Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Catering to the widest...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - twelfth...
 The relocation of "Sedentary" post/telegraph...
 The story of the issue and usage...
 The Russian post in Galicia and...
 Registered mail sent via postal...
 Where were these covers regist...
 Early Russian aviation, aero clubs...
 Classifying the "Russian text"...
 ROPiT parcel, insurance and registration...
 Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev in...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Some Ukrainian and Soviet stamp...
 A cover from Kyzyl with the handstamped...
 A look at Tuvan landscapes
 Tuvan registration cachets for...
 More markings
 An underpaid postcard from Colombia...
 The April 1922 second issue of...
 Some "well-travelled" Soviet era...
 The paquebot marking
 The application of "ship committee"...
 International reply coupons
 Why and in what way was the stamp...
 Post-WWII machine postmarks of...
 Philatelic shorts

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00052
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: June 2003
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00052
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00052 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Catering to the widest range of readers
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - twelfth instalment
        Page 4
        Page 5
    The relocation of "Sedentary" post/telegraph offices during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The story of the issue and usage of address applications on postcard blanks in St. Petersburg
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The Russian post in Galicia and Bukovina during WWI
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Registered mail sent via postal wagons of the Russian railways in the period from the 1870s to 1917
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Where were these covers registered?
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Early Russian aviation, aero clubs and exhibitions
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Classifying the "Russian text" type of cachets applied during WWI
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    ROPiT parcel, insurance and registration receipts
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev in philately
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Some Ukrainian and Soviet stamp varieties
        Page 86
    A cover from Kyzyl with the handstamped address of Jak Baicher
        Page 87
    A look at Tuvan landscapes
        Page 88
    Tuvan registration cachets for domestic and international mailings
        Page 89
        Page 90
    More markings
        Page 91
    An underpaid postcard from Colombia to Russia
        Page 92
    The April 1922 second issue of the Armenian SSR
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Some "well-travelled" Soviet era mail
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    The paquebot marking
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    The application of "ship committee" cachets in sending mail from the Navy rank-and-file
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    International reply coupons
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Why and in what way was the stamp affixed to the letter?
        Page 109
    Post-WWII machine postmarks of Tallinn
        Page 110
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text

Printed in Canada



P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1 P2

CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider@sympatico.ca
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 52. June 2003.
2 Editorial: Catering to the widest range of readers
2 Special Note, also at 11, 21, 59 & 62
3 Correspondence with Canada: A postcard in colour from TPO/RPO 168 to Montr6al Dr. Andr6s Jorge Schlichter
4 Zemstvo Varieties Twelfth Instalment G.G. Werbizky
5 Announcement, also at 57 & 79
6 The Relocation of"Sedentary" Post/Telegraph Offices during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) : Dr. Raymond Casey
12 The story of the issue and usage of Address Applicati6ns on postcard blanks in St. Petersburg L.G. Ratner
22 The Russian Post in Galicia and Bukovina during WWI JCrgen Jensen
22 Obituary: AnHpeii AneKcaHApoBHn BopoAeHKO ("Henry" Borodenko) Alex Artuchov
25 Registered Mail sent via Postal Wagons of the Russian Railways in the period from the 1870s to 1917 Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
44 Where were these covers registered? Rabbi L.L. Tann
46 Early Russian Aviation, Aero Clubs and Exhibitions G. Adolph Ackerman and August Blume
58 Classifying the j ficrByiomiiA inoTb" type of cachets applied during WWI (Russian text) Vladimir Berdichevskiy
62/68 English text for the above article. Sequence of pages: 68-70, then 62-68.
71 ROPiT Parcel, Insurance and Registration Receipts Andrew Cronin
75 Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev in Philately Gregory Epshtein
80 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
86 Some Ukrainian and Soviet stamp varieties Alex Sadovnikov
87 A cover from Kyzyl with the handstamped address ofJak Baicher Gwyn Williams
88 A look at Tuvan landscapes Andrew Cronin
89 Tuvan registration cachets for domestic and international mailings Alan Leighton
91 More OnIJIATHTh" Markings Rabbi L.L. Tann
92 An Underpaid Postcard from Colombia to Russia James A. Cross
93 The April 1922 Second Issue of the Armenian SSR Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
97 Some "Well-Travelled" Soviet Era Mail Jeffrey Klein
101 The "H3'b OHHJISIHRIH" Paquebot marking Meer Kossoy
104 The application of "Ship Committee"cachets in sending mail from the Navy rank-and-file Vladimir Berdichevskiy
107 International Reply Coupons V.M. Rozhdestvenskaya
109 Why and in what way was the stamp affixed to the letter? Meer Kossoy
110 Post-WWII Machine Postmarks of Tallinn Professor A.S. Ilyushin
111 Philatelic Shorts: C. Verge, R. Taylor, M. Kossoy, R. Vasara, N. Banfield, V.N. Ustinovskii, R. Stuchell, J. Klein, Professor
A.S. lDyushin& A. Cronin
116 The Journal Fund

Coordinators of the Society:. Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer.
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary.
Andrew Cronin, Editor.
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

Copyright 2003. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this issue are
copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of The
Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.


The varied assortment of articles listed on the Contents Pages of "The Post-Rider" is ample proof
that we try to interest as broad a circle of members as possible. Coupled with that policy is the fact that,
right from the outset in 1929, when E.M. Arkhangel'skii founded the Rossica Society in Yugoslavia, the
standards achieved by Russian philatelic publications abroad have always been very high.
It might even be assumed that collectors intending to become involved in Russian philately and
postal history tend to be frightened off by the erudition demonstrated by the various society journals that
are now available outside the mother country, leading to the feeling that the subjects being discussed are
over their heads. We hope to get around this problem by printing more articles of a topical or thematic
nature. We are speaking here of a very wide field, as there are around 7000 different stamps in our areas of
collecting and many of them are of international topical/thematic interest. For those who read Russian, we
are indicating hereunder details of two new publications, which will prove most useful for those involved in
thematics and maximaphily.
It is important to maintain the interest of our members in Russian philately and postal history, since
practically all philatelic societies, general and specialised, are experiencing a decline in membership. There
are now so many technical advances clamouring for attention in our leisure time and our readers can help to
reverse the trend by trying to enrol new members.
SPECIAL NOTE: 'ITe cZestvo Post of t(le Poltava District
Index of 100 pages to "The Post-Rider", Nos 1 to 50; Ily R* '. Gnlio
The CShIU is pleased t|1:1alsolince 111:11 a |iljlied q nt1a itvy f this
compiled comprehensively and cross-referenced by ver rare publication has been rprine
Socrates Bosovitch of Athens, Greece to cover the more sale to our readers. This pnhliietion or approirmatelvy ic
pages is the notorious postmnastcr's min catalloguie viichli ev en
than 4000 pages of original research published by us in to the present remains as the most detailed acl.l rting elf the
the Philately & Postal History of Russia & related areas. issues orfhe ze" isto post "n o'"lt.; Inll ssin .
An indispensable guide and now available for US$ 8.00 .25.00 (US) Ipustp:,i ,p::,,. ,, lei (~ an1i:,uli s.ci ?. r
postpaid anywhere in the world. ,IIISSIn Ihuil.u ely,, e Sol s,,i ....
SPECIAL NOTE: New Publications in Russian on Thematics, Culture and Postcards.
We can advise the appearance every two months since 2002 of a charming magazine "MAPKA"
("The Stamp") in A4 (legal) format in full colour throughout and with emphasis on thematics and Russian
culture. For subscription details, please fax: 7 (095) 137 53-50 or telephone 7(095) 137 36-17.

Postcard collectors are catered to by the magazine 'OTKPbITIi MHP ("Postcard World"), which may
be reached:
By telephone: 7 (095) 951 76-54 or 7 (095) 953 20-90
By fax: 7 (095) 951 93-93
E-mail: alvis.imc(@g23.relcom.ru.
Happy reading and hunting!

June 2003

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or clear Xerox copy of the
item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

by Dr. Andr6s Jorge Schlichter.

Chechens are very much in the news these days and this bemedalled ethnic type with yellow
epaulettes, red shirt and black "MyHnnp" (tunic) was photographed by Raev in Kislovodsk. The message in
French reads: "The Chechen my thanks for your view. I would prefer to have views and ethnic types -
Makhovko" In other words, Mr. Makhovko was exchanging illustrated postcards with Mr. Merizzi in
The postage was 4 kopeks for the card going to a foreign destination, being cancelled with the
circular TPO/RPO No. 168 (Omsk-Chelyabinsk) 20 Feb. 1906 O.S., postmarker No. 3. According to
Kiryushkin & Robinson, the first use of this postmark was 4 January 1902. There is a machine arrival
postmark of Montr6al 22 March 1906 N.S. on the view side of the card. An interesting point is that the card
was used in an Asian/Siberian area at quite a considerable distance from where it was issued in Kislovodsk
(Northern Caucasus).

June 2003

by G.G. Werbizky.

This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties
do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is
shown here is what I have in my collection.

Kasimov, Ryazan' province.

SChuchin No.4c:"blue on adhered paper" as stated in the Chuchin catalogue.
In order to join together two sheets of paper, a narrow strip of paper was
used. That can be seen by the two lines running across the face of the stamp.
One line crosses the figure "3", while the other is to the left at the edge and
above the word "3EMCTBO".

Kolomna, Moscow province.

Chuchin No. 12, vertical pair imperforate
between and Chuchin Nos. 12 & 13. On
three of the four stamps, the letter "C" in
the word "KOJIOMEICKOI" is
printed as an "O".

SN Chuchin No. 15: vertical
pair. There is on the stamp
at bottom an additional
horizontal line ofperfs,
cutting through the '"1"
and the word "fIOHT A".

Chuchin Nos8. 1819 & 20: blocks
of four, imperforate vertically.

Chuchin No. 44: Misperforated stamp at left
and a horizontal pair imperforate between.
June 2003

Chuchin No. 21. Strip of3 with the vertical
perforation missing between stamps 2 & 3.


..;i ..I

Kremenchug, Poltava province.

Chuchin No.23:
Both stamps

Kungur, Perm' province.

Chuchin No. 7:

1-f-.V -- at bottom.

Chuchin No. 6a: Chuchin
T&te-b&che pair. pair imp

(Second Edition)

by Borys Fessak
This catalog chronicles all of the four stamp-issuing entities of the Ukrainian diaspora whose
stamps were legally used to deliver mail. Some of the information in this volume has appeared in
other (mostly Ukrainian) publications. This book, however, updates and expands existing
information and admirably fills a long-neglected void.

The first edition, published in 1992, sold well and Mr. Fessak's opus has been unavailable for a
number of years now. Continued requests and inquiries from not only US collectors, but from
abroad, became the catalyst to undertake a new updated version. This second edition corrects
several minor errors discovered in the earlier version and incorporates new material not
previously known or only recently discovered. As in the first edition, all stamps are illustrated
and all pertinent information issue date(s), designerss, colorss, perforation data, and subject
description is included.

The four parts of this catalog are each introduced with a historical background explaining why
and how these unique postal materials came to be produced. The first part of the catalog covers
the 18 stamps issued by the Ukrainian Government in Exile between the years 1923 and 1939.
The second part describes the 29 stamps and single souvenir sheet prepared at the Ukrainian
POW camp in Rimini, Italy in 1946-47. Also covered in this section are stamp essays, postal
cards, and postal markings (cancellations and identifications).

The third part lists all 66 DP camp stamps (and four souvenir sheets) issued in the four Ukrainian
DP camps that prepared such postage: Regensburg, Bayreuth, Neu-Ulm, and Ulm/Donau. Also
included in the complete write-up are the many stamp color varieties, camp cancellations, and
special souvenir folders. In addition, the little-known camp of Ellwangen-Jagst is described.
Although no stamps were issued at this smaller camp of some 2,000 people, a special handstamp
was used to mark incoming and outgoing mail and this is also illustrated and described.

The final part presents the 49 postage stamps, 11 revenue stamps, and four souvenir sheets of the
Ukrainian National Council (UNC) between 1948 and 1976. T'e UNC was an umbrella
association that consolidated the many Ukrainian political organizations in Europe (outside of
the Soviet Union) after World War II. Included in this section are descriptions of the watermarks
that appear on certain stamps, special UNC envelopes and postal cards, postal markings used by
UNC "Postal Stations" in various cities, and postal tariffs.

The cost of this handsome, profusely illustrated, 90-page volume is $15 US plus $2 postage to
US destinations, $3 to Canada, or $4 (surface) for overseas shipment and may be ordered from:
P.O. Box 3, Springfield, VA 22150. U.S.A.
June 2003

No. 13:horizontal
erforate between.


JAPANESE WAR (1904-1905) by Dr. Raymond Casey.

Some years ago I reported an extraordinary case of relocation of a post office canceller. That was when, in
1897, an old Odessa canceller was used to provide a datestamp on a ship handling mail at Vladivostok, on
the other side of the Russian Empire (Casey, 1988). Attention is now drawn to other cases where, not
merely a canceller, but the whole post and/or telegraph office was uprooted lock, stock and barrel and
transplanted elsewhere, a few miles or a few hundred miles away, although continuing to use cancellers or
other equipment bearing the name of the original location.
This occurred in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and involved both civilian and
military establishments intended to function at a fixed location: the so-called "sedentary" offices. These
differed from the mobile field post offices identified by number or corps, which had been designed
specifically to move in response to army requirements. With the exception of Abagatui, over which
question marks still hang, the examples described below are of hurried evacuation and makeshift
arrangements dictated by the exigencies of war. As such, they introduce us to an unexplored aspect of the
Russo-Japanese War and its postal history.
The following abbreviations are used: CER = Chinese Eastern Railway; FPO = Field Post Office; FTB =
Field Telegraph Branch; FPTO = Field Post/Telegraph Office; RFPO = Reserve Field Post Office and,
finally, T & S = Tchilinghirian and Stephen.
The most striking example of the forced relocation of a post office is provided by Dal'nii Railway Station.
This has been given an in-depth treatment elsewhere (Casey, 2003) and only a summary is needed here.
Situated in Kwantung Province at the end of the Lyaotung Peninsula and not far from Port Arthur, the port
of Dal'nii was one of the first places to fall to the Japanese. The Russians abandoned the city in May 1904
and retreated northwards. Taking their stock and equipment with them, the staff of the Dal'nii Railway Post
Office made an early exit and reappeared at Kaiyuan Station on Line Nos. 265/266 of the CER, north of
Mukden and about 480 km./300 miles from their home base. A field hospital centre had been set up there to
help with the flood of casualties pouring in from the battlefields. Kaiyuan Station had no post office of its
own. The old Dal'nii Railway Station canceller (Fig. 1) continued to do service as an emergency measure at
the relocated post office throughout much of the latter half of 1904. Examples are known from June to
November 1904.
The fall of Mukden was probably the most decisive event of the Russo-Japanese War. This ancient capital
of the Manchu Empire had been defended by three great Russian armies totalling 300,000 men, the biggest
force ever deployed in military history. Nearly one third of that force was lost in a vain effort to stem the
Japanese advance. The Russian retreat from Mukden began on the night of 24 February/9 March 1905 and
continued throughout the next day. Senior officers left on the first of the trains, carrying war supplies
northwards to the new Army HQ at Tiehling. Enormous numbers of the rank and file had to cover the 40
miles to Tiehling as best they could: in carts and wagons, on horseback or on foot, leaving a trail of
wreckage and abandoned equipment. Hospital units and trainloads of wounded had been evacuated earlier,
but a convoy of carts carrying the resources of the Russo-Chinese Bank was caught up in the rout: guards
were killed and money was looted.
The Mukden-based Head Central FPO (formerly FPO No. 11) was evacuated on 24 February, first to
Kwangchentze and then to Kungchuling, where it stayed until the end of the war (Epstein, 1996). Up till
now, no questions have been raised about the fate of the civilian post office at Mukden. It was simply
assumed to have been closed when the Russians departed (T & S, 1959, p. 457). Thanks to a remarkable
cover in the collection of Mr. H.E. Aitink of Ensched6, The Netherlands, it can now be shown that the staff
of the Mukden civilian post office not only escaped with their equipment, but set up for business behind the
lines and continued to use the old Mukden canceller, long after Mukden had fallen. The cover (Fig. 2) is
addressed to a pastor in St. Petersburg and bears the cancellation of Mukden Type 3B (T & S, 1959, p. 547,
fig. 647). That is by far the commonest of the Russian Mukden cancellations and although belonging to a
civilian office, it is found chiefly on stampless military mail. The date of 15.5.05, about 14 weeks after the
June 2003

Fig. 1.

June 2003

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CTanQia II 'IIyaHll.

June 2003

Page 2 of 2

office had left Mukden, is confirmed by the St. Petersburg backstamp of 6.VI.05. The incomplete free-
frank cachet on the back of the cover is of a mobile field hospital and gives no clue as to location. It seems
likely that this Mukden post office was evacuated at the same time as the FPO or the hospitals and, like the
Dal'nii office described above, was relocated as an emergency facility for a field medical centre, possibly
at one of the Chinese Eastern Railway stations without a post office of its own. It could have been
anywhere along the track from Kungchuling northwards.
Despite the strong defences at this town, the retreating Russian armies lingered for only a few days at
Tiehling to round up the stragglers and count their losses. They then put a match to the place and
abandoned it without a fight. Following the debacle at Mukden, this move cost the Russian Commander-in-
Chief his job. The Japanese entered Tiehling on 3/16 March 1905. In the meantime, the Russian
Headquarters had moved, first briefly to Changtafu and then to Kungchuling, a station of the CER about
192 km./120 miles north-east of Tiehling. It stayed there until the end of 1905 (Epstein, 1996).
Tiehling (Russian Tielin', T'elin' or Telin') had been issued with the standard pair of datestamps supplied
to many of the Manchurian offices: an FPO identified by number only (No. 10) and an FTB with the
location named (Telin'). These corresponded to types 'MM' and 'NN' of T & S and represented mobile
and sedentary offices respectively. Judging by the many finds made since those authors wrote, the two
establishments worked as one while at Tiehling during the war, probably from the same counter and
sharing seals, labels and date-plugs. Both of them evidently moved with Army HQ on 16 February/ll
March 1905. There is clear evidence that they did not close, but reopened at the new location of
Kungchuling (Russian Gunzhulin, Gunchzhulin' or Ganchzhulin' Fig. 3), using the old cancellers.
Collectors of Russo-Japanese War material will be familiar with the stationery cards addressed to the
Empress Marie Feodorovna at the Anichkov Palace in St. Petersburg, which began to appear on the
philatelic market about 15 years ago. They had been distributed around the hospitals to enable wounded
soldiers to give thanks to the Empress for gifts received through her charity. A large quantity of these cards
made available to me yielded several cancelled by the Tiehling FTB datestamp, all struck in blue-green and
with Old Style dates in March 1905, about a week or two after the office had left Tiehling. A few carried a
manuscript "St. Ganchzhulin' K.V.Zh.D." (Station Kungchuling CER) dateline (Fi. 4). The hospital
connection is strengthened by a card recently illustrated as representing "an example of friendly forces in
the service of the Red Cross"... showing "the blue Tehlin (sic) cancel on two 2-kop. stamps to France from
a doctor serving in 'the Bulgarian Hospital"' (Stoten, 2002, p. 62, fig. 2). From the illustration of the item
(previously featured in the catalogue of a Greek auction house), it can be seen that the date of the Tiehling
FTB cancellation (3.III.1905) is a week after the office had left Tiehling. The message is in French and
addressed to the Chief Physician of the Army at Nancy, stating that the sender is writing from "Gounjuline"
(= Gunzhulin' = Kungchuling), where his government has sent him to the Bulgarian Hospital, which is
helping the Russian doctors in their dedicated work. "Goundjuline" is repeated in the dateline and the
message is signed "Dr. Stoyanoff" (Editorial Comment: "Stoyanoff' is a common Bulgarian surname). The
card bears the Cyrillic cachet of the Head Representative of the Red Cross with the Army in the Field.
Fi. 5 shows another example of usage of the relocating Tiehling FTB canceller dated 8.III.1905 on a letter
from Kungchuling Station to Biryuch, Voronezh Province. It is part of a correspondence from a transport
officer with the 5th. Baggage Battalion of the 1st. Army to his wife and carries a crimson free-frank, the
wording around the Imperial Eagle translating as "29t. Arba Wartime Transport". Much of his
correspondence was sent from RFPO No. 12 which, according to official records (Epstein, 1996), had
arrived at Kungchuling the very day that this letter was despatched. Perhaps it was better on that day to use
the already functioning "Tiehling" office, than to wait for RFPO No. 12 to open. Five days later, this RFPO
(and presumably the 5th. Baggage Battalion) moved off to the village of Ertsendyangtze, which gave its
name to a station of the CER about 64 km./40 miles east of Kharbin. The artistic heading of a letter sent
from Ertsendyangtze and RFPO No. 12 by the transport officer later in March depicts a field hospital and
its arbas (Russian arba: bullock or horse-drawn covered cart Fig. 6).
Use of the Tiehling FTB as an emergency post office at Kungchuling must have lasted for only a few
weeks. Other FPOs moved in to meet the needs of the military and the hospitals during the spring and
summer of 1905, as the Russians built up their defences near Kungchuling. I have seen no usage of the
June 2003

Tiehling FTB canceller after March 1905. One of the charity cards of the Empress Marie Feodorovna with
dateline "Stantsiya Gunchzhulin' 18 apr. 1905 goda" was cancelled on the same day at RFPO No. 6, which,
according to Epstein (1996), had arrived at Kungchuling from Kirin 13 days earlier.

RFPO No. 10, which had worked together with Tiehling FTB at its home base, is said by Epstein (1996) to
have remained at Tiehling until April 1905. That is an impossibly late date, considering that the Japanese
had overrun the town by 3/16 March. Surely, RFPO No. 10 and Tiehling FTB had moved out together with
Army HQ on 26 February O.S. A stampless card sent by one of the Russian rearguard has a dateline "g.
T'elin' 28 fev. 1905 g.", but no postmark of despatch, consistent with the withdrawal of postal facilities
from Tiehling two days earlier. Only the Dmitrovsk (Orel Province) arrival mark of 30.. .1905 shows that
it eventually went through the post. I can record two post-Tiehling usages of the RFPO No. 10 canceller
one dated 14.III.1905 on a cover to St. Petersburg from the HQ of the 2" Manchurian Army, the other on a
card dated 27 March 1905 from "Gunchzhulin" to Chausy (Mogilev Province). Both cancellations are in
black and not blue-green, as used by the Tiehling FTB at that time, suggesting that the two offices were
now functioning independently and probably at different locations within the Kungchuling area.
This was a halt of the CER a few miles east of Manchuli on the line to Kharbin and it gave access to a coal
mine on the Russian side of the border. Practically nothing is known of its postal history. The postal guide
of 1914 lists it as having an office handling ordinary mail only but, in the absence of archival records and
actual material, we have no idea when the office opened and what type of canceller(s) it employed. That
Abagatui hosted a Field Postal/Telegraph establishment some time during the Russian military activity in
Manchuria is an unexpected discovery.
The evidence is provided by two insured money letters sent from Manchuli to Moscow during the period of
military run-down after the Peace Treaty of September 1905. Manchuli itself was the location of RFPO No.
29 from June 1905 to March 1907 (Epstein, 1996). Both letters bear the cancellation of that office (Fig 7),
one dated 7.11.05 and the other 15.3.06. The first is endorsed "iz St. Man'chzhurii" and has a violet
handstamp "Man'chzhuriya"; the second uses a similar handstamp with the incorrect spelling
"Man'zhuriya". Both have on the reverse five wax seals, the large central one carrying an abbreviated
inscription translating as "Insured Correspondence / No. 29 Reserve /Field/Post/Office/'a"' around the
Imperial Eagle with post-horns and thunderbolts. However, the small corer seals read around the
periphery "Abagatui Pol.P.T.K." (Abagatui Field Post/Telegraph Office) and, in the centre "Zab. O."
(Transbaikal Province) below crossed post-horns and thunderbolts (F. 8). It is surmised that a canceller or
cancellers similarly inscribed existed for use at the original location, comparable to those issued to Khailar,
when the Russians first moved into Manchuria (Fi 9). When the Abagatui FPTO equipment was
transferred to Manchuli, presumably in June 1905, the canceller(s) would have been replaced by others
reading FRPO No. 29 in standard "PP" type, the abbreviation for "telegraph" being dropped. However, the
small wax seal was retained, despite its now inappropriate wording. It is uncertain whether the large central
wax seal used on insured correspondence at Manchuli was ever in use at Abagatui. Equally unclear is why
the Postal Administration attributed Abagatui and Khailar to the Siberian Province of Transbaikal, both
having obvious extra-territorial status. In a parallel case, the Chinese cities of Kuldja and Chuguchak had
been attached to the Siberian Province of Semirechensk in some of the Russian cancellers. While it may be
true that the Kuldja and Chuguchak offices were dependent on their Siberian neighbour (T & S, 1958, p.
274), I have found nothing to suggest that any part of the Manchurian field postal/telegraph network was
controlled from Transbaikal. Prepared at a time when the Russian threat to annex Manchuria was at its
height, the Abagatui and Khailar postal ;artifacts may simply reflect a mood of anticipation among the
Administration (even as late as 1920, Kharbin was declared to be part of"Siberie, Russie d'Asie" on some
of its Russian registration labels).
The Khailar cancellations depicted herein are from registered covers to Berlin (1902) and Novorossiisk
(1903) and are of a type not previously recorded. They are the earliest seen from that office and give a clue
to the date of introduction of the FPTO inferred to have been based at Abagatui.

June 2003

Sources of information

Casey, R. 1988. The Volunteer Fleet: Emergency cancellers. BJRP 65, 4-7.

Casey, R. 2003. Talienwan/Dalny a Manchurian mystery. BJRP 89 (in press).
Cassell's History of the Russo-Japanese War. 5 vols. London (undated).
Epstein, A. 1996. Russian Field Post in the Far East. BJRP 81, 3-23.
Historical section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. 1910-1920. The official history
of the Russo-Japanese War. 3 vols. & 3 vols. maps. London.

Stoten, B. 2002. Used Abroad Chronicle (XXI). BJRP 88, 62-63.

Tchilinghirian, S.D. & Stephen, W.S.E. 1958-1959. Stamps of the Russian Empire Used
Abroad. Part 3 (1958) & part 5 (1959). Aberlour.
Warner, D. & Warner, P. 1974. The Tide at Sunrise. A history of the Russo-Japanese
War 1904-1905. Book Club ed. London.

Fig. 6.


/ -,~ <(7

Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9.
* *

Corrections by A. Epstein to the Tables of FPOs in "The Post-Rider" No. 51, p. 21.
FPO No. 231: Yavorov, instead of Ustrzyki.
FPO No. 233: Lisko, instead of Dukla.
FPO No. 234: Ustrzyki, instead of Lisko.

* *

June 2003

(The original Russian text was published in "The Post-Rider" No. 51, pp. 56-67).
One of the areas of the Russian Post which has not been studied so far is the sequence of issue and
of postal utilisation of Address Application Forms, designated for the receipt by mail of enquiries to the
Address Board about the places of residence of citizens. Documents on this subject have not been
investigated and the literature about it is very sparse. The main result has been the very restricted
description of address applications on postcard blanks.
One of the few articles containing some data about the preparation and utilisation of address
applications sent through the post is the article "Postal Stationery of the Address Boards of Russia"
[reference 1] by S. Blekhman & S. Kristi. These authors set out such address applications in the heading
and text of the article and state that they were sold at the post offices. However, in making this assertion,
they do not give any documentary sources. Nevertheless, it is still possible to investigate this particular
subject. Some sources held in the archives of the Postal Department, those of the St. Petersburg G.P.O. and
in the Office of the Mayor of St. Petersburg resolve many questions about the origin and utilisation of
address applications on postcard blanks in St. Petersburg and which had never been examined previously.
Archival materials relating specifically to the subject have been used in setting out the descriptions
in the present article. The following precautions have been taken in order to avoid contentious and double
meanings: (1) The article has been based strictly on documentary materials.
(2) The terminology used in the article (address application, address postcard and postcard blank
for enquiry at the Address Board, etc.) is that utilised by the Postal Administration in the
correspondence and facilities relating to this subject.
Although the address applications on postcard blanks were created and used with the direct participation of
three administrations, namely the Office of the Mayor of St. Petersburg, the City Council and the Postal
Department, questions not having a direct connection to the Postal Administration, but related to this
particular subject, are also examined in this article.

The proposal regarding the utilisation of address applications in the form of postcard blanks for
enquiries to the Address Board in St. Petersburg first arose in 1874. In April of that year the Councillor of
State Lukin suggested that: "for... the most convenient method of communicating with the Address
Board... there should be set up such relationships by post in order to gain experience, on special address
applications in the form of double postcards. These double blanks... .could be prepared, sold and
distributed on the same basis as for the blanks of ordinary postcards, but at twice the price and prepaid,
accruing to the Postal Revenue for the despatch of the reply and for the enquiry to the Address Board" [2].
In August 1874, Adjutant-General Trepov, the Mayor of St. Petersburg, to whom the Address Board
was subordinate, sent a letter to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, asking that such applications be introduced
at the St. Petersburg G.P.O. It was proposed that a portion of the money levied for such applications should
remain at the G.P.O. as part of its postal income and that the fee tendered for the enquiry to the Address
Board should be transferred to the City Council. At the suggestion of the Minister of Internal Affairs, this
letter was forwarded to the Postal Department for consideration.
Specimens were enclosed in the letter of the blanks for city and interurban address applications,
designated for despatch through the post. It was proposed to use one side of the blank for the enquiry to the
Address Board and the other side for the reply to the enquiry. The fronts of the local and interurban cards
differed slightly (see Figs. 1 & 2 on the next page) and the backs were identical (F. 3). The dimensions of
the blanks were 178 x 113 mm.
The Postal Department did not object to the introduction of address applications to be sent through
through the post, but specified that the postal service should not concern itself with monetary accounts and
that the blanks should not be sold at the post offices. It was proposed that the postal charges for the
despatch of the applications should be covered by affixing postage stamps on each side of the blanks by the
same senders. The Postal Department also regarded it necessary that, in the case of the address application
blanks going through the post, there should be designated a space for affixing postage stamps and that such
blanks should coincide in form and dimensions to postcard blanks.
June 2003

Fig. 1.

i nOqT. AoX0. 2 sa cnpaBJy.


4>nals. 5 3
sIa HaucAeslig cnpaBnai eo6xoawuM ca'bsylouia enBABiCin: a) Iua, OT'ecrno H
oaB jia cnpaiuHaaemaro rsa; 6) o ruHOBIsa axb H pa3BouBLtsaax--qLuuI 3anaIsI xxb
M aCTa cayMeoi a 6HA SUTOCT TC oTacHn: ) O a nySlax,-vyleqec-oe Hxi Aoc.rouH Tno JAW
rx.HiH, a T LEae ropOAa, Bi soNXL cocTOiRrI B-b yuesecTBS; r) o M1iBanax.I H gexo0uxLI
penecienaHmaxi.- MtCTa, rA'1 sanacaHi BD-b uMlgaCTBo Ia nl1ex'a; A) 0o pecTba iaxUb-NOTO-
pof ry~epuim, y'i3Aa, BOJocTU, ce;a HAK Aepenua; e) o06 OTCTaBaHnL% I ysozeHsanL sxb
oTIYOcKK HMKHBulx'I BOHDCNBK'x qII)b-iuai-alliiie 0HKeOna1Luie uoJIE& BJia OnaHAuiB, a
XOMX' COCTOaRI J14B q'C.9Tcn HDa cAyaftc, H 6e3tpoqno a1 ydoj0earfln a iii peaenuo, .
at) oth uHIocTpanlax'b-3aauTia xif. an IIpoUMiceJ'rx us aanott Bila.
Adpecuaw Cio onsawtaem sa emp*nocm espausu mAMKo nps oajtunocmu ocalxs os-
. HaennuP t cesosndil.

Fig. 2.



tjnLt. A


Osansneoe n sairpoc Jngo Upoana

Cnpae~ry aosdua
SJ187 c.


June 2003

10 X. no1r. aEX. 82 Ms &apaiay.
rAs mErm?

.asmlnia capaunoieznro .mza: a5) o qHnobiUKax. x pa oqUIA; RaYI -la K 8-,arI ia x I,
asr e4ym seiaw as 5arnoon O sWHnM a)- on /q1- Z.oel a KO. RTBeroT1o a1
iruasia, me ropola. sa roun cocroT7 is ayct'ecas: r) go usaxn n E z4ex-OrT
paezamwc i.-wma~nsa 'As anoimeaul sl K marTho Km us2az2; 4) a speaerlsXa1-Kro-
po rydOpuia(i, yslma, atsx. Caan Nim Apca'oN; cB) o"S orcrasaioS x y oosC*t. lr
maym HAnwerxs sonstrars "Mana-simvide x xMcrsasteo seNse Lu8 sexoxAm. X%
ZOKX% coCTORIa JaW UIeSCZ uL CAjY.n K fie3Upluo .a ya"OUtKM IX sppoXUano, I
Xa) ofb BBOCbpREasaw -anuariT x BAxI KIM UCpDMI% N EluRlOch KnBii.
Aidpecat OCajr emaneuema sa mpofiicmsi enpaseE mihi.e rspa Bu waavocwu Wen as-
ratewluzF tehtnh),.



Fig. 3.


After working upon the proposals agreed upon with the Postal Department, Adjutant-General
Trepov sent them to the City Council. In November 1875, the City Council presented a report for
conformation to the Town Hall about the introduction of address applications in the form of postcards for
the receipt by mail of enquiries from the Address Board of St. Petersburg. However, it was not until July
1878 that this proposal came under scrutiny and, in December 1879, the Town Hall allowed the Council to
introduce address applications in the form of postcards under agreement with the Postal Administration.. In
February 1880, the City Governor of St. Petersburg, Baron Korf, addressed a letter to the Postal
Department, enclosing five specimens of address application blanks in the form of postcards of identical
size and text, both on paper of various colours and grades: white, bright grey, pale blue, violet and bright
brick-red. The enquiry and reply sides of these blanks are shown in Figs. 4 &5 hereunder. The dimensions
of the blank are 126 x 93mm.

PuCYHOK 4 Fig. 4. PHCyHOK 5 Fig. 5.
As the years went by, the opinion of the Postal Administration was changed. In his reply, Baron
Velio, in his capacity as Director of the Postal Department, indicated that the postcard blanks could be
prepared only by the Postal Administration and that the transmission by mail of other blanks of postcards
would not be allowed. Furthermore, Baron Valio proposed the usage of the existing postcard blanks and set
out the sequence of their utilisation: "The City Council would buy a certain amount ofpostcard blanks from
the General Post Office at 3 kopeks each. Half of this quantity would be designatedfor sale to the public at
9 kopeks each for enquiries to the Address Board and the other half would be handed over to this Board in
order to reply to the enquiries. The Council would be provided in advance with printed directions on the
blanks in accordance with the aims of these cards and the oval control seal of the Council could also be
applied". The letter from the Director of the Postal Department included two postcard blanks as specimens
with overprints and inscriptions of the text (Figs. 6 to 9).


+x. t C.n ETE P b i'P f h .+..

i A r ..... / -. .
A -,f A '' "r I "

-. ; ,6 :. '

0.- Y,7 q. -W S. 7 -
.rl l-,.lir.17.l.> l-^ un;.!.' ,ll.l o, I ^ .i- l. r r l:i II.! ....v r.t., 0 .U I a.U .*, _...L_. ,_ .j r .n


Fig. 6. PHCyHOK 7
June 2003

Fig. 7.

S1. C.-lleepdyprclil AApecalI CrsAO.
r|s =rrzzT%?
__________________ I.

.! Aoe BsAeenin cBpa nloi Rxoi05lnMu uci yAsi CatWBil: a) ass, oreerso Uaxluix orI-
I assesaro aen; 6) a HOBasaEnAN a pIasourma-an a a- afaie In, ctc usayeti2a M
S (bin"eri.s rrrat B) o xynaa-synetecwe uian lotmwnca no rulAyir, a Toame ropo-
A Sa, B IMeI CoCst0 03.B xynemecTAt; r) aa(ana m u14se .WoeoipeessennaBan-sTk,
i_ rt nacan anS itulano e mamn nex; x)o owp8mrsn#-n;aol rylepalea.j asBuTcea
5 sa SepoWa; C) V6" orcra YMuln H yeoMUMIln MY.C.s Sun oCIl UeSnl-3-
m lie a "exeoao uie cal a ma t OasuAul, ne N I- CWTOen a m oMn (eaRTCII Xa eq 6 a 6uespoaso r0
am yojelu, eas bpexaeo; H ) o epHaxi B-ripeucem aio r. S 01



I1 -
OrBTlt lapecnaro C.
Osnav6teoe Ov 3anpocn rAuto fpwlacuft-/^ f

Onpany maasoyas 1S rc.


flni PA KY HA . 4 .

T eEr c .r.._.._ E", IIH .!. nI J.85.8'I e- 8r I T.fl ," .r

.. II il i i I E l :r

PHcynoK 8 Fig. 8. PHcyHOK 9 Fig. 9.
(Author's note: the notation on the blank in Fig. 6 reads: "HocHano na 6naHncrb co wumeMnejnAe.b u
tyHna 6/zaHicy(na o6opomnb) noicaaana 9 icon." [Sent on the blank with embossing and the price of the
blank (on the back) is shown as 9 kop.]).
The City Council of St. Petersburg agreed with the proposals of the Postal Administration and
stated that, after obtaining the postcard blanks, it would need some time to print the text upon them and
apply the embossed stamp, as well as for preparing announcements about the conditions for utilising the
address applications. The announcements about the introduction of address applications and the conditions
for their use were printed by the Council in separate notices. The Council also placed an announcement
about this matter in the "Government Gazette". It was stated in the announcement that "The sale of address
applications will initially be carried out at the City Council and at the Address Board".

T ns T l ::.-- I ,,o, o ..r I -
i -O aC rC.-I ETEPBYPPrI I i 1 .
.... ....---- ..... 1 .. .. .. . ... .............. l I
1-b AAPeHbI CToA.. --ai.
4 qt*_ o. 2 ./...... ....... '...... ...r f 8/IL J" ..... ,J' H if-1I.,
l il' a I n >.I ..... ...> .r.l. i... .i.. .,i lii...h.. ... .--" .c... ., .
BP.cy o i "e0 Fig. 10. PHcyN o. 1w I m r.1 Fig.. 1r7 1.

There is set out here illustrations of the inquiry and reply blanks of the inquiry application, with
n l -n / '. e. i'm" r **.,i i .,B i S>E.Ei ii Gf 0 n8 LIIP4 b F'u Il njniA 1 ML 8It lj.,.,,, j .,I

I. ixta VToro dia Ka 9 Ron.. 1% ro7or.uxt. 6 c kR3 i~aTcz TfajaTa sa
O i :-: .,..> ., r rI OT. .nL u c tr."Iry O.-DererorproP aro Arp.a~itrc OMMa

PHcYHOK 10 Fig. 10. PHCyHOK 11 Fig. 11.
There is set out here illustrations of the enquiry and reply blanks of the enquiry application, with
explanations on how to complete them. We see in Figs. 10 & 11 the front and back of the enquiry blank.The
front and back of the reply blank in Figs. 12 & 13 overleaf are shown in the same way as they were given
in the specimen sent by the City Council to the Postal Department, together with a handwritten text of
explanation (Author's note: The text in Figs. 12 & 13 reads as follows: "Upon receiving the enquiry, the
Address Board will reply on the very same day by means of its reply blanks: (a) on the front of the reply
blank and, (b) on the back of the reply blank. Furthermore, the Council would add that enquiries to the
Address Board may be written only on blanks of the type prepared by the City on postcards and bearing an
oval embossed cachet with a representation of the City coat of arms, surrounded by the inscription 'St.
Petersburg Address Board'").
June 2003

P facyK 12 Fi. 12

such blanks".
(Author's note: From 31 March 1858 to 20 April 1892, the fee for each written enquiry to the Address

postcard blanks. In accordance with the decision already taken, the inscription on the address side of the

i. n.,s Vojlte tpa!i k a-June 2003wMo mnI,

P|HCYHOK 12 Fig. 122
On 17 June 1880, the City Council of St. Petersburg received money for the purchase of 20,000
postcard blanks and on 2 July of the same year the City Governor informed the Mayor of St. Petersburg
that: "The City Council... has forwarded to thle Address Board 5 thousand copies of the enquiry blanks and
10 thousand of the reply blanks..." [5]. Five thousand of the enquiry blanks were retained for sale at the
City Council.
On 9 July 1880 the Director of the Postal Department signed a Circular Order N 12809, titled "About the
enquiries to the St. Petersburg Address Board on postcard blanks and about the replies from that Board on
such blanks".
The sale of address applications on postcard blanks began on 15 July 1880. The price for the
address enquiry application came to 9 kopeks, which included the cost of two postcard blanks (for the
enquiry and reply) = 6 kopeks; payment for the printing of the text on the blanks = 1 kopek and the enquiry
fee of the Address Board = 2 kopeks.
(Author's note: From 31 March 1858 to 20 April 1892, the fee for each written enquiry to the Address
Board submitted by private persons came to 2 kopeks and thereafter 3 kopeks).
There were in the first months of utilisation of the enquiry applications instances of their incorrect
transmission by the Postal Service, whereby these applications were returned to the person who had sent
the postcard to the Address Board. In September 1880, the Expeditor N. Larin of the Office of Delivering
Ordinary Internal Mail at the St. Petersburg G.P.O. wrote that the reason for that was "the inscription,
printed on the address side of the postcard blank ... could barely be distinguished from that of the ordinary
postcard blank" and he suggested that "the inscriptions 'St. Petersburg, to the Address Board' and
'Address of the sender of the card' be printed in red letters" on the blanks sent to the Address Board
At the end of September 1880, the Postal Director at St. Petersburg turned to the City Governor
with a proposal to place the inscription on the address side of the blanks in red letters and on 11 February
1881 the City Council decided that, in the preparation of new enquiry applications, the inscription on the
address side of the postcards would be in red.
On 14 February 1881, the City Council allotted 600 roubles for the purchase of a further 20,000
postcard blanks. In accordance with the decision already taken, the inscription on the address side of the
June 2003

O/atr ctevpoe M Aqeur cma
I r

Cretin th.ospAijm.a C.00

-'Jyd*/7ek. .. r _$ r J,.t .'

P.tcyAoI 13 Fig. 13.

new inquiry blanks was printed in red. In that way, it can be asserted that the blanks with black printing on

The role of the Postal Administration in this period was confined as before to the sale in the City
Council of St. Petersburg of postcard blanks and to the transmission of address applications, i.e. to those
facilities that would be available to any other client of the Postal Service.

June 2003
.' t .

/7, / 't :7zctv4'~tr&4 /

ff' C.

_la _

.___ .. .. ...... ..... ... .-s.. . ............. ff a .. "'p<;t) --a v
-- .... .... /--" /_ --:-- 9 --^
zi)j ',If F- r- 1 V. yla a.J -

_______---_---___ ------___ _-____ _____ ____.__ L3..i.: 1) Tuai.'-Bi: ; w.,m 'MM !--" s
tt10 U CJVr-I J>:I 1) 3 <,a;

PHCYHOK 14 Fig. 14. PHCyHOK 15 Fig. 15.
It should be noted that the address applications were not the first attempt in the utilisation of
postcard blanks with the printing upon them of a text conforming to the interests of another administration.
Various organizations availed themselves of this experience. The printed inscriptions carried out by them
on postcard blanks were of a private character. For example, the front and back of a postcard blank are
shown in Figs. 14 & 15, which was used by the.railways for the information of the dwellers of the capital
about the receipt of freight destined for them.
In February 1881, the City Council turned to the General Post Office about the question of the
possibility of the sale of address applications in commercial establishments. The General Post Office
replied that there was no objection to that proposal, "since the sale of postage stamps and stamped
envelopes, as well as postcard blanks was already being carried out in these establishments" [7].
In April 1881, the City Council began to sell address applications, destined for transmission through
the post in commercial establishments, as stated in its printed announcements (Fig. 16 on the next page).
It is evident from the archival documents that, in printing the text, varieties came about which were
not specified in the catalogues. Thus, there was printed by mistake at left on a small quantity of enquiry
application blanks an inscription in black, reading "Anpec- ibjna, Tpe6yLoutero cnpaBKy" (Address of
the person applying for the enquiry) and intended for the reply cards. Upon discovering the mistake, that
text was eliminated and a correct printing of the inscription was made in its place in red colour. In March
1882, the Postal Director at St. Petersburg informed the City Council that "blanks have recently began to be
transmitted, not with the new impression, but with corrected inscriptions on the address side. Regarding
the card forwarded for transmission to Moscow and addressed to the Address Board there, being written
on a corrected blank, the St. Petersburg G.P.O. would beg to request under what arrangement was this
blank corrected and should similar blanks be regarded as valid" [8]. In returning the blank, the Council
stated the reason of the appearance of such blanks and that they were genuine (Fig. 17 on p. 20).
(Author's note: The text of the letter of the City Council in Fig. 17 "In returning the postcard blank sent
to the attention of the General Post Office on 17 March last under No. 11133 for the receipt of reports from
the St. Petersburg Address Board, the City Council has the honour to advise the St. Petersburg G.P.O. that,
upon printing the additional text on the postcard blanks, an incorrect inscription was printed on the left
side of the blank (on 100 blanks) in black, instead of red colour and therefore it should be crossed out and
printed in red between the lines. Regarding the correctness of the blank, that is being certified by the
application of the cachet with the arms of St. Petersburg and the inscription 'St. Petersburg Address
It should be noted that the enquiry set out above of the St. Petersburg G.P.O. to the City Council
and the indication in the report of the Director of the Address Board of 6 November 1901 that "'...the
visitors to the Board send to interurban address boards great quantities ofpostcard blanks which they have
obtained at the Board" [9] confirms by documents to the author of this article the well known fact that the
blanks destined for the St. Petersburg (Petrograd) Address Board were being sent and received for the
18 THE POST-RIDER/5HMTHK X 52 Continued at bottom right of next page:
June 2003

C.-neTeptyprcKaa ropoAcHar YnpaBa oOLXaaaer, WOn
6,naaRH aJpech'Ls tlmortoW IH (tpopAh oTIpTahruxs nr1Hcerb
an; nnqoaytOia uil O.-HIecep6yprctaro AApecHaro CTOna,
qIperi 1 noq'V, npao o 'paO 0 rb mnTearhenT o6aBaTeaelt
i'opo(a- C-IIe'tepOyra, Mory'rh 6brTh poAaBaeMum a paRH X',t
,toprOBnMrx :ajiunAeaflx'L, na Tora ate ocnOBamt aut npo-
AUToTCe nowroRaima MapRn, iunemnea&ume ioaBepmT ,. 6iaan
OTKpTlLr'xI ntireMj6s.
BaaHnw~ apecTaxrr, anoTwonRT J Moryri. 6srrs npio6pfhaemu
y :aoseKyropa (l.-IfreepyproKoft ropogAcott Ynpars ir W'
C.-Ile'-repfiyIprcnoAb Apecuo.wi, vroMh no 9 Kon. aSt Raamta
mi,11lnui, (I'M TOM'f, twel'h 3 lOn. 1ia RorlpoCHiti, 3 non. aa
o'Yri'lrit'ift 6aaumI, 1 ion. i a na(Ieattio L (onoHM'freal1Hario nia-
6opa H 2 tiorr. :uL enpanuy).
KHoropoAntie, meeaaiomie npio6p'hcrH 6aHKna aApechlX'L
anOCTeROW, Mory~1 Trpe6oaHuia enon o npupeHvri h aTIX'B aRr-
ORs', ',ipHrClaariTh mowieyTopy 0.-ITerep6yprcnoft LopoACKOft
Yupaunm upHaomeoie'ri aemQ-rA no uncay trpe6yeM1X's
6fanoWlro HI Ht nepsecwray o'T 1 Ao 10 aRCTROBtS 34 ROn.

Thuttum .me nopnfltoLr, xorywr npio6p'TaTr agpeceme
.~lirTitln ropo;eniCn iI Sexanin YnrpalB,. noroputw nomenaart
6if,--~j IIfrlX'h 0GfomtlXia ahiICTH~im's sKHTOMaaH% ygAO6oTr
Inoy0A~HiH, sIpe3:r nouTy, oapanoUsR', w, OC.-IIerepyprcnaro
AApeenaro Oroaa, o rtherh ar,' re.ail,.'rm o6u'mrewnef ropoAu,
U.-IIfeTpdyproa,-oTpuhm rrspoamay onFwraIenifjhx'h AcIRt'osBs.

HIateqonio nas BlJO rPCT Oe .-IHerep6yprtcaro PpaAOtsmatLerea n O.-Ilerep-
6ypreron opoQseof ITo~mimn.
Tauorpii ia SrTamrepa, Yroi Incanextoft u l'ioxonoi At. I 24.

PHcyHOK 16

Fig. 16.

CiOT rp C ,fl.pPlaplrpnro ASpeenaro Iro-
AR l BCLIUWTCOre. nOIrTOn)i uiyieHin 3aInpo-
eoti, aie oc66 ycr;MIoJeImnLx 10 r;on. O;aa-
~lX'b OTKpbntTIlX nHrewll. HJH-)re a' KpuLTULI
Io'TOuarCio paexoaa aeHir;MHI, HaMI nIoriToBsLT


Fig. 18.

execution by the Moscow and Warsaw Address Boards (and
possibly elsewhere).
In accordance with the rules established by the City
Council in 1880, the enquiries by post to the Address Board
could be made only on blanks of the authorised type by
address applications on postcard blanks. However, by the
middle of the 1880s, the Address Board began to give
replies also to enquiries sent in letters, if the senders
enclosed in them the fee in cash or postage stamps for the
request and for the reply by mail from the Address Board.
In order to reply to the enquiries resulting from their

June 2003

*. I "'., ..i -
OTraneHie J.
C+To,,'f, I c+./, )Z ./ +,t.y ., -v e., .+< .,-' "-c...

vi lf-aI-io n. otfn SS t. ,i p/cdu e t he Adso r a-l-a cacrh t i vl etse/ Fi .. n.

an- at he be inn g o--. 1. r. e o. rdr

41 "
Poss T t.os t u...eega (F T) --- .p c es-'. d t ( is i t l a

I Tohe Tealuretr-. o- t he a ernrPo O -ffir mativ e to r, to' sa d ptheen ofl1-kopek1 poa t
blanks... sentfrom the City Councilfor enquiries to the Address Board ... should be sold to the public" [10].
-, -.-. ..+.< #-o-<.+.'V a 'tt6 O T PCfy't'C e-' ti

I -

C7C- .2-


Fig. 17.
violation of this procedure, the Address Board applied a special cachet in violet (see Fig. 18 on p. 19).
The Postal Director replied in the affirmative to a proposal made at the end of 1901 that the
postcard blanks for enquiries to the Address Board of St. Petersburg be sold at post offices in the capital
and, at the beginning of 1902, he received an order from the Director of the General Administration of
Posts & Telegraphs (FYnInT) to set up in the post offices under his jurisdiction the sale of address
applications on postcard blanks. It was stated in the instruction sent by the Postal Director on 15 March
1902 to the Treasurer of the General Post Office that: "the four thousand pieces of I0-kopek postcard
blanks... sent from the City Councilfor enquiries to the Address Board... should be sold to the public" [10].

June 2003

It has thus been established in this way from the documents that, in the period from 15 July 1880 to
15 March 1902, the Postal Administration did not concern itself with the sale of address applications on
postcard blanks.
The postal establishment of St. Petersburg subsequently took part in the handling of these
applications. In accordance with a report to the General Post Office, 34,100 postcard blanks of advice from
the Address Board were sold by the postal service during 1903, with a further 25,400 pieces from 1 January
to 31 August 1904 and there were sent through the post the following quantities of enquiry applications to
the Address Board:-
In Nov. 1903 48,049 pieces; in Dec. 1903 58,166; in Aug 1904 32,894 and in Sep. 1904 42,815 [11].

Proceeding from everything stated above, it is possible to come to a single deduction: the address
applications of St. Petersburg designated for transmission through the post constitute private overprints on
postal stationery, carried out in the interests of the Address Board of St. Petersburg. They are of interest to
collectors, requiring serious investigation, classification and cataloguing, but these address applications
cannot be regarded as forming part of the postal stationery of the Russian Postal Service.
In conclusion, it should be remembered that this article only refers to the applications of the
Address Board of St. Petersburg. The address applications leading to enquiries by mail and utilised in Kiev,
Moscow, Odessa and Warsaw are similar to those of St. Petersburg but, in order to determine their
relationship to the Postal Service, it would be necessary to unearth the documents concerning the reciprocal
activities between the post offices and address boards in those cities.
'1 ypinan DHJIaTejm CCCP>, No 6, 1974r., MocKBa, c.39 42.
2 LeeHpajrHbmi rocyAaperseHHRhi HcropHrecKHd apxHB CaHKm-r1eTep6ypra (LTHA CII6), 4$OH 569, onmci 17, neio 5
3 PoccHicKrii rocynapCeHHMmii HICTOpHecKHH apxHB, 40oriH 1289, onmcb 1, Aejo 3798 ropoacKOiH noTre B CamHr-rTerep6ypre oco6bmx anpecHimx JIHCTKOB B 4opMe OTKmpHrT IHceM>>, j. 35.
4 TaM me, n. 38.
5 LIHA Cn6, 4)oHa 569, ormcb 17, aeno 5, n. 49.
6 I.HA Cn6, 4)oHA 1543, onrmc 2, Aeno 132 06 ycTaHOBjieHHH CHomeHHH iacTHix jmH c CaiHKTr-nTeep6yprc KM
AapecHlM CTrJIOM Ha 6naHKax OTKp rrbiX ICeM HOBOrO o6pa3a>>, mHcr 6.
7 TaM xe, n. 10.
8 TaM ce, n. 16.
9 UWHA CII6, 4)OHa 569, onmci 17, aeno 22 (<06 yBejmreHHHI cocraBa cRycamx B AnpecHoM croje H pacnopamKermx
no OHOMy>, J. 187.
o10 VWHA CII6, 4)OHa 1543, onmHC 2, aeno 578 <06 ycranoBneHmm npoaa~ M B ropoacuHx no0roMnix yVpex~eHHma
6raincoB OTKTprraX nmceM AJIm cnpaBOK B aApeCHOM CTOJieC, ji. 6.
" TaM ce, j. 9 11.
An Informative Postscript:
It is difficult to compare with absolute accuracy the specified organs of city power and the duties of various
persons with those existing at the present time. However, it is possible to define the following terms:
City Council: The executive power of the city.
City Governor: The Director of the City Council.
Town Hall: The Legislative Assembly of the city.
Administration (Chancerv) of the Mayor of St. Petersburg: This institution basically corresponded to the
present Director of the Administration of Internal Affairs of St. Petersburg (Police Force), but having a
wider circle of activities and greater exercise of powers.
Mayor of St. Petersburg: He had similar duties to the present Director of the Administration of Internal
Affairs of St. Petersburg, but with wider powers.
SPECIAL NOTE: Further Interesting Russian Web Sites.
BBC News www.bbcnews.com Type in "Russia", click on "GO".
Russian Cultural Site www.ert.ru In Russian.
Russian Cultural Site www.nutcrackerballet.net In English.
Washington Profile www.washprofile.org In Russian about the U.S.
June 2003

by Jprgen Jensen.
(A Supplement to the article by Alexander Epstein in "The Post-Rider" No. 51, pp. 14-36)
Some years ago, I obtained five covers bearing Russian FPO cancellations, all with the same
addressee: "Sigismond Hildebrants Reklamebureau" in Copenhagen. I have seen 12-15 covers all to this
address and all sent from the front with FPO cancellations of different types in the Oct./Nov. 1914 to Nov.
1915 period. This set me to thinking that Sigismund Hildebrants Reklamebureau in Copenhagen was in
reality receiving information from war correspondents operating in these areas. As can be seen from the
covers, the handwriting varied and some of the senders have mispelt the word Reklamebureau (which
means "Advertising Bureau" in English) by writing Reklamation, for which the equivalent would be
"Complaint"in English. I hope to be of help in shedding light on this WWI period, in connection with the
Post in Galicia and Bukovina. Here are some covers from my collection:-

* ***

* *

Fig. 1: A cover sent from
L'vov/L'viv/Lw6w/Lemberg a few
months after being occupied by the
Russian forces. Sent on 9.11.14
O.S. with erroneous FPO Ho. 114
- "6" postmark, as well as a
censorship marking on the back.
Addressed to Sigismond
Hildebrants Reklamebureau, it
arrived in Copenhagen 1.12.14 N.S.

Anapefi ./
AneKcaHAposBHsq ,
("Henry" Borodenko). *
Henry Borodenko was not a philatelist but our spheres of collecting and this journal in particular will
remain forever in his debt. Henry was our printer and very responsible for the efficient and economical
production of our journal without which we may not have been able to exist in our present form. Among
numerous publications that were done through Henry, one was the 1997 reprint of the 1932 Moscow
Exhibition sheet with his name on the back, prepared for the occasion of "Moscow '9T'.
Through his kindness and patience Henry patronized our journal as well as numerous other publications of
a religious and charitable nature. Henry was a man of very solid values, which included God, family and
good deeds. Henry's knowledge and experience in the printing industry was unparalleled and there was no
problem that he could not resolve with seeming ease. Combined with solid business acumen and a natural
ability to emit a warm and friendly surrounding atmosphere, Henry was the consummate printing
professional. He spent his final 18 months struggling with a nasty form of cancer with courage, dignity and
grace. He was and will always remain to be an inspiration for your editor and publisher and was a dear
friend whom we will sorely miss. Mip npaxy ero! Alex Artuchov.
June 2003



I j


I- -

~ .

5' -
*n '

, ^*iL *y


Fig. 2: Another cover from L'vov/L'viv/Lw6w/Lemberg 6.2.15 O.S., also with the erroneous FPO 14o. 114
(all the postmarks ofFPO No. 114 that I have seen have had the same error in the No.) This cover is to the
same addressaee "Sigismond Hildebrandts Reklamebureau", but it bears no censorship marking and there
is no arrival postmark of Copenhagen.

12,Anm 2 "- RUSSIA IN 1915.

inz Lepodv.Ba B n

1.Ar rm6 r

3.Armo K.
Torkl ring. 2.ArmB

u.... ..-' ,-,.,- .I Linsingen) lanzer
arj ,T, Baltin.,

June 2003

71' _
// ..2

'I /t C2(a2
~~ / IX~~~~iA II44? k -j

FPTB No. 216
13.12 14

Fig. 4: A post-free letter, postmarked at
FPO No. 24 (22nd. Army Corps?). This:
cover is dated as late as 18.11.15 O.S.
and it was sent via Petrograd for
censoring. Although addressed to'
Copenhagen, where it arrived on 3.1.16
N.S., the country of destination is
underlined at top in Russian as
"IJeeliiapin" = Switzerland!

Fig. 3: This cover, franked with 3
& 7-kop. Romanov stamps was
handled at the Line-of-
Communications FPTB No. 216 in
Tamopol'/Ternopil' 13.12.14 O.S.
(blue cancellation) and sent via
Petrograd for censoring. It arrived
in Copenhagen on 6.2.15 N.S.

~---~Z------ -

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If~ ..

June 2003

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PERIOD FROM THE 1870s TO 1917 by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.
(This article is dedicated to my new-born son Kirill)
Registered mail, recorded on postal wagons (FIB) is encountered most rarely for objective reasons
[reference 1]. Proceeding from my own experience, based on the analysis of an enormous amount of
Russian registered railway sending, I can say with certainty that registered letters sent from railway station
post offices may be found at one hundred times and via postal wagons (1IB) at one thousand times more
rarely than for ordinary mail sent on the railways.
The article in "The Post-Rider" No. 49 about registered mail sent via the postal wagons has
impelled me to answer the appeal of this subject and show the most interesting registered letters and post-
packets from my collection, sent via postal wagons and also to set out a classification of the various types
of registration cachets. The great majority of the postal sending described in this article were displayed in
my exhibit "The Railway Postmarks of Russia 1852-1917", which received its third gold medal at the
"PHILAKOREA 2002" exhibition, which took place in Seoul on 2-11 August 2002. A month after the
exhibition, my son was born and the present article was written when he was three months old.
1. The earliest registered letters with HB postmarks of the 1". period (circular, with a 3-line date)
It is known that Russian letters with a handwritten notation "3AKA3HOE" (registered) began to
appear at the beginning of the 1870s [1]. There also belong to this period the earliest registered letters
found by me (Figs. 1 & 2 on the next page), sent via postal wagons with date stamps of the first period,
together with the number of the station placed in a lying position. It is appropriate to note here that in one
of the best books in my opinion on Russian registered mail [1], there is shown on p. 172 therein the earliest
known letter, sent on 1 Jan. 1897 via PW No. 40 Revel'-St. Petersburg and with the station number absent.
The registered letter in Fi. 1 on the next page was sent from the Volochisk Station of the Odessa
Railway Line and addressed to Moscow. It was franked with 3 x 8-kopek stamps, cancelled on 12
November 1876 with the circular date stamp of 1IOTTOBbIIH BAFOH'b No 21-22 Odessa-Kazatin and
with a further strike on the back, together with the "MOCKBA BEMEP'b" (Moscow Evening) arrival.
There is a "3aKa3noe" notation at top right and below that against the top stamp the number 1428 with a
line underneath, below which is noted the weight of the letter as 1 lot (12.794 grammes or just under '/
ounce). Finally at top left, the figure 185 is written and crossed out in another shade of ink, followed by the
number 183.
The heavy registered letter shown here in Fig. 2 on the next page and addressed to the Moscow
Commercial Court was sent on 25 February 1873 via PW Nos. 13-14 Voronezh-Moscow. It was franked
with 3 x 10- and 1 x 5-kopek stamps, cancelled with the circular datestamp: IIOHTOBbIII BAFOH'b
No 13-14 (4), with a further strike of that marking on the back. The notation "3aKa3Hoe" is at top left and
the registration No. 121 added at top right by a blue pencil. The arrival marking MOCKBA / YTPO of the
next day is on the back.
With regard to the addition and emplacement of the inscription "3aKa3noe" and the registration
number, it is worthwhile here to set out the note in the manual to the Article 220 in the section "Registered
(Recommended) Sendings" [2]: "If the inscription 3AKA3HOE is placed on the flap side, then that cannot
serve as an obstacle to accepting the letter: however, the postal officials are required to advise the persons
presenting such items about the necessity of placing this inscription on the address side in the upper right
corner". Article 234 in the same manual does not specify exactly where the registration number should be
placed on the address side: "Upon receipt of the registered sending, the number is to be placed on the
address side and the registered article is to be noted in the book, after which the stamps are to be
postmarked by applying the canceller". That apparently explains the various positions of the number.
A few words now about the procedure for recording registered mail in Russia, the accounting of
which was carried out in a special registration ledger, the so-called "Book No. 2", as stated in Article 233:
"Directions for keeping Book No. 2 and for formulating receipts" [2]:"In recording the mail in the book, it
should be carried out in accordance with the heading of the column, whereby (a) There should be placed in
the first column a listing of the consecutive numbers. This should be done daily in the provincial, regional,
district first class and Odessa post offices. In the remaining sub-offices, it should be done on a monthly
June 2003

Y Fig. 1.
Registered letter 1876 from station Volochisk of the Odessa Railway to Moscow (16.11) bearing
3x8 kop. canceled by c.d.s. PWAI 21-22 (station N2 31) oOdessa-Kazatin, (12.11) with
3AKA3HOE written by hand and the registration number at the left

____________-...-------_-.-- .~

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.7-. -^
'-^ ; .. *'^ .
- .: **" '"' '
's^ .-:'' .** .
<-^^^^% ^^ ^'^^
"" .
i., L *

S -- Fig. 2.

Rgiscred lettller 1873 sent to Moscow (26.02) bearing 3 x 10 kop. & 5 kop. canceled by c.d.s. PW'.iB 13-14 (sla;non .1- 2 i
11 'ioronezh-Moscow (25.02) with 3AKA3HOE written by hand and the blue registration number at thle rigi
June 2003

lS73-Nov.lS6 -


v ~/^


-, "*

Early registered
letters sent via
Postal Wagon

~t t r
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^-''. /^'"^


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basis;..." Instructions for keeping the Book, 1881 Edition. From all that, it may be assumed that the postal
wagons could be placed in the category of "remaining sub-offices"; i.e. at the very least until 1881, the
recording therein of registered mail once again had to be on a monthly basis. However, in the supplements
set out on the last page of the manual [2] issued in 1885 and at the indicated point (a) of Article 233, the
following alteration was given: "The accounting of the consecutive numbers in the general post offices, the
provincial, regional, the Odessa and district first class post offices should be carried out on a monthly
basis". No other specific rules are known to me that refer to the consecutive numbers for registered mail on
the postal wagons.
It should be noted that both letters in Figs. 1 & 2 were provided with high registration numbers: 121
and 183 respectively. The suggestion is that this was evidently a monthly numeration for the letter in Fig. 1,
sent on 25 February 1873 and it is quite likely in the course of events that in this postal wagon route No.
13-14 Voronezh-Moscow there were recorded about 5 registered sending on the average, which cannot be
disregarded for one of the main routes of the South-Eastern Railway Lines.
As for the letter in Fi.2, sent on 12 November 1876, the monthly listing designates the recording on postal
wagon route No. 21-22 Odessa-Kazatin of about 15 registered letters per day, which seems too excessive,
but it cannot be claimed that this was impossible. Rather and in my opinion, a detailed analysis of the route
would lead to the following explanation. In the first place, the inscription "Sender: D. Vlasov at the
Volochisk Station on the Odessa Railway Line" in the bottom part of the address side of the envelope
confirms that the letter was sent from the Volochisk Station, which was the final border point with Austria
of the Volochisk branch line, running for about 160 km./ 100 miles from its start in Zhmerinka.. The latter
.....p,, ., was a big junction station (see Fig. 2a herewith)
.. ....... IEB' through which the postal wagon route No. 21-22
...,.. J Odessa-Kazatin also proceeded, being the 31st.
7o ,.,,,,,,,, ,.. ,, station from Odessa. That is confirmed by the
".' e station number "31", lying on its side at left in the
""""'" ..- date stamp of that particular postal wagon route,
r.,., being struck on all three stamps. In that way, this
o,,, '., ",'., letter was originally recorded at the Volochisk
,. '' ,,,",,, Station under No. 1428 from where the postal
..... '" 2 wagon route No. 47-48 Volochisk-Zhmerinka
.......... r began. It was then at the Zhmerinka Station, where
I,,.p....t/, .,...... ., -.',, an exchange of mail took place and the letter was
h.R/ *4O9 k. 77 2,ucue,,. handed over to the postal wagon route No. 21-22
1 c ,,.Ao.,,,' Odessa-Kazatin, It was recorded there for the
I ,,',',,,. second time under No. 183 and the stamps were
ii.t .iici;' M.1 ... .,,cancelled with the postmark of that route. The
S". ,,.,,, timetable [3] gives the following information for the
,.,,,, .,,i Zhmerinka Station: "Zhmerinka has belonged for a
-.;. "./, ,,,,, long time to the number of the busiest junction
S', ; stations of the South-Western Railway Lines. It is
,'' located about half way between Kiev and Odessa,
.... being the starting point of the Volochisk branch line
S' and serving as the shortest line of communication
------ _s. ., between the south of Russia and Austria and
.". 4, ....".. .' Western Europe. As a consequence of this, a great
: : .; '.'....... ... number of passengers has always started from
.-..' IN1II' Zhmerinka, which in turn has led to the busy
., operation of the station in the arrival and departure
-.---r-. --'--" ;, ,.r-- of trains". Indeed, such circumstances may
-,' J ^ designate the sorting point and the second recording
b^__^:, -0ra- ,of this letter.
Fig. 2a.

June 2003

The essence of a similar explanation, that a letter was recorded at a junction station on a route upon
the exchange of mail, has been given by the esteemed author Harry von Hofmann in his book [1], with a
quite high registration number 49, as already noted at the beginning of this article and sent on 1 Jan. 1897
via postal wagon No. 40 Revel'-St. Petersburg to Germany. He states: "The high number suggests that this
was done when the train called to exchange mail at Taps, where the necessary "R" in a circle mark for a
foreign item may also have been applied".

~ ~^~ ~ ~-------~--------------
.. .- .., -.

SI. ~~ Fig. 3.

'-k. '... ,.. -_.-.

June 2003

There is shown in Fig. 3 on the previous page a registered letter, sent on 11 May 1888 from Kielce
to Warsaw to the Director of the Police Force and franked on the back with two 7-kopek stamps, cancelled
with a circular date stamp reading Postal Wagon No. 87 (1), for the route Dabrowo-Lukow on the 355 km. /
222 miles length of the Iwangorod-Dqbrowo Railway Line. There is an inscription 3AKA3HOE at top left
and the registration No, 59 is at top right. The arrival marking is on the back, together with a circular cachet
with a diameter of 17 mm. specifying the time as 6 pm.

A registered letter is featured in Fig. 4, sent on 23 March 1888 to the Governor of the town of
Vitebsk, being franked with two 7-kopek stamps cancelled with the circular date stamp of Postal Wagon
No. 3 (7) of the St. Petersburg-Verzhbolovo (Virbalis) route. The inscription 3AKA3HOE is at top right
and the registration number is uncharacteristically absent, due most likely to the negligence of the postal
official on the wagon.
Fi. 5 on the next page shows a registered 20-kopek postal stationery envelope sent on 18
September 1894 O.S.from Revel' (Tallinn) to Hildesheim, Germany, where it was backstamped on 3
October N.S. The envelope is cancelled Postal Wagon No. 40 (2), being the route of the "Revel'-St.
Petersburg" Baltic Railway Line with a length of 370 km./ 233 miles. There is on the address side a circular
cachet with a diameter of 20.5 mm and enclosing a dotted capital "R", being applied for international
registered mail together with the official notation "869/1" in fractional form in black ink, thus showing the
consecutive registration number 869 and the weight of the letter as one lot (12.794 grammes or just under
/2 ounce). We see at top left a registration cachet in lilac-rose, measuring 35 x 14 mm. and with a bilingual
text in two lines, reading "Registered /Recommand6" and, below it a notation in red ink in French, written
as "Avis de reception paye", signifying that the letter was sent with an acknowledgement of receipt, i.e.
with return receipt. The large registration number primarily indicates that the recording of this registered
article was carried out at a railway station post office and then delivered to be handled at the postal wagon.
(Editorial Comment:The sender Eduard von Baggo was a Baltic German stamp dealer, who later migrated
to Danzig. He was killed in 1945 when the ship carrying him and other Danzig refugees was sunk by the
Soviet Air Force).
June 2003

(~k I~J

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~---- -- --d--(

Fig. 6.

sZ -j

Fig. 5.

Note the advertising
seal, reading:
REVAL" and his
dispatch date 30.IX.94

A 14-kopek postal stationery envelope is demonstrated in Fig. being sent on 26 Dec. 1895 to
Moscow to the office of the State Noble Land Bank and cancelled with a circular date stamp reading Postal
Wagon No. 33 (1) for the Kostroma-Moscow route on the 350 km./ 216-mile stretch of the Moscow-
Yaroslavl'-. Arkhangel'sk Railway Line. There is at top right the notation "3alca3Hoe" and just below it
"'cnrbtuHoe" (= urgent), with the registration number once again being absent. The arrival postmark on the
back reads Moscow/City Post/28/XII.
A registered letter going abroad is shown in Fi. 7 on the next page, addressed to Prague (then in
Austrian territory) and enclosing valuable papers, as confirmed by an inscription in Czech in the upper left
comer and reading "vlozena smka na" (with an indication of the face value). Just below and to the right,
June 2003

02'e I-7-------- t~T







S, 51881-1892
.41 .~,,


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Jun 20

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-June 200

there is an indication "21 / 2 1" in other ink, signifying that 14 kopeks had been paid for a letter weighing
two lots (roughly 35.6 grammes or just over 1 ounce), together with 7 kopeks for the registration fee,
without levying any insurance fee and thus requiring that 21 kopeks should be paid. The letter was sent
with 3 x 10 kopeks postage on 17.1.1892 O.S. with a blue "RECOMMANDIRT" cachet at top left and a
dotted "R" in a circle at centre right by the Revaler Bank-Comptoir G. Scheel & Co (wax seal on the
reverse) and an enclosure of money (179 r. 50 k.). The stamps were cancelled by Postal Wagon No. 30 (1)
on the Brest-Warsaw route of 215 km./ 120-mile length of the Warsaw-Terespol' Railway Line.and the
letter was received in Prague on 2.2.1892 N.S.
It is appropriate to note here yet another series of Articles, regulating the procedure for transmitting
registered mail:-
Article 236: "Documents, sundry valuable papers, postal stationery envelopes and fiscal and
postage stamps may all be forwarded in registered letters, but the Postal/Telegraphic Administration is not
responsible for the non-appearance of the contents".
Fig 8 on the previous page features a registered post-packet going abroad and sent on 19 October
1896 from the office of the Postal Wagon No. 3 St. Petersburg-Verzhbolovo to Germany. The packet was
made of thick brown wrapping paper and there is in the middle of its address side a two-line cachet reading:
REGISTERED P. PACKET/ FROM POSTAL WAGON XM, to the right of which there is an octagonal
postmark reading POSTAL SECTION OF WAGON N2 3 (5) and with the date in three lines, thus
specifying on what wagon the packet was being sent. It is interesting to note that the application of this
octagonal marking has been known from 1892, and the example described here shows the latest date so far
seen. A circular cachet containing a dotted "R" was placed below the postmark.
Regarding the fact that post-packets have very rarely come into the hands of collectors and that a
post-packet from a postal wagon which was additionally registered must also be considered a rarity, I am
presenting here for better understanding, their designation, procedure and transmission a series of Articles
from Section VI of the work "Procedure for preparing mail for despatch and its handing over for
transmission from the post offices" [2]:-
Article 379: "Packets or letters, going to a specific point are to be sealed together with the
corresponding postal documents and such sending, proceeding in a correct manner from postal
establishments are designated as post-packets which, in conformance with the class of mail, may contain
ordinary, registered and monetary items. A despatch, in which some documents have been enclosed for
transmission is to be designated as a forwarded post-packet"
Article 396: "An inscription reading registered post-packet should be placed on all post-packets
containing registered mail.
Note. The inscriptions on registered post-packets must be placed by persons who have verified the
contents of the mail therein and not those who have wrapped or sealed the packets".
Article 398: "The weight must be stated in pounds, lots and thirds of a lot on all post-packets
containing registered mail.
Note. This regulation does not apply to the wagons, but upon forwarding the post-packets, the
postal establishments receiving them from the postal wagons must specify and designate on the wrapping
the weight of each post-packet".
Article 399: "The despatches by the postal service of original post-packets and those in transit fom
other offices, containing registered mail (internal and international) are to be recorded in the Ai 3 book of
The books of these forms are to be placed at the disposal ofall postal establishments engaged in the
receipt and delivery of mail... but they will receive only one copy per year.
A form from Book No 3 and an example of its contents is shown in Fig. 9 on the next page.
2. Registered mail with postal wagon postmarks of the II period (circular types with cross dates)
2.1. Post-packets containing registered mail
Registered post-packets going abroad and wrapped in thick brown paper are shown in Figs. 10a &
10b, sent on 25 May and 8 June 1907 O.S. respectively on Postal Wagon X_ 5 Vil'na-Verzhbolovo to
Antwerp in Belgium. The arrival marking of ANVERS / VALEURS is on the back of each sending with
June 2003

- 164-

Co6cTennVame OAnHO'ue R Ire-
pexonamie Apyrarh yrpem~eniu.

MtcTtnaoeaqenie xazaaro
PoCTT-nameTa, c-. nowasa- TT
eieMX eole eTmyo a caliyen.
KaximA niepexeionifl nocah-
aasen xpyrnxT. y'peziemur
1. 2

IpeAHie R o6nMie, e' bonopme saAlkaHl
xazauA 113s noxaisaemulxT Di 1-A rpa#t
u xazr~uR WS DPCAneCTrooanmaxs
Macionananreeni eaxr:aro J, 4
nocts.naitora. P I E
3. 4T 1

AeiU nppeenox iu us% ocr )
mom eawe k 14-z6.

TH Kyxe. . ..

llovm. eat. X 81.

Xasatb ..

Huxmwii Hoeopo .

u m. a.

Fig. 9.

Fig. lOc.

June 2003

Ao xasero Iyr T& aaAf-
jams NIaZA12 CPeAairj
IIOCTI-JRaze~na Ramsms
ffOPAXtoNS empaamen
xam.uf o6rpi nocn-uat

do TDoremU.

r n.-*m n.. 1 PI

1. 1.I.. *0

2 ~ ~ l '11A:3-.~
r -~ -.-

Fig. I 0a. *'
.... l q l

Fig. INb4a
r -. .

!)opMa XJ 105.

llogaBaTelfl (2)cPaXO Bao e iioX!' HAL

H a .II.... ... .. ..

]aBtu1aeT=I, WTO oTipaBJaeHie TO Honiy'eHo BrL

(3) n BwnaHo no EasHatenilo.

(5) Ha HeOT UCi..onarnzo ;aBgc

(6) aa Heapinc om

(7) sga o'ntovr 1pcTa.

11pindrnaffle I. Bi iie-sa TaoM% TeXccTI, noAzea~aiisi nOonTOoaaf yqpemAea dq

3aaiepKHsalOT'b Rep011%. Tt pasauia (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), ICOTopLII orraacy~es

He Hyammmmra~

11plIMsaule 2. Ha O6OPOT'h 9Toro H3Dtnqeniq IMreTCcq oTnpaBHiTe~reMI nOJI-

Eimfl ii noOpoOiamf ero aTems Fig. Ila.


corresponding dates of 8 & 22 July N.S. and with a specific time span of 22 to 24 hours, thus showing how
precisely the postal service worked. The date stamp of Postal Wagon No. 5 (1) [unfortunately, the colour of
the paper prevents clear illustrations] has been applied on each of the post-packets, together with a circular
cachet enclosing a dotted "R" and an inscription written in black ink has been added in French, reading :
"Avis de reception / Bureau de poste / d'Anvers / Belgique / de poste bureau 5". By the way, the lower line
also specifies that the post-packet was sent namely from the postal section of Wagon NM 5. The registration
indication "MJ 1" in blue pencil was placed in the upper right corer of the first post-packet (Fig. 10a) and,
for the second post-packet (Fig. 10b), "VM 14" was added by pen at left above the inscription at bottom.
Supplementary official notations were placed in the upper right comer of both post-packets, reflecting the
recording in the Book of Form XN 3: for the first packet "liste 155 / n 971" and for the second item in red
ink: "928 / liste 165" together with "M 826" below it by red pencil. The flaps on the back of the post-
packets have been closed with a very rare official wax seal, 29 mm. in diameter for the forward and return
routes with the text: "'IONTOB. BAFOHA / N 5-6 (,l1), a sketch of which is shown in Fig. 10c (p.33).
2.2. Return receipts
The presenter of a registered sending had the right of being assured of its receipt by the addressee
by means of a so-called return receipt (under the old grammatical rules, that term was written as
"pocnucKa"). The procedure for delivering a return receipt was set out in the manual [2] in Article 231
reproduced below:
Article 231: "For the delivery of a confirmation of receipt (return receipt) by the addressee of a registered
sending, afee of 7 kopeks is to be paid in full at the point ofpresentation by affixing postage stamps on the
At the point of presentation of the mail where the return receipt has been applied for, the postage
stamps affixed thereon by the presenter should be postmarked with the canceller and the same postmark
should also be placed in the circle to be found immediately after the printed word 'u3b', thus designating
the place and date of application for the receipt, then the printed word 'cmpaxoeoe' (= insured) on the
receipt is to be crossed out and record the consecutive number to be found on the letter in the book of
presentation. The name and surname of the addressee or the name of the establishment to which the mail is
being addressed should be specified against the printed words 'na uua' (= to the name of). On the address
side of the receipt and below the printed words 'o6pamHan pocnucca' (= return receipt) there should be
specified the point of presentation of the mail with the relevant province, to which the receipt had to be
returned. The province did not have to be designated if the receipt had to be returned to the capital city, to
provincial and regional towns and to Odessa. In the specification by the sender on the receipt, he has to
give his name, surname and place of residence, with the necessary details".
The rarity of registered mail sent on postal wagons has already been referred to in this article and, in
connection with the return receipts which were issued on such postal wagons, it may certainly be affirmed
that from the beginning, they were by definition processed in a minimal manner and thus preserved to a
lesser extent. The inner side of a return receipt is shown in Fig. 1 a (see p. 33), sent in 1904 via a postal
wagon; by the way, it was first shown in my exhibit at the "PHILAKOREA 2002" exhibition in Seoul. The
receipt, which was set up as a Form NV 105 for internal mail, was paid in conformance with the rate of 7
kopeks and sent from Moscow via the office of Postal Wagon NJ 15 on the Moscow-Khar'kov route,
proceeding on the Moscow-Kursk Line of 530 km./ 332 miles and on the 245 km./ 152-mile stretch of the
Southern Railway Lines. The address of the sender has been placed in black ink in the relevant outer side of
the receipt as: "Moscow, Novinskii Boulevard, Plevako House". That was the address of F.N. Plevako
(1842-1909), a well-known Jurist of Russia, lawyer and a prominent legal orator.. The registration J 1702
was placed by a postal official just below the address (Fig. 1 lb on the next page) and the high number may
be explained by a preliminary registration at the Kursk-Nizhnii Novgorod Railway Station post office in
Moscow. A stamp was affixed at upper left on the back of the return receipt, being cancelled on 12 June
with a date stamp reading Office of Postal Wagon Ne 15 (5), with a further strike placed to the right of the
upper line, reading: "The presenter (2) of a registered sending under No_ 1 from..." in the circular space.
This particular registered sending was addressed to "The District Member of the Court in the Velev
District" (inscription in black ink, in the same handwriting as for the address), being received in accordance
June 2003

with the arrival marking B7BJIEB' TYJIBCK. T. / ITOHT. TEJI. KOHT. (1) applied in the lower
circular space at Belev on 13 June and in conformance with a second inscription in violet ink, reading "To
be received upon accreditation / signature of an official of the 13'h. rank", i.e. "handed over at the
destination" upon confirmation. The receipt was closed at Belev with two paper labels and struck with an
official wax seal reading: "BI-JIEBb / 1 TYJIbCK. F. 1 / IIOHT. TEJIEFP. / KOHT. / AnJ
naKeTOBb" (Fig. 1 c.), being sent back to Moscow, where there was placed the MOCKBA / FOPOj.
1IOMTA (15/VI) arrival marking.. There is just below that a note in blue pencil, reading "For the Babkov
case" and thus having an official legal character; it shows that the return receipt confirmed the acceptance
by an official of the Belev District Court of documents about this legal matter and which had been sent
from the lawyer's office of F.N. Plevako by registered letter via the office of Postal Wagon NJ 15.
2.3. Registered letters with date stamps of Postal Wagons and registration labels of railway station post
offices ("combined" registration)
There is shown in Fig. 12 on the next page a registered letter from Revel' in 1900 to Saint Petersburg,
June 2003

Fig. 12.

franked with 7 & 14-kopek stamps (7 k. for registration and 14 k. for the weight step of 2 lots) and with the
registration number "17" under the stamps. The interesting feature about this letter is that the stamps were
postmarked by a wagon canceller with the date in cross form and reading Postal Wagon XJ 40 (6) for the
Revel'-St. Petersburg route, accompanied by a registration label with a high number from a railway station
post office and reading "No 958 / REVEL' / ZH.D.P.O.". Such a combination and, by the way, quite a rare
registration of a letter may be explained by the fact that registered letters were handed over by the senders
at the window for registered mail at the railway station post office of Revel' (Tallinn), where they were
recorded and handled. The letters were then forwarded by the clerks to the relevant postal wagons, where
the postal wagon cancellers were applied on the stamps and a wagon registration number was assigned.
I have in my collection a further four interesting registered letters sent abroad with combined
registration(see Table 1 and Figs. 13 & 13a below), sent from April 1913 to March 1914 to Germany from
the railway station post office at L6di, with the stamps on the back being postmarked with circular
cancellers giving the date in a straight line and from the unnumbered postal wagon route "L6di-Koliuszki-a'
which ran on the Lodz factory narrow gauge railway line for a distance of about 27 km./ 16 miles. A pair
of registration labels was affixed on each of these letters at the window for registered mail at the o6di
railway station post office. From the beginning, registration labels inscribed in Russian "3 JIoa3 /
BoK3ajn" and intended for internal mail were affixed with a registration number and, above them,
registration labels for foreign mail and reading "Lodz gare" in French (on the letters from 1913, the word
gare is written in ink and the number cut out of the labels, such that the only registration number of the
letter visible in this "little window" is the one specified on the lower Russian-language label). The
registration numbers of the first three registered letters were recorded in full in the monthly registration
procedure at the railway station post office. The fourth letter has a quite high registration number, which
may be explained within the framework of the "monthly" procedure, whereby the "3" and "R" labels
were brought to the railway station post office on the eve of the last day of February, with the postal
wagon canceller dated 1 March applied on the next day. By the way, this is the latest date found by me
for the application of the postal wagon marking of "L6di-Koliuszki a"with a diameter of 26 mm.
June 2003

Table 1.
Date of 0 of Postal Wagon postmark / Registration number
Despatch Franking period of its application of the letter Fig.
12.04.13 4x3+4x7 Kon. 29 MM /1909-1915 2 48 13
22.05.13 4x3+2x4 Kor. 26 MM /Mar. 1913-, March 1914 N 432
09.12.13 5x10 Kon. 26 MM /Mar. 1913 March 1914 2 177
01.03.14 2x10 Kon. 26 MM/a March 1913-. March .Y' 334 13a

_______________;_'_._"_'__-_, _-'___ _:_-,,_-._-_._,
J. V" '. T*
--------- .* ., ..r .-. ,... .'-:^.,. -.. .

... 1909-1915

." :. ,I' "<- .. ",'t,' -.:. --" : '- '- .- -'-.
A oil" bb Fig. 13.
I Jb C..


.. -..'. *. .

1913 registered abroad letter from Lodz Railway Station to to Zwickau (26.4 N.S.), Germany bearing
4x3 & 4x7 kop. on reverse canceledby c.d.s. of unnumbered PWe LODZ KOLUSHKI/a (12.4
O.S.) with 3-label (JIo631/ s o~aab)) under R-label ((Lodz gare>a (((garea)-by inc)

Fig. .13a -
: .p '- ,., .. .
i U (.. 1- "
-'.. -. .' .:." ."
.:'-5. .. :- '- ."

June 2003
-- ,d: .l :: ,: . J > '
t.- ,.;: I ..t~aa.t_, "- ,.. .,':, .-"".",,. iS '
~~~~~~ .'..'-'" 1 :-."4. .

"_., 1 ," ,, -,. ,
', ... _
THE POTRDR;M[K31"o 2 3
JuneI-6"t 2003 `

Fig. 14. .. -.

4, \

2< P
dXi ( :.'

Fig. 15.

Nb H


~ 71
r ~, ;
II/ '''

~ ,
._v. r.r -- r II-- '~Frl I~ I ~
I ~I r.
:jl. 1
:- ii8!
3' -;5
,... Ir r.l
I, c._
~'I''' I
: i rt
rL.~gLt L~! s? i~'
~tb~r~ic~ -
: '''''
C ~ ..

'-ri-h'.-iL _
'.ti.,, r, .~ ~.;
.r .. r.
~ .~.:.. ~ ~~
~ ;;
: : ..
r ;I
51_1 I~--C-~1L^- I-~_~-

3. Registered letters with postal wagon date stamps of the III Period.
3.1. Handwritten registration notations.
A registered letter of 8.12.1909 is shown in Fig. 14 on the previous page, recorded on Postal Wagon
No. 11, being franked on the back with a pair of 7-kopek definitive stamps. They were cancelled with the
oval postmark "Moscow 11 N. Novgorod *" and the letter was addressed to Vyazniki, Vladimir Province
9.12.09. There is in the bottom left corer of the cover a notation in black ink in fractional form, the
numerator giving the postal wagon number and the denominator the registration number, being thus
inscribed "PWNo. 11/No. 7", with the inscription "3aKa3Hoe" in the upper right corer."
A registered letter is featured in Fig. 15 on the previous page, franked on the back with a pair of 7-
kopek Romanov stamps and sent by Postal Wagon Tsaritsyn 108 Gryazi 5.3.13 to Borisoglebsk in Tambov
Province 6.3.13. There is in the upper left corer of the cover a notation in black ink, reading "PW No.
108/No. 4" and in the upper right comer the inscription "3alaanoe". Fig. 16 shows a registered
letter franked with 3x7-k.
stamps and sent by PW
Odessa 22 Kazatin 9.4.10
Sto His Excellency the
/ Governor of Kiev 10.4.10.
There is in the upper left
/ //corner of the cover a
S L' handwritten boxed note in
violet imitating a
S/registration label with
Pee, "PW No. 22" at top and
9 below under the line the
/ % reg'n number, a dash and
g _* ..~.) then the weight of the
S' 'letter in lots: "No. 9-2 r".
/ -Also, a note in the upper
/" left comer: "aaKtasaoe".
l/ The central number "941"
/ in indelible pencil refers
Sto the incoming recording
Fig. 16. of mail in the office of the
_^ 1 Governor.
4-- e"y *7
S. In spite of the generally
,/a / ^ accurate working of the
."~'"^. l ,postal service, registered
SI mail may be found
without notations to that
/ effect. For example, we
0asee in Fig. 17 a registered
..... postcard addressed to

-" --- with 3k. & 7-k. stamps
/ 29/"f 4- with the oval postmark of
Id /U M' __ /W li_ / Postal Wagon Khar'kov
r e 4 19 Rostov/Don 23.12.13,
V/g, S,^ C | _..._- vw while there is at top right
Z e. / only the inscription
e.' t/.. ,,, 4y ~v 0./ --__. Fig. 17.1 "3aKa3Hoe"'
June 2003

A clearer representation of that postmark applied on the Khar'kov-Rostov/Don route is
shown here at right in Fig. 17a. Fig. 17a.
3.2. The "3"internal registration cachets on postal wagons

lZ --v 2- ..12 ..


Route number .
inserted by hand. The postmark has
not been described

1 sB. .

Fig. 18a.
S. .. -Fig. 18.
Registerd letter sent by PW No 159 < (17.8.1916)
to Zhmerinka Station of the Yugo-Zapadnaya Railway (20.8)
The registration cachets of postal wagons were officially put into use by Circular No. 29 of 29
March 1914. In actual fact, they began to be applied several years earlier and the registered letter featured
in Fig. 18 here may serve as an example.
3.2.1. Cachets of the postal wagons with the numbers inserted by hand (Type I)
A registered letter is demonstrated here in Fig. 18, sent to the Zhmerinka Station of the South-
Western Railway Lines and franked with a vertical pair of 10-kopek stamps, cancelled with the oval
postmark of Postal Wagon Penza 159 Khar'kov d, 17.8.10. A "3" registration cachet was applied in black
at centre left on the side which was torn open upon receipt and the No. 3 for registration and No. 159 for the
postal wagon route were written in violet ink, as shown in full in Fig. 18a. There is a further "3a-aanoe"
manuscript notation at top left.
Fig. 19 on the next page features a registered letter, addressed to Petrograd and franked with a
horizontal pair of 10-k./7-k. stamps cancelled with the oval postmark of Postal Wagon
Moscow*2*Petrograd b, 14.7.17. There is at bottom left a strike in red, measuring 41x20 mm., of the "3"
cachet with the registration No. 2 and postal wagon No. 2 written in black ink. The inscription "3a-as3Hoe"
is at top centre and there were also applied on the address side censorship markings of the WWI period.
3.2.2. Cachets with the inscription "H3b HOt. BAT. M"(= From Postal Wagon No.)
Fi. 20 on the next page shows a registered cover with a previously printed address and sent to
Moscow to the main office of N.L. Shustov & Company, being franked on the back with 7- & 14-k.
stamps, which were cancelled with the oval postmark of Postal Wagon Elets*19*Uzlovaya A, 15.3.14. A
violet "3" registration cachet was applied, measuring 35x10 mm. with the text: "From Postal Wagon No."
and a break in the external frame at bottom right so as to write the number "91" of the wagon in black ink
and, in the upper line, the registration number "1". The inscription "3aaKca3oe" is at top right.
3.2.3. Cachets with the designated number of the postal wagon specified
Fig. 21 on p. 42 has a registered letter sent on 20 May 1917 by Postal Wagon No. 285, the route for
which went along sections of the Privislinskii, North-Western and Riga-Or'l Railway Lines. The letter was
June 2003

Registration cachet with inscription dIZ POCH. VAG. o_)) (From Postal Wagon NP)

,S zuiaHfym homtw

cIJ o 6apu uacm6a

c O c/ B 02cmoA. ^


Bonbmaia CaanoBa5, co6. Ao


Fig. 20.
:'- Fig. 20.

Registered letter 1914 bearing 7 & 14 kop. on reverse sent via PW No 91 < (15.03) to Moscow
(16.03) showing registration violet 3-cachet with inscription > and route number <<91>>
added by hand.
June 2003


chP27 _~~~

Fig. 21.

PmPiic.Kas HoHropa T,.l-Ep-3-rbi3- W o6 vnr

.,;B- fpaBneihe ToBapviui~ecTBa

BpaTl b e B ..H 66e:Jl b.

::. i'-I.~n. B (

C.-3-eme..ypz: Fig. 22.


Fig. 23.

VY orrm. IELSER & Co.

.... : .. RI-GA .
Postfach 455.

June 2003

~~ ~ICPY~M' ~b-u~ ,:,''' r~
Ubl--5- ~U~ "'

i ~. ~ .``:.


AL .
~Le -4

I Ih.
'-- -2F._li

s~i`J ~

addressed to the Prison Lane in Smolensk and franked with a horizontal pair of 10-k./7-k. stamps, cancelled
with the oval postmark of Postal Wagon "Siedlec*285*Polotsk *". There is at top centre a red "3"
registration cachet measuring 36x15 mm. with a previously inscribed text reading "PW No. 285" and at
centre left the notation "3alca3Hoe". The registration number "1" is written in violet ink in the upper part of
the cachet and below it to the left there is an inscription in blue pencil reading "No. 1 9" (the letter "3" is
probably the beginning of the word "9KcneniigHH" = Despatch Office).
3.2.4. "Mute" registration markings, modifiedfrom PW registration cachets during the WWl period
I have in my collection three registered letters (partly shown in Figs. 22 & 23 on the previous
page), together with a similar example given on p. 252 in reference [1], bearing a red rectangular 'mute"
cachet with dimensions 40x19 mm., modified from an original PW registration cachet by crossing out the
inscription "FIB N These letters, the description of which is given in Table 2 below, were sent from the
Riga railway station post office in the first few months of WWI with previously printed despatch and
receiving addresses. Judging by the high registration numbers, the recording of the letters was carried out in
the post office of that same railway station. One of the letters is local and the others were sent to St.
Petersburg (Petrograd). It is appropriate to note here that, regarding the war with Germany, the "German"
name of the city of St. Petersburg was changed on 18 August 1914 to the "Russian" Petrograd. The stamps
on the letters were cancelled with "mute" X-shaped markings in black. By the way, the fact that all these
letters already bore Riga return addresses made practically useless the application of "mute" postmarks,
which were intended to complicate any attempt by the enemy to detect the source of such mail.
We see in Fig. 22 on p. 42 a registered letter from the Riga rail way station post office 16.8.14 to St.
Petersburg, bearing 3x7-k. stamps, cancelled with mute cross-shaped postmarks and bearing the rubber
handstamp in red of a "3" cachet from a travelling post office, in which the inscription "Postal Wagon
No." has been covered by a stroke in black, but that has still allowed the designation to show through.
Table 2.
Date of despatch From where to where Franking Reg'n No. "3" cachet colour Fig. No.
August 1914 Riga to St. Petersburg 3x7-kop. 915 violet 22
August 1914 Riga to Riga 10 kop. 519 red 23
September 1914 Riga to Petrograd 2x14 kop. 146 -
Sept.-Oct. 1914 Riga to Petrograd 14 kop. 624 [1]

The following facets have thus demonstrated in the framework of the present article devoted to
registered mail sent on postal wagons of the Russian Empire in the period from the 1870s to 1917:-
(1) A description has been given of the earliest known registered letters, sent on postal wagons in the 1870s
and an analysis has been carried out of the registration numbers.
(2) On the basis of analysing the regulations and orders of the Postal/Telegraphic Administration (FYIInT)
in the second half of the 19th century, the rules have been set out for the handling and processing of
registered mail, recorded on postal wagons.
(3) A description has been given of post-packets going abroad and sent via postal wagons in the period
from 1896 to 1907, including details of the special two-line cachets and official wax seals, applied in
handling such registered post-packets.
(4) A return receipt has been described, sent in 1904 via a postal wagon office, by means of which the
sender of a postal article, recorded in that same postal wagon office, was able to receive confirmation
of its receipt by the addressee.
(5) A description has been given of "combined" registration, with postal wagon date stamps being applied
in conjunction with railway station post office registration labels.
(6) An analysis has been carried out and a classification given of registration notations by means of
handwritten and "3" rectangular cachets applied on registered mail and sent on postal wagons.
The author plans to set out in a future article an examination and analysis of registered mail sent on
postal wagons after 1917 in the Soviet period
1. Harry v. Hofmann, 3AKA3HOE Recommandirt, Hamburg, 1995
2. C6opHMK nOCTaHOBneHMifi pacnopaxieHfii no noqTOBO-TenerpakHoMy BeJnoMCTBy. qacTb
nepsan. noTroaan. C.-neTep6ypr, 1885, H3janne rnaBHoro YnpaBnneHIla florT n Tenerpa)oB.
3. HJnniocTpHpoBaiHblfi nyTeBOnflTejlb no 10ro-3ananbiM )jienesHbIM a oporaM. 1899, M n.C.
IOro-3anagrHbe Mene3Hble loporn. KieB, Trnorpacm] C.B. Kynb)leHKo
4. CxeMa PoccHtCKHX ) June 2003

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
The delightful cover shown
here in Fig. was sent on I 99 i .
the railway postal wagon of IJ i "E .w
the important and busy
Revel'-St. Petersburg line,
one of the main links //
between the Baltic
provinces and the Imperial
capital. This item, bearing .
7k. + 14 k. instamps, has a fe

I 4q t

S. Fig. 1.

registration label of the Revel' railway station post office, but the postmarks (see the enlargement just
above at left for clarity) are those of the Postal Wagon No. 40 route, dated 15 / V 19-00. It Nwas
backstamped on arrival in St. Petersburg on the following day. The postage represents a double-weight rate
7 k. x 2 = 14 k., plus 7 k. registration fee.
Where was the cover registered? It bears a Revel' Station registration label, but with postmarks of
the TPO/RPO. The following suggestions have been made and I am indebted to our most respected and
knowledgeable friend Alexander Epktein of Tallinn, Estonia (the former Revel') for his help:-

(1) In those early days of registration, including on TPOs/RPOs, we know that the regulations were
sometimes interpreted oddly, or ignored! Although not in accordance with the regulations, the Revel'-St.
Petersburg TPO/RPO borrowed a bunch of registration labels from its home station of Revel', for use on
the occasional letters requiring registration on the TPO/RPO. Thus, this letter was registered at the
TPO/RPO, with the clerk affixing the Revel' Station label and correctly cancelling the stamps with the
TPO/RPO mark. Hence, this cover is in fact a scarce and early "registered on TPO/RPO". The cover need
not then have originated from Revel' itself, but from somewhere on the line, but the clerk used the
registration labels from his home town.

(2) Let us not exclude simple human error. The cover was registered at the Revel' Station Post Office, but
the clerk there forgot to postmark the stamps. When the cover was handed to the clerk on the TPO/RPO
with other mail from the station post office, sharp-eyed as he was, he saw that the stamps were not
postmarked and, using the only postal (TPO/RPO) canceller he had, postmarked the uncancelled stamps to
give us this odd combination.
Two other options have been suggested, which I personally do not support but will mention them
here. In the first option, the cover was handed to the clerk on the postal wagon at Revel' station before the
train left. Requiring registration and being unsure of what to do, he postmarked the stamps and then took
the letter to the station post office for registration. Had he done this, the clerk at the station PO would have
added his own Revel' Station postmark, in my opinion. I therefore reject this suggestion, because I do not
believe that the TPO/RPO clerk would have left the train to do this. In the second option, it was also
June 2003

suggested that the registration label was added to the cover at some later date to create this oddity and that
it was originally a triple-weight cover, i.e. 7 k. x 3 = 21 k., as represented here. In my humble view, the
registration label correctly belongs to the cover.
Is the idea of borrowing registration labels bizarre? Let me show two further items to illustrate this.

1 347
-i )

49 k. As a small portion at the base has been cut out, I am unsure if there was any further franking. The
postmark is of the circular type, reading BIRZULA KHER(SON) G. and the registration label reads:
BHIP3YJIA / )KEJI. )OP. n.O. = Birzula / Railway Station P.O. However, the printed inscription has
been crossed out. Perhaps the nearby town post office had run out of registration labels and borrowed a few
from the station post office, but crossed out the inapplicable inscription.

^^^^^^^^i^^ -- ...- 926.:

--.. :-.. (b) Relevant portions of a large
S- cover also to Kherson and from
... Kiev 28.8.15 are given in Fig. 3. It
., bears on the back eight 10-k. Arms
Z-r'. Stamps a high level of franking at 80 k.
The circular postmarks are those of a Kiev
N ton post office, but the registration label
S. clearly reads: "KIEBBT / )K .A..OT." = Kiev
(A.Ictal sze of Rail\way Station Post Office. However, that station
Sithe Kiev I-I .
Torn Post Off., had oval postmarks, clearly reading
despachi cancel KIEV/VOKZAL as attested to by many cards and
(of 2S..'N. l ). covers in mN and many other collections. I suggest that
this is another example of borrowing; the nearby town post
office had borrowed some registration labels from the railway
station post office, but had forgotten to cross out the inapplicable
note. I suggest that we might well find other examples of
borrowing to strengthen my argument for the cover in Fig. 1 with
.the postmarks of Postal Wagon NX 40 and the registration .label of
Fig. 3. Revel' Station.
June 2003

by G. Adolph Ackerman and August Blume.

With the dawn of the twentieth Century, a new and fantastic era emerged for the world the era of manned
heavier-than-air flight. Heretofore ascents above the ground had been limited to gliders and hot air and
gas-filled balloons. With the successful flight at Kitty Hawk, a wave of new adventurers and a new-breed
of engineers soon began to design and build new aircraft to soar into the heavens. Within five years, aero
clubs were formed. Air meets and exhibitions were organized began to draw huge crowds to watch the
daredevils and their flying machines. Accidents were common both to planes and man as competitors
sought new records for altitude, speed, distance and time aloft. Monetary incentives were offered by
patrons. Europe and the U.S. embraced this new and exciting frontier, and Russia was no exception. Aero
clubs were formed and air meets and exhibitions began and drew large crowds. Newspapers devoted
columns to the new ventures and records in aeronautics. During the first years, France was preeminent in
airplane design and attracting and training new individuals in the dynamics of flying. During the first years
of the new air age, flying machines were little more than frameworks of wood, wire and cloth. They were
unreliable and difficult to handle.

As we prepare to celebrate the century of manned heavier-than-air powered flight, one wonders what
historic philatelic-related items may still exist that pertain to the early days of aviation in Russia. A few
picture postcards illustrating early flying machines (figure 1) and special aviation events can be found,
none were flown (1, 2). Although messages may have been flown on an occasional long distance flight
during the early days and, later during WWI, they did not pass through postal authorities until after the war
(11, 15).

This article will present a few examples of philatelic-related material pertaining to the early period of
aviation in Russia highlighting the aero clubs, special air shows and exhibitions. Perhaps, other philatelists
or historians with view towards philately will be able to find more material from various philatelic sources
or in the Russian archives to expand our perspective and document early Russian aviation and the men

The World Stage: Aero clubs and air advocates in Europe had concentrated their efforts and interest in
gliders and their modifications to perform powered flight. In 1905, nearly two years after Kitty Hawk, the
Wrights flew a distance of 24 miles in their new Flyer III attracting world attention. The Flyer III was the
world's first practical airplane. In France, Santos-Dumont flew his 14-Bis powered plane a distance of 722
feet on 12 November 1906; this flight was considered the first powered aircraft flight in Europe (4, 23).
New names and flying machines rapidly appeared on the stage: Latham, Antoinette, Farman, Bl1riot,
Voisin and Curtiss. Farman won the Grand Prix de l'Aviation in a modified Voisin biplane in January
1908. In September 1908, Wilbur Wright stayed aloft for 1.5 hours, a new record (23). More powerful
engines were developed increasing speed and endurance, and ailerons added improving maneuverability.
Bleriot flew across the English Channel in his Bl6riot XI monoplane in July 1909 (4, 22, 23). A month
later (August 1909), the Grand Prix de l'Aviation, the first European air meet, was held in Rheims, France
(20). Twenty one fliers participated including Bl6riot, Farman, Antoinette, Curtiss, Latham, Lambert, and
Voisin (Figure 2). Curtiss won the speed event (46 mph), Latham for altitude (510 feet) and Farman for
endurance/distance (110 miles) (22). A number of photocards, some postally used, commemorated the
Grand Prix de l'Aviation, its aviators and their flying machines (figure 2).

Russia and the Imperial Aero Clubs: With a backdrop of political discord in Russia, air development
there had fallen behind other European nations. The air feats of Bleriot and others and the successes at
Rheims caught the attention of Russia's elite and military. Arrangements were made through the Tsar to
purchase a number of the newer aircraft and obtain the service of instructors for Russian pilots (4). Grand
June 2003

Duke Aleksandr Mikhailovich was involved in these arrangements and actively championed the
development of flying machines and aeronautics in Russia (4, 9, 12).

The Imperial All-Russian Aero Club (I.V.A.K.) was formed under the patronage of Tsar Nicholas II in St.
Petersburg in early 1908; an affiliate was opened in Odessa the same year (1, 4, 12, 19). The clubs were
charged with the development of technical, military and sportive aeronautics in Russia (19). The Tsar
granted permission to seek public funding to help support their activities. Members included both men and
women and officers of higher ranks. Gliders and balloons were flown before powered aircraft were
involved. With the introduction and purchase of aircraft flying and pilot training became an integral part
of aero club activities. As airplanes were quite expensive, only the well-to-do could afford their own
machines. In 1910, there were 32 Aero Club members who were trained aircraft pilots and four involved
with flying balloons; their names have been recorded (19). During the next several years, additional aero
club affiliates sprung up in other large cities, including Kiev, Sevastopol', Rostov, Moscow, Saratov, Riga,
Nizhnii Novgorod, Tomsk, Orenburg, Irkutsk and Vladivostok (4). A letter from the Secretary-General of
the Imperial All-Russian Aero Club in St. Petersburg is illustrated (Figure 3); also a photograph (Figure 4)
of several members of the St. Petersburg Aero Club in 1911 (1, 9, 12). Do other postal communiques
to/from these early Aero Clubs still exist?

Learning to Fly: The best glider pilot from the Odessa Aero Club, M. N. Efimov, was sent to France in
1909 to learn to fly under Farman's tutelage (4, 20). Efimov was awarded his license in early 1910 and
flew at an altitude of 200 meters for more than one hour (18). Only Latham, Paulhan, Orville Wright,
Lambert and Rougler had managed to reach this altitude previously. Efimov soon broke Wright's nonstop
passenger flight record flying 115 km in less than 2 hours. In high style, Efimov became Russia's first
aviator (4, 16, 20). He returned to Odessa with a Farman IV machine and demonstrated his flying prowess
for admiring crowds. After Efimov's return to Russia, several officers were sent to France for flying and
technical air training, e.g., Matsievich, Ulyanin, Zelenskii, Matyevich-Matseevich Piotrovskiy, Rudnev
and Gorshkov (4).
Efimov successfully competed in the international aviation competitions in Nice, Verona and Rheims in
1910 (20). Efimov and other daring Russian aviators became national heroes and were pictured in Russian
newspapers and magazines (figure 5). Efimov was soon appointed senior instructor at the new aviation
school in Sevastopol.

The Russian Aviation Festivals and Exhibitions: The first Russian air meet took place in St. Petersburg
in the Spring of 1910 during Aviation Week, May 8 -15 (25 April 2 May-Gregorian). This aviation
festival was organized and sponsored by P. P. Boeckel, an important local businessman (4, 14). This event
was authorized by the Fde6ration A6ronautique Internationale in Paris and was under patronage of the St.
Petersburg Imperial Russian Aero Club (14). Several of the leading foreign were invited to participate with
transportation from Paris paid for the aviators and their aircraft ; a honorarium was paid each foreign
participant (1, 3, 4, 6, 14). The event was held at the Kolomiaggi Racecourse located -5 miles from the
centre of St. Petersburg (14). A letter from Boeckel and the Comite d'Aviation of St. Peterburg to Lloyds
in London seeking insurance for the air meet has been preserved (14). A wonderful find, this letter details
the organization of the air event, the foreign participants, ticket prices, prizes and monetary distributions
(figure ). Lloyds did not insure the event.

Latham was invited to perform a series of exhibition flights in his Antoinette machine before the
competition. However, after three ineffectual attempts, he finally became airborne for about a minute
before his wing touched the ground and the plane crashed making further flying impossible. Luckily,
Latham was uninjured. During the meet, flights were made by Morane, Edmonds, Wienziers, Christians,
Latham and Madame de la Roche and by Russian aviators Popov, Efimov, Rudnev, Matsievich, Ulyanin,
Odintsov, and Matyevich-Matseevich (4, 6, 14). Flying machines taking part included Farman, Wright,
Voisin, Bl6riot and Antoinette models (figure 7).
June 2003

Huge crowds attended the St. Petersburg Spring air meet with distinguished audiences in daily attendance.
Popov in his Wright machine was the only Russian to win a prize during the event, e.g., for altitude of (454
metres) and duration (2 hours). Other monetary prizes went to Christians in a Farman machine and by
Moran in a Bl6riot winning the all-round records with Wiencziers for speed (6). Although the meet was
fairly successful it was marred by numerous accidents throughout the event. On the final day of
competition, Wiencziers in his Antoinette and Popov in a Wright machine crashed near the grand stand-
Shortly thereafter Moran's Bl6riot was blown against the hangers and into Christian's Farman injuring
several spectators and damaging both machines (3, 6,).

Thirty-three Aero club members were eligible to participate in the air events of 1910-11 (19). Those flying
fixed-wing machines were (Dorozhinskii, Efimov, Eristov, Gorshkov, Grunberg, Kampo-Stsipio, Keburov,
Komarov, Kostin, von Krum, Kuzminskii, Kuznetsov, de Lamber, Lebedev, Levkovich, Lipkovskii,
Matsievich, Malinskii, Maslennikov, Matyevich-Mateevich, Petrovskii, Piotrovskii, Popov, Pshanovskii,
Raigorodskii, Rudnev, Segno, Semenluk, Shyunin, Sredinskii, Studentskii, Ulyanin and Utochkin (19). In
addition, 4 club members who piloted balloons (Kuznetsov, Odintsov, Rynin and Sredinskii) also could
participate (19).

The second aviation event held in St. Petersburg during 1910 (September 21 to October 12, 1910) was the
All-Russian Aeronautic Exhibition (1, 2, 4, 7, 13, 19), This event took place at the Komandanstkiy air field
and was sponsored by the local Aero Club. Newspapers and magazines pictured the best pilots and
airplanes taking part in the exhibition. Over 30,000 people attended the opening day events including
Grand Dukes Aleksandr Mikhailovich and Dmitri Pavlovich, and other nobility (figure 8); Generals
Polivanov and Kovanko represented the military. Attendance reached over 150,000 during the nearly three
week event (4, 6, 12, 13, 17).

Twenty-three aero club members competed in the Fall All-Russian aeronautic event. These included both
non-military (Efimov, Segno, Utochkin, von-Krum, Lebedev and Kuzminskii) and military officer pilots
(Gorshkov, Matsievich, Matyevich-Matseevich, Rudnev, Piotrovskii and Ulyanin) (7). Of the aircraft
observed in sheds on the opening day, most were Farmans or Bldriots and their Russian modifications (7).
These machines belonged to civilian airmen, as well as to the Air Fleet and Army Aeronautical School.
Several photocards commemorate the flyers and their machines (Figures 9,10).

Efimov, Segno and Kuzminskiy distinguished themselves on opening day with honors going to Rudnev for
the longest flight of the day; Matsievich and Kuzminskiy shared the days' altitude record. Later during
the festival, Rudnev made a record ascent to 1,400 meters and a long flight from the St. Petersburg field to
Gatchina. Several other distance flights were made during the festival by Efimov and Matsievich.
Balloons and airships also participated in the festival flying over the airfield and city. As part of the
festival, Odintsov and Kuznetsov made a record flight in their balloon from St. Petersburg to the Sea of
Azov, a distance of 1,600 km. in 40 hours (4, 7).

Near the end of the competition, Captain Matsievich in his Farman biplane was killed in a fatal crash (7).
Lt. Gorshkov also had a severe crash at the show but he escaped death. Popov was severely injured several
weeks later following a crash at Gatchina (4). A few months after the exhibition,Matyevich-Matseevich
had a fatal crash near Sevastopol (4) further demonstrating the hazards of flight in these early years.

Military aviation schools opened at Gatchina, Moscow, Sevastopol and Odessa, where pilots were trained
for both army and naval air units (4, 12). With eagerness to see the new flying machines in other parts of
the country, Moscow saw the opening of its first aeronautics exhibition in mid-June 1910 (4). Several
planes and gliders were on display at the show and Utochkin flew a Farman IV during the exhibition. Baku
also staged an Aviation Week in October 1910; this was the first aviation show in the Caucasus(18). Two
June 2003

famous pilots were invited, Utochkin and Vlynskii. They flew a number of times in their Farman biplanes,
to the wonder of the large crowds below (18).

In mid-April 1911, a large International Aeronautical Exhibition was held in St. Petersburg and was opened
by Grand Duke Aleksandr Milhailovich (13, 21). The Tsar visited the show early in the week viewing the
various flying machines on display. The majority of firms showing their aircraft were newly-emerging
Russian enterprises; the Duk company was the largest at this time (12). British, French and German firms
also were represented; several Bristol planes were purchased by the Russian Government (3). Several
photographs from the St. Petersburg archives (figure 11) show some of the machines on display (21)
Certainly mail was sent by show exhibitors and visitors alike. The exhibition was followed by an aviation
week and flying competition including an air race from St. Petersburg to Moscow at the end of July (1911).
The race was won by Vasiliev in a Bleriot XI monoplane (4, 13, 21).

Aviation Popularization and Aircraft Design: Air shows-exhibition continued in the pre-WWI period
gradually taking more of a military bent. The airplane continued to gain the attention of the Russian
people, its aviators, manufactures, engineers and the military. Picture postcards became available depicting
past and present aircraft (Figures 1, 12, 13).

As the 20th Century began, aeronautic theory and design was being taught and studied by Zhukovski who
was later joined by Tupolev in studies at the Moscow Higher Technical School. Aircraft began to be
developed by a new breed of Russian engineers including Gakkel, Sikorsky and Grigorovich (10, 12, 16).
The best models were entered in air competitions/exhibitions particularly those of the military as military
advisors began see the possibility of the new flying machines as forward observers. In early February
1912, Sikorskii's S-6 biplane won for best speed (70 mph) and design in the military air competition (figure
14); Gakkel had won the previous year with his Gakkel VII model biplane (10). Kiev was the major site
for testing the new aircraft designs of Sikorskii, Grigorovich and several others. Sikorskii's giant 4-motor
biplane (Russkii Vityaz prototype for the Ilya Muromets models) was tested there in 1913 on the eve of
WWI (9, 10, 12, 16). One would expect that archival letters with preserved covers to/from the new aircraft
designers, manufactures and military still exist. It is noteworthy that special free-franks and air unit
postmarks were applied to aeronautical (balloon and airship) units prior to and during WWI. When
military aviation unit free-franks and postal designations began to be used by newly-created aviation
(aircraft) units is uncertain, but should provide a fertile area for exploration.

By early 1912, the Duks, Shchetinin, R-BVZ, Lebedev and Anatra companies were building various
modifications of Farman IV (Rossiya A), Bl6riot XI (Rossiya B) and Nieuport IV machines. New
designers and aircraft moved centre stage as WWI approached (10, 12, 16). A branch of the French Gnome
motor firm opened in Moscow in 1912. This company branch assembled the powerful Gnome engines
from imported factory parts (10, 12, 16). A cover, recently described by Combs (5), that was from the
Gnome-Rhone home office (Paris) to the Moscow plant is shown (figure 15); the cover is dated 1916
during WWI. The finding of such material should demonstrate the possibility of additional significant
finds in the future that can be related to early Russian aviation.


1. Ackerman GA: Imperial Russia and its flying machines: history and philately.
Rossica J., 134:5-19, 2000.
June 2003

2. Ackerman GA: Via the Red Skies The Development of Soviet Air Mail 1922-1945. G.A. Ackerman,
publ., Worthington, OH, 2002.

3. Anonymous: Flight, May 14, 1910.

4. Blume AG: Correspondence on the Early Development of Russian Aeronautics and Aviation. The
Russian Military Air Fleet 1910-1917., in press, 2003.

5. Combs G: Societe des Moteurs Gnome. Rossica J., 139:36-37, 2002.

6. Correspondent in St. Petersburg: Aeronautics Aviation Meeting. London Times, Apr 20 12d; May 3
- 8f; May 11 8f; May 16 -lle, 1910.

7. Correspondent in St. Petersburg: Aeronautics Aviation Meeting. London Times, Aug 27 6d; Sept
17 6d, Sept 28 4a; Oct 4 6d; Oct 6 8d; Oct 8 7d, 1910.

8. Correspondent in St. Petersburg. Aeronautics Aviation exhibition in St. Petersburg. London Times,
Apr 24 6e, 1911.

9. Durkota A, Darcey T, Kulikov, V: The Imperial Russian Air Service. Famous Pilots and Aircraft of
World War I. Flying Machine Press, Mountain View, CA, 1995.

10. Duz PD: Isoriya Vozduko.Plavaniya i Aviatsii v Rossii. Mashinostroyeniye, Moscow, 1979.

11. Kalnozols P: The mail by air. Rossica J. 83:51,1972.

12. Nowarra HJ, Duval GR: Russian Civil and Military Aircraft 1884-1969, transl. A. Myes, Fountain
Press, London, 1971.

13. Olshevski S: Pictures from St. Petersburg. Air & Space, Smithsonian. 8:54-59, 1993.

14. Roberts CW: The first Russian St. Petersburg aviation meeting., 1910. Rossica 73:74-76, 1967.

15. Shabunin A: The origin of air mail (in Russia). Rossica J., 108/109:106-7, 1986.

16. Shavrov VB: Istoriya Konstruktsiy Samoletov v SSSR do 1938 gora. Mashinostroyeniye, Moscow.

17. Vsevolod V: Aerophilatelic paper documents of Russia. Filatelya SSSR, 6:16, 197.

Web Sites (January 2003)

18. Akuundov A, Fischeva N: Biplanes and seaplanes beginning of aviation in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan
Internal. Summer 1986;

19. BLITZ: First Russian aviators (The Emperor's All-Russian Air Club).

20. Mykhailova L, Pohossky YI: Ukraine's first aviation.
June 2003

(http://www.day.kiev.ua/DIGEST/2002/03/ culture/cult.htm).

21. Olshevski S: (http://www.sadcom.com/pins/article/index.htm).

22. Rheims the first international aviation meeting.

23. Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company and Museum of Pioneer Aviation. The first to fly history of the

...". ,

SFi. 1: A fanciful picture
.A ii : j .. postcard showing the Kremlin
and Moscow River with Farman
S(left) and Bl6riot (right)
machines overhead in 1912
... T :3- i (courtesy of G. Combs).

Fig. 2: () Photocard showing
Farman flying his Farman III
biplane at Rheims (Aug. 1909).
(b) Photocard showing Bl6riot
flying his Bleriot monoplane at
Rheims (August 1909).
(c)Photocard shows Tissandler's
Wright "A" aeroplane near
pylon at Rheims. Card sent from
Rheims dated 2(?) August 1909.

June 2003

Fig. 3: Imperial All-Russian Aero Club of St. Petersburg official cover and enclosed letter of 23
December 1910 O.S., sent to Paris with arrival postmark of 9 January 1911 N.S. Letter signed by the
Club's Secretary-General (1,2).

Fig. 4: Members of the Imperial All-Russian Aero Club of St.
Petersburg (1911), standing in front of a Farman biplane. The lady
is Lidiya Zvereva, who became Russia's first certified pilot in
August 1911. To her right in the light jacket is Igor' Sikorskii and
second from right is Nikolai Severskii (12).

Fig. 5: Efimov and his Farman IV machine, pictured on the cover
of a magazine (1910).

June 2003


'D ST & "i:rs;c Oun
3 .* I. ny.

lit. -,ar ll rf

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'As.. ,. .4


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3 Quay itnt,

Fig. 6: Boeckel's
letter with
insurance and
outlining details
of the St.
Aviation Week
Meet, May 1910.
See reference 14
for complete text
(courtesy of J.C.

**KMI1L E'C'LY.~E~ L [L
Br Petof~t'ur3

/ -ri.;.

,/ /

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( / <:,. .. e.-K, ^ *4 '. 4 .. ..

t '-v ', "i.... i .. -- w. ,Y4&. .~, ..

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.I>- <''-< -. *t-.i-/~~.

c. ,^ : / ,. ,4 7.- ,,. .,: : ,. i .i... "'"

41,L 2,; 7( j
;7*.r~ .I ?i~ ~~

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,- i

4- /-i. Sm

Fig. 7: Photocard showing
Edmonds at the Spring
International Aviation
Festival in St. Petersburg,

June 2003



a. 1 /

i-:.;- -. -__ _
r-er-.t .



Fig. 8: Russian Nobility attending their All-Russian
Aeronautical Exhibition in St. Petersburg, September 1910.
Grand Duke Aleksandr Mikhailovich is shown in profile,
third from the left (courtesy of S. Olshevskii [13,19]).



kIDD M M Uh~ A-Z 5t

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f,. .

7-nd l7


Ij-.B1 c .4..,-

Fig. 9: (ab) Photocard sent from St. Petersburg 23 Oct. 1910 to Paris, France 7 Nov. 1910. The card features Rudnev in
a Farman biplane at the All-Russian Festival,. (c/d) Photocards, with text below reading "All-Russian Aviation Festival
(8-26 Sept. 1910)" and identifying aviators: Rudnev, Lipkovskii & Matyevich-Matyevich (at left) and Rudnev and his
Farman biplane (at right). Calendar dates on the cards reflect the Gregorian calendar.

June 2003


'ig. 10: Photocards of the All-Russian Aviation Festival of 1910, with texts indicating the festival date and the flyers
shown: (a) The card at left, sent from St. Petersburg 7 Oct. 1910 to Paris, shows Rudnev and Efimov flying their
biplanes; (b) Matsievich flying over the Festival airfield (card at right); he was killed in a fatal crash during the event.

M..' C ;RPW A ,lb.. .

Fig. 11: International Aeronautical Exhibition in St. Petersburg (April 1911), courtesy of S. Olshevskii (19).

Cb PO-faCTaOMb

,",. / I -.'. r
,,., .. -.. 1 .: / .-: -

. .... ........ ,, /
/ -.

e' .".-
Z .... ....' -.- .- .. .. _. .
-. < *-"

. ...' ...._.. .. -,_


ium~mm.A<_ciA I
Yi~C.^T~ Ww^"^-n |tmc

r'I' F,.1!2c7~Lr-:dEU

Fig. 13: Christmas (1916) and New Year (1912) postcards with early aviation themes.
June 2003 55

b I I t
j 1



u :L:J

r--" r `

'74 -Id *r c ..4

I '*- */
r .' '

Fig. 12: (a) The postcard depicts Bl1riot flying his Bl6riot XI plane across the English Channel in 1909 and was sent
from Lobanovskoe 13 July 1911 to St. Petersburg; (b) Card shows a Farman biplane flying over a countryside lake. Sent
from Kislovodsk 28 Jan. 1911 to Roslavl', Smolensk Province; (c) Card shows a Bl6riot monoplane and Farman biplane
flying over seacoast. Sent from Alupka 28 Nov. 1912 to Kazan'.


04 K.1(

'jai I EM91


'!1.iAA1 r 1oMW :i no CI;I A PI -_ S in i- .',.- ..K "< !:i'r s'-.;';i' .. 1. Ciw', t ..... .o r ; '".... 1. aZ.
IAlll H C0.A H1B : CA I il: 112 .
tIIro TA. fl:nO OX A ii

Fig. 14: The postcard shows a Sikorskii biplane with text below: "Russian biplane designers. I.I. Sikorskii first call-up
military competition 1912". Card with printed insignia of the Imperial All-Russia Aero Club, with text below reading
S"Receipt issued by Committee for donation to build Russia's Air Fleet" (1,2). THE POST-RIDER/HFlIIUK .N- 52
56 June 2003




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Fig. 15: Cover sent from the
Sl Socidtd de Moteurs Gnome et
gO|fleCTBO *BTOlOlI [HOMI Rhone, Paris 23 July 1916 N.S. to its
Scg branch plant in Moscow, with arrival
Si HnKow I erOesa,ra 18. BJIArynrA backstamps of 31 October and 2
B. MOC November 1916 O.S. The cover has
P NE' M O Oboth German and Russian censor
... ------ ---markings (courtesy of G. Combs
= g[5]).
Soclitg des Moteurs Gnome .
NTikolaiewskaia, 18. BLAGOUSCHA


Editorial Comment: Further to the excellent treatment set out above by our two esteemed authors, your
editor can show yet another photocard with an aerial theme during the Imperial period. By the way,
photocards are scarce, as they had to be printed labouriously one by one direct from a negative and the
printing orders were thus not large. The example given here was sent locally in Mitava (now Jelgava in
Latvia) on 31.12.12 and the view side has a montage showing a female (?) pilot at the controls of a
simulated early flying machine. The inscriptions are all in Latvian, in the old spelling and with Germanic
fonts, which continued in use until the early 1920s.
The text at top left translates as: "Much happiness in the New Year" and, at bottom left more or less
as: "The forthcoming turn of the wheel of time can somewhat use up happiness so soon. Father, help with
an aeroplane to create a happy New Year".
The second word in the third line "lidmaschinu" (now spelt as "lidmaSTnu") means "(with an)
aircraft or aeroplane". The dictionary consulted was: "Latviesu-Anglu Vdrdica", Latvijas Valsts
Izdevnieciba, Riga 1963.
Details from our members of further material on this subject would be much appreciated.
WANTED: Mute postmarks of the Russian Empire during World War I on cards, covers, pieces etc.
ARNOLD LEVIN, 2619 Fairlawn Ave., Apt. E2, Fairlawn NJ 07410, U.S.A.

June 2003

Classifying the "As crtypongift (lJI0 .1I types of cachets of WWI
Sequence of English text: pp. 68-70, then 62-68.
BnaanMnp BepAR-leBCHRi

C Hiasjia I MHpOBOrl BoiRI16 130 pacnopliceH~io Fr'nBHorO YrpaBnemr rOIT 11 TenerpaboB
OT 29 HIouA 1914 rosa ripocmuie mcicbMa Becom Ao 30 rpamM H oT1iirrX1 Ha 1MA 'HsoB
)encTmyyolner apMiiH H OT 'UMoB Aerclyionaerl apmam nepecmuIasmca 6ecruamHo [ 1 ]. 3To
pacnopmceHtne pacrpocTpatwocb, ecTecTBeHHo, H Ha %mIoB gerclyiornero dysoTa. B
.aalMHeiineM pe'm riormaT o6 olbopMnemni ItMeHio 1X KOppecrioHtaemlliu.
iInA Y)IOCTOBepeHHx ripana Ha 6ecruamyio nepecbuincy mHCbMa i11 OTKpbiTKH 'IMOB
AerlicTaytornero 4lnoTa nounic~mH 6bUmi MMemI OTMICK neqamI Kopa6nRx wm 4UIOTCKOA (6eperoaoii)
qacTm. Tmejuict, H HeXoTopbIe ;xpyrHe ycJoamr xtA 6ecnnaTHoil nepecunwci no19o6Ho1A
KoppecnoHjxeuHu i, HO lx B )JaHROR CTaThe MiI KaCaTChCA He 6yaeM.
fo3JHee 6IJTI Taloie BImyUeH UIpKyWxp rIeTporpazcKoro no'Tr-;xpeKTopa OT 25 anrycla
1914 roaa, N238. B HeM roBopHTcA, 'To "Ho pacnopzMcemflO rjaBHoro YnpaBneH;r4 nIOtT H
TejierpaloB ripoemle nomrr0oae omnpaaneHrM BecoM xto 30 rpaMM 1 KapTomKm 6e3 inTemneinm c
azpecoM "Ae~icTByiouM i 1 inoT onjiae He noxnecaT~" [2 ].
B cepeiuoie 1916 roga a npaBmia nepecbinxm KoppecnoHaemxMH 'nmHOB BM(D 6Burn
BHeCCHbL HSMeHeHHR, HaripaaIietiie Ha IIOBflneHHe ceupeTHocrm. HaHocHMble Ha
KOppeCrOHJietntno OTTHCiH neqaTei C Ha3BaHHrMM Kopa6jieA (= 4ulJOTcicnx qacTeii) H03BOJLIXJIH
nerico onpeneammra mmi :)Tux Kopa6fleH H Hx MecTa Haxo)KeHMA. nO3TOMy 6buo o6aaai6neHo "...
AnM CBaeeHHA H pyOBOaCTBa, 'ITO AM nepeCbiIKH Bblune 03HaqeHbIx ornpaBJieH~iI JfirOmbiM
nopARK0M AOCTaTOqHO o THmcK neiaTii mna ";jrcHcTyyiomHri qIJIOT BanTiiiAKoro Mop3! AJIX
nulcem` H 'HLpocmoTpeHo Ha Kopa6si&' [ 3 ]. 7aiiee B c-raeme TeKCTl reaTeri npHBeaeHLI B
COBpeMeRHoA op0orpa~RnH.
Heo6xohiiMo OTMeTHTb, 'iTO neiaTM nrina "JeeiicTiytotaiir dloT Basutmtcicoro mopsi" He
nosiy'HnH tuipoKoro pacnpocTpaHeHHM 11 BcTpeqaIOTCH oTHOCHTeJIbHo peulco, oco6eHHo B
KOM6HHaUH C UeH3YPHblM IlTeMriejieM "rpocMoTpeRO Ha copa6ne". TeKCT 3TOA rieqaia He
cooTleTTBOBaJI Tpe6OBaHiHlM ceKpeTHocTi, Tac Kax yKa3bs aji Ha paiioH Jl1cnOKaltm Kopa6mu -
BansmulcKoe Mope. rIo3rTOMY B zaimiternueM nptiMeliilHcb neqaTm c TeKCTOM Tuna "ReilcTBytoumIr
4i JoT'.
HecosibKio paiibiIe, B Ue=LAx cOxpalie[IHA CCKpeT11OCTH MeCCT IHCniOKa.11111 KOpa6Jil4,
Ha'ianbimnuK ranaioro Ynpaaneiiii notrr H TerterpalloB Teiierpam~om CT 2 MaA 1916 roii 3a
N24670 o6bs611i1, 'IT no'ITOBbiM y'peClleH1AM nopTonbix roponioa rpeanoweiIo ire Hanaramh
KaMelmiapihtie 11ITeMneiCIla nO'TOBbiC Ofl)panlne~il1i c 6ocibix cyaoB 1llfOTa, oneqaTatlubie
CYAOBhIMM1 Ka3eilmlimii ne'viaTRM [ 4 ]. YKa3aHr-me 0 3aMetle weiaTeA [ 3 ] lie 6ruino noxmrocTblo
RbiniOjiiio it, B BHC MCKJnIO'le]IHllA, oTTicKH nc'avcl c ita3BailMMi Kopa6ieRl (mnti IJIOTCKHX
nc-Teil) BcTpc'InlOTH Ila noppecriomaiennint ;to Ko0tlia pnccmaTplinnemoro nepitoon npflHMCplo ;0
Ilcnpnia mapTa 1918 roan. flc'iam Tuna 'AdIcilc)yI0l1111 A IJIOT" ticnonb3Onaniicb II t0o nbixoria
113MMlClIi n ripanitna nepcctiunxi i 1915 H, J1a)KC, n 1914 r.r. Bo3Mo)t1o, 'ITO 3TO CAIY'lnilIOCTI.
A MO)KCT 6biTI,, II3MCIIC]Ilul n npanlwlax TOJII.KO o(1)iiintit.iIo 3a(DIIccllpoBaniH TO, 'ITO y)KC
'MlCTO ncCTpclnlOTC5 tin flanom6l)n KoppcCIlltlO l CIlt ii. 11o 0111 fl AmmolloM mipiianiic [IC
CJIcayCT 0 IMCIlii I., 'ITO ncrtniil T ltn *Jlc0dc3yl0iomAlil +ImoT" nplimclligllict.
ltcJloO-I III 'i 1 ,11) Ilin Elut-illlCiOM ileito AII1 IICOX OC'iIMI iiiiix IiJIoiovi it (I I0nolu1J I IicllIIccui 11,1,
I Cnllo IIlclIosilicn cinli .ll RliINCTCH KJI:cCIl(IIKnI Kaim tiC'anTCdI Tll1n "JdfC lnY)OIIJ1 pilMl T 151
Aoirop opeasinracTI KlnECCIV)llnKntiOIll, KOTOP:151 y'lltTJmnc r CJIC21YH)IiIlIC oc[loiIc IriIIhl KllpIll
pnccMa-ipitinCMIaiax nvciaiil: 1)(IopmaR; 2)coxtcpwnalie IcKcIn, pncfluoacCrtrIllllOI'o no oxpy5lloc11li
(Anim Icairel icpyl'iioil (IOPMI.I) 111111 R cIpKcy (JlIa livciaci l ilpIMoylIolbI toll il);

3)coixep>KaHHe IeH-pajibHoA 'acTn neqaTl (.ixm ne'aTeri icpyrroii 4opmim); 4)Hanmqs e y neqaTH
HapymoRl iH BaHy~peHHeii OKpya(HOCTeii mJIM TOJbItO Hapy)IHoA (ARA ne'iaTeri KpyrioRi 4opmii) Hmi
Haamxlie Hint oTCyTCTBHe pamIKI (znxr neqaTert npsMoyrojlaboH 4bopb1i). KpoMe 3Troro, B
HitenpiHBe)eHHOrH Ta61mue (IIpmIomeHHe N2l) B oT)ZelmHixhI cTon6lax TEmaHMb cnenyiOUIHe
flpH3HaKH nemaTeHi, KOTOpbie aBTOP c'ea Heo6xoaiiMbi yKa3aTa: IBeT neqaTH (CMOTpHI "YCjiOBHmIe
o603Ha'ieHHA"); atiamerp (Anx Kpyr.mix ne'aTeA) mi xnmia (=ui npxMoyroThmHbx rieqaTeri);
HanpaaieHmie TeKcTa B HaiIIHC 0 no 0KPY~xHOCTH (CMoTPi "YCJIOBHoie o603HawemUHxf). B cTon6jie
"Pa3Hoe" ymaaib niaTbi oinpawseHmui H npH6biTHA rIHceM H oTpbrroK, xapaKTepH3yioln1e nep~oa
iCUOJ163oBB11i paccMa~pHnaembix rieqaTerl; B HCKOToPMX CjIIYaaX Ha3BaHbl HCTO'IHIKH 13
KOTOpbix npiBe~IeHbl nesiam. B ciy'iaix oT1paIBB n30II H13 ()H PIIJIHx1H aThi Y(La3aHwi no
Aim onpeueneimx ne'ia: B cooTBeTcTBHi c rrpeniaraeMOii KmacCH1IKau1eH, BieJeam
npH3HiKHi neqaTm.
KaK MH[o 13 CXeMbII (lpanioxceHme X2), MOxcHO abELejimU 2 OCHOBHLIX Tuna neqaTei
110 ripl3HaKy 1 "4opMa":
1 KpyrJmiie;
2 nplMOyroJmHbie (crpoiHbie).
PaccMo-pimM neiaTm Kprsiori 4OPMLl T BiiYPi i 3Toro Tmria M01(HO BhIfeflHiTb 4
rpynnbi ie'laTer B CooTBeTCTBii c npH3HaKoM 2 "cozepKaHHe TelcTa, pacrionoaceiiorO no
3.C TeKCToM "C AereClItBiOaero dluo0ra";
4. C TeKCTOM "143 TeiicTByioLnero 4sOTa"T;
BHYTpH K.)KIOr 113 3THX rpynn MO)KH0 BlUIeJImTL 5 nogrpynn neiarel B COOTBCeTCTBH c
npIH3HaK0M 3 "coziepiKa~mie CHTepanbJHOR 'acTi neeaTH":
1. C TexcTom "ZinAi naKeToB":
2. C TeKCTOM "H'eiam Juul5 naKeToB',
3. C TeKCTOM "4LiJI 1eeM";
4. C TeKCTOM "flaKeT";
5. rep6 PoccMH c MOPCKOri CHMBOJI1KOR (1KOP51MMI).
BHYTPHI Kauilaogi 13 3THX noarpyrn MO)KH1 BbUiejimTh 2 BHita B cooTBeTTBHH C npH3HaKOM
4 "Hanwitte y neqiam Hapy)HOR 11 Bl~yTpeHrleri OKPYXCHOCTeki 1111 TOJbIcO iapywKioii":
1. TonbKo C HiapyY)KHO oKpy-A)llocTblo;
2, C lapy)lcHOr 11 airyTpeeiierl OIcpy51IOCTSiMH.
PaccMOTPHM ne'aru npqMoyronytibi lopMbL (cTponmble) TIHL 2. BHyTpH 3TOrO mmna
MO)1cIO BblICJllTb 2 rpynni nvie'aTen B cOoTBeTCTIITH c npi3HiaKOM 2 "coacpiKannc TeicTa,
pacnonoicellloro B CTPOKY":
1. C TCKCTOM "C ,lertcmyr0owero ]rnoTa";
2. C TCKCTOM "143 AeiiCTBYIOwacro (FJIOTa".
B3iIyTplI KawKIoii 113 3Tix rpynn MO)KI1o abbiexteimi 2 nogrolviili.m 1 COOTICTCTIIIIII C
nplilianKom 4 "lianJlPOme 1111 OTCyTCTRI!C y nv'iaTlH HapyKIon pamMKH":
1. C IIpOY)iliOil paMicoi0
2. 13c3 iiapywclioii paMKii.
Taic Knic xtns nviC'iTClr cpyrnoii (IlopMt.l nluienico 4 npiri3lilK no KOTOph.IM IlpBO1rITCJI
Knaccii(Illicamilx, 10 KOJ TaKoiH n'ianrT 6y]ICT CO)CTORTI. 113 4-x wllinp, pn31lcnellliiblx MC)Kiy coGoil
TM)'IKaMII, it 5-11 oripwicnloiUlcl I op$IUIKOBIIll IIOMIep iYTp)ll ii tmw. JtJIni tIC-1CIiI
nlpmlmoyrOwlhllo (I)OIpMl.l nIfienclll) 3 iipinliinlca it, cooTir"CTilCr IIIO, iIx KV 6yicr COCTORTh 11 3-x
imljlilp, pl3JmucuimiaxlIX Me)lli corofl TO-Il1MII, II 4-n oiipciiC1iuiioiiicH tiopwiUcoi.mi ItloMtp iilyrpit
rIwiolpy 1111.1, E'CInl lix (0111 PICCIti n110 llpt Ima j til t 111 wIl 110)1PYIim C-rali eT GOi. IC 9, TO IO MCe Gy;ICT

IKax nlielpyuio ItowucllltnaTI, ripeuinarcimax icsinccllltjicniui 2IOnyIC'1eT CynteCCInoianiiiie
40 nliuwol I cli :llll 11111a I iI 4-x noIImpyInnii einci titirn 2. TIo ccrii, Olin ilocTpovl In

npeanono)ieemx, HTO B rnpHmmne BCe 3TH BapHaHThI Moryr cymuecTBoBaT, xoTi qacTh H3
HHx H He3Be'THa aBTOpy. Ha caMOM we Aene BapHaHTOB Monaer 6bIr esIe 6o0Jnme, TaK KaK B
KnjaccHmRIauumH He yqiHTrmaboITC HeKOTOpbIe BTopocTeneHHble no MHeHmo aBropa npH3HaKH, a
HMeHHo: pa3Hoo6pa3Hble THILI mIIpHUTOB, HCnoj.L3yeMble B neqaTxx; HajnIHHe B TeKCTe TOJILKO
3arnaBHLix HMI 3arnaBHIX H CTpoq9Hmr 6yKB; pas3Ha nocneaoBaTeJInHOCTL B HanMcaHHH
3arniaBHbix H CTpOIqHbX 6yKB B OAIHHaKOBhlX TeKCTax; pa3Haa BeJmHiHHa rep6oa B ueHTpax neqarefi;
Ha.JnIHe HJiH oTCyTCTBHe KaBbLieK, ToieK, 3Be3Lt9eK, 3JICMeHTOB opHaMeHTa.
Hy)KHO CKa3aTh, 9TO KOJIHeCTBO CTpOK B UeHTfpaJibHOH 9 acTH neiaTeei Kpyrjoii 4opMO i
cooTBeTCTByeT KonIqecTBy CnOB TaM. rIo3TOMy KoniecTBO CTpoK B LueHTpe He Bb aeJIeHo KaK
OTltentLHbi npH3HaK.
KaK BHIHO 13 Ta6nfmi1b, aBTopy H3BecTHbI neiaTH 3 UBeTOB (Honerojoro (V), CHHero (B)
H KpacHoro (R). HecOMHeHHO, qTO HaH6onee pealKe neqaTH KpacHoro uBeTa. B cny'ae, Koraa
UBeT rneqaT HeH3BecTeH, BMecTO 6yxKBi, onpeAeunor erl uBeT, CTOHT 3HaK Bonpoca.
AjmaMeTpi onucrBnaeMix neiaTefi H3MeHmOTcS oT 28,5 MM (caMbrfi Manjiirmi aMerp) no 35
MM (caMuii 6oionbuo l naMeTp). Karaa HH6ya4n 3aKOHOMepHOCTh TyT He BIHfHa.
Cneiyer npennoaoonmrr, ITO H3roTOBsneHHe neqaTeA 6b no HeopraHH30BaHHblM 3THM H
o6BacHaeTca TaKoe Hx pa3Hoo6pa3ne.
B Ta6nnue npBseneaeHu KO LIr neIaTe, noKa3aHHbIx Ha clHr.1 33. B KaiecTBe npHMepoB
paccMoTpHM KOZ~a HecKoJLbKHX neiaTefi.
lneraTr (O(ur. 1). Tun -1 (Kpyrnaa); rpynna 1 (c TeKCTOM no OKpyAHOCTH ")CeiCTByIom1Uf
JInorT EaJrHICKoro MopM"); norrpynna 3 (c TeKCTOM B UeHTpa>rHOHfi acTH iIIn nceM"); BHa -
2 (c HapycHOfi H BHyTpeHHeti OKpyKHOCTaMH); nopMafKOBL ii HOMep neqaTH BHTrpH BHLa( (no
Ta6nnue)- 1. TaKHM o6pa30M, KOn neiaT
IneaTb (HNr.24). THn -1 (Kpyrnia); rpynna 3 (c TeKCTOM no OKpy-AHOCTM C
AeficTByomtuero 4nioTa"); noarpynna 5 (rep6 PoccMn c 5IKOpS1MH B neHTpe); Hsu 2 (c HapymCHOH
H BHyTpeHHei OKpy4 HOCTsMH); nopAxnKOBbli HOMep neqaTH BHyTpa Bana (no Taoiaue) 1. TaK-nM
o6pa30M, KOa neqaTr
HeiaTr ($urr.31). THn 2 (cTpoqHaa); rpynna 1 (c TeKCTOM "C ReiocTBayiotero JOTa ");
noarpynna 2 (6e3 HapyaHOri paMKn); nopAlKOBEIfi HOMep ne'aTr BHYTpH noarpynnmr (no
Ta6nHue) 3. Torna Kioo neiaT

ABTOp BblpaxKaeT oco6yio 6naronapHocTb M.KocoMy (H3panmb) 3a noMoutb, OKa3aHHylO
rnp pa6oTe Haa CTaTbef.
CoicpameHni H YCJIoBHble o603H2aeHHS
B CHHHiH UBeT (blue)
V (4oneTrosrii uBer (violet)
R KpacHbri UBeT (red)
N.S. HOBb l CTrHJI (new style)
O.S. cTapbii cTHma (old style)
"+" HanpaBneHHe TCKCTa no aCOBOfi CTpejlKe B HaanBHCH no OKpy)IoOCTH
"+-"- HanpaBneHHe TeKCTa KaK no, TaK H npoTHB nacoBOBi cTpenJKH B HaanHHCH no OKpyxoHocH
"- OTCyrcTBae HaZnHCH no OKpycKHocT
1. OqTroBO Tenerpa#Hbi i )KypHaji, oTaeJi oHIMHalJhHrfi, 1914, XN34.
2. LlrHpKyn-p flerporpancicoro no'T-AHpeTropa or 25 aBrycTa 1914 rona, No38. JIHA, ioni
1543, oncb, 9, Aeno 49, cTp.100.
3. O nuchMax H no'TOBIrx KapTOqKaX qHOB fAeicTBywomero inorTa. HoqTOBO Tenerpadrmdi
rypHan, 1916, No27, cTp.568.
4. IHpKyjiap IeTporpancKoro noI-nAHpeKropa OT 4 Maa 1916 roaa, No84. JIHoA, OOHa 1543,
onrcm 9, teno 69, cTp.77.

* *

"United States World War II Airmail Rates to Russia".
Your editor was on the Jury for "ORAPEX 2003" 3-4 May in Ottawa, Canada, which was very ably
chaired by Roger G. Schnell M.D. of Fort Lauderdale, Florida. During wide-ranging discussions, Dr.
Schnell raised the most unusual subject given in the title above, which also referred to a highly informative
article on this matter, written by him for the February 2003 issue of "The Airpost Journal", pp. 51-58. That
article listed 21 U.S. airmail covers, addressed by his relatives to a well-known war correspondent, Leland
Stowe, primarily care of the American Embassy in Kuibyshev, USSR in the period from 10 April to 13
September 1942 and prepaid at the 30-cent or 70-cent airmail rates.
Dr, Schnell explained the routings covered by those rates, based on U.S. Postal Bulletins and very
few usages going in that direction have apparently survived, as we in the Soviet airmail area were unaware
of such a service. We rather had examples of mail proceeding in the opposite direction from U.S. military
personnel in the USSR and sent during WWII by Diplomatic Pouch. Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, your editor
and doubtless other enthusiasts have such usages, authorised for pouch despatch and franked at the current
Soviet rates, the postage being cancelled upon arrival in Washington, D.C., together with the application of
explanatory cachets. Do.any of our members have other sending from the U.S. to the USSR during WWII?

June 2003 59

Ko XN LUBear AliaMerp HanpaBaneHe
neqaTH uHrypbI HJH TeKcTa B
B (MM) no OKpyMIIOCTH 1 B 32 + L
la V 32 +

IIpuloNeeHHe .1l


SIlaBinoBCK 22.11.16
1 FrejibcH~nopca 10.11.15 N.S. -
loc(KBV 2 V 32 + B PeBeb 23.8.17 3 V 31 + 113 FeJlbcmnnrcopca 9.8.17 N.S. B
Peenjb 13.8.17 O.S. 4 V 34,5 + 1j rejncaioHr)opca 27.11.14 N.S.-B B
Ile-rporpaA_. 5 V 34,5 + 1H3 FenbcHHnIOpca 11.4.16 N.S. B
KpOHwnTa2T 6 V 28,5 + 3 nlerporpata 15.5.17 B EaKy 24.5.17 7 V 35 + B pueBo (CMon.) 6.11.15 8 B 29 + B CecrpopeuK (nerp.) 8.16 (rs3 eKcra) 9 V 29 + B Mionbrpa6eH (JIn)n.) 31.5.17 10 V 29 + H: PeBCen (?) B KpoHturaar 10.5.16 11 V 33 + B KpouimTaRT 12.9.16 12 V 34,5 + HI3 PeBenn 19.12.17 B O6epnaieH (?) 13 V 34 + IM renjbcinropca 30.3.15 N.S. B
S _____ Xe6HHKOBO (MOCK.) 22.3.15 O.S. 14 V 7 + B fleTporpan (i3 "Raritan stamps", K2l 1,
_lot o1180) 15 R 30 + B IOpbeB (JInhn.) 16 ? 29 + B Peaeja 17 B 7 + B flerporpaa (1916 3 TeKCTa), (113 E -
bay) 18 V 32 + B MOCKBy (9.16 13 TeKcra) 19 V 32 + B PaKKe (3cr.) 1.1.16 20 R 7 + B MocKBy (n3 "Raritan stamps", -11l,
__lot .N1181) 21 V 29 + '3 FejibclHnpopca 25.5.16 N.S. B
HleTporpan 22 7 33 + 1H renbHHirpopca 13.5.15 N.S. B
H.Apywommma, POCCuH) 23 V 35 + 3 Ph66HHCK 3.10.15 24 R 33 + L 3 PenenI 4.1.17 B eporpaax 25 V 29 + 43 PeBenj 28.12.16 B PeBeJIb 26 V 29 +__ B Heiiray3eH (Jhn .) 24.11.16 27 7 33 + B fancanb (3cri.) 4.2.17 (H3 KO.JLeKIIHI
H.KpameHnIHHlKOBOii, AaHILm) 28 V 30 + B PeBenb 9.1.17 29 V 61 -- 13 FejsbcuHrqopca 10.4.15 (?) N.S.- B
SKytBacT (3cTj.) 30 B 50 -- 3 XaHro (QbHHlRHHaHa) 8.12.16 N.S. -B
COPMOBO 28.11.16 O.S. Bo B-ropoii
ScpoKe "2". 31 V 67 C paHcnopTa "EBPO1A"- Ha craHumo
PrTmeBo (CapaT.) 22.?.14. TeKcr nea-mn
KaBbIqKax. 32 V 67 B HaBnoBCK 31.7.16(?). 33 B 49 -- H3 A6o (ObHHJn mH ) 1.3.15 -

June 2003



Attachment No. 1.

Diameter or Direction of text in
Cachet code Fig. No. Colour length (mm. circular inscription Notes 1 blue 32 clockwise To Pavlovsk 22.11.16.
la violet 32 clockwise From Helsingfors 10.11.15 N.S. to Moscow. 2 violet 32 clockwise To Revel' 23.8.17. 3 violet 31 clockwise From Helsingfors 9.8.17 N.S. to Revel
13.8.17 .S. 4 violet 34.5 clockwise From Helsingfors 27.11.14 to Petrograd. 5 violet 34.5 clockwise From Helsingfors 11.4.16 N.S .to Kronshtadt 6 violet 28.5 clockwise From Petrograd 15.5.17 to Baku 24.5.17. 7 violet 35 clockwise To Yartsevo, Smolensk Province 6.11.15. 8 blue 29 clockwise To Sestroretsk (Petr.) 8.16 (from the text). 9 violet 29 clockwise To Myul'graben (Liflyand Prov.) 31.5.17. 10 violet 29 clockwise From Revel' (?) to Kronshtadt 10.5.16. 11 violet 33 clockwise To Kronshtadt 12.9.16. 12 violet 34.5 clockwise From Revel' 19.12.17 to Oberpalen (?). 13 violet 34 clockwise From Helsingfors 30.3.15 N.S. to Khlebnikovo
(Moscow Province) 22.3.15 O.S. 14 violet ? clockwise To Petrograd (from "Raritan Stamps" No. 11
Lot No. 1180). 15 red 30 clockwise To Yur'ev (Liflvand Province). 16 ? 29 clockwise To Revel'. 17 blue ? clockwise To Petrorad 1916 (from text; from eBav). 18 violet 32 clockwise & countercl-wise To Moscow 9.16 (from the text). 19 violet 32 clockwise To Rakke (Estlyand Province) 1.1.16. 20 red ? clockwise To Moscow (from "Raritan Stamps" No. 11,
Lot No. 1181). 21 violet 29 clockwise From Helsingfors 25.5.16 N.S to Petrograd. 22 ? 33 clockwise From Helsingfors 13.5.15 N.S to Kronshtadt
(N. Druzhinin Collection, Russia). 23 violet 35 clockwise To Rybinsk 3.10.15. 24 red 33 clockwise From Revel' 4.1.17 to Petrograd. 25 violet 29 clockwise From Revel' 28.12.16 to Revel'. 26 violet 29 clockwise To Neigauzen (Liflyand Province) 24.11.16. 27 ? 33 clockwise To Gapsal' (Estlyand Province) 4.2.17 (N.
Krasheninnikova Collection, Denmark) 28 violet 30 clockwise To Revel' 9.1.17. 29 violet 61 blank From Helsingfors 10.4.15 (?) N.S.to Kuivast
(Estivand Province). 30 blue 50 blank From Hanko (Finland) 8.12.16 N.S. to
Sormovo 28.11.16 O.S; "2" in second line. 31 violet 67 blank From the transport "Evropa" to Rtishchevo
Station (Saratov Province) 22.?. 14. The text
____ of the cachet in inverted commas. 32 violet 67 blank To Pavlovsk 31.7.16 (?). 33 blue 49 blank From Abo/Turku (Finland) 1.3.15 N.S.to


* *

* ** ** **

This is a 74-page softbound compilation in A4 format, kindly issued by CSRP member Michael
Kuhn in German in September 2000 and listing Philatelic Literature, Auction Catalogues, Specialised
Journals and Biographic Notes of Prominent Philatelists in our various fields of collecting.
Ordering information for this most useful and timely work should be requested from Burkhard
Schneider, Postfach 1728, D-63557, Germany; E-mail: Info@philabooks.com

June 2003

Attachment No. 2.



- -


r -


June 2003

j 7 "v i st...- .

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/;---ll -" ny- "- ,,- ... "e't

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-" ....., ..... -..... ...... .. .......

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f. .... .::* ; F g 12,. *' ,,.. ]


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377 .. ... J w .. w ... .......
ig d. SI.t
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June 2003

.-... .: n .
^--.SfiSIF %21

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-,. -,: i .,,

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- ----''

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Po rarlo- Cartc post'll -Wellposivcrein Up pai universello
L- velr.Lip Conrrpouidcnikarte Dopisuilc o; r t -
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SCartolln ,.posal. Tarieta pus.tl Or paro-i r I <. .'

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S.... .. ..... .. ................. ..,. .. .......... ...........

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Fig. 19.

June 2003

PL44&uo ,-il" ....-. 1.

'.3. .Y^i~uy^F 17....-li ''
(*I ...." -A 't. '".,' I ,'... .'

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Fig. 17.

Fig. 21.





June 2003

WORLD WAR I byVladimir Berdichevskiy.
From the beginning of WWI and in accordance with an order dated 29 July 1914 of the Main
Administration of Posts and Telegraphs (FYlInT), ordinary letters weighing up 30 grammes (a little over 1
ounce) and postcards addressed to servicemen in the Active Army and from servicemen in the Active Army
were to be sent free of charge [1]. Naturally, that order was also applied to the servicemen of the Active
Fleet and this article will set out the specific procedure for handling their mail.
In order to be entitled to the free-franking privilege, the letters or cards of the servicemen of the
Active Fleet had to bear an impression of the cachet of the ship or fleet (shore) unit. There were also some
other conditions for the post-free transmission of such mail, but we will not concern ourselves with them in
this article.
A Circular No. 38 was issued later on by the Petrograd Postal Director on 25 August 1914, in which
it was stated that "By order of the Main Administration of Posts and Telegraphs, ordinary postal sending
weighing up to 30 grammes and postcards without an impressed stamp die and with an address specifying
the Active Fleet would not be liable for postage" [2].
Some changes in the rules for transmitting the mail of Navy servicemen were introduced in the
middle of 1916, directed towards increasing secrecy. The strikes of cachets on the mail with the names of
ships (or shore units) made it easy to designate the types of such ships and their points of location. It was
therefore announced "...for information and direction, that the post-free transmission of the sending noted
above, it would be sufficient to apply cachets reading: 'HA cTBayIouIi (gorT BajiETifcKaro Mops / jiI:m
nHceM-b (Active Fleet of the Baltic Sea/ For letters) and 'IpocMorTptHO Ha Kopa6jib' (Examined aboard
ship) [3].
It should be noted that the cachets of the type reading "L IAicTByIO mifit cpnoT BanTiiicKaro
Mops" were not widely applied and they are encountered relatively rarely, especially in combination with
the censorship marking "IIpocCMOTptHO Ha KopaGn-I3". The text of the cachet was not in conformance
with the requirement for secrecy, since it specified the area of location of the ship: the Baltic Sea. For that
reason, cachets of the type reading IicTByIO i4omi b10~n b" were subsequently utilised.
A little earlier, and in order to safeguard the secrecy of ship locations, the Director of the Main
Administration of Posts and Telegraphs announced in a telegram No. 4670 of 2 May 1916 an order to the
post offices in port cities that they should not apply their dated cancellers on postal sending from fighting
ships of the fleet, which were bearing official ship cachets [4]. The directive about the replacement of the
cachets [3] was not carried out completely and, on the contrary, strikes of cachets with the names of ships
(or shore units) may be found on mail right to the end of the period being examined; namely up to
February/March 1918. Cachets of the "LtiAcTByIOuii (AJoTon" type were also utilised when changes to
the rules of transmission were issued in 1915 and even in 1914; it is possible that all this happened by
chance. It is also likely that changes in the rules only came into being officially when they had already been
June 2003

in existence. By the way, handwritten notations reading "C-,b rbuicmeyiouHezo b.aoma" (From the Active
Fleet) are often found on such mail, but they will not be covered here.
It is emphasised that cachets of the "A I'fcTByroutim cp JoTb" type were utilised exclusively in the
Baltic Fleet and they are unknown from all other fleets and flotillas. The aim of the present article is the
classification of cachets of the "IaficCTByomuifi (JIOT-" type and the author is proposing a classification
which takes into consideration the following basic characteristics of the cachets being examined: (1) their
form; (2) the text around the circumference (for cachets of circular form) or in lines (for cachets of
rectangular form); (3) the contents of the central portion of the cachet (for cachets of circular form); (4) the
presence in the cachet of outer and inner circumferences, or only outer (for cachets of circular form), or the
presence or absence of a frame (for cachets of rectangular form). In addition, the following characteristics
are set out in specific columns of the tabulation herewith in Attachment No. 1 on p. 62, which the author
considers to be essential, namely: the colour of the cachet (see the "Basic Indications"); the diameter (for
circular cachets) or length for rectangular cachets and the direction of the text for inscriptions in the
circumference (see the "Basic Indications"). In the column for "Notes", the dates are specified for the
despatch and arrival of letters and cards so as to fix the period of utilisation for the cachets being examined;
the sources are named in some instances from which the cachets have originated. In the case of postal
sending from Finland, the dates have been specified in New Style (Gregorian Calendar) in use there.
For the determination of cachets in accordance with the proposed classification, code numbers have
been assigned to the cachets, consisting of combinations of numbers, which characterise the basic features
of the cachets.
As can be seen from the diagram in Attachment No. 2 on p. 63, it is possible to allot two basic
types of cachets under Indication 1: the "form":-
1 circular.
2 rectangular (linear)
Let us look at the cachets in circular form type 1. We can distinguish 4 groups of cachets within
this type, in conformance with Indication No. 2 "the text around the circumference":-
1 with the text "At'IiCTByIoIiiiH c(JIoTb BaaJTiiicKaro MOpI".
2 with the text "A 'icTByIonMi b1JoT-b".
3 with the text "Cb J fiHcTByiroero JnoTa".
4 with the text "H/13'b IAHicTByromero 4nIOTa".
Within each of these groups it is possible to distinguish 5 subgroups of cachets in accordance with
Indication No. 3 "the contents of the central portion of the cachet":-
1 with the text "AJia naKeTOB-b".
2 with the text "fIemaTb An naKeTOB-b".
3 with the text "Ani nnceM-b".
4 with the text "naKeT1".
5 the arms of Russia in naval style (with anchors).
Within each of these subgroups, it is possible to distinguish 2 aspects, in accordance with Indication No. 4:
"appearance on the cachet of outer and inner circumferences, or only outer":-
1 only with outer circumference
2 with outer and inner circumferences.
Let us now look at the cachets in rectangular form (linear) type 2. It is possible to distinguish
within this type 2 groups of cachets in accordance with Indication No. 2 "the contents of the text set out
in a line":-
1 with the text "C-b )I'IicTByIor1ero cIoTa".
2 with the text "H4I3 AtbficTByIouLero cnOTa".
Within each of these groups, we can distinguish 2 subgroups in accordance with Indication No. 4: "the
presence or absence of an outer frame for the cachet:-
1 with outer frame.
2 without outer frame.
For cachets in circular form, since 4 indications were distinguished in order to set up the
June 2003

classification, then the code for such a cachet should consist of 4 figures, separated within themselves by
dots and with the 5t. figure specifying the consecutive number in the unit. For cachets in rectangular form,
they may be divided into 3 indications and, as a result, their code should consist of 3 figures, separated
within themselves by dots and with the 4th. figure specifying the consecutive number in the subgroup. If
their quantity within the unit or subgroup went beyond 9 figures, then the number should be specified with
two figures.
As it is easy to sum up here, the proposed classification permits the existence of 40 aspects for the
cachets in Type 1 and of 4 subgroups for the cachets in Type 2. In other words, it was set up on the
assumption that, in principle, all these variations can exist, although some of them are unknown to the
author. In this same case, the number of variations could be even greater since, in the opinion of the author,
there have not been taken into account in the classification several secondary indications, namely the
various types of the figures utilised in the cachets; the appearance in the texts of capital letters only, or with
capitals and lower case letters; variations in the sequence in the inscriptions with capitals and lower case
letters in specific texts; variations in the height of the coats of arms in the centre of the cachets; the
presence or absence of inverted commas, dots, asterisks and ornamental elements.
It is necessary to state that the number of lines in the central portion of the cachets in circular form
correspond to the number of words there. The number of lines in the centre has therefore not been allotted
as a separate indication.
As can be seen from the table, the author knows of three colours for the cachets: blue, red and
violet. The rarest cachets are doubtless those struck in red. In the case where the colour is unknown, a
question mark has been inserted in the colour column.
The diameters of the recorded cachets range from 28.5 mm. (the smallest size) to 35 mm. (the
greater diameter). There is no consistency visible here.
It may be assumed that the preparation of the cachets was not organised, as can be explained by
their diversity.
The codes for the cachets shown in Figs. 1 to 33 are set out in the table. For example, let us look at
the codes for several cachets:-
The cachet in Fig. 1 is in Type 1 (circular); in group 1 (with circular text "JISfticTByIoUini cpInoTr
BajlTifcKaro Mops"); subgroup 3 (with the text "AnJIa ninceM-" in the central portion); aspect 2 (with
outer and inner circumferences); with a consecutive number of the cachet within the aspect (according to
the table), in this case "1". Hence, the cachet code is
The cachet in Fig. 24 is of Type 1 (circular); in group 3 (with circular text "Cb jjtficTBayomero
(jnoTa"); subgroup 5 (Arms of Russia with anchors in the centre); aspect 2 (with outer and inner
circumferences); with a consecutive number "1" within the aspect (according to the table), Thus, the cachet
code is
The cachet in Fig 31 is of Type 2 (linear); in group 1 (with the text "C-, A~ii'CTBylomtero nIora";
subgroup 2 (without outer frame) and with a consecutive number "3" within the subgroup (according to the
table). Thus, the cachet code is
The author expresses especial thanks to M. Kossoy of Israel for the aid extended by him while
working on the article.
Abbreviations and conventional indications
N.S. = New Style (Gregorian Calendar).
O.S. = Old Style (Julian Calendar).
1. 1orTOBO Tenerpa)Hbiii a)ypHan, OTe~ OHlnunaHanbHbli, 1914, 234.
2. InHpKynsip IeTporpaAcKoro norT-AHipercropa or 25 aBrycTa 1914 roaa, N,38. JI'TA, oHna
1543, onHlc 9, ~eno 49, CTp. 100.
3. O nncbMax H noqTOBbIX KapTo'Kax 'nHOB )AeicTnyiouero nuioTa. nITOTOBO TenerparHii
acypHan, 1916, X27, cTp.568.
4. IjHpKicyip IleTporpancicoro no'rr-A peicropa OT 4 Maa 1916 rona, N 84. JI-T4A, qOHA 1543,
onricb 9, aeno 69, cTp.77.

June 2003

by Andrew Cronin.
Your editor has been collecting such items for some time without a great deal of success, as not
many have survived over the years. They are most interesting for the following reasons, among others:-
1 They are quite large and ornate, differing in settings from similar receipts issued by "'FYfnT" (Main
Administration of Posts and Telegraphs) for use within the borders of the the Russian Empire.
2 It follows that the ROPiT receipts were not supplied by "rFYIT" and, judging by the imprints
observed on some settings, they were printed to the order of ROPiT by private companies, including at least
one in Odessa. ROPiT itself was a private shipping company founded in 1856 under Imperial patronage and
directed from Odessa. However, the Imperial coat of arms has been seen so far only on an undated ROPiT
mark, apparently applied somewhere in the Levant in the early 1860s. The Imperial coat of Arms does not
normally appear on the ROPiT receipts, as the company ran its own postal service at selected points in the
Middle East, but your editor has a late exception from Jerusalem, dated 21.VI 19-13 (see Fig. 7 below).
3 The settings were generally bilingual, with the text in Russian on one side of the receipt and in French
overleaf. The French equivalent for the Russian name of ROPiT is given on the receipts as "Compagnie
Russe de Navigation a Vapeur et de Commerce" and both designations are sometimes also applied
vertically at the left of the settings. The receipts were printed on cream paper in sheets of several units, with
line perforations added around the individual settings for ease of separation.
4 Last, but certainly not least, these receipts are well worth collecting, as they bear the postal markings of
the ROPiT offices and agencies operating in the Levant. They thus have "Used Abroad" status.
An attempt will now be made to classify the receipts by years, by settings and by location, to see if
there was a pattern of distribution to the various ROPiT postal points. The measurements are given for the
dimensions of the printed portion of the settings and most of the illustrations have been reduced to 70%.
Also, some of the identical settings are being shown at different levels of reductions, as such illustrations
were taken from the files of your editor. Where possible, both sides of the receipts are featured hereunder in
each figure and specific descriptions given of their salient points:-

S PycoxKo 06nec1no f anpoxocTrn a TproanH.

S Ao OTJI 1 ornpa'-rein r. na

'.j rpnrnmx
/ -


A.- ': 11.- 1. ,
"-H d' B "" '" |J "t

Actual size of the ROPiT Mt.
Athos postal seal.
Athos postal seal.

Dated 21 Feb. 1899
at left & 28 May
1899 at right. Both
are parcel receipts in
the same setting:
97x150 mm. and
weighing 1 pd. 18
lots & 8 pds. 6 lots

Russian Weights.
1 Russian trade pound
= 409 grammes
= 0.9 pound English
= 32 lots.
1 lot = 12.794 grammes
= just under /2 ounce.

Fig. 1.

June 2003

,'-.--' -' ", .r *_-'i-.s".J ; T -. r- -_. w -'^ Ur-r-- -.- r =---- "-- -----
S' r :--" 'c_:. .r' '-


*/C^V '
:" r npIlinTa rpyimn, sainioalnmoqi n BbceCh, i
rnopal.nmelulolo orlnpaonlrTe i1 rn .... "

/ a_ ev e- ../ ,

I; j ~ .~ ; : + ( __. .....i .

li ;.:,-;;:~-.I;
.::.:. ;
.1 I:

Front & back
of the same
referring to a
(wrong French
spelling!), but
cachet re a
packet valued
at 60 roubles
and sent from
Mt. Athos 29
May 1907.

Fig. 2.
Note: The same setting was also used at Jaffa on 22.X. 19-10, but only the cancel is
shown here in Fi. 2a, as the receipt was cut down.

Fig. 2a.

Fig. 3.
Completely different setting in French for an
insured letter sent from Mt. Athos 10 Feb.
898(?) and printed in Odessa: see the letters
"ssa." in the bottom right corer. The Russian
text was not available for reproduction here.

7*o I eo.iysqe '
3 B'BoOunr, H Ba axsarby ___________
S3a yBtAoLMieuie o no.yi esi_

1/p. wTroro nea. aoxasarejn Ta4.aerst 12 p.'I
50 ISa. spewra"mym SeTh a.

A setting in Russian for a registered letter from
Mt. Athos 10 Mar. 908. Note the imprint:
"Form No. 131" at bottom right. The French
text was not available, for reproduction here.

June 2003

S Pyccicoe 06IeoieTBo IIaoxoACTra x.. .

' ..... ........... -....................... I.
i nI)IIniITa rpvnna,3<>inioia'oi L f(i
1 o6.'u. io re a -H-........ .


j 'yfiaeA Hpea 6KJieiaMXB _

p ay op -r-

H T oiyieno: t

DpapXTonLIXTI. II CTpaxOlIi x'

3a pocuncix o

^")'ri $ ", r, _--" t sr"r-.- r- .

SCompagnie RuEss ds Navigati:n a vapO-r et de C:=-re-.

SeCu tin group conlenantl, dapres la
.T declaration de I'exp6dileur 31
id ----------


i Por fret et asfsr;ice -

Pour emniallage ;
Pour les reus

I* I i-j ii^' -^ i. I_^. ^ ^r .^ : ^ ^ ^ *.

PyeeKoe 06eqTo lapoxo~ia n Tporonm.


Fig. 5.

Receipt for a registered letter sent from Salonica 28 Jul. 19-09. The dimensions of the printed text are
91 x 110mm. and the imprint at the bottom right of the French text reads: "Form No. 2 B.K.". Those
initials appear to stand for "BocroMHaa KoppecnoIAeHmr a" = {Middle) East Mail.

/-.-p::,<,: .7 .' .. "-. .. .' _-

mampagnio flusse de 4vigation i yapeur :de dfmm,,-'\ C OKMJoro. flapoxoAI3TBa n ToproBg.

d .... d ......... ...e.. ..................

/ I O eaHn h ea .............................
S Reu un ettre recommand6e -I0MPHRTO saasHoe Imcbmo
de M-r .- ... o r...-.. ........... .. ... .
M-r ........ r. .. ......... ........ ................... __
....... .........% .. .... .......... .. ....................... -........ .. ........... .. ....
& M-r---- ----------
n... .. ..........................
Re u: V nonyneo:
Pour le poids et la recommendation .. .........B......... a saa ......... ........................
Pour I'avis de r ptio ...... .. 3a yBsrAoMnenie o noysieHi ........... ........ ...
Totl HToro......... ... ...
--. L' \ A.wmn .......... 2:.-:: ._....____. ....

Pour Perte de cette lettre il sera pay6 1'expditeur > 1 a irpa Ty roe mea o waa.I rm DO ynamueru 12t pyl.
12 roab. 50 cop. en billeted de cridit.- 50 ton. pe ltnum 6lg rmma.I. vi -. ..

Fig. 6.

The French side is used here for a registered letter from Salonica 7. II (Feb.) 19-13 and is in the same
setting as before, but the imprint has now been changed to "Form 131" at the bottom right of the
Russian text.

June 2003

PyeoKoe OblecTBe o napoxoATBa n ToproBJi,

AreHTCTBO B'b........... .......
LIIoCJIO eAlllllllt Blca ........................
I 1 nlplH TO 3aiK(aa oe nIHCLMO
S O ................... ................ ............................... ...

S ......................................................................................
B %b .....................................................................................................
D 1o.qyqelCo:
IcoBh xi H aa aa .................................................................
i ; y3ralLoMjenie o nojiyqeiii ................... ................. .......
C IlHToro ....................................... .

D | /'' A iew itz ................................................................
S 3a yrpTy Droroo uneiiba noAaBaT clo yln.riauiiaclr 12 py6.
50 Hon. II|peIIaTHbnI 6 eHJCTUl.

Fig. 7.
This is a receipt for a money packet, printed
specifically for the Jerusalem postal station
and with the Imperial coat of arms at top. This
setting, measuring 110 x 164mm., is in Russian
only, with the imprint of a private printer in
Odessa, stating that the order was completed on
19 June 1912, as seen in the margin at right.

In summing up, our members are cordially invited to
send in details of further settings and usages in their


June 2003

PyCeeo0 Oillle8TBHO apoxleTBa H ToproBa.

s.... .. ...... ..9 J .I
'lHCJno eIHHHiusb etca


lepycajiHMcaro Io'TOBaro OT~ Hi "

Bb npiMpt aeHeCHaro nameTa

) C-

- OpaxToBix, -

pTO ___ero_

. . ........ .......... --
)~ DpHA,. ^ $ /<<^^_ _____ Jg*

by Gregory Epshtein.
There is a specific order in the dynamics of the process of understanding nature. In short, this
process may be laid out in a very schematic way. Above all, science requires the accumulation of verified
facts. This most important and necessary work is being carried out by thousands and even tens of
thousands of people in all countries. The separate experimental data or groups of data leads to a theoretical
proof (or refutation). As a result of these processes, there stood before scientific investigators in the middle
of the 19h. century a universe consisting of a pile of disparate phenomena which were not linked to each
other, nor to a single material structure, nor to one of the existing forces of nature, nor to a similar origin or
development. There arose at that stage the inevitable necessity of seeking out and detecting the general
order in one or other area of knowledge. This step requires of mankind and of the scientist who has decided
to take on such a task the setting up of processes of deep thought and the sifting of mounds of facts, so as to
find the specific item which explains everything so far known and could also forecast the future. Such
scientific achievements (without inverted commas) are known in history, but are few in number. ,. In the
middle of the 18th. century, the Swedish scientist Karl von Linn6 (Linnaeus) set out the general
classification of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. In 1859, Charles Darwin published his work "The
Origin of Species", indicating the path of evolution of the organic world. Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov set
out with pencil on paper a very restricted number of the possible distribution of atoms in space, which were
the so-called 230 fields of groups. All crystals, either natural or grown by artificial means (and there are
thousands of them) take up one of the sections of this classification. The work done by D.I. Mendeleev in
the classification of chemical elements and in detecting the criteria for such a classification can also be
examined in this series of great achievements of science.
SDmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev was born in 1834 in the Siberian town of
W--l Tobol'sk.. On the centenary of his birth, the USSR issued an interesting set of
I four stamps (Scott 536-539). Two designs were printed in a total of four colours.
The portrait of Mendeleev was shown on two of the stamps, with the Periodic
Table in the background. On the other two stamps we see a monument to
Mendeleev, which was the work of the sculptor Ginzburg and set up in front of
the building of the Chamber of Weights and Measures in St. Petersburg. The
Fig. '. stamps were deigned by the artist V.V. Zav'yalov (see Fig. on the previous
page). A commemorative envelope was issued by the USSR in 1984 on the 50h. anniversary of his birth
(F~g. 2), while the North Korean postal administration then issued a souvenir sheet and stamp (Fig. 3).
We see on the postage stamp of Bulgaria issued on the same anniversary date (Scott 2974) a representation
of the Periodic Table, but in a present-day version (Fig. 4 here at left; Translator's note: The number "13"
in the design refers to the face value of the stamp = 13 stotinki and has nothing to do with the Periodic
Dmitrii Ivanovich was the youngest in a family of many children. His father was the headmaster of
a high school and a sick man, such that all the cares of the 17 children in the family fell on the shoulders of
his mother. After the death of her husband, Maria was obliged to go and work in a factory making glass and
which belonged to her family. Maria was a smart and energetic woman. She accepted any kind of work in
order to feed her family, included work on issuing the newspaper in Tobol'sk. The exceptional abilities of
Dmitrii Ivanovich soon appeared in his youth and his mother, understanding that, took care that her son be
given a good education. What likely helped in this regard was also the fact that, after the Decembrist
Uprising in December 1825, many of its participants, who doubtless were the flower of Russian
intelligentsia during that period, were sent into exile at Tobol'sk. One of them was the husband of a sister
of Dmitrii Ivanovich and had great influence in the moulding of Mendeleev as a person.
In 1848, Dmitrii Ivanovich went with his mother to Moscow, in the hope of entering the University.
However, in accordance with the regulations at the time, the town of Tobol'sk came within the Kazan'
Educational District and Mendeleev could only enter the University of Kazan'. Mendeleev went on to St.
Petersburg and enrolled as a student in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Pedagogic Institute,
in the footsteps of his late father. Upon completion of his studies at the Institute, he went down to the
Crimea, where he taught mathematics. However, the Crimean War soon broke out and Mendeleev returned
June 2003

Fig. 5.

Fig. 8.

I oeKBrcievr ^*Rl ---m-

Fig. 9.

Fig. 6.
j- ^^ 3^NLI1^

Fig. 7.

June 2003

maiiai7 ltBiMif

to St. Petersburg. Upon defending at the University there a dissertation for the Master's degree, D. I.
Mendeleev received in 1859 a grant from the State, allowing him to visit the best scientific centres in
Europa "for advancement in the sciences". Scientists from Russia were then working in various laboratories
in Europe. In Heidelberg D. I. Mendeleev met and became friends with the well-known chemist and
composer A.P. Borodin (Scott 1554). A visit to the salt galleries in Krakow made a big impression on
Mendeleev and he said later that he meditated for the first time about the fact that the salts of such elements
as sodium and potassium looked so similar. It is possible that this was the first step in the investigation of
the systematisation of the properties of chemical elements.
The First International Chemical Congress took place in 1860 in Karlsruhe, upon the initiative of
well-known European scientists and Mendeleev took part therein. The Congress defined a series of
fundamental physical and chemical conceptions, including the weight of atoms, which later on became the
key to the foundation by Mendeleev of the Periodic Table of Elements. Returning to Russia in 1861, D. I.
Mendeleev defended his doctoral thesis and took on the duties of professor at the St. Petersburg
Technological Institute.
Right from the beginning, the personal life of D.I. Mendeleev turned out unsuccessfully. After
much reflection and many doubts, but under the influence of his many sisters, he married one of their
companions Feozva Nikitichna. That marriage was not happy and although they had two children, the
parents basically lived apart. It seems likely that the difficult family relationships were linked to the dull
and irascible character of Mendeleev. On one occasion, Feozva Nikitichna asked him as to whether he was
married to her or to science. Dmitrii Ivanovich replied that, in general, he was married twice (prophetic
words; the great scientist should have foreseen the situation!), but now that she asked, he was married to
science. The daughter of D.I. Mendeleev subsequently married the poet A.A. Blok.
In the middle of the 19th. century, the science of chemistry was at a quite high level in Russia, due
to the whole range of prominent scientists. The "Russian Chemical Society" was founded in 1868, being
called upon to "coordinate the successes of all branches of chemistry and to propagate chemical
knowledge". N.N. Zinin (Scott 2618) was elected as the first President of the Society. One of the well-
known chemists of that time was A.A. Voskresenskii (Scott 2271), who played quite an important role in
the career of D.I. Mendeleev. In addition to fundamental works in the area of Organic Chemistry,
Voskresenskii was also known as a leading pedagogue. He was a professor at the University of St.
Petersburg and, upon retirement, he recommended that his favourite pupil D.I. Mendeleev take over the
duties of Director of the Chair of Organic Chemistry.
Dmitrii Ivanovich began to prepare a new course of lectures on "General Chemistry" and, within
the framework of this course, it was necessary to combine the knowledge already on hand in the various
areas of chemistry and to find their general properties and laws. The work devoted to the new course
became the basis for the publication of a fundamental work, titled "The Basics of Chemistry". That book
was translated into many languages and his biographers believe that this activity helped in the foundation
by D.I. Mendeleev of a singular system of chemical elements, based on their general properties and atomic
weights. His contemporaries remembered that Mendeleev saw this table of elements as if in a dream and
immediatelytransmitted it to paper, writing the title in Russian and French as follows: "An attempt to
systematise the elements, based on their weights and chemical properties". At that point, Mendeleev also
noted the date: 17 February 1869 and that day is regarded as the birthday of "The Periodic Table of
Elements". Mendeleev immediately sent off copies of the article to chemists in various countries. N.A.
Menshutkin, the Secretary of the Russian Chemical Society and who subsequently became a well-know
professor, began on 6 March to read the information about the classification proposed by D.I. Mendeleev.
The USSR issued a commemorative stamp and souvenir sheet (Scott 3607-3608) in 1969 in connection
with the centenary of the creation of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. The stamp reproduces a
well-known portrait of D.I. Mendeleev, which was the work of the artist N.A. Yaroshenko. The beautiful
and informative souvenir sheet (see Fig. 5 on the previous page) sets out together with a portrait of the
scientist the First Variant of the Periodic System, written by hand by Mendeleev and with the date, as stated
previously. In addition, a postcard and postal stationery envelope with the portrait of Mendeleev were
issued for the centenary. Special postmarks were applied in Leningrad, Moscow and Tobol'sk (see Figs 6
& 7 on the previous page).
June 2003

It is necessary to take into consideration that, of the 118 elements known today, only 62 had been
discovered in the times of Mendeleev, while the atomic weights of many elements were not defined
exactly. However, the classification established by Mendeleev not only systematised the known elements,
but open spaces were prepared for each new element with the specification of its possible atomic weight.
As often happens, a revolutionary discovery in science does not immediately find adherents. As a general
rule and above all, scepticism arises and that happened this time too. From the beginning, the Mendeleev
classification was generally received as a convenient educational tool. Most of the letters that Mendeleev
sent out with the description of the proposed classification remained unanswered. It was necessary to
display will and perseverance in order that his idea would take hold in such a situation. One of the articles
published soon afterwards by Mendeleev bore the title: "The application of the Periodic Law for the
determination of the properties of elements not discovered so far". The breakthrough came in 1875 when
the element Galium, the properties of which coincided with the element eka-aluminium, as forecast by
Mendeleev. Germanium was then discovered, which also "slid" into the Periodic System. The attitude of
chemists in Russia and abroad changed sharply after these discoveries.
In 1880, the Russian Chemical Society withdrew the candidature of D.I. Mendeleev for a vacancy
in the Russian Academy of Sciences. However, Mendeleev received 10 votes, with 9 against; an instructive
incident. Dmitrii Ivanovich reacted quite calmly to this fact and said to one of his friends: "I did not want to
be elected to the Academy. They would have remained dissatisfied". According to the opinion of
Mendeleev, the Academy was conceived by Peter I (Peter the Great) as an establishment, which, on the one
hand had to prepare national cadres and, on the other, to study the natural resources of Russia. In the
middle of the 19 century, the existing scientific societies and universities were more successful in coping
with such tasks.
It is likely that the changes in his personal life helped Mendeleev to overcome all this unpleasant
fall-out from the elections. At the age of 47, Mendeleev fell in love with Anna Ivanovna Petrova, the 17-
year-old companion of a distant female relative. His perseverance was so great (even leading up to threats
of suicide) that the girl gave her consent to marriage. Mendeleev received a divorce from his first wife, but
according to the church law of that time, he did not have the right to remarry for 7 years. Anyway, he paid a
big sum to some priest and married Anna Ivanovna. In that way, Mendeleev became a bigamist s dreadful
sin in those days. When this was reported to the Emperor Aleksandr III, he said: "Yes, Mendeleev has two
wives, but I have only one Mendeleev".
Mendeleev was a man of universal knowledge and he had a wide circle of interests. His activities
ranged from the problems of the efficiency of oil-extraction firms to the fertility of the lands in his estate at
In the 1880s, student uprisings broke out in Moscow, St. Petersburg and in other Russian cities. The
situation became even more tense after Aleksandr II changed the previous constitution of the universities
and brought in a new one, in accordance with which all student gatherings were forbidden and student
organizations were disbanded. In those circumstances, D.I. Mendeleev decided to go into retirement and he
left the University. In 1892, the Minister of Finances, Count S.Yu. Witte, proposed D.I. Mendeleev for the
post of Director of the Chamber of Weights and Measures and Mendeleev accepted the proposal. Upon his
initiative, preparations were made for the introduction into Russia of the Metric System of Measures and
work proceeded on the identification of gauges in accordance with international standards. In the last years
of his life and upon leaving the post of Director of the Chamber, Mendeleev devoted much time to literary
work, mainly in writing his memoirs. He died on 20 January 1907.
On the occasion of the 50t. anniversary of the death of D.I. Mendeleev, a stamp (Scott 1906) was
issued by the USSR in 1957, as well as a postcard with his portrait (see Fi. 8 on p. 76). The portrait of
Mendeleev is shown on the stamp, with the University of St. Petersburg in the background, where he had
worked for many years. Some stamps with portraits of Mendeleev appeared in long sets of scientists, issued
in 1951 in the USSR (Scott 1577) and in Poland (Scott 880); see Fig. 9 on p. 76 for both stamps.
I now end this little article with some "What is being done
words from the poet L. Martynov: In Mechanics
And in Chemistry and in Biology?
About this only a chosen few know.
But in general many enjoy them".
June 2003

Editorial Comment:It was obvious from his literary style in Russian that Grigorii Naumovich is a highly
educated and cultured writer. Your editor therefore asked him for a short autobiography of his professional
life and this is what he had to say:-
"I am happy to carry out your request, although it will not turn out like the 'autobiographies' that we had to
write many times in a standard form during the former years of our lives.
I was born in Moscow a long time ago. The second notable episode is that I do not have a Certificate of
Secondary Education and, of course, the reason for that was World War II. In 1949, I completed courses at
the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MHI4< ) and, upon assignment, as was then the rule, I
went off to work in a factory in Novosibirsk. They did not keep me at the Institute, even though the State
Examination Commission (F3K) marked my work for the diploma as 'outstanding'. My work was
published and the Dean of our Faculty then said to me 'that was not more than a gilded pill' and he was
right.. I returned to Moscow in 1953 and worked for ten years in a scientific and research institute. In 1963,
I defended my Master's dissertation and went on to work at the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys,
where I went up the entire scale: assistant, lecturer and professor (after defending my doctoral thesis). I
then worked in the Faculty of X-Rays and the Physics of Metals for a good 30 years. You now know the
reason for my choice of a topic in one of the articles that I have sent you.
My scientific interests were in the investigation of structure and properties (as well as the receipt of the
resultant alloys) under the bombardment of rays of high intensity. Since that technology also included the
word 'explosion', the entire project was regarded as secret, really without any foundation. I naturally put
out many publications and even three monographs.
My wife was the director of a scientific and technological library, which contained millions of volumes.
After my daughter left for the USA, the 'Competent Organs' concluded that I could not under any
circumstances be entrusted with secret work. I then lost my links at work, agreements and grants (as they
now say). The time had come when my wife and I decided that we had to live with our daughter. So here
we are in Chicago.
From my youth I have been interested in the lives, philosophies and activities of well-known and lesser-
known personalities. The main themes of my collection are scientists and the history of science".

m Stalingrad: The Russian city of
Volgograd wants to revert to its
old name, reports The London
Observer. The proposed move
would be"an act of respect to the
millions who died in the fight.
against Nazism," said Vladimir
Andropov, vice-chairman of the
Volgograd regional assembly.
"Stalingrad is a world symbol of
the victory of mankind over the
Nazis, and we want to immortal-
ize their heroic deeds, not the
memory of Stalin."

This news report came
out on 6 December 2002
and should be of interest
to collectors preparing a
thematic or postal history
exhibit of Stalingrad.

1%4usuffer from

Do your eyebrows have a tendency
to look like Brezhnev's? Have you
been mistaken for an owl or marsupial?
Then get down to'
where we can permanently separate
those suckers like Siamese twins.
We are also experts in
Our solution is permanent, painless...
not to mention affordable.

I : I

i. '"2

Adapted from a recent comical
advertisement for hair removal.

June 2003

by Alex Artuchov

(Novgorod Province)

Tikhvin is located about 110 miles east of St Petersburg in the northwest portion of the
province of Novgorod. In 1900, its population was 11,600.

River commerce, fishing and timber were some of the main occupations. There are also
some bauxite mines in the area. Due to the poor quality of the local soil many agricultural
products had to be imported. Tikhvin was proclaimed a city and an administrative unit in
1773. There was a monastery in the city.

Tikhvin issued stamps between 1868 and 1903.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Navy blue with a golden sun and its rays
Middle: Curved white band with 1773 written in the middle
Bottom: Red with a golden crown.

1868 1869
27.33 x 21.5 mm, 5 kop. stamps with no indication of value, 2 editions.

CEAbCKOM fl0hTbl

June 2003

First Edition
Typographed in black or colour, yellowish gray white porous paper 0.1 mm thick, white
gum, imperforate, on some stamps the thin ink was used in excess causing letters to have
the appearance of having darker outlines, on the rose coloured stamps there seems to be
some movement in the letter C of the word CEJIbCKOII which is shifted closer to the
letter K than on stamps printed in the other colours.

1. (5kop.) black RRRR
(1 known)

2. (5 kop.) wine rose

3. (5 kop.) greenish blue

(10 known)

(3 known)

Second Edition (1869)
On thick and no longer porous paper 0.13 mm thick, the print is
appears to be new in comparison to the previous issue.

clear and sharp and

33M:A~E=3M AW

4. (5 kop.) black

(11 known)

1871 1872
Handstamped on various papers, imperforate, 2 editions.

Ti IjXj;(QKj

First Edition (1871)
On grayish white paper 0.15 mm thick, brittle dirty white gum, usually printed 20 at a
line on a narrow strip of paper slightly wider than the stamp, on occasion some of the
strips were so narrow that some stamps were printed sideways, on other strips the stamps
were printed in alternating positions causing fewer impressions on the strip.

5. (5 kop.) dull red


June 2003

6. (5 kop.) lilac rose RRRR
(1 known)

7. (5 kop.) blue R
(17 known)

Second Edition (1872)
On yellowish gray paper 0.13 mm thick, brittle light brownish gum, printed in sheets with
the largest known multiple being 2 x 4 with the stamps at the bottom inverted.

8. (5 kop.) brown red 35.00

Between 1879 and 1881 reprints were made in order to satisfy the demands of collectors
and dealers. These reprints were printed in red, orange red, light and dark blue and black
on yellowish white grayish white paper 0.11 0.13 mm thick. The gum was brownish
yellow. The blue stamps were printed in sheets of 5 x 3 while the red stamps in sheets of
2 x 5 with the 2 bottom stamps inverted.

34.5 x 20.5 mm, the letters are somewhat different and larger, lithographed on smooth
lighter paper 0.1 mm thick. The colours of the known forgeries is black, rose red and
light and dark blue.

1873 (?)
New design with the numeral of value in the centre, the inner oval consists of 2 thin lines
and the covers with ornaments on a background of concentric lines which are hardly
visible, 17.5 x 20.5 mm lithographed in colour on grayish white paper 0.1 mm thick,
yellowish white gum, imperforate.

9. 5 kop. dark blue RRRR
(4 known)

1873 (?)
Similar to previous issue, larger inscriptions, inner oval consists of one thin line only,
without concentric lines in comers, corer ornaments appear as shapeless spots,
lithographed in colour on yellowish white paper 0.1 mm thick, yellowish white gum,
imperforate, the 8 known copies show 6 different types.

June 2003

10. 5 kop. blue or dark blue RRR
(8 known)

15.75 x 20 mm lithographed on toned paper 0.13 mm thick, white gum, the lower
inscription reads backwards, the early printings are clear the later ones are smeared,
sheet of 5 x 3 with 15 types, imperforate.

11.5 kop. blue, light or dark 5.00

The Sheet

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 B 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

The 15 Types
Type 1 The word at the top of the oval has 2 letters C
Type 2 The word IIOqTbI on the right is without the letter bI
Type 3 Double inner oval outline on the bottom and extra lines under the letters CK and
14, there is a large space between the the words of the inscription on the left
Type 4 -The horizontal background lines cut across the outer oval outlines on the bottom.
Type 5 The diagonal lines cross the NE comer of the stamp, the top frameline extends
beyond the left frameline
Type 6 A short line extends from the bottom of the inner oval towards the letter K, a
horizontal background line extends across the top of the oval above the letter K
Type 7 The left thin inner frameline extends past the bottom of the line and does not
touch it, dark spot on the inner oval at the top under the letters CK
Type 8 A blue spot on top of the inner oval under the letter C the inner oval outline is
Double to the left of the numeral 5 and near the letter T of IIOHTA
Type 9 The outer oval outline is double over the letters CV, the horizontal background
line cuts across,the bottom of the oval
Type 10-Blue line cut across the bottom of the inner oval under the letters K and II
Type 11-The inner oval has extra lines to the right and the left of the numeral 5 and the
Outer oval under the letter q of the word IIOqTbI
Type 12-The outer oval outline on the left bottom consists of 3 lines, a blue line across

June 2003

the tops of the letters CK at the top.
Type 13- A blue line across the letters PKA of the word MAPKA
Type 14 A horizontal blue line across the letter C on the top, the letter O of the word
nIOHTbI and inner oval outline is double to the right of the numeral 5
Type 15 The flag on the numeral 5 has a long tail extending upwards, on the bottom
the second horizontal background line cuts across the oval, a short line next
the outer oval outline above the letter E at the top left.

18.5 x 22 mm with numerals of value in the covers, the centre oval is more circular and
the 5 is larger and very differently shaped, lithographed on yellowish gray white paper
0.13 mm thick, no gum, imperforate.

12. 5 kop. dark blue RR
(14 known)

1878 1879
19 x 24.5 mm lithographed in black with background painted in watercolours,
imperforate, 2 editions.

First Edition (1878)
On yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick, brown yellow gum, sheet of 5 x 2, space
between stamps is 3 6.5 mm it is not clear whether the black and carmine issue is a
genuine issue since there was no reason for using 2 different colours and the blue
watercolour could could be be easily washed off and repainted in carmine.

13. 5 kop. black and blu, light or dark 5.00

14. 5 kop. black and carmine rose ?

Second Edition (1879)

June 2003

White paper 0.1 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet of 5 x 5, space between stamps 7
- 8.5 mm the black and red stamp may not be a genuine issue for reasons similar to for
no. 14 above.

15. 5 kop. black and blue, light and dark 5.00

16. 5 kop. black and red ?

17. 5 kop. black and blue, light or dark 5.00

Forgeries of both editions are known. They differ from the originals by their clean cut
and sharp print and thicker paper ( 0.14 and 0.2 mm) and different lettering. The known
forged issues are:

S5 kop black and greenish blue
5 kop black and dull yellow rose

1881 (August)
26 x 30 mm lithographed in black on coloured paper, the colour of the paper as well as
its thickness vary, the quality of the printing also varies from clean cut to smudged and
illegible, sheet of 5 x 3, imperforate, the stamps were probably printed one at a time as
the alignment of stamps and the distance between them varies from stamp to stamp.

1 lu

On ordinary thick paper (0.24 mm thick)

18. 5 kop. on rose lilac paper 15.00

On thick diagonally laid paper (0.22 mm thick)

19. 5 kop. black on rose lilac paper 15.00

On ordinary thin paper (0.1 mm thick) Brownish yellow gum

20. 5 kop. black on rose lilac paper 2.00

21. 5 kop. black on dark red lilac paper 6.00

June 2003

by Alex Sadovnikov.

Sa~ Ukrainian SSR: Scott B2.
Broken "O" in the second "O"
O Uof"JAOIOMOFA". Constancy
and position on the sheet of 25
stamps remain to be confirmed_

0+20A Po

b. USSR: First International Air Post Conference at The Hague in 1927; Scott C 10-11.

10 k.
Broken 0 i
7 in 1927
& damaae
to cccP _

10 k
Dot on II "
of "I10O'i9.
Pos. 27180

Broken 7
and Dot on 'A' fiii
Pos. 66/80

10 k.
Pos. 1 80

"' l"

June 2003

White dot
on'0of 10
Pos. ?

of 4

10 k.
Damage to irP
of "lIO1qT.
Pos. 67180



n 4

Same as
Pos. 61 +
White dot



: p i
- - --
: I
,el~~ ~ it e~ e'ee i o eo o e e ee G ~ e e e e o e oo


E :~ Q ~~ :-:~


7 77

Line thru
"O&H" of

15 ....' .i
........................................... ........


Dot after "mK"
& "A" joined
to frame ( TL)
**^^ g.

i~' -- r~ -

Dot in

Broken too Bar
Pos. ?

* *** ** ** ** ** ***

* *

by Gwyn Williams.

2 8 .3 2 8

dak BaFch -

Franked with a block of four of the 5-kop. value in the Ethnographic set, this cover was postmarked KIZIL
16.11.28(?), i.e. in February and backstamped Moscow 16 City Postal Station 28.3.28.More data, please!
Editorial Comment: First of all, the cover was surely overpaid at 20 kop., as the rate then to Russia was 8
kop. Also, the backstamp appears to have been added later by favour since, in the late 1920s, it would not
have taken as long as 41 days for this cover to go from Kyzyl to Moscow. Who has more information?

June 2003

1-3P-m --- -2



by Andrew Cronin.
As pointed out on p. 69 of "The Post-Rider" No. 51, V. Chagin of Krasnoyarsk reported that he had
a pre-WWI picture postcard, issued by Golike, Vilborg & Co. and featuring a "rocky outcrop" near his city,
which was the same as the one shown on the Tuvan 15-kop. stamp in the Landscapes set issued in March
1935 (Gibbons No. 65) !! We have not yet found this postcard to verify the resemblance, but your editor
has a card issued by A.S. Suvorin & Co. in 1915 with a similar rocky formation located near Krasnoyarsk,
but photographed from another angle, as demonstrated here.

1 EHime CuIIib hpmuic'Ape-a. N'~ 31.


A retired professor of geology and CSRP member, Dr. Owen L. White of Toronto,was consulted on
this matter and his opinion was that the rocky formation on the Suvorin card was not the same as the one on
the Tuvan stamp, as the stratification appeared different. The quest for the Golike & Vilborg picture
postcard therefore continues.

iii n i i;\p >
Let us now look at the 25-kop. value in that same Tuvan Landscapes set of March 1935 and
compare that view with the photographs included in Vol. 1 of "Unknown Mongolia" by Douglas
Carruthers, London 1914, Hutchinson & Co. That volume was devoted to the exploration of the Uriankhai
area (then the Wu Liang Hai Territory of China), as Tuva was then called. One of the photographs shows
the Bei-Kem rapids and we can see that the 25-kop. value (Gibbons No. 66) matches that view.
June 2003


An excerpt from pp. 174-175 of Vol. 1 regarding the Bei-Kem rapids is now in order:
"We found the Bei-Kem rapids to consist of two falls about milee (0.4 km.) apart, the uppermost of which
was the most dangerous. The river here was about 80 yards (roughly 77 metres) across and shut in by steep
hills. The danger presented by the rapids was that of the possibility of the raft breaking up on the rocks,
which reared themselves up out of the foam in the most threatening manner. The right bank of the river
allowed no opportunity for portage, the river cutting in under a rock-wall and the hillside dropping sheer
into the water. But the south bank had a narrow boulder-strewn margin, over which we eventually found
ourselves struggling with the baggage, for we decided to unload the raft, transport the baggage to a point
below the first rapid and then send the raft down over the rapids with only a few men on board. The
remainder of the day was spent in carrying the bales and boxes over the boulders, which were piled high
along the bank of the river.We then hauled the raft by ropes upstream so as to get a good 'take-off and our
headman and two others shot the rapids without mishap, including a 12-foot drop (about 3.5 metres)
between the rocks. For a few seconds during this drop, the raft was under water and the men almost lost
their hold, but the next moment the quiet reach between the two rapids brought them into safe water".
At this point, your editor would like to state clearly and unequivocally here and now that he would
never under any circumstances try to repeat the above procedure for shooting the Bei-Kem rapids in any
shape, manner or form.
By the way, your editor found out in the 1950s that Douglas Carruthers was still alive in retirement
at King's Lynn, England and wrote to present him with a mint set of the Tuvan Landscapes. Mr. Carruthers
gratefully affixed the stamps to the corresponding pages of his diary of exploration (!), but he regretfully
had no postal history material on hand of his expedition. Pity!

Place-name Russian Dates Notes TUVAN REGISTRATION
Erzin N_ 26.07.90 Black; reg. nos. 63 and 64; international AND INTERNATIONAL
S3 P3HH mailings with purple "R" handstamp over the A N
Khovu-Aksy oN .__ ca.1993? Black; reg. no. 31; international mailing, no
3 XOBY AKCbI change to the "3".
Kyzyl N 15.6.49 Alevizos auction no. 119, lot 1036, from 2002. by Alan Leighton.
SKbI3bIJI Black; reg. no. 225; international mailing, no
TYBHH.OBJI. change to the "3".

3 N ____ 25.11.87 Black; reg. no. 914; domestic mailing.
Kyzyl 2 N__ 17.9.87 Black; reg. no. 44; domestic mailing.
3 KI3blJl 2r

Kyzyl Parcel N3 N'. 20.10.00 and Black; reg. nos. 357, 358, and 467; international
Post KbI3bIJI 18.6.01 mailings, no correction of the "3".
N 10.2.00 Black felt-tip pen; handwritten; reg. no. 182; The matching illustrations
KYZYL airmail label covers a handstamp presumably are to be found in the same
a Cyrillic registration stamp.
order on the next page.
Envol. recommande 7.4.00 Dark blue ball-point pen; handwritten; reg. no.
N.235 235.
3/6aHgepoji 10.1.01 Blue ball-point pen; handwritten; reg. no. 512.
N 512 "3/6aHueponlb" is an abbreviation
KYZYL for "registered wrapper".
Naryn N __ 17.8.90 Black; reg. nos. 53 and 54; international
HAPbIH mailings, with blue ball-point "R" over the "3".
Shagonar 1 3r N 26.5.88 Black; reg. nos 87, 336, and 358; domestic
3 UIAFOHAP 1 mailings.
Toora-Khem N 3.12.89 Black; reg. nos. I and 2; international mailings,
TOOPA XEM purple "R" handstamp over the "3".
Turan 3 N 8.6.90 Black; reg. nos. 603 and 604; international
TYPAH mailings, purple "R" handstamp over the "3".

June 2003

.j P 3 mm~re:.t
-S i^ i I"68 ^ lii

Erzin 26.7.90
36,8 mm

Khovu-Aksy ca. 1993?
37 mm

Kyzyl Parcel Post 20 10 00
37 mm

I -,,- i

., / t7L

Kyzyl Parcel Post 07 04 00
top line 77 mm

Kyzyl 15.6.49
42 mm

\ X AAr
J ytYL

Kyzyl Parcel Post 10 02 00
49 mm R to right bar

0 j


icY./_ L

Kyzyl Parcel Post 10 01 01
Top line 46 mm

_____ ; -- ~ ~ / /-^ H___ -
Kb(K 13 b.) ff 2 ?
~rj ^b(361P 3 i bl1Jj2r. P J ; ,;
*J %bk- t *U l _______________________

Kyzyl 25.11.87
40.8 mm

Kyzyl 2- 17.9.87
42 mm

Naryn 17.8.90
40 mm


Shagonar 1 26.5.88
41 mm

Toora-Khem 3.12.89
39 mm

June 2003


Turan 8.6.90
37 mm

ii V

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

The second item here is a postcard sent 19 November 1910 O.S. to a sergeant-major in the Colonial Infantry at Noumea, New
Caledonia, via Australia; quite an interesting destination! It appeared to be unfranked and so, in transit on the MINSK-30-
VARSHAVA route, it was stamped with the matching "JOnJIATHTb/nO1-T. BAFOH."; notice the route number of the
postage due mark has the serial letter "JI" over the number, matching the serial "g" of the TPO/RPO. The oval marking is
crossed out, as the picture side has a 2-kop. stamp cancelled BREST/VOKZ. to pay the correct international printed matter rate;
the "T' marking therefore did not apply. Note also the Adelaide, South Australia machine transit of 7.1. 1911 N.S. on the back.
S'- .. The third example is a card sent
Y -unfranked from the Port of Emperor
:t Alexander III (formerly Libavskii Port
I -- uq npos u R / R in Kurland Province), 23.9.09 with
SBREVKOI(T Tserial "a". It was held overnight and
Sorrspondan then received a further larger such
S- postmark with serial letter "v" and a
l p' V jo QAf- oL_. 2J / ,"_ -very nice matching oval, reading:
-..- ^ ., i. .jo_..., "AonIJIATHATb / nOPT-b HMn.
^ 1.., -, AAJIEKC. III." filled in for 6 k. = twice
S- the missing postage. The "due" marking
V Aei A is enlarged for clarity. Received in
S Kronshtadt on 26.9.09.
It ~ SL^--13c.7i~3-~- \c~j \D~ is a .. ^^ ,.. Rer .-|v

June 2003 91

by James A. Cross.

-,- flPUBLICA DE (.OL.OMBIA .R .... |

-- : n5Sv L'L-:- r -

H '. ;: 1

" I : "E ........ "' b .... :".-: ::":-Y A A V

As a follow-up to the interesting article by Rabbi L.L. Tann on the previous page, I am showing
here a Colombian 2-centavos card with two '/2 centavo stamps added and addressed to Kaluga, Russia. Note
the oval marking at top right front, but where was the encircled "T" marking applied?

Editorial Comment: Mr. Cross is the Editor of COPAPHIL (Colombia & Panama Philatelic Study Group)
and your CSRP Editor had the pleasure of meeting him personally at "CAPEX '96", where he gave us a
valuable hand at the exhibition. His card is most interesting for a variety of reasons, as follows:-

(a) It was endorsed "Impreso" (= Printed Matter) at top front centre, which was confirmed by the absence
of any written message front or back

(b) There is not even a date stated anywhere, but judging from the presence of the two centavo
imperforates, the card must have been mailed around 1904.

(c) Mr. Cross submitted digital colour illustrations of his card, from which it was evident that the
"ANULADA" cancels on the /2 centavo stamps and the encircled "T" marking were struck in the same
shade of ink. In short, the postal officials in Bogoft may have regarded the card as being underpaid.

(d) Upon arrival at the mail entry point for the Russian Empire, it was treated as completely unpaid for the
international printed matter rate of 2 kopeks and thus received an oval postage due marking of 4k. (=double
the deficiency) at TPO/RPO No. 6 VERZHBOLOVO-ST. PETERSBURG.

(e) The subject of Mail Entry Points into the Russian Empire before WWI requires further investigation. In
this case, Verzhbolovo was the Russian counterpart to Wirballen in the German Empire (now Virbalis in
Lithuania), so the Colombian card presumably went by steamer to Hamburg, then overland to the Russian
border. Your editor has seen other examples of mail in transit through the Austro-Hungarian Empire, where
the entry point into the Russian Empire appeared to be in Warsaw, Russian Poland. Actually, the three
Empires had a common border point ("Drei-Kaiserreich-Ecke") at Myslowitz (now Myslowice in Poland),
where the Russian postal service applied cancellers reading "FPAHHIQA" (= Border). See also p. 112.
Comments and additional information on the points raised here would be most appreciated.
June 2003

by Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan.

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set

15 kop. surcharge by rubber (Type 1) in black and metal (Type 2) handstamps in black or red ink

Type 1
138-th, upper pane,
one copy in a sheet
in two panes of 16 X 9

Type 2 in red
complete variety of the 37-th stamp
on the both panes of the sheet
in its late print .

No break in the upper frame line

37-th on the both panes
two copies in a sheet in its
early print with a variety
of the lower frame line only.

The variety of 37-th stamp, early print of 250 Rouble imperf. bearing Type 1 postally used on
a Money transfer form from Novo-Bayazet, 9.02.1923 to Moscow causedd on 25.02.1923) franked
with 5 copies of 15/250 (one copy at the reverse) at the total 75 kqp. rate which constitute 3 % of the
transferred amount of 25 Gold Roub., equivalent to 600 Roubles 1923 Transcaucausian S.F.S.R. Roubles.

June 2003


April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set

The use of the unsurcharged 250 Rouble basic stamp Considered as an error
in the surcharged set, not as unsurcharged stamps regularly used in this condition

Die proof
in Black

Grey-Blue Dull Ultramarine


The proof of the die and the issued colour shades of the basic 250 Rouble stamp

''. ,-~-*- .'. .
-r'-l. ^- :. -.a.,sa c e en:B H,' Q... ~

:.' -.. ...O"' ..,:'.' ... .C, a;_ .e


on a Registered foreign letter sent from Allaverdy, 5.01.1923 to Warsaw17.01.1923 as 15 k. is needed

...foreign letter to Europe, 6 kop. as a foreign mail Registry fee, added 9 kop. [50% of (12+6)] as a Fame Ree a
.71 J

"g. ,-- -

-,.- --


on a Registered foreign letter sent from Allaverdy 501.1923 to Warsaw, 17 01.1923, as 15 k- is needed *- ccmc.
the franking on this cover to the required Registered foreign letter rate of 27 Gold kopeck (12 kop- for an Crc
foreign letter to Europe, 6 kop. as a foreign mail Registry fee, added 9 kop. [50% of (124-6)] as a Famre Re'. efax

June 2003

April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set
20 kop.surcharge by a rubber (Type 1) and a metal handstamp (Type 2) in black ink
35 kop. surcharge by rubber stamp in black ink

Type 1 on perf.500 R.
A variety 16-th stamp (.~y.) on
the upper &.lower panes of 9 X 9

Type 2
A variety ,69-th stamp (.Cd.) on
the upper & lower panes of 9 X 9

Type 2
on pert. 500 Rouble

no dot in the last "0"

with a dot in the last "0"

Imperf. in Rose-Carmine
A variety, approx.50 copies (.d...)
in the complete sheet of 144
( 2 panes 8 X 9 each)

Perf. in Carmine-Red
A variety, approx.94 copies (...!)
in the complete sheet of 144
( 2 panes 8 X 9 each)

Perf. in Purple-Brown
with a variety,
similar to the previous copy

35 kop. on 20000 Rouble imperf. in Rose-Carmine on a cover franked with a pair of 5/50 to make up the required
45 kop. rate for the Registered foreign overseas letter mailed from Alexandropol,10.01.23 to Youngstown,21.02.23,
in Ohio, USA, via New York, 20.02.1923. The rate consists of 24 Gold kop. for an Ordinary foreign overseas letter,
plus 6 kop. as a Registry fee for foreign mail, added 15 kop. charge, as a Famine Releif tax (no special stamps used)

June 2003

April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set

50 kop. surcharge on 25000 R. in blue by a rubber (Type 1) and metal handstamps (Type 2)
in black and red ink

Type 1 in red
on imperf. in Dull Blue

Type 2 in black ,31-st stamp on
both panes in Tite-b'che (.d9.)

Type 2 in black. 16-th stamp on
both panes in Tete-b'che (.J.' )

the rg r, n5"- sa-

The variety
the 10-th stamp
on the both pares
of :te shee:
in T:e-G="e

The variety of the 10-th stamp (.dSP.) postally used on an imperf. 25000 R. late print in Slate Blue
bearing Type 2 in black on a Money transfer form from Kamarlu, 16.10.1922. to Erivan, 20.10.1922.

(to be continued).

June 2003

by Jeffrey Klein.

This cover of unusual size (4" x 9" [10 x 23 cm]) has its flap on the short side, with the imprint
"341, Salisbury House / London E.C.2". It began its postal journey in August 1930 at Blagoveshchensk in
the Amur region of Eastern Siberia, addressed in Russian to "North America United States" and
continuing in English to Basil Sinclair, with a street address in Stockton, California, U.S.A. At the bottom
left there is an annotation "Josephine S." written in the same hand; "3aKa3Hoe" (= Registered) is written
vertically at the far left. The sender is indicated bilingually on the reverse as "Lawson", with a street
address in Blagoveshchensk. The writer employed throughout a bluish-green ink that seems to have been
common in Soviet correspondence of the 1920s and 1930s.
The envelope is franked with a pair of slate-blue 14-kop. "gold standard" Small Head Worker
definitive (unwatermarked, perf. 12, Scott 286a) of February 1925 and hence a relatively late usage,
together with two copies of the olive 10-kop. Worker definitive of 1929 (Scott 419) and a single brown 7-
kop. Small Head Soldier definitive (watermarked, perf. 12, Scott 310), for a total postage of 55 kopeks.
There is on the front a rectangular registration label, printed in black with "R / Blagowestschensk" in Latin
letters and the handwritten number "33" in violet ink and also a further notation in the same ink at upper
left with the number "133" crossed out and "329" placed above. The postage appears to be overpaid by 20
kopeks for the rate in force at the time (20 kop. for an international letter and 15 kop. for international
registration), perhaps reflecting a surcharge for oversize mail (Editorial Comment: Either that, or perhaps
it was a double weight letter, in which case, it was still overpaid by 5 kopeks). A summary of the letter's
travels follows.

June 2003


20 August 1930: The stamps are cancelled "BLAGOVESHCHENSK / 20.8.30". There is an additional
Blagoveshchensk cancellation of the same date to the left of the stamps with two stars and the unusual
designation of the Russian letter "izhitsa" (it looks like a capital "V" with a flag on the right arm) which
had been obsolete since 1918. Ivo Steijn has suggested in "Rosssica" No. 138 (2002) 88ff that postmarks
with this unusual letter during the 1920s may be indications of covert censorship or "perlustration",
primarily on Soviet mail with foreign destinations. A very plausible usage here, although later than his
other examples.
13 September 1930: Arrival in New York 13.9.1930 with two oval "REG'Y DIV" postmarks on the
reverse. We don't know the route through Europe or the port of embarkation. Was a shorter Trans-Pacific
route available on this date?
17 September 1930: Violet, round "STOCKTON, CALIF. SEP 17 1930 REG. DIV." arrival on the
reverse; there is also a black number stamp "18403" below the address. Stockton is a medium size city
located about 60 miles (96 km.) east of San Francisco. Several attempts were apparently made to deliver,
indicated by the violet stamped "SEP 19 1930 / NOTICE SENT' at lower right front. A handwritten
message in pencil at the far left:"not in when carrier calls / notice left" may have been added at Stockton, or
at the next stop. The address was eventually crossed out and the letter was redirected (both in red ink) to
"Jenny Lind Calif"; the registration number was also crossed out in the same red ink.
Date? A faint violet cancellation of JENNY LIND CALIF. is visible on the reverse at right centre, partly
overlaid by a rectangular stamped cachet (described below); unfortunately, the date is not legible. Jenny
Lind is a tiny hamlet east of Stockton, one of the many mining towns and camps that sprang up in the 19'h.
century along the Calaveras River in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains south of Sacramento. The
settlement was named after the famous singer who was known as the "Swedish Nightingale", in
circumstances that remain obscure. We don't know how long the letter tarried in Jenny Lind, but at some
point it was redirected again. This time "Jenny Lind, Calif" and "U.S.A." are crossed out in black ink and a
new destination is inscribed: "Bodaibo Irkutsk Gubemia Soviet Russia" and 'Via New York and Moscow".
9 November 1930: The letter passed through New York again, with the oval stamp: NEW YORK 11-9-30
FOREIGN for despatch back to the USSR.
Date? : The letter did indeed pass through Moscow on its return, as indicated by the blurred rectangular
(85 x 20mm.) rubber-stamped cachet (actually double-stamped) on the reverse at right, partly over the
envelope flap and reading: "RECEIVED AT MOSCOW G.P.O. / FROM ABROAD IN DAMAGED
CONDITION / DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR (pencilled signature)". This likely was the sign of another
covert inspection of a type described by David Skipton in "Rossica" No. 119 (1992) 44ff.
15 January 1931: The final stop, cancelled "BODAIBO 15.1.31" at upper right on the reverse, where it
must be hoped that the letter caught up at last with the elusive Basil Sinclair. Bodaibo is a town located
north-east of Lake Baikal, along one of the tributaries of the Lena River in Central Siberia.
This letter travelled by mail across a total of 34 time zones during its round trip of just under five
months, of which two months or so were spent in California. The writer certainly got his 55 kopeks worth!
The two clandestine inspections and non-postal voyage of the envelope from London, where it originated,
to Blagoveshchensk and from Bodaibo eventually back to the philatelic market in the U.S. were free
What, if anything can we surmise about the circumstances of this letter? If we juxtapose the origin
and various destinations of the cover, it is hard not to pronounce the single word "gold". Blagoveshchensk
was in the middle of the Amur Basin gold mining district. Bodaibo was one of the main centres for the
exploitation of the Transbaikal/Lena Basin gold deposits. All these regions contained alluvial or Placerr"
deposits of gold, which required a particular type of mining technology to exploit (a good source of
background on Siberian gold mining is to be found in a summary of Vladimir Krupnik's Russian Gold on
the Internet: www.goldmineshq.com/VLAD.HTM).
Now, it is well-known that, during the years following the Bolshevik Revolution, thousands of
foreign experts and skilled workers found their way to the industrial and mining centres of the new Soviet
Union. They were motivated by a variety of interests: a commitment to Socialism and the Russian
Revolution, a sense of adventure and desire for travel to help build a new land, or simply a search for work
from a Europe or America wracked by depression and unemployment after 1929. (One of the most vivid
June 2003

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