Unified Censorship Cachet. Such a
conformity in not observed on the other three sending The non-conformity of the address of the sender and the c.d.s.
(Figs. 41 & 43) can easily de explained, for example by the fact that the sender was temporarily at another sub-unit, but
had planned to return to the old address. However, the non-conformity of the c.d.s. and the number of the Unified
Censorship Cachet (Figs. 42 & 43) is harder to explain..
One can attempt to explain the example in Fig. 43: the letter was sent from Navy Postal Station JN 1132. In the
normal course of events, it would have been transmitted via Navy Post Office JM 1007, where it was also examined by a
military censor. But how to explain the example in Fig. 42: the letter had been sent from Navy Post Office J 1007 and
examined by the military censor at Navy Postal Station MX 1132?
One can only assume that the peculiarities set out above of the transmission of the outgoing mail of the Black Sea
Fleet in May-June 1942 were provoked by the wartime conditions and the ever-changing circumstances at the Front (in
the last weeks of the defence of Sevastopol' and the departure of army units and the fleet from the Crimea to the
Caucasus), which dictated the routes of transmission of the Navy Postal Service and the places where military censorship
could be carried out.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 44 with the dispatch c.d.s. reading "MOPCKASI IIO'TA X2 1118 / 16.7.42" Navy
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N 58 81
June 2006












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THE POST-RIDER/HMIHIIK JN 58
Jube 2006


jiff.48






Postal Station JNM 1118 in the Pacific Fleet, located at Russkii Osirov) and with the arrival c.d.s. of Gor'kii 2.8.42. There is
also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction (of the type shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of
which there is given the number "1118" of the Navy Postal Station, which carried out the censorship.
There is featured in Fig. 45 an envelope in an opened-out state with the dispatch c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAI
IIOHTA N2 1120 / 20.5.42" (Navy Postal; Station NJ2 1120 was in the Pacific Fleet and located at Romanovka in the
Amur province), together with the arrival c.d.s. of Gor'kii 13.6.42. We have on the back a Unified Censorship Cachet in
violet with a fraction (of the type shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of which there is specified the number "1120" of
the Navy Postal Station which carried out the censorship.
In comparing Figs. 44 & 45, it will be seen that, in the Pacific Fleet where active fighting actions were not being
carried out in 1942, the outgoing mail of the Navy Postal Service was being transmitted in the normal way, whereby
complete observance was being followed in the address of the sender, the dispatch c.d.s. and the number of the Unified
Censorship Cachet.
No. 46 shows a postcard with the dispatch c.d.s. reading "MOPCKAS IIONTA JNL 1008 / 20.4.42" and the
arrival cds of Murmansk 3.5.42.There is also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction (of the type
shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of which there is specified the number "1008" of the Navy Post Office, where the
censorship was carried out.
The address side of a letter-card headed "BOHHCKOE" (Military letter) is featured in Fig. 47 with the dispatch
c.d.s. reading "IOJIEBASI IIOqTA N2 916 / 4.1.43" and that of arrival Bystryi Istok 17.1.43 (P-H Vallen Collection,
Norway). There is also on the letter-card a Unified Censorship Cachet in violet with a fraction (of the type in Fig. 40a), in
the numerator which there is specified the number "1008" of the Navy Post Office carrying out the censorship. The
number "916" of the Field Postal Station confirms that the sender of the letter-card was serving in the Army on Active
Service and not in the Navy (the numbers of the Navy Postal Station and of the Navy Post Office were both of the 4-digit
type starting with "10" or "11"). The example in Fig. 47 shows that mail was being transmitted via Navy Post Office JM
1008 not only from Navy personnel, but also from the Army on Active Service.
We see in Fig. 48 a postcard with the dispatch c.d.s. reading "MOPCKAAI IOTTA JNM 1141 / 22.4.42" (Navy
Postal Station J 1141was in the Northern Fleet and located in Murmansk), together with the arrival c.d.s. of
Monchegorsk, Murmansk province 26.4.42. There is also on the card a Unified Censorship Cachet with a fraction (of the
type shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of which stands the number "1141" of the Navy Postal Station where the
censorship was carried out.
A cover is featured in Fi. 49 (I Bryun Collection, Russia) which, according to the return address, was sent from
the Northern Fleet, Navy Post Office XM 1008, but the dispatch c.d.s. on the envelope reads "MOPCKAS IIOHTA Me
1141 / 18.8.42". The non-conformity of the address of the sender with the dispatch c.d.s. raises a series of questions, the
main one being: why was the letter from the Navy Post Office sent via a Navy Postal Station? It is known that the Navy
Postal Service normally transmitted mail in the opposite direction, i.e. from a Navy Postal Station via a Navy Post Office.
Apparently, such a method of transmission was due to the military situation in the Northern Fleet, which dictated the route
of transmission of the Navy Postal Service and the place where the military censorship would be performed. There is on
the back of the cover the arrival c.d.s. of Inza, Kuibyshev province 25.8.42 and a Unified Censorship Cachet with a
fraction (of the type shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of which there was specified the number "1141" of the Navy
Postal Station where the censorship was carried out.
Fig. 50 shows a special postcard for the mail from the Army on Active Service with the dispatch c.d.s. reading
"IIIC JM& 548 / 8.9.42" and that of arrival ofVelikii Ustyug, Vologda province 20.9.42 on the back. There is on the card
a Unified Censorship Cachet with a fraction (of the type shown in Fig. 40a), in the numerator of which there is specified
the number "1141" of the Navy Postal Station, where the censorship was carried out. The number 548 of the "IIIC"
(Field Postal Station) indicates that the sender of the card was in the Army on Active Service and not in the Navy.. It can
be claimed that, in the Northern Fleet, the mail of the Navy personnel was transmitted via a Navy Post Office (see Fig. 47
and a Navy Postal Station, as well as that of the Army on Active Service.
Fig. 51 illustrates a postcard with the dispatch c.d.s. reading "IOJIEBAJI IIOqTA NM 1154 / 8.3.43" (Field
Postal Station J 1154 was in the Caspian Flotilla and located at Baku). There is on the card the transit c.d.s. of Military
Postal Sorting Point M 11 / 9.3.43 (Rear MPSP JM 11 was located in Baku), together with an arrival c.d.s. reading:
"IOJIEBAAI IIO'TA / 2.4.43" (without a number) and also a Unified Censorship Cachet (of the type shown in Fig.
40a), in the numerator of which there is specified the number "1154" of the Navy Postal Station that carried out the
censorship. The card shown here confirms that the Unified Censorship Cachets (of the type shown in Fig. 40a) were
utilized not only in all fleets (except for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet), but also on separate flotillas, which were based on
the Caspian Sea, the Volga River and at other places. The card illustrates the period of transition, whereby the number
"1154" of the Field Postal Station was still remaining on the dispatch c.d.s., while the arrival c.d.s. of the Field Postal
Station was already without a number.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHIK N 58 83
June 2006







The period of application of the Unified Censorship Cachets (of the type shown in Fig. 40a) is known to the
authors as being from February 1942 to April 1943. Such cachets were replaced later on by similar cachets with 5-digit
numbers. In the opinion of the authors, Unified Censorship Cachets with a fraction, in the numerator of which there was
specified the numbers of the Navy Post Offices or of the Navy Postal Stations where the censorship was carried out and,
with,the numbers of the military censors in the denominator, can certainly be placed in the 4th. Category of Rarity, when
evaluated in the 5-point system.
The authors express their thanks to I. Bryun and I. Druzhinin (Russia) and P.-H Vallen (Norway) for extending
the possibility of becoming acquainted with the materials in their collections and permitting their publication.
Listing of Conventional Abbreviations
BMII Boemio-MopcKaa noara: Navy Postal Service
BMIIO BoeHHo-MopcKoe no'roBoe oAgenenHHe Navy Post Office
BMIIC BoeHmo-MopcKaa no1roBaa craHnaa: Navy Postal Station
BIB BoeHHo-noTOBBsa 6B3a: Military Postal Base
BIIIC BoeHHo-noneBaa norITOBaa cramnm: Field Postal Station
BnCnH BoeHHo-noroBbIfi cOpTHpOBO'qHmbI nyIAKT: Military Postal Sorting Point
KBI KpacH03oaMeHnHbI BaJnTaniCKi (JIOT: Red Banner Baltic Fleet
KIIIO KaneHaapa br nrraMn oTnpaBKH: Circular date-stamp of dispatch
KIIIII Kanea~apmaiA irraMn npHn6Bra: Circular date-stamp of arrival
HKBM4 HapoHImfi KoMHccapnaT BoeHno-MopcKoro ObioTa: People's Commissariat of the Navy
HKO HapoHrnsl KoMnccapHaT O6oponbI: People's Commissariat of Defence
HKC HapoHbfi KoMnccapnaT CBs3H: People's Commissariat of Communications
HYIIIII HeyHnpmmpoBa r ii EeHn3ypHIi nrraIn: Non-standard Censorship Cachet
IIK IIoTOBaa KapTOqKa: Postcard
CQ CeBepHbhiA IJIOT: Northern Fleet
TO( TaxooKeancKHR (I)nOT: Pacific Fleet
YII YiHHmIg poBamIfHni neHnypm Hbi urraMn: Unified Censorship Cachet
UIII ILeH3ypHbIA nrraMp: Censorship cachet
JIHTEPATYPA
LITERATURE
1. V.BERDICHEVSKIY & M.KOSSOY. THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP OF RANK-
AND-FILE MAIL IN THE RUSSIAN NAVY DURING WWI (1914-1918). The POST-
RIDER (MIIMIHK), 2000, NX 47, p.p.76-86.
2. V.BERDICHEVSKIY & M.KOSSOY. THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP OF RANK-
AND-FILE MAIL IN THE RUSSIAN NAVY DURING WWI (1914-1918). The POST-
RIDER (5IMIIHK), 2001, NM 48, p.p.18-45.
3. M.KOSSOY & V.BERDICHEVSKIY. MAIL OF THE RANK-AND-FILE OF THE
SOVIET NAVY (1918-1941). The POST-RIDER (MMIlHK), 2002, J.N 50, p.p.16-35.
4. M.KABANOV. ON APPLICATION OF THE WAR-TIME FIELD POST'S
MATERIAL IN THE PHILATELIC ELABORATIONS. "SOVIETSKY
KOLLEKCIONER", 1986, ?M24, p.p.3-15.
5. B.IAHTIOXHH. IOqTOBAA CB5I3b BEJIHKORI OTE'ECTBEHHOfl. ql)enaTejua
(PoccH, MocKsa), 1995, MX4, p.p.18-19.
6. H.)PY)KHHHH. IOJIEBAA HIOqTA. 55 neT BeJnKoii nfo6eria. BcepoccuilcKax
(l;narTencTHiecKxa BicraBKa. BKaTanor. MocKBa. 26.5. -25.6.2000r.
7. Nagl Auction MN 18, Bamberg, 11 October 2003.
8. M.KOSSOY & V.BERDICHEVSKIY. THE MAIL OF THE PERSONNEL OF THE
SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945). The POST-RIDER (SIMIIHK), 2005, MN 56, p.p.54-67.
9. H.A.n.CYPIAEB. PA3BHTHE CBII3H B CCCP. MOCKBA. CBC3,, 1967, p.241 .
10. B.IAHTIOXHH. nO-ITOBASI CBI3b B BEJIHKOrI OTEqECTBEHHOfl BOIHE
1941-1945. QIunaTeman (Poccem, MoceKa), 1995, M27, p.p.45-47.
11. H.AJPYXCHHHH. HOJIEBAA HOtITA KPACHOAI APMHH 1941-1945.
KOJIJIEKI1HOHEP M38 39, MociKa, 2003, p.p.3-29.
12. B.CHHEFYBOB. BOEHHO MOPCKASI HOHTA B rOhbI BEJIHKOI
OTEIECTBEHHOHI BOrIHMI. caraTen n CCCP, 1981, MN9, p.p.45-46.'
13. A.OCATHHICKHI. MOPCKAAI nOqTA XAHKO. Hjnarenju CCCP, 1977, M7,
p.p.10-12.
14. A.BHHOKYPOB. BOEHHAS IAEH3YPA B CCCP B IEPHOl BEJIHKOir
OTE'ECTBEHHOfI BOIHhI. OcaaTejnu (Pocci, MocKna), 2003, X?7, p.p.33-35.
15. A.BHHOKYPOB. BOEHHAI I(EHI3YPA B CCCP B ITEPHO,1 BEJIHKOI
OTEtiECTBEHHOfI BOIHbI. O~naTemia (Poccu, MociKa), 2003, NX8, p.p.35-37.
16. M.SHMUELY. SOVIET CENSORSHIP AND OTHER MARKINGS. Rossica, 1988,
M112, p.p.17-41.
17. DAVID M. SKIPTON. SOVIET CENSORMARKS THE 1942-1943 CATEGORY.
Rossica, 1992, MN118, p.p.45-52.
18. DAVID M. SKIPTON. THE 1942-43 CENSORMARKS OF THE RED ARMY'S
MILITARY POSTAL SORTING OFFICES. Rossica, 1996, XJ127, p.p.61-64.
19. M.KOSSOY & V.BERDICHEVSKIY. THE MAIL OF THE PERSONNEL OF THE
SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945). The POST-RIDER (AMIMIHK), 2005, MN 57, p.p.42-71.

84 THE POST-RIDER/jMIMIHK Ng 58
June 2006






THE ENQUIRY AND INFORMATION POSTAL SERVICE
by Professor A,S, Jlyushin & V.A. Pantyukhin.
(The original Russian text of this article was published in "The Post-Rider" 2N- 57, pp. 76-99).
An Enquiry & Information Service available at postal and telegraphic offices was established in Soviet Russia at
the end of 1918, which functioned for almost a quarter of a century and furnished the population with diverse, exact and
up-tp-the-minute reports, with the help of special postcards, which did not bear an impressed stamp. That type of card was
first described in the article of reference [1]. New documents and postal materials have now been found shedding
additional light on the history of the Enquiry & Information Service and various aspects of its functioning [2-7].
The establishment of the Enquiry & Information Service was determined by a special decree of the Council of
People's Commissars (Sovnarkom or CHK) and accepted at a session of the CHK on 26 November 1918. The plan of the
decree was put into being by V.N. Podbel'skii, the then People's Commissar of Posts & Telegraphs of the RSFSR. The
complete text of the Decree was published on 30 November 1918 in the newspaper "Izvestiya" N2 262. It sets out in detail
the aims and tasks of the new postal service, :-
"DECREE
About the establishment of an Enquiry Service at the postal and telegraphic offices
26 November 1918.
The Council of People's Commissars, having taken under attention the necessity of offering to the working
masses with the least possible lapse of time the possibility of receiving directions and reports about the activities of
various Soviet offices, does decree:
1. That there should be organized in the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs a Central Enquiry Organ,
concentrating therein all the necessary basic data about the activities of various Soviet services.
2. In accordance with Article 1 of the present decree, to organize such an Enquiry Service at all local postal and
telegraphic offices of Soviet Russia, concentrating in them (with the exception of general data and reports) the necessary
enquiry material about the activities of the local Soviet offices.
3. All the material, required for the organization of the Enquiry Service, is to be collected and put in order by the Enquiry
Department of the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs and its local organs.. All the central and local Soviet
offices are obliged to deliver to the Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs within a period of one month from the
publication date of the present decree all the enquiry data about their activities, inasmuch as such data can demonstrate
interest, from the point of view of the organization of the Enquiry Service. Information of a general character must be
presented to the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs, while data of a local character should go to the relative
provincial Postal & Telegraphic Administration. All subsequent changes and additions of the data being presented must
immediately be communicated to the relative postal & telegraphic office.
Signed: President of the Council of People's Commissars: V. Ul'yanov (Lenin).
People's Commissar of Posts & Telegraphs: V. Podbel'skii.
Director of the Affairs of the Council of People's Commissars: V. Bonch-Bruevich.
Secretary of the Council of People's Commissars: L. Fotieva"
At that particular session of the Council of People's Commissars, the People's Cimmissariat of Posts &
Telegraphs was ordered to set up a questionnaire for all the People's Commissariats and also to advise the Council of
People's Commissars every week about the progress in complying with the decree. That fact demonstrates the enormous
political importance that was attached by the Government of the young Soviet Republic to the activities of the Enquiry &
Information Service established by it.
It should be said that it did not come into being in an empty area. There existed in the Russian Empire a specific
system of Address Boards, where one could receive exact data about the place of residence of citizens of the Empire..
With the introduction of postcards in Russia in 1872, which received wide distribution among the general public, there
arose the idea of utilizing them to advise reports by mail about the addresses of citizens in the Address Board of St.
Petersburg. Circular M 12809 Of 9 July 1880 was issued stating: "In order to have more convenient relations between the
public and the Address Board in St. Petersburg, enquiries to that Board, as well as its replies about the place of residence
of the inhabitants of the capital, it is permitted to write on the existing forms of postcards with an impressed stamp. For
that purpose, the Administration in St. Petersburg will acquire the necessary amount of forms and half of that amount will
be placed on sale to the public in the capital and other towns at 9 kopeks for the form, with the second half remaining for
the replies to such enquiries".
Within the space of a few years, the practice adopted by the Address Board in St. Petersburg had spread to the
establishment of Address Boards in a series of other towns in Russia: Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa and Kiev, for which there
were prepared postal stationery items for special purposes [12-13]. The most convenient ones were the forms consisting of
two postcards with paid replies, as one and the same form provided spaces for both the enquiry and the reply. Later on,
that particular experience was utilized in preparing postcards for the mail of prisoners of war.
THE POST-RIDER/MIIMHK NY 58 85
June 2006






In carrying out its operative activities, the Enquiry & Information Service established in 1918 relied on the
experience of the work of the Address Boards, which continued to act and collaborated closely with them, as the
revolutionary events of the consequences of WWI, the Civil War and the changes in the frontiers led to the migration of a
considerable part of the Russian population. An existing part of the enquiries from citizens was linked principally with
those problems; people were looking for their relatives and acquaintances, scattered both in the country, as well as turning
up beyond its borders. Enquiries went to Russia and to abroad.
Ordinary postcards were also utilized for such enquiries and there appeared Address Board forms of a new type.
Unfortunately, we have not been able to discover even one postal sending, which would have documented the work of
such an Enquiry & Information Service in the period from 1918 to 1921. Connected with that is the fact that no special
postcard forms were issued to cover such activity.
In the first years of Soviet power, the entire administration of communications at all points was set up in the form
of departments of Provincial Executive Committees. For that reason and, in the initial period of the new Enquiry Service
as envisaged in the decree, the Central Enquiry Service had to function under the People's Commissariat of Posts &
Telegraphs and the local Enquiry Service at the Provincial Postal & Telegraphic Administrations. Thus, in the Simbirsk
province, there were answerable to the disposition of the Simbirsk Department of National Communications MN 402 of 20
July 1920, all Directors of post offices, who were obliged to organize immediately,an Enquiry Service entrusted to their
offices. However and considering everything, not much active operation was developed in that direction since, apart from
that, the postal employees had many other problems. The search of archival documents carried out by a well-known
philatelic investigator G.B. Nagol'nov, which could have confirmed the work of the Enquiry Service at the Simbirsk post
office in those years, turned out to be without results.
In the process of the further construction of a Socialist State, many various local provincial, autonomous,
territorial and regional administrative units were established. In 1921, V.S. Dovgalevskii, the People's Commissar of
Posts & Telegraphs of the RSFSR wrote in one of his reports to the Government that: "If we go by the figures, then we
will see that on the territories set up at the present time under the power of the Soviets, there operated up to the outbreak
of war 23 Postal & Telegraphic Administrations and, at the present time, their functions are being carried out by 86
Administrations (provincial, regional, autonomous and independent republics, which have entered the Federation)..."
By a decree of 7 September 1922 of the Central Executive Committee, there was carried out a reorganization of
the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs and the administration of local postal undertakings was conferred on
newly proclaimed 20 regional administrations of communications [3]. Local Enquiry & Information Services had to
function in those administrations, but bringing them up to the required levels did not come about. Only the Address
Boards continued to serve actively on the spot..In order to carry out the work of the Central Address Board in Petrograd,
there were issued in that city postcards without an impressed stamp (see Fig. 1).







iii Iia iiira'
V 1 a .1 1 1 "L1 I







In accordance with the first Constitution of the USSR, which was ratified on 6 July 1923, the People's






Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs of the USSR (HIKInT) was formed. Its structure and that of the local organs of
administration on the territory of the RSFSR remained unchanged, but on the territories of the other Union Republics, new
6 THE POST-R DER/M P IE M I ..58






June2006
ur r, 'hl =.



...^ I .r _. :'_L .__1- ,-- .... ...r ..- -. .


In accordance with the first Constitution of the USSR, which was ratified on 6 July 1923, the People's
Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs of the USSR (HKIlHT) was formed. Its structure and that of the local organs of
administration on the territory of the RSFSR remained unchanged, but on the territories of the other Union Republics, new
86 THE POST-RIDER/aMIIHK J S8
June 2006






Regions of Communications were formed. There was also put into order the activity of the Enquiry & Information Service
in connection with the new structure of the People's Commissariat.
A commercial agency was created on 24 August 1923 within the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs
under the abbreviated name of "Communications", the activity of which was directed towards the issue of various postal
and advertising materials in popularizing the goods and services of State undertakings. Within such a series of advertising
materials were also machine cancellers with advertising slogans, which were called "shtamp-reklama". There also
appeared in Moscow during that year special postcards with reply paid, issued by the "Communications" Agency and
intended for the enquiries directed to the Address Board of the Moscow Soviet The instructions for their dissemination
have been set out below:-
"INSTRUCTIONS
for the dissemination of postcards of the Address Bureau of the Moscow Soviet (MN 29/53)

1. With the aim of extending to the masses at large the possibility of quick and accurate receipt of the address
of one person or another living in Moscow, the "Communications" Agency has issued a special type of
postcards with paid reply, on the basis of extending to it the right of monopoly for the sale of these cards to all
interested citizens of the USSR.
2. All citizens of the USSR can utilize the designated cards, residing in any town, village and hamlet outside
Moscow (as well as inside Moscow), without wasting time for various kinds of enquiries about the possibility of
seeking an address by means of a personal correspondence with the Moscow Address Bureau (Board),
without spoiling the situation as to how much it will cost, without sending money and without wasting time in
filling out a money order for the transmission of money to the Moscow Address Bureau or by including a
quantity of postage stamps.
3. Each person buying a prepared card of the Moscow Address Bureau issued by the "Communications"
Agency and paying for that matter 25 kopeks in all (including therein two stamps of 3 kopeks each, as well as
the cost of the self-same enquiry), will also fill in the few short data set out in the text of the card and drop it in
any letter box of normal type. He will receive in a short space of time an answer on the second half of the
designated card immediately from the Address Bureau in Moscow. The rapidity of receiving a reply depends
on the distance from Moscow, taking into account the normal flow of mail to the specified point. The handling of
the enquiry at the Address Bureau and the information in the reply should not take more than 24 hours, while
persons living within a radius of 500 verst (roughly 500 km. or 313 miles) from Moscow can receive a reply in 3
to 4 days.
4. If possible, the data on the Enquiry card must be complete and comprehensive..
5. The cards are subject to the widest distribution by means of their sale, informing in advance the masses at
large about this matter by the means of an announcement. All trading points of your Region must be provided
with the cards in a sufficient quantity and, with regard to their sale, there must be given announcements at all
selling points. These cards must be furnished in any quantity at all to the undertakings, firms and all types of
offices.
6. As a general rule, stamps should be affixed at the time of sale, so that the buyer will acquire the card in a
prepared state.
7. The selling price of the double card with stamps has been fixed at 25 kopeks.
8. These cards are being delivered to the Regional Bureau if the Agency for 15 kopeks each (without stamps).
9. The Regional Bureau will affix two stamps of 3 kopeks each and will hand over to the buyer the complete
card for 25 kopeks; in that way, 4 kopeks will accrue to the Regional Bureau from each card to cover the
organizational expenses in distributing the cards.
10. The designated cards of the Agency are regarded as goods and no special accounts are required in
distributing the cards.
Notice: The amount sold of the cards of the Address Bureau is to be noted for the accounting period in the
General Accounts.
11. The unsold cards which remain in the Regions will be taken back by the Agency for the same price of 15
kopeks, as the requirement to furnish them dries up in a particular Region.
12. Any postal and telegraphic office desirous of acquiring for sale cards of the Address Bureau should apply
to the respective Regional Bureau of the Agency.
The Deputy Director of the Central Administration: Derzhavin"

The postcards of the Address Bureau of the Moscow Soviet are shown herewith in Fia. 2.


THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHNK 5N 58
June 2006










F- A' n e 1i II B C T?


.o C i sa .... ..Postsl &_ T'ath .e...al. A ita ge ON
Sli n r tIMh Pp ad tt
'. i o h Oremo -.. -. ... .
-' : ........ .hl) ]B03p3CT_ _____ _... __.___
[[ 'vpoiimeeu (ka nl rye.. ,eona oct, o n ac r3 Ili eepeeaB ) ......
Poji JrtlTM

x 3Oow d T ol nre l idov c ... .n .J dd li i l i ..ilpe, Tp In ,


d= OqTOB'fi K/PTOqKl rlnOqTOBtK K PTOWfqKl


Sas ,.oo uo ,rt e.nto te spot A = r p s .a t.... ... .......
noi. thy ,,"In orncenT.h, MOCCOBeTa o
M 0 C K B A, e t.y o ; w' C
eHnueirH e'r":r. 1r 14 ry t r s .
jPE3.ll(.Crr -HT.NI, I l4 M 0 C H B A L
nApricj1 --cnFA Rru l H Inda P =



Fig. 2.

There is printed on the left side of the Enquiry card the text: "The right of monopoly for the report of the Address
Bureau of the Moscow Soviet to be sent by the Post is reserved for the Committee of the "Communications" Agency in
the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs", with the address of the Central Administration given as Moscow,
Kuznetskii most N2 14, Address Enquiry Department. A notice below informed the clients that the price of the form was
25 kopeks, including therein the postal expenses for transmission and the price of the report.
It was decided in 1925 to extend the postal and telegraphic network to the villages and that increased considerably
the work of the rural post offices. There were opened many new post offices and the personnel of the postal workers was
expanded. The postal workers became the active providers of the cultural revolution in the villages. They not only
delivered letters and newspapers, but also sold stamps to the rural dwellers, as well as postal stationery envelopes and
postcards, accepted subscriptions to newspapers and magazines, etc. However, the work of the Enquiry & Information
Service was not opened up to the fullest extent on the spot. A new type of postal and telegraphic services was published
in the Ul'yanovsk province in a paragraph of the newspaper "The Proletarian Way", issue XN 267 for 21 November 1926,
which stated that: "In accordance with an order of the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs, a new and hitherto
not accepted until now a new type of postal and telegraphic service for the population: the acceptance of all kinds of
enquiry errands from the citizens...For such errands, it was necessary to utilize special cards, which have not yet been
sent or distributed on the spot, but served by ordinary cards....The payment for an errand, whereby enquiries had to be
directed to Moscow and Leningrad, was fixed at two roubles, for other towns: one rouble and in rural localities: 50
kopeks. A discount of 50% was established for peasants".
Special postcards for the enquiries only appeared in the autumn of 1928. Data about these cards were published in
the central and local periodical press. Thus on 5 September 1928, a small note appeared in the newspaper "The Proletarian
Way" in Simbirsk, stating: "Enquiry card. Cards with the value of 25 kopeks have been issued by the local post office,
whereby one can receive various reports from all towns of the USSR". That same newspaper published yet another
announcement on 17 November 1928: "Any reply for 25 kopeks. Moscow, 15. The People's Commissariat of Posts &
Telegraphs has introduced an Enquiry Service, which gives all citizens the possibility of receiving by mail, telegraph and
telephone the necessary addresses of persons and offices, as well as reports on all questions of trade, industry, transport,
communications, law, technology, cooperatives, finances, the arts, literature, etc. Special enquiry cards have been issued,
which are available at all postal and telegraphic offices for the price of 25 kopeks, including that for the report".

88 THE POST-RIDER/HMIZ H Ne 58
June 2006






It can be concluded from the data set out above that the special postcards for enquiries went on sale in the autumn
of 1928. The People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs issued them centrally and also distributed them to the various
points.
The postcard was produced as a form without an impressed stamp and measured 210 x 150 mm. resembling the
forms of the double postcard with paid reply (Fig. 3.











'.1! i1'60 1
eI i I









S.g. 3..





A text was printed on the face of the enquiry card in its upper part and reading in two lines "IIOITOBAI
KAPTORKA / RJIAI CIIPABKH" (Postcard / for the Enquiry). Two vertical lines divide the face of the form into two
parts. The portion at right carried out the official functions and was intended for affixing the stamps and writing in the
address. The space for affixing the stamps was specified in the upper right corner, by the means of a dotted rectangle,
measuring 16 x 22 mm., within there was printed the text: "Place for affixing 25 kopeks in stamps". The word
"3AKA3HOE" (Registered) was printed below and two dotted lines were added for the address with the designations
"To where" and "To whom". Immediately after the word "KoMy" (To whom), the address of the recipient was specified
as "THE POST OFFICE".
The portion at left on the face of the Enquiry card contained an informative text about the methods of its
utilization, printed in small type in 20 lines, as follows:-
"The card serves for the receipt by mail of a report of the addresses of Governmental, Soviet, Party, professional,
cooperative, financial, industrial, commercial, insured, transport, educational, scientific, health and other offices,
undertakings, households, organizations, societies, companies, offices, agencies etc. located in the USSR; also about the
date of their activity or acceptance, the character of the services offered, the production of goods, prices etc; moreover
about the addresses of individual citizens, the state of health of sick persons, currently being treated in treatment centres,
sanatoria and at resorts, appointments from medical specialists, payment for acceptance and other data etc.".
The back of the card was intended for writing the text of the enquiry. For that purpose, ten dotted lines were
placed over its whole area and there were printed instructions on how to fill in the enquiry.along the perimeter on the back
of the card, in the upper part and in the borders. There was printed in three lines a text on the left side of the card, reading:
"The accuracy of transmission and delivery of the enquiry is guaranteed by the receipt and handing over according to the
regulations for registered mail". A further text in three lines was printed in the upper part of the card, reading: "For the
receipt of the report, it must be clearly indicated what report must be carried out and hand over this card against a receipt
at the nearest post office, sub-office, agency or to a letter-carrier, paying 25 kopeks in postage stamps". There was also
printed in four lines on the right side the text: "This card can accept no more than one complete enquiry, e,g, the address
of only one office at the time of acceptance, or of the address of one undertaking, the character of the goods produced
THE POST-RIDER/IMIHKN Ks58 89
June 2006
June 2006






and the prices of separate objects".
It followed from the text printed on the back of the enquiry card that the acceptance and sale of the cards for the
reports were carried out not only by the post offices, but also the letter-carriers. It resulted in a great convenience for the
clients, especially in the rural areas.
The special tariff set at 25 kopeks included the payment of the postal rates in transmitting the enquiry and for the
replies as registered sending and also the price for the service in handling the reports. It was essentially lower than the
rates then in force for the transmission of registered mail.
In accordance to the practice operating for a long time in Russia for the production of forms without impressed
stamps, they were ordered independently by the postal and telegraphic offices from local printeries. On the broad scale,
that applied also to the postcards for the reports. That circumstance led to the appearance of various types of cards,
differing one from the other not only by the paper and the setting of the printing type, but also in the content of the
explanatory texts.
As a rule, postage stamps covering the full amount of the rate were affixed to the front of the enquiry portion of
the card (Fig. 4.



I oO TOs i : T C....... L... .. ..... .
4"p.









handstamp of the Enquiry & Information Bureau or Office was normally applied in the upper right corner of the address,





side of the card, setting out the right of post-free transmission and that same card was handled as a registered article, being
.-..h. .p ,.. ........ ,.,. '" '; Ilj.'.I- .. ..... .. .. ... -', .










provided with a registration label or cachet (Fig. *).


"4T'JMBA9 K \Pn fKA nO1HT KAPTOL.IK
.L .. .. .... .. -..( I



hadngm "ofnquir" y ( IPosagD ue u ape wat orke a.t the E r I ormnervie had












side of the card, setting out the right of post-famps were transmissixed on and that reply portion of the reportsame card was anded t was a registered article, being
provided withas a registered sending (F














We can regard as a curiosity the report portion of a card, which was delivered to the recipient with a cachet
reading "Aorma *mm (= Postage Due). It would appear that a worker at the Enquiry & Information Service had
neglected to apply the necessary handstamped cachet f g ).
neglected to apply the necessary handstamped cachet (Fig. 7).


THE POST-RIDER/AMIMIHK JM 58
June 2006




















Fig. 7.


-i-_______Fia. 6.
The entire double card was sometimes returned in full to the applicant and a label with the reply affixed to the
front of the report portion. That mostly happened when the report was negative, or the worker at the Enquiry &
Information Service forwarded the request to the respective office for a reply to the applicant. There is shown in Fig. 8 a
portion of an enquiry card, sent from Samara to Moscow on 24.6.30, on which the information worker had affixed a slip
of paper for re-addressing to the Central Committee of the Workers' Enquiry Service.



-- r 4.. 'F -.8

"'nA ^i' i EL'F'*"' iE'^'t-^;"*"^'^--am H FL n rTT.nr: n E r: ^Ttpl
^~, .^ .-,,<^.,_ jj.>nA.-ffr~zx ie'.-,,,, ? .n___ .-- ((*,***l


The Enquiry & Information offices sometimes forwarded the reply to the ordinary offices, applying a cachet or
seal instead of stamps. There is shown in Fig. 9 an envelope, sent on 0.8.33 by the Enquiry & Information Office of
Rostov-on-Don to Ul'yanovsk, being provided with strikes of the official cachet with the text: "North Caucasus Region.
Enquiry & Information Office, Sotsialisticheskaya (formerly Nikol'skaya) Street 97, telephones 25300 & 25301" There is
a further marking applied below, which fulfilled the role of a return address, while another in the upper right corner served
in place of a postage stamp





... .. -
._ :- < : .- ..j- ... .- :- -.. -- --' ., ',^ -



6j ILA .... _
---A







I. --., ..^_'.^ .
.- ... .. .


I: /-'-. "'* ; T^ tO ^ i;.-. -- -



THE POST-RIDER/fIMIIHK 58 91
June 2006


R L TA
fl,, 1


1 ~i'p~ .1 N!4- 6

'* 4-m-L..1 C1 l-4
-0.-.






In other cases, the answer was transmitted in special official cards of the Enquiry & Informative Service and the
card from the applicant remained in full in the archives. These types of postcards with the reply of the Central Enquiry
Bureau of the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs, or from its regional departments demonstrate considerable
interest both as philatelic postal history material and as sources of information about the activities of the Enquiry &
Information Service of the USSR. One of these cards was described for the first time in 1989 [5].
The card consisted of a form without an
impressed stamp, measuring 105 x 150
S-mm. and was printed in black by the
S i A HAPT oH typographic process on thin white card,
.t. o together with inscriptions both on the
S. Lf.J front and back. The card utilized by the
4 I Central Enquiry Bureau in Moscow is
shown in Fig. 10 with premises in the
-'-"- l-"..'',"','- 'building of the General Post Office at
S: ""- Myasnitskaya Street N 26.
ST The front of the card had a vertical line,
-. l B _^ 1 which divided it into two parts. The
S..right and larger part with a width of 120
r an if ov npano-uo: op mm. was intended for writing in
I -._ U tf .uo,.. Cnpanoru ot: Iilopo
I. K. T. -.. C.. L the address. There was printed in the
I --! c P, .. n,.K,., .. Ai upper portion of the card the text:
S__ .... "Postcard with reply" in two languages:
Russian and Esperanto. There was
Fig. 10. below that the address block consisting
of five dotted lines with the designations
"To where" and "To whom", together with strongly underlined notations, reading: "Name of the place where the post
office is located and province or region and, for stations the name of the railway line. County or area, district, village or
hamlet. Complete name of the recipient". There was printed under the lines for the address and separated by a stout
horizontal stroke the text: "lenrrpaJImHoe CnpaBo~Ioe Blopo. H.K.II. I T. -- Y.C.M.O. MocKBa, aeinrp,
MacHHHmuaa, 26 (6)". The number "3333" is specified in brevier type in the bottom right corner.
The smaller portion at left on the front of the postcard is 30 mm. wide and contains an advertising text, printed in
six lines from the bottom to the top, reading: "The CENTRAL ENQUIRY BUREAU informs you by mail, telephone and
telegraph REPORTS on all questions.
IT REPRESENTS you in your absence, wakes you up, will remind you about everything and will forward any kind of
instructions to POSREDBYURO (Go-between Office).
NEWSPAPER CUTTINGS on any subject at all from the Union Press and Abroad will be provided by the OFFICE OF
NEWSPAPER CUTTINGS".
There was also a vertical line on the back of the card, dividing it into two parts. The portion at right is 125 mm.
wide and blank and intended for writing in the enquiry, while the portion at left was 25 mm. wide and also contained an
advertising text, printed in four lines from bottom to top, as follows:-
"DO NOT SPEND MONEY ON A TRIP TO MOSCOW: everything that you want to know
will be advised by the CENTRAL ENQUIRY BUREAU.
Obtain at the post office a special enquiry card
and you will receive a reply by mail for any question or matter of interest to you".
There also functioned in the same building the Enquiry & Information Office of the City of Moscow, which
utilized in its work similar cards with an advertisement (Fig. 11). Such cards were transmitted without stamps as official
mail.
Regional (provincial, district and urban) E,quiry & Information Offices or Bureaus carried out the issue of cards
for reports and intended to be utilized in their localities. We see in Fig. 12 a postcard for a report issued by the Provincial
Enquiry Bureau of the Central Black Sea Region and sent from Ranenburg to Moscow on 20.3.33.
An official card, designated for use in the Bureau serving Astrakhan' is featured in Fig. 13. As with the Moscow
cards, there was also printed here the advertisement of the Enquiry & Information service
The Central Enquiry Bureau of the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs used marks, similar in style to
the postmarks of the USSR in that period. They consisted of two concentric circles with diameters of 20 and 30 mm. The
date was placed between two horizontal lines within the smaller diameter and, between the larger and smaller diameters
there were the texts: "I.C.B.H.K.I. H T., OTIIPABJIEHO" or "I.C.B.H.K.II HT. IIOJIYHEHO" (F)g.14).

STHE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N 58.
92- June 2006













4'


* .- .


-!OMIT 'E.U E"APT, ."04} ..- _=-" -


.i' i ,,,. : -. -
n .S'^ .-'. ... "-











e .r...... T 1.


sI "A'P


Fig. 14.


* *
SPECIAL NOTE:
Z. Mikulski Russian Collection Sale
Following upon the "Washington 2006"
World Philatelic Exhibition, the Cherrystone
Auction took place on 7 June 2006 of this Gold
Medal Collection, with most lots going for near
or over the estimates. The key item was Lot 278
with a mixed franking of Russia No. 1 plus a
vertical strip of the 30-kop. value, sent from
Ovruch 21.4..1858 to the Austrian Ambassador
in St. Petersburg. Estimated at USD 250,000, it
went for USD 450,000 + 15% Buyer's Premium
(!). The total rate of one rouble possibly covered
the fee for a letter weighing 10 lots (roughly 128
grammes or 4/2 ounces). The catalogue of this
outstanding sale is a valuable reference!


THEP


* *** ****


** **


I; ._ .r y I -*


OST-RIDER/HMII~K N 58 93
June 2006


Fig. 11.


i-
i-r-

~Je~c~t~i
~-----------~
~b~?r
..~. .

I--


~"'"T'~i"'""~~


; 7






The first marking was applied on outgoing mail TO confirmits official character and the second on incoming
mail, fulfilling registration functions. The features of the Postal Service were actively propagated by means of
advertisements, placed on postal stationery envelopes and postcards with or without impressed stamps and also by means
of inserting the relevant texts as slogans on advertising machine cancellers. Great distribution was obtained by the practice
of inserting in several places the advertising texts on postal markings, utilised in special canceling machines, intended for
the automatic handling of incoming and outgoing mail. Information appeared on one of the first of these markings about
the so-called "Stamp & Advertising System". A machine marking was already being utilized at the 5'. Despatch
Department of the Moscow General Post Office with the following text contained therein: A NEW FEATURE. STAMP
ADVERTISER. ACCEPTANCE OF ORDERS, TEL. 2-44-95". Immediately thereafter, similar machine cancellers
advertising the "Stamp& Advertising System" began to be utilized at Khar'kov, Kiev, Leningrad, Rostov-on-Don, Tiflis
and Voronezh [8 to 10].
After the liquidation of the "Communications" Commercial Agency in 1927, the People's Commissariat of Posts
& Telegraphs issued a special instruction on 27.10.1928, regulating at the post offices the procedure and conditions for
accepting and distributing advertisements through the Enquiry & Information Service. Namely after this wide distribution
and apart from the advertising postal cancellers, other various sloganeering postal materials such as envelopes and
postcards with or without impressed stamps also received dissemination. Advertisements were also placed on telegram
forms, postal receipts, money orders etc.


Fie. 15.


There is shown in Fig. 15 the
back of a telegram form of the
1930s with various advertising
inscriptions, including those
referring to the Enquiry &
Information Service.
Among the advertising machine
markings utilised in the 5t".
Department of the Moscow
General Post Office, there
appeared on them propagating
texts, inserted with the
following contents:-
"BUY AT THE POST OFFICE
ENQUIRY CARDS AND YOU
WILL RECEIVE FROM
MOSCOW ANY KIND OF
REPORT FOR 25 KOPEKS"
ENQUIRYY BUREAU AT THE
POST OFFICE. REPORTS ON
ALL QUESTIONS AND ALSO


ALL ADDRESSES OF PRIVATE PERSONS AND OFFICES".
"ASK FOR ENQUIRY CARDS AT THE POST OFFICE AND YOU WILL RECEIVE FROM ANY TOWN ANY
KIND OF REPORT FOR 25 KOPEKS".

nlPKnARTE HAnDTE=li, fUKVnA1TE HA nFo1TE=- )
nPAB0 MH.UTKPr KHFbl 7 nPAB .TPUTKP H K 7 28 5
n0ONMTE M3 MOrKBl I4 noIviTEK H3 MOCKN
0n1SVVOCPAKYaA25mK itMB MBKYA25K5M RIC


cnfl8s8 PO 1c'iTTAi E iCitPABEIOPO moovulMTA...
CUL'ASB flDInM lilMSBO i l o CPABKHnOIllthblMoi POCAh
AAg).ESCE, AP .CI ATAKIKEBCE ARPECRa,. -
* f. THblXJ1IRL -, 4ACTHblXJ1lHU
SPEAflEHMA 1 H VMPE)KEllHi


1MTUyTEHARno IT '4F .TETEHAPrn0TE
JPAcID'E h bi 'CPABCH UA b OUTKPRlHHBbI 915'A
A IIOjEGsnEOrO MOUMAk --
^S^^&^^^K.^


Fig. 16.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK NJ 58
June 2006


"i ""ul I [ I( IIrr[.,.l ii LI,1],.rh.iI B]Irl I., i I.:ri.p. I i ,hip[. 'O kr Ie n ILr] p
S .. .,,, ,, .
II .. .. ,M B ..., ., ,. ,
''I'l n.i n.,[ira .in m i .j-,,;ri,,.p ,.f l.. ., pI .


i...in mit.I I f r P vi* L urc.L, l oFI I ql I l H.
iji it. *i,,uJ.rp..c. ir r,,.M,,.Ia 2..;,*, .,,,. flietIA'Iisi* fli Ii,,.W
1 fLe.i.6 nmU .1 ;ai,.,C-Lp. ip.ipidt, jk.J ,, ,,,,i', '. i-M ., c,,,c *r. .1tnn
p IIJX"L, pe nle .lp r ,;, ..l If-,I] ir- l .... rllll ,p Ia' BEA ,i. IdiHzErIiuJw I P A
S llr4Ip l li. IUr '. 9.]!| i .7"ri% li !a. ,ic, ,Pl] ia B C l 1.1Cr Itier MI PA I Il3
B M ni rr n.,,. ie. pn,.., c rei,.4,,i .,.[,t .,M atn..,B h14?2 anpton iiLb.i ie .I.i,
C 9fiCIV, r,'...Miit LiIF II CH rlinp' III .kin I.FH ,
* C, ? _._
E-St..TI) nj .:,,, ,, ,. ,.| i--






There are featured in Fig. 16 the illustrations of strikes of several cancellations utilized at the General Post Office
Sin Moscow from 1918 to 193o, .
By the beginning of the 1930s, the advertising and slogan markings had received wide distribution in the USSR.
Apart from Moscow and Leningrad, they were applied at the post offices at Kazan', Khabarovsk, Khar'kov, Kiev, Nizhnii
Novgorod, Odessa, Perm',Rostov-on-Don, Simferopol', Tula and Voronezh. There were recorded in the listings 150
different advertising and slogan postmarks [9, 10].
In many towns and, together with machine markings, the post offices also used rubber handstamps with quite
variegated contents. Much attention was devoted at the time to explaining to the population of the country the political
activities of the Party and Government, with calls for participation in elections, the necessity of keeping money in
savings banks, as well as to buy lottery tickets of the Society for the Promotion of Aviation and Chemical Defence of the
USSR (OCOABHAXIHM) etc. An advertisement for the Enquiry & Information Service was printed on the backs of
two postal stationery envelopes, as shown inFig. 17.


S ... ,. -' ., u
~ ~.,. *^c .. > ".> ,


.. -4 1 --,2.
.i C g .-51512)

1 *-'-'< S


Fig. 17.


There also went into circulation advertising and sloganeering envelopes without an impressed stamp, on the backs
of which there was printed a text with the following contents:-
"If you need a REPORT from anywhere in the USSR, you can obtain at the post office a special postcard for enquiries.
ASK FOR reports by postcard at post offices everywhere and from letter carriers"(see Fig. 18) herewith.

l.ll .CCCP H ... Cn H CCCP

_- ..* ..r.. AU it ...

LoABtr v a A r a 0 A b V Fig. 18.


In the period from 1929 to 1931, the Enquiry Bureau of the Central Asian Bureau within the Administration of
Communications in Tashkent brought about the issue of nine provisional postal stationery items (IV 1 to IV 9) in the
form of overprints with advertising and sloganeering designs, as well as texts on the left side of standard postcards with
impressed stamps. One card from these issues (IV-4) was dated 1930 and advertised in the Russian and Uzbek languages
postcards for enquiries with the following inscription:-
"You can obtain QUICKLY AND ACCURATELY at the post office the report you need from any town or village at 25
kopeks for the card titled "For enquiries".
THE POST-RIDER/MIIMHK N 58 95
June 2006


- "' QT -

I -- n.*
Iw a... q ..*


TPtF HTB
"1, amnui r l x p ;






The first fully priced postal stationery item in the form of a card advertising for enquiries was a postcard of the
USSR with advertising and slogans, which was issued in 1931. The text printed on it was as follows:-
"AN EXACT AND TIMELY REPORT IS THE BEST HELP FOR THE WORKER AND PEASANT.
For all difficulties regarding the questions of work, the construction of collective farms, agriculture, Soviet law, taxes,
insurance etc. etc., pay for the card with 25-kopek stamps and hand it in at the nearest post office or send it to the
following address: Moscow, City Centre, Central Enquiry Bureau. You will receive an exact and comprehensive reply
from your nearest post office".
Among other postal items propagating the Enquiry and Information Service, attention should be directed to postal
receipts, on the backs of which there was printed a text with the following contents: "You can receive from any point in
the USSR the report you need using the special postcard for enquiries".
At the beginning of the 1930s, there appeared in the mail service envelopes without an impressed stamp and with
the advertising along the following lines on the front side:"The Postal Service will bring to you any kind of report. Ask /
at the post office for special postcards for reports / with a cost of 36 kopeks. Use them and save time".


I LI2



i. Fi. 19, --, -Q %.



.n y qea5. .. .. -a 6 TO.. s OA 4 A .


Most of the examples known to us were sent from Nizhnii-Novgorod (Fizg.
I B ^s -lRfPTOIRf
\_




C015 _!e- 4L 3AKOHAX =o:, I,; .
P dl o,
AI ^.*t3SL g~- Om ocni npoc".no 3L.

w'I R n t ,sf p npadOIs g e l,
on sale ataloA cnpc d l a
0I0 o 50o0yrC Fig. 21.

SAT03ABOL R EiHIpPOACK ..' .. ..
n POAAMA
c ] 0 jEfl A A flJ OT- Kom

Fig. 20. 2
We also know about some 10 advertising envelopes in various settings, with one of them bearing a printed
indication of the return address as "Automobile Plant at Nizhnii-Novgorod. (Nizhnii-Novgorod"; see Fig. 20).
Postcards without impressed stamps also belong to that period, being issued by the Provincial Enquiry Bureau of
the Central Black Sea Province. The following text is printed on the left side:-
"In order to receive data about the addresses of the persons and offices you are seeking, about the laws, learning, cures,
resorts, the cost of a journey by rail and the conveyance of freight, as well as any other enquiry, use an enquiry postcard,
on sale at all post offices and from letter carriers"
The price of the blank form was fixed at 2 kopeks and the numbers printed of the various issues varied from
250,000 to 500,000 copies Fgi. 21).
In 1932, the People's Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs was renamed as the People's Commissariat of
Communications of the USSR (HapKOMCBa3b) and by January there had already appeared a Circular n HMFI / 107 with
new instructions about the Enquiry & Information Service. In accordance with that instruction, there was bestowed on the
organs of the Enquiry & Information Service (Enquiry & Information Offices, District Enquiry Bureaus and the
96 THE POST-RIDER/aMIHpK oc 58
June 2006






Information Bureau at the sector of the Enquiry & Information Service of the People's Commissariat of Communications)
the responsibility of informing the population of the USSR about the achievements in the economic, political and cultural
life of the country. The collaborators of the Enquiry & Information Services had to accept and fulfill the requests of the
Governmental, Cooperative and Public Organisations, offices and undertakings, collect and prepare the necessary
materials for the fulfillment of orders, recommend requested methods and procedures of handling,, give consultations, etc.
The greatest activity in the functions of the Enquiry & Information Postal Service of the USSR was
carried out in the period from 1928 to 1940. That is confirmed by the basic mass of discovered philatelic
material of postal history content. An analysis of the philatelic material that has come down to us allows us to
confirm that, already by 1929, these cards began to be utilized to a quite large extent by the population.
During those years, the postal rates for receiving reports were changed several times. Unfortunately, we
do not have at our disposal exact information about the dates when these and other rates were introduced, but
from an analysis of the postal stationery that went through the mails, it is known that the following rates were
adopted: 25 koneks. 45 koneks and 1 rouble (see the Table herewith).
Table
A Listing of the postcards for enquiries, sent from 1929 to 1935
Date of dispatch' Point of dispatch Point of destination Franking
,aaTa MecTo MecTo
SDpaHKHpoBKa
oTnpaBJeIHmi OTnpaBJeHna Ha3HaqeHHn

07.09.1929 r.Oxecca CT.JIlrBO 30 Kon.
_JIeHuHHpancKoi o6n.
19.10:1929 r.Ka3am, r.MocKBa 25 KOn.
03.02.1930 r.TIoMeHb r.TaM6oB 25 KOn.
25.03.1930 norrosiBb BaroH r.MocKBa 25 KOn.
No36
26.05.1930 TyM6oaTno r.JIeHnHrpan 30 Kon.
Hx___eropoacKoif ry6.
16.07.1930 cT.Y3noBaa MOCK. r.MocKBa 25 KOIn.
o6n.
24.06.1930 r.CaMapa r.MocKBa 25 Kon.
24.07.1930 r.nloen r.TaM6oB 25 KOn.
14.07.1931 Fpe6eneBcKoe o/c c.BepxomIm eMCK 25 KOn.
21.03.1933 r.PaneH6ypr, HemHp.- r.MocKBa 45 Kcon.
lepHo3eM. OKpyT
19.04.1933 r.CTapony6 r.MocKBa 45 KOn.
07.10.1933 r.KacRMBoB r.MocKBa 45 Kon.
15.01.1934 r.KacHMOB r.MocKBa 45 Kon.
23.04.1934 r.MocKBa r.HazexAc. HCK 45 KOn.
11.03.1935 r.KHpoB r.MocKBa 1 py6.
12.04.1935 r.XapbKOB r.MocKBa 45 Kon.

From the advertisements distributed on envelopes without impressed stamps, a rate of 36 kopeks became known.
However, we have not been able to discover up to the present time cards with enquiries, franked with stamps of that sum.
The earliest envelope that went through the mails and advertising the services of the Enquiry & Information Service at the
rate of 36 kopeks is dated in January 1932, according to the postmark date. It can therefore be suggested that the 36-kopek
rate was in effect for not more than 1/2 months between August 1931 and March 1933. It should be noted that there are
known examples of cards for reports, franked with postage stamps totalling 30 kopeks, although nothing official was ever
announced officially about such a rate (g. 2. This problem requires additional investigation.
It became possible to find out about the 1-rouble rate (Fig. 23) from the additional texts printed on several cards.
The card which had been found bearing that information stated that an enquiry could be sent by mail and the reply could
be received by telegraph. Such a service could also be paid by affixing postage stamps on the enquiry portion of the card.
The rate for an enquiry within the boundaries of an urban locality or district came to 50 kopeks and within a region or
province, the cost was 75 kopeks; within the boundaries of a remaining territory, the rate was 1 r. 25 k. (Fig 2).
THE POST-RIDER/I MIIHK N 58 97
June 2006
J




















. ," rd .






.
,," t'


i--- i.





I i


Fig. 23.


Y
-~~.
r

~,~,r'5 ~


.~;. ~Up~a~PDri~'.'~
un~-rrr
,__,..,. r:
----- -~"
.-- 1.
--
.---
r~C~-5~-;

2-- ;i-
I
I'. __
---i-. -----~


C~~~~~" :
~- ~-~-~-~i ~
-~ I-
--2=~
i,.
r- ---
--
r--------
P I: .-Y.~---.-.---
~il~ ~I'.Ljr2 ilirYv;v
-I r-~- ~
-r r .
-'- El~ -~-'~' '~~ ''"'~-
_I ~'"
I -v~ -1--- .--~--.--
JI.*--ri-i- -
9

:Ili~i------- ~~~-~1
~----I


Fig. 24.


V"iL 51f


1 ,' .I
CPrlP C'lnlI IIO 9IKI
corn- r, 0., 0 l-
".." -.. ... .......
.. ",. .-, .. .." .


!t,.r. iH4-r i ui
hETL'
IA 1p [ .'


Fia. 25.


After a series of
reorganizations, the structure of
the People's Commissariat of
Communications was finally
settled by a decision dated 16
November 1939 of the Council of
People's Commissars. In
accordance with that order, there
were founded on the territory of
the USSR provincial, regional
and republican (ASSR
Autonomous Socialist Soviet
Republics) Administrations of
Communications, where there
functioned local Enquiry &
Information Services. There
appeared then enquiry cards in a
new style with a representation of
the State Coat of Arms and with a
heading reading "HK CBS3H
CCCP"


(People's Commissariat of Communications of the USSR). They began to be called enquiryy cards" and the text of
the instructions printed on them was changed. The cards had to be addressed, not to the Postal Service, but to
Enquiry & Information Offices. From the text of the instructions, it followed that the rate for receiving reports by
mail was fixed at 1 rouble. A double enquiry postcard in the new All-Union style is shown in Fig. 25.


THE POST-RIDER/aMIIHK N2 58
June 2006


Fig. 22.


:

r u
'i----------------------i:
b i
B
?.
5,:.j. i)l 5.
.~; a
r
I I .:: ~ P'

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I


. : dUVI bir f


kc. C. CCCP
C a' p a'n ao H a M pA T aTO K n
n ; PAR &llA*TDIT --
S3 A 3 H 0 E


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