• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Soviet evacuation...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Some comments on a Lithuanian packet...
 Zemstvo varieties - seventeenth...
 Postal rates in Kolchak's...
 The Germans in Murmansk
 The ROPiT postal service in the...
 The mail of the Pinsk Naval Flotilla...
 Two unusual card usages
 The mail of the personnel of the...
 About the dates of issue and printings...
 The enquiry and information postal...
 About the markings of the aircraft...
 The December 1922 fourth issue...
 Conclusions reached from describing...
 Stamps of Tuva have appeared with...
 Japanese-controlled POW camps in...
 Mongolian registered mail
 Perforation varieties of the Czechoslovak...






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00056
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: November 2005
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Soviet evacuation mail
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Some comments on a Lithuanian packet card
        Page 4
    Zemstvo varieties - seventeenth instalment
        Page 5
    Postal rates in Kolchak's Siberia
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Germans in Murmansk
        Page 13
    The ROPiT postal service in the Middle East: The initial period 1857-1874 (English text)
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The mail of the Pinsk Naval Flotilla in 1941
        Page 40
    Two unusual card usages
        Page 41
    The mail of the personnel of the Soviet navy (1941-1945)
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    About the dates of issue and printings of the first Soviet postage stamps
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    The enquiry and information postal service
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    About the markings of the aircraft carriers & aviation units of the Russian imperial navy during WWI
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    The December 1922 fourth issue of the Armenian SSR
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Conclusions reached from describing the Zemstvo postage stamps of the Yassy district in the province of Bessarabia on the basis of the philatelic catalogues at the end of the 19th century
        Page 107
    Stamps of Tuva have appeared with forged postmarks
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Japanese-controlled POW camps in Siberia during the Civil War
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Mongolian registered mail
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Perforation varieties of the Czechoslovak "T. G. Masaryk" set printed by Goznak in Moscow
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text




51MUIlHK


ThE POST-RIDER


N 57


November 2005


ThE CANAdiAN SociETy of RUSSiAN PhilATEly


Printed in Canada







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY

OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, MSW 1P2
Canada



CSRP Web Site: http//www3.simpatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider@(sympatico.ca
"The Post-Rider NJ 57. November 2005.
Contents:
2 Editorial: Soviet Evacuation Mail
2 Special Notes, also at 4, 5, 10, 11, 75 & 107
3 Correspondence with Canada: A registered letter from Moscow 28.1.08 to West Berlin, Canada Andrew Cronin
4 Some comments on a Lithuanian packet card Harry von Hofmann, RDP
5 Zemstvo Varieties: Seventeenth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
6 Postal Rates in Kolchak's Siberia Dr. Ivo Steijn
13 The Germans in Murmansk Henry Blum
14 The ROPiT Postal Service in the Middle East: The Initial Period 1857-1874 (English text) L.G. Ratner
40 The Mail of the Pinsk Naval Flotilla in 1941 V.Yu. Malov
41 Two Unusual Card Usages Rabbi L.L. Tann
42 The Mail of the Personnel of the Soviet Navy (1941-1945) Meer Kossoy & Vladimir Berdichevskiy
72 About the dates of issue and printings of the first Soviet postage stamps L.G. Ratner
76 The Enquiry and Information Postal Service Professor A.S. Ilyushin & V.A. Pantyukhin
99 About the Markings of the Aircraft Carriers & Aviation Units of the Vladimir Berdichevskiy
Russian Imperial Navy during WWI
104 The December 1922 Fourth Issue of the Armenian SSR Dr. A.M. Sargsyan/Sarkisian
107 Conclusions reached from describing the Zemstvo postage stamps of the Yassy District in Vladimir Babich
the Province of Bessarabia on the basis of the philatelic catalogues at the end of the 19W. Century
108 Stamps of Tuva have appeared with forged postmarks V.N. Ustinovskii
108 Further comments on the 1921 Volga Famine Issue R.J. Pietruszka, Col. A. Prado & A. Sadovnikov
111 Japanese-Controlled P.O.W. Camps in Siberia during the Civil War Edward Klempka
117 Mongolian Registered Mail Dt. Denys J. Voaden
119 Perforation Varieties of the Czechoslovak "T.G. Masaryk" set printed by Goznak in Moscow Andrew Cronin

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

Copyright 2005. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of
this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily
those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.
*








"EVERYTHING
FOR THE FRONT!
EVERYTHING
( FOR VICTORY10
(Scott No. 877).

/Normal stamp Pate Faw
StampNo. 31 on the
Editorial -sheet of 50 (10 x 5).
Editorial
SOVIET EVACUATION MAIL

Our journal "The Post-Rider" has always won praise over the years because of the CSRP policy to keep
opening up new areas of investigation in our fields of collecting.. The main results have been the publication of
interesting studies and the formation of outstanding philatelic exhibits at the international level
We now propose a specific suggestion regarding yet another area of research, for which we will require the
cooperation of our readers in the former Soviet Union. That is where much of the material relating to this new subject
is to be found. After the experience of the Civil War, which basically ended in 1920, the Soviet leadership realized
that, for the future security of their state, key industries and enterprises had to be established and/or relocated well out
of reach of potential enemies, such as Nazi Germany and Japan.
That was a factor not taken into account by Hitler in attacking the USSR on 22 June 1941. He thought that,
by seizing the coal and iron ore resources of the Ukraine, he could win that war. He had ignored the establishment by
the Soviets of many additional industrial undertakings and resources in the Urals, Kazakhstan and Siberia during the
first three Five- Year Plans.
Another factor, which aided Soviet resistance to the invasion, was the reaction of the leadership. Some
sources have claimed that Stalin went to pieces during the first days of the war and did nothing until his rallying
speech of :3r. July 1941 in Moscow. However, his Appointments Book of the period has since been found and it is
full of entries right from the first few hours of the attack. One of the main decisions taken on 24h. June 1941 during
those meetings was to order the immediate evacuation to the East of vital equipment, -factories and associated
technicians, regarded as essential for the defence of the country. It was a huge project, involving 1360 large industrial
enterprises and undertakings and it placed an enormous strain on the railway system. What could not be moved was
blown up, as with the Dnieper Dam; in short, a "scorched earth" policy was adopted. This-transplanting took place
during the second half of 1941 and the beginning of 1942, to form a second line of industrial defence. By 2d. July
1941, the armoured-plate mill at Mariupol' was ordered transferred to Magnitogorsk-and, on the next day, 26
armaments factories in Leningrad, Moscow and Tula were directed to the East, as well as technicians and diesel
equipment from the Kirov factory in Leningrad and the entire Tractor Plant and work force in Khar'kov. Some of the
huge industrial complexes could not be transferred as integral units and had to be decentralised: the Moscow Ball-
Bearing Plant was split into three parts and the equipment sent to Kuibyshev, Saratov and Tomsk. Some of the plants
stayed in the East after the crisis was overcome. The main slogan during that period was "Everything for the Front,
everything for victory" and the campaign was so successful that, by 1944, the USSR was outproducing Nazi
Germany in armaments, munitions and aircraft. In fact, Soviet artillery and the well-known T-34 tank were the best
models of their kind produced by any side in WWII.
It goes without saying that the gigantic dislocations resulting from such huge transfers must also have been
reflected in the postal history of that critical period. Examples of redirected and censored mail must surely be floating
around unnoticed even now in the former Soviet Union and the messages on postcards that circulated must be full of
human interest. We would be happy to have the details of such items held by our CSRP readers. Let us hear from you!
SPECIAL NOTES: *
The Portsmouth Peace Treaty Anniversary Committee is celebrating in New Hampshire, U.S.A. the centenary of
the end of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-190.5.Portsmouth, N.H. is also a draw for Japanese visitors and further
details of the planned activities are available at the following Web Site: www.portsmouthpeacetreatv.ora
*
AVAILABLE at reasonable prices: Soviet money order cards from the last period of the USSR with a very wide
range of postmarks, including bilinguals. Please state your preferences.
JANIS OZOLISI, P. K. N' 51, LV-3260 VALDEMARPILS, LATVIA, Europe.

*. * *


THE POST-RIDER/aMmlHK N- 57
November 2005






CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or Xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.





A REGISTERED LETTER FROM MOSCOW 28.1.08 O.S.
TO WEST BERLIN, CANADA by Andrew Cronin.


German migration to Canada has always been prominent, as is also evident from the address of West Berlin in our
province of Ontario and not far from Toronto. However, the name of the town has since been changed to Kitchener,
as a result of World War I. Nevertheless, we still have an Annual "Oktoberfest" in Kitchener!
In this case, even the addressee was German: namely, W.H. Schmalz, a manager at the Economical Insurance
Company. He was also a philatelist, active early in the early 20h. century and exchanging with foreign collectors.
We have here a cover franked in Moscow at 40 kopeks, of which 10 kopeks covered the registration fee and the
remaining 30 kopeks would have indicated a triple-weight letter. We may therefore suppose that it contained a fair
amount of philatelic material, sent by N.S. Sisov (?), Nikitskaya, Kalashnyi Lane, Konshin House in Moscow. The
handwriting of the sender also indicates that he was a well-educated person.

THE POST-RIDER/RMIIJH N* 57
November 2005






SOME COMMENTS ON A LITHUANIAN PACKET CARD
by Harry von Hofmann, RDP.
A nice Lithuanian packet card is shown on p. 120 of "The Post-Rider" No. 56, with a reference in the text to
the German occupation of Memel. That is not exactly correct. After the outbreak of war between Germany and the
Soviet Union, the German OSTLAND Postal Administration was set up at the end of 1941- in Lithuania, which had
been occupied by the Soviets. However, the Lithuanian Postal Service had already availed itself of the retreat of the
Red Army to resume its own postal activity and thus issued this bilingual packet card. The Lithuanian Coat of Arms
and the arrangement of the two languages, first Lithuanian and then German are a clear indication that this packet
card was issued by the Lithuanians and not by the Germans. The rest of these cards were used up by 1943, although
already by 1942 packet cards in German were then available. I will include further details in my book about
Lithuania as part of the General Postal Commissariat for OSTLAND. That book is now in preparation and will
encompass much research.
Editorial Comment: Herr Harry von Hofmann has raised some interesting juridical points here. So far as the Memel
Territory was concerned, it became de facto an integral part of the Grossdeutsches Reich (Greater Germany) on 22
March 1939, when the Republic of Lithuania complied with an ultimatum from the Third Reich. From then on, the
Lithuanian place-name "Klaipeda" was illegal, so far as the Germans were concerned. The subsequent production of
the bilingual Lithuanian/German packet card with the Klaipbda "Rytas" imprint could therefore be regarded as a
violation of German sovereignty, as the only official language in the incorporated Memel Territory was German.
Also, Lithuania formed part of the OSTLAND Territory under German occupation in 1941-1944 andwas no longer
an independent country.
Ironically, the card shown in "The Post-Rider" No. 56, p. 120 also had stapled to it a two-sided
Acknowledgement of Receipt form, which was a carry-over from the previous Soviet Postal-Administration of 1940-
1941. It was also bilingual, with the Russian text above and the Lithuanian below, as shown here reduced to 65%.
Quite a conversation piece!


n -" A.:mens paltudrimul arba
P. c' ......



" a 3. .... ...... .-
YsIaousoe na o apome nom la. om pasAe Ia. M, %




La. ieOaI ,nn.,a,, O .n o t pIn -a, is& I F i. J1 4 s. Par.L
L 1 2.- .O... 1 :


K
/


A ..
136eu~eHue1P=Rernas AS, AE/, Y -:

lA'jta I Kr rtIU r
s.J^ I .^&UlV


KOsV' I/ Kam '-o ,-

na.LVEOa ha Bamle U .JZSq wa'da g2I2a



"P Wol. Oy4m tayem ecn ____________._____ ____.
Ipu ioyu aym cn ilper. mokw-2io r. -
Gaunant reikla suimokll no rjmo i t6p ________ _
poam rinrli.zo r. A.
'lpeenuamb do KY.W p 1oCmotep. AULs.I PaoCdytl asmnr tSph -. -
17Pu nOAVq nps'asume re. I Oun ntpatotilte kf. M -= .Of 194 LI r
le MeImI C IoO, zuf Ipanc ou. rpt z ?p fl ocn n.Otp Sea IIpI I A.
M45.to. I. g..At. ume fa.ln.4 u tII.ia.I t e iteltv o. S.t. -4 M IP*
He~~~~~~u tiejiiT MI. WO**uiannwC.a Te ie luxuplu .O- a iarc


LOOKING FOR THE "LIMONKA"


S -



rr.."* j J.7
n,4 "


Scott J2 287, the 15 kop.
Peasant perf 14% x 15 is the
rarest Soviet definitive,
named "Limonka" for its
yellow colour and worth
about USD 7000 mint and
USD 150 used. Only two mint
blocks of four so far known
and the trick is to find the
stamp used on cover, asseen
here from Archangel 11.8.30
lo San Francisco. Such an
item should be worth at least
USD 500. Who has other such
examples?


THE POST-RIDER/iIMIDK N- 57
November 2005


SPECIAL NOTE;


iiii0


-r






ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: SEVENTEENTH INSTALMENT
by G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. Where a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties do not
exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is shown here is what
I have in my collection.
Osa, Perm' province.



Chuchin No. 11: Mint horizontal pair.
*....- ,- ^ ^ On the left-hand stamp, the wording
7 .and centre are printed double. That is
.~^ ithe first recorded example of this error
"'I :. and is not listed in any catalogue,
S) ,:-- including the latest by Gurevich,
-- Poltorak & Strebulaev. Enlarged to
-* ,... 150% .


Perevaslavl' Poltava province'










Chuchin No. 2a. Mint t&te-beche pair.


Perm', Perm' province.


Chuchin No. 24a. Mint strip of three.
Error in the middle stamp: 5 instead
of 3 in the upper right-hand comer.


Schmidt No. 20. Issued in 1919 by the Local
Sovdep. (= Council of Deputies; Chuchin does
not list such issues). Stamp printed on gummed
paper. Thin line visible just below where the
handles of the rake and scythe cross. That
variety is not listed in the excellent catalogue
"Stamps of the Zemstvo Posts of Russia
1866-1919" by Gurevich, Poltarak &
Strebulaev (in Russian).


Comment:
It would have been very helpful if the
authors of the latest Zemstvo Catalogue
mentioned above had given an address
for reporting their findings. It is obvious
that no stamp catalogue, especially the
first edition, can be 100% complete.
Zemstvo collectors are friendly folk and
they will gladly report on errors,
omissions and discoveries.


* *


SPECIAL NOTE:


DEMONETISE OR USE POSTALLY..


STANLEY GIBBONS LIMITED
399 Strand London WC2R OLX In M
Tel: 0171 836 8444 Fax: 0171 836 7342 In M
SOVIET UNION E /50 SG 504var "- -- pair
UNUSED 2.343 center
Stock No.
1927 '10th ANNIVERSARY display
OF OCTOBER REVOLUTION'
8k BLACK AND BROWN that e
VERTICAL PAIR VARIETY
MISPLACED CENTRE AND and p
EXTRA HORIZONTAL ROW a
OF PERFS FINE UNMOUNTED
O.G.
-------TIHE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N 57
November 2005


ay 1999 Stanley Gibbons offered a vertical
of SG 504 (Scott 378) with misplaced
e and demonetised with a horizontal line of
rations. Your editor shows the same
Cement on a postally used stamp, showing
errors were sometimes sold at post offices
repaid mail by oversight.


9






POSTAL RATES IN KOLCHAK'S SIBERIA
by Dr. Ivo Steijn.
Postal rates during the Civil Wat period have always been a difficult subject and, for many years, we have
had to rely on the actual postal material that went through the mail so as to reonstruct empirically the postal rates in
the various areas. This has changed in recent years. Archival research has given us the official full postal rates for
many areas and periods, such as the RSFSR, South Russia, Ukraine and the area controlled by the North-West Army.
It is a pleasure to be able to add Siberia to that short list, The State Archive of the Russian Federation has in
its collection the archives of the Kolchak Postal Administration (Fond R-541). Through the kind efforts of art
historian Masha Chlenova, I was able to get a look at Delo (Archival Unit) 148, which contains circulars and
instructions, sent out by the Kolchak Postal Administration on a variety of subjects, including postal rates.
Postal historians have long suspected that Soviet rates continued to be used in "White" Siberia for quite some
time. The rates set by the Soviet government in late February and early Marxh 1918 were in fact used well into 1919
in Siberia, simply because later rate-change notifications from Petrograd were either ignored or never received in
"White" Siberia. The Kolchak archives confirm that his administration did not get around to setting its own rates
until the spring of 1919, as we suspected from postal material.

Rates of 26 April 1919 (Fond R-541, Del 148. List 129)
1. Postcards
Inland and local: 0.25
With paid reply: 0.50
2. Inland letters
Local: 0.35 for the first 15 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
Inland: 0.50 for each 15 grammes
3. Greeting cards and visiting cards
Local: same rate as for inland letters
4. Wrappers
With printed matter
Local: 0.10 for first 30 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
Inland: 0.20 for first 60 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
With commercial samples
Local: 0.50 for first 150 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
Inland: 1.00 for first 300 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
With business papers
Local: 0,50 for first 150 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
Inland: 0,70 for first 210 grammes; 0.05 for every extra 15 grammes
5. Registration
Local and inland, for postcards, letters, wrappers and parcels: 0.70
6. Postal Money Orders
1/2 % with a minimum of 0.50. The charge is to be rounded up to multiples of 0.05
7. Telegraphic money orders
Charges for a postal money order plus the cost of sending a telegram of 30 words
8. Letters with declared value
The weight charge of a letter of the appropriate destination (local or inland). Also, insurance charges as follows:
1.00 for the first 100 roubles; 0.05 for every additional rouble or part thereof
9. Parcels without value
The weight charges per funt, but the minimum charge is for a parcel of 7 funt. A Russian funt was 409 grammes-
The charge depends on distance
Up to 500 versts: 0.50 per funt (minimum: 3.50)
500 to 1000 versts: 0.75 per funt (minimum: 5.20)
1000-2000 versts: 1.00 per funt (minimum: 7.00)
2000-3000 versts: 1.25 per funt (minimum: 8.75)
3000-4000 versts: 1.50 per fint (minimum: 10.50)
4000-5000 versts: 1.75 per funt (minimum: 12.25)
5000-6000 versts: 2.00 per funt (minimum: 14.00)
6000-7000 versts: 2.25 per funt (minimum: 15.75)
Over 7000 versts: 2.50 per funt (minimum: 17.50)


6 THE POST-RIDERSIMIIMHK N- 57
November 2005






Parcels within a guberniya (province) are to be charged at the lowest rate (up to 500 versts).
Parcels to the Army on Active Service are to be charged at the rate for 1000 versts.
Parcels containing books, literature or seeds are charged half the above rates.
10. Parcels with declared value
In addition to the weight charges, insurance charges areas follows:-
1.00 for the first 100 roubles
0.01 for every extra rouble or part thereof; rounded up to multiples of 0.05
11. Seals (wax or lead)
0.50 for each wax or lead seal
12. Cash-on-Delivery Mail
Commission: 3% with a minimum of 1.00
13. Notification of receipt
0.50 for local and inland destinations
14. Home delivery of insured letters and money orders
0.50 for letters/money orders with a value up to 500 roubles. Sendings with higher values cannot be delivered at
home
15. Home delivery of parcels
For weights up to 12 funt: 2.00 per parcel
For weights over 12 funt: 4.00 per parcel
16. Storage of parcels
The first two days of storage are free; the third, fourth & fifth days cost 0.50 each; the sixth 1.00; the seventh 1.50;
the eighth 2.00 and so on.
17. Returned mail and forwarded mail
For mail returned to the sender and mail forwarded to a new address: 0.50 (all classes of mail except parcels)
For parcels: the weight charges are as for the return/forwarding sending.
If the mail remains local during the return/forwarding process, the retur/forwarding is free.
18. Special courier service ("Estafety")
In addition to the usual weight and insurance charges:
A surcharge of 50% on those charges as travel allowance.
0.05 for each verst travelled and horse used.
This circular is silent on the subject of the rates for mail going abroad. For the moment, we can note that the
most common rates were: for a Postcard: 0.28; for a Letter: 0.70/15 grammes and for Registration: + 0.70.
The rates of 26 April lasted throughout the summer of 1919 and were not raised until early autumn.

Rates of 11 October 1919 (Fond R-541, Delo 148, List 131)
1. Postcards
Local and Inland: 0.75
With reply paid: 1.50
2. Inland letters
Local: 0.15 per 15 grammes, with a minimum of 0.75
Inland: 1.50 for every 15 grammes
Greeting cards are to be charged as letters
3.Express mail
For the Express Delivery of letters: 4.50 per 15 grammes. For Postcards: 2.25
4. Wrappers
With printed matter
Local: 0.10 for every 15 grammes, with a minimum of 0.25
Inland: 0.10 for every 15 grammes, with a minimum of 0.50
With commercial samples
Local: 0.15 for every 15 grammes, with a minimum of 1.50
Inland:0.15 for every 15 grammes, with a minimum of 2.00
With business papers
Local: 0.10 for every 15 grammes, with a minimum of 1.50
Inland: 0.10 for every 15 grammes, with a minimum of 2.00
5. Registration
Local and inland, for postcards, letters, wrappers and parcels: 2.00

THE POST-RIDER/SIMMIHKK N2 57 7
November 2005






6. Postal money orders
1.50 for the first 100 roubles; 0.15 for every additional 10 roubles or part thereof
7. Telegraphic money orders
(no rate given)
8. Letters with declared value
The weight charge for a letter of the appropriate destination (local or inland); also, insurance charges as follows:-
2% with a minimum of 2.00. Charges to be rounded up to multiples of 0.05
9. Parcels without value
The weight charges are per funt, but the minimum charge is for a parcel of 7 funt.
The charge depends on the distance:
Up to 500 versts: 1.00 per funt (minimum: 7.00)
500-1000 versts: 1.50 per funt (minimum 10.50)
1000-2000 versts: 2.00 per funt (minimum: 14.00)
2000-3000 versts: 2.50 per funt (minimum: 17.50)
3000-4000 versts: 3.00 per funt (minimum: 21.00)
4000-5000 versts: 3.50 per funt (minimum: 24.50)
5000-6000 versts: 4.00 per funt (minimum: 28.00)
6000-7000 versts: 4.50 per funt (minimum: 31.50)
Over 7000 verst: 5.00 per funt (minimum: 25.00)
Parcels within a guberniya (province) are to be charged at the lowest rate (up to 500 versts).
Parcels to the Army on Active Service are to be charged at the rate for 1000 versts.
Parcels containing books, literature or seeds are charged half the above rates.
10. Parcels with declared value
In addition to the weight charges, insurance charges are as follows:-
2%, with a minimum of 2.00. Charges to be rounded up in multiples of 0.05
11. Seals (wax or lead)
1.00 for each wax or lead seal
12. Cash-on-delivery mail
Commission: 3%, with a minimum of 3.00
13. Notification of receipt
1.50 for local and inland destinations
14. Home delivery of insured letters and money orders
1.50 for letters/money orders with a value of up to 2000 roubles. Sendings with higher values cannot be delivered at
home
15. Home delivery of parcels
For a weight up to 12 funt: 5.00 per parcel
For a weight above 12 funt: 10.00 per parcel
16. Storage of parcels
The first two days of storage are free; the third, fourth & fifth days cost 0.50 each; the sixth: 1.00; the seventh- 1.50;
the eighth 2.00 and so on.
17. Returned mail and forwarded mail
For mail returned to the sender and for mail forwarded to a new address: 1.50 (all classes of mail except parcels)
For parcels: the weight charges for the return/ onward sending apply.
If the mail remains local during the return/forwarding, the return/forwarding is free.
18. Special courier service ("Estafety")
In addition to the usual weight and insurance charges:
A surcharge of 50% on those charges as a travel allowance:
1.00 for each verst travelled and horse used.
19. Special charges
1.50 for enquiries about lost mail
3.00 for unknown addresses, etc.
Rental of a Post Office Box: 150.00 per year in the capitals; 50.00 per year elsewhere.
Again, the circular is silent on the subject of rates for mail abroad. The most common rates were:-
Postcard: 0.80; Letter: 2.00 per 15 grammes; Registration: + 2.00.
By far the most surprising item in this latter set of rates is the charge for Express Delivery mail (item 3
above), predating the introduction of such mail in the RSFSR. So far, no examples of such mail have surfaced.

8 THE POST-RIDER/5IMmH4K N 57
November 2005





Illustrations (reduced to 65%)


Fig. 1: May 1919; inland postcard from one POW in
Berezovka to another at Stretensk and franked at 0.25.


Z- .tf 1


14 LOF kt LA


\i v ~ tc


1~


/.,- *-.j= .-._'2. -~ -

Fi. 3: Jul\ 1919, inland letter from Verkhne-Udinsk
to Tomsk and correctly franked at 0.50 on the back.


'*1 i 4 I ~~-I;i- .-L
.. -~~~- .. .-. -::~i id~l~lj~p : ;.; 1
b) r, 'I *1*i "

- -.' :fiI~jd.~ I: *% tj. fl I


~~~I.J i-




-I _______ --/L~",,
*i
~-- I


Fig : September 1919. registered letter from Chita to Omsk.
sent onto Irkutsk. Cash franking, as almost always on inland
registered mail; total rate 2r 20k This could be a triple weight
(3 x 0.50) plus registration (0 70). Manuscript marking
"EKSPRESS" on the front may or may not be significant, the
April 1919 rates did not mention Express mail Addressed to
Nikandr Mirolyubov, who was investigating the 1918 murder
of the Tsar and his family at Ekaterinburg..


,.,'of ."^ *





: = ? = .-
>S

41W

N__


THE POST-RIDER/aMIIHK N2 57
November 2005


I; T. i 1:L



-....

9 -1f. f 0

7-1



r.C~ ;7 *'---w -T~ '


""* I


\


c"--w
' r- s I' -r ,' 4 I ,. .-=. ;i





-* --: .A ,'p7 /A1,










FiZ. 2: June 1919; local postcard within Vladivostok
Franked at 0.20 and correctly assessed at 10 k. due.


.cit ~Yti
A N.

-~~li -. 3;


c


s .


1


-----------
---------- -----;---;--- ---


----


. .- _


r -- .-.


I










.-k .

L .t --^... -










Fig. 4: September 1919; inland letter from Omsk to
Zima-Poselok. Correct rate of 0.50, franked with a
single 50/2k. imperf. Kolchak. The Kolchak
surcharges are not often seen on mail, oddlyenough.


---'
'_. 1.- -.L.














i,'. -: June 1919;- correctly franked postcard, going abroad
from Khabarovsk. Rate 0281 For many years, I -as under
| /c- :'m -..,,.-.,. L- A v ;-. '




Fig. 6: June 1919; correctly franked postcard, going abroad
from Khabarovsk. Rate 0.28! For many years, I was under
the impression that the foreign postcard rate was 0.35 and
knew of many examples to prove it. This card and one other
in the Dick Scheper collection demonstrate that the correct
rate was 0.28, which was such an awkward number that the
rankings were rarely exact.


,....'",-. '....... '- --- ''.-' -' ".'' ,_- ." .. .- : A- d just when you think that Siberia cannot get any _
r a s to h r B os A w ou po
t ;r.. -- ,





This is one of three Romanov usages frm pt-17
.ha ad the only one with a,"Nikolai II stamp.
.* ..-. Fire 7: ,ndjust %hen you think that Siberi cannot get an
10\A ". :eirder, here is a Jul' 1919 letter from Blagoveshchensk to
: .' .q[ fri 'Buenos Aires, Argentina, fanked ith 4 x 0/17k. Romanov
'- stamns! Needless to sav, the correct rate was 0.7,n but the
...- ; ... i letter appears to have reached Buenos Aires without problems.
:.. ..i ". ...............:. .... This is one of three Romanov usages from post-]1917 Siberia
_,,CL. :. -, I kno"w about and the only one with a "Sikolai 17 stamp.


* *


* *


YEARS MONTHS
1801-1900 1901-2000 2001-2100 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
0129 5785 265381 0937653 4 0 0 3 6 1 3 6 2 4 0 2
02305886 265482 10386 945 1 1 4 6 2 4 0 3 5 1 3
0331 5987 275583 11396785 6 2 2 5 0 3 5 1 4 6 2 4
04326088 288684 124068960 3 4 0 2 5 0 3 6 1 4 6
05336189 01297 85 13416997 2 5 5 1 3 6 1 4 0 2 5 O
06346290 02305886 14427098 3 6 6 2 4 0 2 5 1 3 6 1
0735 63 1 03 3169 87 1 43 71 99 4 0 0 3 1 3 6 2 4 0 2
08366492 04326088 164472 5 1 2 6 0 3 5 1 4 6 2 4
08376593 05336189 174573 0 3 3 6 1 4 6 2 0 3 S
10386694 06346290 184674 1 4 4 0 2 5 0 3 6 1 4 6


5 1 3 I6 1 14 0 12


To work out What Day of the week
any date is look for the YEAR and
then the MONTH. Add that number
to the DAY of the month and find
that Number on the table below.
Read back to find the DAY.

E XA MPLE

What day of the week was
15 September 1821

On Year line 1821 September= 6
6 Flus Day of Month 115] = 21
On Table Below
21 is a Saturday
SUMDAY 1 8 15 22 29 36
MONDAY 2 9 16 23 30 37
TUSDAY 3 10 17 24 31
WEDNESDAY 4 11 18 25 3
TH SODAY 5 12 19 26 33
FRDAY 6 13 20 27 34
SATIRDAY 7 14 21 28 35


THE POST-RIDER/IVMIIIHK N 57
November 2006


SPECIAL NOTE:











A 300-YEAR
CALENDAR


11396795 07356391 184775





SPECIAL NOTES: Mail between Greece and Russia

Relations between the Kingdom of Greece and the Russian Empire in the 19t. Century were generally good-
for commercial, cultural, political and religious reasons, with both countries using the Julian (Old Style) Calendar.
Mail exchanges between the two postal administrations will now be considered, including the application of Russian
postage in combination frankings with the Greek Large Hermes Head issue and a special case involving the Greek
Small Hermes Head set. For both Greek issues, the printing plates of each value and the first printings were made in
France and Belgium respectively. All the plates and first printings were then sent to the Greek Postal Administration
for subsequent printings to be carried out in Athens. Please refer also to "The Post-Rider" No. 56, p. 2 for the
introductory notes on Graeco-Russian combination frankings and we will now look at some outstanding usages,
which have come to light in the Cherrystone and Karamitsos Auctions in the following categories-

(a) Pre-UPU mail from Russia to Greece or vice-versa, up to 1874:
Fig. : An entire letter from Taganrog 27 May 1865 O.S., prepaid at 30 kopeks and routed via Odessa to Syra in
Greece, where the Greek internal postage in Large Hermes Head stamps was assessed at 50 lepta for the final leg of
the Constantinople to Syra route. Lot 1933 in the Cherrystone Sale of 4-5 May 2005, estimated at USD 2500.00
Fig. 2: A remarkable entire letter franked at 34 kopeks from Rostov/Don 10.8.1866, endorsed at top "via
Constantinople" and handed over there to the Greek Exchange Post Office Abroad on 2 Sept. 1866 (see bottom right
front). Apparently a multiple weight letter, as it was assessed there at 65 lepta (bisected 10 lepta plus pair of same
value and one x 40 lepta, all cancelled "95") postage due for the Greek internal route Constantinople to Syra.
Estimated by Karamitsos at 10,000 Euros!
Fig. 3: An astounding Austrian Levant cover, originally from Ismail, Southern Bessarabia (then part of the Unified
Danubian Principalities), but mailed at the Austrian Levant post office at Tulscha (now Tulcea in the Romanian
Danubian Delta) 10.12.68 N.S. and backstamped at the Austrian P.O. in Constantinople 15.1.69 N.S. Greek internal
postage due of 20 lepta for the final leg of the routing applied at Syra 4 Jan. 1869 O.S. (16.1.69 N.S.). Estimated by
Karamitsos at 4200 Euros.
Fig. 4: An entire letter franked at 30 kopeks in Taganrog 18 Feb. 1871 O.S., passing through Odessa (obscured by
one of the Greek stamps) and endorsed at top: "Via Vienna to Corfu". It would then have travelled overland to
Trieste and by Austrian Lloyd ship to Kerkyra (Corfu) 9 March 1871 O.S., where it was assessed at 45 lepta for the
Greek internal rate. This was Lot 1941 in the Cherrystone Auction of 4-5 May 2005.
Fig. 5: An entire letter from Berdyansk 26 March 1872 O.S., franked at 26 kopeks, going via Odessa 1 April 1872
O.S. and endorsed at top "To Syra, Greece via Constantinople". Greek postage due of 45 lepta assessed at Syra 9
April 1872 O.S. for the final leg of the route. This was Lot 1942 in the Cherrystone Auction of 4-5 May 2005.
Fig. 6: An entire letter from Kerkyra (Corfu) 22 May 1872 O.S., prepaid at 85 lepta, including 35 lepta to cover the
Greek internal rate Kerkyra-Constantinople. Then via Odessa 2 June 1872 O.S. to arrive at Taganrog 6 June 1872
O.S. Estimated by Karamitsos at 280 Euros.

(b) The UPU period of standardized rates from 1874 onwards:
Fig. 7: An entire letter from Zakynthos 17 Aug. 1875 O.S., fully prepaid at 30 lepta, backstamped at Syra 19 August
and endorsed at bottom front "Via Cospoli". Arrival in Taganrog 31 8.1875. O.S. Karamitsos estimation 120 Euros.

(c) A later usage of the "Small Hermes Head" issue of Greece:
Fig. 8: There is a most unusual story connected with this registered cover. As of 1 January 1893 O.S., the Greek
postal rate for a letter going abroad was raised from 25 to 30 lepta and the registration fee from 20 to 30 lepta. The
situation was complicated by the fact that the UPU Colour Scheme stipulated stamps in green for internal postcards,
red for internal letters and blue for letters going abroad. However, there was no 30 lepta value in the printing plates
supplied from Belgium, so the Greek Postal Administration hit on the idea of reusing the 25-lepta plate and
changing the colour to violet, to avoid confusion! In short, the 25-lepta stamp in violet was now sold for 30 lepta,
regardless of the face value. One can imagine the arguments that the hapless postal clerks would have had with the
suspicious Greek public.
For the registered example to Russia shown here, it is addressed in French and Russian to "Petersburg, His
Excellency Count Ivan Tolstoi, Academy of Fine Arts, Vasil'evskii Ostrov". It was sent from Athens 4.11.1895 O.S.
with the 10 & 20-lepta stamps covering the foreign letter rate and the imperforate 25-lepta stamp in the top left
corner in violet paying the registration fee! Absolutely incredible and data about further usages would be appreciated
from CSRP readers. The item shown here sold for 400 Euros at the Karamitsos Sale of 10.9.2005.


THE POST-RIDER/RIMIIHIK N2 57 11
November 2005







































































THE POST-RIDER/INMMIHK M 57
November 2005


Fig. 2.


Fig. 6.


















Fig. 8.


/-f ;~-


cg :i~


* ~* ** *r $ *


S --------.
," ... H OB ". K B y I





Fran B 4 w Tg 6 h r a d r
o.y Stetyrisebef Strawe! e 13
B o a t o i (Mecklenbug)
S -Zahl, ai off, I .'i i -Tt jsaromauk.
d.JCIIo7JIp. 'A 7 L pi ,m


Liebe Tante Hedwig!
Bcsten Grusi
So.jet-n'dcn, we wir
etwas sufresenden Fa]
halten angekommen sil
ausersehen, dasz Sch:
'50 sind vorgEstern
land abgefahren. Hie:
reits der erste Schn
wohl, was ich auch v


,urt-nsk, 27. pcrtember 1939

as us dem aussersten Norden der
am 7. dieses fornats nach einer
hrt mit unserem Da';f~a wehlbe-
nd. Mit 40 Yann sini wir dazu THE GERMANS
iff zu behilten, die restlichen
rer Eahn in Richtung Deutsch- IN MURMANSK
r in der Gecend macht sich be-
se bemerkbar. Sonst aber alles by Ienry Blum.
an Dir und den Deinen hoffe.
Pein Neffe _
d0am f.


The Soviet postcard shown here is overfranked by 5 kopeks for a surface card going abroad (30 kopeks was
the correct rate) and the typewritten message in German is of great interest. It translates as follows:-
"Dear Aunt Hedwig, Murmansk, 23 September 1939.
Best greetings from the Far North of the Soviet Union, where we arrived safe and sound with
our steamer on the 7h. of this month after a somewhat exciting voyage. We have to see to it that the ship is guarded
by 40 men, the remaining 350 left by rail to Germany the day before yesterday. Here in the region the first snow is
already noticeable. Otherwise, however, all is well, which I also hope for you and yours.
Your nephew, Hans'Hoff"
The card was sent in the first month of WWII, so the s.s. "New York" was possibly caught unawares by the
outbreak of war. The writer, Hans HoffE was the Purser and it would be interesting to know what the ship was doing
so far north with 390 men originally on board. Comments would be much appreciated from the readership.

THE POST-RIDER/SAM IlK 57
November 2005 12


I


"M< > 4-fLC- L' l




(&'L- o.-( r 6- -ii


Fg 7.


P =-GRECE
^ p .-i^-~ c4" .


---------`


5






THE ROPiT POSTAL SERVICE IN THE MIDDLE EAST: THE INITIAL PERIOD: 1857-1874
by L.G. Ratner.
Preface. The literature about the postal service of the Russian Company of Navigation and Trade (ROPiT) is
voluminous. However, a perusal of a series of printed works shows that the postal activities of ROPiT from 1857 to
the middle of the 1870s were markedly weak and the descriptions of that period contain inaccuracies and mistakes,
being often transferred from one publication to another. For example, the publication "Boamioii
(FHjaTeJnacTHr ecKHl CioBapb" (Moscow, 1988, pp. 243-244) writes: "POIHuT PoccuicKoe (Erroneous:
should be 'PyccKoe') 06u4ecmeo Hapoxobcmea u Topzoeau. B 1863 (Incorrect: should be 1857) it signed a
contract with the Postal Administration of Russia about the conveyance of the mails... .The term of the contract ran
out in 1865 (Erroneous: it should be 'the validity of the 1862 Contract ran out in 1864') but the Company continued
its activities up to 1867 (Inaccurate: it should have been 1868) and issued its own stamps. In May 1868, the Postal
Service came into the hands of the State (Nonsense; comment is superfluous).
Up to the present time, documentary materials have been utilised to a small extent in describing the ROPiT
Postal Service. In his article "ROPiT Postal History" (see the manual "Soviet Collector" X9 25 of 1987), V. M.
Mohyl'nyj writes: "There are few data about the organisation of the ROPiT Postal Service... The search for such
documents is complex". However, there are documents covering this subject and their quantity is sufficient for
understanding the specific details of the Postal Service of the Russian Levant, as well as about the reciprocal
activities of the Imperial Postal Department and ROPiT.
In the present article, the particulars about the acceptance and transmission of the mail in the Middle East,
the procedure and the payment of the postal rated are set out in accordance with the archival materials of the Postal
Department and ROPiT. As a rule, all the details are given with the proviso of their confirmation from at least two
documents. Moreover, there are references in the archives of numerous violations of the procedure of transmission, in
the addressing of the mails and in the franking of the correspondence. It should be borne in mind, that it was not a
general rule that the mail handled was sent without observing the agreements of the Postal Department and ROPiT.
However, some of the Middle East mail was of an artificial character. In such a case, the ROPiT postal
agents knowingly exceeded the postal regulations upon the request of senders and collectors. In his article regarding
the authentic "8" and "7" surcharges on the 10-kopek stamps of the 1890 Issue entitled "The Postal Sen-ices of the
European States in the Middle East" ("Soviet Collector" magazine NJ2 8 of 1931), N. Nosilov writes: This wias a
favour extended by the Director of the ROPiT post office in Constantinople to a Russian philatelist, receivingfrom
him some ten pairs of such stamps....It is quite possible that... ROPiT officials extended such favours also to other
persons and a significant quantity of forgeries was distributed in broad daylight,, having been made using the
original handstamps ".
References about these and other details were given as a rule in an article in the philatelic literature of the
Russian-language press. An analysis of several printed sources given in various languages shows that they did not
differ to a noticeable degree from the Russian-language reports in treating the activities of the ROPiT Postal Service.
The first attempt to organise the conveyance of mail by steamer between Odessa and Constantinople goes
back to 1833, but it was not possible to set up regular communications at that time. As J.W. Roberts rationally
pointed out in the article "The Rise and Fall of the Russian Steam Navigation and Trade Company (ROPiT) 1856-
1920" (BJRP X2 64, p. 33):"....the Company's capital was so small that it did not prosper and from 1843 the
government was forced to provide the Company with two naval frigates to maintain the service".
Regular maritime communications between Russia and Turkey were established and sanctioned by His
Imperial Majesty on 23 February 1843 under the title: "Project about the establishment of regular communications by
means of steamers between Odessa and Constantinople", which stated in regard to postal services that "(a) The
acceptance of letters sent by steamer will be carried out in accordance with the general rules of the Odessa Border
Post Office and with the Russian Post Office at Constantinople...... (i) The responsibility of handing out the letters
received on the steamers at Odessa and Constantinople is conferred upon the post offices there [1] The payment for
the transmission of correspondence on the steamers was to be placed at the disposal of the Postal Department
The route was served by two steamers: the frigates "Odessa" amd "Krym". In its first voyage, the steamer
"Odessa" sailed on 10 May 1843 and arrived in Constantinople two days later.
The payments to be received from the senders of the letters were announced in Circular 6 of 12 June 1843
of the Postal Department, as follows:-
30 silver kopeks per lot weight (roughly V/2 oz.) for transmission per steamer.
10 silver kopeks per lot for overland transmission to Odessa.
In August 1843, Postmaster Froding of the Constantinople Border Post Office wrote that the postal rate was
being charged in the post office, not in Russian money, but in Turkish (piastres and paras). In that regard, the Postal
Department ordered that the fee for letters being sent to Russia was to be levied at the designated rate, but in piastres &
paras, at the current exchange rate.
14 THE POSTORIDER/IIMImIK Ns 57
November 2005






Later on, this particular service of the Constantinople office was confirmed in the Regulations for the offices
abroad, sanctioned by His Imperial Majesty in December 1843. It was stated therein that for letters being sent by
steamers to Odessa, they may be paid for "in Turkish money ".
The Crimean War (1853-1856) destroyed the communications, which had been established previously and
the maritime link between Russia and the Middle East had to be restored.
The aim of the foundation in 1856 of the Russian Company of Navigation and Trade was stated in the
Statutes of the Company as: "trading in the southern part of Russia with steamer, commercial and postal
communications in that area with Russian and foreign ports". One of its responsibilities was the conveyance free of
charge of the mail "in accordance with the postal regulations". The ROPiT Board was situated at the Nevskii
Prospect in St. Petersburg. The Head Office was in Odessa (at the Quarantine Ramp, according to the data in the
1869 edition of the ROPiT Manual). Agencies were set up at most of the foreign and Russian ports, where the ROPiT
steamers were scheduled to call. The Agency in Constantinople, situated in the Galata Quarter was regarded as the
Head Agency of the Company for the Middle East lines.
With regard to the mistakes inserted in several articles, it is important to specify that the Odessa Office of the
Company was the Head Office of ROPiT, while the Odessa Border Post Office was subordinate to the Imperial
Postal Department,
On 15 April 1857, the Representatives of the Postal Department (A. Charukovskii as Director of the
Administration for Conveying the Posts on Railways) and of ROPiT (N. Novosel'skii as Director of the Company
and one of its founders) initiated the preparations for agreement on the transmission of the mails. On 25 April, A.
Charukovskii presented to the Postal Department a "Project of the Regulations for the Conveyance of the Posts on
the ROPiT Steamers". On that same day, the ROPiT Board made a statement about the confirmation of these
Regulations, saying mainly that:-
"1. The ROPiT is obliged to convey free of charge the Posts and couriers on the lines of navigation at fixed dates
(Author's note: according to the V. Dal' Dictionary, to whom was the term "cpo Hbiit" assigned? In this particular
case the voyages along the lines were at designated periods, i.e. according to fixed timetables).
41. All the correspondence being conveyed on the steamers of the Company had to be accepted from the Russian or
foreign post offices and also had to be handed over to the post offices.
44. The offices abroad of ROPiT were obliged to accept all the letters and packets from the foreign post offices for
despatch by the steamers of the Company and equally should receive the same from such steamers, as well as
handing over to the foreign post offices all the letters and packets addressed to them" [2].
As is evident from the Regulations, the receipt and despatch of the correspondence were the responsibility of
the post offices, while the steamers and the agencies abroad of ROPiT could only hand over the mails. As of 21 May
1857 O.S., there were regular sailings of the ROPiT steamers on the internal routes: to the Crimea, the towns of
Kherson and Nikolaev, while for the Middle East: to Constantinople.
At the beginning of June 1857, the Postal Department received a report from the Postmaster of the
Constantinople Post Office Abroad, saying: "The first ROPiT steamer 'Pallada' arrived in Constantinople on 23
May and delivered to our office a post-packet with 202 letters according to the Register dated 21 May of the Odessa
Border Post Office. The rates for the letters, which had been handed in at the Odessa post office for despatch to
Constantinople remained the same as advised by the Postal Department in its Circular XN 6 of 12 June 1843.
For the letters accepted in Odessa, the sender had to pay 30 kopeks per lot weight, which only covered the
transmission by sea. The letters presented at the post offices in other parts of Russia were paid for on the basis of 40
kopeks per lot: 10 kopeks for the internal surface rate plus 30 kopeks for the transmission by sea.
The despatch of letters from Constantinople to Odessa were paid for in the same way: 30 kopeks per lot for
transmission to Odessa and 40 kopeks per lot when being sent to other parts of the Empire. Payment could be made
in piastres and paras at the current rate of exchange. The letters had to be paid for in cash.
In December 1857, the Postal Department concluded an agreement with ROPiT, defining more exactly the
conditions for conveying the mail. This was not a big document, being mainly concerned with the exchange of mails
in the domestic ports of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. It was stated therein by special agreement that only ordinary
mail would be forwarded on the steamers.
As of June 1858, there began the acceptance of letters for despatch on the ROPiT steamers to Trebizond and
Smyrna and the postal rates remained the same as before. The distribution of the mail was entrusted to the agents of
the Company. These agents could accept letters addressed to Russia, but the postal functions (recording the letters
presented and the receipt of the money for them, the application of postmarks etc) were not carried out in the
agencies. In this particular case, the agents and the steamers constituted a forwarding link. The rate for letters from
Trebizond and Smyrna to Russia were levied on the addressees upon distribution at the post office of the destination.
The extent of the payments was specified by the notations applied by the post offices,which accepted the mail from
the ROPiT steamers. Two such offices were designed in Ordinance XN2 155 dated 22 June 1858 of the Main

THE POST-RIDER/IMIINHK ? 57 15
November 2005






Administration of the Posts, namely at Odessa and Redut-Kale (in the Caucasus). The acceptance of letters and the
charges levied for them on the addressees at that time were applied in the exchange of foreign mails.
At the end of the 1850s-beginning of the 1860s, letters were sometimes
also accepted in the same way at other Middle Eastern ports. Judging from the
COMPAGNIE RUSSE observations of the Odessa Border Post Office, the representatives of the
SQ II -) Company at that time handed over the letters to the State Postal Service in a
18 Q 59 particular order and paid for it in a similar way as for any other sender. The
CONSTANTINOPLE agents of the Company could apply the official cachets of ROPiT on the mail
Which they accepted. Those cachets were also utilized to designate the points of
PHCyHOK 1 Figure 1 dispatch on official letters, transmitted independently by the Company on its
steamers, without the participation of the Postal Administration. See in Fig. 1
the official cachet of the ROPiT agency in Constantinople.
As time went by, there arose the necessity for the alteration and clarification of the agreed obligations
between the Postal Administration and ROPiT. Retired Captain-Lieutenant V. Shul'ts was sent to Odessa at the end
of 1869 to study the question of the conveyance of the Middle East mail and to prepare new documents.
In January 1861, he presented to the Postal Department projects consisting of several documents for the
transmission of mail between Russia and the Middle East on the ROPiT steamers. It was suggested therein that the
transmission should be permitted to the Middle East and return of newspapers under wrapper, sheet music,
periodicals and other printed matter and also to reduce the rate for the conveyance of letters by sea to 20 kopeks per
lot. For the first time here, there appeared the expression "Eastern Correspondence". Shul'ts also wanted to entrust
the execution of postal operations in the Middle Eastern ports to the ROPiT agents and to issue special "counter-
stamps" with a face value of 20 kopeks per lot for Middle Eastern mail.
The term "counter-stamps" generally referred in those days to the stamps, which we would now regard as
fiscal, often with a coupon which could be torn off.
In April 1861, the Postal Department sent for the perusal of the Emperor the proposals of the Administration,
taking into account many of the recommendations of Shul'ts:-
"3. In addition to letters, there should be sent to the Middle East despatches under wrapper, which at the present
time are being transmitted thereto via England and France.
5. Permit the Company of Navigation and Trade to provide its agents with office management facilities regarding
the acceptance, transmission and distribution of mail in those ports where the steamers call.
6. In compensation for the assumption by the Company to carry out in the Middle Eastern ports the distribution and
dispatch of the mail through its agents, there should be deducted to the credit of the Company 25% of the fees which
would go to the Postal Income for the transmission of the correspondence by sea [4].
In addition, the Postal Administration requested in the Suggestions....that it be permitted to issue postage
stamps for application on the wrappers "if that would be convenient". However and at the last moment, there was an
attempt to avoid the utilization of new stamps for the payment of sending under wrapper.
The Emperor approved the proposals of the Postal Department and, from that time, there began the
preparation of a new agreement between the Department and ROPiT, which went on to the middle of 1862.
On 2 April 1862, the Company presented at the Postal Department "A Project of Conditions...", where it was
stated for the first time that the ROPiT agents must receive from the Postal Department cancellers, which would
specify on letters the points of dispatch and the dates when the letters were accepted. It was also stated here that
special stamps would be introduced for sending under wrapper. In a final variant of the agreement, which was
signed by the Postal Department and sent to the ROPiT on 28 June 1862, the phrase was absent about the
introduction of special stamps for wrappers.
The Board of the Company signed the agreement and suggested that it go into effect as of 1 January 1863.
This agreement was reprinted in the philatelic literature, but serious distortions appeared in the process of
publication. The authentic text of the agreement (with detachable notes) is also in the article "ROPiT Postal History"
by V.M. Mohyl'nyj and previously referred to. In order not to repeat the already known text, it can be defined what
was new in the agreement, which went into effect as of 1 January 1863:-
1. The acceptance and transmission of sending under wrapper.
2. Payments (a) of letters: 20 kopeks per lot for conveyance by sea.
10 kopeks per lot for despatch by land.
(b) of wrappers: 6 kopeks per lot for conveyance by sea.
4 kopeks per lot for despatch by land
3. The installation of letter boxes on the steamers of the Company.
4. Obligatory franking of the letters and wrappers with postage stamps (except for diplomatic correspondence
and the official mail of the Company, sent free of charge on the steamers and without the participation of
the Postal Administration).
16 THE POST-RIDER/IIMHIK X- 57
November 2005






The letters without stamps, taken out of the letter boxes installed in the agencies of the Company or at the
post offices in the Empire, will not be transmitted. Such letters, which have been deposited in the letter boxes
on the steamers, will be delivered to the destinations but only after having been paid for by the addresses at
double the rate for conveyance by sea, i.e. at 40 kopeks per lot.
5. The ROPiT agents are obliged to accept, send and distribute the correspondence with the correct postage
affixed and with the postmarks applied.
6. The deduction of 25% of the sum in favour of the ROPiT must take place, being applied for the
conveyance by sea (apart from the fee for the conveyance by sea of postal sending between Constantinople and
Russia, which would go into the Postal Income).
In addition to Odessa and as of 1863 during the navigation period of the ROPiT steamers, there were
accepted despatches of correspondence to the Middle East from the post offices at Taganrog, Kerch', Eisk,
Mariupol', Berdyansk and Rostov-on-Don and they also delivered the mail from the Middle East ports to the towns
named. Kherson and Nikolaev were later added to this list.
V. Shul'ts suggested that the receipt be permitted of correspondence at 21 Middle Eastern ports. However, in
the agreement of 1862, Constantinople was named separately and the following points were subsequently specified:
Aleksandretta, Alexandria. Batum, Beirut, Mersina, Mount Athos, Mytilene, Salonika and Yaffa The
correspondence was delivered in those ports with the concurrence of the Postal Administration. The remaining ports
(Haifa, Kerasund etc) were not included in the Agreement.
The validity of the agreement did not extend to the Postal Service in the Caucasus, which was subordinate to
the Main Administration of the Viceroy of the Caucasus. In a separate agreement concluded later with the
Department of General Affairs and ROPiT, the mail was forwarded on the steamers of the Company and accepted
from them at the Poti Border Post Office and at the postal station of Sukhum-Kale. That agreement went into effect
on 31 January 1864.


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PHcyHOK 2


Figure 2 PHcyHOK 3



THE POST-RIDER/ISMIUIIK NS 57
November 2005


r _X 1_r-Y


Figure 3





In the 1863-beginning of 1864 period, the Odessa Border Post Office reported regularly to the Postal
Department about the constant infringements committed by both sides in the despatch of the mail. The Russian post
offices often accepted letters to the Middle East, which were not franked with stamps (that, by the way, was not
surprising, as sending going abroad at that time were not being paid for with stamps). Reports came repeatedly from
Odessa about the correspondence from Russia, addressed to the ports, which had not been specified in the
Agreement: "For example, letters were being sent....to Samsun, Chios, Rhodes, Latakiya and other ports". It was
often said that some of the agencies in the Middle East, as well as the Constantinople Border Post Office, also did not
accept unfranked letters, but forwarded letters to ports, which were not named in the Agreement
In accordance with the 1862 Agreement, the mail was handed over to the steamers in post-packets. Special
books were introduced for recording the despatch of correspondence to the agencies in the Middle East. There were
printed on each page of the book the register and a duplicate of the register in pairs. The quantity and weight of the
letters and wrapper sending, which were to be transmitted in a post-packet, were recorded on these registers. The
dupicate register remained in the book and the original register was cut out and inserted in the post-packet with the
mail being transmitted. The setting of the register (book) was included in the attachments to the Agreement ).
A register from a later period of time is shown in Fig. 3.
As stated previously, the Postal Administration did not want to issue stamps for sending under wrapper to
the Middle East. At that time, wrappers were only being sent abroad. The payment for mail going abroad consisted of
the weight fee and the foreign rate (i.e.the fee for despatch abroad) and did not depend on where the sending was
accepted: Mariupol', Moscow or Odessa. Apparently, the postal officials agreed among themselves that the payment
of sending under wrapper to the Middle East should be fixed at 10 kopeks per lot, regardless of the points from
where the wrappers were being sent. It was not until January 1863 that the Postal Administration prepared an
announcement to the effect that wrappers, handed in at the post offices for despatch to Odessa should be charged 6
kopeks per lot. However, for the wrappers sent from the Middle Eastern ports to Odessa, Taganrog etc and accepted
by the ROPiT agents, the Agreement had juridical force.
On 14 August 1862, the ROPiT addressed a request to the Postal Administration, saying: "As postage stamps
with the value of 6 kopeks have not been issued in Russia, then with what stamps can the wrapper sending be
franked,for delivery by sea between the Middle Eastern ports and Odessa, Kerch', Taganrog etc, for which 6 kopeks
per lot is to be charged for conveyance by sea.... ? "
Having signed the Agreement, the Postal Department could not avoid issuing the new stamp.. In reply to the
request from the ROPiT, which came about only at the end of October 1862, it was stated that: "for the franking of
sending under wrapper, special stamps are being prepared with a value of 6 kopeks". As it turned out, the order for
preparing the stamps was made considerably later.
Circular M of 12 November 1862 of the Postal Department stated that: the despatch of correspondence
from Odessa to the Middle Eastern ports on the steamers of the Company will begin on 1 January 1863.....In the first
instance, there will be despatched....ordinary letters and sending under wrapper. Both the letters and the wrapper
sending must be paid for with postage stamps [5].
Judging from the text of the Circular, the month of January 1863 should be regarded as the initial period of
issue of the 6-kopek stamps for wrapper sending. However, the applicable announcement in the Circular about these
stamps should be regarded as "an announcement after the fact".
In foreseeing the support for the issue of stamps for wrappers, the Postal Department informed the Odessa
Border Post Office on 8 December 1862 that, after receiving the stamps, it would send them: "to the Odessa Post
Office, both for its own use and for distribution to our ports, as well as for handing over to the Odessa office of
ROPiT for the obligatory supply to their agents in the Middle Eastern ports. Until the despatch of these stamps, it
would be necessary to limit the sending between ports ofsome letters" [6].
The instructions at the beginning about the receipt of wrappers only after the receipt of special stamps were
also given to other post offices, which conducted postal communications with Middle Eastern ports.
It is evident from these arrangements that the acceptance of wrappers in Odessa, Taganrog etc, and also in
the Middle Eastern ports for despatch to specific towns could only begin after the receipt by them of stamps for
wrappers.
The 33B(State Printing Works) received the order for the preparation of the stamps on 12 December
1862, as confirmed by the entry in "The Proceedings about the money...for preparing various papers" [7] in 1863:

When the order Total sums
Design n was completed troubles kopeks
Stamps for franking
wrapper sending 12 December 1862 3000 30

18 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK M 57
November 2005






S,_That particular date for the order of the stamps had already been announced in a
i report of the 33rB.
Three thousand stamps for wrapper sending to the Middle East were received from the
93F3 in January 1863 and sent to the Odessa Border Post Office on 27 March. On 155
SApril 1863, that post office informed the Postal Department that: "two thousand stamps
S-had been retained by us for our own purposes and for forwarding.....to the Odessa office
.of ROPiT;The remaining one thousand stamps have been allocated as follows: to
S Taganrog- 240; to Kerch' 150; to Eisk- 100; to Mariupol'- 170; to Berdyansk- 170
and to Rostov 170" [8].
Hence, the 6-kopek stamps can be regarded as having gone into postal circulation in
PHcyHOK 4 Figure 4 April 1863 for sending under wrapper to the Middle East (Fi 4)
According to the "Report about the preparation of State and Private Papers", there were printed and received
from the 33FE in 1864 four thousand "postage stamps for wrapper sending ".
There are no specific references in 1865 regarding stamps in the "Report about the sums disbursed for the
work done" However, there were listed in a document the quantities of the stamps ordered by and handed over to the
Postal Administration:-
For what purpose Quantities
For postage stamps 52,000
Ditto 4000
Ditto 40,000
Ditto 170,000
With regard to the order assigned for 4000 copies, that was a small and unreal amount for those and other
State postage stamps. It is most likely that that figure represented just another printing of wrapper stamps for the
Middle Eastern mail.
There are no data about the preparation of such stamps for 1866.
The quantities of stamps for wrapper sending appear once again in "The Report about the preparation of
banknotes and other papers in 1867', as follows:-
Postage stamps Ordered Carry-over From 1 January 1867 to 1 January 1868 On hand as at
for wrapper amount from 1866 Printed Supplied Printer's waste 1.January. 1868
sending to the 3000 3100 3016 84
Middle East
The 1867 printing for the wrapper stamps was very late, but their appearance is confirmed in the
"Report about the sums disbursed for work in 1867".
This printing and the excerpt shown below from the "Regulations for the agents of the Middle Eastern Lines
of ROPiT give rise to the erroneous assertion that the utilisation of stamps for wrapper sending to the Middle East
was terminated in 1864 or in 1866, according to the "Regulations" adopted at the end of January 1868, after the
signature of a new Agreement between the Postal Department and ROPiT. The document will be examined later in
full. Meanwhile, one point in the "Regulations" is worthy of notice: "# 74. For the agent setting up the report on the
stamps received and sold for letters and wrapper sending, after 31 December, he will inform the Postal Section of
the Head Office about a set ofsix figures required per this book ofRegulations:-
1) The total amount in roubles received in the course of the year from the Head Office for stamps for letters.
2) Ditto for the postage stamps for wrapper sending.
3) The total amount in roubles for the stamps sold for letters during the course of the year.
4) Ditto for the postage stamps for wrapper sending,
5) The remaining amount in roubles for the postage stamps for letters as at 1 January of the approaching year.
6) Ditto for the postage stamps for wrapper sendings,
This document shows th-at the stamps for wrapper sending had not been withdrawn from circulation. The
Company did not reject them; those stamps were distributed and utilised at the least during the first months of
1868.
There is a complete explanation about the misunderstanding on the part of many persons regarding the later
utilization of the wrapper stamps. In the conditions of stiff competition (in this case postal) with the steamship
companies of Austria, Frence etc., the special stamps of the Company not only fulfilled the function of payment,
but they also were a "visiting card", advertising the Company.
Yet another unexplainable printing of wrapper stamps has been found among the documents of the 93rB. In
the report for 1864, which specified that 3120 stamps had been prepared in 1863 and had not been released, there is
also a reference to: "postage stamps of 1 lot for wrapper sendings. They went into the report for 1865 and were to
be found at the 33FE as of 1t. July 1866. These stamps were no longer present in the reports for 1867. There are no

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK 57 19
November 2005






references in the texts about this particular issue in the archives of the Postal Department, ROPiT and 331B. So,
what kind of an issue was it?, when was it ordered? why did not the Postal Department accept it from the 933B?
What was the fate of the issue? There are no answers to these questions. Regarding this particular issue, can it be
inferred that the quantity printed was such that it never went into circulation? There is no exact answer to that either.
The archival documents do not allow us to dot all the "i"s, because there are no technological (and
consequently philatelic) peculiarities regarding the issues of stamps for wrapper sending to the Middle East. However,
they do allow us to examine thoroughly once again the history of the issue and of the postal circulation of these stamps.
It was stated in the original text of the Agreement that it was the responsibility of the agents of the Company
to accept, despatch and distribute the mail in the Middle Eastern ports, except for Constantinople, Jaffa and
Jerusalem. It was on this basis that V.M. Mohyl'nyj asserted in the article previously referred to that: "Offices
abroad of the Russian Postal Service functioned at Constantinople, Jaffa and Jerusalem". However, that was not
correct; the post office abroad was only at Constantinople.
As a confirmation, we can turn to the Report of the Main Administration of the Posts for 1862, put together for
the perusal of the Emperor. In the listing of several post offices, there is a reference stating: "Post offices abroad one
only" (RGIA, fond 1289, list 1, subject 1978 "About the Account for 1862, sheet 74).
As of the middle of 1861, the possibility was investigated of opening Russian post offices in Jerusalem and
Jaffa. At the end of March 1862, the Postal Department received in this regard from the Ministry of External Affairs
a memorandum from the Russian consul in Jerusalem, titled "About the transmission of correspondence between
Jerusalem and Russia".
"Between Jerusalem and Jaffa", wrote the consul," there exists a private Russian postal service, delivering
consular packets and the letters of worshippers (Author's note: i.e. of pilgrims) to Jaffa and conveying from there to
the Holy City the packets and letters received from the steamers. It was established in November 1859 and is
installed in the premises of the Chief Architect of our pious institutions here....The average number of letters
throughout 1861 was 15Y2 (....1080 letters were conveyed not taking into account the official packets). Moreover,
the highest number of letters at any one time was 41 and the lowest one only".
Later on, the consul noted the necessity of opening an official Russian post office in Jerusalem and stressed
that the introduction "of special postage stamps for Jerusalem....would be one of the best means for the increase of
postal transmission" [10].
The investigation of the question about the opening of new post offices in the Middle East demonstrated that
such an office was not needed at Jaffa. On 17 December 1862, the Postal Department asked ROPiT to fulfil the
operations for the acceptance, despatch and distribution of correspondence and the sale of stamps at the local agency
of the Company in Jaffa. The ROPiT Board was agreeable and the corrections were inserted in the Agreement as it
went into effect.
The documents for the opening in Jerusalem of a postal station were forwarded in the autumn of 1862 to the
State Councilfor confirmation. However, the situation in the Middle East had begun to change; and the Russian
Ministry of External Affairs suggested to the Postal Department that the settlement of this question be suspended.
The documents from the State Council were revoked.
S Hence, the State post office in Jerusalem was not opened and the conveyance of mail from Jaffa
".*.*. to Jerusalem and return was taken over by ROPiT.
".'"' ""'. At the end of October 1862, the Postal Department arranged for the preparation of dated
,**. .. -.* cancellers for the agencies, as specified in the Agreement of 1862, as well as for postmarkers to
.* cancel the stamps (i.e. dots-and-numeral cancellers). The assigned numbers (see Fig. 5)
PHcyHOK 5 coincided with the listing in sequence of the ports named in the Agreement: 777 Batum, 778 -
Figure 5 Trebizond....787 Salonica. The cancellers were received at the Head Office of the Company in
December 1862. It has been stated in many works that the Postal Department allotted later on
additional numbers for the agencies: 812, 823-827. However, there are preserved in the archives of the Postal Service
only documents about the proposed preparation (which did not take place) of dots-and-numeral cancellers for these
or other agencies of the Company.
1. In this particular case, the utilisation of dots-and-numeral cancellers in triangular form with truncated
comers was an exception and not the rule. Such cancellers introduced according to an Order M 157, dated 17 August
1858 of the Main Administration of Posts were intended for postal stations only. That did not apply to the ROPiT
agencies, as they did not fit into the structure of the Postal Service.
2. The Salonica Line of ROPiT was opened in 1864 and, in that year, the "Russika" Monastery took upon itself
the running of the agency at Mount Athos. In accordance with the conditions concluded with ROPiT, the
correspondence sent from the Holy Mount to Russia had to be accepted and despatched in accordance with the
Agreement of 1862. The mail directed to the Middle Eastern ports was not included in the Agreement per the postal
regulations of the Company. The possibility cannot be excluded that, at some later point, the application of the dots-and-
numeral cancellers for the agencies at the Holy Mount and Salonica took place at other localities,
THE POST-RIDER/MIIHK X- 57
20 November 2005





In 1864, ROPiT asked for an increase in the number of ports, where correspondence could be accepted. After
concordance as to the number of such ports, agencies were established at Samsun, Kerasund, Dardanelles, Chios,
Rhodes, Latakiya and Tripoli (in Syria, not in Libya). An order for the preparation of cancellers for these agencies
was issued in February 1865. In arranging for the preparation of dated cancellers, the Economic Section of the Postal
Department specified that: "these cancellers must be utilisedfor postmarking the stamps". In a letter dated in March
1865 from the Postal Department to the Odessa Border Post Office, it was stated that only one type of canceller was
being forwarded for the agencies, namely dated. That type of procedure, where offices had dated cancellers, was
established by Circular Jb 123 of the Postal Department, dated 11 February 1863 and was applied in many post
offices of the Empire. There was therefore nothing strange about this decision.
According to the status at the end of 1865, the Postal Department prepared and sent cancellers for the
fulfilment of postal operations to 18 agencies in the Middle Eastern ports: 11 of them received dated and dot-and-
numeral postmarkers and 7 of them only dated cancellers. In addition to these ports, the ROPiT steamers planned in
1866-1867 to call in on the Alexandria Line and the Constantinople Caucasus line, namely at Acre, Said, Ordu, and
Makaroniya. However, they put into Acre only in good weather, at Said when there was cargo at that port and they
visited Ordu according to the timetable. There was no agent of the Company at the port of Makaroniya until 1870 and
only the ROPiT agents had the right to carry out postal operations and utilise postal cancellers. In addition, Ordu and
Makaroniya did not even stick to the yearly timetable of the steamer routes.. Because of these and other reasons, the
acceptance of mail did not take place in those ports. In other words, the preparation of dotted cancellers for the
reserved numbers 812, 823-827 did not take place at all in this period.
An enquiry here: Makaroniya was a small islet and port, situated 87 miles (136 kn.) from the Dardanelles and 63 miles
(105 km.) from Smyrna. S. Tchilinghirian & W.S.E. Stephen write in "Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad" in 1957,
quoting S.V. Prigara about the opening of an agency at Makaroniya (implying a Postal Agency?), but they could not specify the
source of those data.
The required information was included in the ROPiT Manual In the 1869 edition, issued in 1870 and in the "Agents and
Correspondents" Section, there was no agent at Makaroniya. A supplement to the Manual and issued in 1870 mentions the presence
of an agent of the Company at Makaroniya.
All the dot-and-numeral cancellers were prepared and distributed only by the Postal Department. However,
as of 1868, it did not provide ROPiT with such cancellers.. As a result, an analysis of the documents of the Postal
Service and of ROPiT for the period of 1862-1867 allows us to affirm that, for Middle Eastern mail, dotted
cancellers with the numbers 812, 823-827 were not prepared by the Postal Department.
The utilisation of dots-and-numeral cancellers at Russian postal stations was terminated in 1876. There is
stated in the 3d. Circular of the Postal Service for that year that: "the application at the stations... .ofpostmarkers for
the cancellation of postage stamps on a letter, with a separate number for each canceller... is abolished.... in their
place, the stations must apply on the stamps a metal canceller made ofcopper, setting out a designation of the point
and time when the letter was handed in [11].
The ROPiT agencies accepted correspondence in accordance with the postal regulations and the official
application of such cancellers in the Middle East had to be terminated approximately at that particular time because
of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, which suspended the activities of the Company in Turkey.
S.V. Prigara referred in detail in writing about the prohibition of the application of dot-and-numeral
cancellers in his work "The Russian Post in the Empire, in Turkey, in China, in China and in the Polish Kingdom", New
York, 1941, as follows: "These particular cancellers were taken out of use on 20 October 1877 and were replaced for
the postmarking of stamps by new cancellers in circular form ". But that was not the case.. In a circular instruction of 2
July (not 20 October) 1877, the postal stations had to accept and distribute all classes of correspondence and instead, of
copper cancellers, circular ones in steel were to be introduced, replacing the dotted postmarkers.
The ROPiT agencies not only accepted mail for transmission, but also between the Middle Eastern ports
themselves. The question then arose about paying for such mail. In December 1862 and in replying to a request of
ROPiT, the Postal Department wrote that the Agreement designated the payment "of correspondence being sent
between the Russian and foreign ports: specific payments for the correspondence conveyed between the foreign ports
depended only on the Company".
A year later in December 1863, the Postal Department explained to the Odessa Border Post Office that the
correspondence in the Middle Eastern ports "is to be transmitted without the participation of the Postal Service and,
for that reason, there was no instruction about any payments at all to be collected for the Postal Administration"
[12].
The position of the Postal Department regarding the mail transmitted without
; the participation of the Postal Service was the legal analysis for the preparation in
'.:'. 1865 of an issue of stamps by ROPiT (Fig. 6. Postal sending between the Middle
S' .Eastern ports were franked with these stamps up to 1868. They were not to pay for the
Delivery of mail from the Middle East to Russia. The explanation was simple: 100% of

PacynoK 6 Figure 6 THE POST-RIDER/jIMlHK J 57 21
November 2005









,^b;A*'' '.

.. Figure 7

t.;, ;-':.'. ,r -.:- -^ g-^



PacyHor 7 H3o6paxeHze mo6e3ao npefocraleHO ..
ana caTbH Bna ejaIeM noIrTOoro oTupanneiM .
A. ran.nepoM (CaHir- leep6yTe r, Poccu)..


of the income for the delivery of letters by sea to Odessa and prepaid with ROPiT stamps would have been placed at
the credit of the Company; but according to the 1862 Agreement, only 25% of the tariff actually went to the
Company for conveyance by sea and on the Constantinople-Odessa line payments were in general not levied.
We see in Fig. 7 the front and back of a postal sending accepted at the agency in Mersina, franked with
ROPiT stamps and delivered by a Company steamer to Beirut.
In an interesting article, titled "Russian Seapost in the Middle East" (magazine "Philately of the USSR" X 11, 1979),
G. Akunov asserted that the ROPiT stamps "were utilised from 1863 for the payment of correspondence comnved among the
Middle Eastern ports". The archival documents in St. Petersburg do not allow us to confirm or to disprove those data.
G. Akunov also informs us from a reference in 1863 to the "Regulations of the Company for the transmission of letters
among the Middle Eastern ports" that "such mail was prepaid with ROPiT stamps on a per lot basis with ordinary letters at 2
piastres, insured letters at 4 piastres and I piastrefor the receipt. For sending under "wrappers, 10 paras per lot were levied".
As stated previously, there were noted in the archival documents occasions, in the receipt and despatch of
mail to the Empire from the Middle Eastern ports, which were not included in the Agreement, but were cases in
transit from one of the ports listed in the Agreement. For correspondence sent in such a manner, transmission
between the Middle Eastern ports was paid for in ROPiT stamps.
In all the articles and catalogues, the face values of the ROPiT stamps were given as 10 paras (2 kopeks) and
2 piastres (20 kopeks). It will be shown below that, judging from the archival documents and on several letters, each
of the ROPiT stamps were of only one face value during the first three months of 1868.
By analogy with dot-and-numeral postmarkers of the Postal Service, the Company also utilised
.*.* % for the cancellation of its stamps similar cancellers (Fig. 8 measuring 27 x 17 mm., but
-*.-- *---. without a number. Such cancels are also known on the postage stamps of the Empire.
'"* The term of the 1862 Agreement expired on 31 December 1864; both sides continued to
'- honour it until the conclusion of a new concordance.
PHcyHOK 8 The preparation of such an agreement between the Postal Service and ROPiT began in the first
Figure 8 half of 1865. The inclusion of extensive changes was planned for the new Agreement.
In August 1865, N. Gaevskii, the Chairman of the ROPiT Board, proposed to hand over to the Company the
execution of all postal operations in the Middle East and he wrote: "At the present time, there are.... two postal
services on the Middle Eastern Lines:the Russian Official Service (between the ports included in the Agreement);
and of the Russian Company (between the ports which were not included in the Agreement); two kinds ofpostage
stamps: those of the Russian Postal Service and of the Russian Company"
N. Gaevskii noted that such a state of affairs provoked for the senders "difficulties and conflicts. with the agents of
the Company, who were obliged to require... one or other of the postage stamps with payments not for the rate of
one, but for another postal tariff' [13].
From the beginning of the new Agreement going into effect, ROPiT constantly proposed the introduction of
stamps for Middle Eastern correspondence. The Postal Department did not object to the idea, but there were various
options in the documents, which had been prepared. Among them was the examination of the possibility of utilising
on the letters from the Middle East two types of stamps: those of the Middle Eastern postal service (for conveyance
by sea) and of the Imperial State postal service (applying the internal postal rate), Because of complications caused in
balancing the accounts (it was planned to hand over to the Company the postal rate for letters from the Middle East to
Russia and the payments for State postage stamps would go the Government Treasury etc.) this option was declined.
At the end of December 1866, the Chairman of the ROPiT Board appealed to the Government with a
proposal to prepare for the Company "postage stamps in a special design". Documental data have not been found
22 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK N 57
November 2006





of stamps representing ROPiT. However, among the stamp essays of the middle of the 1860s, there are some that are
similar to such specimens and featuring the Russian capital letters "B" and "K", which can be deciphered as standing
for "Middle Eastern Correspondence. The probability of similar identification is increased if it is noted that on these
essays and somewhere on the 1865-1868 stamps of ROPiT and the "Wild Levant" set, which had been issued some
50 years later, there is repeated in the design one specific element of formation: there are capital letters in the
background of the circle on both sides from the centre (see Fig. 9). Such a method of separating any letters was not
utilised in Russia.





PHcyHno 9 Figure 9




(Editorial Comment: The two stamps shown at right in Fig. 9_ as well as the "Constantinople" postmark, form part of
a long bogus set, including t&te-b&che pairs, which was floated on the philatelic market in the early 1920s and listed
then in the French Yvert & Tellier catalogue; please see also the illustrations at the end of this article on pp. 37-39).
However, according to the opinion of the Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, Count N. Tolstoi, the stamps for
the Middle Eastern mail had to be significantly different from the State postage stamps. In a report presented to the
Emperor in April 1867, he wrote: "... it was proposed that the payment for the transmission ofall the correspondence
proceeding from Russia to the Middle East would be fully liable for the postal rates... but, in order for the Company
to give up such fees on its behalf which it would levy on the correspondents in the Middle East for the transmission
of their sending to Russia (Author's note: The two words were underlined in the document)....the Company of
Navigation is pleading for the permission to introduce at the Middle Eastern ports special stamps for the payment of
correspondence to be transmitted on the steamers of the Company".
.....in ensuring that the said stamps with their stated fees wouldform part of the property of the Company, they ;
must... be sharply distinguishable from the stamps utilised in the Empire, the postal rates ofwhich are represented as
belonging to the State Treasury, I am arranging for the preparation for the design of special stamps for the
Company" [14].
There is formulated for the first time in this document the principle, adopted a month later in May 1857 for
Zemstvo stamps. It was permitted to issue such stamps on the condition that their designs would be significantly
different from those of the State stamps.
The Agreement of the Postal Department with ROPiT was signed on 9 December 1867. The text of the
Agreement was not published in the literature and some data from it were set out as an excerpt in the Circular M 49
of the Postal Department, dated 21 December 1867. Later on, in the article "More about the stamps of the Russian
Levant" (magazine "Soviet Collector". X2o 4, 1932), N. Nosilov wrote that the text of this Agreement had not been
preserved. There is in the archive of the Postal Department both the typographic text of the Agreement and the
handwritten version, signed by each of the persons responsible. The first and last pages of the original version of the
Agreement of 1867 are shown in Fig. 10.



l i i Tp m ., 'p ,..
AI :
4 J r^ l l








PacyiloK 10 Figure 10
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK 57 23
November 2005
~$ t








November 2005






In order to understand the sequence established as of 1868 of the transmission of postal sending, it is
necessary to look at some articles of this particular Agreement:-
# 1. ROPiT takes upon itself (a) the conveyance and distribution of ordinary letters, wrapper sending,
insured letters and money proceeding from all towns and ports of the Russian Empire to all ports of the Middle East,
at which the steamers of the Russian Company call in and, (b) the acceptance and conveyance of all the above-
mentioned classes of correspondence from all ports of the Middle East, which the steamers of the Russian Company
visit and addressed to all towns and ports of the Empire.
# 2. The immediate handing-over of correspondence to the steamers, proceeding from Russia to the Middle
Easterm ports and the receipt from the steamers of correspondence from the Middle Eastern ports to Russia is to be
carried out by the Odessa Border Post Office and by all the maritime post offices of the Black and Azov Seas.
# 3. The post offices accept the correspondence addressed only to those Middle Eastern ports, which have
been mentioned in theROPiT timetable ofroutes.
# 4. Ordinary and insured letters, as well as wrapper sending proceeding from Russia to the Middle East
are to be conveyed by the Russian Company free of charge. The postal payments for these classes of mail ....are to be
placed in full to the credit of the Postal Service. The payment for the ordinary and insured letters, as well as the
wrapper sending, proceeding from the Middle East to Russia and exchanged within the Middle Eastern ports, is to
be placed in full to the credit of the Russian Company.
# 5. The payment by weight for the conveyance by sea of ordinary letters....is fixed at 10 kopeks per lot
(above 10 kopeks for the internal rate per lot of weight for the transmission by land of letters from the inland towns
of Russia to Odessa and to the other ports and return) It is permitted to send under wrappers newspapers,
journals... and other printed matter. For such sending, there is a charge of2 kopeks for each 3 1/4 lots, including I
kopek for conveyance by sea and a further 1 kopek for transmission by land within the boundaries of Russia..
# 6. For the conveyance by sea of insured letters there is to be a charge... of 25 kopeks per lot in addition to
the postal rates fixed... .for transmission by land of insured letters from the internal towns of Russia to Odessa and to
other ports and return.
# 8. In wintertime when navigation is closed at the Azov Sea ports, namely at Kerch', Berdyansk, Mariupol,
Eisk and Taganrog and at the river ports of Kherson and Nikolaev, letters and wrapper sending proceeding from
the Middle East to the ports mentioned here, or return, will be forwarded between Odessa....and the ports indicated
above by the service on land, but at the same rate as specified for conveyance by sea.
# 9. Ordinary letters and wrapper sending, both proceeding from Russia to the Middle East, as well as
those classes of mail received from there, must be paid for (franked) by affixing postage stamps on them upon
presentation.
The Postal Department will provide the Russian Company for the payment of mail presented at the Middle
Eastern ports exclusively for this purpose the designated special postage stamps at the cost of their preparation....if
the correspondence handed over at the Middle Eastern ports for the transmission by steamers is observed to have
any other kind of postage stamps affixed, then the Company has the right to refuse to accept such mail and require
payment by the presenter for the requisite postage stamps (!!!!).
# 17, All the conditions set out here are extended to the correspondence, transmitted via Russia between the
Middle Eastern ports, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Finland....the designated conditions, upon
being examined by the Main Authority of the Transcaucasian Territory, may be put into practice for the
correspondence sent between the Middle Eastern ports and Ttranscaucasia, via the post offices at Poti and Sukhum-
Kale" [15].
The sequence of transmission and payment for money letters is set out in # 14 of the Agreement. The basic
point about the transmission of such mail was that it could pay the postal rates only to Odessa. The packets were
opened there; the money counted and then handed over to ROPiT against a receipt, together with the original
wrapping of the packets. For conveyance by sea, an additional charge was levied, amounting to % of the sum of
money being sent. That charge was levied upon the distribution (or receipt) of the money in the Middle Eastern ports.
In conformity with the postal regulations, the insured letters and money correspondence were recordedby
name in a register. A portion of a register for money and insured letters sent from Constantinople is shown in Fig. Il
The arrangement adopted in the Agreement for ordinary letters and wrapper sending sent from Russia to the
Middle East with the payment in State postage stamps and from the Middle East to Russia in stamps for the Middle
Eastern correspondence was also retained for further attention.
The Agreement went into effect as of 1 January 1868. From that date, the Border Post Office at
Constantinople ceased its activities. The repetition of the information in various articles that "post offices abroad in
Turkey" were closed is not correct. Only one Russian post office operating in Turkey was closed, namely at

24 THE POST-RIDERISIMIHK N 57
November 2005










I. .. .. -.-j "

,. a .* i.^ :. -.g-., J- ,S'.J




A.-


PHcyHOK 11 Figure 11



Constantinople. N. Sokolov confirmed this fact in the article "About the postal relations of Russia with Turkey (Post
& Telegraphic Journal, Unofficial Section", February 1900) and he also stated that: "The despatch of the Russo-
Turkish mail by land was finally terminated in 1868, when the entire postal operation in the Middle East was
handed over to ROPiT".
The adoption of the Agreement in the Caucasus began as of May 1868.
Up to 1868, the preparation ofthe cancellers, books andforms fr postal operations
in the ports as specified in the 1862 Agreement, had been bestowed on the Postal
S5 Department. In the new Agreement, the postal equipment was prepared by the Company.
The ancellers utilised by ROPiT were often stuck on postal sending in.blue colour,

18 intended for official business. A Postal Department (Postal Section) was set up at the Mail
Office of the Company in Odessa where mail was accepted from the senders and postal

cancellations were 'applied. One of them (Fi. 2) in blue has been found, on a postal
PC grHOK 12 document of the Company with a diameter of 26 mm. It seems certain that the model for

Figure 12 engraving it was the canceller of the Odessa Border Post Office. The new canceller is
slightly distinguishable by an increase in the spacing of the letters.
The first replacement for most of the cancellers apparently took place in 1873. In May of that year, the Chief
Agent of the Middle Eastem Lines, Baron Steiger, wrotetat thhe postal cancellers in all the agencies "arpefor the
mostpart unsuitable for further use and that he had already turned to the Head Office of the Company about the
question-of having them replaced.
There was special mention in the text of the Agreement that the receipt forms given out forth acceptance of
insured and money letters should be established in a separate contract between both parties. The general setting for
these receipts was also utilised as of 1872 for the acceptance of registered sending and it differed strongly from
those used within.the Empire. Further details about the ROPiT postal receipts are given in the article by A Cronin:
"ROPiT Parcel, Isuance and Registration Receipts" (h be Post-Rider", 2p 52 of 2003).
After the signing of the Agreement, the Postal Department asked the 93Bi to prepare 1=, 3-, 5- & 10-kopek
stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence. In February 1868, ROPiT stated that postal operations in the Middle
East were being carried on the basis of the 1867 Agreement and that new postage stamps only did not suffice.
At the beginning of March 1868, the Postal Department received from the e3B 30,000 stamps for the
Middle Eastern correspondence, including 15,000 ten-kopek stamps and 5000 each of the 5-, 3- and 1-kopek values.
The stamps were sent on 18 March to the Odessa Border Post Office, to be forwarded to the Head Office ofROPiT.
On 3 May 1868, the ROPiT Board informed the Postal Department that the office of the Company in Odessa
had received 30,000 stamps for the Middle Easter mails. The Board asked that a further 50,000 ten-kopek stamps
and 10,000 five-kopek stamps be sent, while in June 1868 also 10,000 1-kopek stamps for the Middle Eastern
correspondence.
On 21 June of the same year, an additional 50,000 ten-kopek and 10,000 five-kopek had been printed and
sent to Odessa; the Postal Department promised to send one-kopek stamps at the end ofJune.
sent to Odessa; the Postal Department promised to send one-kopek stamps at the end of June.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIK N2 57
November 2005






>. .. The stamps of the first issue were
,, perforated 11.'/ The earliest letter
-.. -. during the preparation of this article, is
dated 30 April 1868 (Fig. 13). In the
Literature and the catalogues ("Catalogue
S- of Stamps and Postal Stationery", edited
S. by F. Chuchin" and other publications),
2-e L ? the second issue of stamps for the Middle
L L East mail was specified as in 1872. The
perforation for that issue of stamps was
3 indicated as 142 : 15. There are no
references about the preparation of these
stamps in 1872 in the archives of the
PHcy0OK 13 Figure 13 Postal Department, ROPiT and 33rB.

In this particular case, only the collectors can reply as to whether the stamps for the Middle Eastern
correspondence perforated 14/2 : 15 exist on postal sending transmitted in 1872-1873 and such information was not
found in the preparation of this article. However, there were discovered documents detailing the quite large issue of
stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence in 1874. They had previously never been specified anywhere.
On 27 November 1874, the ROPiT Board asked the Postal Department "to arrange for the preparation and
despatch to Odessa of 300,000 copies ofpostage stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence:-
10-kopek stamps 75,000 copies
5-kopek stamps 75,000 copies
3-kopek stamps 75,000 copies
1-kopek stamps 75,000 copies
300,000 copies".
On 30 November 1874, the Postal Department ordered these stamps from the 93FB and, on 24 December, it
informed the ROPiT Board: "about the despatch to the Odessa Border Post Office for transfer to the Office of the
Company of quantities of stamps received from the 93IT: 75 thou. 1-k, 75 thou.- 3-k, 75 thou- 5-k, 75 thou.-
10-k, thus 300,000 postage stamps in all for the Middle Eastern correspondence" [16].
Proceeding from these data, it is necessary to confirm more exactly the often repeated opinion that the
genuine "8" and "7" surcharges applied later, when the rates were changed, could only have been applied on the 10-
kopek stamps of the 1872 issue.
In not rejecting the possibility of the issue of stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence with the
perforation 142 : 15 in 1872, it is necessary to acknowledge that the new order came about because of the depletion
of the old stocks and the "8" and "7" surcharges must have been placed on stamps which had been printed later at the
33rB. The greater part of the 10-kopek stamps issued in 1874 remained unused on going to the new rates and
certainly the stamps in that year of preparation became the "basis" for the "8" and "T' surcharges.
Some authors state that, together
with the introduction of the new
S. .- stamps for the Middle Eastern
S' correspondence, Circular N-> 49 of
Sthe Postal Department dated 21
December 1867 revoked the
utilisation of the ROPiT stamps.
-That is not correct, as there is no
such prohibition in the aforesaid
,., c. .- circular. In practice, the ROPiT
c'' -L-. L r stamps continued to be utilised
S'.. even during the first few months of
S c, y'..- 1868. A letter is shown in Fig. 14
franked with such stamps and
accepted in Smyma on 24 January
PHcyHOK 14 Figure 14 1868.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No 57
November 2005


,26






In February 1868, the Company sent out to the agents in the Middle Eastern ports a Circular XM 846 (Fg. 1
whereby the obligation was conferred on them to accept and distribute ordinary and insured letters, wrapper sending
and money. It was stated therein, that: "postage stamps, a seal and canceller would be sent upon preparation ".

Russian Company Odessa, 26 January/7 February 1868..
of Navigation and Trade
Circular XN2 846. To the Agents of the Middle Eastern Lines of the Company.

In accordance with the new Agreement concluded on 8 December 1867 between the Postal Department and
our Company, which informed you by Circular .N 843 of the Head Office and dated 12/24 January, the responsibility
has been placed upon you to accept in your Agency ordinary and insured letters, wrapper sending and money,
addressed to all towns of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Finland. Upon being
delivered to Odessa or to other Russian ports in the Black and Azov Seas, such correspondence will be dispatched
from there to the destination by means of the State Overland Postal Service.
The responsibility is also bestowed upon you to hand out in the Agency all classes of mail delivered to you
from the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Finland by the steamers of the Company.
In order to do so, you shall observe the regulations ratified by the Head Office on 23 January/4 February of
this year in accordance with the printed copy enclosed, with all subsequent attachments thereto (forms Nos. 94, 96,
97, 98, 99, 100, 101),
Up to the application of the Agreement of 9 December 1867 to the Transcaucasian Territory, the ordinary
mail proceeding from that area and return is to be accepted and distributed in the Agency according to existing
arrangements.
The transmission of correspondence between the Middle Eastern ports, including also Constantinople in that
number, where the Russian Post Office has been abolished, must be carried out as up to now on the basis of the
Statutes # 191-232 for the Agents now in force.
Postage stamps, a seal and canceller will be sent to you upon preparation.
There should be on the signboard required according to Article # 15 of the Agreement, an inscription in
Russian and a translation into a foreign language most frequently in use in your locality and reading: "Acceptance of
correspondence despatched from Russia and the distribution of correspondence received from Russia".
You will ensure that you will order the signboard locally and, if there are no local facilities, you should apply
to the Head Office of the Middle Eastern Lines of the Company.
With regard to this correspondence and in accordance with the Agreement, you are Agents of a State Office,
enjoying special protection as representatives of the Russian Government, to whom you may turn for assistance on
any occasion should that be needed.
For the Director: M. Semashko.
The Manager of the Postal and Insurance Section: K Kartamyshev.
PHcyHoK 15 Figure 15
The "Regulations for the Agents of the Middle Eastern Lines of ROPiT" served as a manual for carrying out
postal operations in the Middle Eastern ports, ratified by the Head Office of the Company on 23 January/4 February
1868, The first page of these Regulations is shown in Fig. 16 and individual points are set out below:
"# I Letters and wrapper sending are accepted even ifnot franked with the new postage stamps...."
Note: Until the receipt of the new stamps, the Agent would frank this correspondence with postage stamps of
the Company (Author's Comment: i.e. with ROPiT stamps !!!!)..
# 2: The Postal Rates:
To Odessa and From internal
other Russian towns of the
ports of the Empire, Polish
Black and Kingdom and
Azov Seas G-D of Finland
For a letter weighing no more than one lot 10 kopeks 20 kopeks
For a letter weighing more than one lot, but less than two lots 20 kopeks 40 kopeks
For wrapper sending weighing no more than 3% lots 1 kopek 2 kopeks
For wrapper sending weighing more than 3 4 lots and up to 6/2 lots 2 kopeks 4 kopeks
# 3: Each letter being sent must be postmarked with the cnceller of the Agency, showing the year, month and
day if dispatch.
Note: Until the receipt ofsuch a canceller, the Agent will apply the cachet intended for passenger tickets.

THE POST-RIDER/MAlmHIK 57 27
November 2005











lioppeIroeneiai aresry Patcic BflooTrom -mo Iaa y Aexa6pa 867 roan




a.li AreaVHTo BocToqtXs .aninfi Pyccuaro 06OiecTsa
IIapoxoacTBa H Toproaz..






nPOOTAHf KOPPECHOHAEH4 IfH.
a) IIpiers X ornpaza.
1.
IIMncaa: a i6axepoiaumm dorpansemn apcHaaiorce He mrave, rab opaKxpsranoam
inobmH norto3B mt m MapmaxM, sa ROTopt noal saBrTa yaTOaaers no yiMssaoErOMy nIPe rapsny.
Jlptuiwaidc. AD noaynenin Hnoiro t apors, Areums 6ypaa epaErposana wry
Eoppaceoiemnixo nowronmm Mapsamr 06necmBa.
2.
TapHiEs.



Ha .Ta ]. .. O iO l
3a 5neIM o a coa n noe doate omro nora . . 10 on. 20 son
Ba naaewo tcomon 6oatiee onoro aora, no ire 8oe ya4y 20 p 40 a
S3a aueamo Bteaons- fte XPpY2E, s1o He 6oAte Tpenortmoronb 0 60 u
H Ta ItS .atA e 2 s ofl N e U pono p i
3a 6asaepoaMoe ornpaerenie Ceomt we 6orte 8%, aMra. .. 1 1 2 "
Sa tamaepoarnoe onrpasnenie teoos 6oate 38*( Ao 611, Aro.B 2 4"
3a 6asefpostiae oapassee stroms 6oaie 61% Ao /9% zoron 8 6
3a 6anAepoanio orapangenie Btcono. 6 ie 9% ,Ao 13 Aoros 4 8
Ba 6aa epoasnoe ornpaaenie: ~aco 6oa e -18 3Ao 160% aoroM 5 10
Ba 6agaepojinoo onipisaeie, Btceomn ,6oe 161/, Ao 20 zoron 6 > 12
BairAepoanlma orapaBnitia, npenBmaonmia 20 jorons, e npnmmraarea.
IHoAI 65anepoamM AdanonerAen nepeoanrr;: raters, aiypuan,
npolics-Kypanirr, hupsyryapa -R.-pyrix aeeiaZrsT o6saMienia, rsa )O-
pmr~ spoxt aApeca noe dyerT mmiero nmcamare.


Bcoaoe ornpanaeuoe nmscbo aoanmo 6iThm saneIreeBaao noTwar rs merohstem i
Arenrana e i osnaeisens roxa, artea a mna ornpaaeni lIreMeaB orrmcnaerera
trott copoir .nmeua, ra ono aanegaTaHo..
NIjpatiawnis lAo noayreaia Tasoro nmrcMias, Arean 6yAeTrLyirrpe6am bnemnen,
w3nasiein ih as nAa caampenxm s 6aaeTos.

Bet rnoroasom apr Bsornaro orTpaBaaemaro nmemna, Aoffanalt aris sa6nellMent aeit-
Mners, Bnaqaienimns AIm yHa ontro eid xr. roaHOCiH.
5.
Ilpocri o sasemanyo oppeenoHxeniom ora nupenTam eaeft Pyocmaro IHpanireaPar a ai noprt
npe6wiania ArenTa H on I ternur nmaerefl ne npexoran HTeia TypesanMr Ipamrre.BcTMa
no Pociii, Ao.aVS 6t1m nupmnmaemr na neta s neeanara e o.
iaaenmaut Aene al orapaaer a nparnU ora rare, BaIs a orb 'aoaenm~i xanr, na
ocnonBania iarcTogxis azpanais .0 AeHIrars (Ce. aase 5 86-67).

yoPHcyioK 16
28 y 16 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK Ns 57 Figure 16
November 2005





# 4. All the postage stamps on each letter despatched must be affixed with some glue, intended for the
cancellation of their validity.
# 6. Upon the termination of the acceptance of ordinary correspondence, the Agent is to sort it by addresses
into two categories: (a) to Odessa and (b) to other towns of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland and the
Grand Duchy ofFinland and seal them in two packets, one of them being labelled "PP (Post-Packet) to Odessa" and
the other "PP to Russia"...
# 11. Upon the arrival ofa steamer, the Agent is to accept from it the post-packet immediately and above all.
# 13. Upon returning from the steamer to the agency, the Agent is to open immediately the packets and at the
same time hand out the letters and wrapper sending to those addressees who had presented themselves to him.
Having then impressed on the remaining letters the postmark with the year, month and day ofreceipt, he is to
set up a register in two copies, displaying one in public and the other within the agency.
# 23. The rates for insured letters:
To Odessa To other towns of the Empire
or an insured letter weihing no more than one lot 25 kopeks 50 kopeks
For the receipt, issued for each letter 5 kopeks
For two receipts, one of them issued at the port of
despatch and the other to be received by the
Company in Odessa from the post office 10 kopeks
#27. In addition to the seal of the presenter, each insured letter must also be closed with the postal seal of
the Agency" [17].
In accordance with Article #1 of the Regulations, the agents had the right to accept only postal sending
franked with stamps of the Middle Eastern correspondence. Until the preparation and despatch of such stamps, they
must utilise the ROPiT stamps.
In accordance with Article # 2 of these Regulations regarding the franking of letters with a ROPiT stamp, the
following charges were levied:
-letters addressed to Odessa or to other ports of the Black and Azov Seas 10 kopeks per lot of weight.
-letters addressed to other parts of the Empire 20 kopeks per lot.
-for wrapper sending in similar situations, the charge levied is 1 or 2 kopeks, weighing no more than 3 lots
For the full first three months of 1868, the ROPiT stamps were replaced by special stamps for the Middle
Eastern mail. Letters franked with these stamps could be sent from the Middle East to all parts of Russia.
The utilisation of imperforate ROPiT stamps is not known in 1868 and there are two possibilities for
determining their face values in that period:-
the stamps had new face values assigned, namely 1 kopek and 10 kopeks.
the stamps had changed face values, corresponding to 1 or 2 kopeks and 10 or 20 kopeks.
Documentary data have not been found about the face values of the ROPiT stamps in 1868. However, the
order of transmission of the Middle Eastern mail was set up in such a way that, even in the change of face values of
those stamps, it was easy to take into consideration the proceeds of sales. For example, the ROPiT stamps on letters
placed in the "to Odessa" post-packet cost 10 kopeks and in the "to Russia" post-packet: 20 kopeks.
The authors of many articles give the date of appearance of the third ROPiT issue as March 1868. The first
data about this issue was given by H. Liekert in the article "Timbres de la C-ie Russe du Levant" in trhe magazine
"Le Timbre-Poste". The reason for such a late time for the issue becomes understandable from the Note included in
Article # 1 of the "Regulations". Special stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence had still not gone into
circulation and the Company needed special stamps for the franking of correspondence accepted in the Middle
Eastern ports. The issue prepared in Odessa could be sent to the ports by the first steamer.
Taking into account what has been stated, it is interesting to examine a letter, accepted at the agency of the
Company in Constantinople in February 1868.According to the tariff the rate for its transmission would have
amounted to 10 kopeks per lot. We see affixed on the letter a ROPiT stamp and a State 10-kopek value Fig. 17).
It is evident that, at the beginning of 1868, letters with a similar franking were not unique. There is preserved
in the Central Museum of Communications named after A.S. Popov a letter accepted in Constantinople on 12 March
1868 and paid for with such stamps (Fig. 18).
In inserting the illustration of this letter in the article "New data about the stamps of the Russian Post in the
Middle East" (manual "Soviet Collector" J2 14, 1976), A. Georgievskii wrote: "the ROPiT stamps were intended for
the payment of correspondence only in the sector between the Middle Eastern ports.... and Odessa. For the despatch
ofletters to the depths ofRussia, an additional payment for State postage stamps was required". That formulation of
the postal service was taken almost word for word from the article referred to previously by N. Nosilov and Titled:
"More about the stamps of the Russian Levant" and repeated in the catalogue-handbook "The Russian Post in the
Middle East (Russiuian Levant)" in the magazine "Philately of the USSR" W o 5,1990.
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHKM N 57 29
November 2005




















PIcyHOK 17 Figure 17 PcyHOK 18 Figure 18

Such a procedure is not correct, as it does not take into account that, as of 1 January 1868, letters sent from
the Middle Eastern ports to any point in Russia were not paid for in State postage stamps. A new Agreement went
into force as of that date and the only legal means of prepaying letters despatched from the Middle East to Russia was
by utilising the stamps belonging to ROPiT.
There were still no stamps available for the Middle Eastern correspondence at the beginning of 1868 and the
senders got into the habit, as also happened as of 1863, of affixing State postage stamps on the letters. However, an
official of the Company in Constantinople utilised in accordance with the Note to Article # 1: "Regulations for the
agents...." ROPiT stamps to pay the postal rate in franking the letters of the senders. In this particular case, the
ROPiT stamps were utilised on the same basis as applicable for the postage stamps issued in 1868 for the Middle
Eastern correspondence
The 10-kopek stamps of the State issue were not accepted as a means of payment, but they were cancelled
because of the requirement in Article # 4: of the "Regulations for agents...". Such a procedure was carried out in
accordance with the postal regulations of Russia, where the stamps affixed at above the postal rate were not returned
to the sender and were postmarked with the canceller.
Since both the senders had franked their letters with 10-kopek stamps, it is highly likely that the weight of
the letters did not exceed 1 lot. In this case, the face value of the ROPiT stamps affixed on the letters in the agency
must have been 10 kopeks (1 piastre).
The sequence was interesting for handing out ordinary correspondence in the agencies, as set out in Article #
13 of the "Regulations for the agents...". It is obvious from the text that ordinary letters and wrapper sending were
immediately handed over to the addressees, who had appeared at the agency upon the arrival of the steamer and who
did not have to wait for an impression of the postmarks of arrival.
Some agreed changes were inserted in the Agreement in 1869-1871 for the payment of wrappers and for the
acceptance of registered letters, etc. These changes were announced by the Postal Service.
As of 1 January 1870, the rate for wrappers was 4 kopeks for 3% lots or part thereof: Le. 2 kopeks for
conveyance by sea and 2 kopeks for overland transmission within the boundaries of Russia.
In December 1871, the Postal Department informed the Odessa Border Post Office about the changes placed
in the Agreement as of 1 January 1872, in accordance with the "Temporary Enactments in the Postal Section". It was
mainly noted that 4 kopeks would be charged (2 kopeks for conveyance by sea and 2 kopeks for transmission
overland) for wrapper sending weighing up to 3 lots. The payment for registered letters, accepted in Odessa and the
other ports was fixed at:
-10 kopeks per lot of weight.
-10 kopeks for registration.
5 kopeks for the receipt.
The payment for such letters, sent to the Middle East from other post offices of the Empire consisted of-
-20 kopeks per lot of weight.
-20 kopeks for registration.
5 kopeks for the receipt.
These changes, which were inserted in the Agreement, were printed in Circular XJ 18 of 1871.
At the end of January 1872, the Postal Department and ROPiT signed for additional Conditions in the
Agreement of 1867, defining the procedure for transmitting correspondence between the Middle Eastern ports and
the European countries via Odessa and Volochisk.
30 THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHIK Nh 57
November 2005


-- C-/:24 r~?dk' ~. -rrC -~
.7.

z .- .


~ 'L.-' -



-4
6~.
~,--:






The Odessa Railway Line entered into the composition of the Company at that time and, in a document, it is
named as The Russian Company of Navigation, Trade and of the Odessa Railway Line.
The "Conditions" went into effect as of 15 February 1872. There are no data about this document in the
philatelic literature and it is therefore necessary to specify its basic features:-
"# 1.
The Russian Company of Navigation, Trade and of the Odessa Railway Line takes upon itself: (a) the
delivery from Odessa....of sealed ordinary letters and wrapper sending, proceeding from the European States via
Odessa to Constantinople and to all other ports of the Turkish Empire without exception and, (b) the acceptance and
delivery to Odessa of the above-mentioned classes of mail, proceeding from Constantinople and all other ports of
Turkey to the European States.
#.2.
The above-mentioned sealed ordinary letters and wrapper sending must be paid for to the destination
according to the postal rates.
#4.
There should accrue to the Company for the delivery of correspondence (a) for the correspondence
proceeding from Constantinople to abroad and return: for sealed ordinary letters at 3 kopeks for every 15 grammes
(1/ Russian lots) and for wrapper sending at 1 kopek for every 40 grammes (3 Russian lots) and, (b) for the
correspondence proceeding from other Turkish ports to abroad and return: for sealed ordinary letters at 6 kopeks
for every 15 grammes (1 Russian lots) and for wrapper sending at 1 kopek for every 40 grammes (3 Russian
lots).
#5.
The sealed ordinary letters and wrapper sending proceeding from Constantinople and other Turkish ports
to the European States must be paid for by affixing upon them: Russian State postage stamps for transmission from
Odessa to the destination abroad and also for the designated foreign correspondence and, (b) with stamps
designated for the Middle Eastern correspondence for delivery to Odessa at the rates specified in # 4.
#6
The sealed ordinary letters and wrapper sending from Constantinople and the other Turkish ports to the
European States are not accepted without stamps and those dropped in the letter boxes will not be forwarded to the
destinations" [18].
The very important development of postal sending is evident from the text of the Additional Conditions,
regarding the despatch of mail from the Middle Eastern ports to the internal destination points in Russia and to the
European States. Those in the first category were franked only with stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence.
In the second categories, those stamps even paid for the conveyance by sea on the steamers of the Company, i.e. on
the letters and wrappers sent in the 18721875 period from the Middle East to the European States, being at the same
time stamps for the Middle Eastern correspondence and also State postage stamps.
Another important difference arose from the fact that, for the delivery of internal mail, ROPiT received the
entire postal rate from the correspondence sent from the Middle Eastern ports to Russia and, for the mail going
abroad, the Company was provided only with the postal fees for the conveyance by sea, but in both directions: from
and to the Middle East.
There were many reasons for such a procedure: the linkage of the Russian Postal Service with the previously
concluded conventions with the Eoropean States, the mutual accounting agreements with other countries for the
transmission of correspondence sent abroad, etc.
In connection with the numerous changes in the postal section of the 1867 Agreement, it became obsolete
even with the corrections and additions. The Postal Department and ROPiT worked up a new Agreement, which took
into account the particulars of the transmission of the correspondence from the Middle East to Russia and the
European Sates and return, and also the postal circulation of sealed post-packets (i.e. post-packets, handed in further
along to the destination, without being opened). As a result, the Agreement became unwieldy and complex. A new
Agreement was signed on 8 June 1972 and went into effect on 1s. July of that year. The text of the agreement has not
been published previously and some of the points of this document are set out below.
"Art. 1.
The Russian Company ofNavigation, Trade and of the Odessa Railway Line takes upon itself:-
1. The despatch by sea from Odessa and other ports of the Black and Azov Seas....from Russia to
Constantinople and to all other ports of the Turkish Empire, where the steamers of the Russian Company call in and,
at the same time, accept in those ports the correspondence addressed to Russia for transmission by sea to Odessa
and to the other ports of the Black and Azov Seas (a) in the classes of sealed ordinary and registered letters, (b)
postcards, (c) wrapper sendings... .(d) money packets.... (e) sacks for coins.... and (f) open declared value packets....


THE POST-REDER/IMIIIHK N_ 57
November 2005






2. The despatch by sea from Odessa... .of sealed ordinary letters and wrapper sendings....proceeding from
the foreign European States....to Constantinople and to the other Turkish ports, and equally the acceptance in
Constantinople and the other Turkish ports, at which the Company steamers call in and the transmission by sea to
Odessa of the classes of correspondence designated above, being sent to the European States in transit via Russia
3. The despatch by sea from Odessa... .ofsealed post-packets proceeding to Constantinople and equally the
acceptance from the foreign post offices located there, as well as the transmission by sea of sealed post-packets,
proceeding to Odessa....
Note 1: The correspondence designated above must observe all the conditions in force in Russia of the postal
stipulations and conventions.....
Note 4: The installation of letter boxes is permitted to the Company on all its steamers, as well as at other
convenient locations in the Turkish ports.
Art. 2.
The payment for the correspondence being despatched from Russia to the Turkish ports....and return from
those ports to Russia is drawn up asfololows:-
a. for sealed ordinary letters 13 kopeks for every 15 grammes (1 Russian lots) or part thereof
b. for registered letters and in addition to the 13 kopeks for the weight, a further 10 kopeks are levied for
each letter and 5 kopeks for the receipt.
c. for postcards 10 kopeks for each card and,
d. for wrapper sending 3 kopeks for every 50 grammes (not quite 4 Russian lots) or part thereof
Such correspondence must be paid for in full.
The payments stipulated above would be placed: a .for the correspondence sent from Russia to the Turkish
ports to the credit of the Postal Service and b .from the correspondence despatched from the Turkish ports to Russia,
as well as being exchanged between the Turkish ports to the credit of the Russian Company.
Art. 3
The payments for the sealed ordinary letters and the wrapper sending from Constantinople and the other
ports of Turkey, going to the foreign European States....and return are levied: 1. For the transmission between
Odessa and the foreign European States according to the rates in force in Russia for foreign correspondence and,
2. For the transmission by sea between Odessa and the Turkish ports at the following rates:a, for the correspondence
proceeding abroad from Constantinople and return: for sealed ordinary letters at 3 kopeks for every 15 grammes
and for wrapper sending at I kopek for every 50 grammes and, b. for the correspondence proceeding abroad
from the other ports of Turkey and return: for sealed ordinary letters at 6 kopeks for every 15 grammes and for
wrapper sending at I kopek for every 50 grammes.
The correspondence designated above must be paid for in full....
Art. 5
The Postal Department must provide the Company with blank forms for postcards and with special postage
stamps at the cost of their preparation. Such stamps must serve exclusively for the payment: a of correspondence
proceeding from the Middle East to Russia and b for the transmission by sea to Odessa of correspondence from the
Turkish ports to Europe....For the delivery from Odessa to the destination abroad ofsuch correspondence, it should
be paid for in Russian State postage stamps, which may be obtained by the Company at their face values.
The sealed ordinary and registered letters, postcards and wrapper sending from Russia to the Turkish ports
and return without stamps or not fully prepaid and postcards, as well as blanks not prepared by the Postal Service,
will not be accepted for transmission. If such correspondence is dropped in the letter boxes, it does not enjoy the
right ofdespatch, except for: a .sealed ordinary letters, upon the appearance ofwhich double the amount is leviod on
the addressee and, b for registered letters, which are treated in the same way as for sealed ordinary letters....
Art. 7.
Official mail between the Russian Governmenl offices and the Imperial Russian Consulate in Constantinople
and also official packets sent between the Ottoman ports and the embassies and consulates located in Russia are
conveyed without charge on the steamers of the Company.... "[19].
Article 4 of the Agreement specified the payment for sealed post-packets, money bags and open valuable
packets. It was noted in Article 18 that its validity was extended to the Grand Duchy of Finland and, upon a decision
of the Viceroy of the Caucasus, it could be applied to the correspondence being sent between the Middle Eastern
ports and the Caucasus.
In accordance with the Agreement, the transmission of postcards to the Middle East and return took place as
of 1 July 1872. Valuable packets, as referred to in the Agreement, were not accepted for transmission, as the Postal
Service could not conclude with ROPiT the conditions of acceptance and distribution of such correspondence. The
despatch of open valuable packets to the Middle East began as of the middle of 1875.In June of that year at the same


THE POST-RIDER/ISMIIIK N 57
November 2005





time with the insertion of changes in the 1872 Agreement, which led up to the conclusion in Berne of the Universal Postal
Union, there was confirmed an "Instruction about the order of transmission of money packets, bags of coins and open
valuable packets between the Odessa Post Office and the Middle Eastern ports....".
In 1872-1874, the ROPiT Board
repeatedly noted the violation of the
conditions of the Agreement, whereby
____ Uletters from Russia to the Middle East
..... were sent, not via Odessa, but via
r .. Austria. Letters from Europe to the
Middle East, even with the notation
.,.'| "Via Odessa" were being sent most of
all care of the European posts. In
February 1873, ROPiT forwarded to the
Postal Department ten envelopes.
addressed to Constantinople and bearing
), t ^--L' -tW the "Via Odessa" notation, but
despatched via the North German Postal
District We see one such letter in Fig.
S19 received in Constantinople at the
Austrian Post Office.
At the end of February 1873, the
\German General Post Office expressed
0 its agreement for the transmission of its
correspondence and that of the Postal
PHcyHOK 19 Administration of Great Britain via
Figure 19 Odessa to Constantinople. However,
that routing was not utilised in practice.
Already at the beginning of April 1873, the German Postal Service had given a negative reply to a request of the
Postal Department for the transmission of postal sending to the Middle East, stating that: "The General Post Office would
utilise for the despatch of correspondence to Constantinople by the route via Odessa if that route were beneficial in some
way or other....with regard to rapidity or economy, which is not the case ".
On the next day, a negative reply was received from the Austrian Ministry of Trade to the effect that: "the time
has still not arrived for sending correspondence between Austria-Hungary and Turkey via Russia".
There were refusals in the transmission of Middle Eastern mails via Odessa and for other formulations. Many
reasons appeared to be insufficiently serious and it is most likely that that the basic reason for the refusals was the
reluctance of the Postal Administrations of Germany and Austro-Hungary to reduce their incomes and weaken the
influence of the Austrian Postal Service in the Middle East.
The stability of the transmission of postal correspondence from Europe to the Middle East via Odessa began with
the coming into force of the agreement about the Universal Postal Union in 1875.
The rates for letter and wrapper correspondence, which were applicable in the 1857-1874 period for the Middle
Eastern mails of ROPiT, are set out in Table NM 1.
The post offices of Austria, France etc. operated concurrently with the Russian Post in Turkey. The latter also
accepted postal correspondence for transmission between the Middle Eastern ports or to Russia, but according to its own
regulations and tariffs.
The reciprocity of the Russian and foreign posts in the Middle East, aiming at transmitting correspondence by sea,
had already begun in the 1840s. In a report prepared by the Postal Department in September 1844, it was noted that the
correspondence, sent to Russia from Smyrna, Greece, Egypt and the ports of Southern Europe, was delivered to
Constantinople on French and Austrian packet-boats and sent to Odessa on Russian steamers.
The "Regulations for the conveyance of the posts on the ROPiT steamers" of 1857, foresaw the reciprocity with
the foreign post offices in the Middle Eastern ports and the 1867 Agreement contained a separate paragraph about the
transmission of correspondence to Greece and return.
At the beginning of the 1870s, the ROPiT steamers conveyed correspondence, sent from the South of France to
the Caucasus and that mail was handed over to the ROPiT ships from the French steamers in Constantinople. In those
years, the Company delivered to Beirut post-packets of the English Mail from Alexandria and of the Austrian Mail from
Constantinople.

THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK N2 57
November 2005 33








Ta6nina N2 1


Table jQ 1


Initial Date of
Acceptance


Postal Rates

Ordinary sealed letter Postcards Wrapper Sendings Insured letter-up to 1.1. 1872
Ordinary sealed letter Postcds Wrapper Registered letter as of 1.1.1872
-I


1 Internal


II.
o *
0
* n '


2 To European States


0

'0
81
0
U


0

:-4
o i
a0

E!


Internal


Internal




m *
o to
o 0 9,


To European
States


cjP

0Cw
-Ms g
ia,
,C o30


25.4.1857 30 kop. 40 kop.
per lot :per lot

01.01.1863 20 kop. 3 kop. 6 kop. 10 kop.
'per lot :per lot per lot per lot

01.01.1868 kop 20kop. kop. per 2 kop. per 25 kop. per lot 50 kop. per lot
01.01.1868 per lot "per lot :3 lots 31/4 lots

01.01.1870 2 kop. per 4 kop. per
:34 lots 314 lots
01.01.1872 2kop. per 4 kop. per 110 kop. per lot 20 kop. per lot
3 lots 3 lots 10 kop. reg'n 20 kop. reg'n
l-5 kop. receipt :5 kop. receipt
+ 3kop. to + 6 kop. to + i kop. to
15.02.1872 foreign rate foreign rate foreign rate
per 15 gr. per 15 gr. per 40 gr.

13 kop. per 3 kop. per + kop.to 13 kop. per 15 grammes weight
01.07.1872 10 kop. foreign rate 10 kop. for registration
15 grammnes 50 grammes per 50 gr. 5 kop. for receipt


Internal



-.2:


0
0 ^
CrOj tf l 1






In the 1860s and up to the beginning of the 1870s, the steamers of ROPiT and of the Austrian Lloyd
sometimes doubled up on the same routes. For example, in July 1871, the Odessa Border Post Office announced that
the private correspondence would be despatched once weekly on Mondays to Constantinople and other Middle
Eastern ports on the steamers of the Austrian Lloyd (Note: the ROPiT steamers went from Odessa to the Middle
Eastern ports on Saturdays at that time), while the mail to Vienna, Bazias etc. was sent periodically by the ROPiT
steamers. As a result, the Austrian Ministry of Trade asked the Postal Department in August 1865 to send the mail
from Odessa to Vienna via Galatz (Galati) on the ROPiT steamers: "since, as a consequence of the quarantine, the
despatch of the Lloyd steamers between Odessa and Constantinople has been terminated", It was stated in the reply
that: "the Odessa Border Post Office... .is already sending all the correspondence proceeding to Vienna and points
further on via Galatz... .by the ROPiT steamers" [20]. But that is quite another story.
Hereunder: A map of the planned routes to the Middle East of the ROPiT steamers as of 1868.


References:
1 PoccHIcKHic rocynapcTBeHHnul HcTopmWecKHI apxnD (PFHA), 4OHu 1289, onIcl, 1, ,eJo 668 "06 ycrpofi-
cTBe peryimpHux coo6memH nocpeacTBOM napoxogoB B qepHoM H A3o.BCKOM Mopax", A. 103 105.
2 PHA, ). 107, on. 1, g. 18 "IIpoeicr npa un ars nepeBo3KH nowT Ha napoxo.ax POIIT", n. 1 -21.
PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 1, A. 1209 "O nepecbunce KoppecnoHuAemni Ha napoxoAax POInT", qacTm 1, n. 66.
4 PTHA, ). 1289, on. 1, A. 1210 "O nepecmmbce KoppecnomeHimni Ha napoxoAax POIn T", qacM 2, j. 31, 32.
5 IenrpasmmiHH My3ei CBa3H HMemH A. C. IIonoBa (lAMC iM. A. C. IIonoBa), 4. 3, LHpKyJIapI'I InolTOBOro
AenapTaMeHra 1862r., A. 12.
6PFHA, D. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, j. 155.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N& 57
November 2005







7 IerrpajmIHIt rocyapcereHHai HacropmHecKHf apxai C-rfeTep6ypra (JHA CI16), Q4. 1458, on. 2, 461
dleperncKa c pa3anIMH MecraMH Ha maMH, 2. 111.
8 PHA, 4p. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, j. 203.
9 ITIA CII6, Q. 1458, on. 2, A. 2464 "O npeAcraBjienH oTqeroB o AeficTBHix 3ccneunmH 3a 1867 r.", J. 85
-86.
10 PFHA, 4. 1289, on. 1, A. 1210, x. 66 69.
IMC,Hm. A. C. IHonoBa, 4. 3, ITxpKyjIapw IIorroBoro eenapTraMera 1876r., x. 13.
12 PITA, 4D. 1289, on. 1, a. 1210, a. 162,279.
13 PIFA, 4. 1289, on. 1, a. 2272 (<< nepefaqe POIIHT Bcefi noqToBofi oneparan a BocToKe>, ax. 6.
14 TaM Xce, jI. 57.
'- PTFA, 4). 1289, on. 1, x. 3188 < BOCTOHHOi KRoppecnoRnemHn c napoxoAaMH 06mecma>, a. 117 118.
16PTHA, 4. 107, on. 1, a 520 "O cnomenma c no'rroBsM BeOMCTBOM", a. 75 -78, 92.
17 PITA, 4. 1289, on. 1, a. 2272, a. 142 144.
'PITHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, A 3187 "O nepeciane c napoxoaMia POlaT xoppecnomeHmH nH noproB Typinm
B EBponeficKme rocyaapCera", a. 23 25.
9 PFHA, 4). 1289, on. 1, a. 2820 "0 nopzWe ornpaBaeami xoppecnoHmenaH, aIpecoBaHHoii B Byxapecr,
raian, TyJwny H KocramHraHOnooim", x 57, 58.
0 PITUA, 4. 1289, on. 1, a. 2421 "06 ornpaaemm c napoxoAamH Roppecno AeHnHm Mesary OAeccofi, Benori
H Ba3namoM", x. 4.
* *. .


L/


uoupon KynoHb
Peut stre dliach6 par
MOZeTL 6ITL OTptB3aU
la deslinalaire

a J'

.. "'
_-03 *'^


Q 0 c



i,, v: ,

E3 7 '-.


Nom et domicile de
HaTIrOOBaHio IT JtCTO
I'expedilcur.
MEuTeJIbCTBa OTIInpaDBnTCnf

._ I ........ ... c x d
. .. -_
/ /


0opMa IM 143.


css
.ilel fii d'exp6-
CoHpo Boa~TeaRLiuu .
Ci-joi.rL .......... ..... Nombre de dGclrjlions en douane:
Jlpn eemh (qncjIo) TaMomeenristx. jerxapanif:


Valcur Lssure e
0t'LnnnenHal ItliiHocTh:
Mnnlhni du
Cyima uajiozenaro
rcmboursenicrl .
njiaTeza:


T GSG --I
CT. AOH- C'
M Athos rH ..;aS


A. -.. _
(Ha MeHOBanie no yqareTa ).




SLieu de deslinalion): ...-.-.
(MtCTO a3rnl ieulia): //
(rur t n ....
(yau.a n J. )


Poids:


. .- ---


4000 6n.-1/9 Kn. 145--24/4 910.


Acheminenren :
lynm:


Tuu. An. [ -P it Ci e i .I-. B. t uz.J:t


THE POST-RIDER/SMIMHK M 57
November 2005


* *


36


r T


77pu.zo.w ui K, up{h''.lfV onm


-- -- -------


i


.~ ~


r


'i






Editorial Comment: (a) Re Fig. 14 on p. 26 of the present article, this is an entire letter ex Faberg6, franked with
three copies of the 20 kopek/2 piastre ROPiT stamp (Scott X2 7; why such a high rate?) and sent from Smyrna on
24.1.1868. It is addressed in the Greek alphabet, but no Greek would understand it, as it is in fact a transcription from
the Turkish language by using Greek letters. The last word in the address is "Mersinde" = "In Mersina".
(} Further to the reference about ROPiT postal forms in the present article (see p. 25 and line 13 from the bottom)
please see also the illustration of a ROPiT parcel form on p. 36, which was Lot 1276 in the Karamitsos Sale of
13.12.2003. It bears an unusual mixed franking of 2 x 2 piastres plus a 50-kopek (2/2 piastres) Arms Type and was
sent from Mount Athos 23 Oct. 1910 to Jerusalem. The imprint at bottom of that form appears to translate as "Form
M 143.....Printery of the South Russian Company of Printing Orders in Odessa". The parcel weighed 24 lots
(roughly 12 ounces or 220 grammes) and the total postage paid was 6/2 piastres = Ir. 30k.
(c Regarding the two bogus Russian Levant shown at right in Fig. 9 on p. 23 herewith, your editor is setting out the
rest of the values he has of that set, in case CSRP members have additional values and/or varieties.


,en


;Q, 7--Q

,5.
PI pASTR A '71f PIAIS`i Fn ~ PAJIf tpI .PI\TTFSICI
=C-1--n-1 17
iT L


1% piastres
lilac & pale lilac
(shades)


11/2 piastres 11/2 piastres 2 piastres
red & blue green & red black &
dark grev


2 piastres
red-lilac (shades)


M II


-II



2 PASrR,3


SIla



q3h .


,72 piasIes ,L72 piastres
green & yellow green & brown


IM 2i i37 pustre


,red & blue2 pras res
red & blue red & blue


3/2 piastres
lilac & pale
lilac


32 piastres
brown & green


THE POST-RIDER/IMIBHK N2 57
November 2005


I-.II lsl


2 piastre
red & b


s5
lue


lilac & pale
lilac


3/2 pias
red lilac
red-bro


tres
&
wn
















37


_ ~-L- I,_


I 011111


m m .


~~1? ~T~
~"i~i~l
---~ ~
r

2lalnsars













































Bogus postmark with fixed date, reading
"R.O.P. I T. -8. Jan. 20 Constantinople".


7 piastres
red & blue


November 2005


TAte-
beche
pairs










38


2 piastres
grey-green
& grey






ABOUT THE ASSIGNMENT OF NUMBERED "DOTS" CANCELLERS TO POSTAL STATIONS
by L.G. Ratner.
1, Number of the "dots" canceller Place of application First date of application
921 Chernaya, St. Petersburg province March 1866
Source: The Central State Historical Archive of St. Petersburg, Archival Fond 1543, Inventory 2, File 13 "regarding
the acceptance and distribution of ordinary correspondence at the station opened at Chernaya".
At the beginning of March 1866, the Postal Department permitted the service of acceptance and distribution
of ordinary correspondence to be opened at the Chemaya postal station.
Among the documents and listed items sent to the St. Petersburg General Post Office for forwarding to the
postal station at Chemaya were "a postmarker for cancelling stamps under J2 921". On 19h. March, the General
Post Office sent to the post office at Novaya Ladoga the necessary equipment for the beginning of acceptance and
distribution of ordinary correspondence at the station, namely: "The conditions regarding the establishment of a
postal sector; Instructions to the Provincial Postmaster; two Schedules listing the postal rates; a Seal for ordinary
correspondence and a Postmarker under X2 921 for cancelling stamps". At the same time, the General Post Office
gave a direction "about the opening at the Chernaya station of the service of accepting ordinary correspondence and
of handing over to the supervisor the authority and equipment required of him".
On 26 March 1866, an announcement was sent to the Editorial Offices of the newspapers "Bourse News",
"Petersburg Flyer" etc. to the effect that "the acceptance and distribution of ordinary correspondence have begun at
the Chemaya station, lying on the road to Archangel".
2. Number of the "dots" canceller Place of application First date of application
1378 Gotobuzhskaya postal station, St. Petersburg prov. June 1875
1379 Gostilitskaya postal station, St. Petersburg prov. June 1875
1380 Lopukhinkovskaya, postal station, St. Petersburg prov. June 1875
Source: The Central State Historical Archive of St. Petersburg, Archival Fond 1543, Inventory 2, File 34 "regarding
the establishment of three postal stations at Gotobuzh, Gostilitsy and Lopukhinka.
The decision to open postal operations at Gotobuzh, Gostilitsy and Lopukhinka wastakenin January 1875.
Listed items were sent to the St Petersburg General Post Office in April of that same year for forwarding to the
stations, which had been opened and including "three postmarkers for cancelling stamps (1378 Gotobuzh; 1378 -
Gostilitsy and 1380 Lopukhinka)".
In June 1875, the General Post Office ordered the post office at Petergof"to open the service of acceptance
and distribution of correspondence of all classes (except for sealed valuable packages) at the Gotobuzh and
Lopukhinka stations and for Gostlitisy the acceptance and distribution of ordinary correspondence". The General
Post Office also ordered that "the operation of acceptance and distribution of the correspondence be entrusted to the
station supervisors" and to hand over to them, among other items, the numbered postmarkers for cancelling stamps,at
the postal stations, namely 1378 Gotobuzh, 1379 Gostilitsy and 1380 Lopukhinka.
On 22 June 1875, the post office at Petergof reported that: "at the newly opened stations at Gostilitsy,
Lopukhinka and Gotobuzh, the service of acceptance and despatch of correspondence was opened on 20t. June. The
supervisors of the stations have been provided with State equipment, which were required for the acceptance and
despatch of correspondence".
*



IJpIVI 0 i






30 piastres 50 piastres 50 piastres
dark and pale blue red and
yellow-green and grey pale blue

Other high values up to 100 piastres should also exist in tete-beche pairs

*
THE POST-RIDER/1MIlHlK X2 57
November 2005 39






THE MAIL OF THE PINSK NAVAL FLOTILLA IN 1941
by V. Yu. Malov.
In addition to the outstanding article "The Mail of the Personnel of the Soviet Navy 1941-1945" (Authors:
Meer Kossoy and Vladimir Berdichevskiy) I would like to describe a rare item from my collection of the Field and
Navy Mails of the USSR 1941-1945. It is in the form of a postcard, sent on 24 August 1941 from Kiev to Akmolinsk
via Navy Post Office X2 1155, which served the Pinsk Naval Flotilla. In my opinion, this example is one the rarest
postal sending of the Navy Postal Service of the USSR during World War IL At the very least, it is possible to set
out three considerations, confirming that assertion, as follows:-
1. The Pinsk Naval Flotilla was formed on 17 July 1941 after the beginning of the German attack on 22 June of that
year; it existed for some three months and was reformed on 5 October 1941 in connection with the losses in battle of
a significant number of the ships and vessels during the very serious military situation in the area where it was
stationed (the Pripyat' and Berezina rivers, as well as on the upper reaches of the Dnieper). As a result, the length of
operation of the Navy Mail Service (BMII) M 1155 did not exceed three months.
2. The Pinsk Naval Flotilla had in its composition 55 small river boats (the largest of which were monitors) and a
small number of auxiliary ships. In other words, the complement of the personnel was that of a comparatively small
naval unit.
3. The vessels of the Flotilla under the command of Vice-Admiral D.D. Rogachev went into battle with the enemy
on 22 June 1941 and carried out bitter battle activities practically without respite right up to the end of September
(when the Germans seized Kiev), in operating ceaselessly on the rivers of Belorussia and the Ukraine. It is obvious
that the working conditions of BMII M2 1155 were close to critical.
What does this sole item represent, known to the author and sent from the Pinsk Naval Flotilla? It is a
postcard of the 1941 issue (Michel X2 P160/01) with the rate paid for an interurban sending (20 kopeks) by adding a
10-kopek definitive (unfortunately missing). It appears that the additional stamp had already been affixed by the time
the war started and the sender utilised the card as an ordinary blank, since the mail of servicemen was free of charge..
The postmark on the card reads: "MOPCKASI IIOHTA -a XN 1155 24.8(?) 41" (the card was written on 24e.
August). The bilingual postmark of dispatch reads "AKMOLINSK PRIVOKZ. -a- 5.9.41", and the censorship
marking says "Examined by the Military Censorship", with the arms of the USSR and seven wavy lines above and
below the text. The address of the sender was given as "Pinsk Naval Flotilla", Navy Postal Service 1155, P.O. Box
17, Editorial Office, Dm. Roslavtsev".
In the listing of the crews of the Flotilla, Senior Political Officer Dmitrii Roslavtsev is noted as an
"instructor-publicist". It is obvious that he was one of the publishers of numerous leaflets, issued for the sailors of the
Flotilla.. He writes on the card that: "I am carrying on my shoulders all my property regarding the equipment The
remaining items are on the ship". That apparently referred to the mobile printing press, which was soon assigned to
the Staff Vessel "Pripyat"'.
Further lines of the message from Dmitrii Roslavtsev state: "I have been writing a lot and want to write even
more and about better things. This praiseworthy work, which is being carried out heroically by our sailors, is worthy
of the highest description". What is he referring to (remember, the message was written in Kiev on 24'. August)?
On 11 July 1941 and on orders from the People's Commissariat of the Navy, the Flotilla was divided into
three sections: Berezina, Pripyat' and Dnieper. There were assigned in the last section under the command of Captain
of the 1t. Rank I.L. Kravets 2 monitors, 6 vessels with cannons, 7 armed tankers, a division of trawlers and two
artillery pieces. Upon orders of the Commander of the South-Western Front, the Dnieper Section was sent to the
Kiev-Kanev area with the task of preventing the enemy forces from breaking through to the left bank of the Dnieper.
On 11th. August, the ship "Vernyi" armed with cannons went into action against the enemy, breaking through to the
Dnieper River below Cherkassy. By a skillful manoeuvre and in spite of constant fire, the sailors wiped out 15 tanks,
2 batteries and a large number of infantry. Under difficult conditions in the period of 17-19 August, when the right
bank of the Dnieper had already been seized by the enemy to the extent of more than 200 km. (125 miles), the ships
of the Dnieper Section fought their way from Cherkassy to Kiev. On 23". August, the ships of the Flotilla
participated in the destruction of the passage of the enemy at Okuninovo, to the north of Kiev..On 24h. August, a
detachment of marines from the Flotilla beat back four attacks of the enemy in holding the bridge at the town of
Oster on the Desna River...
This postcard opens up in a small way a little-known page in the history of Navy Postal Service of the USSR
and reminds us about the heroism of the Soviet sailors in the bitter and bloody days of 1941.
Editorial Comment: Regarding this postcard, both sides of which are shown on the next page, it seems possible that
the postage stamp originally affixed to the card had been lifted off by the Military Censorship, to check if a message
had been written underneath.
< *


THE POST-RIDERIS/MIIIHK N2 57
November 2005











































* *- *


Arkhangelsk


St Petersburg


Vyatka


TWO UNUSUAL CARD USAGES
by Rabbi LL. Tann.


Yaroslavl


MOsc
-- */ ...J / y-1 -'^*5r *








This card was posted at Pskov 15.9.12 via Novorzhev
16.9.12 to Barlovo 18.9.12 with at foot "HOIrT.
OIIEP." (= Postal Operator?). Barlovo is listed by
Kiryushkin & Robinson as a "cearbcKau ynpa a"
(Village Board). Obviously scarce and comments invited
^^'^Y ,^ .~t~~IUr~~ ^...~~.Ls -i-:/ -<-"<\ ^ <-.







(Village Board). Obviously scarce and comments invited L


S CARTE POSTAL rOCZ A -
st, the rate for the crd wod he been




r.- .---' ..'- -.. -

", L.. "7". ,- .-. -...._ .-


This is a card sent in the last few days of the free frank
period from Danilov Railway Station 4.8.21 to
Yaroslavl', the provincial capital (see the map). As of 15
August, the rate for the card would have been 100
roubles.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK N 57
November 2005 41






THE MAIL OF THE PERSONNEL OF THE SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945): [continuation]
by Meer Kossoy and Vladimir Berdichevskiy (Israel).
1.Introduction
The present work is a continuation of our articles, previously published in "The Post-Rider"; see the
references [1, 2, 3, 8]. In the first two articles, the questions were treated of transmitting the mail of the personnel of
the Imperial Russian Navy (BMD Poccin)-(l*) in the 1914-1918 period, but the main attention was allocated to the
questions of verification of such mail by the censorship. In the article of [3], which is a continuation of [1] & [2], the
rules were examined for handling and transmitting the mail of the personnel of the Soviet Navy in the 1918-1941
period.
In the article of [8], there were presented and described examples of the official cachets, which provided for
the transmission free of charge of the mail of the Soviet Navy in the 1941-1945 period. The present article is a direct
continuation of [8]. It is intended therein to examine the questions of organising the work of the Naval Postal Service
(BMII) in that particular period and also the work of the military censorship. The basic attention in the present
article will be allocated to the investigation of the BMII and of the censorship cachets.
The terminology adopted in the article is as follows:-
Dated cancellations: These are strikes of the postmark, with the name of the post office arranged within a circle and
with a moveable date placed in the centre. In contrast to the cancellations, the cachets did not have a moveable date;
S they fulfilled official functions. For example, they designated the right of transmission free of charge, or the
examination of the mail by a military censor.
It is necessary to note that, during the duration of the war (1941-1945), the BMII was always an integral part
of the Field Postal Service (BIIHI). However, in the initial period (July 1941 September 1942), there were
differences in the delivery of mail to the Army on Active Service (JA) and of the Soviet Navy (BMO), which found
their reflection in the dated cancellations and censorship cachets. That is the reason why the present authors regard it
expedient to examine, from the beginning, the general system of organising the work of the BTIII, in delivering the
mail from the rear to the Front and in the opposite direction and then scrutinise more thoroughly the work of the
BMII in the various periods.
2.The organisation of the work of the Field Postal Service
At the beginning of the war, millions of people were drafted into the Army on Active Service and their
families remained in the Rear, or were evacuated to new places of residence. In such a situation, there was a sharp
increase in the number of letters to the Army on Active Service and in the opposite direction. During the wartime
years, up to 70 million letters were delivered monthly to the Army on Active Service. About 6000 million examples
of various classes of correspondence were handled and delivered by the Field Postal Service, including 5794 million
ordinary letters, as well as 52.4 million registered and 4.5 million money letters [9]. These designated figures permit
the estimation of the relative scarcity in collecting ordinary, registered and money letters.
A massive displacement of the troops began from the first days of the war and it was characterized by the
continued withdrawal of the Army on Active Service from the pre-war borders of the USSR. As a result, the terminal
points of the dislocations were often unknown. Coincidentally, the addresses of the inhabited points, from where one
could possibly send mail, were also unknown. That is why the pre-war system of delivering mail to the Army on
Active Service already could not operate any longer by linking the address with the name of an inhabited point where
a military unit was stationed and by the post office box number at the postal station in the inhabited point. A radical
method was required during wartime to change the system of organisation and work of the Field Postal Service.
The new system began to operate as of 1 July 1941. An examination in abbreviated form had previously been
put in place during the war with Finland (November 1939 to March 1940. The system foresaw the organisation of
new structures, which would ensure the possibility of delivering the mail from the Rear to the Front and in the
opposite direction. With this aim in view, the following facilities were organised:-
-Rear and Front Military-Postal Sorting points (BIICTI).
-Military-Postal Bases (BIIB).
-Field Postal Stations (IIIC) to the Army on Active Service.
-Naval Postal Agencies and Naval Postal Stations (BMIIO and BMIC) to the Navy.
Throughout the entire length of the war, the Military-Postal Sorting Points (BIICII) were the backbone of
the Field Postal Service. Because of the character of their work, the Military-Postal Sorting Points were divided into
two categories: Rear and Front.
The Military-Postal Sorting Points were invariably based in large towns or at railway junctions. As a rule,
they did not change their point of location throughout the war.
(1*) For the convenience of the readers, lists of the stipulated abbreviations and literature are set out at the end of the present
article, being borrowed from [8] with supplements. The numbering has been continued in the list of the literature.

42 THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIIHK N 57
November 2005





According to information from V. Pantyukhin [10], 24 Military-Postal Sorting Points were already operating
in the Rear at the beginning of December 1941.They handled (sorted) all the mail, which was being transmitted from
the Rear to the Front and in the opposite direction, while also ensuring the verification by the censorship of such
mail.. Every Military-Postal Sorting Point served a specific zone, into which several provinces, autonomous republics
or regions normally entered. For example MPSP JX! 22 was located in Sverdlovsk and served the Sverdlovsk and
Omsk provinces, while MPSP JX2 24 was situated in Novosibirsk, serving the Novosibirsk province and Altai region.
In contrast to the MPSPs in the Rear, which were based at fixed points, the MPSPs at the Front changed their
points of location. They followed after the Fronts or the military units, in which they were enrolled, e.g. according to
their movements in following up an attack.
According to information from I. Druzhinin [11], Frontal MPSPs were referred to in the autumn of 1943 with
the numbers 2, 4, 6, 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26,28 & 29. For example, MPCP X 5 served the North Caucasian
Front, MPSP JM 14 the Karelian Front and MPSP JX 26 the Stalingrad Front.
As an exception to the rule, MPSP X 2 carried out at the same time the functions of both a Rear and Frontal
MPSP, serving Leningrad and its province, as well as the Leningrad Front. That was apparently linked with the
location of Leningrad and part of its province in the blockade.
The number of MPSPs increased during the period of the war according to the requirements. MPSP JMN 43
operated as of the summer of 1945 in the Far East and that number is regarded as the highest known so far.
It should be taken into account that, during the war, MPSPs with one and the same number could have been
based in various towns or served sundry fronts.
In contrast to the MPSPs, the BIIE (Military Bases) were provided with serial designations of one or two
letters. For instance and in carrying out the breach of the blockade of Leningrad in October 1942, the 67*/ Army was
served by a Military Base with the designation "rn" A Military Base was normally located at the Staff of the Army,
in the strip adjoining the front. It would receive the mail sent to the Army on Active Service from the MPSPs and
then deliver it to the Military Postal Stations (IIIIC), which latter were already serving near the front line at the
Staffs of the military units.
Specially designated mail carriers would take the correspondence from the military postal stations and
deliver it to the military units, then distributing it immediately to the addressees. In some cases, the mail from the
MPSPs went immediately to the military postal stations, thus bypassing the military bases. The correspondence from
the Front to the Rear was transmitted in reverse order.
The correspondence of the personnel of the Army on Active Service (JA) and of the Navy, proceeding from
the Rear to the MPSPs and/or the Military Bases (as well as in the reverse direction), were all transmitted in the same
way. However, differences existed up to October 1942 in the delivery of mail from the MPSPs and/or the Military
Bases directly to the units of the Army on Active Service and Navy (and return). Those differences were linked with
the fact that, at specifically designated points along the way, the delivery of mail to the units of the Army on Active
Service and the Navy (and return), was ensured by the communication services of various Commissariats
(Ministries). For the Active Army, the Communications Service of the People's Commissariat of Defence (HKO)
was responsible via the Field Post Stations (that system of delivery has been described previously) and, for the Navy,
the system of communications of the People's Commissariat of the Navy (HK BM>) via the Navy Postal Agencies
or Navy Post Stations (BMIIO or BMfIC).
The differences were also reflected on the dated cancellations. The cancellers of the Field Postal Service had
the text "IIOJIEBAI IIOHTA" (Field Post) and on the cancellers of the Navy postal agencies and Navy Postal
Stations: "MOPCKAAI flOTTA" (Sea Post).
3. The organisation of the work of the Navy Mail (July 1941-September 1942)
Proceeding from the system of work of the Field Post Service and the Navy Postal Service described above,
the order by example of delivering the mail from the Rear to the units of the Soviet Navy and in the return direction
may be shown in the form of a diagram see Attachment 1. on p. 69.
It should be noted that, depending upon the points of location of the Navy units regarding the sub-divisions
of the Navy Postal Service (Navy Postal Agencies or Navy Postal Stations), the delivery of mail to the Fleet could be
carried out also according to a simplified project, i.e. from a Rear MPSP directed to a Military Postal Station,
bypassing the Frontal Military Postal Sorting Points, Military Bases and the Military Postal Agencies. Specifically in
such an instance, the mail was transmitted in the majority of cases where conclusions can be drawn from the strikes
of the dated cancellers found on them. For instance, it cannot be excluded from such a possibility that, upon the
presence on the mail of the postmark of a Rear MPSP, a transit marking of a Frontal MPSP, Military Base or Military
Postal Agency had not already been applied.
Dated cancellations of the Military Bases, applied on Navy mail, are not known to the authors. They only
know about some letters, upon which there are censorship markings of the Military Bases. Such a situation may be

THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIK 2 57 43
November 2005






possibly explained by the fact that, in transmitting the mail of the Soviet Navy personnel, the functions of the
Military Bases were partly carried out by the Navy Post Offices (BMIIO). It cannot be excluded that there are
also other explanations; the postmarks and censorship cachets of the Military Bases are exceptionally rare material If
there is taken into consideration the Navy mail, which is also comparatively rare material, then it becomes clear that
the censorship cachets of the Military Bases found on such mail are rarely encountered, while the dated cancellations
are not to be found at all.
The investigative data of M. Kabanov [4] also confirm the rarity of the philatelic material relating to the
Navy mail (BMII). He was able to examine and analyse the best-known collections in Russia of Field Post Service
material. It was possible to study in these collections more than 4000 sending of the Field Postal Service mail and
there were only 58 examples in all of Navy mail.
Let us now examine in more detail the structure and work of the Navy Mail Service. The Navy Postal
Stations were organised at the main bases of the fleets and they fulfilled the functions of the smaller Military Bases.
Every Navy Post Office consolidated and cooperated the work of the group of Navy Postal Stations.. The Navy Post
Offices also served several subdivisions of the Navy Fleets, which were assigned to them and, in such cases, they
carried out the functions of the Navy Postal Stations.
The Navy Postal Stations were organised at the Rear of the Field Postal Stations for the immediate servicing
of the subdivisions of the Navy. They received mail from the Military Postal Sorting Points or from the Navy Post
Offices. Such mail was forwarded to the postmen, who were specially nominated in each subdivision. The postmen
delivered the mail to the addressees; they also collected letters and then handed them over to the Navy Postal Stations
for further transmission in the Rear.
The Navy Post Offices and Postal Stations had dated cancellers, the strikes of which were applied on the
postal sending with the view of fixing the dates of receipt or despatch and also for cancelling stamps (on registered
or valuable mail). In contrast to the cancellers of the Field Postal Stations, which had the text "IIOJIEBAa
IIOMTA" and a number with one to four figures, all the cancellers of the Navy Post Offices and Navy Postal
Stations had in the period under review (up to October 1942) in addition to the inscription "MOPCKAI IHIOHTA"
only (!) a number in four figures. The cancellers of the subdivisions of the Navy Postal Service had a characteristic
peculiarity, namely: the Navy Post Office numbers always started with the number "10", while for the Navy Postal
Stations began with the number "11".
Thanks to the investigations of the Russian philatelists Yu. Pavlov, I. Druzhunin, D. Lysogorov, V.
Sinegubov, I. Bryun and other collectors, it has become possible to "decipher" most of the "MOPCKA IIONTA"
numbers. Knowing the number on the dated canceller, it is now possible to say what is the territorial location of the
Navy Postal Station; into the composition of what Navy Post Office it has entered; the particular fleet and sometimes
also even what subdivisions it served. For example, Navy Postal Station JMX 1104 was situated in the hamlet of
Lebyazhe and it served the naval units at the Oranienbaum Place of Arms (KBO = Red Banner Baltic Fleet); the
Navy Postal Station XM 1154 was located in Baku and it served the Caspian Flotilla.
The philatelists and investigators have recently received additional information on the subject. In 1995 and in
connection with the 50t. anniversary of the end of the war, some military archives were discovered (mainly in the
U.S.A. and Germany), including some preserved materials about the organisation and work of the Field Postal
Service of the USSR in the 1941-1945 period.
In the initial period of the war and owing to the withdrawal and the high losses in personnel, some Navy Post
Offices and Navy Postal Stations in the Baltic and Black Sea fleets was closed down or changed their locations. From
then on and according to the requirements, new Navy Postal Stations were opened in practically all fleets, but the
number of Navy Post Offices remained unchanged.
The listing is now given hereunder of the Navy Post Offices known to the authors, specifying their
assignments to the fleets and their points of location:
Navy Post Office (BMIIO X2 1001 KEB (Red Banner Baltic Fleet), Kronshtadt
MN 1002 KB A Tallinn (closed in August 1941)
NJ 1003 data lacking and possibly a reserve number
2M 1004 TOO, Pacific Fleet at Vladivostok
X2 1005 TOO, Pacific Fleet, hamlet ofOl'ga
N. 1006 TOO, Pacific Fleet, Sovetskaya Gavan'
JM 1007 1iP, Blaxk Sea Fleet, Sevastopol'
JXi 1008 CO, Northern Fleet, Polyaroe
J 1009 CO, Northern Fleet, Belomorsk (from December 1941 at Archangel)
According to information from V. Sinegubov [12], 49 Navy Postal Stations operated in the Navy in August
1941, of which 12 at Kronshtadt; 16 Pacific Fleet; 12 Black Sea; 8 -Northern Fleet & 1 Caspian Flotilla.


THE POST-RIDER/HIII(HK N 57
November 2005





As the war went on, the number of Navy Postal Stations and their points of location were changed.. For
example, Navy Postal Station JX 1131 (Black Sea Fleet) was situated in Sevastopol', Novorossiisk and Gelendzhik.
A listing is given in reference [6] of the groups of Navy Postal Stations with their numbers, which were serving
various fleets: MoN_ 1101-1115 (Red Banner Baltic Fleet), MN0- 1120-1129 (Pacific Ocean Fleet), M2 1130-1139
(Black Sea Fleet) and Mi&N 1140-1049 (Northern Fleet). In this listing, the number of Navy Postal Stations operating
in the Navy differ somewhat from the data supplied by V. Sinegubov [12]. According to our information, there do
not appear in the latter data Navy Postal Stations JX 1158 (Red Banner Baltic Fleet); 1166 (Pacific Ocean Fleet);
XM 1181 (Black Sea Fleet); 2Nb 1167 (Northern Fleet) and others. Judging from the numbers, it is possible to come to
the conclusion that, during the war, the number of Navy Postal Stations increased from 49 to 81, or possibly even
higher. If the listing of the Navy Postal Stations is examined with the numbers from 1101 to 1181, then it can be
shown that not all the positions in it would have been filled. There are numbers, for which the existence is unknown
with an appropriate Navy Postal Station. The absence of Navy Postal Stations with these numbers can be explained
by the rarity of the philatelic material and it cannot be ruled out that some numbers were reserved and and were
subsequently not utilised.
The delivery of mail from the post offices in the Rear to the Navy Post Offices or Navy Postal Stations was
accomplished in accordance with the diagram shown in Attachment M L
The delivery of the mail by the subsidiary postal services of the People's Commissariat of the Navy to the
Red Banner Baltic Fleet may be seen in the diagram shown in Attachment Xo 2. There may have been some changes
in that diagram since, during the war and depending upon the circumstances at the Front, the number and points of
location of the Navy Postal Stations, could have changed. Some of the Navy Postal Stations had contradictory
information and, in such cases, the authors are specifying all the possible points known to them. The Navy operations
in the other fleets were set up in accordance with diagrams, similar to those for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
Let us now examine the rules for the transmission of the mail of the Navy personnel, as exemplified by the
work of the Navy in various fleets. Some of the rules have already been described above and shown in the form of
diagrams: see Attachments J 1 & % 2: pp. 69-70.
In the first months of the war, the addressed mail of the Navy was handled according to the number of the
Navy Postal Station, together with the designation of the fighting unit, stated openly.
As an example, there is shown in Fi. 1 a cover, which was sent from the Army on Active Service to the
Navy. There is on the address side a dated postmark of despatch despatchingg c.d.s.), ,reading: "IIOJIEBASI
IIOTA M 995 / 1.1.42". We see on the back a transit c.ds., reading: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA M. 1001 / 11.1.42"
with serial letter "2" (Navy Post Office Y2 1001 was at the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and belonged to Kronshtadt),
while the arriving c.d.s. reads: "KPOHIITA)T 10.2.42", plus a censorship cachet with Unified X2 "371" (Fig la).
The authors use the term "Unified" to designate a type of censorship cachet having the following
characteristics: the Arms and initials CCCP (=USSR), a text in two lines reading "HPOCMOTPEHO / BoeHnoA
IUeH3ypofi", as well as an additional detail in the form of a number or fraction, in the numerator of which there could
be a number or numbers, a letter or letters, or the name of an inhabited point, while in the denominator the number of
the censor. From now on, the colours of the censorship cachets will only be specified where they differ from black.
These cachets will be examined in greater detail in a section of the article especially devoted to the questions of
military censorship.
The cover has an address which was typical for the beginning of the war and the return address is given as:
:The Army on Active Service, Field Postal Station 995, as well as an open designation of the Military Subdivision
"527 R(ifle) Regiment, Machine-gun Company".
The address of the sender was written according to the pre-war system, specifying the P.O. Box number and
the open designation of the military unit, namely: "Town of Kronshtadt, P.O. Box 460 / Navy Political Institute /
Dean of the Institute". In violation of the existing rules, there is not given in the address of the receiver the number of
the Navy Post Office or Navy Postal Station, but the number of the Field Postal Station is specified.
The mail from a Field Postal Station is of particular interest and, in the opinion of the authors, should be
placed in the highest 5". category of rarity, when evaluated in a 5-point system.
The envelope itself is also of great interest, as it was issued by the Navy Publishing House "Voenmorizdat"
(see in the bottom left comer). There is on the envelope a design with a naval theme: a torpedo attack and the sinking
of an enemy ship, as well as a slogan, stating: "We will destroy and wipe off the face of the earth / the Fascist
barbarians.,
Units of the Army on Active Service and the Navy often fought side by side. As a result, there were cases
where the mail of the Army units was transmitted via the Postal Service of the People's Commissariat of the Navy
and vice versa.
As an example, there is shown in Fin. 2 a "triangular letter"which was sent from the Army on Active Service

THE POST-RIDERIIMIUHK NX 57 45
November 2005






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THE POST-RIDER/lMIK N 57
November 2005


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That is confirmed by the unusual numbering for the Navy of the Field Postal Station "1449", as well as the open
designation of the Military Subdivision: "792 R(ifle) Regiment, Sapper Company". Nevertheless, it was sent via the
Navy Postal Service, as noted from the c.d.s. of despatch, namely: "MOPCKAI IIO'TA M 1135 / 2.1.42 a-".
That Navy Postal Station was in the Black Dea Fleet and located on the Taman Peninsula, formerly at Kerch'. During
the period of the war, the "triangular letters" were widely utilised; a sheet of paper was folded in the form of a
triangle, on one side of which was written the text of the letter, and on the other, the address (the letter in Fig. is
shown half opened out The triangular letters came into being, as they did not require envelopes, which were in short
supply. Such letters could easily be opened by the censor and restored to their original state, which greatly simplified
and expedited the process of carrying out the military censorship.
There is a "non-standard" cachet in violet on the letter with the number "93" (of the type shown in Fig. la).
In contrast to other unified cachets, the number is underlined with wavy lines. The letter was addressed to
Khidzoresk (Armenia) and there is no c.d.s. of arrival.
In Figs. 1 & 2, examples have been presented of the system of addressing of the Navy Postal Service in the
first few months of the war. In that period of the war, the addressed mail of the Navy personnel was set out according
to the same rules as for the personnel of the Army on Active Service, with a numbered Navy Postal Station (the
military counterpart was the Field Postal Station) and the open designation of the Navy Subdivision. That is the
reason why, in order to maintain secrecy and already in 1941, [see references 4 & p4], new rules of addressing were
introduced, which forbad the designation of the name of the subdivision. In addition, there was specified the
appropriate unit number of the post office box. However, the addressing of the mail per the old rules was utilised for
some months still.
Fi. 3 demonstrates a cover with the c.d.s.of despatch reading: "MOPCKASI ITOqTA M 1107 / 17.12.41 -
2". That Navy Postal Station was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and specifically on the island of Hogland in the Gulf
of Finland. The return address was written in accordance with the new rules of address: instead of the open
designation of the Navy Subdivision, the post office box number is noted. In order to draw attention to the change of
address, the sender indicated it with an error and on the back of the cover he wrote: "Direct attention to my new
address. I forgot to write to you about it and the envelope was sealed".
There is also on the cover the arrival c.d.s. "Leningrad 23.12.41", a non-standard censorship cachet in violet
(Fig. 3 and a further marking in the form of the figure "5". That apparently was the number of the military censor.
The term "non-standard" has been adopted to specify the censorship cachets utilised in the initial period of
the war. Such cachets were prepared on the spot on an individual basis and, in contrast to the "Unified" types, they
did not have a specific form or text.
In September 194 and upon a request of the People's Commissariat of Communications to the Department
of Preparing Postage Stamps, there were issued special postcards without an indication of value for the mail to and
from the Army on Active Service. Such postcards had a series of features, which distinguished them from the
ordinary cards with a designated value, as follows:-
1. In the upper part of these cards there is the designation "TO BE SENT WITHOUT A STAMP".
2. Instead of a stamp impression, a text in three lines reading: "Place for the postmark".
3. The selling price of the card is designated at bottom right as 3 kopeks.
4. In the address of the sender (for a card from the Active Army) and in the addressee (for a card to the
Active Army) there was printed the text "IIOJIEBAJI IIOtTA" (Field Post) and a space was indicated
for writing in the number of the Field Postal Station.
5. Instructions were printed on the card about writing the address (firstly for the sender and secondly for the
addressee), which in fact matched the rules then in force, namely: "It is necessary to indicate the JN of the
Regiment, Company, Platoon, Division, Battery or Name of the Military Office / It is forbidden to state:
the XJ of the Brigade, Division, Corps, Army, Name of the Front, Province, Town and Locality".
Fi. 4 features a special postcard for the mail from the Army on Active Service with the c.ds. of despatch
reading: "MOPCKAAI IIO TA M 1135 / 21.3.42 a -". The address was given in the form Navy Postal Station
"1135", which coincides with the c.d.s. of despatch and also with the number "48" of the post office box. A non-
standard cachet in violet is present on the card (Fg. 4a).
As can be seen, the address of the sender has been written in accordance with the new rules, which forbad the
designation of the open naming of the military subdivision. Nevertheless and even though in the old system of
addressing it was forbidden to state the name of the Army or Front, there was generally also specified in the mail of
the Navy Postal Service the name of the Front, in addition to the number of the Navy Postal Station and the post
office box number. See such an example in ig.4 from the Black Sea Fleet.
As an example, we note in Fig. 5 a special postcard for the mail to the Army on Active Service. There is on
the card the c.d.s. of despatch "Kazan' / 26.12.42" and the c.d.s. of arrival: "IIOJIEBAJI IIO TA JM 1107"10.1.43


THE POST-RIDERIS/MIIIHK N 57
November 2005








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(Field Postal Station XJ- 1107 in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, for further details, see Section 4). The addressing was
made according to the new rules and, for that reason, the obsolete text of instructions re writing the address were
crossed out. There is on the card a strike in violet of the "Unified" censorship marking in fractional form "KAZAN'
/ 62" (see Fi. with the numerator stating the place where the military censorship was carried out and the
denominator giving the number of the censor).
Special postcards for the mail to and from the Army on Active Service are encountered somewhat rarely and
it can therefore be suggested that they were issued in a limited printing and, after the confirmation of the new rules of
addressing, their further emission was terminated. There are known additional issues of such postcards made by the
"local" (republican) postal services. Such an example (see the card in Fig. 5) can be easily distinguished if for
example, attention is directed to the representation of the arms of the USSR. It differs sharply (in diameter, the
number of ribbons and the clarity of the printing) from the arms on the card in Fi. 4. which was an official issue of
the People's Commissariat of Communications of the USSR.
In the initial period of the war, such cards issued by the People's Commissariat of Communications were
utilised not only in the Black Sea Fleet (Fi but also in other fleets.
Fig. 6 shows a postcard sent from the Northern Fleet. That is confirmed by the c.d.s. of despatch reading:
"MOPCKASI IIOxTA J& 1142 / 15,10,41 6 ". The Navy Postal Station XN- 1142 was located in the hamlet of
Set'-Navolok in Murmansk province. There is on the card the arrival c.ds. of Moscow 5.11.41 and also a cachet
showing the number "702". In the opinion of the authors, this was the cachet of a military censor in Moscow.
Fig. 7 demonstrates the address side of a postal stationery envelope for a local letter, with the impressed
stamp die cancelled by the c.d.s. of despatch reading: "MOPCKA5 I IO'TA M 1009 / 12.12.41 a". That Navy
Post Office was in the Northern Fleet and situated in Archangel The c.d.s. of despatch does not match with the stated
return address, as the Navy Postal Station J& 1145 was located in the hamlet of lokanga in Murmansk province and
not in Archangel. There is yet another inaccuracy in the return address, as N 1145 was a Navy Postal Station and not
a Navy Post Office.
Fi. 8 shows the addressing of mail of the Pacific Ocean Fleet The card was postmarked with the c.d.s. of
despatch "MOPCKAAI IOITA JM 1004 / 13.12.41 a". That Navy Post Office was situated in Vladivostok. In
the return address, the number of the post office box was not stated as a separate number, but in the form of a
fraction. In that case, the numerator of the fraction matched the p.o. box number, assigned to a separate unit of the
Navy and the denominator showed the number of the subdivision, which formed part of the composition of that unit
In some units of the Navy, there was not assigned a number to separate subdivisions, but a serial letter. The
number of the subdivision or the serial letter assigned to it was sometimes specified in the address, not in the form of
the denominator of a fraction, but as a separate point added to the number of the post office box. The addressing with
an additional number or serial letter was utilised for the Navy units having a series of subdivisions with a large
complement of military personnel. Such a system of addressing simplified the work of the postmen in delivering the
mail directly to the addressee.
There is on the card the c.d.s. of arrival of Orekhovo-Zuevo, Mosc(ow province) 4.1.42 and also the
"unified" cachet with the number "19" (of the type shown in Fi. la).
In sending mail to small Navy units, their names of river and lake flotillas were specified in the addresses.
We see as an example in Fg. 9 in opened out form a cover made from a glued page of a school exercise book
(L Bryun Collection, Russia) with three stamps totalling 60 kopeks (the rate for sending a registered interurban
letter), which were postmarked with the c.d.s. of despatch reading "Komsomol'sk Sam(arkand province) 9.9.42".
The letter was addressed to Khabarovsk / Red Banner Flotilla on the Amur, Navy Postal Station 1149 / p.o.
box XJ 639 (stationed on the Amur River). There are on the back of the cover the transit marking of Khabarovsk
27.4.42 and the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA M 1149 / 27.4.42" (the coincidence of dates on these
postmarks may serve as a proof that Navy Postal Station N2 1149 was assigned to the Amur Flotilla located at
Khabarovsk).
The presence on the cover of the transit c.d.s. Khabarovsk 27.4.42 allows us to conclude that the letter was
"transmitted" by the civilian system of the postal service, which was subordinate to the People's Commissariat of
Communications. For immediate delivery to the addressee, the letter then went over to the postal service of the
People's Commissariat of the Navy. That is confirmed by the arrival c.d.s. reading "MOPCKAAI IIOTA XM 1149
/27.4.42".
We see in Fig. 10 a triangular letter with two stamps totalling 60 kopeks, which were postmarked by the
c.d.s. of despatch "Bol('shaya) Sosnov(ka), Molotov province / 25.6.42.
The letter was sent to the address: "Ladoga Naval Flotilla / Navy Postal Station 1115 / p.o. box 13" with
serial letter "T" (located on Lake Ladoga). The arrival c.d.s. reads: "MOPCKAA IIOHTA N2 1115 / 19.7.42", with
serial letter "a". That Navy Postal Station of the Ladoga Flotilla was located in the hamlet of Novaya Ladoga. As we
can see, there were specified in the address not only the number of the Navy Postal Station "1115" and of the p.o. box
THE POST-RIDER/IaMmK No 57 49
November 2005










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November 2005






"13", but also the serial letter "T" of the subdivision where the addressee was serving. The serial letter was specified
not in the form of the denominator of a fraction, but as a separate point There is on the letter a unified censorship
cachet in violet with the number "40" (of the type shown in Fig. a).
The sending of the Navy Postal Service featured in Figs. 1 to 10 do not have transit indications .of the
Military Postal Sorting Points or of the Military Postal Bases. The authors cannot determine the reason why such
markings are lacking and it is only possible to express a series of intentions:
1. In the initial period of the war and in the conditions of sharp changes in the military situation, the
observance of the postal rules regarding the application of the transit c.d.s. was not sufficiently followed
2. In the Navy and especially in the Northern and Pacific Ocean Fleets, active measures were not taken about
the considerable transfer of troops and the changes of the positions where they were located, as that was for the Army
on Active Service a period of withdrawal or advance. There was in the Navy a relatively small number of naval
subdivisions in comparison with the Army on Active Service and their locations were rarely changed. For that
reason, the designation in the address of the name of the fleet or even of a specific flotilla, as well as of a Navy Post
Office or Navy Postal Station permitted the accomplishment of the transmissions of the Navy Postal Service via the
Military Postal Sorting Points or Military Postal Bases.
Examples of the Navy mail bearing markings of the Military Postal Sorting Points or Military Postal Bases
will be shown below.
The mail from the Rear to the Navy was normally forwarded via the Military Postal Sorting Points in the
Rear.
As an example, we see in Fig. 11 the back of a cover with a c.d.s. of dispatch reading: "Vologda / 6.8.42".
The letter was sent to the address "Red Banner Baltic Fleet, Military Postal Sorting Point XM 1107, p.o. box .1154"
There is on the cover a transit c.d-s. of the :Military Postal Sorting Point ? 5 / 6.8.42 (the matching of dates with the
c.d.s. of despatch permits us to assert that the Military Postal Sorting Point in the Rear was located in Vologda),
while the c.d.s. of arrival reads: "MOPCKAR IIONTA M 1107 / 13.8.42" with serial letter "2 and that of the
unified censorship cachet has the fraction "5/19" (Fig. 1la). The numerator "5" in that last marking indicates that the
letter was examined by a military censor at the Military Postal Sorting Point X2& 5. There is in the denominator the
number "19" of that censor.
We have in Fig. 12 a postcard with the address of the receiver, similar to the one in Fig. 11. However, the
one here was not sent from Vologda (as in Fig. 11), but from Leningrad with the c.d.s. of dispatch dated 10.9.42.The
postcard bears the transit marking of the Military Postal Sorting Point X2 2 / 13.9.42 (MPSP M 2 was located in
Leningrad and carried out the functions of a Front and Rear MPSP) and also the arrival c.d.s. "MOPCKAI
IIOiTA xJ 1107 / 13.9.42'with the serial letter "z". The matching of the dates of the transit c.d.s. and that of
arrival could affirm that the MPSP % 1107 was located in the immediate vicinity of Leningrad.
There is on the back of the card a unified censorship cachet in violet with the fraction "2/69" (of the type
shown in Fig. IIa). It may be noted that, in practice, the rule was not observed about applying the censorship cachet
on the back of a cover or postcard. The censorship cachets are found both on the back and on the front of the
sending of the Navy Postal Service.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 13 with the address of the receiver similar to the ones in Figs. 11 & 12. However,
it was sent neither from Vologda nor Leningrad, but according to the return address, from Erevan'. The c.d.s. of
dispatch is absent, but the date of writing is given in the text as 26.2.42. There is on the card the transit c.d.s. of
MPSP XM 8 of 2.3.42 (MPSP 2M 8 in the Rear was apparently located in Tbilisi and served the Caucasus region), as
well as the arrival c.d.s."MOPCKAAI IIONTA M 1107 / 23.3.42" with the serial letter "z" and the unified
censorship cachet with the fraction :"8/33" (of the type shown in Fig. 1 a).
Fig. 14 features in an opened out state a cover with the c.d.s. of despatch of Ufa 29.7.42. There is on the back
of the cover the transit c.d.s. ofMPSP N2 7 dated 1.8.42 (that office in the Rear was situated in Kuibyshev), as well
as the arrival c.d.s."MOPCKAI IIOqTA M 1158 of 7.8.42" with serial letter "e" (that office was in the Red
Banner Baltic Fleet and apparently located in Kronshtadt) and a strike in violet of the unified censorship cachet with
the fraction 7/17 (of the type shown in Fig. la).
We have in Fig. 15 in an opened out state a letter-card ("sekretka") with a patriotic text. Such letter-cards
were issued in the initial period of the war, but they did not enjoy a wide distribution and are encountered relatively
rarely. There was printed on the back a citation of I. Stalin, stating: "All our strength for the support of our Heroic
Red Army and our glorious Red Fleet! / All the strength of the people for the destruction of the enemy! / Forward to
our victory!" There are on the address side various slogans or citations snd the c.d.s. of dispatch reading:
Oranienbaum Leningradskoi 20.2.42.
The letter card was sent to the address: "Red Banner Baltic Fleet, Navy Postal Station 1101, p.o. box M 11.'"
For some unexplainable reason (presumably a mistake in sorting, the letter card was sent, not to MPSP M 2, which
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIa K 57 51
November 2005









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served the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, the Leningrad Front and province and certainly in the opposite direction. The
transit c.d.s. "MPSP X2 17 / 16.3.42 confirms this (the Rear MPSP 2N2 17 was located in Yaroslavl'), by way of
which the letter reached the addressee. The transit c.d.s. reads: "MOPCKASI IIONTA XM 1101 / 24.3.42" with
serial letter "a" (that Navy Postal Station M 1101 was at the base of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in Leningrad).
There is on the address side of the letter-card a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "17/39" (of the type shown
in Fig. la.
In Fig. 16. we have the back of a cover, sent from Ul'yanovsk to the address: "Black Sea Fleet / MPSP 1133
/ p.o. box 580". On the address side of the cover there are two stamps totalling 60 kopeks and postmarked with the
c.d.s. of despatch Ul'yanovsk 2.6.42.
On the back of the cover we have the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAqI IIOHTA M- 1133 / 16.6.42" with
the serial letter "6" (Navy Postal Station JX 1133 was in the Black Sea Fleet and located at Poti in Georgia), as well
as a unified censorship cachet in violet with the fraction "1/112" (of the type shown in Fig. lla). There is no transit
c.d.s. of the MPSP, but it can be asserted that the letter was forwarded via MPSP X2 1, which was situated in
Moscow. That is denoted by the number "1" in the numerator of the fraction for the unified censorship cachet
Cases of the transmission of mail from the Rear to the Navy via Military Postal Sorting Points at the Front
are rarely encountered.
As an example, we note in Fig. 17 a cover opened out, with two stamps totalling 60 kopeks and postmarked
with the c.d.s. of despatch of Ul'yanovsk 2.4.42. There is a transit c.d.s. on the back, reading: "MPSP XM 16 / 7.4.42"
(MPSP M 16 operated on the Bryansk Front), as well as an arrival c.d.s: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA X- 1133 /
14.4.42".with serial letter "6 ". There is on the address side of the cover, a strike of the unified censorship cachet with
the fraction "16/42" (of the type shown in Fig. 1la).
Examples are shown in Figs. 11 to 17 of transmission from the Rear to the Navy via a Military Postal.Sorting
Point It should be noted that the transmission of mail in the opposite direction, Le. from the Navy to the Rear was
normally carried out in such a fashion: via a Military Postal Sorting Point.
As an example, Fig. 18 features a cover in an opened out state and bearing an address similar to the one in
Fig 12 but the letter was sent from the Navy to the Rear. There is on the cover a 30-kopek stamp (the rate for the
transmission of an ordinary interurban letter), which was postmarked with the c.d.s. of despatch, reading:
"MOPCKASI IOWTA JM 1107 / 22.10.42" with the serial letter "z". There is on the back of the cover an arrival
c.d.s. of Leningrad 26.10.42, as well as a strike in violet of the unified censorship cachet with the fraction "2/36" (of
the type shown in Fig. la).
There is no MPSP c.d.s. on the cover, but it can be asserted that the letter was transmitted via MPSP M 2.
That is indicated by the number "2"in the numerator of the fraction on the unified censorship cachet.
This example served to illustrate several features of the Navy during the 1941 to 1945 period of the war-
1. The transit c.d.s. of a MPSP and the unified censorship cachet were not always applied together and
sometimes only one of them was utilised.
2. The mail from the Rear to the Navy and in the opposite direction were sent free of charge. However, some
senders franked their letters, although there was no requirement to do so. An erroneous opinion arose that, with the
presence of franking, the delivery of the letter would be more assured.
The mail from one unit of the Navy to another was normally transmitted via a MPSP or a Military Postal
Base. An example of despatch via a Military Postal Sorting Point is described hereunder.
Fig. 19 shows a cover in an opened out form, sent from Navy Postal Station X! 1104 to Navy Postal Station
M 1107. There is on the envelope a c.ds. of despatch reading: "MOPCKAJI IIOHTA X& 1104 / 28.9.42" with
serial letter "a" (MPSP M 1104 was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and located in the hamlet of Lebyazh'e), together
with the transit c.ds. "MPSP J&- 2 / 1.10.42" and the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAA IIO'TA J- 1107 /
1.10.42" with serial letter "z and also a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "2/42" (in the type shown in Fi
11 ).
An analysis of the dates on the c.d.s. of despatch and arrival allows us to form the conclusion that these Navy
units were not far from each other and, when taking into account the transit c.d.s., they were close to Leningrad. They
defended the Oranienbaum place of arms on the approaches to Leningrad.
There were cases where the mail from one Navy unit to another was forwarded because of a postal mistake
or because of a change of address on the occasion of a transfer of the addressee to another unit
As an example of a postal mistake, a postcard is shown in Fig. 20 where the stamp was postmarked by the
c.d.s. of despatch"Erevan 11.5.42".The card was addressed to: "The Red Banner Baltic Fleet, Navy Postal Station J.
1107, p.o. box M 1154". During the despatch, the postal worker confused the number of the Navy Postal Station with
the number of the p.o. box, with the result that, instead of Navy Postal Station M 1107, he sent the card to Navy
Postal Station J- 1154. There is on the card the transit c.d.s. of MPSP XJ 8 / 14.5.42, as well as a strike in violet of a
THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIMHK N& 57 53
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unified censorship cachet with the fraction "8/20" (of the type shown in Fig. la) and also the arrival c.d.s.:
"MOPCKAS IIOqTA XJ 1154 / 7.5.42" with serial letter "6" (Navy Postal Station M 1154served the Caspian
Flotilla, stationed at Baku).
The mistake was discovered and, in order to direct attention to it, a notation reading "Navy Postal Station
1154" was made on the card and then crossed out. After that, the card was sent to the recipient at the proper address.
An arrival c.d.s. was also applied, reading: "MOPCKAS IHIOTA X 1107 / 30.5.42" with serial letter "z ".
It should be noted that there was a card shown in Fig. 13 the addresses on which match exactly with the
addresses in Fig. 20. The address "Navy Postal Station NM 1107, p.o. box M 1154" is also found on the mail shown
in Figs. 3. 11 & 12. However, they were all delivered without postal mistakes of any kind.
As an example of readdressed mail, we have in Fig. 21 a postcard, on which the stamp is postmarked by the
c.d.s. of despatch reading: "Kronshtadt Leningradskoi / 22.10.41". There is written on the card the address "Red
Banner Baltic Fleet, Navy Postal Station 1105, p.o. box 933", with the arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKAS
IIOqTA XN 1105 / 24.10.41" with serial letter "s" (Navy Postal Station XM 1105 was in the Red Banner Baltic
Fleet, which was located in Oranienbaum).
After the arrival at Navy Postal Station Nh 1105, it turned out that the unit served by "p.o.box 933" was
situated in the area, which was served by Navy Postal Station .X& 1101. For that reason, the old number 1105 was
crossed out and the new one "1101" written above it. In addition, a directive was written in the upper part of the card,
reading: "To be sent to Navy Postal Station 1101, p.o. box 933".and a strike was applied of the arrival c.d.s., reading:
"MOPCKAMI IIOITA XJ 1101 / 27.10.41" with serial letter "a". There is on the back of the card a strike in violet
of a "non-standard" censorship cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 3a), while on the address side a cachet in the form
of the number "56". That was apparently the cachet of the military censor.
A card is shown in Fig. 22 with the c.d.s. of despatch of Moscow 19.5.42. It was addressed to the "Red
Banner Baltic Fleet, Navy Postal Station 1101, p.o. box 714" and it also bears the arrival c.d.s, reading:
"MOPCKARI HOHTA XM 1101 / 29.5.42" with serial letter "a ".
The message was written by the father of a sailor and contained a request to find the address of his son. The
card was addressed to the Commissar at the Base of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in Leningrad. Apparently, the unit in
which the recipient was stationed was transferred to the area served by Navy Postal Station & 1103 and the card was
readdressed to there. Moreover, there was a change in the old address, made by just crossing out the last number "1"
of the Navy Postal Station and writing in "3" in its place to designate Navy Postal Station & 1103. There is a strike of
the arrival c.ds. reading: "MOPCKAS IIO'TA X2 1103 / 9.6.42"with serial letter "z" (Navy Postal Station M
1103 was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and located at the Kotly Station), as well as a strike of a "non-standard"
censorship cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 4a).
A formular card is demonstrated in Fig. 23 for the "Notification of the delivery of a postal sending", which
was utilised in the capacity of a postcard. In the 1941 to 1945 period of the war, the utilisation was officially
permitted of various formulas and forms to be used as postcards. The stamp on the card was postmarked with the
c.d.s. of despatch, reading "Kotelnich Kirovskoi 23.11.41" and the address written as "City of Leningrad, Red
Banner Baltic Fleet, Navy Postal Station 1101, p.o. box 559".
The card initially reached Navy Postal Station 1101, as confirmed by the arrival c.d.s.: "MOPCKASI
IIOHTA XN 1001 / 28.12.41" with serial letter "a". It was sent from there to Navy Postal Station 1101, with the
arrival c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKA5I IIOTA NM 1101 / 28.12.41" with serial letter "a" From there, the card was
delivered to the addressee. There is also a strike in violet of the unified censorship cachet with the number "581" (of
the type shown in Fig. la).
The card is of especial interest, as it is the only example known to us, which can illustrate the delivery
system of the Navy Postal Service as described and featured above in Attachments 1 & 2, where the mail arrived
initially at a Navy Post Office and was transmitted from there to a Navy Postal Station. However, on the basis of the
material shown in this article, as well from other information, it can be concluded that, in actuality, the Navy mail
was sent directly to the addressee via a Navy Postal Station and bypassing a Navy Post Office. Cases of transmission
via a Navy Post Office must be exceptions.
Regarding the delivery system of the Navy Postal Service, as described earlier and displayed in Attachments
1 & 2, the mail from the Navy to the Rear was transmitted not only by a Military Postal Sorting Point (see the
example in Fin. 18), but also via a Military Postal Base.
As an example, an interesting cover in opened out state is featured in Fig. 24 with the c.d.s. of despatch
reading: "MOPCKASA IIO'TA M~_ 1111 / 8.5.42" and with serial letter "z" (Navy Postal Station M 1111 was in
the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and situated in the hamlet of Ust'-Izhora).
There is on the back of the cover a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "AO/11" (Fig. 24a). The
letters "AO" in the numerator of the fraction specify that the letter was examined by the military censor of the
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N 57 55
November 2005








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56 POST-REIDRISMAIHK N2 57
November 2005






Military Postal Base with the letters of designation "AO" (the base served the 55h. Army; see reference [11, p. 17]).
There is in the denominator the number "11" of the censor. It should be noted once again that the c.d.s. of the
Military Postal Base is encountered noticeably rarely on mail. However, the presence of a unified censorship cachet
of the Military Postal Base can serve as a direct indication of the transmission of a letter via a Military Postal Base.
A special interest is demonstrated by the same cover. In addition to the one in Fig. 1 this example was
issued by the Voenmorizdat Publishing House. There is on the cover a design with a naval theme: a marine and also
the text of a slogan: "By b 6eccrpamen cMeJIoro nyJI 60HTCa H IIITIbK He 6epeT!".
The mail between the addressees of the Army on Active Service and the Navy was normally transmitted via
the Military Postal Bases, especially in those cases where they were in various places at the Front.
As an example, a postcard is shown in Fig. 25 (I. Bryun Collection, Russia) with the c.d.s. of despatch
reading: "IOJIEBAI IIO'TA N 2200 / 23.10.42" and that of the c.d.s. of arrival:"MOPCKAI IIOqTA JM
1001 / 12.11.42" with serial letter "a".
There is on the card a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "n/14" (of the type shown in Fig. 24a). The
letter "n" in the numerator indicates that the postcard was transmitted via a Military Postal Base with the serial letter
of designation "n", where it was also examined by the military censor (the Base served the 22nd. Army [11, p.17])'
As noted above, the mail from one unit of the Navy to another was transmitted not only by a Military Postal
Sorting Point (such an example is shown in Fig. 19 but also via a Military Postal Base. Such examples are
encountered very rarely.
As an example, a letter is featured in Fig. 26 with the c.d.s. of despatch reading: "MOPCKASI IIOHTA
No 1102 / 21.4.42" with serial letter "6" (Navy Postal Station N& 1102 was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and
located at Novyi Petergof). The letter was addressed to Navy Postal Station XN 1101 and on the back there is the
c.d.s. of arrival, reading: "MOPCKAJI IIO'TA X- 1101 / 2.5.42" with serial letter "a", as well as a unified
censorship cachet with the fraction "AK/9 (of the type shown in Fig. 24a. The capital letters in the numerator of the
fraction indicate that the letter was sent via a Military Postal Base with the serial designation "AK" (the base served
the 8t. Army- [11, p. 16].
In the opinion of the authors, the postal sending from the Rear to the Navy or in the opposite direction and
which have-circular date-stamps (c.d.s.) of the Navy Post Offices or Navy Postal Stations with the text "MOPCKASI
IIOqTA" can be placed in the 4h. category of rarity when evaluating in a 5-point system.
Postal sending from the Army on Active Service to the Navy and vice versa, or between Navy units and on
which there are two c.d.s. of the Field Postal Service, one of which would bear the text "MOPCKARI IIOHTA",
they may be placed in the highest 5th. category of rarity when evaluating on a 5-point system.
As was stated above in [4], not only ordinary mail was transmitted via the Field Postal Service, but also
registered and valuable mail, parcels and money orders. When comparing the figures set out in [4], it is evident that
registered mail was despatched more than 110 times less, and valuable items more than 1280 times less, in
comparison with ordinary mail. These figures can indicate the relative rarity of valuable and registered mail.
As an example of registered mail, the address side of a cover is featured in Fig. 27 on which two stamps
totalling 60 kopeks were postmarked with the c.d.s. of despatch: "MOPCKASI IIOqTA XJ 1101 / 26.9.42" with
the serial letter "e".
Registered letters of the Navy Postal Service were sent at the general tariff of 60 kopeks, which consisted of
two parts as follows: the rate of 30 kopeks for the transmission of an ordinary interurban letter and a further 30
kopeks for the registration fee. It should be taken into consideration that the general mail of the Navy Postal Service
was transmitted free of charge and it is therefore clear that the registration fee was practically increased from 30 to 60
kopeks. Apparently, such an increase went into effect to decrease the amount of registered mail.
A special rectangular cachet was placed on the registered mail of the Navy Postal Service, with the
designation "F(orm) JM 1" (see the imprint below the cachett). The capital letter "3" for "3AKA3HOE" =
"Registered" was applied at left, while at right and on the upper line the number 69, being that of the sending and
written in ink, with the text below reading: "MOPCKASI / IIOHTA AM 1101" (with the number written in ink).
There is on the back of the cover the arrival c.d.s. reading: "Kurgan / 8.10.42", together with a unified
censorship cachet numbered "86" (in the type shown in Fig. a).
The cachet for registered mail is shown in Fig. 28 for Navy Postal Station XJ2 1115, taken from reference [4,
Fig. 18, p. 8]. The cachet was apparently prepared on an individual basis and, for that reason, it differs from the
authorised "Form NL_ 1". Instead of the text "MOPCKASI / IIOHTA ", the text reads "BMIIC N 1115" and the
indication "F(orm) JM 1 is absent.
Special cachets for the registered mail of the Navy were not available at all Navy Post Offices and Navy
Postal Stations. Fig. 29 shows the address side of a registered cover, which is confirmed by the written notation at

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIHIK MN 57 57
November 2005







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THE POST-RIDER/AIMIHK Ns 57
November 2005


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top, reading "3aKcaauoe" placed there to draw attention, but it was crossed out/ The letter was franked with two
stamps totalling 60 kopeks, which completely matched the rate for a registered letter. The stamps were postmarked
with the c.d.s. of despatch: "MOPCKASI IIOTA X- 1007 / 13.2.42" with the serial letter "6" (Navy Post Office
X2 1007 was in the Black Sea Fleet and located in Sevastopol').
Instead of a cachet for registered mail, which was apparently lacking, the postal official in fact duplicated the
cachet by writing on the envelope the notation "741 (the number of the sending) / Navy Post Office/1007". The
address of the sender matched the c.d.s. of despatch and the hand-written registration cachet and has the following
form: "Black Sea Fleet, Black Sea Post Office 1007, p.o. box J2 329/114". The arrival c.d.s.of Gor'kii/23.2.42 is on
the back with a "non-standard" censorship cachet (of the type shown in Fig. 4a).
Fig. 30 shows a postal confirmation inscribed "Form 119 3AKA3HOE Notification of the delivery of a
postal sending" with an impressed stamp of 60 kopeks. That form was utilised as a postcard and sent from the Fleet
to the Rear as a registered article of the Navy Postal Service. There is on this "card" the c.d.s. of despatch
"MOPCKASI IIOGTA X2 (?) 8.2.42" and that of arrival: Fergana 3.3.42. Unfortunately, the number on the c.d.s. of
despatch cannot be read, but there is written in the address of the sender: "Black Sea Fleet, Navy Postal Station 1135,
p.o. box 48".
It could be suggested that, by the force of circumstances, the sender appeared in an area served by Navy
Postal Station M 1139 and not at the normal address for him of Navy Postal Station X2 1135. The "card" was
therefore handed over to Navy Postal Station J& 1139. However, at that Postal Station, as well as with a previous
case (see Fig. 29, the cachet was missing for registered mail. As a result, the postal official wrote at top left on the
"card": "J_ 67 / Navy Postal Station 1139". There is on the "card" a strike of the unified censorship cachet (of the
type shown in Fig. 4a).
In the opinion of the authors, the registered postal sending of the Navy Postal Service which bear strikes of
the c.d.s. with the text "MOPCKAI IIOqITA" can be placed in the highest 5t. category when evaluating in the 5-
point system.
Unfortunately, the authors do not have for illustration samples of the valuable mail of the Navy Postal
Service. It can be noted that, in comparison with the registered items of the Navy Postal Service, such samples of
valuable mail of the Field Postal Service as shown in Fig. 27 had some small differences:-
1. The cachet had one single difference: instead of the capital letter "3", there was the letter "," for
"Iennoe" (= Valuable).
2. The rate for the letter was constant, but depended upon the value of the enclosure.
3. The letter was closed with a wax seal.
The transmission of postal money orders or parcels from the Navy was generally carried out on standard
forms. In such cases, only the address of the sender and the c.d.s. of the Navy Postal Station could indicate any
reference to the Navy Postal Service.
As an example, there is featured in Fi. 31 the address side of a detachable coupon form, inscribed
"IIEPEBOJA IIO IIOTE" (Money Order by Post). The back of the coupon is headed "JWIAI MECTA" (Space
for writing any notes).
A money order amounting to 1000 roubles was sent from Navy Postal Station JX 1107 and addressed to
Leningrad. The c.d.s. of despatch reads: "MOPCKASI HIIOTA XJ 1107 / 22.1.42" with serial letter "6" and that of
arrival: Leningrad 19.3.42. It can be noted that a long time of almost two months was required for the delivery of the
money order. In that regard, a letter from such addressees, which had been sent one month earlier, was delivered
within six days Fig. 31)
The address side is shown in Fi. 32 of a detachable coupon form inscribed "IIEPEBOL 110 IIOWTE"
and a money order for the sum of 200 roubles was sent from Navy Postal Station M 1133, being addressed to Frunze.
The return address is interesting: "Black Sea Fleet, 1133rd. Navy Post Office, p.o. box 840", as by mistake Navy
Postal Station M 1133 was referred to as a Post Office. The c,d,s, of despatch reads: "MOPCKASI IIOWTA NM
1133 / 12.2.42" with serial letter "z and the c.d.s. of arrival: Frunze 25.2.42.
As was noted above, the mail with the c.d.s. reading: "MOPCKASL IIOWTA" is encountered relatively
rarely and is thus of exceptional interest. That is why forgeries have begun to appear of such postal sending Two
such forgeries are known to the authors and there is no doubt that there are others. Samples are shown below of those
known to us with a description of their characteristic features. Such information should help collectors during the
analysis of the postal markings by directing additional attention to the specifics and other features, as that would
facilitate the discovery of forgeries.
There is demonstrated in Fig. 33 a postcard with the c.d.s. of despatch "MOPCKAMI HIOTA XJ 1112 /
22.7.41" with serial letter "u (Navy Postal Station M 1112 was in the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in the hamlet of
THE POST-RIDER/SIMI HIK M 57 59
November 2005






Kardla on the island of Hiiumaa {one of the islands of the Moonzund Archipelago in Estonia) and with the arrival
c.d.s.of Leningrad 27.7.41.
It should be noted that, in the majority of cases, genuine postcards or covers were generally utilised for the
preparation of forgeries. In our example, the postcard and arrival c.d.s. are genuine.
In the process of analysis, it is always desirable to compare the dubious postal marking.with the genuine and
then the difference by eyesight will be more visible. Unfortunately, the authors do not have for comparison another
postmark of the Navy Postal Station. However, the analysis can also be done without it
Before beginning, let us acquaint ourselves with the text of the message on the card. The phrase "I am well,
only that the helmet disturbs me when writing" allows us to assume that the card was sent from the Army on Active
Service and it has a weak strike of the c.d.s. of despatch, reading: "nOJIEBAS HIOITA...." That c.ds. of arrival
was also forged further. It is necessary to direct attention to the following points:-
1. It seems that the inscription on the canceller was taken out by means of a sharp razor blade and, instead of
it, a new text was placed, reading: "MOPCKASI IIOtTA J 1112.". Traces of the "loss" can be seen with the rays
of a special lamp, but also even if the canceller is examined in "reflected light" Moreover, the card must be examined
at an angle of say 90 degrees (that is the angle with which we generally look at and read any text) and also under
angles of 150 to 180 degrees.
2. Several details about the canceller give rise to doubts.. Thus, there are differences in the delineation of
several letters, their height and their angle of elevation (in comparison with other cancellers of the Navy Postal
Service), also in the number "1112" the figures are higher than the letters of the inscription (which have not been
noticed in any other case). In all the known cancellers of the Navy Postal Service, the stars with the sickle and
hammer are large, "complete", their strokes are of correct shape and two of the lower lines generally form the upper
lines for the date, while the letters in the initials "CCCP" are large. In the forged marking, the star is small and
"crude", several strokes are not with a correct shape, two lower lines do not meet the upper lines of the frame for the
date, the representation of the sickle and hammer is barely visible and the initials in the "CCCP" are smaller.
3. The serial letter "u" gives rise to doubts and such a letter has never been encountered so far on any c.d.s.
of the Navy Postal Service. Moreover, the postmarks of the Navy Postal Station existed for a very short time (the
fighting on the island of Hiiumaa ended on 22.10.41) and it is obvious that it had a very small zone of service.
4. In this particular example, there is an especially characteristic feature, which above all distinguishes the
forgery: all the known c.d.s. of the Navy Postal Stations had a diameter of 25 mm., while in Fig. 33 the c.d.s. of
despatch has a diameter of 27 mm.
A card is demonstrated in Fig. 34 with the c.d.s. of despatch reading: "MOPCKASI IIOWTA V. 1135 /
16.3.42" with serial letter "a" and the arrival c.d.s. reading: "Tolbazy Bash(kirskoi) R(espubliki) 29.3.42, as well as
the censorship cachet of Krasnodar. A card was shown earlier in Fig. 4. the authenticity did not give rise to any
doubts and having the addresses of the sender and receiver. Therefore, let us examine them. By the way, we note that
we have at our disposal a further three cards, written by the same sender; ie. we have the possibility of comparing
also the handwriting.
Judging from the c.d.s. of despatch, both cards went through one and the same Navy Postal Station within an
interval of 5 days (16.3.42 & 21.3.42). As the serial letters in the c.d.s. of despatch are the same, then the strikes of
the cancellers should obviously not differ. However, let us direct our attention to the following features-
On the c.d.s. of despatch (the forgery in Fig. 34):
l.In the XM sign, the dash at bottom is missing
2.The figures in the number of the Navy Postal Station are of different heights
3.The upper part of the number 3 is blurred
4.All the elements of the letter "a" designating the serial letter are of equal thickness
On the c.d.s. of arrival (the genuine one in Fig. 4)
1,In the M sign, the lower dash is present, as for all known markings of the Navy Postal Stations
2.The figures of for the number of the Navy Postal Station are of equal height
3.The upper curve of the figure 3 is in fact level
4.The vertical line in the letter "a" designating the serial letter is thicker than for its other elements
In addition, there are also other proofs which help in recognizing the card in Fig. 34 as a forgery.
Hence, the card sent through the Nany Postal Station to the Rear must be struck with the censorship cachet
and with the number of this Navy Postal Station (will be described below in a special section), having either a unified
or "non-standard" censorship cachet, but not the censorship marking of Krasnodar. That may well be seen in the
presented illustrations.
We see on all four doubtless genuine postcards the surname of the sender: Smolyanskii F.B. and of the
recipient: Smolyanskaya G.I. On the forged postcard, both surnames are changed to Smolyakov F.B. and Smolvakova
G.I. respectively.
60 THE POST-RIDER/MJIHK4K N2 57
November 2005






Differences in the handwriting
In the genuine cards, the figures of "1" in the number of the Navy Postal Station in the return address are in
the form of sloping lines, while they have "serifs"at left in Fig. 34.
In the genuine cards, the "8" numerals in the number of the p.o. box have a line going from the right above to
the left and flat at bottom, but in Fig. 34 they are curved..
In the genuine cards, the "t's"are written in the printed form (they have a small foot vertically and a
horizontal line), but in Fig. 34 they are at full length.
There are also other differences in the lines, but we believe that those described here are sufficient
4. The organisation of the work of the Navy Postal Service (October 1942-March 1943)
In an Order MJ 0679 of the People's Commissariat of Defence, dated 5 September 1942, there were put in
operation new rules for addressing mail in the Army on Active Service as well as in the Navy Postal Service and, in
that regard, they brought about changes in the work of the Field Postal Service and of the Navy Postal Service.
The Order foresaw that "with a view to the best way of preserving the secrecy of the locations and names of
the units and subdivisions while transmitting mail to the Red Army":
1. The existing system of addressing.......is to be revoked.
2. An Instruction should be placed in operation for addressing mail in the period of war.
3. The following sequence should be set up of proceeding to the new system of addressing:-
(a) To the Staffs at the Front and of the armies and military districts to terminate by 1 October 1942 the
appropriation of stipulated numbers in all units and formations.
(b) As of 1 November 1942 to terminate the despatch of mail addressed in the old system by returning it
to the senders and to destroy such mail if the return address is absent.
The order put into effect the Instruction which had Sections, in which the sequence of addressing mail to the
Army on Active Service was specified ( there were brought in only the basic conditions). Namely:-
1, THE SYSTEM OF ADDRESSING for the formations having a State Field Postal Station assigned
thereto, the address will consist of the current number of the given Field Postal Station and the stipulated number of
the subdivision.
2. THE SEQUENCE OF WRITING OF THE ADDRESSES it is forbidden to state in the address the
location of the unit or Field Post Office, the designation of the Front, the name of the unit and its current number.
Before writing the surname in the address, it is forbidden to specify the duties and military rank of the addressee.
3. THE SEQUENCE OF ENROLMENT IN THE FIELD POSTAL STATION is to be accomplished with
the aim of receiving mail at the address of the unit. In that regard, the staff of the unit presents a declaration, in which
there is set out the listing of the appropriate stipulated numbers, without the designation of the current names of the
subdivisions..
In conformity with the Order, new rules of addressing began to go in effect as of October 1942, whereby the
number of the Field Postal Station was specified and, instead of the p.o. box number, the appropriate number of the
subdivision in the form of a number consisting of 3 to 5 digits. It should be noted that, under the new system of
addressing, the numbers were preserved of the Field Postal Stations serving the Army on Active Service. The circular
date-stamps of the Field Postal Stations correspondingly remained without changes.
As a result, all the cancellers of the Navy Post Offices and Navy Postal Stations were changed. That was
evoked when, in October 1942, there came about the inclusion of the Navy Postal Service in a single system of the
Field Postal Service of the Red Army. That is why on the c.d.s. of the Navy Post Offices and Stations the text
"MOPCKASI IIOHTA" was changed to "IOJIEBA3I IIOqTA" (Field Post). Taking into account that the
numbers of the Navy Postal Service remained without change and knowing their characteristic features they were
all 4-figure numbers and always began with "10" for the BMIIO (Navy Post Offices) and with "11" for the
BMIIC (Navy Postal Stations), one can easily determine from the number of the Field Postal Station on the canceller
the relationship of the mail to the Navy Postal Service.
A good example of the quite quick reaction to the introduction of new rules of addressing mail is featured in
Fig. 35. The blank form is shown here of a postcard, referring to the requirement of the new rules. In the address of
the sender, there is printed the inscription: "noJieBsa noTroBan craHpia" (field postal station) and a space was
provided for writing in its number; on the next line, there is the term"BoxcKs aa qaCb" (Military Unit) and also a
space for a number. In the last line, it was necessary to write in the surname, first name andpatronoymic without an
indication of the duties and military rank of the sender. There is no indication on the card as to who was the
publisher, but it was issued especially for the despatch of mail through the Navy Postal Service. That is denoted by
the word "KpacR oagioTCKoe" (Red Fleet item) in the upper right comer.
There is on the card the c.d.s. ofdespatxh, reading: "IIOJIEBAJI IIOrTA J'_ 1133 (?) / 28.12.42 and the

THE POST-RIDER/JMIIHK M 57
November 2005 61










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THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK Ng 57
November 2005


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LI-






the arrival c.d.s. of "Moscow / (?).1.43 and a unified censorship cachet in violet with the fraction 1133/2 (Fig. 35a).
The number 1133 signifies that the card was examined by the military censor at the Navy Postal Station NJ 1133 with
the number "2" of the censor in the denominator.
In the address of the sender after the inscription "field postal station", the number "1133" has been written in
by hand, which tallied with the old Navy Postal Station NM 1133.
The replacement of the Navy Postal Service cancellers took some time and thus a pattern of addressing
according to the new rules could sometimes be seen, but with a c.d.s. of the old type.
As an example, a postcard is demonstrated in Fg._36 with the c.d-s. of despatch reading: "Leningrad
15.10,42" The despatch c.d.s.shows that the card was sent during the period of transition to the new system of
addressing (October 1942). In analysing the address in order to be convinced with one's own eyes he wrote
according to the new rules (for comparison, see Fig. 12, whereby the card went through the post in September
1942):-
Instead of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet (Fig.12) Army on Active Service
Instead of Navy Postal Station M 1107 Postal Station JM 1107
Instead of p.o. box 1154 Subdivision JN 140
On the card in Fig. 36 there is a transit c.d.s. of the "MPSP N2 2 / 18.10.42" and the arrival c.d.s.;
"MOPCKAI IHIOITA J- 1107 / 19.10 42" with the serial letter "z" (the old style of canceller was applied) and on
the back yhrtr is a unified censorship cachet in violet with the fraction 2/7 (of the type shown in Fig. 11a).
An analysis of Fig. 36 shows that. in October 1942, the Navy Postal Service had already gone over to the
new system of addressing, but with the utilisation of cancellers of the old type and the continual usage of those with
the inscription "MOPCKA$I IIONTA".
In the process of philatelic investigations, it is always desirable to strive to have for analysis mail from one
archive, i.e. sent to one and the same address. In that case, the difference is always visible to the eye and it is easy to
come to more reliable conclusions, e.g. when comparing the postcards featured in Figs 36 & 5. It may be noted that
these cards have the same address of the recipient, written according to the new rules, but sent at various times in
October and December 1942 respectively. They can be distinguished in ig. 35 where the old type is seen of the
c.d.s. of despatch: "MOPCKASI IIOMTA jMN 1107 / 19.10.42" and, Fig. 5 where we already have the new type of
arrival c.ds.: "IIOJIEBASI IIO TA J'4 1107 / 2.1.43" with the serial letter: "a".
In the process of philatelic investigations, it is always desirable to compare if possible the transmission of
the mail of the Navy Postal Service, not only from the Rear to the Naval Fleet (see Fig. 36), but also in the opposite
direction: from the Fleet to the Rear.
As an example, a card is shown in ig. 37 (the similar postal addresses are given in Fig. 36 with the c.d.s. of
despatch reading: "IrOJIEBASI IIOTTA X__ 1107 6 21.3.43" with serial letter "a" and the arrival c.d.s. "Leningrad
/ 26.3.43". Leningrad was provisionally named "the Rear" here in 1943, as at that time, the blockade was still going
on and the front line was very close to the city. It was generally understood that the word "Rear" was not a military
address of the city.
A postcard was especially issued for the mail from the Army on Active Service. That was confirmed by the
word "BOHHCKOE" (Military Sending) printed above the address and the slogan: "Death to the German
Occupiers, as well as the text printed in the return address: "IIOJIEBASL IIO'TA" (Field Post). Such slogans were
characteristic for the Army postcards and letter-cards. There are also on the cards patriotic designs, quatrains and the
text of an exhortation to the Red Army soldier: "Be steadfast in the battle!"
There is also on the card a strike in violet of a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "2/220" (of the type
shown in Fig. 1 la). In comparing Figs. 36 & 37, it is possible to come to the conclusion that the mail from Leningrad
to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet and in the opposite direction was sent via the MPSP XM 2, which was located in
Leningrad
Let us examine some more examples of transmission of the Navy Postal Service after the introduction of new
rules of addressing and the replacement of old circular date-stamps for new ones. Where possible, it is desirable to
compare such sending with others, which went through the post under the old rules.
There are featured in Figs. 38 & 39 two postcards for mail from the Army on Active Service, which have
completely similar addresses of the sender and receiver. It is important to note the address of the sender on both
cards, which were written according to the new rules. However, the card in Fi. 38 was cancelled with the "old"c.d.s.
of despatch: "MOPCKAM IIO TA JN 1158 / 20.10.42" with serial letter "s" and the card in Fig. 39 already with
the "new" c.d.s. of despatch, reading: "IIOJIEBAI IIOHTA N2 1158 / 14.12.42" with serial letter "a. There are on
both cards the arrival c.d.s. of Ufa (with the dates of 28.12.42 and 25.12.42 respectively), as well as a unified
censorship cachet on the backs. In Fig. 38 the unified censorship cachet is in fractional form, with the initials
:"KBi" (Red Banner Baltic Fleet) in the numerator and for Fig. 39 in the form of a fraction, in the numerator of
THE POST-RIDER/iM MII-HK -N 57 63
November 2005

















I .














I,,


I -' n
iI. 'I 1*~~ C4r~
I '~--~/S~ : 3
Jli~lJ Lu6'..'', Qf*
I/LC~jC\~C_~sM


S ..
Y, FI ,
-,,~ ~~~~ ~~ ,.A.- .... ,


:],
' '.

,4,n^-'i
,,, ,
"- t.;-,,'
.: .,
.C, ,'j ***


\ h '^y ^c *^ ^ 4f



I. .a




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Fi!45>,, -
', *- ** x r -4 ip


~-,


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. ,
. L O., .-. .

. ... .
'I


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M

0


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Fig. 43.

*' '" '. ,
,'** ,3 *

,








,^ ,' '",4 ,** ,, ,,,,,', ,- 0 "^ 'P M i ; : +,.* ; ';"* ;
,I, ,,,;, ,:,', I,, '-+, F, .,;,;,> ;*,, *, ,. ,
.1.



I r flO JEI
,: AO
.~~~~1 -i: ~~.I :


Fig. 42.


Fig. 44.


I_ ~~_I_~_ II__~____C


~ __ ____


\ .






which there stands the capital letter "B" (the shortened form of "KB 4" for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet). Both of
them will be discussed in detail below in a special section. By the way, the setting of the postcard in Fig. 39 is similar
to that in Fig. 37 but differs in the design, the text of the quatrain and of the exhortation.
As seen from the comparison of Figs. 38 & 39, the cancellers of Navy Postal Station X- 1158 were replaced
by cancellers of the new type during a maximum period of half a month.
Fig. 40 shows in opened out state a "triangular" letter with the c.d.s. of despatch reading "Pavlovskii Z(avo)d
Molotov(skoi) 26.2.43", together with the arrival c.d.s.: "IIOJIEBAAI IIOrTA M 1115 / 14.3.43" with serial letter
"a" and a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "17/61" (of the type shown in Fig. la).
This letter was sent to the same addressee as for the letter shown in Figr In comparing them, it is easy to
note the difference: instead of the full name of the Ladoga Naval Flotilla with the designation Navy Postal Station JN
1115 to Field Postal Station N2 1115; instead of the number of the p.o. box with a serial letter: to the 5-figure number
of the unit.
In the period under examination (October 1942 to March 1943) only the system of addressing and the
inscription on the circular date-stamp were changed, but the methods of transmission of the Navy Postal Service
remained without alteration: they were sent via a Military Postal Sorting Point or a Military Postal Base. In the
philatelic investigations of that period, it became especially easy to determine the method of transmission of the
Navy Postal Service, as a unified censorship cachet appeared in the form of a fraction, the numerator of which
matched the number of the MPSP or of the serial letter of the Military Postal Base. There were still in an earlier
period unified censorship cachets without fractions and only with numbers (of the type shown in Fig. l In the
absence of postmarks of the MPSP or of a Military Postal Base, such unified censorship cachets did not allow us to
determine in what place the military censorship existed.
As an example, an envelope in opened out state is featured in Fig. 41 with the c.d.s. of despatch: "Sarapil /
10.1.43". There is on the back of the cover the c.d.s. of arrival: "IIOJIEBAAI fIOqTA J4 1101 / 29.1.43" with the
serial letter "a" and a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "1/383" (of the type shown in Fig. lla.). The
number "1" in the numerator signifies that the letter was examined by the military censor at MPSP XJ 1, which was
located in Moscow; a similar example is given in Fig. 16.
In some cases of the Navy Postal Service, there was struck not only the unified censorship cachet of the
MPSP, but also the transit marking of the MPSP. That sometimes allows us to determine not only the presence of the
, censorship, but also the date.
As an example (Fig. 42), a "triangular" letter in opened out state with the c.d.s. of despatch "Aleshenka Kalin(inskoi) /
8.2.43". On the back of the letter, there is also the transit c.d.s. of MPSP 2 28 / 10.2.43" (MPSP N2 28 served the
North-Western Front), the arrival c.d.s. "IIOJIEBASI IIOLTA M 1105 / 22.2.43" with serial letter "6" and a
unified censorship cachet with the fraction "28/62" (of the type shown in Fig. 1 a).
The mail between units of the Army on Active Service and the Navy Postal Service was generally
transmitted via the Military Postal Base.
As an example, Fig. 43 features a "triangular" letter in opened out state with the c.d.s. of despatch
"HOJIEBA$I InOTA MN 95 / 19.3.43". There is on the back of the letter the arrival c.d.s. "rIOJIEBASI
IIOtTA M 1105 / 11.4.43" with serial letter "6" and a unified censorship cachet in violet with the fraction
"BM/23" (of the type shown in Fig. 24a). The capital letters in the numerator confirm that the letter was transmitted
via a Military Postal Base with the serial letters "Bt" of designation (that Base served the 48W. Army: reference [11,
p. 17]).
In comparing with Fig. 42 it may be noted that the Navy mail from the Rear to the Fleets was sent via a
MPSP and from the Army on Active Service to the Fleets via a Military Postal Base.
A cover is demonstrated in Fig. 44 with the c.d.s. of despatch "IIOJIEBASI IIOWTA JM 494 / 5.3.43".
There is on the back of the cover the arrival c.d.s. "IIOJIEBAI IIOITA N2 1101 / 8.3.43" with serial letter "6"
and a unified censorship cachet in violet with the fraction "AO/32" (of the type shown in Fig. 24a). The capital letters
in the numerator signify that the letter was transmitted via a Military Postal Base with the letters "AO" of designation
(the Base served the 55th. Army reference [11, p. 17]).
In the opinion of the authors, the sending of the Navy Postal Service bore date-stamps with the inscription
"IIOJIEBAA IIO 'TA" and a four-figure number, beginning with "10" or "11" and they may be placed in the 3".
category of rarity in the evaluation of a 5-point system. Registered sending with such postmarks, or sending
between the units of the Army on Active Service and the Navy would be in the 4t. category of rarity when evaluated
in a 5-point system.
5.The organisation of the work of the Navy Postal Service (April 1943 May 1945)
The system of addressing mail, which existed in the period from October 1942 to March 1943 according to
the numbers of the Field Postal Stations and the provisional numbers of the military units did not ensure to the proper
THE POST-RIDER/JIMIMHK N6 57 65
November 2005






extent secrecy in the location of the troops and, in addition, complicated and slowed down the delivery of the Field
Post mail (as well as that of the Navy Postal Service) to the addressees. That is why, by an Order of the People's
Commissariat of Defence of the USSR JN 0105 of 6 February 1943 "with a view to secure the greatest secrecy in the
location of the troops and to standardise the addressing of mail", there were put into effect new rules which foresaw
(only the basic points are specified) the following features:-
1. Establish for all units of the Red Army the numbers of the Field Postal Service, which must be for units
with officially sanctioned names and also with fixed and irremoveable addresses for the despatch ofmail.
2. The addressing is to be carried out exclusively according to the numbers of the Field Postal Service in
conformity with the attached INSTRUCTION.
3. The transition to the new system of addressing is to go into effect as of 1 April 1943.
4. The Order of the People's Commissariat of defence XM 0679 is revoked.
The Order put into effect the INSTRUCTION, which set out in detail the rules and sequence for addressing
mail. Some of the points are outlined below:-
1. The number of the Field Post Service consists of a 5-digit number and is a fixed postal address.
2. At the disposition of the commander of a unit, serial letters are to be appropriated for the subdivisions
within a specified unit.
3. The address of the letter must consist of a 5-digit number of the Field Postal Service with the appropriate
serial letter of the subdivision and the surname of the addressee. The specification on the envelope of the return
address is obligatory.
4. It is forbidden to write on the envelopes the current names of the units and formations, to specify military
ranks and the relationship of the addressee to the origin of the troops, namely to the pilot, tankman, sailor etc.
5. For the receipt and despatch of mail, the Field Postal Service is to be enrolled in the nearest military postal
station.
6. The receipt from the military station of mail arriving at the Field Postal Service and also its despatch are to
be performed by the postmen of the unit.
In conformity with the Order and as of 1 April 1943, there was put into effect in the Army on Active Service
and the Navy Postal Service a sole 5-digit numbering for the Field Postal Stations. The circular date-stamps of that
period are characterized by a complete unification: for ordinary mail they had only the inscription "IOJIEBAS
IIOHTA" without the designation of a number and for recorded mail (registered, valuable, money orders and
parcels), postmarks were applied with the 5-digit number of the Field Postal Service. In the initial period of a few
months and up to the moment of preparation of the new cancellers, the old ones continued to be utilised, which were
"reengraved"; the figures of the number and the sign "M" were excised-
As an example, a "triangular" letter in an opened out state is demonstrated in Fig. 45 with the c.d.s. of
despatch: "Aleshinka Kalin(inskoi) 23.4.43". It went through the post in 1943, ie. in the initial transitional period. It
is evident that the addressing of the letter was done according to the old system with the designation of the number of
the Field Postal Station "1105" and the number of the unit: "98981", but on the letter there was already applied the
new type of arrival c.d.s. (without number): "IIOJIEBA5I IIOHTA 3.5.43". There is also on the letter the transit
marking "BIICH (Military Postal Sorting Point) N 28 / 26.4.43" and a unified censorship cachet with the fraction
"28/48" (of the type shown in Fig. 1 a).
There is featured in Fig. 46 a postcard with the c.d.s. of despatch "Leningrad 2.11.43" and the transit c.d.s.
"MPSP XN 2 / 2.11.43". In comparing with Fig. 36 it is evident that, when the system of addressing was changed,
instead of the number of the Field Postal Station and the number of the unit (subdivision), there was designated only
the 5-digit number of the Field Postal Station: "18471". In conformity with the new rules, the new type of the arrival
c.d.s. (without number) was applied on the postcard: "IIOJIEBAA IIfOITA 4.11.43", as well as a unified
censorship cachet in a new type with a 5-digit number "04935 (see Fig. 46a).
In Fig. 47 we see a postcard with the c.d.s. of despatch: "Kazan' 16.7.43" and a transit c.d.s. "FJIABHbII
BHCII (Main Military Postal Sorting Point, which was located in Moscow) 20,7.43". In comparing with Fi. 5. it is
evident that the system of addressing had been changed: instead of the designation "Army on Active Service", the
number of the Field Postal Station and the number of the unit, there is specified only the 5-digit number of the Field
Postal Station "18471". In conformity with the new rules, there were applied on the card the new type of the arrival
c.d.s. (without number), reading: "IOJIEBASI IIOHTA / 26.7.43" and a new type of unified censorship cachet
with the 5-digit number "13596" (in the type shown in Fin. 46a). In the opinion of the authors, the sending of the
Navy Postal Service with circular date-stamps reading "IIOJIEBASI nOITA" (without number) may be placed in
the 2"d. category of rarity in evaluating according to the 5-point system. With the presence of an additional canceller,
e.g. the transit c.d.s. of an Military Postal Sorting Point, the sending of the Navy Postal Service may be placed in the
3 categpry of rarity according to the 5-point system.
66 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIHK K2 57
November 2005



































Ol 0'g211/1TO1-3nl KnAPTO iIKA




OAtEy


ell ; I
1.A ,. U, j!, J1, ac-u. 1 ,-
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THE POST-RIDER/IMII~1HK M 57
November 2005


Fi- 50.
67


Fit. 47.


Fig. 49.






The examples presented in Figs. 45 to 47 display the application of the circular date-stamps put into force as
of 1 April 1943 and inscribed "IIOJIEBA5I IIOWTA" (without a number). Such rare cases of utilisation are also
known to the authors in the period being examined of circular date-stamps inscribed "MOPCKASI IIOqTA"
(without a number).
As an example, a card ( 48) in the L. Bryun collection is shown which, according to the message, was sent
on 20 March from Tomsk (the c.d.s. of despatch cannot be read). The arrival c.d.s. evokes a surprise as it reads
"MOPCKAI IIOHTA / 2.4.43" (without a number).
It should be taken into account that the cancellers inscribed "MOPCKASI IIOHTA" were officially taken
out of circulation in October 1942 and replaced by cancellers reading "IIOJIEBA5I IIOITA" with a 4-digit
number. It can be suggested that, after putting into service as of 1 April 1943 the new cancellers reading
"IIOJIEBA5I IIOWTA" (without a number), for some unknown reason such cancellers turned out to be in short
supply. A decision was taken to utilise a canceller which had been taken out of circulation with the inscription
"MOPCKAI IIOMTA", which they "reengraved" in the text of the canceller they excised the digits of the
number and the sign "N2". Thanks to that, the card went through the post at the beginning of April 1943, ie. in the
transitional period and the address on it was written according to the old system, with the number of the Field Postal
Station designated as "1111" and it can be asserted that the canceller with the inscription "MOPCKA5I IIOTA"
(without a number) was utilised at Field Postal Station MN 1111.
A card is featured in Fig. 49 with the c.d.s. of despatch "Tomsk 29.4.43". In contrast to Fig 48, the address
was written according to the new rules: only the 5-digit number of the Field Postal Station and the serial "22336 A"
were specified. It can be suggested that, for some unknown reason, the postcard originally arrived at another Field
Postal Station: see the transit c.d.s. "THOJIEBAA IIOHTA 22.5.43" (without a number) and was delivered only
then to the addressee: see the arrival c.d.s. "MOPCKA5I IOHTA 26.5.43" with the serial letter "a" and without a
number. There is on the card a strike in violet of a unified censorship cachet with the fraction "24/124" (of the type
shown in Fig. 1 a).
The application is known of circular date-stamps inscribed "MOPCKASI IIOHTA (without a number)"
during a comparatively long period (up to September 1943). In that regard, they were utilised for postmarking the
mail, not only from the Rear to the Fleet (Figs. 48 & 49), but also in the reverse direction (from the Fleet to the Rear).
As an example, Fig. 50 features a military letter-card in an opened out state with the c.d.s. of despatch
"MOPCKAM IIOqTA 20.9.43" with the serial letter "a" and without a number, as well as the arrival c-d.s. of
"Leningrad 24.9.,43" and a unified censorship cachet with a 5-digit number "03810" (of the type shown in Fia. 46a).
In the opinion of the authors, the sending of the Navy Postal Service bearing circular date-stamps inscribed
"MOPCKASI IIOITA" (without a number) may be placed in the 5h. category of rarity in a 5-point system.
There is set out in the Table shown in Attachment JM 3 a listing of the Navy Post Offices, Navy Postal
Stations and Field Postal Stations, the cancellations of which have been described in the present article.
The authors express their thanks to the Russian philatelists L Bryun, I I. Druzhinin and V. Levandovskii for
facilitating the permission of becoming acquainted with the material in their collections for publication.
LISTING OF CONVENTIONAL ABBREVIATIONS (to be continued).
BMQ Boenmo-MopcKoft (JiOT: Soviet Navy
BMII BoenHo- MopCKa. IInoTB: Navy Postal Service
BIIII BoeHHo-noneaas norna: Field Postal Service
HKC HapoArHii KoMuccBpHaT CBaS3: People's Commissariat of Communications (Postal Service)
HKO Hapognift KoMTccapnaT O6oponmi: People's Commissariat of Defence
HKBMI Hapo a iA KoMuccapnaT Boenno-MopcKoro ~ojiOTa: People's Commissariat of the Navy
BMIIO BoemHo-MopcKoe nowroaoe oTneaeHHe: Navy Post Office
BMIIC BoeHnH-MopcKas noqTOBaa cramuH a: Navy Postal Station
BInHC BoenHo-nojieBaa nowroBaa crannHu: Field Postal Station
BHCII BoeHHo-noqTroBblf copTHpOBOsqHbit nyHKT: Military-Postal Sorting Point
BIIB BoeHHo-norrosaa 6a3a: Military Posta;l Base
IIK IlToTOBaa KapTOiKa: Postcard
II/ IIorrosBbit manHK: Post office box
KBEpq KpacHuosaMeHHbMi BajnTRCcKr aJInOT: Red Banner Baltic Fleet
TOO THxooKeaHHCKHiL (IOT: Pacific Ocean Fleet
Hq4 HHpHOMopcKHAi 4iJIOT: Black Sea Fleet
C0D CeBepmnHbl oT- Northern Fleet
HYLIIII HeymHH4mH poBanmIH H i neypHnif mTaMn: non-standard censorship cachet
y=Li YHHanRi( pOBaHHbil i eH3ypHbEfi nrraMn: Unified censorship cachet
L IUeusypHMBfi TaMM THE POST-RIDER/HMIMNHK 57 Censorship cachet
68 November 2005





IpHuinomeHe N 1.


Attachment J* 1.


CxeMa. )IocTaBKa KoppecnoHaeeHIHH H3 Tbuia Ha BMO
Diagrm. Delivery of the mail from the Rear to the Navy.
TbHr cTpaHbI
OmpauBHrenm I onyaTeni


IIoqTOBbIMH tIIIIHK

Jr'


IIoroBoe npernpOrrne
(oTaeneHHe CBX3H)


K


TLbOBOgi BlICI I


S OpOHTOBOHi BICI I


SBoeHmo-norroBas 6a3a (BII)


-AI


HOrTiOHaJo

1


IIoqToBoe npeanpaTune
(oTeJxeeHHe CBSI3H)


I pooHTBof BIICIIH


BMTO


BMIIC


[ BoiicKOBe noqua~I OHI |


J BMHO I


I BMIIC


I BolicKOBmen IIoiVTI HMi


[I qacTn BMD I
Please refer to p. 68 for the English equivalents of the Russian initials.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIlMHK Ng 57
November 2005


K-


I t


-I BoeHHO-HnoqTOBag 6a3a (BIIB) -







IIp.ihoeHHne &2-.


CxeMa. Iocrasa KoppecnoHeam nM 3 m Tna Ha KE
Diagram. Delivery of the mail from the Rear to the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.


Please refer to p. 68 for the English equivalents of the Russian initials.


Notes:
1. The delivery of mail from the Navy to the Rear was carried out according to this diagram, but in the reverse
direction.
2. The delivery of mai from the Rear to other fleets and flotillas and reverse was carried out in the same way




70 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK N 57
November 2005


Attachment N_ 2.











Ta6nmma. IIlTemnea BMIIO nBMIIC,
oImcaanmae B nacroamef craTbe
'Tabulation: Postma iksftfle Navy Po Offices and
Navy PostalStations as described in the present article..
0 no XN BMnIO, BMHC JI'repa nJIT Figure
nopmIgy mm IIHC. Numbers
1 BMnO N21001 a KBE 23
2 -((--(-- B 25 .
3 ----v--------- r 1 -.
4 BMnC N-l 101 a YKEQ 15,21,22,23,26
5 ---------- a 27
6 BMNIC J1102 6 26
7 BMnIC Jl103 r 22
8 BMIC J1104 a 19 ~
9 BMIIC 1 105 B 21
10 BMIC J&1107 6 31
11 -r--3----<-- r 3,1 ,12,13 8,1920,36
12 BMIIC J1111 r 24 --
13 BMNIC Ne1158 B 14,38 -. ----
14 BMIIC N1115 a J-Iaaozcxma 10 ---
S_____ 4JIOTlIrI .
15 BMIIC N21154 6 KacmaicKas 20 ----
nBoTHIIgtM ---
16 BM lIO O1007 B ___ 29
17 BMITC N1133 6 16-
18 ----------- B 17 ..
19 ---<--- <- r 32
20 BMlC N_1135 a 2,4
21 BMnIO .1009 a Cd 7
22 BMIC 1142 6 6
23 BMnO Na1004 a TOO 8
24 BMnTC e1149 ? 9
25 IImIC Nl101 a KBs 41
26 -<----- 6 44
27 IIC (d 105 6 43
28 --------- B 42
29 1nnC Ni1107 a 5,37
30 FIllC I1158 a 39
31 MnflC N1115 a Jalorcraa 40

Please refer to p. 68 for the Enelish eMif~ai-n of-he Riusianmtiaels

LITERATURE
1. V.BERDICHEVSKIY & M.KOSSOY. THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP OF RANK-
AND-FILE MAIL IN THE RUSSIAN NAVY DURING WWI (1914-1918). The POST-
RIDER (5IMIIiHK), 2000, NK 47, p.p.76-86.
2. V.BERDICHEVSKIY & MKOSSOY. THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP OF RANK-
AND-FILE MAIL IN THE RUSSIAN NAVY DURING WWI (1914-1918). The POST-
RIDER (3MIlHK), 2001, XN 48, p.p.18-45.
3. M.KOSSOY & V.BERDICHEVSKIY. MAIL OF THE RANK-AND-FILE OF THE
SOVIET NAVY (1918-1941). The POST-RIDER (5MIUfiK), 2002, XN 50, p.p.16-35.
4. MKABANOV. ON APPLICATION OF THE WAR-TIME FIELD POST'S
MATERIAL IN THE PHILATELIC ELABORATIONS. "SOVIETSKY
KOLLEKCIONER", 1986, N24, p.p.3-15.
5. B.IIAHTIOXHH. IIO'ITOBA.I CB5I3b BEJIHKOf OTE9ECTBEHHOIf. OnaTenems
(PoccHA, MocKBa), 1995, N4, p.p.18-19.
6. H.IPY)KIHHH. nIOIEBA5I InOqTA. 55 net BemmKofi no6eahi. BcepocciicKxa
)arnaTeJIctmecax B IcTaBa Karanor. MocKBa. 26.5. 25.6.2000r.
7. Nagl Auction N 18, Bamberg, 11 October 2003.
8. M.KOSSOY & V.BERDICHEVSKIY. THE MAIL OF THE PERSONNEL OF THE
SOVIET NAVY (1941-1945). The POST-RIDER (SIMIgHK), 2005, XN 56, p.p.54-67.
9. H.I.nICYPI-EB. PA3BHTHE CB513HB CCCP. MOCKBA. Casr,, 1967, p.241.
10. B.IIAHTIOXHH. IIOqTOBAI CBSI3b B BEJIHKOA OTE9ECTBEHHOf BOfIHE
1941-1945. T(uIaTejHI (Poccs, MocKBa), 1995, N27, p.p.45-47.
11. H.aPY)KHHHH. IIOJIEBA1I IIOHTA KPACHOI APMHH 1941-1945.
KOJUIEKITOHEP No38 39, MocKBa, 2003, p.p.3-29.
12. B.CHHErEOB. BOEHHO MOPCKASI IIOqTA B TOJ~O I BEJIHKOrI
OTE'ECTBEHHOf BOIHbIL uanaTeni CCCP, 1981, ?9, p.p.45-46.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIMWIHK Nq 57
November 2005


o'llrioeaCHHe N_3.


i Attachment N2 3..






ABOUT THE DATES OF ISSUE AND PRINTINGS OF THE FIRST SOVIET POSTAGE STAMPS
by L.G. Ratner.
I__ __ wThe first postage stamps of Soviet power in the values of 35 & 70 kopeks
S i. went into postal circulation in 1918 and they have often been described in
-A the Russian and foreign literature. The so-called "hand with sword, cutting a
Chain" have been named in the "Catalogue of postage stamps of the USSR",
S 1983 edition as "the first revolutionary issue of postage stamps of the
RSFSR" and listed under -MN 1 & 2 (see Figs. I & 2).
These stamps were originally regarded as an issue of the Provisional
Pc. L pc. 2 Government of Kerenskii, but after the articles of Yu. Permenov, V.
Karlinskii, P. Mazur and others, they were relocated as an issue of the
Soviet period. The basic points in their works were as follows:-
The designs of the stamps were done by R. Sarrinsch (Richards Zarip ) in 1917 during the Provisional Government,
but they were neither approved nor prepared.
At the beginning of 1918, there were competitions for setting up attributes and requisitions of the new
governmental power, whereby designs for new stamps were featured. However, the People's Commissariat of Posts
& Telegraphs (HKIIrT) did not utilize them and gave preference to the samples previously prepared by R.
Sarrinsch.
On 22 May 1918, "the revolutionary postage stamps with the values of 35 and 70 kopeks" were approved by V.
Podbel'skii, the People's Commissar of Posts & Telegraphs. The specimens approved by him are preserved in the
Central Museum of Communications named after A.S. Popov.
The preparation during the Soviet period of stamps with the design "hand with sword, cutting a chain" with the
values of 35 and 79 kopeks went into postal circulation in the first year of the new Government on 7'. November (25
October in the Old Style) 1918.
These particular stamps are the first Soviet postage stamps.
These interesting and serious works have a deficiency: practically no archival documents were utilised in
preparing their studies. As a result, the exact dates of preparation and of issue of the stamps remained unknown.
Moreover, a doubt arises about the presumed exact date of their entry into postal circulation: 7 November 1918.
The present author has conducted his search of the lacking data about these stamps. in the archival
documents of the Department for the Preparation of State Papers (933r), where there are kept account books of
completed products, statement books presented by the Ministry of Posts & Telegraphs (later on HKIInT) and
accounting verifications. The warehouse and accounting records are boring with jumbled figures for an article, but
they give the most exact information. However, everything in its place.
The decision to adopt new designs for stamps with the values of 35 and 70 kopeks was taken in the Ministry
of Posts & Telegraphs of the Provisional Government, apparently in the middle of the summer of 1917. In the last
order of 24 June of that year for the preparation of stamps in the kopek values of the old designs, there were specified
the face values of 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 25 & 50 kopeks. Stamps in the old designs with the values of 35 and 70 kopeks
were not in that order.
The order for printing new 35-kopek stamps in an issue of 600,000 sheets (60,000,000 copies) was given on
6 September 1917. The order for preparing new 70-kopek stamps in the amount of 150,000 sheets (15,000,000
copies) is dated 14 October 1917 [1]. It was not possible to determine the date when samples of the new stamps were
approved, but according to the definite sequence, the requests for the preparation of stamps could have been
presented only after the agreement and approval of their designs. Both requests were presented to the 331T up to the
October Revolution of 1917.
By the end of the year, the 33FB had issued 31,300,000 copies of the 35-kopek value, of which 13,900,000
copies were forwarded to the Postal Service and 17,400,000 remained at the Department.. The 70-kopek stamps were
ordered immediately before the Revolution of 25 October, but they were not prepared in that year [2].
With the passage of many years, it was regarded that the Provisional Government did not approve and did
not issue stamps in the new design.. It appears that, for political considerations, they decided to forget the assertion
by F. Chuchin: "These stamps were prepared by the Provisional Government of Kerenskii" ("Catalogue of postage
stamps and postal stationery. Basic Russia", 1918, p. 78). The documents found in the archives confirm the opinion
of F. Chuchin with the proviso that this was only the beginning of the story of the issue of the stamps with the design
"hand with sword, cutting a chain".
As of the beginning of 1918, the Postal Service of the Russian Federation experienced a severe shortage of
postage stamps. There were not sufficient stamps for the despatch of postal sending, but they were still being
utilised also for official purposes. In January of that year, the Postal Service wrote: "At the present time, the 331

72 THE POST-RIDER/lMIH[HK N2 57
November 2005






is experiencing great difficulty in the preparation of postage stamps....for that reason they have become very
expensive... ("The Postal-Telegraphic Journal" N 1. 1918, p. 4). On that basis, the People's Commissariat of Posts
& Telegraphs (HKIHIT) had to build up its policy of emissions by taking into account the stocks of postage stamps
in those and other face values, which were already on hand at the 93rB in the warehouses of the Stamp
Department.
As it did not have the possibility of gauging the tempo of the impending inflation, the HKIIHT in two
orders of 12 & 17 April 1918 requisitioned from the 33rB1 enormous printings of stamps in the values of 2 kopeks
to 10 roubles. The stocks on hand at the 93FB were ordered to be sent to Moscow and postage stamps were mainly
sent in the values of 2 kopeks: 18,000,000 copies; 35 kopeks in the old design: 23,300,000 copies and 50 kopeks:
13,300,000 copies. In a requisition of 17 April, the HKIINT asked for the release to it of 50,000,000 copies of the
35-kopek value and 20,000,000 copies of the 70-kopek value in the new design. The order from the HKIIHT in April
1918 for the preparation of large printings in the new design is also an indication that those stamps had previously
been approved.
However, there are
I' :- preserved in the Museum
of Communications named
after A.S. Popov. both
S. stamps in the new design
S.. and values of 35 & 70
--'.. -- -. -- kopeks, which were affixed
S. to a passport together with
-. :- the signature of the
.. People's Commissar of
.. Posts & Telegraphs, V.
Podbel'skii, who confirmed
them on 22 May 1918, i.e.
... -. more than a month after the
_____ _____request was handed in for
Pc. 3 same stamps (Figure 3.
As with the Provisional Government in 1917, the Soviet authorities were in need of their own stamps. Based upon
what has been stated above, one may conclude that the second confirmation of the designs of the stamps showing
"hand with sword cutting a chain" had the purpose of taking these stamps out of the category of a creation of the
Provisional Government and bestowing upon them the status ofrevolutiohary stamps of the Soviet authorities.
The newly prepared postage stamps in the new design and in the face value of 35 kopeks began to be placed
in the Warehouse of Finished Products of the 33FB as of the end of August 1918. The Postal Service received
39,000,000 copies up to the point of putting them in circulation. The postage stamps in the new design and with the
face value of 70 kopeks were.received at the Warehouse of Finished Products of the 33'5 as of the middle of
August 1918 and they were at the disposal of the Stamp Department of the HKTINT in September, when 18,400,000
copies were sent [3].
In the years that followed, there were no further printings of the stamps with the design "hand with sword cutting a
chain", but a portion of the issue was still being kept at the 93F3 two years later. All the catalogues state that the
numbers printed were unknown, but the newly found archival documents allow us to specify their exact quantities:-
-63,323,000 copies for the postage stamps with the face value of 35 kopeks, including 31,300,000 in 1917 &
-18,959,000 copies of the 70-kopek value.
The annual quantities of the prepared stamps handed over to the Postal Service are set out in Table M_ 1 [4]:-
STa6nmama 1 Table NM
Year roA
1917 1918 1919 1920




35, 31,3 13,9 32,023 39* 0,2 10,223
KOH mil nll mill mill. mil, mill.
70 18,959 18,4 ;0,2 0,359
Uon inil. mill. mill. mill.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHKX No 57 73
November 2005






* In 1918, the HKIIT received more stamps than were printed in that year, as 17.4 million stamps prepared in 1917
remained at the 33rB.
It is necessary to add that, upon the relocation in 1921 of the remainders of the stamp products from the
"3Cr03HA" factory (as the 33FB was then called), there were sent to Moscow 600 copies each (i.e. 6 sheets
each) of the stamps with the face values of 35 and 70 kopeks. They were apparently kept as specimens and they were
not included, in the accounting to the HKTIlT for the printing.
It is stated about these particular stamps in all the catalogues that "they were printed by typography", but
nowhere is it said by what means the printing was carried out. Exact data have not been found about this question,
but it can be assumed from indirect indications that the stamps were printed in two stages. It is noted in the reference
to postage stamps held in 1921 at the "3CFO3HA" factory [5] that there were printed:-
Postage stamps in the new design in the 1I. printing set-up 3,445,400 copies
Postage stamps prepared in the value of 35 kopeks in the 2d. printing set-up 600 copies
Postage stamps prepared in the value of 70 kopeks in the 2"d. printing set-up 600 copies
It is evident that, for the stamps that went through only the 1"t. printing set-up, not even the face value was
specified, while for the stamps that went through the 2". printing set-up, not only were the face values given, but also
the word "prepared".
Some catalogues state that there were four printings of stamp J- 1 and two printings for stamp M 2. Such an
assertion cannot be regarded as correct. The 35-kopek stamps were printed in two batches, in 1917 and 1918, while
the 70-kopek stamps had only one printing in 1918, hence during a very short period of time. The confirmation of the
four printings of the first stamp and two of the second leads to the presence of some differences in the designs of
these stamps concerning a specific position on the sheets. Those differences came about from printing a large
quantity of stamps every day (for example, there were forwarded on 2 September 1918 from the Printing Department
to the Warehouse of Prepared Products of the 931B 1,300,000 copies of the 35-kopek value; on 3 September -
800,000 copies; on 4 September 700,000 copies; on 5 September 1,000,000 copies, etc). For the daily preparation
of such a quantity of stamps, it was necessary to print them on 3 or 4 machines. For the 70-kopek stamps the daily
average of handling was 500,000 copies and the printing thereof required the utilisation of two machines. Naturally,
the impressions depended upon the printing forces (stereotypes), prepared for each printing machine, which had
various differences and characteristics in refining the operation of each of such machines.
There is linked to the stamps showing "a hand with sword cutting a chain" yet another question, which has
not yet been followed through: the date that they went into postal circulation. The stamps were planned to go on issue
on the day of the first anniversary of the October Revolution, which took place in Russia on 25 October 1917 (0,S,).
In February 1918, the country went over to reckoning time according to the Gregorian Calendar (N.S.) and thus the
anniversary of the revolution fell on 7 November. At the beginning of October 1918, the People's Commissar of
Posts & Telegraphs, V Podbel'skii, signed a circulatory telegram, in which it was ordered that the revolutionary
stamps had to go on sale on 25 October. A new circular telegram appeared on 11 October with the signature of a
member of the Board of the HKIInT, S. Kashchenko. It specified that "The new revolutionary stamps had to go into
circulation on 25 October Old Style (Author's note: i.e. 7 November New Style, which was then current in Russia)
on the day of celebrating the conquest of the power of the workers and peasants" The text of the telegram with the
signature of S. Kashchenko was published in the magazine "Philately of the USSR" 1-12/1968 and, from that time,
the date that the issue went into circulation of the revolutionary postage stamps in the values of 35 and 70 kopeks has
been regarded as 7 November.. However, in the same issue of that magazine, P. Mazur in his article "Haf a century
of the first revolutionary stamps" said in writing about them: "... the earliest postmark is dated 27 October 1918. It is
in my collection If that was actually the case, then the stamps appeared in postal circulation 13 days earlier than on
the designated date, i.e. on 25 October 1918 New Style.
Moreover, it is known that collectors have these stamps cancelled in the autumn or
summer of 1918, with the earliest postmark on the 70-kopek stamp dated 30.XII.17. Without
delving into the reasons for such postmarks (a mistake by the postal worker, a forged
cancellation etc.), it is easiest to resolve this question for the 70-kopek stamps. They began
to be printed at the 33IB only from the second half of August 1918 and were first sent to
the Stamp Department of the HKIHIT on 24 September of that year, i.e. postmarks on the
70-kopek stamps with the earliest date are not trustworthy. We see in Fig 4 stamps of 70
S kopeks with the circular date-stamp reading 25.2.18; however, these stamps still did not exist
in February 1918. It is more complicated to evaluate the authenticity of postmarks dated in
the autumn or summer of 1918 on the 35-kopek stamps, as they were available in a huge
quantity at the disposition of the HKIIaT already in 1917. However, they officially went
Pac. 4 YMeanmeno into circulation together with the 70-kopek stamps and the earlier dates of usage also evoke
74 g 4 (reduced) THE POST-RIDER/IIMllHK N2 57
November 2005






great doubts.
In summing up what has been stated in the present article about the stamps with the design "hand with sword
cutting a chain", one can arrive at the following conclusions:-
The priority in creating the stamps belongs to the Provisional Government
The secondary confirmation of these stamps by the People's Commissar of Posts & Telegraphs by
V. Podbel'skii transferred them into the section of Soviet revolutionary stamps.
The stamps with the face value of 35 kopeks were originally ordered from the 93F3 by the
Provisional Government and almost half of their issue was printed in 1917.
The stamps with the face value of 70 kopeks were originally ordered from the ]3BE by the
Provisional Government: their issue was printed after the second order in 1918.
In the period from 1917 to 1920, the HKIIaT received 63,323,000 copies of the postage stamps with
the face value of 35 kopeks and 18,959,000 copies of the 70-kopek stamps.
The present article changes to a great extent the story of the issue of the stamps with the design "hand with
sword cutting a chain" with the face values of 35 and 70 kopeks and it returns the honours of competition regarding
these stamps to the Provisional Government of Russia. Those are the facts.
References:


1 lemHpai>m.Ai rocyAaperBembi, apxnm Camr-lerep6ypra (IFA ClI6), (4ora 1255, onmcb 5, A. 39 "KIura
16. rTYITT", i. 8.
2TaM xce, a.52; 4. 1255, on. 5, A. 58 "KHira MmH crepra no'rr H TenerpadoB", a. 6.
3 I.(A CH6, 4). 1255, on. 3, A. 67 "KnmraN2 14. nlorroBe 3HaxH", a. 251, 252, 256.
4B Ta6mIne Hcno.r 30BaHu CBeA eWH H3 AeIs : I.VA Cn6, 4P. 1255, on. 3, A 67, 97, 110; 4. 1255, on. 5, a. 39,
58.
5 LWA CrI6, 4. 918, on. 1, A 1089 "O npnHarHrm 3aKOB norTOBolt onnaar c 4a6pm(z "33ro03a", 2.
* *


* *


SPECIAL NOTE:


A viewcard from Libava (Liepita in Latvia) with 1 cent U.S. postage due.


I _. ------------------
Franked at 3 kopeks on 10 June 1905 O.S. for the 4-kopek international rate, the card was thus short paid by 1 kopek =
21/2 gold centimes as calculated at centre left. It was therefore taxed at double the deficiency = 5 gold centimes = 1 cent U.S. The
card received in transit at New York on 1 July 1905 the "spectacles" 1-cent due marking and the U.S. stamp was affixed on
arrival in Bridgeport, Connecticut;
The card is thus also of interest to U.S. postal historians, as 1 cent was the lowest U.S. postage due stamp available and
such usages are rare. It is ironic that, in 1905, the Russian international card rate was 4 kopeks, with only five words of greeting
allowed. In this case, there was no message or name of the sender, who could therefore have endorsed the card as "IIe'aTare
IIpoH3neBeneHHg" (= "Printed Matter"), the international rate for which was 2 kopeks, thus saving the sender one kopek!

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHHK N 57 75
November 2005


.' I .... .. .. .... ..... .





..... ....... .. .. .

....... . ...........



H' a Miol c ?b nuaet ii O adpect. C6to. serve exclusivenent a i'adress&.
*CTiin;i ie-Ml. 1l1:08 .~ '- 259Sd


----cL





CHPABOMHO-HHOOPMALIHOHHAI, HOqTOBAI CJIY)KBA
ABTopM: HIpo4eccop A.C. HmonuI n B.A. iHaIT oxT H.
This article: "The Enquiry & Information Postal Service" by Prof A.S. Ilyushin & V.A. Pantyukhin will appear in
English in "The Post-Rider" J 58.
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IREKPET
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In.QorTeBa

T76HE POST-RIDER/HMIUI~K N 57
November 2005






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CnyCTA HeCKOJIbKO JneT IpaKTHKy agpecHoro CTOJa C.-IleTep6ypra pacnpocTpaHHJI Ha
aapecHbMe CTOJTI paa Apyrnx ropoaoB PoccHH MOCKBM, BapmnaBi, Ogecci H KHeBa, anM
KOTOPbIX TaKEKG 6bUI H3TOTOBjeHbI 1iejXbHbie Beinn cneinHanmHoro Ha3Ha1eHHI [12-13].
HasGonee yXO6HM MH OKa3aTJHCb 6JIaHKH ABOfHLIX nIIOTOBLIX KapToseK c olnnaeHHLIM
OTBeTOM, TaK KaK Ha OAHOM H TOM we 6jaHKe npeaycMaTpHBajiocb MeCTO JIA sanpoca H OTBeTa.
Hos3Ke 3TOT ace onrIbT 6bl HCIIOJIB3OBaH ipH H3roTOBineHHH 110RTOBBIX KapToqeK an3 nepenIcKH
BOeHHOInIeHHbIX.
Y pemaeHHaa B 1918 roly cnpaBOHHO-HH4opMaInHOHHa cInyx6a B CBoef
rpaKTHrqecKOlH flearTeJHOCTH ormpaiiacb Ha onirr pa6oiTb npoaonjiaBsmHx AeHCTBoBaT
agpeCHMxx CTOJIOB H TeCHO C HHMH COTpyIFHHIaJia, H6o peBoJIOrXHOHHBie co6GbHEI H
nocjieACTBHa I-of MHpOBOH H rpaxcaaHCKOf BOiH H H3MeHHBiEHeca rpaHumai npHBseJH K
MHrpaIlHH 3HaqHTeJIbHOiH qaCTH HacenieHi POCCHH. CyIecTBeHHae qaCTb sanpocoB rpaxaaH
6bua Hacsa3a H HMCHHO C 3THMH npo6JeMaMH: 3nmoH HcKaJIH poAHbIX H 3HaKOMLIX,
pa36pocaHHblx KaK no CTpaHe, TaK H OKa3aBmIHXCa 3a ee npeAenaMH. IIL1 sanpocBi B Poccmo H
H3-3a py6e)Ka.
AJn TaKHm sanpocoB HCcnoJn3soBanmH oGbirHie inorrOBbe KapToHKH, H noBHBiHnecCa
6namHK agpecaHx CTOJIOB HOBOTO o6pa3ua. K co)ajeHHmo, HaM He yAanocB o6HapyxKHT HH
oAHoro no1TOBoro OTnpaBjeHHa, KOTopoe ,OKyMeHTHpOBano 6Bi pa6oTy HMeHHO cnpaBOqHO-
HH4opMajHOHHOH cjym6M) B nepano c 1918 go 1921 r.r. CBsI3aHO 3TO, B TOM IHcjIe, H C TeM,
wTO B 3TOT nepHoA He BLmycKaJIocb cnellHarJIHMX 6ISaHKOB KapToseK aJIA STOi4 AeenbreJHOCTH.
B nepBaie ro b COBeTCKOf BJnaCTH Bce ynpanjeHHe CBS3bIO Ha MecTaX 6uMIO InOCTpoeHO
B BHAe OTgejIOB CBS3H ry6epHCKHx HcnoInHHTeJIbHbIX KOMHTeTOB. In3TOMy B HaqnajbHBII
nepnoA AeaTejenHOCTH HOBOfi CnpaBO HOf cJIy)6bI, KaK 3TO BbrreKaJIO H3 AeKpeTa, qeHTpaJnbHaa
cnpaBOHHaa cnyac6a aojicHa 6ibma QyHKIHOHHpoBaTh ipnH HapKOMaTe nofT H TenerpadoB, a
MecTHaa cnpaBOHaa ciny)K6a pnH rv6epHCKHX nOaTOBO-TejierpadHbnx yvpaBnjeHHaX. TaK, B
CHM6HpcKofi ry6epHHH Ha 3TOT AeKpeT OTKJIKHYJiHCB pacnopACeHHeM CHM6HpcKoro
ry6epHCKoro oTAejia HapoAHOfi CBa3H N2402 OT 20 imoJn 1920 r., B KOTOPOM BCe 3aBeayioit[e
no0qTOBmIMH yqpeaCeHHHMH o6a3BIBaraCb HeMexJieHHO opraHHsoBaTb npn BBepeHHbIX HM
yIpe)eeHHax cnpaBoiHyIo cJym6y. OiHaKo, cyaR no BceMy, CKOJi-JiH6o aKTIBHOH
gerreoJIHOCTH B 3TOM HanpaBJieHHH pa3BepHyTO He 6 muo, TaK KaK, KpoMe 3Toro, y noWrOBLx
cjiyaamHxH 6buio MHOrO gpyrIx uipo6ieM. IIpoBegeHHBIm H3BecTHmIM yyJMIOBCKIHM
4HinaTenjHTOM-HccjegAOBaTeieM F.B.HaroJmHOBBuM nonHCK apxHBHbIX aoKyMeHTOB, KOTopbIe 6bi
noxrrBepaHJiH pa6oTy cnpaBO'aHOf cjiny6BI CHM6HpcKOi niOITOBOfi KOHTopi6 B 3TH roAu,
oKa3ancj 6e3pe3yjsfTaTHbn.

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK X 57 77
November 2005






B npoiecce lanIHeiimero CTpOHTejibCTBa coinHajmcTHecKoro rocyAapcTBa GL6io
co3saHO MHOrO pa3HopoaHbIx ry6epHCKHx, aBTOHOMHBIX, KpaeBLIX, o6nacTHIx H flpy3Ta
aAMHHHCTpaTHBHbIX eAHHHIu. B 1921 roAy napKoM nHOT H TenerpagoB PCQCP
B.C.AOBraneBCKHE B OAHOM H3 CBOHX AOKJanoB npaBHTejiscTBy uncajn: nHIIpaM, TO MbI yBHAHM, HTO Ha TeppHTOpMH, COCTOainefl B Hacromaee Bpe.MiH noa BJiaCTlO
COBeTOB, no BOHHBI AefiCTBOBajIo 23 noTroBo-Tenerpa#HLix ynpaaneHma, a B Hacroamlee Bpesi
HX yHKIIHH BbmOJIHHMOT 86 ynpaBJseHHi (ry6epHCKHX, oGJacTHmIX, B aBTOHOMHBIX H
He3aBHCHMIxM pecny6jiHKax, BXOXAIIafl B 4gelepanmo)...>>
JeKpeTOM BLIHK OT 7 ceHTa6pa 1922 roaa 6sBua npoBeneHa peopraHmnana HapKOMara
noqT H TeJIerpa#oB H ynpaBneHHe MeCTHbIMH pegnpAnTHnc CBaS3 6Emo B03sO)KeHO Ha BHOBE
o6pa3oBaHHBie 20 OKpy2KHMx ynpaBJieHHH CBI3H [3]. IpH 3THX ynpanneanHx H .omJamI 66um
4yHKIUHOHHpOBaTB MeCTHBie CnpaBOqHO-HH1OpMaIwHOHHbIe CiyX6MI, OAHaKO pa3BepH)yr HX
AesreJIbHOCTb B 3aMeTHBIX MacIITaGax He yaajioc,. Ha Mecrax npoAoJ~ani aIKHBHO
,AeicTBoBaTb TOJIKO AgpecHbe CTOJmI. B FleTporpaAe an o6ecne'eia pa6oTb
HeTporpaAcKoro LeHTpajnHoro AApecHoro Biopo 6bLm BLmyIeHbI ABOirmIe
HeMapKHpoBaHHbIe noWTOBie KapTORKH (pHC.1).












PO0LCooi6.tr re, I r.o--o -ra--
L. n r. .- . .. .."
____________________________








OTVPblTOE fliCbMO. -
--. ,<13l i) B.-.
"A I 1Jt -O^JH n HilITJal.














Puc.1

B COOTBeTCTBHH c nepBoft KOHCTHrTyHefi CCCP, yTBepczeHHOi 6 moRA 1923 ro>a
,6biI o6pa3oBaH Hapo,AHLIIi KOMHccapHaT Iowr H Tenierpa4oB CCCP (HKrIHT). Ero cTpyicrypa
H cTpyKTypa MeCTHIX opraHOB yfIpaBJIeHH3I Ha TepprropHn PCOCP ocTaBannc, 6e3
H3MeHeHHi, a Ha TeppnTopHSIX apyrRa cOIO3HIX pecny6mn 6'um o6pa3oBalm HOBe oKpyra
CBs3H. Ynop5moamnacb n MieiTeJIbHOCTL cInpaBOqHO-HHcOpMaIIHOHHOfi cnyz6M B coorTBeTCTBm
c HOBOfl cTpyrKypo HapKoMaTa.
IIpH HK1IHT 24 aBrycTa 1923 roga 6buimo co3gano KoMepIecKOe arearcTBo,
HMeHyeMoe cOKpaeur CHHo CBSn3a>), esoTeJIrHOCT KOToporo 6Ama anpaBieHoa Ha BmI CK
pa3Im a Ix IInoTroBo-peKJrnaMHIX MaTepHaJIOB: IIOnyIYJISpH3HpyIOn=IX TOBapI H yCJyrTH
rocygapcTBeHHIx ripeAnpHArrfi. B ,acie Taxoro poia pelnaMlHix MaTepHanIOB 6Em. TaKe
MamHHHeiB peKJIaMHO-arHTaIH OHHEIe mHTeMIIeJII, T.H. y. B TOM me roaq B
MocKBe HInoq Ha TePP H clc neIHarHMe ITOITOBLe KapTO'qKH C ObIJIlaH HHi OTBeTOM, H3OBIBH Ie
AreHTCTBOM <> H IpeXHa3HaHeHHLie eJ 3sanpocoB B AapecHoe EBopo MoccoBeTa.
HHCTpyKLUHI no Hx pacripocTpaHeHHio rnpsHBeeHa HHice.
78 THE POST-RIDER/SMIIIK XN 57
November 2006






MHCTPYKqMlI
no pacnpocTpaHeHMio nOLTOBblX KapToYeK AppecHoro Biopo
MoccoBeTa
(No29/53)

1. B ienjix npefocTaBneHMi4 UIMPOKHM MaccaM BO3MO>KHOCTM 6blCTpo M aKKypaTHO nonyMcTb afpec
Toro inM MHOro nM4a, npo)KMBaiot4ero B MocKBe, AreHTCTBO (CB13b)) BblnycTIno oco6oro poAa
nomTOBble OTKpblTKM C OnnajeHHblM OTBeTOM, Ha OCHOBe npeAocTaBneHHoro eMy MOHnOnObHOrO
npaBa AnJ npoa)KM 3TMX OTKpbITOK BCeM 3aMHTepecoBaHHbIM rpa)KaaHaM CCCP.
2. YKa3aHHblMH KapTOqKaMM MoryT nOnb3OBaTbC5I Bce rpa)KlaHe CCCP, HaxoAFlI4.ecq B nmo60M M3
ropoAoB, cen iM 1epeBeHb, BHe MOCKBb (a TaioKe M caMoA MocKBe), He 3aTpaqMBaF Ha 3TO
BpeMeHHM pnFI pa3Horo poga cnpaBOK 0 BO3MO)KHOCTM OTbicKaTb appec nyreM nMMHOM nepenWcKM
c MOCKOBCKMM afpecHblM Biopo (CTonoM), He rafa8 0 TOM, CKOnbKO 3TO 6yeleT CTOMTb, He
BbiCbillna peHer, He TpaTF BpeMeHM Ha nMcaHwe AeHe>KHblx nepeBeoOB npM nepecblnKe AeHer B
M.ApecHoe Biopo Mci cooTBeTCTBeHHoro KonMJIecTBa 3HaKOB nOqTOBO0 onnaTbl.
3. Ka>Kfbl KynMBUfMB rOTOByO OTKPblTKKy MOCKOBCKOro appecHoro Biopo, M3paHHylO AreHTCTBOM
(CBF3b)), M 3aTPaTpMBUM Ha 3TO peno Bcero 25 Kon. (BKnioqa clo0La M CTOMMOCTb 2-x MapOK no 3
K. V4 CTOMMOCTb CaMOA cnpaBKM) 3anonHfleT nMlUb Te HeMHorMe KpaTK4e cBegeAHs, KOM M3no>KeHbl
B TeKCTe OTKpblTKM, M onycKaeT ee B nio ow nOqTOBbl F511q4MK O6bHblM o6pa3oM, M B caMbli
KpaTKMA CPOK nony8aeT OTBeT Ha 2- O nonoBMHe yKa3aHHO0 KapTOqKM HenocpeACTBeHHO M3
APpecHoro Biopo r.MocKBbl. CKopocTb noJnyleHMw4 OTBeTa 3aBHCHT OT paCCTOFHH AO MOCKBbl,
y4MTblBaS o6bNIHoe npoxo5KfeH4e nOqTbl A0 AaHHoro MecTa. Ha o6pa6oTKy sanpoca B APpecHOM
Biopo M coo6uieHMe OTBeTa Tpe6yeTcq He 6o0ee O~GHMX cyTOK; TaKMM o6pa3oM, Kmayquae oT
MOCKBbi no paA4ycy Po 500 BepcT MoryT nonyrMTb OTBeT B 3-4 AHI.
4. CBeeeHMF1 Ha onpocHOi KapTOMKe Oni)KHbi 6blTb no BO3MO)KHOCTM nOnHble, Mc4epnblBaIo14Me.
5. KapTOlKM4 nofnetKaT caMOMy LUpPOKOMy pacnpocTpaHeHMIo nyTeM npoa,)Km TaKOBblX,
npeABapMTenbHO onoBeCTiB 06 3TOM WuMPoK4e MaCCbI nyreM o6'RBneHMH.
Bce ToprylioLme nyHKTbl Baujero OKpyra 6e3ycnoBHO On)KHbl 6blTb CHa6)eHbl
KapTOqKaMMi B AOCTaTOYHOM KOnIMMeCTBe, npM t4eM O npolaxe MX Ofl)KHbl 6blTb BblBeweHbl
o6blBjneHHMq BO Bcex MecTax npoa) KM.
lpeAnpMFTMI4M, cQtpMaM M BCFKoro popa yqpe)feHMF M MO>KHO 3TM KapTOqKM npeAnaraTb
B n1io6M KonMqecTBe.
6. KaK o6uAee npaBuno, MapKM ~Of>KHbl 6blTb HaKneMBaeMbi B MOMeHT npoa)Ki4M, TaKiM o6pa3oM
noKynaTenb npno6peTaeT KapTOKKy B rOTOBOM BMHe.
7. npoMaKHaFq 1eHa ABOiHOM KapTOYKM C MapKaMH ycTaHOBneHa B 25 Kon.
8. OKpyXHblM Biopo 3TM KapTOqKM AreHTCTBOM OTnyCKaIOTCFI no 15 Kon. 3a wTyKy (6e3 MapoK).
9. OKpy)KHbe EBopo HaKneMBaloT ABe MapK~ no 3 Kon. 4 BpyqaioT noKynaTenJo roToBytO OTKpblTKy 3a
25 Kon.; TaKHM o6pa3oM, B nonb3y OKpy)KHoro Bopo nocTynaeT 4 Kon. C Ka)K oR OTKpblTKH Ha
nOKpblTMe OpraHM43aqMOHHbIX pacxoAOB no pacnpocTpaHeHMIO OTKpbITOK.
10. YKa3aHHble OTKpblTKM AreHTCTBO paccMaTpMBaeT KaK TOBap, noaTOMy HMKaKOA CneL,4anbHOl
OTleTHOCTH no pacnpocTpaHeHM)O OTKpblTOK He Tpe6yeTcq.
nptMeaHMe. B o6LLMX o'neTax noMe8aeTcq K0J MeCTBO
npoAaHHbIX OTKpblTOK AfpecHoro Biopo 3a OTNeTHbIf nepMog.
11. He npoAaHHbie OTKpbITKM, OCTaBWuMecq B OKpyrax, AreHTCTBO npMHMMaeT o6paTHO no TOM ?Ke
LeHe (15 Kon.), KaK cKopo noTpe6HOCTb K HMX MCCF1KHeT B gaHHOM OKpyre.
12. Ka)KAoe n.-T. npeAPnpI4ulTe, Kenaiouee nonyMMTb An'l npoAa>KM OTKpblTKM AApecHoro B0opo,
gonjKHO o6paulaTbcq B COOTBeTCTByFouiee OKpy)KHoe Biopo AreHTCTBa.

3aM. npep.. npaBneHMs PepKaBMH


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIUK X 57
November 2005







IoIroTOBbe KapTOqKH AapecHoro Biopo MoccoBeTa H3o6paxceHBm Ha pHc.2.


.'-' .........---- ra. ,,-r !-jdt) ri e z iiBcT?

Oaumrmtq
'liiirl -. -- 'lr- .- *nt arn-s ,- "" '.in 10o a :
S:i. l t OnerriD __.___



E-I -" .... -rdj Por, at- ___________________________ "
.--- .-. -Ypomieou (Kanoi ryd..yeo a BMsinci, mau mir x )- -

m a p My _______________*_______
*Diao033ow odoig oJOaa3d1iy 1a1o0 P" A^S. 'r c -



n04TOBAH KAPTOqKA nOTO H PTOK

rC1hCli riLiJE npFAco
MrEcH.o rLironocoBr ". ."pecHoe bipo -
..r. ..." np OC..Io .. .../ .
on. n-iT ,,,-3WiinnT MooBeTa. O .-
U nroIL..m C lnm.l r ~ t =.*
M ,. 0 t A C 0 0 A B
Al PECHI-C> PAB HI.lfl n P 1 --




PHc.2

Ha jieBOfi CTopoHe sanpocHOii KapTiKH 6blmO HaneRaTaHO: (MOHOlnoJMHOe npaBo Ha
cnpaBKH AgpecHoro Biopo MoccoBeTa no nowre npegocTaBieHo KoM.A-By <> HKIInT>) n
yKa3an aTpec I~eHTpaajbHoro rpaBjieHHa MocKBa, Ky3HemcrKH MOCT, h14, AzpecHo-
CnpaBOMHbImi oTAeni. IIpHMesaHHe CHH3y HHopMMnpOBano KmerrHTOB o TOM, Two IeHa 6iaHKra B
25 KOI. BKJmoaeT B ce6fI IIOsTOBbie pacxoALi Ha nepecbuiKy H CTOHMOCTb cnpaBKH.
B 1925 roAy 6biio pemeao pacmupHTB noIToBO-TejierpagdHyio cerT B aepeBHe, wro
3HaHHTeJIbHO aKTHBHpOBaJIO pa60Ty cejIsciHx nOlTOBLrIX oTeajieHHi. BbmI OT'KpHlTO MHOr
HOBLIX IHOTOBbIX oTAeneHHii, pacmpeH mTaT nIOqTOBbhX pa6oTHmHOB. IIoTrOBBe pa6oTHmHK
cTajIH aKTHBHBIMH IpOBOAHHKaMH KyJIBTypHHOf peBomonHH Ha cene. OHH He TOJI0KO
aocTaBJin I nIHCMa H ra3eTmi, HO TalOKe npoaBajim ceeXiCKHM xacHrejia MapKH, noqTOBLie
KOHBepTBI H KapTOqKH, ipHHHMajIH HnoAHCKyC Ha ra3eTl Hn xWypHanim H T.n. OaaKo paGoTa
cnpaBOMHO-HH4OpMau:HOHHOfi cnyacx6i Ha MecTax B IIOJIHOf Mepe eme He 6buna pa3BepHTya. B
3aMeTKe HOBBIH BHA IIOqTOBO-TeJIerpaHBuIX ycjyr, ony6JmKOBaHHMIf B YJmnSHOBCKOfi
ry6epHcKOfi ra3eTe Hanmei ry6epHHH no pacnopaxDeHHH HapKoMnoowreJ BBeAeH HOBBII, eie He npHMenamnBuicq
0o CHX nop, sBH nolWrOBO-Tenferpa4HLIX ycjyr Haceinermo npHeM BceBo3MoaH10
cnpaBow~,bI nopyleHHi OT rpa=aaa... TaKHe nopyeeHHa Hyaxmo jlenaTb oco6bLm
KapTOqKaMH, a noKa OHH eme He IIPHlcianHB I H e pa3ocJiaHm no MecTaM, TO OGaiKHOBeHHI]MH
OTKpsTrKaMH... HljiaTa a riopyeeHHI, Ino KOTOpBIM IIPHxorHTrca HaBoIHr cnpaBKH B MocIse n
JIeHHHrpaAe, ycTaHOBjieH B 2 py6na, B Apyrnx ropoaax 1 pyGJ H B ceinciaRH MeCTHOCTSx -
50 KoneeK. snn KpecTbSH ycTaHOBJieHa 50-npoIeeHTHaa cKHiKa.>
CneiuHaJibHBIe HIIOTOBb Ie KapTOrKH AJI CIIpaBOK IIOIBHJIfmc TOJIbKO oceHbio 1928 r.
Coo6mteHHE 06 3TOM 6bUrI oIIy6JIHKOBaHBI B IeIHTpaJTIHOi H MeTHOHi IlepHOxlrecKOHi neeaTH.
TaK, 5 oKTa6pa 1928 r. B ra3eTe J coo6meHHe: < 80 THE POST-RIDER/5MIIMHK N 57
November 2005


__~_I______






KOn. AOCTOHHCTBa, IO KOTOpLIM MOXKHO InoJyaTb CIIpaBKH no pa3HBIM BIInpOCaM H3 BCex
ropoAoB CCCP. 17 HoA6pa 1928 r. Ta ce ra3eTa ony6JMKOBajIa ene oiAHo coo6IneHHe:
< B03MOoKHOCTB BCeM rpawczaHaM noiynaTB no no nore, Tejierpady H TejneoHy Heo6xoaHMBie
axpeca mIu, yrpeceHHii, a Taxie cnpaBKn no BceM BonpocaM ToprOBIH, nipoMBImiueHHOCTH,
TpaHcnopTa, CBaI3e fIpaBa, TexHHKH, KoonepanHH, Q4)HaHCOB, HCKyCCTB, JHrrepaTypbi H npon.
Bbmyeine3I cneInmajbHbie cnpaBowbrbe KapTOIKH, KOTOp~e HMeIOTCS BO Bcex noqTOBO-
Tenierpa4)HLIx npeanprnTHax no ieHe, BMecTe c OTBeTOM, 25 KoneeK.>
H3 npHBegeHHBax BInne amnixHb MOWKHO 3aKInoHmT, HTO cneImarmmHe norTOBLie
KapT0mKH Alj cnpaBOK iIOCTynHJIH B o6pamieHHe oceHBio 1928 r. HKHnT BimycKan Hx
UeHTpaJIH3oBaHHO H paccInian Ha MecTa..
IHoTOBaa KapToIKa npeAcTaBnana co6oi HeMapKHpoBanHmIii 4opMyjip pa3MepaMH
210x150 MM, nOXONcHt Ha 6njaHKH ABOiHOf IIn9TOBOi KapTOIKH C OUnaieHHLIM OTBeTOM
(pHc.3).











,TB' KA- :.:tr:7




... ............ i











Ha EnieBori CTopose sanpocHoAt KapTOPKH B BepxHegi ee sacTH 6n oTmeqaTra TexcT B
ABe cTpoKH: >. Ae sepTHK8HHIe jiHHHH EIAnHH
...............r*. ...... -E..













ee iHi1eBY1o CTOPOHy Ha ABe racTH. Upasai 7aCT6 Bbmonuma cnyxe6uLe yHKwH H
r .... i o, ; -




PHC.3

Ha jm IeBoH CTOpOHe 3anpocHOH KapTOtIKH B Bepxnefi ee HacTH 6Bin OTfneaTaH TeKCT B
aBe CTpOKn: ((HOHTOBA5 KAPTOHKA )JI5I CIIPABKW>. wBe BepTmcKaiBHMie JInHIH feinmi
ee jImeLylo CTOpOHy Ha fBe HacTn. HpaBaa HacT, BBmonmanua cnyxce6m~ie jyHcuanl H
npeaHa3HaiajiacB c. ia HaKIeiiKH MapoK HarmHcaHHa anpeca. MecTo xna HaKjieiiKH MapoK G6bIO
yKa3aHO B npaBOM BepxHeM yrjiy c noMonBLIo nyHKTHpHoro npsMoyroJIbHHKa pa3MepaMH 16x22
MM, BHyTpH KOTOporo 6bm HaneIaTaH TeKCT: 6LIIo HanetaTaHo: <<3AKA3HOE>) i Han aaBycTpOmHbki nyHKTHpHbri aapecHblii Tpa)apeT c
yIKasaTeniaMI > H <. BcneA sa CJIOBOM < 6bun yKa3aH aapec noJIyaaTeJI:
<.
JIeBasi HacT, JaiHeBoj CTOpOHbI 3anpocHOi HacTH KapTOHKH coAepmana
HHopMaLjHOHHbIH TeKCT O CnOCo6aX ee HCIIOJIb30BaHHM, HaileqaTaHHbIi MeJIKHM mIIpHTOM B
20 CTpOK:
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIMHK 57 81
November 2005







IIpaBHTeJIbCTBeHHBIX, COBeTCKHX, napTHHbIX, npoI4eCCHOHajnIHLIx, KoonepaTnBHIx,
MaHHaHCOBIX, ipoMbinJeHHbLX, KOMMepqecKHx, CTpaxOBBIX, TpaHCIOpTHbia, yqe6max,
Hay-Hbir, jieqe6Ho-caHHTapHbIx H 4p. y'pexcgeHHr, npelnpHAerTi XO3SfCTB, oprasaH3afi
o6mecTB, TOBapHmecTB, KOHTOp, areHTCTB H T.II., HaXOARIImHXca B C.C.C.P., o BpeMeHH Hx
aeiicTBHa u np ipeMa, xapaKTepe oKa3bsiaeMaix ycnyr, npOH3BOMBHMIX TOBapax, nenax H T.n., a
TaKle 06 appecax oT3ejnHbix rpaxcaan, COCTOMIHHH 30ApOBB1 G6oJIbHb,, HaXOAtMtXCSI Ha
JineeHHH B nieqe6HbIx yspe)K~eHHax, caHaTopHax H Ha KypopTax, BpeMeHH np eMa y Bpateri-
cnenHaJIHCTOB, nnaTe 3a IpneM H T.n. cBeaeHHr4.))
O6opoTHaa cTOpoHa KapTOIKH npeaHa3HaajiacX AJI HaimcaHH1A TeKCTa 3anpoca. XirL
3Toro no BceMy ee nomno 6bIu HaHeceH nyHKTHpoM AeceTICTpo'mHI TpadapeT. Ho nepHMerpy
me o6opOTHOl CTOpOHLI B BepxHel qacTH H no 60KaM 6bLIHI HaneqaTaH l HHCTpyKIaHH no
sanonjHemIHo sanpoca. C jieBoH CTOPOHI B TPH CTpOIKH 6bIUI HaneaaTaHO: (HIcnIpaBHOCTh
nepecbm KH H AOCTaBKH c1paBOK rapaIrrpyeTcsa npHeMOM H BsbiaereH HX no npasaBHaM X-
3aKa3HnX HO nTOBbIX OTTpaBJieHHHr.>> B BepXHeH 9acR KT0CTtKH KTaciKe B TpH CTpO II 6bIO
HanelTaTaHo: <<~Jji noJIoyeHHA cnpaBKH cineAyer acHO H3JIOX HT, KaKar cinpaBKa o.I.KHa 6bITb
HaBeAeHa H CAaTb 3Ty KapToIKy nof pacneHCKy B 61nizaflimayo noTroBylO KOrTOpy, oTIenejieHe,
areHTCTBO HJH IIHCbMOHOCLIy, onIJIaTHB notTOBrLMH MapKaMH Ha 25 Kon.) C ipaBoti CTOpOH B
eTmipe CTpOKH 6bmo HaneqaTaHo: 1Ho aTOH KapTOUKe MO)HO nonrOJIYHT He 6onee oaHofH
3aKOHHeHHOi cHpaBKH, Hanp., 06 agpece oAHoro TOJIBKO yrpexmeHHa H BpeMeHH rpneM~a aHI
06 aApece oAHoro npeArnpaTHSa, xapaKTepe IIpOH3BOFHMLix ToBapOB H neHax Ha orTeJmH.
lpeaMeTi.>>
H3 TeKCTa, HaneqaTaHHoro Ha o6opoTe sanpocHo KapToKH, cjineoBajio, qro npneM n
npoaacy KapToweK AM cnIpaBOK npOH3BOAHJHm He TOJIBKO IIOrTOBbIe ypeXAeanHH, HO H
norTajibOHbi. 3TO OKa3bIBaIjioc 6oj mTHM yAo6cTBOM niI KJmeHTOB, oco6eHHO B cejmICKnx
MeCTHOCTIX.
YCTaHOBJIeHHbIlI cnerHajnbHbIH TapH ) B 25 Kon. BKImooan B ce6a onnraTy nowroBLix
pacxoAOB no nepecbuTKe 3anpoca H OTBeTa KaK 3aKa3HMX oTnpaBsneHHii H CTOHMOCTb yCJInT no
HaBeIeHHIo cnpaBoK. OH 6bin cyLecTBeeHHO HIre AIeiCTBOBaBIHX Toraa TapH4oB Ha
nepecsbnKy 3aKa3HOI KoppecnoHAgeHmHH.
Ho aaBHO cJIO KHBI ef1ca B POCCHH npaIcrme HeMapKHpoBaaHHy i poAyKLIi noqTOBO-
Tenerpa4Hbie KOHTOPBI 3aKa3MBaIH CaMOCTOATeJIBHO B MeCTHBx THnorpaHqax. B no~mor Mepe
3TO OTHOCHJIOCB H K IIO0TOBbIM KapTOtKaM ,TanM cnpaBoK. 3TO o6cToSrrejIcTBO npHBseno K
noanjeHHio pa3JmHHbix THIOB KapToTeK OTJImHa1IIIHxca ,Ipyr OT Apyra He TOJiTKO 4aK-ypoii
6yMarH, rapHHTypoi mpnHTa, HO H coolep)KaHHeM noaCHHTejIbHibi TeKCTOB.
Kax npaBHJo, nowrrosBe MapKH Ha nomHyio cyMMy TapH4a HaKJIeHaiH Ha JnmeB7io
CTopOHy sanpocHOii acTH KapT0qKH (pHC.4).



1 P .i. ...............


t :: M N 3 EHA3HDE


I^E ^^^ ^.L .r... |. i.....' 7. .,'*'/- "''='- v ... .
... N .. ........1 .-- ,., f-It
m1h....f .. . l .... ..." ..
.. ..... '..........-. I [



PHc. 4
82 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N- 57
November 2005








OTBeTHra.q e qaCTb, CHaG6KeHHaSI OTTHCKOM MaCTH'IHOH neqaTH < HH4QopMaLnooHHoro 6Iopo, orTeea HJH KOHTOPbI cooTBeTCTByioiOero no'TOBoro y'pegeHHIIa,
nepecbuJIanIac, KaK npaBHio, 6e3 MapoK. OGb6rIO B HnpasoM BepxHeM yrjy oTBeTHofi 'acTH
KapTO'KIH-cipaBKH HaHOCHJICS OTrHCK MaCTHMHOfi ienarTH HHqopMainOHHo-cnpaBOlHoro 6iopo
mIH KOHTopB, Aaiomiii npaBO Ha 6ecnjaTHyio nepecbuiny, a cama KapToaxa o4opMJIaacS KaK
3aKa3Ha Hc CHa6x2aJIacb 3aKa3HBIM apJIbKOM HJIH mITaMIIOM (pHc.5).


PHC.5


H3BecTHr cny'aH, Korga Ha OTBeTHyIO nacT KapTO'KH-cupaBKH KJneHjnEIC MapKH, a
KapTOKa od~opMjnaacb Kax 3aKa3Hoe oTnpanBieHHe (pHc.6).


Pnc.6


KaK cKypbe MO)KHO paccMaTpHBaTb KapToqKy-cnpaBKy, 4ocTaBieHHmyio nonyaTemjo co
mTaMInoM <<(onIiaTHITB. HIO-BHmnMOMy, pa6OTHHK iHHdopMalomHHO-cnpaBO'Hofi cJnyx6 no
HeBHHMaTeJILHOCTH He IIOCTaBHJ MacTHmIHyio neqaTb (pHC.7).


THE POST-RIDER/MMIHIK MN 57
November 2005


--. O'-ITOBAR K-PIyCLKA......
3. ----', *- cn a' (n ... A
....--. 3AKA3HOE


.if-" rVr-' -/.(Jc ,

.t ~ ur.. *' .
- -- i > -, Z .,
-'.. .- : .' ,r --, 1, /


nflOcH KfAPTOL.K ;.W
n '. ""= *
L* A 3 _HO
* :l .33 HOA 5 '.ViO' E



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I.. -."'' -t ~ j
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I c -




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~BO~K~p~q~a~eJnKOPuc.7


HHorxga BCSIBAa iaTmaiemO BO3B~a8qjia~IC] 3aSIEHTeJino, a SpiKJhl c OTBeTO
HaJCiieHBaJIC5I Ha JIHileBYIO CTOPOHY 3aI~pOCHOI4 xiacTH. MqaJIe Bcero 3T0 6iL.no Toraza, Korzra om~e-
6Lui oTpHLuaTejiLHLIM HJiH pa~oTHHiK cflpaBo'Ho-Hia2opman~HoHHoro 6i0p0 nepecbmwai 3aIIpOC B
coOTBCCTBioLTqCC y'IpexcgeHHe =AI5 oTBeTa 3asIBHTeino. Ha pHc.8 llpe~gcTaBnieHa -iacm A
3aIupoCHO i KapTo'llc, oTIpaBJieHHOI4 H3 Cam~apM B MOCI(By 24.06.1930, Ha KoTop)'1O
HH4opmaTp HameIHJI JIHcToI c Iaepea~gpeCOBKOri B IJK Pa6npoca.
~i :
"'rc











'SktP AE: I = 'AIfR T ..11 z T. --)2 E- r- -r
-~E -



f]LI qTA Al

7



PHc.8

14Horga cllpaBOiHO HHdaopma1uHoHHbwe IKOHTOPLI oTcbiiaJIH oTBeT B OGL MIIH]X
KoHBepTax, Ha ICOTOPLX BMeCTO mapKH cTaBHjiCi m1a1m4n lui inelqaT. Ha pHC.9 H3o6paxeH
KOHBepT OT nIHCbMa, ompanwieOHoro 09.08.1933 r. cInpaBoxmo- HHopmaijHoHHoR KobpoH O
r.POCToBa-Ha-,L)OHy, B r.YJIBSIHOBCK H CHa62KeHHoro OYHCKaMH cniy xe6Horo flI-a!,a C TeKCTOM
< (HHKOJIbCKaMS), 97. Teni.25300 H 2530b). IIpH 3Tom ogHH oTrHcK, pa3meIIjeHHi BHTH3),
BLMOM1HSLJ pOJIb o6paTHoro agipeca, a Xzpyroft B iipaBOM BepxHem YrnIy CJIyTKAu 3a~meHof
mapKH.


THE POST-RIDER/ZIMIHK MK 57
November 2005







.,- .




-^
S.' ,

2,: uS' .....





"' a '















ceepaBIHoHcT paBOHO-HHHOHOH cjiyI6byi CCCP. BaBHT Inep oca i TaKHX KB apxoBe.




6buia onHcaHa B 1989 roAy [5].
KapToqKa ipeAcTaBnasia coSo6 HeMapKHpOBaHHb opMyjiSp pa3MepamH 105x150 MM H 6uia
OTneiaTaHa Ha GC6eJIOM TOHKOM KapTOHe THIorpaICKHM cnoco6oM KpaCKOR qepHoro IeeTa c
TeKCTanM Kap Ha jcyeBoY TaK H Ha o6opomHo cTopoHax. Ha pHC.10 H3o6paxceHa KapTo-Ka,
HcnpaBoJnoBaB-ma nS B CneHTpaJhHOM cnpa BOHOM 61opo B r.MocKBe, pa3Me o aBameMc B sapxHHH
FniaBHoro nowramma no agpecy yJi.MacHHIKasA, 26.
.JIHieByio CTOpOHy KapTOnKH pa3saejaisma BepTHKaJIbHaA JIHHHSI Ha aBe HepaBHble acTH.
HIpaBasA, 6onbmaa qacTi, mHpHHoH 120 MM npeAHRaHHatiaacb Xu HanHcaHHM anpeca. B
BepxHeH iacTH KapTowK 6bUIO HIaTaHo: - pyccKOM H 3crepaHTO. HHrce AaBaj icq n cIATHCTpoa Hbn TOHerHMHa aAlpeMHbJ TpaeapeT c
yKa3aTeJISIMH <> H < < HaHMeHOBaHHe )Kee3pa HO- a)opoMr. Ye3A HRIH paYOH, BOJIOCTB, cejio HpimH epeBHA. LrX poT6Hoe
HaHMeHOBaHHe Ino JIyaTensja. Hoa aTopecHKEM TpaCapeTOM, K Kofeji eHHM sTapHOR
ropTH3oHCTaM HOaH IepTO, 6TbIO Ha neoaTaHO: eHTpaBHa.oe CnpaBO p oe Biopo. H.K.H. H T. -
Y.C.M.O. MocKBa, B eHTp, MacHHinKaA, 26(6)>>. B ppaBOM HH HeM yrjiy IIeTHTom yKa 3iBajicI
HOMep 3333.
MeHbiaa, CTeBaO OH acTb pa3jneBOH CTOPOHbK noHTOBon KapTOBKH, HnepHHoB 30 MM,
coAepx)Kaja peKjiaMHBn I TeKCT, HalneqaTaHHb l B 6 cTpo T CHH3y BBepx: BaoIpocaM Ho noTHe ,TeeoeopoH H Tenerpa y BaM coo6nCT LceHTPAJILHOE C1PABOp6HOE
BIOPO. THE POST-RIDER/SIMIUHK N 57 85
November 2005






3AMEHHT Bac B oTCyTCTBHe, pa36yAHT, 060 BCeM HanIOMHT H nepeaacT mo6oe nopysemie -

BbIPE3KAMH H3 FA3ET Ha nmo6yo TeMy H3 COIO3HOH H HHOCTpaHHOH npeccu cHa6.HT
BIOPO FA3ETHbIX BbIPE30K.>>
06opOTHas CTOpOHa KapTOIqK Taaxce 6buia pa3sejnea BepTHKaJLHORi jH e He a aBe
HacTH. ILpaBaa, InMpHHOi 125 MM mHCTaA H npeaIasHaaanacB .n Hnann~H spca anpo a
neBaa ,mapHHOf 25 MM, Taxme coAepmaana peIaIaMHb TeKCT, HaneTaTaHHmAL B 4 CTOcKH CHH3y
BBepx:
coo6rmT L~EHTPAJIbHOE CIPABOMHOE BIOPO.
Bo3BMHTe Ha nowre cneImanbHnyo cnpaBoqHyio oTrKprrcy
H rnoiynHTe noITOBbl OTBeT no mno6oMy HHTepecyonmeMy
Bac Bonpocy YH geny.>


PHC.10


B TOM me 3SaaHHH yYHKUHOHHpoBaJIa H MOCKOBCKaI ropoACKaa cnpaBOHno-HHropMianiHOHHa
KOHTOpa, KOTOpaaI B CBOe pa6oTe HcnoJIb3soBaja aHaiormuIa e KapTOqKH C peinaMofi (piH.11).
3TH KapTOWKH nepecsuianimc 6e3 MapoK KaK cjy)ye6Hbie.


1 OAV V OL TOB HA eA,7u

I t-i^ pos' /^ ^

SIrl .3lB ,. n .'l p P.l t1 fl a
I! r .., _A- .._/ ._... -___
I*^ MII a(,, I ia p. mT. C -. 3nn ..p. a m)
Ajt, h, h t L Jr5 ^ jllJ PHC. 11


56 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No 57
November 2005
















PeroHajibHbie (o6jiacTHBe, KpaeBiie, ropoAcKHe) cnpaBO'HO-HH4JopMauHOHHbIe
KOHTOpLI HIH 6iopo ocylnecTBJ iH BIbmycKH KapToqeK Wam cnpaBOK, ipeAHas3aaeHaHix gia
Hcnojns30BaHa B CBoefl MeCTHOCTH. Ha pHc. 12 H3o6pa)eHa rIOTrOBaas KapTOMKa XJi cnpaBKH,
H3saaHHaa o6nacTHbiM cnpaBOmHbiM 6iopo IJeHTpajTHO-HepHO3eMHOro oKpyra H oTnpaBneHHaa
H3 r.PaHeH6ypra B r.MocKBy 20.03.1933 r.


nOlTOEASI
.1, C
n.U f. *'*yplt.O .npfar.,
nrab a ILemP'rimeaur j u n |.
7 Sniu.a-iij^ T. poBr ru n AirS-

aCu LOrUPG C f, '. I L..

n~j.r.aiJ .i *,S lar. jif. I fxLA
loSAs75 !ruu w F.Cf rI% t
S.roa. U ..a.r. ,ae yn
nl-p. u L.' rr*h.lrh P
Kr,'n rItI'.. ryn'.gUa. Sni rofl, i. o
pn*uS. AUrfrn. pErl!JS S M


spm -


KAPTO4KA r.. -z -
np .. g.KIJ.

2fl





S7 *7
),a
/ 1OqiTA 2 '



I,
.; ** ^ PO


PHc.12


Cjyxme6Haa KapTOqKa, npeAHa3HaCeHHaa xr. cnojib3OsBaHMa B Biopo o6cJIyxIlBaiHa
r.AcTpaxaHH H3o6paaceHa Ha pnc.13. Ha Heri, KaK H Ha MOCKOBCKHX KapTomcax, HaneraTaHa
peKaaMa cnpaBOrHO-HHaopMalHOHHOi cJnyc6sl.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK V 57
November 2005

































PHc.13

B LIeHTpajniHOM cnpaBoHHOM 6iopo H.K.H.HT. HcnoJIb30BanniH nrre=nenj no dopMe
aHaniorHnHbie HnorOBblM mTeMnejaM CCCP TorO me nepHo2a. OHn npeacTaBiiain co6oii sBe
KOHIeCHTpHIecKHe OKpyKHOCTH HanaMeTpaMH 20 H 30 MM. BHyrpH MeHbImeti oKpymKoCTH
Mexacy AByMa ropH30HTaJTIHBIMH iHHHmMH pa3MeEmanacB zaTa, a MexcAy 6ojmmoHi H Maiofi
OKpyacHOCTLIO MII TeKCTbI: Hnn < nOJIY'EHO> (pHc.14)


( 6 : 2; ,30)






Pnc.14

IIepabI irreMneJi CTaBHjic Ha HcxoArymio KoppecnofemHno H nortrBep~aan ee
cjnyme6HbIii xapaKTep, a BTOpOI Ha BXOAHmlyo H BbmoJmIL perSCTpanHOHHue 4ymHaH.
YcnyrI nOtTrb aKTHBHO nponaraHAHpoBajrnc c noMoIrlo peKniaMi, noMeLaeMofi Ha
MapKHpoBaHHIX H HeMapKHpoBaHHbX IOqTOBbIX KOHBepTax H KapTowKax, a Ta~KCe nHyreM
nomeIeHHRa COOTeTBeTCTByoero TeKCTa Ha peKnaaMHo-arHTaiHOHHLix ManimHblx miTreMmeIx.
Boj moe pacnpocTpaneHHe nonyum na Tp p3MaTHa pae3M eH s pa3InmtI ix peKXaMix TeCKCTOB
Ha InOTOBLIX IITeMneJImx, HCHOJIb30BaBIIIHXC B CIneIaHaIbHLIX mTeMnejieBajmI bIx Mamnax,
npeaHa3HaHeHHbIx AJI aBTOMaTHiecKOr 06pa6oTKH BXOXIRmei H HcxoAlmei~ nOTTOrBOH
Koppecn oHAeHUHH. OAHnoi H3 nepBLix Ha IITeMneiInx noaBHJiacB HHmopMaiLn o TKax
Ha3baBaeMO < 88 THE POST-RIDER/IM3HK NJ 57
November 2005







3KCHneXlHUHH InpHMeHaMICa MamHHH MJ mTeMIIneb C TeKCTOM cjieAylor ero cogepxamns:
<>. BcjeA 3a 3TIM
aHaanorwmHie MamHHHb ie mTeMneJm, nponaraHaHpyiomIue <=mTaMn-peKnaMy>>, cTarJ
npHMeHnThCA B B opoHee, IKeBe, PocTOBe-Ha-goHy, JIemHrHpare, THljnmce, XapbKoBe [8-10].
B 1927 roAy nocne iinKBHgaIHI KOMMepiecKoro areHTCTBa (CBM313> HKIInT H3laJI
cneIHaJBHayio HHCTpyKUHIO OT 27.10.1928 r., perJaMeHTHpyiomyl o nopo ,AOK H ycJOBHsI npHeMa
H pacnpocTpaHeHA pemKaMlbI qepe3 CnpaBOHHO-HH OpMaImHOHHyIO cjayx6y Inp no-rOBO-
TejierpaHbIx ympexKeHHax. HMeHHO nocne 3Toro mmpOKoe pacnpocTpaSeHHe, KpoMe
perKJaMHbix noTOBbrx mrieMenjiei, nonyrHHJH H Apyrne pa3HOo6pa3mie peKJaMHO-
arHTajHOHHMBe 1no0TOBbIe MaTepHanTl: MapKHpoBaHHBIe H HeMapKHpoBaHHbIe noqTOBBIe
KOHBepTbI H KapTO'rKH. PeiKaMa pa3MeimaJiacb Aame Ha 6JIaHKax TenerpaMM, norwOBnx
KBHTaHnIax, XHponpHCKa3a H T.n. Ha pHc.15 H3o6paaceHa oGopoTHaI cTopoHa G6namca
TeJIerpaMMbI 30-x roAoB C pa3JHIHHIMH peKJaMHIMMH TeKCTaMH, cpelH KOTOpbX eCTb H
OTHOcamHeca K CIpaBOIHO-HHopMaIHOHHOfi cJIyac6e.



nlo n a.R rIatrl ,ra l ,i5ri p,,pceFHO HP MAeCII,. kal ai C).kh), L). MO l m Iele lRUp*6,.,U dTl
o.:(aj. ,h 2e.erpaIr .* k vlk.'IH.,i BamI spiII (cprk I I,.napsB..cp I W1,g cp. -'-PT anR p
II T. a 1.
Tc.erpJ.l r,*.e C )..,lcroBepHll. Bat I1I,]liKlI Hi nH i, imnlii IT erpilse, PpH ITpejC 1,.
=.'HIIII nJcnFlprT I,1H k.I'kTDortlpelfli .1mllll4N1 (. c ITUO pPTrll oo il
Ilen6oluj Hly.n BaM InpI) i ll1.r-ll Te.ucrpam., rs.)HL1n CCrP. Bu h,:eTc HICTII
:nclEAncIBIu TFJI-FPrp\'HurOD nOPY r II Ti.
CnpJaha nI .Iry H aBuO ijTb noJ [IO JMU pll rpa in.IU B3Jpr'"CM. Ilanpllep ob as;,,:st
a .-Ai il ntl II or c."" .1 .t. rp l nll. uJ crlrTOaiIH 3,..ipl hIsl Ci,. .11 HIM H4X~lliIl~l B O .'.,,,IILC
.IICdIeHHU.;. r, tl., s'I iM pe'TfliU. AipL. II' H BD3.mi)W UlbM I .Cii.pct IuI Hu3. H I T.
fIoaamille lemarpamnI c ,C7 uoi. (rnepr a pEcoM) YBEaMJILHHME TEJIErPA,0C\M.
H3 Gy l Riocrailenme .BraM.1qellqtin .) BphLmejQ a.'Htcmi BaLucll TceIrp3Mmu alpeca1 y.
Hie IM IJ n1.In.HIrn arpeca (fInanI ChomjaH i ..iMuhsl, HOi'.a OADMO, IFl-Iepa KBAfnlupl, I1 T. 1.1
Bb mA.'e noc.ir.l. re.irrpa vNy c IIn*... ...p.IrOM CAr...JB nlptl a1 peo.hI nocu.-.ueM'l
e 'erpdMMil or.i CTh% \.1PECH \1 CTP n il. \ Oln.-, EH A
r_ ;Tt .- ; I. .




PHC.15

CpeAHI MamHHHbX peKJiaMHO-arHTamHOHHblx mnreMueneJie, HCnojns3oBaBimaxca B 5-oir
3KCneaHUIHH MOCKOBCKOrO IIOSTaMTa, InoaBHJIHCb mTeMnejIs, npouaraHaHpyilonHe caMy
cnpaBOHHO-HH 4opMaIHOHHylo cnyJI6y. Ha HHX pa3Memiiajnc TexCTmI cje~alomero
coaepxaHHa:

< nIOJIYqHTE H3 MOCKBb JIIOBYIO CIIPABKY 3A 25 KOHI.>

A TAK)KE BCE AMPECA IACTHbIX JIHU H YrPE)KUEHHII>

( nIOJIYqHTE H3 JIIOBOrO FOPOJJA JIIOBYIO CIPABKY 3A 25 KOn.>>

Ha piC.16 unpHBeXeHbL H3o6paxeHHla OTTHCKOB HeKOTOpbIX mreMneJeie,
npHMeHasBmlaxCa Ha JIaBHOM noiraMTe r.MocKBM B 1928-1930 r.r.

THE POSTORIDER/AMHJMHK N 57 89
November 2005









nuKvInTE ROHAflTE=:K 1 WKnAffAf HA fLUE=J
vnP\BrKlbrnG1~EbJ l 'U~fl? 28 5 AT MOUTYJ 5
Slo19 e11 nMUKbU fU1 941TE K3 MOU
RI1US lPAMSA 25KOL o AIUS MMI5KY3A25 Km h.P

nfl5S Io17 a '. i L :. CITPA8EKIpa nflFThMTA.
A1).E CE..AnPtt -' ATAKKE BCE PAPECR.
q THblXAMILZ 'OACTHbRIJll u,
AV PEPi(LtEHOj1!M HY4PE)KIEIIIIA


67F15161 '-I ESURTEW04Tn i
;Anp CDPABCoq u7LKbIR b. HE _




PHC.16

K Hamamiy 1930-x roRoB peKIaMHo-arHTaltHoHHBie =meneiiA noffysHJTH mupoFoe
paciipoc~paneH~e B CCCP. 14x, KpoMe MOCKBbI H JleHHHrpa~a, Hcrioji63OBaiiH Ha noximT8ax
BopoHewa, Ka3aHrn, KHeBa, HEiicero HoBropo~a, Ogeccbi, rkepim, PocToBa-Ha-Aoioy
CkmIdepoinao, TH4JIHCa, Tynbi, Xa6apoBcKa H XapbKoBa. B Oiiy6jIHiOBaHIEhix uepesiqx
3aperkc-rp~pOsao OKOJIO CTa iniTHzecsITH pa3WJMHbix peKJaMHo-arHTamHoHHMX nreMrNeJleri [9-
10].
Bo MHOrHx ropogax Hapa~gy c MaJlHHLIMbMH TITeMrIIeIHMH iioTOBbIe ytlpexKeHHR HCHOJIL3OBa.-M
peKJIaMHbIe KayIyKoBr e tUTaMMbI, BecbMa pa3HOIIJIaHOBOrO CowepcanHHA. Mnoro BHHma~iHH
TorgIa ygemmrnocL pa3aThCHeHMHO HaceneHHIo CTpaHbI nOImrmcii naPTHH H ripaBHTejibcTBa,
lIPH3bIrBM YqacTBOBaTL B Bii6OpaX, xpaH=Th AeHbirH B c6eperaTewumlx Kaccax, noiynamb
6HneTbI norepeH OCOABRIAXM[Ma H T.ll. B 1933 H 1934 roxax peRcIa.Na ciipaBo'no-
HH4OpMaIIHOHHOR cnyxc6bI 61uia HaneriaqaT a Ha O6OpOTHOr CTOPOHe grByx mapKHpOBaHHbMx
KOHBePTOB (N22.199 H N22.232).



~~ f:





ipi
MUrrCFCHaJI(A......




-- N:Mi.;ots MEWnuI. s26/i. -





THE POST-RIDEWIEMUIIMc MS7
) November 2005














.Pp ABK
j.aKxonap. pnuBomBm
u ,rtlawuw[m, T
. npa leif r .'c:tla. le T 5 :.B-
.ibI. K (r*.. 4-c b ai.ve, 1)
di)Hquws tCTe.sTml.ir
,ymp,4Atle I B blAAKITCR
uprRlnM2wia CnP.SBDrmHbMe4 GF'I
H IHOCHIIAMH HMHCBf3H 1
*


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BTY'3" K nip.. -ariar re a
EHiaibc"arm MRPapa
06 aAican pipe'4e.
JI air 4acriikt
CCCF. a~ A


R n oAysilry ca parE Mw K3 Apro
rntcJTKR noabsyh~e rcapaBetnoo aBpTo0Kri on C-,lt.


PHc.17


B nIOTOBOM o6pameHHH IIOaBHJIHCb H HeMapKHpOBaHHhIe penJaMHo-arHTaiHOHHbie
KOHBepTbI, Ha o6opoTHOHi CTOpOHe KOTOpBix 6buI HanevaTaH TeKCT cJIeyiomiero cofepxancaa:


Mo)aeTe noJnywHTb epes norry cineI~aanRHo
noTrrOBOi KapTO KOi Jia cnpaBOK.
TPEBYITE
HnoTroBbie KapTOTKH AJIaS cnpaBoK
Be3se Ha nore H y IHCbMOHOCIeB.>>


I- cau i .w I .i C e P .__HI. E., niMear 9 V .ur& i CCc






_- A
*-wrr Weu *ges r emell*"' .. iT ... I a hwrni 1 pe e





1-'.- -- ,










B 1929-31 r.r. CpeAHe-A3HaTcKoe cnpaBo'Hoe 6iopo unpi YnpaBjeHHH CBsaI3 B
r.TamKeHTe ocymIecTBHJIo BsmycK ,geBATH r po nBH30PHBix enJbHix Bermei (IV-1+IV-9), jia
qero IIpOH3BseIO HaneqaTKH peKnaMHo-arHTainHoHH1ix pHCyHKOB H TeKCTOB Ha JIeBOHI qacTH
CTaHAapTHbIX MapKHxpBaHHTIX KapToeeK. OlHH H3 BbmYCKOB (IV-4), AaTHpOBanHHIi 1930
rolOM, penaMHposBa Ha pyccKOM H y36eKCKOM aI3bKaX nIOTOBbie KapTOKH l1ax cCnpaBOK:
BbICTPO H AKKYPATHO BbI CMoxeTe nonynmTb 1epes norry
3a 25 Kon. OTKprbITKOH <<1ni cpaBOK>)>>.


IepBOH nojiHoireHHOH ireJIHO Bembio, peKnaMHpyioimei KapTOKxH An, enpaBoK, cTana
peKJaMHO-arHTramOHHaA norTOBaa KapTOKna CCCP, H3gaiHHaa B 1931 roAy. TeKCT,
HaneqaTaHHbIl Ha HeI, rjIacHJI:
THE POST-RIDER/aIMMIHK N2 57 91
November 2005








< PABOMEMY H KPECTbSHHHY
IlpH Bcex 3aTpyAHeHHax 1no Bon1pocaM TpyAa, KOJXO3HOrO cTpoHTeJncCTra,
3eMJIeycTpoiiCTBa, coBeTCKoro ipaBa, Hajora, cTpaxoBaHHa H T.A. H T.A. onniaTH OTKp-rrK'
MapKaMH 25 KoneeK, HanmmHI CBOHi 3anpoc H cAaH ee B GJmaiAmyio norry ~H xe orTpasB ee
no aWpecy MocKBa, ieHTp, 1JeHTpajnHoe CnpaBoqwoe BIopo. BJimafmeii noTroH
nojyiqYHm TOIHbIi H HCrepnmBBaolmHii OTBeT.>>
CpeAx ApyrHx noWroBLix MaTepHajIOB, pponaran poBaBmsIH cnpaBotHo-
HH4opMaIHIOHHyIO cjiny6y, o6pamaloT Ha ce6a BHHMaHHe noWTOBLIe KBHTaHImm Ha oGopOTHro
CTOpOHe KOTOp ix 6&in HaneqaTaH TeKCT cneAygyioero coAepxamHH: cHeo6xoAni)Mo sa-
cnpaBKy H3 Io6oro InyHKTa CCCP MOKCHO IIOJIyHTi cIneiiajTbHoi Ino0IroBO KapTroKOii ~ua
cIIpaBOK)).
K Haiany 1930-x roAOB B IInoTroBOi KoppecnoHgeHm~u noBIurnImc HeMapKnpoBamHie
KOHBepTLI C peKJaMHLIM TeKCTOM cjiegyIoiero coAepxcamH Ha mleBoii CTOpOHe:
Ha norTe cnenHaJIbHbIe noITOBBIe KapToqKlHi al cnpaBOK,
CTOHMOCThIO 36 KoneeK. HoJIb3yfiTeCb, BeperHTe BpeMi.>>

BoJIbn HCTBO H3BeCTHLX HaM 3K3eMIIJIpoB 6UIO oTnpaaBeHo H3 HmKHlero HoBropora
(pHC.19).


PHC.19
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIISK N 57
November 2005








HaM I3BecTHO OKOJIO 10 pasJIramHb no O)opMJIeHHIM peKIiaMIHbI KOHBepToB, npHteM
Ha OAHOM H3 HHX B Ka'ecTBe o6paTHoro agpeca Tmnorpa4CKHM mIpH TOM HaIICeaTaHO
<> (pnc.20)


PHc.20


K 3TOMy BpeMeHH OTHOCrITCs H HeMapKHposaHHBe noqToBBIe KapToqKH, H3aBaBIImeci
O6ncnpaB6iopo 1IeHTparnjHo--epHo3eMHno: o6iiacTH. Ha jneBoir CTOpoHe 6buio HaneaaTaHo:
< saonHax ,yye6e, jeeneHHH, KypopTax, CTOHMOCTH npoesaa no mcen. Hop. H npoBosa rpy3a
H mo6oii Apyrofi cnpaBKH, noJIb3yiTecb noqTOBOfi KapToHKoii JuI cnpaBoK, npoAaxca BCioly Ha
norre H y mncbMOHocgeB>.
IeeHa 6naHKa 6bma ycTaaoBneHa B 2 Kon., a THpaxH pa3jIHmMx BInmycKOB
BapbHpoBajrcb OT 250 Ao 500 TIC. 3ICeMiJipoB. (pac.21)


.* InaycAiB CBCAE6MMII 06
.vYaHM b AMI YA U e.
3AKOHAX
ye6e. AeciuIM, Uyp0e
cronAocrU nposak.no .
S,. npDBOU rpsal
qrol A10601P COn pEm.
noAbsvyflTECb'
nowrsol napOT0 ci
d.AZ cpnL.aI6
nPOAAEA
BcjoAy nU02 0T
y HUCbMMO0CgUL


.TOBAM KAPTCORA
ARTC POSTAL 9




P. wp u. /


KOMY:


OT KOrO.O i
manL* Uo a<2_au.
In~ 4 o~tp Ru. S&


PHc.21


B 1932 roAy HaponBifi KoMHccapHaT norir H TeJerpaoBs 6bum nepeHMeHoBaR B
HapoAHbit KoMHccapHaT CBm3s CCCP (HapKOMCBsa3) H yie 31 aHBapa nosaBrcsa uHpKyjap
XoHTnI/107 c HOBOi HHCTpyKIHeAi ;ina cnpaBO'HO-HH4opManmHOHHoi cjnyx6bi. CornacHO 3TOil
HHCTpyKItHH Ha opraHLI crrpaBoHHO-HH4EOplpMaHHOHHO cnay6iI (cnpaBoaHo-mHHopMaluIOHHBie
KOHTOpbI, pafioHHue crcpaBOHHe GIopo H HHnopMal1HOHHoe 6iopo Ipn ceicrope cnpaBorHo-
HHIopMagnHOHHOH cnyx6Li HapKOMCBI3H) B03naraJIHCi o6a3aHHOCT no UmpOKOMy
HHQopMHpoBaHnI HaceineHHa CCCP o AOCTH2KeHHMa B xo03SfTBeHHoi, nIOJITWIecKOii H
KyJIbTypHOii X3HH cTpaHI. CoTpyLHHKH CinpaBO0HO-HH4opMauHOHHbIX CJIym6 OJInKHLI 6b IH
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIMK N 57 93
November 2005


/1


L~ U

- r I -
.c' 5 c"la KT X-ft4yM-Li'. ^p!^
S^, ______ j*,u....'.,A____


c c,
'/'
"=^ ________ _______________


^J^ABT03ABOR 0lROPOflCKIH
0 wr z HHBRn Honropo!
C -.


~ ,~ ~ ~ ~------~ ~-'~ ~~Ei--~- -~





npIHHHMaTB H BBmoJIHMTB 3aKa3B rocyAapcTBeHHBix, KoonepaTHBHBix H o6mecTBeHHLix
opraHH3aLIiH, yqpex>eHHni H npernpirAMi, co6HpaTi H paspa6aTisBaT HeoGxoaIHMIe anx
BLmoJIHeHHHI 3aKa30B MaTepuHaji, peKoMeHAOBaTL 3aKa39rmaM MeToabI H CHnocoG6
odQopMJIeHHa, AlaBaTb HM KOHcyJITan-IHH H T.n.
Han6ojimaa aKTHBHOCTb B AeSTeeJIHOCTH cnpaB0oHo-HHbopManuoHHoli IIn]TOBOH
cJiyc6Mi CCCP npHmnacb Ha 1928-1940 r.r. 06 3TOM CBHaerejbcTByer ocnoBHaq Macca
o6HapyiceHHoro HIrnaTemcETHRecKoro MaTepHana HCTopHKo-norroBoro coAepmcaHna. AHamiu
AocTynHoro HaM dEJiaTeJIHCTHqecKoro MaTepHnaa ns3BOJIneT yrBepacaTb, wro y-e K 1929 rosy
3TH KapTOHKH CTaJIH IOCTaTOHO IHpOKO HCnoJI3OBaTBEC HaceJIeHHeM.
3a 3TH roAbI nO'qTOBbe TapHlb Ha nonyjqeHHe cnpaBOK MeHJIMHC HeCKojIbKO pa3. K
coxanjeHHmo, MI He pacnojaraeM TOHofi HHpopMamieit o AaTax BBeAeHHa Tex mrm HnEbx
TapH4OB, OlHaKO H3 aHaiiH3a npomeAIimx norry iejiix Bemeii H3BecTHO, wTO npHmeamHmcb
cjieayioIHe TapHbHI: 25 con., 45 KOn. H 1 py6 (TaGrmna).

Ta6jmma.
IIepeqeHb noIOTOBba X KapToqeK iaji cnpaBOK, oTnpaBJIeHHLix B 1929-1935 r.r.


AaTa MecTo Mecro
OTnpanBJeHHl OTupaBJieHHI Ha3HaqeHHIl DpaHKnpoBKa

07.09.1929 r.OAecca CT.JIHrOBO 30 Kon.
_JIeHHHrpaAcKoi o6n.
19.10.1929 r.Ka3aHn r.MocKBa 25 Ion.
03.02.1930 r.TioMeHmb r.TaM6oB 25 KOn.
25.03.1930 IIoqTOBBIi BaroH r.MocKBa 25 Kon.
NX36
26.05.1930 TyM60THHO r.JIenmmrpan 30 Kon.
HHwceropoAcKoil ry6.
16.07.1930 cT.Y3JIOBaI MOCK. r.MocKBa 25 icon.
o6Ji.
24.06.1930 r.CaMapa r.MocKBa 25 xon.
24.07.1930 r.Inoen r.TaMGB 25 Ron.
14.07.1931 Fpe6eHeBcKoe o/c c.BepxonmxeMcK 25 Ion.
21.03.1933 r.PaHeH6ypr, LeHirp.- r.MocKBa 45 Kon.
_epHoseM. OKpyr
19.04.1933 r.CTapony6 r.MocKBa 45 ion.
07.10.1933 r.KacHmoB r.MocmBa 45 ion.
15.01.1934 r.KaCHMOB r.MocKBa 45 Kon.
23.04.1934 r.MocKBa r.HaexmaRHCK 45 Kon.
11.03.1935 r.KHpoB r.MocKBa 1 py6.
12.04.1935 r.XapbKOB r.MocKBa 45 KOn.

1H peKicaMbi, pa3MemeHHOHi Ha HeMapKHpoBaHHIn I KOHBepTax, H3BecTHO o Tap1ne B 36
KOH., OAHaKo Ao HacTorIrero BpeMeHH IlOTOBBIX KapToqeK JiM cinpaBOK, 4)paHKHpoBaHHBix
MapKaMH Ha 3Ty cyMMy, HaMH o6Hapy;ceHo He 6buIo. Han6onee pammifi npoimenmnii norry
KOHBepT, peKJaMHpyOI~HAi ycnyry cnpaBomiH-HRHQopMaiwoHHoil cJym6ti no Tapany 36 ion.,
no mTeMnemo laTHpyeTca aHBapeM 1932 r. rloaTOMy MOKHO npennojiocxrr, rro TapnH 36
Kon. geiicTBoBaJI He 6ojiee Inonyropa ieT Memacy asrycTOM 1931 r. H MaproM 1933 r. Cneayer
OTMeTHTB, Tro H3BeCTHMI 3K3eMIUiapbI KapToqeK AAa CnpaBoK, (paHKHpOBaaHHIX nIOTOBBLMn
MapKaMH Ha cyMMy 30 Kon., xorT o raKHn TapHax Hnrae o nHHaJrmHo He yno mHHnajoc
(pEH.22). 3TOT Bonpoc Tpe6yeT ononoiHHTeJnbHoro HccJIefgoBaHHa.
94 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIRHK Ng 57
November 2005
































PHc.22



1H COnpOBOHTejnBHbIX TeKCTOB, OTneiaTIaHHbIX Ha HeKOTOphux KapTOTqax Mo)aoo 6mnII
y3HaTb o HOBblX TapHAax B 1 py6.(pHc.23).


"1 ,' I I _ '

-


.......... ,rI
--rr -, ---. --


- ~


~l.- .. --


:1 -- --- .--"--- -
Li -
f.I -
II


Pnc.23


O6HapyxeHa KapToqKa, Ha KOTOpoi 6buIa noMemeHa HHIopMaHII O TOM, qTO MOXmHO
6bIIo inoCluaTb 3anpoc no noTre, a OTBeT nonyiaTm no Tejierpady. Tarce ycjiyr Taicre
onirmanlaBaJmc nyreM HaKJieiKH i IOTOBBIX MapoK Ha 3anpocnHyo qacTI KapTOqKH. Tapn4 Ha
sanpoc B npegeniax ropoAcKoii RepTI Jm pailoHa cocTaBJiau 50 Kin., B npeAenax oicpyra HJIH
o6nacTn 75 Kon., a npegeJnax ocTaJbHOi TeppHrropHH 1 py6.25 KOn. (pHC.24)



THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHK N 57 95
November 2005


VT alioc hlif












































Pnc.24


rlocne paAa peopraHH3ariiH cTpyKTypa HapKOMCBSI3H u6JIa OKOiHaTeCaeHO

cpopMHpoBaHa nocTaHOBjneHHeM COBeTa HapoamHix KoMHccapoB OT 16 Hoa6pa 1939 roia.

CornacHO 3TOMy noCTaHOBJIeHHIO Ha TeppHTOpHH CCCP 6bIlum C3OaHLi o6jIac rHiCTe. rpaeBbe H

pecniy6jHKaHcKHe (B ACCP) ynpaBneHHa CBAI3, npH KOTOpBIX 4yHKUMOHHpOBajm MecTHIe

cnpaBOtHO-rHHQopMaIHOHHbe cnyx6uI. Torga xce nosBHJMH C cnpaBoHHLie KaprToIM HOBOr

o6pa3Ia c H3o6paxeHHeM FocyAapcTBeHHoro rep6a H TeKCTa B 3aroJIOBKe .

OHH CTa IH HMeHOBaTlCn CnpaBOHBIMMH KapTowKaMH, a TeKCT HHcTpyKIHH, HaneTaTaHHOf Ha

HHX, H3MeHHJaia. KapTomKrl lgoaantim 6uinn aflpecoBaTaca He noIre, a cnpaBoHao-

HH4opMalUHOHHbM KOHTOpaM. H3 TeKCTa HHcTpyKnHH cineosBano, wro TapH) Ha non jemie

cnpaBKiH no notre 6LIJ ycTaHOBJieH B 1 py6. Ha pHc.25 H3o6paxeHa BOkHmaS noTroBaA

cnpaBOH3aa KapTOTKa HOBOrO o61uecoIo3Horo o6pa3ia.




































96 THE POSTORIDER/IMIIHHK M 57

November 2005


t27 n;

;_ _'~LL ~ 1


'-_







~i~~ ---~~~-- IL

..tot'4


II_ ) ...........


I-I
-----I--- ----


pll- -.~-- -- --- i --

r..-. L~j;-
I~I-


DI
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,. CY.- -i
1_13------~
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I-



I-u -p I~l`-'-I- I-
Ir
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1- C-~~
.-- -:
..
ii;
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;s r.. -.-..I-
i ,.....
ji:
i.il~
ri .;'~- rr;--.-- ---: ~"~-- -
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= -I*~*-..*.J.., *-i
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aw-oM IUs a nam1


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V 1fl1o0 I ff


IKCmnh CCCP

itn Dr O- i
-- -l I .'.0,..




-4




OAY: Cupa
* -9-.'. *- *.., C 9.9'r -- | l


PHc.25


oHa aHajiorTrHa MapKHpoBaHHOH IIOoTOBOfI KapTOHKRe ,Ji


- ,[I. .1 .



t. \ .. 'W ( f I .'














o-
A.TPLLUE'Lt : [I (:O rti. .tM I-.AO,


PHc. 26
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIHIIK Ns 57
November 2005


AKA3TOE'



C--. CP *
**Eo O*ET. ll*.U -

tgsoucp


HIo CBoemy o)opMJieHHIO

a,apecHLix CTOJIOB (pHC.26).


".- - -- --














C U d i, C KJ!IIT
... I. CCC




.. :
Cnpano4ian KapronKa
; .. n O rPAB A.OTI.BT
-3 A 3 H 0 E "j
... ; .
. i '-.. -- ... .





, ,o .










Ha MecTax )e nponoJIajm H3roTOBJIInb 6jnaiHK cnpaBO~HMix KapTroeK 6e3

o6mecoIo3Hoi aTpI6yTHKH (pac.27).


I G l b F


150 >>.f U ^ngage r~o a p


q ,-



____----g------- .C



""" -iOidn itLiniilc3




.i 3 rjf

:=

i --
I; _______^
^ "


PHc.27


OAHaKO KlapTOCoKH HOBOTO o6pa3ia HCnIOJIb30BaJIHCb IO CBoeMy IIpalMOMy Ha3HaqeeHHi

MeHee ro)a, TaK KaK npHKa3OM HapKOMa OT 6 moHa 1940 r. Ana pa3rpy3KH annapaTa no=ri

cnpaBOHHO-HH4opMaIlHOHHaaI cJym6a 6bma bIbeieH na 3 cocTaBa HapKoMaTa CB53H [3].

CnycTA roA, KorAa HaqajiacB BeJ Kas OTeqecTBeHiIas BofiHa, 6iaHKnH CpaBOr ix

KapToleK, Hapsly c LpyrHMH 6JIaHKaMH HK CB33H H3-3a AemmmTa 6yMara cTrai

HCInoJI30BaTbCa ArJ nepenHcKH KaK o6bIrHEie norToBBie KapTOqKHI (pH. 28).


3 AI," 3 H 0 E





k'-4'*. '" .Lq .

"/" I) p. A 0 r.6 d /
A U UTau LtC,1 1. )'


PHc.28


























THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIK Ns 57

November 2005


'-! -'.:. i




..: .




. .-, .... .
CiF''"! mirfhii,^

.. "::, '-': ".. ,'.



*-;L \ .' _". ....


___ .. __ C'_ _. -. M{-

I..'- 8 .,'KuLML^Sk1U f t.lg---



__ LA2^-l2'-A, /'AtJC'1*<^ C^A-.:--


98


~L


OIPIL)*I~I hlmPUI
l`"L' L'~ 'L ~' "'"'"'
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;in, nN-I)ICIL-
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"nllC~ry Y
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-I_. ~LYY-r- L-i
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1- i--~--c~ mr
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Y C cn r
L-r- u~~
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. rr.~ *'~ -rru-,r
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