Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Paper is permanent
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - eleventh...
 Activities of field posts & telegraphs...
 Unpaid mail from an Australian...
 The Russian posts in Galicia and...
 Letters of the railway post from...
 Further notes on the postal history...
 The charity stamps of the Ukrainian...
 From the history of issue and utilisation...
 More railway items, including short-paid...
 More data on the 5-kop. city post...
 Merchandising the 1931 North Pole...
 The April 1922 second issue of...
 Russia and the Nobel Prizes
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 A tabulation of the Cliffe covers...
 Tuvan same day registered...
 Mixed status markings of Tuva
 Mail from the Nomonhan (Khalkhin...
 A postmark of an agricultural...
 Official cachets and notes of the...
 Some interesting markings of the...
 Postage due stamps of 1924-1925...
 Philatelic shorts
 The journal fund

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00051
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: November 2002
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00051
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00051 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Paper is permanent
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - eleventh instalment
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Activities of field posts & telegraphs during the Great Manoeuvres; English translation from the text sent by A. Epstein
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Unpaid mail from an Australian colony to the Russian Empire
        Page 13
    The Russian posts in Galicia and Bukovina during WWI (First period August 1914 to July 1915)
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Letters of the railway post from the theatre of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Further notes on the postal history of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The charity stamps of the Ukrainian SSR (Russian text kindly supplied by A. Epstein)
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    From the history of issue and utilisation of address forms on blank postcards in St. Petersburg (Russian text)
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    More railway items, including short-paid examples
        Page 68
        Page 69
    More data on the 5-kop. city post stamp & further "Breitfussiana"
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Merchandising the 1931 North Pole set
        Page 73
    The April 1922 second issue of the Armenian SSR
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Russia and the Nobel Prizes
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    A tabulation of the Cliffe covers sent registered with Tuvan postage
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Tuvan same day registered mailings
        Page 92
    Mixed status markings of Tuva
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Mail from the Nomonhan (Khalkhin Gol) incident and from a Japanese WWII POW
        Page 96
        Page 97
    A postmark of an agricultural college
        Page 98
    Official cachets and notes of the type "received in damaged condition"
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Some interesting markings of the imperial period
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Postage due stamps of 1924-1925 and their postal use
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The journal fund
        Page 120
Full Text



No. 51
November 2002


Printed in Canada



P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2

CSRP Web Site: http://www3.svmpatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider( sympatico.ca
"THE POST-RIDER No. 51. November 2002.
2 Editorial: Paper is permanent
2 Special Note; also on pp. 7, 13, 55, 67, 69, 106, 113 & 120
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Zemstvo Varieties: Eleventh Instalment G.G. Werbizky
8 Activities of Field Posts & Telegraphs during the Great Manoeuvres : English translation from the text sent by .'A. Epstein;
13 Unpaid Mail from an Australian Colony to the Russian Empire Trevor Davis
14 The Russian Posts in Galicia and Bukovina during WWI (First Period Aug. 1914 to July 1915) A. Epstein
37 Letters of the Railway Post from the Theatre of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy
48 Further Notes on the Postal History of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 Andrew Cronin
53 The Charity Stamps of the Ukrainian SSR (Russian text kindly supplied by A. Epstein) F.G. Chuchin
56 From the history of issue and utilisation of address forms on blank postcards in St. Petersburg (Russian text) L.G. Ratner
68 More Railway Items, including Short-Paid Examples Rabbi L.L. Tann
70 More Data on the 5-kop. City Post Stamp & Further "Breitfussiana": P-A. Erixon, H. von Hofmann, D. A. Jay & A. Cronin
73 Merchandising the 1931 North Pole Set Henry Blum
74 The April 1922 Second Issue of the Armenian SSR Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
77 Russia and the Nobel Prizes Gregory Epshtein
84 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
90 A tabulation of the Cliffe covers sent registered with Tuvan postage Alan Leighton
92 Tuvan Same Day Registered Mailings Alan Leighton & A. Cronin
92 Announcements
93 Mixed Status Markings of Tuva A. Cronin
96 Mail from the Nomonhan (Khalkhin Gol) Incident and from a Japanese WWII POW Dr. Hal Vogel
98 A Postmark of an Agricultural College Meer Kossoy
99 Official Cachets and Notes of the Type "Received in Damaged Condition" Meer Kossoy
107 Some Interesting Markings of the Imperial Period Professor A.S. Ilyushin
109 Postage Due Stamps of 1924-1925 and their postal use Robert Taylor
114 Philatelic Shorts A Karnapke, N. Krasheninnikoff, Asst.-Prof. D.A. Jay, M. Ercolini, A. Ivakhno &. A. Cronin
120 The Journal Fund
Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer.
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary.
Andrew Cronin, Editor.
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Represenative in the United Kingdom.

Copyright 2002. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the
contents of this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.


The ever increasing pace of technology was supposed to lead to the "paperless office", but the very
opposite has turned out to be the case. In short, information has to be downloaded to hard copies as a
backup, since electronic archival equipment deteriorates over time, technological retrieval methods become
obsolete and the end result is that data are irretrievably lost. In addition, studies are often deleted on web
sites, so it is important to be in the right place and at the right time to set up the required files.

The moral of the story is that acid-free paper is permanent and, as an example, your editor has Revenue
Stamped Paper of New Spain (Mexico) made from rags and going back to the 1660s; the paper looks as
fresh as the day it was made. No problem there about losing data! The beauty of printed papers is that you
can make notes in the margins, underline pertinent data, jump ahead to another page with a flick of the
wrist, cart them around anywhere, earmark a page, etc.

Turning specifically to presenting information in our fields of collecting, the idea has been floated in some
quarters of putting our journals completely on line and letting members download only what interests them
personally. A disadvantage is that snippets of information are not really saleable when disposing of one's
collection. Moreover, not everyone is on the Internet. Even if one has Internet access, downloading a
complete journal is a cost, additional to that of membership, plus the consumption of ink and the printed
pages would have to be stapled or otherwise put into some other kind of form for consultation. In other
words, extra work and extra expense, which could be avoided by staying with a printed journal.

It should also be noted that a complete run of our journals consists of more than 4000 pages, covering a
huge range of subjects and providing a backup of information, which could expand one's horizons, no
matter how restricted the collecting interests are. As the French say: "Savoir, c'est pouvoir".

Your editor has an open mind on the problems set out above and comments are welcome from the

Excursion to the LN. Tolstoi Estate at Yasnava Polvana.
OInQCCC nThis estate with its modest grave of the great Russian writer and humanist
is located 200 km. (125 miles) south of Moscow and may be reached by Train No.
S 145, leaving from the Kursk Station in Moscow at 29 ulitsa Zemlyanoi Val at 9am
every Saturday and Sunday, arriving at Kozlova Zaseka Station in Tula province at
noon. The return Train No. 146 leaves at 4:30pm for Moscow. Each carriage on the
Strain has a different Tolstoi exhibit of his life and times and the round trip fare is
about US $11.00.
Patriarshy Dom Tours of Moscow (see their Web Site at:
www.russiatravel-pdtours.netfirms.com) offer a 12-hour bus tour at* US $55.00 per
person and private tours with English-speaking guides can also be arranged. In
S..... .Moscow, call (7-095) 795-0927 and in the U.S. : (650) 678-7076.
November 2002

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to ,
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or clear Xerox copy of the7 /
item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

Cf^^A y I

-s t,' ,' '

by Andrew Cronin.

after the death of I.V. Stalin in 1953. The primary reason for the small flow of correspondence was that the
-' .. .--,^ .-..-.

savage war going on between the NKVD Special Forces and Western Ukrainian nationalists did not finally
cease until 1952. Mail surveillance was therefore very strict during that period.

The example shown here is a surface registered letter, properly paid at 50 kop. foreign rate, plus 80 kop. for
the foreign registration fee. It was sent from Borshchev, Ternopil' province on 16.12.46 and was still sitting
more than two months later at what is believed to be the then mail monitoring office in L'viv (JIbBiB,
JIbBOB, Lw6w, Lemberg), as noted by the backstamp in French, reading "URSS / LVOV BUREAU DES
POSTES 24.2.47" and with the serial letter "M". The letter then passed through the Registration Division
in New York City on 25.3.47. It reached Winnipeg three days later and had to be forwarded within the city.

We can take the investigation one step further by examining the handwriting on the cover. The female
sender was obviously much more familiar with the Latin alphabet than with her inscriptions in Cyrillic and
it is thus evident that she was an ethnic Pole, namely Katarzyna Bloiska. That supposition appears to be
confirmed by the name of the addressee in Winnipeg: Tomasz Zielifiski.

If only covers like this could speak; what stories they could tell about those troubled times!
November 2002
":-:"" ':.' ,: ... .- ,l .. J" "' ". '- '- -

Yi~~~ao ,H POTwIER~w,~E Lebeg) as noe yteb3sapi rnh edn US VVBRA E
OSTS 242.4" an wih th seial ettr "M. Te leter thnpsedtruh h eisrto Dvso

by G.G. Werbizky.

This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties
do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is
shown here is what I have in my collection.

Irbit, Perm' province.
This Zemstvo is of special interest for two reasons:-

(1) It is one of the few Zemstvos that used bisected stamps of higher denomination, when stamps of lower
value were not available.
(2) One issue, Chuchin Nos. 14 & 14a, was printed with intentional errors.

Chuchin Nos 2 to 4 with the values of 2, 4 & 8 kopeks are all of the same design and were printed on
coloured paper. There are many varieties and only the more prominent ones will be shown here.
Chuchin Nos. 2 & 2a, on lilac-rose paper:

Block of six. Note the different fonts and the
*u:., io. i lar I Ia, *:nnDo,'ir" ::

".' ,--" - -. '

Block of six. Note the different fonts and the
position of the "X"-shaped ornaments on both
sides of the circle on stamp No. 3 in top row.

_.jI -I .. '- ., I
Numeral "2" missing in the upper
right or upper left corer.

lI- 2

One of the "X"-shaped ornaments is
missing at right below the circle.

Chuchin No. 3
on dark green paper:
Numeral "4" is
missing in upper
left corer.


Burun iwr rf i
1 Y4

iriAI I.PLIr

Chuchin No. 4
on yellow paper:
Note the irregular
placement of the "X"s
below the circle on
both stamps.

November 2002

S 8. 8

_____b 8oB~aI1~,, o8~
&~B~r~a I a~11q.

Chuchin No. 7:
This stamp has many shades of the background from red to
rose. The sheet consists of three groups of ten and the
background in each group is in a different shade of red..

.... .. .

L VRJU4, .3 itaz
E'13 if C : I a U1.11.1
* C

1: fa id1O 14 T 1
j ti ul I -7 9 1 .1 .1
I ~

I.... 2. ... .

I ..

i RFLq i .


i x3'i r A

....'.. .. .
UPrip I]
I -nfR

11 b I .1l

II.. ..... .. .
r. Iu .I

10 -1 .A1 TJ
III r.11 1 TA q- FC a r

,i. r I )4

1. n **. ',I 3A I..an.

2 2`2* ,2;
ax 1;n icIEC n n .11f'
fti 'IIIkrtEA nhi:,IrrCIAi

P D. *1 '

ii Y A it 0 r%1
Ktpsr~Lr.I It. I,] ci


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* nL 1;11A

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~L )1.
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at LJIfU11?8

.110.3 igol
ti1 la 11

: -- -- ----------

*fitit 1-u.j


Inirt l..C


a I~rc ur.

It rA. A

2 21

r 1l( ,

Note the 1st. stamp in the 2d.

Letter "3" missing in "3eMcKaa".

Wide space between the letters
"M" and "c" in "3eM cKaa".

November 2002



4- 4-
., c^ -J

.,i s^
.s i3 st3
,0 oo fl C




o a-

ag|s >
U2 'e I. U

0 >
- U2 ; 0 1C
cj^ C)

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4 '0 C)



.d ./ -0 1
C;0' C)d
C41 Ln

* 0 cn X

0 (D
li fis

P 5oob o -ap a

November 2002





0 o

u.) '


~ a ~'1)

Kasimov, Ryazan' province.
Chuchin No. 3:

The full sheet has four types. The
position of the stars determines
the type.

N.0 Type 3: Left and bottom stars close to
4 the outer line. Note significant paper fold.

* *


Our Silver Jubilee

Herewith a special congratulatory
letter for "The Post-Rider/AMIIAHK"
on this important occasion, dated
1 July 2002 and received with
many thanks and gratitude from
V.V. Sinegubov, Vice-President
of the Union of Philatelists of
Russia. We look forward to many
more years of fruitful cooperation
with our esteemed colleagues in
the Russian Federation!

CtI' crp.2, jnom 12, yn. TunpcKaH r oIC. -9. r'n, -. 9, 1U1999A QAKC (095) 20f9-24-66
SFR. BLd-2. 12 TVE&1SKAYASTR. MOSCOW. K-9, CSP-9. 101999 FAX (095) 2(1-24-66 ....,

1L" n"Ia- 2002 r.

r-Hy KPOZHHY A.C., x3aaTeJIm

YBasaeMuR Au~pei CnmipM oHoBam !
OT aMeH Coia cjniaTexjcroB Poccaa cepaeqHo no3A-
paBajeM Bac a Bcex Bamax Kxarer, coaeaTeeRi aypaaxa
"H~MTK", c 25- roAoBwHnlofi BuxoLaB B cBeT ero nepBoro
Homepa. "fHMauma" npes3s akno nonyjxpeH B Pocca. occ.re-
LOBaTeJna OTeqeCTBeHHo 'no~rqT as MHorx ropoAOB CTpahu,
saa Mu aoTo ydezgaeMca, BHaMaTeJrHHe a nOcToafHHue sr-
TaTeJut a HeKoTopue x aBBTop Banmero upexpacHoro xyp-
Haira. 3a teTBepTL Bexa OH cTaj B Poccan caMuM aBTOpR-
TeTHUM =3aaHneM no "PoccaKe".
Mu dj6aroAapHu BaM a BceM, ETO cosAaeT sypaaji "HM-
mK'", sa rpoMagHau Bmraa B accjegoBamze a nony~Jimpaa-
iao PoccaftcKOt notTH, sa BHEMaHne 3 aJoBo a K TOR Ua-
jaTejmCT~qecEofi TeMe.
3aopoBma x TBoptecKMX ycnexoB BaM, zoporoft AApeti
CnapzAoHoBxq, M BamiuM xoimeraM, a "~FMlnmy" ycnemHot
e3Au MHorae rOAH-o 0 noIITOBHM aoporaM!

Barie-npesa3;eHp T
November 2002

Alexander EpStein as an excerpt from the publication "Postal & Telegraphic Journal Unofficial Section",
No. 11 of 1898; the original Russian text was published in "The Post-Rider" No. 50, pp. 4-8).

Field postal and telegraphic services were established in former years and up to the present year of
1898 during the Great Manoeuvres of the forces of the Guard and of the St. Petersburg Military District in
the presence of their Majesties in the environs of St. Petersburg to facilitate the fastest possible delivery,
both to the units participating in the Manoeuvres, as well as to their Imperial Majesties and to officials of
the Imperial General Headquarters (G.H.Q.) of postal and telegraphic correspondence and also for the
fastest possible secure exchange of information generated by the military units, both within themselves and
with the Imperial G.H.Q. In addition, there were set up temporary cavalry postal stations in the quarters of
the forces with sufficient teams of horses; detachments of mounted mailmen were assigned to the field post
offices and to the field postal & telegraphic offices.
In wishing to raise the level of the Manoeuvres during the present year (1898) to a battle-ready
condition, the Staff of the Forces of the Guard and of the St. Petersburg Military District recognized the
necessity to appoint from the officers of the General Staff a Director of Military Communications in each
corps on manoeuvres, which included the following responsibilities, among others: the supervision of field
postal and telegraphic activities, as well as of offices moving from one locality to another in accompanying
the forces, also in providing the offices with information about the disposition of military units.
In organising the field postal and telegraphic service on manoeuvres, there were taken into account
in advance the following factors: (a) the distribution of the forces into two opposing bodies northern and
southern, with the first being on the offensive and the second on the defensive; (b) the presence at the
Manoeuvres of the Their Majesties, with the entire Imperial Court and the Imperial G.H.Q.; (c) the
existence of the means of dispatch of the mail over the entire area occupied by the forces only along the
railways during specific periods of time; (d) the complete absence both of postal and telegraphic offices at
several points within the wide area of manoeuvres with environs of up to 100 v'rst (approximately 100 km.
or 63 miles) and (e) unfamiliarity with the locality occupied originally by the units of the Northern Corps,
where manoeuvres had not taken place in previous years.
In order to ensure the comprehensive implementation of all these conditions by the Staff of the
Forces of the Guard and of the St. Petersburg Military District and in agreement with other administrative
offices and personnel, postal and telegraphic facilities were organized by the Director of the St. Petersburg
Postal and Telegraphic District in the following way:-
During the mobile mustering of the forces from 23 July to 1 August, all the mail received at
Krasnoe Selo and addressed to military ranks was forwarded through the St. Petersburg G.P.O. in the
following way: on 24 July to St. Petersburg for delivery thereby to the Forces Headquarters, from 25 to 30
July to the postal and telegraphic office at Bolshoe Pargolovo and on 31 July & 1 August to the postal and
telegraphic station at Vartemyagi, from where such mail would be handed over to the mounted messenger,
appointed from the military units and provided with references.
Thus, the following offices were opened at 12 noon on 31 July:-
Stationary Offices:
(1) In St. Petersburg at the General Post Office in the premises of the postal station on Ligovskaya ulitsa.
(2) Telegraphic station in the premises ofElagin Dvorets.
(3) Postal and telegraphic station at Novaya Derevnya (near Elagin Dvorets)
Mobile Field Offices:
(4) No. 1 of the Northern Corps at the village of of Nizhnie Stanki.
(5) No. 2 of the Northern Corps at the village of Tarrimyaki.
(6) No. 1 of the Southern Corps at Vtoroe Pargolovo.
(7) No. 2 of the Southern Corps at the village of Murino.
Upon the departure of the forces from Krasnoe Selo, the Main Field Office sent the mail received
from the St. Petersburg G.P.O. to the Corps and to the G.H.Q. by means of the mail route established to go
November 2002

in different directions and, at the specified time, carried out the delivery of postal and telegraphic
correspondence of the troops proceeding on manoeuvres and passing by St. Petersburg.
The exchange of mails between the St. Petersburg G.P.O. and the Main Field Post Office was
carried out in the following order:-
Two officials and a postman of the Main Field Post Office arrived at 5am and at 3pm at the St.
Petersburg G.P.O., where they picked up the mail for the field offices. At 8am and 5pm, a postman at the
G.P.O. would convey to the Main Field Post Office mail bags proceeding to Krasnoe Selo; these bags
would be opened in the Main Field Post Office and, after taking out the correspondence addressed to the
troops on manoeuvres, they would be closed again, sealed and handed over to the postman for
transportation to the Baltic Railway Station in St. Petersburg. The mail received from the field post offices
was handed over by the Main Field Post Office to the St. Petersburg G.P.O. for onward transmission.
Such a procedure did not give rise to any special difficulties or complications for the officials at the
G.P.O. and did not violate the proper exchange of mail of St. Petersburg with Krasnoe Selo. Moreover, it
made it possible to send the post from St. Petersburg at 8am and 5pm and to receive at the end points the
mail at around 12 noon and at 9pm, which was very convenient for the troops.
Finally, for more rapid connections of the Main Field Post Office with the other postal and
telegraphic offices in the area of the manoeuvres and because the occasion of the regimental holiday on 6
August of the Life-Guard Preobrazhenskii Regiment would result in a meaningful increase of
congratulatory telegrams which had to be delivered to the Regiment, it was proposed in an agreement of the
Director of the St. Petersburg Postal District with the Director of the Department of City Telegraphs in St.
Petersburg to assign mounted postmen to the Main Field Post Office. That office was transformed on 2
August into the Main Field Postal and Telegraphic Office with the installation of Morse telegraphic
equipment for immediate connection with the Main Telegraphic Office along the line that passed by the
premises of the Field Office. In that way, the Main Field Office had all the facilities for the rapid exchange
of telegraphic correspondence and it was able at the same time to deliver on 6 August more than 300
telegrams to the Preobrazhenskii Regiment.
The temporary telegraphic station in the premises of the Elagin Dvorets.
The premises for this station were allotted by the Court Commandant with the special intercession
on the part of the Director of the St. Petersburg Postal District, in order to ensure the simultaneous receipt
and delivery of telegrams for Their Majesties during the presence of Their Royal Highnesses and other high
personages chosen by the Court, as well as the telegrams of officials of high rank, who were members of
the Imperial General Headquarters.
To avoid delays in the exchange of telegrams of Their Majesties by the transmission in Morse code
of verbose messages by reporters and in accordance with an agreement reached between the Director of the
St. Petersburg Postal and Telegraphic District and the Director of the Department of City Telegrams in St.
Petersburg, such despatches were delivered by News Agency couriers directly to the Elagin Dvorets.
The exchange of telegrams of the military units, which were stationed at Elagin Ostrov and Novaya
Derevnya, as well as the receipt and delivery to them of mail, were all carried out in a temporary postal and
telegraphic station near Elagin Dvorets (at Novaya Derevnya), which was set up in a rented house. The
equipment of these stations was connected by means of lines set up on telegraph poles to the city conduits.
The field post offices installed at the corps were moved in following the troops and were installed in
premises previously prepared for them in rented houses, in the following order:-
Office No. 1 of the Northern Corps: From Nizhnie Stanki to Bol'shoe Pargolovo, St. Petersburg and
Office No. 2 of the Northern Corps: From the village of Tarrimyaki to Khelezity, Murino, village of
Staraya (near Koltush) and Rybatskoe.
Office No. 1 of the Southern Corps: From Vtoroe Pargolovo to Murzinka and Kuz'mino (near Tsarskoe
Office No. 2 of the Southern Corps: From the village of Murino to Ust'-Slavyanka and Podgornoe (near
The field post offices and the temporary postal-telegraphic station at Novaya Derevnya (near Elagin
Dvorets) carried out the receipt of registered and ordinary correspondence, the exchange of mails and
November 2002

the clearing of the temporary letter boxes, directed mail to the G.P.O., forwarded correspondence with
important despatches by express post, maintained by means of postmen with outriders communications
with the nearest postal and telegraphic offices, carried out the delivery of mail to the troops on bivouac by
means of mounted postmen, supervised the delivery by the postmen of mail and the sale of postage stamps,
provided such postmen with paper, envelopes and pencils for distribution to the military ranks and
supervised most carefully the exchange of horses for Their Highnesses, couriers and other personnel
passing through.
Apart from the specially designated field postal-telegraphic offices and post offices, regular offices
situated in the area of military manoeuvres also took place part in the receipt and delivery of postal and
telegraphic correspondence, namely at the postal-telegraphic offices at Bol'shoe Pargolovo and Krasnoe
Selo, as well as at the postal-telegraphic stations at Lembolovo and Vartemyagi.
All the field postal-telegraphic and post offices were provided with sufficient quantities of postal
supplies, books and forms for postal and telegraphic operations by the Department of the St. Petersburg
Postal-Telegraphic District and with chancery stores, signs, cancellers, cards, time-tables, as well as the
necessary supervisory personnel assigned by the Director of the Field Post Service on Manoeuvres, with an
advance of funds granted to him for that purpose. In addition, all the above-named establishments were
provided with lists received from the Army Staff of Royal personages, attendants, arbitrators, general
agents and envoys, as well as listings of the troops by detachments and reinforcements.
For the designation of places where the field post offices were located and, in addition to signs
reading "Field Postal Service", such facilities also had to raise on poles flags with the postal-telegraphic
logo. In addition, in places where the offices were housed aside, there were to be displayed at the turning of
the road signs with the same inscription, fastened to transmission poles, previously prepared for that
For the maintenance of communications of the field post offices between the Northern and Southern
Corps, as well as with the General Postal & Telegraphic Office and with the postal-telegraphic and post
offices nearest to the area of manoeuvres, two daily exchanges of mail were set up on the following routes:-
From 31 July to 2 August: St. Petersburg to Nizhnie Stanki; St. Petersburg to the village Tarrimyaki and
Nizhnie Stanki to Tarrimyaki.
3 August: St. Petersburg to Bol'shoe Pargolovo; St. Petersburg to Khelezity.
4 August in the direction of: From St. Petersburg to Bol'shoe Pargolovo, Murino and Ust'-Slavyanka.
5 August: From St.Petersburg to Elagin Dvorets; from the village of Rybatskoe to the village of Kuz'mino.
6 & 7 August: Between St. Petersburg and the villages of Rybatskoe and Kuz'mino.
In addition, there was an express postal service primarily from the mail of Their Royal Highnesses
and with important reports. During the eight-day period of manoeuvres, there were 301 items of mail
proceeding in various directions and return. There were also 80 pieces of mail handled by the Express
Postal Service.
Letter boxes were installed at all horse stations, field postal-telegraphic and post offices. These
boxes were movable and could easily be picked up to coincide with the movement of the troops. There
were 11 temporary letter boxes set up in all. They were cleared from three to six times within a 24-hour
period by foot and mounted postmen.
The acceptance of all classes of mail and the sale of postage stamps were carried out from 6am to
10pm and the receipt of telegrams at any time of the day and night during the period and in the area of the
manoeuvres occupied by the troops at both the regular and temporary offices. The total figures for items
received from the senders, cleared from the letter boxes and despatched by the post offices for all the
facilities located in the area occupied by the troops during the period of manoeuvres were as follows:-
Registered sending 100 Sale of postage stamps of various values 408r. 65k.
Other letters, cards and wrapper sending 19,875 Telegram fees 47r. 93k.
Telegrams accepted 254
Total 20,229 Total 456r. 58k.
A special company of mounted and foot postmen was established to accompany the mails, both in
postal and telegraphic form and to deliver the same directly to the troops in position and on bivouac, at the
same time clearing and moving the letter boxes during manoeuvres and maintaining communications
November 2002

between the temporary field post and regular offices.
These postmen were assigned from the postal-telegraphic offices of those towns in the St.
Petersburg province in which the delivery of mail to the addressees had declined for some time after the
departure of the troops to the manoeuvres. In addition, 8 postmen were allocated from the St. Petersburg
G.P.O. to supplement the team of field mail carriers.
The mounted postmen were to be found at all the postal-telegraphic offices, both regular and
temporary, in the area occupied by the troops on manoeuvres; they delivered to the positions and bivouacs
and from the temporary to the regular offices telegrams and official urgent packages and also carried out
signal duties at the Main Field Postal-Telegraphic Office.
The foot postmen accompanied the posts on the surfaced roads, cleared the letter boxes and
delivered registered and ordinary mail and newspapers to the military ranks in the vicinity of the field post
offices. These postmen, together with their mounted counterparts, distributed the mail to the addressees,
sold stamps, postal stationery envelopes and blank forms for postcards and also offered sheets of writing
paper, blank envelopes and pencils to those requiring them in order to write letters. The postage stamps
were sold at their face value and the chancery supplies were distributed free of charge.
The mounted and foot postmen were armed with swords and revolvers and they had satchels,
carried on the shoulder for postal correspondence, as well as a belt for despatches and a tin box for the
postage stamps and the proceeds collected in their sale. There were 30 men on hand in all as mailmen for
the Field Post Service, 11 of them on foot and 19 mounted.
In accordance with the orders of the Military Authorities relayed to the troops proceeding on
manoeuvres, as well as to the mailmen and the officials on hand in the various corps, it was specified that,
for the Northern Corps, they were to wear white covers on their caps and upon delivery of the mail to the
positions and bivouacs, it was forbidden to cross the demarcation line. An exception was allowed for the
mailmen, proceeding with the mails and express posts and for whom free access was not forbidden across
the specified line.
The following items were delivered by the mailmen during the period of the manoeuvres:-
Telegrams of their Imperial Majesties, also official and others 450
Registered letters and registered wrappers 148
Ordinary sealed official and private letters 13,885
Ordinary postcards, wrappers, newspapers, military orders & notices,87
Total 24,336
The delivery of postal-telegraphic correspondence was carried out with full success and without omissions.
To ensure the uninterrupted flow of mail, the passage of military personages, mediators and couriers
in dealing with the Staff of the Forces of the Guard and the St. Petersburg Military District on the one hand
and the General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs (FYIhIT) on the other, the following numbers of
horses were specified at the temporary stations: Elagin Ostrov 20; Murino 30; Toksovo 25. Moreover,
there were added at the regular stations the following numbers: St. Petersburg 6; Bol'shoe Pargolovo -
14; Nizhnie Stanki 4; Lembolovo 3; Tsarskoe Selo 11, with a grand total of 113 horses.
The departure of postal horses from all the stations, proceeding to the area occupied by the troops
on manoevres, as well as for the flow of mail and for the passage of Their Imperial Majesties, attendants of
the Court, couriers, mediators, military officials, adjutants and servants were all carried out without
interruption. To avoid misunderstandings in the departure of horses in the cases of arrival at the station of
persons all at the same time after the departure of Their Imperial Majesties, preference was given above all
to the couriers assigned to the orders of His Imperial Majesty, then to the General Officers Commanding,
the Commanders of Staffs and mediators and finally, to other military officials, assigned to duties on the
manoeuvres. Such passages were carried out with complete success and did not give rise to any
misunderstandings whatsoever. The horses went off to proceed both on the postal and country roads. The
passage of Their Imperial Majesties and couriers on the main highways was carried out specifically at a
speed of 13 verst per hour (roughly 13 km.p.h. or 8 m.p.h.)
The field postal-telegraphic and post offices were so organised throughout the entire period of the
manoeuvres that they were under the immediate supervision of the Director of the St. Petersburg Postal-
Telegraphic District, namely Councillor of State Glagolev.
November 2002

In the work of organising and establishing the offices in the field, there participated under the
supervision of the Director of the St. Petersburg Postal-Telegraphic District his deputy, the Collegiate
Councillor Derevyankin, who was responsible for setting up the telegraphic service in the offices in the
field and also Mr. Ivanov, the official for special commissions, who was in charge of the Field Postal
Service. The latter had the responsibility of the closest supervision in the order of services at the offices and
in the correct departure of horses from the mounted postal stations. In addition, he was assigned to the Staff
of the District for the immediate receipt of all arrangements referring to the Field Postal Service during the
manoeuvres and was at the disposition of the Director of the Staff of the Guard Forces and of the St.
Petersburg Military District.
In delivering services to the field offices and in supervising the correct flow of telegraphic activity,
the following numbers of personnel were on hand:-
Junior mechanic 1
Officials 32, of whom 7 from the St. Petersburg G.P.O.
Inspector 1
Postmen 30, of whom 8 from the St. Petersburg G.P.O.
Watchman 1
All the officials within the field postal-telegraphic offices were fitted out with military uniforms and bore
insignia; they were armed with swords of the officer type.

,, ..._ "


--- -----

Editorial Comment: The cover shown above was sent through Office No. 2 of the Southern Corps during
the 1898 Manoeuvres on 7 August from the village of Podgoroe, near Pulkovo to Holland, where it was
backstamped on arrival. It has popped up in auctions with estimated values as high as USD 3000.00.
Bearing in mind the considerable amount of mail sent during the Manoeuvres, why is it that such items are
Note also the presence of obvious Estonian place-names, such as Tarrimyaki and Vartemyagi.
"M'dgi" is Estonian for a hill or hillock and Vartemyagi opened as a postal-telegraphic office in June 1895.
Comments on any facet of the area covered above are welcome.
November 2002

by Trevor Davis.
The letter shown here was
Carried by the P & O Steam
Navigation Company during
'" Z~-,---- -the 3rd. Contract Period of
SO 1865 to 1873. It was covered
Sby the Anglo-French Treaty of
-wOCr' r. '- 1866, which included a change
in the "via Suez" rate. The
cover was originally endorsed
S"Via Trieste" at front left, the
most obvious but more
expensive route. As it was
unpaid, that routing was
.: crossed out in blue crayon and
Sthe item was sent by the
cheaper Marseilles route. I
/ suppose that it should have
been sent via Southampton,
". ,v -~ "but apparently not.
--'.,'/f...-< T:_: Posted unpaid at Kilmore,
SVictoria 29 October 1872, it
-"- was backstamped in
S Melbourne 31 October, from
Zz -where it went on the ship
"Baroda" 8.11.72 to Galle

"Deccan" to Suez and per
S .-... .' French packet to Marseilles
.. ,... (faint entry mark on the back,
reading "AUSTRALIE 21?
diamond-shaped accountancy mark was applied at bottom right front: "GB/IF 624/10c" and the letter was
forwarded by the Marseilles-Lyon TPO/RPO 24 Dec. 72 (back centre) to Paris, which applied at centre
right back a faint cds reading "PARIS 25 DtC. 72 ETRANGER". The letter then went overland via
Aachen, Prussia, which claimed 16 1/2 Silbergroschen (front left), being equivalent to 56 kopeks, plus a
fine for unpaid mail of 16 kopeks to total 72 kopeks (amount at bottom right back). The letter was received
in St. Petersburg at 7pm on 17 December 1872 O.S. = 29 December N.S.
The envelope was addressed by an obviously well educated sender in Russian and English to Her
Excellency Anna Aleksandrovna Kazarinova in the Saltykov area of Bol'shaya Ital'yanskaya Street in St.
Petersburg and, at top back, the Russian postal assistant Spiridonov narrowed the exact address down to
Nikolaevskaya Street No. 7, Apartment No. 5. Quite a journey!
Silver Jubilee greetings from the Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately.
"Congratulations are in order to The Canadian Society of Russian Philately, which is celebrating its 25t.
Anniversary 1977-2002. They have issued 'The Post-Rider' No. 50 an Anniversary Journal a bumper
issue with 120 pages. The editorial team is to be commended on a great and continuing effort for the
benefit of Russian philately. The various Russian philatelic societies and journals are all complementary -
membership and subscription have similar benefits" ("IIOTTA" J2 32, for July 2002, p. 2).
Editorial Comment: Many thanks for your kind wishes, dear friends, which are heartily reciprocated!

November 2002 13

(First Period: August 1914 to July 1915)
by Alexander Ep'tein.
Galicia is the historic designation of the territory which includes the present L'viv, Teropil' and Ivano-
Frankivs'k provinces (oblasti) of the Ukraine (Eastern Galicia) and the Rzesz6w, Przemysl, Tarn6w and
Krosno provinces (wojewodstwa) of Poland (Western Galicia). Galicia is bounded on the south by
Bukovina, whose northern part is now the Chernivtsy province of the Ukraine, while the southern portion is
a part of Romania. Before WWI, all these lands were included in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They were
inhabited mostly by Ukrainians (or "Rusiny" [Ruthenians] as they were then called), Poles, Jews and other
ethnic groups.
From 1914 to 1917 during WWI, considerable parts of Galicia and Bukovina were occupied by
Russian forces. The Russian presence there can be divided conventionally into three periods. The first
period begins in August 1914 when Russian troops crossed the state frontiers to enter Galicia and ends in
mid-1915, when the Russians were forced to abandon Bukovina and almost the whole of Galicia, except for
a small strip in the south-east near Tarnopol/Ternopil', under the pressure of the attacking German and
Austro-Hungarian troops. The second period is characterized by the military activities in the
Tarnopol/Ternopil'-area up to May 1916, when the third period started. A general offensive of the Russian
forces under General Brusilov, then the Commander of the South-West Front, led to the reoccupation of
considerable parts of Eastern Galicia and almost the whole of Bukovina. That period ended in the summer
of 1917 when, after an abortive offensive by the Russian armies and the resulting counter-attack by the
enemy below Tarnopol/Ternopil', the Russians finally abandoned almost the whole of Galicia. The present
article deals with the first period.
The subject of the Russian postal activities in Galicia and Bukovina during WWI is still little
reflected in the literature. There was published a few years ago a paper in Russian [1], but new information
which has become available since then allows us to correct some errors in the previous publication and to
supplement it with new data. Thus, the present article should be regarded as a revised and considerably
recast version of the latter.
In any case; this subject had aroused as much interest at the beginning of the events, as by the
contemporary authors. For instance, as early as 1914, there was asserted in the magazine "Filateliya"
published in St. Petersburg that some sedentary post offices were functioning in the part of Galicia
occupied by the Russians, in addition to the field post establishments [2]. However, it is possible that a
terminological error took place in this case, as will become clear later on here. The same assertion pointed
to an intention by the Imperial Administration of Posts & Telegraphs (TFYInT) to set up a separate postal-
telegraphic district in Galicia. There was also reported the alleged existence of a cover from Galicia franked
with an Austrian stamp overprinted with the Imperial eagle, although the author himself stated that such
items should be treated with caution.
There is also known a set of three stamps with the text "Russian Galicia" in Russian, which is
considered bogus [3]. It is curious, however, that the face values 3, 7 & 10 k. of the stamps correspond to
the postal rates mostly in use (for ordinary inland postcards & letters and foreign letters, respectively) in
force prior to 1 October 1914 and the basic colours on the stamps are the same as for the stamps of the
Romanov Jubilee set with the same face values.
We find a similar and also unsubstantiated assertion in the book by N. Kallistov dealing with the
Russian field post [4], that the field post offices in the territories of the enemy now occupied by Russian
troops were gradually replaced by the sedentary establishments of the Imperial Post. Furthermore, there
were references in-the pre-WWII editions of the German "Michel" stamp catalogue, also later in the
"Lipsia" catalogue published in East Germany, about mute cancellations on Imperial stamps applied
allegedly during the advance of the Russian armies in Galicia. Finally, Arnold Levin features in his paper
the mute cancellations applied in L'vov/L'viv, as well as allegedly in Tarnopol/Ternopil' and
Chernovtsy/Chernivtsy [5].
However, there is no evidence supporting the version that a civilian postal service ever functioned
in Galicia and Bukovina during the Russian military occupation.. All the available material in the form of
November 2002

archival documents and items of mail from that area points to the fact that this territory was an arena of
activities of the field post exclusively. That is quite explainable, since the Imperial Post could operate only
in the territories legally belonging to Russia. Although the Russian government intended with its Entente
allies to include such lands in the Empire after the expected victorious end of the war (the eastern part
would have joined Russian proper and the western part would have been included in the planned Polish
State, in a union with Russia in the same way as with Finland), they were not and could not be annexed
during the war.
The present study, the purpose of which is the reconstruction of the actual picture of Russian postal
activities in Galicia and Bukovina in 1914-1915, is based mainly on the documents of the Main Postal-
Telegraphic Administration (FYIHnT) fund in the Central State Historical Archives of Russia in St.
Petersburg, as well as on orders and decrees of military commanders (Supreme Commander-in-Chief, the
Head of the Military Communications Administration of the South-West Front, Commanders of the 3rd.
8th., 9th. & 11th. Armies) stored in the St. Petersburg State Library. Unfortunately, some important orders
are missing in these sets; moreover, there are contradictions in some documents, etc. In any case, the
missing and doubtful information should be filled in as far as possible by a thorough study of the military
and historical literature [6 to 13], as well as of the philatelic material available.
Brief historical review
The events in Galicia in the period under consideration were unfolding generally in the following way. On
5 & 6 August 1914 (hereinafter, all the dates are given according to the Julian Calendar [Old Style], which
was 13 days behind the Gregorian Calendar in the 20th. century) and according to the war plans drawn up
by the Russian General Staff, the formations of the 3rd. & 8th. Armies including respectively the 9th., 10t.,
1 th., 21st. and 7t., 8t., 12th. & 24t. Army (Infantry) Corps, as well as the Dniester Force, a part of the 8th.
Army that operated separately (included in the expanded 30h. Army Corps in November) all entered
Galicia from the north-east and east. In the course of the first month of advance and in fighting against the
counter-attacking Austro-Hungarian forces, the Russian armies occupied a vast territory in Eastern Galicia
and Northern Bukovina, with the towns of Zbarazh (7 Aug.), Chortkov/Chortkiv (9 Aug.),
Tarnopol/Ternopil' (10 Aug.), Zlochev/Zolochiv & Monastyrys'ka (11 Aug.), Busk/Buzsk (14 Aug.),
Chernovtsy/Chernivtsy (15 Aug.), Khodorov/Khodoriv & Zholkiew/Zhovkva (19 Aug.), Galich/Halych (20
Aug.), L'vov/L'viv (21 Aug.), Stanislav/Stanyslaviv (23 Aug.), Mikolaev/Mykolayiv (24 Aug.), Rava
Rus'ka & Lyubachov/Lyubachiv (31 Aug.), Sambor/Sambir (3 Sept.) and Drogobych/Drohobych (4 Sept.).
During September, the 3rd. Army Corps reached the San river. The first attempt to capture the fortress of
Peremyshl'/Przemysl failed and its siege began. A special Siege Army, renamed then from the 11th. Army
with the new 28th. & 29th. Army Corps, was formed especially to deal with this fortress, which was manned
by a numerous garrison of Austrian troops. The 8th. Army entered into a battle lasting many days in the
Khyrov/Khyriv-Stryj area, which it finally won and continued to advance into the Carpathians. The
Russians occupied most of Western Galicia during October, with the towns of Rzesz6w, Tarn6w, Krosno,
Jaslo, Sanok etc., but the advance on Krak6w failed. By November, the front held by the 3rd. & 8th.Armies
generally passed along the Dunajec river and the Carpathian passes, but remained far from being stable.
The situation on the left flank of the Russians was less successful. By the end of February 1915, the
30th. Army Corps which was operating in a rather vast area, was forced under the onslaught of
overwhelming enemy forces to abandon the whole of Bukovina including the town of
Czernovtsy/Chernivtsy; also on a temporary basis, Stanislav/Stanyslaviv and some other points in Galicia.
To strengthen the Russian forces, the 9th. Army Staff was transferred to this area from Southern Poland.
The 30th. Army CoTrs, as well as the 18h. Army Corps, were also transferred from Poland and the newly
formed 32nd. & 33r. Army Corps became parts of this new 9h. Army. During the winter and spring of
1915, the 17th. & 22nd. Army Corps also arrived in Galicia, with the 3rd. Caucasian Army Corps later on.
Finally, the 2nd. & 3rd. Cavalry Corps were formed and included in the armies operating in Galicia. Some
corps were transferred from one army to another.
The Austrian garrison at Peremyshl'/Przemysl capitulated on 9 March 1915, after which the 11th
Army Staff was transferred to the Carpathians. However, that was the last success of the Russians in that
On 19 April, the German and Austrian forces broke through the front of the Russian 3d. Army in
November 2002

the Gorlice-Tarn6w area. That led ultimately to an overall retreat of the Russian armies from Galicia during
the following three months. Stryj was abandoned on 1 May 1915, Yaroslav/Jaroslaw on 4 May,
Peremyshl'/Przemysl on 22 May, Stanislav/Stanyslaviv at the end of May and L'vov/L'viv on 9 June.
Additional reinforcements, such as the 6 ., 14 15t. and 5th. Caucasian Army Corps, which were
transferred to Galicia, did not save the situation. Despite an offensive of the 9h. Army that started in May
and led to a temporary recapture of some territory in Bukovina and Pokutiya (the south-east part of Eastern
Galicia with its centre at the town of Kolomyya), the general retreat of other Russian armies forced an
ultimate withdrawal in June of this Army as well.
The principles of the Russian field post organisation in Galicia
According to the new "Regulations of the Field Postal and Telegraphic Establishments in the
Theatre-of-War" that replaced the former Regulations of 1890 and were put in force from mid-August
1914, there were field post establishments in the following categories:-
1. Main Field Post Offices, whose principal duties were the sorting and forwarding of home-to-front mail.
They were opened as a rule at important railway junctions and designated by the town of location. There
was only one Main FPO in Galicia, located in L'vov/L'viv, whose functions exceeded those provided for
by the regulations (see hereunder).
2. Field Post Offices, which, in their turn were divided into:-
A. Headquarters Field Post Offices, attached to Army Headquarters for the handling and delivery of the
mail of the military units, institutions etc., being subordinated directly to the corresponding
headquarters. They were designated by a capital letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, or a number if
upgraded from a Reserve FPO, and:
B. Corps Field Post Offices, attached to Army or Cavalry Corps and serving the military units, as well
as parts of the corresponding Corps. They were designated by a one- or two-digit number, or even
a three-digit number beginning with "1", if upgraded from a Reserve FPO.
3. Reserve Field Post Offices, which might be opened, according to the Regulations, when necessary at
Divisions, or at Forces and Detachments operating separately, or at those points in the theatre-of-war
chosen by the Head of the Postal-Telegraphic Department, according to the instructions from the Chief of
the Frontal Military Communications. They could be attached also to a newly formed Corps or Army,
being upgraded subsequently to a Corps or Headquarters FPO.. They were designated by a three-digit
number beginning with "1".
4. Postal Points (Podstava), which were placed along macadam or earth roads, no further than 25 verst
(about 25 km. or 16 miles) one from the other, as far as possible at the Line-of-Commnications halting
places and destined exclusively for the forwarding of mail free of charge.
In this part, the new Regulations did not differ from the old ones. Strangely enough, they did not
mention the:
5. Line-of-Communications (Etapnye) Field Postal-Telegraphic Branches, although the latter were
provided for by the Mobilisation Order of 1910 [13]. These Line-of-Communications FPTBs might be
placed at some particular points such as the Reserve FPOs, or attached to Divisions and had a less
numerous staff, compared to the Reserve FPOs. They were designated by three-digit numbers beginning
with "2".
In the course of war, there were also created:
6.'Return Field Post Offices, whose principal task was in sorting and forwarding the front-to-home mail;
such FPOs had the same rank and staff as the Main FPOs. The Return FPOs were created after the end of
the first period of Russian occupation of Galicia, but the L'vov/L'viv Main FPO actually also carried out
the duties inherent in them.
7. Control Field Post Offices, which sorted and forwarded mail between the military units and institutions,
which were parts of different Armies. Such FPOS, which were created at the end of 1914, were operating at
the Army headquarters in pair with the Headquarters FPOs having the same designation. As an exception, a
Control FPO which was not a part of any Army was also set up in L'vov/L'viv and upgraded later to a
Main FPO.
Field Telegraph Branches were formed in pairs with each Headquarters, Corps and Reserve Field Post
Office having the same letter or number. Usually, they were functioning also together, although in some
November 2002

exceptional cases they could be temporarily divided one from the other. As a rule, the FTBs did not handle
mail, although their postmarks are occasionally found on postcards and covers sent by their staff members.
By the time that the Russian troops had entered Galicia, the field post offices formed according to
the Mobilisation Order of 1910 [5] were already functioning at the headquarters of almost every Army and
Corps. The only exception was the 8h. Army, the formation of which was not provided for by this Order
and the Supplement of 1912. The Reserve FPO No. 106, upgraded to a Headquarters FPO, was attached to
its own headquarters. Later, some other Reserve FPOs were upgraded to serve the headquarters of the
newly formed 11th. Army and a number of Army and Cavalry Corps. When the Headquarters letter "JI"
("L") arrived in December 1914 on the South-West Front, it started functioning on a sedentary basis in
Sambor/Sambir, then at Sanok and Peremyshl'/PrzemySl, since all the Army headquarters already had their
FPOs attached according to reference [15]. It was later attached to the newly formed 33rd. Army Corps,
although there is no information as to whether its rank was lowered or not.
As to the Reserve FPOs, only No. 128 was attached to the Dniester Force, if such Reserve FPOs
were not considered. These latter were attached to the Army or Corps headquarters and upgraded just after
their arrival on the South-West Front. Other Reserve FPOs (Nos. 107, 114 & 124) arrived during October
and started functioning right away on a sedentary basis: that was probably what the magazine "Filateliya"
had in mind, see [2] above. Later, the newly arrived Reserve FPOs were placed at the disposal of the 3r.,
8 h. & 11 h. Armies, as well as at the 30th. Army Corps headquarters, which placed them at their own
discretion. All the Line-of-Communications FPTBs in Galicia, with the exception of Nos. 206 and 229
were also placed on a sedentary basis in the period under consideration.
The Headquarters and Corps, as well as the Control FPOs (except for the one in L'vov/L'viv), had
to move together with the corresponding headquarters located in the same place, or not further than 6 verst
[about 6 km. or 4 miles] from the headquarters (although the latter requirements were sometimes ignored).
The headquarters and, consequently the FPOs, sometimes remained in the same place, especially in the
second half of this period, i.e. in the winter and spring of 1915, for a sufficiently long time, e.g. the
Headquarters and Control FPOs with the letter "E" in Tarnopol/Temopil'.
It should also be mentioned that, while the Headquarters, Control and Corps FPOs were functioning
permanently in practice, the Reserve FPOs and Line-of-Communications FPTBs could cease functioning
and were later reopened. In particular, that happened when an FPO of higher rank arrived at the point
where a field post establishment of lower rank was operating. In that way, Reserve FPOs replaced Line-of-
Communications FPTBs, Corps FPOs replaced Reserve FPOs, etc.
The table hereunder lists the Russian field post establishments operating in Galicia and Bukovina
from August 1914 to July 1915. This listing is based partly on the above-mentioned documents [15 to 17]
and also on other indirect information derived from the literature or postal history material: such indirect or
presumed information that is still under some doubt is given in italics.
Des. Rank Attached Location Period
Lvov Cn Lvov/Lviv/Lw6w/Lemberg 1914.12-1915.02
Mn 1915.02-1915.06.beg.
Podvolochisk/Pidvolochyska 1915.06-1915.08.mid'
B (V) Hq 3d Army FHQ 1914.08-1915.05
(Advance via Brody, Peniaki, 1914.08.11-15
(Zlochev/Zolochiv) 1914.08.16-20
(Advance via Slovita, Kamenka- 1914.08.21-23
(Zholkiev/Zhovkva) 1914.08.24-1914.09.03
(Lazenki) 1914.09.04-12
(Advance via Yavorov/Yavoriv, 1914.09.13-18
(Jaroslaw/Yaroslav) 1914.09.19-1914.10.end
(Brzeska) 1914.11.beg.-end
(Radomysl) 1914.11.end-1915.01.beg.
(Pilzno) 1915.01.beg.-1915.03.mid
(Jasto) 1915.03.mid-1915.04.21
(Retreat via Strzyszow, Rzeszow, 1915.04.22-30
(Lyubachov/Lubachiv) 1915.05.01-04
November 2002

A (D) Hq 5t Army (Jaroslaw/Yaroslav) 1914.09.14-17
E Hq 9 Army FHQ
(Zbydniow) 1914.08.31-1914.09.11
tA(Tamopol/Temopil) 1915.02.mid-1915.06
E Cn 9t Army as Hq FPO 1915.02.mid-1915.06
J (L) Hq Sambor/Sambir 1914.11.beg.-end
Sanok 1914.11.end-1915.03.mid
Peremyshl/PrzemyPl 1915.03.mid-1915.04
Cr 33rd Army Corps FHQ 1915.04-...
(Obertyn-Gorodenka/Horodenka 1915.04.end-1915.06
(Retreat via Buchach to 1915.06.-...
8 Cr 6h Army Corps FHQ 1915.05.end-......
(Lvov) 1915.05.
(Mikolaev/Mykolaiyv) 1916.05.end-1915.06.beg.
(Retreat to Zbarazh) 1915.06.beg.-...
9 Cr 7t7 Army Corps FHQ 1914.08-1915.07
(Advance via Tamopol/Temopil, 1914.08-1914.09
Blatna, Dunayuvets, Yanchin,
Mshany, Niklovshche)
? 1914.10
(Turka) 1914.11
(Uzhok) 1914.12
(Turka) 1915.01-1915.04
(Rudky) 1915.04.end-1915.05.end
(Retreat via Vyshenka, Lvov/Lviv, 1015.05.end-1915.06.mid
10 Cr 81 Army Corps FHQ 1914.08-1915.06
(Advance via 1914.08-1914.10
Podgaitsy/Pidhaitse, Zhelibory,
Mikolaev/Mykolaiyv, Mikhailovtse,
(Zmigrod, Gorlitce, Grybow, Novi 1914.11
(Pilzno) 1914.12.beg.
(Mezolaborcz) 1914.12-1915.01
(Bukowsko) 1915.01-1915.04.end
(Mostiska/Mosciska- 1915.05.beg.-mid
Peremyshl/Przemysl area)
(Retreat via Yavorov/Yavoriv, 1915.05.end-1915.06.mid
Zholkiev/Zhovkva, Kamenka
Strumilova/Kamionka Strumylova,
11 Cr 9t Army Corps FHQ 1914.08-1915.06
(Advance via Lipovtse, 1914.08-1914.11
Peremyshlyany, Ostrov, Lvov/Lviv,
Vyshenka, Kracovets, Sarny,
Jarostaw/Yaroslav, Strzysz6w,
Frysztak, Olkiny, Gromnik)
(Tamow) 1914.12-1915.04.18
(Retreat via Gumniska, Mielec, 1915.04.19-
Kobusz6w, Zdery)
12 Cr 10h Army Corps FHQ 1914.08-1915.06
(Advance via Byala, Kosteniov, 1914.08-1914.11
Staro Selo, Vyshenka, Slomanka,
Zalwzie, Dynow, Strzysz6w, Jas4o,
(Jodlowa) 1914.12
(Jasbo) 1915.01-1915.02
(Biech, Szersziny) 1915.03-1915.04.21
(Retreat via Lublya, Frysztak,, Tagal, 1915.04.22-
Sedzieszow,, Rzesz6w, Lipiny
November 2002


B (V) I On 53 lj"Army -



13 -" Cr f11Ti Army Corps

(Advance via Ostrov/Ostriv,
Rogatin/Rohatyn, Sadova Vyshnya,
(East of Peremyshl/Przemysl)
(Retreat via Krakovets, Dobrosin,

(Advance via Brody, Ezemo, Busk,
Glinyany/Hlyniany, Yaryshev,
Butyni, Rava Rus'ka, Gnoinitsa,
Sieniawa, Przeworsk, Wielopole,
Zalesowa Wolia, Bokhnia)
Kalush area)




19 Cr. 17' Army Corps FHQ 1915.01.end-1915.07
(Stryi) 1915.01.end-1915.02
(Rozhnyatov) 1915.03
(Lutowiska) 1915.04.beg.-end
(Mostiska/Mosciska) 1915.05.beg.-end
(Retreat via Kulikov, Busk) 1915.06-1915.07
20 Cr 18t Army Corps FHQ (Zbydnev) 1914.10
FHQ 1915.02.end-......
(Stanislav/Stanyslaviv) 1915.02.end-1915.04.end
(Zhuravno) 1915.05.beg.-end
(Rogatin/Rohatyn) 1915.05.end-1915.06.beg.
(Retreat to TarnopolTemopil) 1915.06.beg.-...
23 Cr 21P Army Corps FHQ 1914.08-1915.06
(Advance via Toporov/Toporiv, 1914.08-1914.11
Radzikhov, Kamenka
Strumilova/Kaminka Strumylova,
Zholkiev/Zhovkva, Kulikov/Kulikiv,
Lukovets, Tukla, Grodzisko, Dgbica,
Tarnw, N-W of Cracow)
(Tamow) 1914.11-1915.02
(Tuch6w) 1915.02-1915.03
(Gumniska) 1915.04.beg.-09
(Mezolaborch) 1915.04.10-22
(Retreat via Komancha, Zagorz, 1915.04.23-end
Sanok, Zaleska Wolia)
(Radymno) 1915.04.30-1915.05.12
(Yavorov/Yavoriv) 1915.05.13-20
(Komamo) 1915.05.21-end
(Retreat via Zlochev/Zolochiv) 1915.06.beg.-mid
24 Cr 22n Army Corps FHQ 1915.01.end-...
(Stryi-Skole area) 1915.01.end-1915.02.end
(Stryi) 1915.02.end-1915.04.end
(Mikolaev/Mikolaiyv) 1915.05.beg.-end
(Khodorov/Khodoriv) 1915.05.end-1915.06
_(Retreat to Trembovlya/Terebovlia 1916.06-...
25 Cr. 23" Army Corps FHQ 1915.05.mid-1915.06
I __ I(Gorodok/Horodok) 1915.05.11-end

24" Army Corps

(Advance via Monastyrys'ka,
Buchach, Pukovo,
Mikolaev/Mikolaiyv, Verzbitsy,
Khyrov/Khyriv, Stryi, Baligrod,
Lisko, Komancza)


November 2002




12" Army Corps

14" Army Corps


(Fryzstak) 1914.12.beg.-.end
(Zmigrod, Grab) 1914.12.end-1915.04.21
(Retreat via Krosno, Domaradz, 1915.04.22-1915.05.01
Dyn6w, Zapolow, Staro Selo)
(Zapatow) 1915.05.beg.-mid
29 Cr. 2" Cauc. Army Corps FHQ 1915.05.mid-1915.06.beg.
_(Lyubacov/Lubachiv) 1915.05.13-20
30 Cr 33" Cauc. Army Corps FHQ 1915.04-1915.05.end
(Lvov/Lviv, Khyov/Khyriv) 1914.04.beg.
(Movements via Ustrzyki, Lisko,
Sanok, Krosno, Jasto)
(Retreat via Chudets, Rzesz6w, 1915.04.16-22
(Sieniawa) 1915.04.25-1915.05.mid
42 Cr 15"' Army Corps FHQ 1915.05.beg-end
(Radomysl) 1915.05.09
45 Cr 5th Cauc. Army Corps FHQ 1915.05.beg.-1915.06.beg.
(Lvov/Lviv) 1915.05.beg.
(Radymno, Nova Treblya) 1915.05.09-end
(Retreat via Nemirov/Nemiriv, 1915.05.end-1915.06.beg.
106 Hq 8t Army FHQ 1914.08-1915.06
(Advance via Grimailov/Hrymaliv, 1914.08.09-25
Burkanov/Burkaniv, Berezhany,
Yanchin, Svirzh, Bobrka/Bibrka)
(Lvov/Lviv) 1914.08.26-31
(Velyki Luben) 1914.09.02-08
(Rudky) 1914.09.09-12
(Advance via Nadyby, Krukenitsa) 1914.09.13-18
(Sadova Vyshnya) 1914.09.19-22
(Krysovitse) 1914.09.23-?
(Krosno) 1914.11
(Rzeszow) 1914.12.01-1915.01.end
(Krosno) 1915.01.end-1915.02.15
(Sambor/Sambir) 1915.02.17-1915.05.02
(Gorodok/Horodok) 1915.05.03-1915.06.06
(Lvov/Lviv) 1915.06.07-09
(Brody) 1915.06.10-1915.07
106 Cn 8t"Army as Hq FPO 1914:12-1915.07
107 Rs -Brody 1914.10-1914.06
108 Cr 32"~ Army Corps FHQ 1915.05-1915.07
111 Rs 9t Army Tarnopol/Temopil 1915.03-1915.07
114 Rs Lvov/Lviv/Lw6w/Lemberg 1914.10-1915.06.beg.
__Brody 1915.06.beg.-1915.07
120 Hq 11h (originally FHQ 1914.09.end-1915.07
Blockade) Army (Mostiska/Moscys'ka) 1914.09.end-1915.03.mid
(Peremyshl/Przemysl) 1915.03.mid-1915.04.mid
(Stryi) 1915.04.mid-1915.04.end.
(Khodorov/Khodoriv) 1915.05.beg.-1915.05.mid
(Berezhany) 1915.05.mid-1915.06
(TarnopolfTemopil) 1915.06-1915.07
120 Cn 11h Army asHq FPO 1914.12-1915.07
124 Rs Yaroslav/Jaroslaw 1914.11.beg.-1915.05.beg.
126 Cr 28h Army Corps FHQ 1914.10-1915
(Nizhankovitse) 1914.10-1915.03
(Mostiska/Mosciska-Sadova 1915.05.beg.-end
Vyshnya area)
(Retreat via Gorodok, Lvov/Lviv, 1915.05.end-1915.06.mid
127 Cr 29! Army Corps FHQ 1914.10-1915.06
(Radymno) 1914.10-1915.03
(Mielec) 1915.04.beg.-mid
(Komancza) 1915.04.mid.-24
(Retreat via Oleshitse, 1915.05.beg.-mid
November 2002

(Lyubachov/Lubachiv) 1915.05.mid-1915.06.beg.
128 Rs Dniester Force FHQ 1914.10-1914.11
Cr 30th Army Corps FHQ 1914.11-1915.07
(Stanislav/Stanyslaviv) 1914.11-1915.02.
(Galich/Halych) 1915.02.-1915.02.19
(Stanislav/Stanyslaviv) 1915.02.20-1915.05.end
(Retreat via Tlumach/Tovmach, 1915.05.end-1915.07
148 Cr 3 Cavalry Corps FHQ 1915.04-1915.07
(Zastavna) 1915.04.end-1915.06
150 Rs 8th Army FHQ 1915.02-1915.06
(Staryi Sambor/Staryy Sambir/Stare 1915.02-1915.04.end
151 Cr 2d Cavalry Corps FHQ 1915.02-...
Zaleshchiki/Zalishchiki area)
152 Rs 11h Army Mostiska/Moscys'ka 1915.02.beg.-1915.03.mid
Peremyshl Fortress Peremyshl/Przemysl 1915.02.mid-1915.05.mid 2
153 Rs 11h Army (78h Infantry FHQ 1915.03-1915.07
Division) (Skole) 1915.03-1915.04
(Retreat) 1915.04-1915.07
154 Rs 3rd Army (81stInfantry FHQ 1915.03-1915.05
Division) (Dgbica) 1915.03-1915.04
155 Rs 8 Army FHQ 1915.03-1915.06
(Sambor/Sambir) 1915.03-1915.05.02
156 Rs 30t Army Corps (71st FHQ 1915.03-1915.07
Infantry Division) (Galich/Halych) 1915.03-1915.05
206 LC Dniester Force (71" & FHQ 1914.09-1915.02
78' Infantry Division) (Stanislav/Stanyslaviv) 1914.09-1914.11
78t Infantry Division (Skole) 1914.11-1915.01
(Stryi) 1915.02
207 LC Lyubachov/Lubachiv 1914.09-1915.05.beg.
208 LC Zlochev/Zolochiv 1914.09-1915.06
212 LC Rogatin/Rohatyn 1914.10-1915.06
213 LC Krasne 1914.10-1915.06
214 LC Rava Rus'ka 1914.10-1915.06
215 LC Kamenka Strumilovo/Kaminka 1914.10-1915.06
216 LC Tamopol/Temopil 1914.10.25-1915.03
217 LC Chortkov/Chortkiv/Czortk6w 1914.10-1915.06
218 LC Zaleshchiki/Zalishchyki 1914.10-1915.02
Trembovlya/Terebovlya 1915.02-1915.07
219 LC Zholkiev/Zhovkva 1914.10-1915.06
220 LC Sambor/Sambir 1914.11.end-1915.02
221 LC Sokal 1914.11.end-1915.06
222 LC Tam6w 1914.11.mid-?
223 LC Zbydni6w 1914.11.mid-1915.04
224 LC Mielec 1914.11.mid-1915.04
225 LC Rzesz6w 1914.11.beg.-1915.04
226 LC Dpbica 1914.11.beg.-1915.04
227 LC Przeworsk 1914.11.beg.-1915.04
228 LC Chemovitsy/Chemivtsi/Cemniu 1914.12-1915.01.end.
229 LC 30' Army Corps (Terek FHQ (in Bukovina and Pokutia) 1915.03-1915.07
Cossack Division)
230 LC Krosno 1915.02.mid-1915.04
231 LC Ustrzyki 1915.02.mid-1915.05
232 LC Sanok 1915.02.mid-1915.04
Stanislav/Stanyslaviv 1915.04-1915.05.end
233 LC Dukla 1915.02.mid-1915.04
234 LC Lisko 1915.02.mid-1915.04
235 LC Khyrov/Khyriv 1915.02.mid-1915.05
236 LC Staryi Sambor/Staryy Sambir/Staro 1915.02.mid-1915.05
November 2002

237 LC Drogobych/Drohobych 1915.02.mid-1915.05
238 LC Mikolaev/Mikolaiyv 1915.02.mid-1915.06
239 LC I- Zabolotse 1915.02.mid-1915.06
240 LC Rymanow 1915.02.mid-1915.04

Designations: Mn = Main, Hq = Headquarters, Cn = Control, Cr = Corps, LC = Line-of-Communications, FHQ =
followed the headquarters. If the FPO remained in East Galicia after July 1915, dots are put instead of the final date.
Notes: 1 Transferred to Kazatin and reorganized into a Return FPO.
2 Disbanded
3 According to the Order of Chief of the Southwest Front Military communications Administration No. 117
of 17.11.1914. The actual functioning of this FPTB in Tamow is under doubt.
The locations regarding the Headquarters and Corps FPOs, as well as the Reserve FPOs and Line-
of-Communications FPTBs attached to divisions or forces, are mostly those of the corresponding
headquarters, rather than of the FPOs themselves. As a rule, the FPO would be located in the same town or
village, with the headquarters being no further away than 6 vdrst (about 6 km. or 4 miles), but there were
exceptions where the distance between them was greater, e.g. when it was more expedient to locate the
FPO at a point along a railway or highway, rather than near the headquarters, but aside of the main
communications. Moreover, various sources differ sometimes in the exact location of a particular
headquarters. Therefore, the location shown in the table in brackets means that the headquarters or FPO
could be located actually within a radius of about 30 km. (18 miles), relative to the place indicated. In some
cases, only an approximate area is given.
Initially, all the field postal and telegraphic establishments operating in Galicia were parts of the
Postal-Telegraphic Section of the area of the Chief of the Military Communications on the South-West
Front. By the end of 1914, a civil administration was introduced in an area of Galicia and Bukovina
occupied by the Russians. In accordance with the administrative division adopted in Russia, that territory
was divided into provinces (gubernias): L'vov/L'viv, Tarnopol/Ternopil', Chernovtsy/Chernivtsy and
Peremyshl'/Przemygl, with their districts and parishes (volosty) [18]. It was probably decided in this
connection to form a special Galician Postal-Telegraphic Section, coming under the same Chief of the
Military Communications Administration of the South-West Front [19]. Actually, that Section was formed
as late as March 1915. It included the L'vov/L'viv Main FPO, Reserve FPOs Nos. 107, 114 & 124 and
Line-of-Communications FPTBs Nos. 207, 208, 212 to 215, 219, 221, 227, 231 & 239 [20], i.e. it included
the postal-telegraphic establishments situated in the territory of the L'vov province (the present L'viv and a
small part of the Ivano-Frankivs'k oblasty of the Ukraine, as well as the northern part of the wojewodstwo
of Przemysl in Poland), namely in the rear of the South-West Front. As to the other gubernias, the front line
crossed them, so that the field postal and telegraphic establishments remained under the former
subordination. The Galician Postal-Telegraphic Section was disbanded as of 31 July 1915, after abandoning
most of Galicia [21]
It should be stressed that the choice of places where field post establishments should be opened was
determined basically by army needs. That explains the lack of Russian field post establishments, or the low
rank of the existing ones at some important points in Galicia, while such establishments of higher rank
were operating at some rather small locations. The field post system was destined, first and foremost, to
serve the servicemen and military institutions. However, civilians could also send their mail through the
field post. They consisted mainly of persons attached to the Army, but not in the military service, such as
civilian doctors, nurses, engineers, etc. It seems also that the local population, having no other means of
postal communications, was allowed to send letters and postcards, at least at some field post
establishments. That follows, not only from the surviving postal material, but also from the archival
documents. For instance, it is stated in the "Review of the activities of the Main Postal-Telegraphic
Administration during the 1st. World War" compiled at the end of 1914, that: "The occupation of Galicia
required also the organisation of new (postal) establishments to serve both the troops and the local
population [22].
Taking into account what has been said above, one can regard the activities of the Russian field post
establishments in Galicia (at least those operating on a sedentary basis) as part of the Russian Postal
November 2002

Service Abroad, as S.D. Tchilinghirian & W.S.E. Stephen treated the Russian field post offices in
Mancguria during the Boxer Rebellion and the Russo-Japanese War in 1900-1906, as well as in Turkey and
Persia during WWI [23].
There were plans to expand considerably the Russian field post network in Galicia. Thus, the Chief
of the Military Communications Administration on the South-West Front applied to the Head of the St.
Petersburg Postal-Telegraphic District to form "for Army needs in Galicia Reserve FPOs Nos. 157 to 196
and Line-of-Communications FPTBs No. 241 to 260" [24]. Those plans were abandoned in connection
with the Russian retreat from Galicia.
The handling of mail at the Russian field post establishments in Galicia
Let us now consider the peculiarities of handling the mail in passing through the Russian field post
establishments in Galicia. As is known, ordinary postcards and letters weighing up to 30 grammes (just
over one ounce) were handed in by soldiers and persons put on the same footing as them (e.g. the Red
Cross and All-Russian Union of Zemstvos personnel, etc.). Letters heavier than 30 grammes, as well as
postal money transfers and parcels, were subject to prepayment according to the general postal rates in
force and franked with stamps. Ordinary mail addressed to them was also free. Any civilian mail, i.e. from
civil institution officials, persons attached to the Army, the local population, etc. and handed in at the field
post offices, was to be franked as well [14].
The strike of a cachet of the corresponding military unit, institution, etc. on the cover would confirm
the right to free postage. However, the lack of such a cachet was not an obstacle for the normal delivery of
an item of mail, if it were handed in at the field post office by a person specially designated for that purpose
(officers could hand in their mail personally). Otherwise, a postage due marking was applied on the cover.
The Regulations prohibited the acceptance of registered mail by the field post establishments; however,
there is known an exception to this rule in Galicia (see later).
The Corps FPOs started their operations at the beginning of the war with date cancellers of the old
type having the corps designation in the text, just as those used during the Russo-Japanese War. That was
in agreement with the former "Regulations for the Post and Telelgraph Offices subordinate to the Field
Postal-Telegraphic Administration" of 1890 [24], that were still in force during the first month of the war.
In conjunction with the unit cachets and some other attributes of the mail, such postmarks broke the rules of
secrecy and found their reflection also in the rules for addressing the home-to-front mail, which prohibited
in the address designations the indication of military units higher than regiment. Notwithstanding the fact
that a special decree dated 30 July 1914 of the Head of Staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief
prohibited the postmarking at all of the soldiers' mail [16], such cancellers remained in use during August
(Figs. la, 2).
The above-mentioned decree introduced also numbered designations for the Corps FPOs, starting
from No. 1. The Reserve FPO numbers were altered at the same time by adding "100" to the former
numbers, according to the Mobilisation Order of 1910. The Headquarters FPOs retained their letter
designations. The Line-of-Communications FPOs were to be designated a little later by numbers starting
from No. 201.
Pending the manufacture of new cancellers for the Corps FPOs, provisional cancellers in the form
of a triangle with the FPO number inside were introduced at the South-West Front and used during October
and the beginning of November. Such postmarks were used mainly to cancel the stamps on franked mail
(Figs. 3, 4), but they are also found occasionally on unfranked covers. Those postmarks have been
attributed to the "mute" markings used at the Imperial state post offices at the beginning of the war (and
later as well), but that is not quite correct. Also, circular markings with the FPO numbers inside were used
for the latter during this period (Fig. 5).
As of October, the use begins of the new standard date cancellers with the FPO number. The
Headquarters FPOs designated by a letter probably had such cancellers from the very beginning; however,
no examples of their use before October are known to us. Also, the first Reserve FPOs and Line-of-
Communications FPTBs started their operations in Galicia as late as October and November. All these
cancellers are of the 1903 type (two circles, with the text arranged between, and the date in a line within the
special bridge). They can differ by the arrangement of the text, the abbreviations etc.(Fig ). Usually, the
Corps FPOs and some of the Headquarters FPOs are designated simply as "FIELD POST OFFICE" (Figs
November 2002

1 f to I, 6 & 7). Some Headquarters FPOs had the word "HEADQUARTERS" added (Figs. li, 8). Among
the Corps FPOs operating in Galicia, only Nos. 30 & 45 has the word "CORPS" in the text of their
postmarks (Fig. 1k).
The postmarks of the Control, Reserve FPOs and Line-of-Communications FPTBs usually had a
corresponding text (Figs. 11, 9 to 12), but there were exceptions. Not every Reserve FPO had the word
"RESERVE" in the postmark, e.g. Nos. 107 & 111, also in part Nos 108 & 114 (Figs. lh. 13). The Corps
FPOs upgraded from Reserve FPOs continued using the former cancellers, sometimes for a long time (Fig
m, 14). The Control FPO No. 120 utilised for some time after its formation a canceller with the word
"RESERVE". Thus, one cannot always judge the rank of an FPO by its postmark. Rarely, the mail handled
by postal points was also postmarked there, if not sent to a nearby FPO (Fig. 15)
One finds quite often covers from or to Galicia with the corresponding dated postmark missing.
There are different reasons for such an omission. Sometimes, it was the result of ordinary negligence. For
example, that was typical for FPO No. 9 and an order the Chief of the Military Communications
Administration on the South-West Front dealt specifically with that fact [26]. Another reason was that the
FPO attachments and locations were a matter of secrecy. The message on the postcard in Fig. 16 begins
with the word "L'vov", pointing to the whereabouts of the sender; therefore, the card was not postmarked
at FPO No. 114, where it was actually handled.
An FPO number could also be missing when no post office was functioning in or near the place of
despatch of the letter or postcard. That usually happened during the advance of the troops, e.g. in August in
Easter Galicia (Fig. 17) and September-October in Western Galicia (Fig. 18).
Sometimes, the stamps on the franked mail sent from Galicia during August 1914 were cancelled at
the nearest Imperial post offices on Russian territory, where such mail was handled by the "mute"
cancellers then used. For instance, that was probably the matter in studying the "mute" markings, with the
postmarks attributed by Arnold Levin and his predecessors such as Dr. G.B. Salisbury [27] to Brody,
Tarnopol/Ternopil' and Chernovtsy/Chernivtsy. Actually, the corresponding mail was handled most
probably at Radzivilov, Volochisk and Novoselitsa respectively (Figs. 19 & 20) The mail from Galicia, e.g.
from L'vov/L'viv was handled as far away as in Kiev, see [28].
Mail to, from and within Galicia and Bukovina
The delivery of mail was not regular during the Russian occupation of Galicia. The Galician
railways had the European gauge, which was narrower than that in Russia. Thus, the mail was delivered by
shuttle services to the frontier stations of Volochisk and Novoselitsa, where they were reloaded. The
regular transportation of mail was established when the Galician railways were changed over to the broader
Imperial gauge. In the first place, the route of the unnumbered TPO/RPO Kovel-Vladimir Volynskii was
extended to the Galician town of Sokal. There exist covers with strikes of this TPO/RPO postmark.
In November, there began regular runs of postal cars on the routes of Zdolbunovo-Brody-
L'vov/L'viv and Volochisk-Tarnopol/Ternopil'-Krasne-L'vov/L'viv. That transportation of mail was
conducted by the 4th. Section of the Imperial Railway Mail Carriage Administration and additional staffs of
travelling clerks were allotted to these TPOs/RPOs [29] (Fig. 21).
Finally, there was set up direct and regular carriage of mail from L'vov/L'viv to the front line and
back along the routes: No. 1: L'vov/L'viv-Sambor/Sambir-Stare Miasto/Stare Misto-Khyrov/Khyriv-
Krosno; No. 2: L'vov/L'viv-Rava Rus'ka-Jarostaw/Yaroslav-Rzesz6w-Debica and No. 3: L'vov/L'viv-
Galich/Halych-Mostiska (probably extended to Peremyshl/Przemysl, after taking that town in mid-March),
L'vov/L'viv-Stryj. Those routes were organised by the Chief of the Military Communications
Administration on the South-West Front by allotting the necessary staff as well [30]. All this carriage of
mail was stopped after abandoning Galicia [31]. A schematic plan of the railway routes for the carriage of
mail in Galicia during April 1915 is shown in Fig.22.
There are reasons to believe that most (probably even all) Reserve FPOs and Line-of-
Communications FPTBs operating on a sedentary basis, as well as some Headquarters and Corps FPOs,
were located at the corresponding railway stations, discharging functions similar to those of the railway
station post offices or agencies in the Empire.
The Russian field post in some important towns of Galicia and Bukovina
Let us now consider the Russian field post activities in some of the most important Galician towns.
24 November 2002

The Reserve FPO No. 114 opened in September 1914 at the town railway station and it was the first
Russian postal establishment functioning there on a sedentary basis. Actually, the Headquarters FPO No.
106 attached to the 8th. Army HQ and Corps FPO No. 11 of the 9t. Army Corps were operating in L'vov
for a short time after capturing the town in the third decade of August, but they soon moved further with the
headquarters to which they were attached. There exists quite a large amount of free soldiers' covers and
postcards handled by this FPO (Fig. 23); however, civilian mail franked with stamps is rather scarce (Fig.
According to the Regulations, no registered mail could be accepted at the field post establishments.
That rule was generally observed. However, it seems that exceptions to it were sometimes made and FPO
No. 114 is an example, where the stamps were cancelled in October with the triangular semi-mute
postmark "114" (Fig. 4b).
In December, a Control FPO was opened in L'vov [32]. Contrary to all the other Control FPOs
attached to the Army headquarters, this one was sedentary. Its main task consisted in sorting and
forwarding all the mail sent both within Galicia (Fig. 25) and out of it: however, the latter was the main
function of the Return FPOs created later. As the amount of mail handled by this FPO was so great that its
staff could not cope with it, the Control FPO was upgraded in February 1915 to a main FPO, with a
corresponding increase of the staff personnel [33]. The L'vov Main FPO continued to perform the same
functions (Figs. 27 & 28).
Both FPOs were evacuated from L'vov, just before the Russians abandoned the town at the
beginning of June. The Headquarters FPO No. 106 of the 8th. Army and, probably, some Corps FPOs,
particularly Nos. 8, 30 & 126, were functioning there for a few days during the general retreat of the
Russian armies and prior to it.
This town was captured by the Russian 7t. Army Corps at the very beginning of the Russian
advance into Galicia and the FPO No. 9 attached to this Corps was functioning there for a few days (11 to
14 August 1914). However, the Line-of-Communications FPTB No. 216 opened on 24 or 25 October,
probably at the railway station and it was the first Russian field post establishment functioning in this town
on a sedentary basis (Figs 25 & 29).
In mid-February 1915, the 9t. Army headquarters established itself in Tarnopol and the HQ &
Control FPOs "E" started operating there at the same time (Figs. 30 & 31). The FPTB No. 126 continued
its operations for some time, but it was replaced at the end of March by Reserve FPO No. 111 (Fig. 32). All
three FPOs operated in Tarnopol' until the 9th. Army HQ was transferred from this town in June. In the
same month, the 11th. Army HQ, together with the FPOs No. 120 (HQ & Control), replaced the former, but
not for long.
Soon after the capture of the town and fortress of Peremyshl' by the Russians, the 11 Army
headquarters was transferred there from Mostiska with the HQ & Control FPOs No. 120 (Figs. 28 & 33) and
the Reserve FPO No. 152 (Fg.3); the latter was attached to the Fortress HQ. Also, the HQ FPO "JI"
("L") arrived from Sanok (Fig. 10). In the last decade of April, both FPOs No. 120 abandoned Peremyshl'
for Stryj, to where the 11 Army HQ had been transferred. The remaining FPOs ceased operating in
Peremyshl' when it was abandoned in May.
In September 1914, the Line-of-Communications FPTB No. 206 attached to the Dniester Force
started its operations in Stanislav and was functioning there for about a month, having been replaced by
Reserve FPO No. 128. The latter, upgraded to a Corps FPO when the Dniester Force was incorporated in
the 30th. Army Corps, remained in Stanislav until the end of May 1915, with a break in February, when the
Austrians temporarily recaptured this town (Fig. 35).
It also seems that FPO No. 20, attached to the 18h. Army Corps, was functioning there in March
and April (Fig. 36); that probably concerned FPO No. 19 at the 17th. Army Corps, but there is no firm
confirmation. Finally, there is information that FPTB No. 232 was functioning in Stanislav in April and
May 1915, when evacuated there from Sanok.
November 2002

Although this important town, the centre of Bukovina, was captured by the Russians rather early, no
Russian field post establishment was functioning there for a long time. The reason was that the Russian
forces in that town were far from being numerous. Also, no Russian civil institutions operated there. Only
when the decision had been taken to form a gubernia, with its centre in Chernovtsy, the Line-of-
Communications FPO No. 228 was placed there in December 1914. However, it functioned there for a little
over a month, since the Russians were forced to abandon the town at the very beginning of February 1915.
The military censorship of mail from Galicia
As for all mail from the areas near the front, correspondence from Galicia was subject to an all-
round control by the military censorship. That control could be carried out both on the spot and on arrival
(Figs. 13 & 37), or even in transit. For example, the mail from Galicia addressed abroad was sometimes
censored in Kiev (Fig. 38)).
Censorship points also existed in Galicia itself, usually at the field post offices or army
headquarters. Unfortunately, it is not possible to pinpoint the place of censorship if it is not indicated in the
mark of the censor. For example, the marking on the postcard in Fig. 39 could have been applied either at
FPO No. 26, or at Ekaterinburg, to where the postcard was addressed. On the other hand, the censorship
marking on the postcard in Fig. 29 surely belongs to the censorship office at the 9t. Army headquarters in
Tarnopol. That office censored the mail handled by the HQ and Control FPOs "E", as well as Reserve FPO
No. 111 (Fig. 32).
The Speeckaert catalogue [34] lists some censorship markings in this period from Galicia, with the
town indicated (Brody, L'vov) or not indicated (L'vov) in the marking itself. Some other censorship
markings from Galicia are listed there under the Army Headquarters (type 5), as well as Field Post Offices
(FPO Nos. 24 & 114, L'vov Main FPO; the one listed under FPO No. 20 actually belongs to the 9th. Army
HQ see FIG. 40). There is listed under the 11th. Army HQ a censor mark of type 9, with the note that it
was known with datestamps of FPOs 128 & 237. However, both these FPOs were parts of the 8t. Army
(the first of them later became a part of the 9th. Army), rather than of the 11 h. Army and were located in
different towns (Stanislav and Drogobych respectively); see also Fig. 47. A look at the map shows that the
mail from both these towns should have been carried via L'vov; that city was most probably the actual
place of censorship where the marking of type 9 (also types 9A & 9B) was applied. The same probably
applies to the censorship markings of types 12 (A & B) and 13, listed by Mr. Speeckaert under FPO No.

1. A. Epstein. Polevaya pochta russkoi armii na territorii Galitsii v 1914-1915 gg.
"Kollektsioner" No. 31-32, 15-31, M. (1996).
2. "Filateliya", 1914, No. 9, 15.
3. Perechen' agitatsionnykh, fantasticheskikh I spekulyativnykh vypuskov marok,
pripisyvaemykh pochtovym vedomstvam na territorii Rossii, SSSR I respublik,
vkhodivshikh v ego sostav. Supplement to the magazine Filateliya, 1995.
4. N. Kallistov. Polevayapochta. M. 1927.
5. A. Levin. 'Nemye' gasheniya Rossii pervoi mirovoi voiny. "Sovetski kollektsioner" No.
23, 17-30 (1985); No. 25, 60-74 (1987).
6. Strategicheski ocherk voiny 1914-1918 gg, parts 1-4, M. 1920-1923.
7. L. Beloi. Galtsiiskaya bitva. M. 1929.
8. Gorlitskaya operatsya: zbornik dokumentov. M., 1941.
9. A.A. Kersnovski. Istoriya russkoi armii. Vol. 3, 1881-1915. Moscow,,,Golos", 1994.
10. Osterreich-Ungarn letter Krieg. Bd. 1-3, 1930-1931
11. La Grande Guerre: Relation de L'Etat-Major Russe. Paris, 1926.
12. A.A. Brusilov. Moi vospominaniya. M. 1983
13. W. Gurko. Russland 1914-1917: Krieg und Revolution. Berlin, 1921.
14. Polozhenie o polevykh poctovykh i telegrafnykh uchrezhdeniyakh na theatre voennykh
deistvii: prilozhenie k Polozheniyu o polevom upravlenii voisk v voennoe vremya. S.
Petersburg, 1914.
November 2002

15. Central State Historical Archive (CSHA) of Russia, Fund 1289, Inv. 10, File 65.
16. Decree of the Supreme Commander's-in-Chief Head of Staff No. 3830 of 30.07.1914.
17. Orders of the Chief of the Southwest Front Military Communications Administration No.
95 of 5.11.1914, No. 120 of22.11.1914, No. 235 of 25.12.1914, No. 226 of 19.06.1915,
No. 282 of 2.08.1915, No. 338 of 13.09.1915.
18. Order of the Supreme Commander's-in-Chief Head of Staff No. 279 of 23.11.1915.
19. Order of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief No. 235 of 25.12.1914.
20. Order of the Chief of the Southwest Front Military Communications Administration No.
97 of 11.03.1915.
21. Order of the Chief of the Southwest Front Military Communications Administration No.
282 of 2.08.1915.
22. CSHA of Russia, Fund 1289, Inv. 12, File 2172.
23. S.D. Tchilinghirian, W.S.E. Stephen. Stamps of Russian Empire used abroad. Parts 1-5.
BSRP, 1957-1960.
24. CSHA of Russia, Fund 1289, Inv. 10, File 68.
25. Polozhenie o pochtovykh I telegrafnykh uchrezhdeniyakh podvedomstvennykh Polevomu
Upravlniyu Pocht I Telegrafov: prilozhenie k Polozheniyu o polevom upravlenii voisk v
voennoe vremya. 1890.
26. Order of the Chief of the Southwest Front Military Communications Administration No.
210 of 3.06.15.
27. Dr. Gregory B. alisbury and Fritz Freitag. The mute cancellations of Russia at the
beginning of WW I. BJRP No. 23, 722-725, 1958.
:28. Rev. L.L. Tann. The Arms Issues of 1902-20. 1980.
29. Order of Supreme Commander-in-Chief No. 189 of 26.11.1914.
30. Order of Supreme Commander-in-Chief No. 227 of 26.03.1915.
31. Orders of the Chief of the Southwest Front Military Communications Administration
No.226 of 19.06.1915 and No. 338 of 13.09.1915.
32. Order of Supreme Commander-in-Chief No. 191 of 26.11.1914.
33. Order of Supreme Commander-in-Chief No. 119 of 19.02.1915.
34. A. Speeckaert. Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918, 1990; Supplement, 1997.
Illustrations 4T

Fig. 1: The different dated postmarks used 2
by the Russian field post \
establishments in Galicia and

10s^4 1j: 9
^ 2l 5 1531 5 15)

b c d e

t-04 H(7. ITflO4 j.

f g h i
November, 1996


18 3.15

1 m

P q

Fig. 1: The different dated postmarks used by the Russian field post establishments in Galicia and Bukovina.

Note: All the illustrations from Fig. 2 onwards have been reduced to 66%, unless otherwise stated.

Fig. 2: Free soldier's postcard handled by FPO No. 26
at the 24t. Army Corps on 15.8.14, i.e. a few days after
crossing the frontier. The picture side shows a bridge
over the Zbruch, the frontier river near Gusyatin/
Husyatin, where the Corps crossed the border and the
FPO was located at that time in the town of Monastyriska.

: '-/ .'I.. .
-'. I- -

.. .... ,
.,:. :"": r : -

Fig. 3: Postcard from Brody franked at 5k.
(overfranked by 2k., but as the sender found himself
on foreign territory, he was probably not sure of the
correct rate). The two stamps were cancelled by a
triangle with the FPO number "107" inside.

November 2002

*; V~I-.' .' *'. ^.


':~~V. 3.':
,( 9.e ''- c .,, _-:

: .. .. .

C t.i^^ ^^_^
f y ^ ^ ^ We,- t ^ ^ ^ ^ L ^ y S '

ig. 4: Registered letter sent from L'vov to Petrograd at
he end of September, or beginning of October. Franked
~th 15-k. Romanov stamps and cancelled by a triangle
iith the FPO number "114" inside.

C u.-'a'n':' "" i'e [-" "p"flic.
i: .4

l iV

-^ ..! 0 ^
.. ,0 '..

/d'-/-~~~ 1L3/a, p'r

' :A**:7*^-u .fe ^ ^

if ,
.''" f~\ .I / ^2 ,

" ^F~. ^*J^ ^*-^^-

yLLC;ur .i
J. ^/t M. ..

Fig.5: Free soldier's postcard written on 25 Sept.
1914 and handled by FPO No. 10 attached to the
8th. Army Corps. Circular marking with "10"
inside, instead of the date postmark. The Corps
and its FPO were located on this date.

J p;. I. .r

C~L~e~P~ 111
I ....

c~re~L~. 7c~~-u~t,

Fig. 6: Free postcard sent by a soldier in the 8th. Pontoon
Battalion, Drivers' Section and handled on 15.3.15 at
FPO No. 11, attached to the 9th. Army Corps. The front of
the postcard shows a view of Tamow, where the FPO
was located on that date.

Fig. 7: Free postcard showing date postmarks both sent by an FTB official. The front of the postcard
of the FPO & TPB No. 24 on 3.4.15, attached to the shows a view of Stryj, where the FPO & FTB were
22" Army Corps. The field telegraph branches did located at that time.
not handle mail and it was done in this case by the Fig. 8: Free soldier's postcard handled at the HQ FPO
FPO, although the card was evidently written and --. Letter "JI",which was at that time (20.3.15) in Peremyshl'.
November 2002

s^-^ "3c^3^'rrr,

ife t ^ > ^ ^< / ^ ^ ^ ^ __

r"~~*-c~ r-A"11"-^ *'?--
^-"s: ^L:sL"r.
s^-^ ^s^
s.a-^CL4'L --*"'^'^:-

Edition d eanrt postulei polonal. en coulur 35

V. ', .
e/.-:~r b-Tf 0^ i.

' .^ '


" (* .. .
J '"* .,

Fig. 9: Free soldier's postcard handled on 15.3.15 at Fig. 10: Free postcard written and sent by an 8t. Army'
Reserve FPO No. 153. The front of the postcard Staff member and handled at the Reserve FPO No. 155
shows a view near Skole, where the FPO was on 2.4.15, at that time in Sambor.
probably located at that time.

" m w^w-- *.. ....... .
, tz /.*

L I.., .4

Fig. 11: Free soldier's postcard handled at the Line-
of-Communications FPTB NO. 230 on 12.4.15 in
Krosno. The sender says in the message that he finds
himself at the Krosno railway station.
*"*' ufW~,'.-i.l t~tft I/h^
*'Ni .-.-|I,- 1.'.. u r i.il, lV / ^
ir*c' r ;... *---, a n-' n:- / .fttki-tt' *-^ ^<
.*f-p^;,,/^'*?^/. .. .~rc *'. -.

himself at the Krosno railway station.

Wyd.nilctdo karl arty'tylch j "
O. Grunda. L.w6. Naladownicl ..r... eL, ; /2,, *. /-

Fig. 12: Free soldiers's postcard handled at the Line-of-
Communications FPTN No. 234 on 22.3.15 in Lisko.

Fig. 13: Free postcard sent by a serviceman of the
2"a. Brody Mobile Medical Commission and handled
at the Reserve FPO No. 107 at Brody.. The postcard
was censored on arrival in Samara.

Fig. 14: Cover of a free letter sent by an official of the
FPO No. 126 at the 28h. Army Corps and handled by
that FPO on 23.12.14 during the siege of Peremyshl'.
The dated postmark is still that of the Reserve FPO.

November 2002

Fig. 15: Free soldier's postcard at Postal Point No. 73
on 21.3.15. The front of the postcard shows a view of
Bochnia, a town in Western Galicia actually captured
by the Russians in November 1914, but soon
abandoned. This Postal Point was most likely a part
of the 11th. Army Corps, which captured Bochnia in
November 1914, but was located in the area of Kalush,
Eastern Galicia in March 1915.

-- -- --- ---- -- -
Fig. 17: Postacrd with a view of an unidentified town
(also without a corresponding text), written on 18
August somewhere in Galicia, as follows from the
message. The postcard is franked with a 3-k. stamp,
which has been cancelled by manuscript.

Fig. 16: Free postcard written on 11 March (1915) by
a nurse of the Red Cross Sanitary Train No.3, then at
L'vov. As the town was indicated at the beginning of
the message, the card was not postmarked at the post
office if despatch.

Fig. 18: Free soldiers's postcard written on 14 Sept.
1914 in Rzeszow; its general view is depicted on the
front of the card. No postmarks at all in accordance
with the Decree of 30 July 1914.

ca cel led....... .; .... ... ..
V" I ".4-"9 '

S.. ......... .1 9075

7.-' ; ... ,- Fig. 20: Postcard written in Tarnopol on 28 August
-' Fig. 19: Ordinary letter franked with a 10-k stamp ," : 1914, as follows from the message. The 3-k. stamp
--cancelled by a mute postmark ascribed to Brod. is cancelled by a mute postmark. As no FPO was
Actually, it seems that this postmark was applied functioning there at that date, the postcard was most
most likely at Radzivilov, where the mail from Brody likely handled at the nearest Imperial post office, e.g.
was handled before Reserve FPO No. 107 was opened, in Volochisk (Arnold Levin Collection).
November 2002

--1fu .
..t ,-

? A. ,

Fig. 21: Free postcard addressed to the Army (245th.
Infantry Regiment) in June 1915, routed via the
Zhmerinka Main FPO on 27.6.15 and carried on the
TPO/RPO L'vov-Volochisk, but in the reverse
direction (Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy Collection).

Fig. 23: Free soldier's postcard from L'vov, handled at
Reserve FPO No. 114 on 25.4.15. The word "Reserve"
appears in the postmark.

Railway Ie' wth regslarcariage of ) / ooma-
Olher railwav lines
S Line ofnmaimmn Russian advance Chemoisy
S---- Gaia and Buikovinabord n .
Fig. 22: Schematic plan of the railway routes in carrying mail in

Fig. 24: Letter to Sweden franked with a 10-k. stamp and
handled at the Reserve FPO No. 114 in L'vov on 6.2.15.

Fig. 25: Free soldier's postcard addressed to the 71.
-Rifle Regiment, 2"d. Rifle Brigade, 30th. Army Corps
and handled at the Line-of-Communications FPTB
No. 216 in Tarnopol on 21.3.15 and routed via the
L'vov Control FPO on 27.3.15. Such detailed
addressing (indicating the Corps and even the
Brigade was forbidden by the Regulations).
Nevertheless, the card went through the post, but
there is no receiving postmark.

Fig. 26: Postcard franked with a 3-k. stamp and
posted at the L'vov Control FPO on 11.3.15.

November 2002

.;-< / ,, 1 ,", I iL /;" ,
Sii b,6i .i
ail H ciia /


Fig. 27: Postcard franked with a 3-k. stamp and
handled at the L'vov Main FPO on 29.5.15.

/"/ 1/..F.,i'oczto6u k ;
"lenepenHcu HHH "

"o .. --- .-

/ A -/I ,'o, .-
le* /. ./V .........

No. 29: Postcard franked with a 3-k. stamp and
handled at the Line-of-Communications FPTB
No. 216 in Tarnopol on 11.2.15(Rabbi L.L. Tann Colln.)

No. 31: Postcard franked with a 3-k. stamp and
handled at the Control FPO "E", still in Tarnopol
on 14.6.15. The front of the card shows a view
of Tarnopol.

No. 32: Free soldier's postcard handled at the Reserve
FPO No. 111 at Tarnopol on 25.3.15 and censored at
the 9th. Army HQ in the same town.

v^, -W .'... -- -- < .


Fig. 28: Free soldier's postcard handled at FPO No. 24
of the 22nd. Army Corps, at that time in Mikolaev on
30.5.15 and routed first through Control FPO No. 120
of the 11th. Army, at that time in Khodorov 31.5.15 and
then via the L'vov Main FPO on 1.6.15. There is no
arrival postmark, but the No. "214" written in pencil at
the Main FPO indicates the destination: the Line-of-
Communications FPTB No. 214 in Rava Rus'ka.

:L.a --
/ ,. L A

No. 30: Free soldier's postcard handled at FPO
letter "E" (25.5.15), attached to the 9t. Army HQ
in Tamopol, where the card was also censored. The
front of the card shows a view of Tarnopol, although
the town name, as well as some words in the message,
have been struck out with black ink by the censor.

":'.: OTKpblTO6e nHCbMGO-- ,PoCZtwJ
, 'oorie, Rema za A~JI '
H nepeBeAelH 6JiHzee J
pycCxon rpaHnqg M H:' ,' -
cOpO AO"b.DCb AaB o ..
menae-aro, a IMeHO --
nonagy Hra noftqix. ~
3TO.'UIIHB Odbm~ha Pe."H ~xopy lanBIOBa y ,t
BE LHo nchonJHRTa.l-UiH're K P A B E K 0
"-o CTapomy aapecy.,
Itftporpax,. He anoASy'a H ovllN I
eiqe dn oAnoro nIc 1h
D23/3 1915r
. TI^g ^ --'^
. ,,.....* ... .. .\

November 2002

No. 33: Postcard franked with a 3-k. stamp
cancelled at FPO No. 120 at the 11 th. Army
HQ in Peremyshl'.

'^,\ s yf 7 .c .

S ,. .-- ...- 7

No. 34: Free soldier's postcard handled at the Reserve
FPO No. 152, then at Peremyshl' (16.3.15). The
message mentions the number of captured Austrian

No. 35: Postcard franked with a 3-k. stamp and- -
handled at FPO No. 128, attached to the 30th. No. 36: Free postcard with the cachet of the 18th. Army
Army Corps then in Stanislav (28.2.15). The Corps Court of Law, handled at FPO No. 20 of the 18th.
front of the card shows a view of Stanislav. Army Corps, then in Stanislav (18.3.15). The front of
o the card shows a view of Stanislav.

:'::** u~i^ e~i/i/^

a s i ; .*
Lter, -2 i 7

Fig. 38: Letter to Geneva, franked with a 10-k. stamp
and handled at the Line-of-Communications FPTB
No. 217 in Chortkov on 26.12.14. The letter was
censored in Kiev.

No. 37: Free postcard sent by a soldier of the
296th. Vyatka Foot Militia Squad and handled
at the Line-of-Communications FPTB No. 208
at Zlochev on 3.2.15. The card was censored on
arrival in Vyatka.

November 2002

.:: ^ ,/, / -. ^ ?,

./ ..:. .

,. -- ..-a. -&
-.- ...--- ,./ '^ J -

, "=--- *, .'u s -"

OTKmplrToe nHCbMO --OPztdWla ':
n 3..J- T p, *o -,,. W 7 .

............ Fig. 39: Free soldier's postcard handled at FPO
SNo. 26 (5.1.15), attached to the 24 Army Corps
,_ and located at that time in Zmigr6d. The censor
j-. -- '-mark could have been applied either at the FPO,
:,-w' 4-.,y. -., ,, ,, or on arrival at Ekaterinburg.
J.r. _........
Wydwnltw. kWrt I rl.tycznych '
D. Grnada, Lw6i. N.41d.i.ownt.. ,*.... 15,.

Editorial Comment: The cover shown above in Fig. 40 is also interesting in that it was addressed by an
obviously well educated "halychanyn" (Western Ukrainian) in distinctive Galician Cyrillic handwriting, i.e.
with the final letter of the alphabet given as "at", instead of "a".

Referring back to the Reserve FPO No. 153 :
postmark of 15.3.15, letter "e" (?) shown by S
Mr. EpStein in Fig. 9 on p. 30 with a possible
attribution to Skole, your editor has a card
with the same marking, dated 18.3.15 and
passing through the Main FPO at Radzivilov
seven days later, on its way to Kurlovo, .
Ryazan' province. Unfortunately, the picture .Y:
side of the card does not indicate the possible
point of posting, so the attribution to Skole is
still tentative. .

Further items from L'vov/L'viv/Lwdw/Lemberg in the collection of your editor are shown overleaf and
further additions and comments about this area would be most welcome.

November 2002

y^ah (ousoa t

RUS^ t-^ N

/ *^^ '\

This cover from L'vov \vas
for some reason routed as
far east at Khar'kov/Kharkiv (!)
on 17.1.15 for postmarking
and censoring, before
proceeding to Copenhagen,

~1"z4~ ~14&61 (){~/ ~r

I ___________________________

WE I Lu.U E. I F. FLEF L 1i ': RYNEL.'-. '

-i- ," -_ ,., : -- ) :
--/ : ., .

a ) *p*~i
-d ./ /

On 5.2.15, the mail from
L'vov was being cancelled
and censored at the Kiev
Railway Station P.O. on its
way to Denmark.

November 2002


towar6w korzennych, win i delikates6w
f)..- .- Lw6w, ul. Grodeka 1. 85.:-


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Two covers from L'vov with different censor markings
are shown here, being sent on 14.1.15 and 3.2.15, with
the erroneous FPO Ho. 114 "6" postmark.

OF 1877-1878 by Dr. V.G. Levandovskiy.
With the spring of 2002, 125 years will have passed since the beginning of the Russo-Turkish War
of 1877-1878. That is an almost round historical date and it is linked with interesting letters of that period
present in my collection with railway line labels and postmarks of the Bessarabian and Danubian branches
of the South-Western Railways. Moreover, the special literature which has been found, has served as the
basis to write the present article.
The Bendery-Gala#i Military Railway
The Bendery-Galati railway line (see the map in Fig. 1) was specifically built for the conveyance of
the Russian forces during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. We philatelists are especially pleased that
rare postal documents relating to this railway line have come down to us.
The items under discussion refer to official letters in the collection of the author, which were
addressed to Bendery (in Bessarabia). The letters were sealed with oval paper labels, which were printed in
pale blue on white and are graphically reminiscent of the later oval TPO/RPO markings. They were
inscribed in clockwise fashion: "BENDERY-GALATI RAILWAY LINE" (the height of the letters is 1.5
mm.), together with the word "EXPLOITATION" (height of the letters is 5 mm.), arranged along the main
axis of the oval as in a single-line date. The seal has the dimensions of 37x26 mm., as well as 36 rounded
serrations or petals along the perimeter of the oval; an ornament has been placed in the segments of the seal
above and below the horizontal word (ig 2).
One of the letters (Fig. 3) with the outgoing No. 776 is addressed to the Director of Telegraphs in
Bendery. A second letter (Fig. 4a) with outgoing No. 871 is also addressed to Bendery to the Chief of the
Materials Section. The outer sheet of this second letter was used twice (to there and back); the address
written on the inner side (Fig4b) reads : To the Director ofExploatation, No. 183 (note the spelling then
of the word "Exploitation"). A part of the paper seal has remained and, judging from the outgoing number,
the inner address was earlier. Yet another letter, with the outgoing No. 1405, is also addressed: To the Chief
of the Materials Section. Because of the absence of date stamps, it should be borne in mind that there are
notations in pencil on the inner side of the second and third letters, reading: 29/IV-78from Bendery stn. &
30/VI-78 town of Bendery respectively, which could also have been done at a much later time, by someone
who was analysing the archive of these letters and accompanying documents.
If it is assumed that the numbers of incoming and outgoing correspondence amounted to the
despatch pf 100 letters on a monthly basis, then by taking into account the differences in the outgoing
numbers of the letters sent on the Bendery-Galali Railway Line, the seals described by the author must
have been utilised for about at least one year, i.e. beginning from the second half of 1877 to the second half
of 1878.
The interest in these very rare railway line sending from the theatre of the Russo-Turkish War
induced the author to find and study the relevant literature [references 1,2 & ig. 5). The results of these
investigations as a historical report are set out below.
In the Russo-Turkish War, the meaningful influence of the railways on the flow of military
communications could not be shown in the same way as was the case with the war between Prussia and
Austria in 1866 and especially the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. The reason for that was the absence
in the theatre of operations of the Russo-Turkish War of a thick network of railways, both in Russia and
Turkey. The rarity of railway line postal sending from there depended objectively on that situation.
Moreover, there were no continuous connections along the railways and all the roads from Russia were
blocked by the Danube. Also, there was a separate group of railways beyond the Danube from Varna to
Rushchuk (Ruse) and, beyond the Balkan Mountains, yet another group of Turkish railways. This absence
of a thick network of railways and of continuous and uninterrupted railway line communications was in its
turn the main reason for the duration of the whole campaign; the troops could only be concentrated slowly
in the theatre of military activities. So far as Russia was concerned, the conveyance of its forces to the
Romanian border could be carried out only along the Bessarabian network of the South-Western Railway
Line via the stations of Razdel'naya-Bendery-Kishinev-Ungeni. Further transportation was carried out on
the Romanian railway lines (C.F.R.) via lasi (Jassy)-Buzeu-Bucharest and to Zhurzhevo (Giurgiu) on the
Danube (Fg. 6). All these lines were single-track and their carrying capacity was no greater than 12 pairs of
November 2002

trains. The Odessa-Razdel'naya line was double-tracked and it was only during the war that the second
track was laid in the Razdel'naya-Birzula and Razdel'naya-Bendery sections (see the map in F 7).
Letters despatched on the Bessarabian branch of the South-Western Railway Lines
The Bessarabian branch with a length of 212 verst (about 215 km. or 134 miles) started from the
Razdel'naya station, crossed the Dniester river near the Bendery station (Fig. 8), entered within Bessarabia
and, in proceeding via Kishinev, went north-west to the final stop at the border'station of Ungeni (i. 9).
The Prut river flows near Ungeni and served as the border between Russia and Romania. The network of
Romanian railway lines began beyond Ungeni and the nearest important stop was the city of lasi [2].
There are several letters in my collection, sent from the theatre of the Russo-Turkish War along the
Bessarabian branch of the South-Western Railway Lines. One of them (Fig. 10), which falls into the
category of markings of suburban trains of St. Petersburg, was sent to Strel'na, a suburb of St. Petersburg
on 24 July 1877 from Ungeni station (station No. 16, with the vertical denoting figures placed to the left of
the date in the postmark) via the postal van (fIB) with the pair of numbers of the route Nos. 49-50 for
Razdel'naya-Ungeni, then on PV Nos. 15-16 for Khar'kov-Moscow (27 July), PV Nos. 1-2 Moscow- St.
Petersburg and then by the 3rd. suburban train despatched from St. Petersburg at 4:30pm (the marking being
in red with a diameter of 19mm, strikes of which are known only on some sending) and finally delivered
in Strel'na on 29 July.
Another official letter (see Fig. 10) was sent from the Battle of Shipka Pass at the fortified camp of
Plevna (Pleven) with the wax seal of the Military Field Investigator via the 4th. Field Post Station (2-3
September 1877), Ungeni (7-8 September), then along the Bessarabskaya branch, PV Nos. 5-6 Vil'na-
Warsaw (11 September), Dinaburg (Dvinsk, Daugavpils on 12 September) to Vilkomir in Kovno province.
It is opportune to note that the Bessarabian branch (the future route of PV No. 49-50 Razdel'naya-
Ungeni) was double-tracked in laying out the sections in stages right up to the Russo-Turkish War:
Razdel'naya-Kuchurgan in December 1865, Kuchurgan-Tiraspol' in August 1867, Tiraspol'-Kishinev in
August 1871, Kishinev-Korneshty in April 1873 and, finally, Koreshty-Ungeni in June 1875 [4]
Taking into consideration the experience of the Prussian wars against Austria and France,
corresponding preparations were carried out in good time by the General Staff for the mass conveyance of
troops along all the railway lines of Russia. Moreover, railway line battalions were formed for the
construction and laying of railways in the very theatre of military activities; they were sent right from the
very beginning of the war to the Romanian railways.
The establishment of a Committee for the Movement of Forces was sanctioned by His Imperial
Majesty on 1 May 1867 to organise all military transportation along railways and by water in Russia. This
Committee was headed by the General in Command of the General Staff and of deputies from the railways.
The Committee issued The Conditions for the Conveyance of Forces, which was approved by His
Imperial Majesty on 12 January 1873 and instructions were also issued to the Directors of Troop
Movements, the Managers of Supply Points, the Directors of Battalions and the Commanders of Hospital
Trains. This Committee was subsequently was transformed into the Department of the General Staff for the
Movement of Forces and Military Freight, then into the Administration of Military Communications and
later into the Department of Military Communications at the Main Administration of the General Staff.
The preparation of mass movements of forces to the Romanian frontier and to the Caucasus had
already begun in 1876, mobilisation was declared in November and the concentration of troops was
initiated in December 1876. The declaration of war followed on 23 April 1877 and the Romanian railways
were then taken over by the Russian forces under a special convention. However, the Romanian gauge was
less than that for the Russian railways (1.435 mettres, as against 1.524 metres). It had previously been
suggested to widen the Romanian gauge to that of the Russian railways, but that gave rise to some
difficulties and, as a result, a supplementary line of 20 km. (12 miles) in the Russian gauge was laid in the
Ungeni-Iasi(Jassy) section, thus allowing both Romanian and Russian trains to proceed in this portion.
All the Romanian railways had limited carrying capacity and, for that reason, they mainly hauled
artillery and all military freight, while the troops marched to the Danube on foot.
The installation of the Bendery-Galati Railway Line served strategic aims. At the beginning of the
campaign in 1877, His Imperial Majesty The Emperor Aleksandr II Nikolaevich was pleased to confirm the
construction of the railway without tolerating the slightest delay. To carry out the will of His Majesty, the
November 2002

Minister of Finances entered into talks with Mr. Polyakov, a railway line concessionnaire .well known in
Russia who, after conclusion with him of a corresponding agreement on 27 May 1877, built the railway line
with a length of 285 verst (about 290 km. or 180 miles) in the short space of 53 days.
The significance of the Bendery-Galati Railway Line was specifically underlined by the
Commission established by His Imperial Majesty for the investigation of railway affairs in Russia. That
declaration was very characteristic and it clearly set out the hopes, crowned at the end of the 1870s by this
railway line and ensuring its completion [2]:
"The Bendery-Galali Railway Line cannot and must not have the character of commercial lines for our
export trade; it follows that it should be regarded, as in the beginning with the Bulgarian railways, which
link the Balkan Peninsula with Russia. Meanwhile, it should not only be the vanguard of our influence in
the Danubian area, but also the advancing vehicle of our industry (even if that may even be weak in the first
instance). This influence is appearing there for the first time independently and as a direct route to the small
states along the Danube. With this same railway line, it would only be necessary to prepare the ground for
the movement of trade and with the help of shipping along the Danube in connection with the clearing of
the sleeve at Kiliya and the cultivation of the salt lakes there, the construction of the Bulgarian railway lines
will establish a channel and strengthen the communications and flow of our trade on the Danube and in the
Balkan Peninsula. In this chain of the interests of our State, the Bendery-Galati Railway Line is a link,
playing the role of the first vehicle, performing an outstanding service for Russia and it will become more
advantageous from year to year, maintaining by itself all material communications, cementing together the
Slav peoples, divided among themselves by the Danube and the many centuries of Asiatic rule".
The high speed of construction of the railway line (about 6 verst or 4 miles per day) was really
exceptional and there were no similar examples even during the American Civil War of 1862-1865. Such a
tempo of work during that period could be regarded as rare. Moreover, the speed of constructing of a wide-
gauge railway line was almost three times greater than the laying of narrow-gauge lines and went as high as
15 verst (15 km. or 9 miles) in a day; also the carrying capacity of a wide-gauge line was 20 to 30 times
greater. For that reason, it was necessary during military activities to change slowly a narrow-gauge line to
one with a wide gauge, especially as the Army was moving constantly forward, such that, with the dispersal
of the Army over a large distance from its basic disposition, only wide-gauge railway lines could be
regarded as providing the best communications.
To tell the truth, the Bendery-Galati line was poorly constructed but, in any case, it was completely-
suitable for the movement of trains at speeds of 20/30 verst per hour (20/30 km. or 12/19 mph). As a result
of the quick conclusion of an armistice, this railway line did not workfor a long time. Moreover, it has to
be said that the opening of the railway line for traffic was delayed by 2V2 months because of personal
reckonings between the Construction Department and the Department of Railway Lines, set up anew under
the General Officer Commanding of the Army. The 4th. Railway Line Battalion was sent out again from
Russia to lay down this railway line,, as the previously formed 2nd. & 3d. Railway Line Battalions were
assigned at the beginning of the campaign for the exploitation of the Romanian railway lines. In addition to
the construction of the Bendery-Galaii line and to improve the railway line communications at the rear of
the Army, work was also carried to link the stations ofZimnitsa (Zimnicea) and Frateshty (Fig1)
With the passage of the Russian forces across the Balkan Mountains, the Turkish railway lines of
Sarambei-Adrianople-Constantinople (506 km. or 316 miles), Adrianople-Dadeagach (111 km or 70 miles)
and Yamboli-Germanly (108 km. or 68 miles) were seized, with a total of 725 km. or 454 miles (Fi. 12).
With the withdrawal of the Turkish Army to Constantinople, all these lines were abandoned; the Turks
destroyed the telegraphic facilities and drove off to Constantinople almost all the moveable structure, but
the roads and all bridges were untouched. The organisation of all these lines taken by the Russian forces
was carried out by the 3rd. & 4th. Railway Line Battalions and they were mainly utilised for the transport of
military and commissary supplies. The evacuation of the troops was completed by the end of June 1878 and
the 4th. Railway Line Battalion finally left the Turkish railway lines, disembarking from the Yamboli
station to proceed to Burgas, from where the Battalion was sent by sea to Odessa.
Although the railway lines did not have a predominant influence on the flow of military events in
the very theatre of military activities during the Russo-Turkish War and despite the fact that the system of
administering military communications turned out to be unsuitable, there arose the necessity at the time of
November 2002

that same war, there arose the requirement for another organisation and for that reason such a project was
worked up and came into being in October 1877 by an order of His Imperial Majesty with the title: "The
Administration of Communications of the Army and with its Forces stationed in the Rear". All the
railway lines in the theatre of military activities up to Bendery were subordinate to the Director of this
Administration. Beyond Bendery, these railway lines remained under the complete direction of the Ministry
of Ways of Communication [1].
Letters of the 1879-1878 period, addressed to the Staff of the Trans-Danubian Army as it functioned in
the period of the Russo-Turkish War.
The Danubian branch, the outgoing point for which was the station at Bendery, had a stretch of 268
verst (roughly 275 km. or 210 miles) and ran to the south-west up to the station at Reni (F. 13). The small
town of Reni, with a population of around 7000 at the end of the 19th. century, stood on the banks of the
Danube river, which acted as the dividing line between the possessions of Russia and Romania. Beyond the
Danube, there was the big Romanian port-town of Galati (Galatz).
There are postal sending of the 1879-1880 period in my collection, being as a result the
correspondence of the Military Directors of various Russian districts with the Staff of the former Army on
Active Service across the Danube, until the termination of its affairs and accounts. Within the framework of
the present article, these letters could illustrate the application of the early markings of the postal vans,
running along the Bessarabian and Danubian branches of the South-Western Railway Lines, including
along the route followed by the previously constructed Bendery-Galali line.
One of such stampless letters in 1879 (Fig. 14) was sent on 15 October from the Commander of the
54th. Reserve Commissary Battalion in Ekaterinoslav (Katerynoslav) to the District Military Director in
Izmail. The letter was delivered to the station at Razdel'naya, then it went a further 56 verst (57 km. or 35
miles) via Tiraspol' on PV No. 49, being the first station on the "Razdel'naya-Ungeni" route up to the
station at Bendery; then for 155 verst (158 km or 85 miles) on PV No. 75 along the Bendery-Reni stretch to
Troyanov Val, by gravel road for 6 verst (6 km. or 4 miles) to Bolgrad (19 October) and on the same day
for 39 verst (40 km. or 25 miles) to Izmail. It is significant that the transit markings ofPV No. 49 (5) and
PV No. 75 (1) with the "reclining" figure of station No. 1 (Bendery) of the postal vans specified on this
letter with the date 18 October 1879 are the earliest known strikes for these routes, while the corresponding
numbers (5) and (1) were unrecorded until now. For the PV No. 75 route "Bendery-Reni", the beginning of
its operations can be placed in the second half of 1879 and the Bendery-Galati Military Railway Line may
be regarded as maternal, since the PV No. 75 Bendery-Reni route ran completely along the former, with the
sole exception of the Reni-Galati stretch on the other side of the Danube.
Yet another curious letter (F. 15), travelling on the Bendery-Galati Railway Line, was sent on the
Northern Railway Lines 17 January 1878 from the town of Shuya in Vladimir province by the Director of
the Military District at Shuya, being closed with a paper seal showing a marking impressed in turquoise ink
and reading: DEPT. OF THE SHUYA MILITARY DISTRICT DIRECTOR; it was addressed to the
Director of the Collective Detachment of the Freely Hired Commissary Transport at the Field Staff of the
Army on Active Service across the Danube.. The letter was delivered via Moscow (18 January) to Reni (23
January), where the letter failed to find the addressee and it was sent back to Shuya. That is confirmed by
the official notations added in violet ink: the address has been crossed out on front bottom right and in the
centre there is the inscription "Back to Shuya"; also on the back there is the notation "not in the Army". It
is obvious that a part of the route followed by the letter to Reni and back went along the Danubian branch
of the South-Western Railway Lines. The letter was subsequently delivered again to Moscow (16
February), then via PV No. 11-12 Moscow-Nizhnii Novgorod (16 Feb.) along the Moscow-Kazan' Railway
Line, and finally on PV No. 77 Novki-Kineshma (17 Feb.) by the Northern Railway Lines to Shuya the
same day.
The article has been devoted to the postal sending by the Russian railway lines from the theatre of the
Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, with the following features:
A description has been given of the oval seals of the Bendery-Galati Railway Line.
A historical report has been set out about the military significance of this line for Russia in that
period, as well as the details of its installation.
November 2002

A description has been given of the dates in three lines of the PV No. 49 Razdel'naya-Ungeni and
PV No. 75 Bendery-Reni, the routes of which ran along the Bessarabian and Danubian branches of
the South-Western Railway Lines.
1. B. BenJbAT, BoeHHO-xene3HOAopo)aKHOe JAeno (HcTopla H aagMHHHCTpaiiIw), 1912,
KoBenb, TInorpainsi HHXaMKHIHa H epToBa.
2. HJIJIIoTpHpOBaHHbifi nyTeBoAeTejib no IOro-3anargHbIM ee3nIeHbIM lAoporaM. 1899,
M.I.C. IOro-3anaAHbie )KeIe3HbIe AoporH. KHeB, Ti4norpa#pna C.B. KyInbleHKo.
3. CxeMa POCC1ricKHX xeJIe3Hbix Aopor, 1894, H3sAaHHe H.O. 3ay3pa.
pOCCIHHCKHX KeJIe3HbiX Aopor B an aBHTHOM H reorpaHwqecKOM nopaAKe nx pacnoJiooeHIa,
cBeAeHHI4 o nepeIMeHoBaHIH CTaHHili, 06 OTKpbITHH HOBbIX JIHHIH IH npon.), C.-I-eTep6ypr,
5. A.H. KpaCHIuKHiii, OCBo6o0auTeJIbHa BOHmHa 1877-1878 r. B oqepKax H paccKa3ax,
1903, C.-IHeTep6ypr, iH3. A.A. Kacnapn.
Editorial Comment: Quite apart from his ground-breaking work in the article shown above, especially
regarding the data on the previously unrecorded oval paper seals of the Bendery-Galati Railway Lines (also
of great interest to Romanian postal historians), Dr. Levandovskiy has provided valuable information on
Bessarabian postal history during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It should be borne in mind that, as
a result of the Crimean War of 1854-1855, the Russian Empire gave up territory in Southern Bessarabia to
the Romanian Principality of Moldavia. With the victorious conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War for the
Russian Empire, the districts of Bolgrad, Izmail and Kahul in Southern Bessarabia were regained and the
Kingdom of Romania, as the successor state of the Romanian Danubian Principalities, was compensated by
being awarded the area of Dobrogea de Nord (Northern Dobrudja), with its important port of Constanta.
According to Ing. Calin Marinescu in his book "Oficiile, Agentiile si Gtarile Postale Romlne 1850-
1950", Bucharest 1999, the Russian Empire thus recovered in October 18'78 the three former Romanian
counties of Bolgrad, Izmail and Kagul with the post offices at Bolgrad, Izmail, Kagul, Kiliya, Leovo and
Reni. It turns out from Figs 14 & 15 provided hereafter by Dr. Levandovskiy that he also has the earliest
dates so far seen of the new Russian cancellers supplied to three of the returned post offices, namely:-
Bolgrad-2 with crossed posthorns below 19 Oct. 1879; Izmail-2 19 Oct. 1879: Reni-4- 23 Jan. 1879.

b*4 In addition, your editor has the cover
shown here with 8 kopeks postage,
/ addressed in French to Athens,
postmarked Leovo-1 with crossed
posthoms below and dated 29 Sep.
1879. It was endorsed at bottom front in
Russian: "Greece / via Odessa", where
it was backstamped on 2 October and it
arrived in Athens on 8 October.

ft-3c4 c,

Earlier strikes from all these offices, as well as from Kagul and Kiliya, should certainly exist and
confirmatory data from our members would be much appreciated.
Please refer now to the following pages for the illustrations to these most interesting insights into
the postal history of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, as presented by Dr. Levandovskiy. He may be
contacted by e-mail at: levandovski(amtu-net.ru.
November 2002

Place-name in 1878 Place-name in 2002 Country in 2002
Adrianople Edirne Turkey
Bendery Bendery/Tighina PMR/RNM*
Butseo Buzlu Romania
Constantinople Istanbul Turkey
Dade-Agach Alexandroupolis Greece
Frateshty Fratesti Romania
Galatz Galati Romania
Germanli Kharmanli Bulgaria
Jassy Iaii Romania
Kishinev Chiinau Moldova
Odessa Odesa Ukraine
Razdel'naya Razdil'na Ukraine
Reni Reni Ukraine
Rushchuk Ruse Bulgaria
Sistovo Svishtov Bulgaria
Tyrnovo Veliko T'movo Bulgaria
Yamboli Yambol Bulgaria
Zhurzhevo Giurgiu Romania
Zimnitsa Zimnicea Romania
PMR/RNM= Self-declared Pridniestrovian Moldavian
Republic within the confines of the Republic of Moldova.

BOEHHblXb AfleTCTBiM P 0 o C c 1i.
PyCCKO-TYP ELKO0 BOlHbl I^ .u. '
1877-1878r.r. qs JU, i PhbA

ycnIO BoaHble al-A,: t Obecc
a,,n......... .. o -- Zn..

:r-- --Al

P Y M bi H((i .
6ex eT

t a TblPHOSO. O .
5 o -i r A P A 1.
T P LL ..... o- MOO. o
\.. *- r O.. 0

op or/oil oy i

-"-'- .'__--- _.. _=
r' L ... ... f-----' .- -. ..- ,

PHC. 1- KapTa BOeHHbIX AeHCTBHH PyccKO-TypeuIKOi BOHHbI / 1 /.

Fig. 2: Enlargement of the Bendery-Galaji
Military Railway Line paper seal.

PHc.2- osaJIbHar HaKJieiKa BeHAepo-
FainalIKOH )KeJiei3HOH oporH. T



Fi. 3: The paper seal on a stampless letter to
the Director of Telegraphs in Bendery.

PHc.3, 4a H 46- KOHBepTbI c HamiieiKOi BeHgepo-

)ER/aIMIMIIK N' 51 raiaaioii KeJIe3Hoii e oporH.

November 2002

'-, ,(1

SStampless letter from Bender. y Station 29.4.78 PHc.5-o6jioKK KHHH 2
Fi. 4a: The paper seal on a stampless letter to the Manager of the Materials Section in Bendery.

.. z f Fig. 5: Illustrated Guide to the
(. '-. *South-Western State Rlwy Lines.

Fig. 4b: Stampless letter from Bendery Station 29.4.78 PC.5-o6OKa KHHI

November 2002
November 2002

Fig. 6: Map of the Theatre of Military Operations prior to crossing the Balkan Mountains.

Pnc.6- KapTa rIpeg6ajiKaHCKoro TeaTpa BoeHHbIX AeHCTBHH / 5 /

24# 7 W LM-"o Vvo>i Ioa
t 'u 4V .ne'/"u o ,..5 li*n e.

opok Tup. n w
Yydo k4.4

L/e*',ep&.' fe Tu r~pamo4L Op.sB.I. .I llu8o' i B ,

lh0q \ Jp, )/a.-
'tc e / c B.chos\, po*,3 .poAir.u

157 uUnee. pe-k-oo

/(\d \le III Ile
Ocunates9 E P 0it

Map of the Bessarabian and Danubian branches of the South-Western Railway Line [3].
168 Iulo.I \ Y;

M 0 P E,

Fig. 7: Map of the Bessarabian and Danubian branches of the South-Western Railway Line 3].
PHc.7- cxeMa Eeccapa6cKOi H fyHnaiCKOi BeTBefi Oro-3anaTIHbix xejne3amHx nopor / 3/.

November 2002

F. 8: Bendery Station. PHc.8- CTaHUll BEeHnepb / 2 2 / i Ungeni Station. Puc.9- CTaHIH YHreHM / 2 /

Fig. 10: Military stampless letter
from Zimnicea (Romania) via
No. PV 49-50, Stn. 16, Odessa-
Kishinev 24.7.77; PV 15-16,
Stn.9, Kharkov-Moscow 27.7;
PV 1-2 Stn. 37 Moscow-SPB,
28.7; SPB 29.7 by 3". train
4:30pm. to Strel'na.

November 2002

REITNet Menu

nmp. 19 u 20.

F. 12: Map of the Military Operations after crossing the Balkan Mountains [5]

PHC. 12- Kapra 3a6anKaHCKoro TeaTpa BOeHHbIX eiicTBHAI / 5 /

'- -. "' *., -.-
. ..-*. *- *. "

-,-- Piic. 13 CTaHimq PeHn / 2 ,'

-."? ~" ~~'~-:
..-4 .

Page 1 of 1

Fil' The approaches to and station at Reni [2].

JIAmnis mentS3HOf aoporm npn noaxoa KN% PeHII.

November 2002

Fig. 14: Stampless letter sent 15.10.79 from
Ekaterinoslav by the Commander of the 54h.
Reserve Commissary Battalion to the
Director of the Military District at Izmail.
See the text for the complicated routing via
the Bendery-Galati Military Railway Line.

Fig. 15: Another stampless letter which went via the
Bendery-Galaji Military Railway Line from Shuya,
Vladimir province 17 Jan 1879 to the Army across
the Danube. It was returned to Shuya on 17 February,
as the addressee could not be found in the Army.

PHc 14, 15- IIncbMa nepHona 1879-1880 r.r., agpecoBaHHMie B rmTa6 3agyHaiicKoil apMnu,
November 2002

by Andrew Cronin.

We have already been treated
in the preceding article by Dr. V.G.
Levandovskiy to some fascinating
data on the operations of the Russian
Travelling Postal Service during that
war. Your editor will now present
additional information gleaned from
material in his possession, especially
after the Russian Army had crossed
the Danube and started liberating
Bulgaria from Turkish rule.
Early steps in accepting civilian
mail from senders in Bulgaria
The Bulgarian town of
Sistov/Svishtov on the Danube fell
to the Russians on 15 June 1877,
but as we can see from Fig. 1, there
were still no civilian postal
facilities there five months later. The
commercial letter shown here was
written in Romanian on 18/30
November (the abbreviation 9bre
November and is derived from the

Fig. 1.


.' .


F 1 .l.

o t .-i. i- p b.

Bu-.-hare e .e-xAtL d o 8 c eing.
Latin-. ~~~~~" "n me t Daue t beaie at tR ao fe c

B e te ne a ra at Vercio.roa."." .'- cio .. on ...8 'D c. -N "me th
S ,... .. : *, / : :: :. *,' .

.C \ .......- .. ,.... .i--,l4 .1J-j .. ,- -- -. i ... .. l. i
: __ .".' ", .

Latin "novem" = nine) and taken across the Danube, to be mailed at the Romanian post office directly
opposite at Zimnicea on 2 December N.S., the 15-bani postage being cancelled in blue. The letter was in
Bucharest the next day and arrived by train at Verciorova (Vlrciorova) on 8 Dec. N.S., being the border
November 2002




s;-. ..~
L :~'3
-1' ~t

point for mail exchange with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The destination at Orsova (now Orgova in
Romania) was then in the Krass6--Szireny county of the Kingdom of Hungary.
B. Military mail from Bulgaria
The example in Fig. 2 is a "ceKpeTKa" (letter-
$1^ A ^ card) written in the village of Tencho, Gorna
-S Studena district in 2 Oct. 1877 O.S. and is
S/ /,-relatively easy to read despite the very small
,. 4 handwriting, as the ink is dark. It translates as:
S" --- "Letter No. 5. Kindest uncle, I am writing
Today from new quarters, from the bivouac at
Dolna Lipnitsa. They have moved us and
placed us in villages. It has already turned out
quite painfully for our horses, unprotected
under the open sky, subjected to rain and wind
and with still such cold weather, which we have
endured for 22-30 days. Right now, although
'.~ ", / quietened down just the same. Meanwhile, and
thanks to God, everything is going very well;
Fig. 2. there are practically no sick people or horses
--U-- F__-- -------

(I." .. ,w b d a as, a q'atermster, ooas n o the af f e o ,
ui a q ,

1t/"^^'. .- -, 1 ....-,.S..-, -- hA U-0- 4 Z-, '' \

4THE 5O eS.T- -RIDE /-IMHZ J 5L 247

__ *- tbN vembe 2 200. --
L i. 8 . ., < 4 ..,, .// ...^,/ /.6. .. ,. -,
-<^ --c4^ ^^ ^ 3~ e~ ^a-- - -,-- - - - - - 'f~o-

and, as for me and my pair of men, we are living "en trois" ["in threes"- and are being fattened up in
A^? ^ ^ ^ J Jg,^y.~ 1 <^l-~c~ /C(CS /14Lcu, /--Cp^., ^i ^ ^ ---------

expectation of future privations. Meanwhile, recreation is being kept in reserve for us and we are not doing
anything (I will be designated as a quartermaster, or on assignment to the Staff, hither or thither), leading to
light duties and peace and quiet. Getting forage here is becoming more and more difficult; there are no
sheep and we are feeding on barley. There is almost no hay, but we are obtaining it with our own
November 2002
^/*-^^,6j(-s tt ^c- -/ '^--yA/we- tft^*' 'c;~ ,) /'- / tSOu-6i-' yx- ^ <-- >-&--c

,c^, y-:$I --^^ ^MI^^I/^;CO~,rw~ctlcuAcLCII~sy ^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^.&,^^

November 2002

resources, i.e. we mow it ourselves. There are around us huge expanses with grass, although already with
weeds. We are eating corn bread, heavy and not especially tasty; it is all gobbled up. Stray birds, oxen and
rams are to be found. We have arrived upon the remnants of a vineyard. It can be said that we are living
satisfactorily. We are staying in Tencho (16 v'rst [17 km. or 10 miles] south-west of Gorna Studena) with
His Majesty's Uhlans. The village is large with 140 dwellings many of them Turkish and in which some
of the Turks have remained. They are very good-natured, greeting with the word "6paTymeK"["little
brother"] (the general name for the Bulgarians) and, in many cases, better than the latter. There is a Turkish
mosque here (there is a version about what happened: the Uhlans put their horses there, so the Turks stayed
and say that they want to get it back and the matter is being referred to the authorities).
If you could only see how we live in such small rooms (we cannot stand upright in our quarters, as
the ceiling is quite low). But still, in general, excellent all the same and better than on bivouac. Be well,
regards to Sofya Iosifovna, Mitya etc... Tomorrow I am going to Tymovo for money. Write to me: Field
General Post Office, 2nd. Tsarist Cavalry Division, Z.B.".
Addressed to Konstantin Vasil'evich Cherntsov, Leszno St. No. 55 in Warsaw and endorsed at
bottom "From the Southern Army on Active Service", the letter card should have been postfree, but had an
8-kopek stamp added at upper left front somewhere along the way. The postage was cancelled at Station
No. 21 on P.V. Nos. 25-26: Warsaw to the border at Sosnowice/CocHOBHm I, 8.10.77. It arrived in Warsaw
on the same day.

.... .... ,....... -- --
/ /, ^/. ,


hre/ to red e

pa l H / start .of; "T 6.X
SgL-ai w "r to',o '

l/o/ v .-

A 7- -^ l

i '/^ .. ............ / ..a/... ....., .

Fig. 3.

The next letter-card here in
Fig. 3 is from the same writer and is
harder to read, even though the
handwriting is larger, as the ink is
paler. He starts off; "Tyrnovo, 6.X.
1877. Dearest Uncle, I am in
Tyrnovo [Veliko T'movo] on
assignment for money" and ends
again with "regards to Sofya

- /- ..
__ __ __ __ ,2? "/4- .Y

/ .._ .,
"<^ ^.7^.f/^^,'<%-


,' A~/4? ~

U--- - ----~-.-.'--.'...-
November 2002



The postfree letter-card was handled at Field Post Station No. 12 on 11 Oct. 1877, then at Ungeni-3
on 19 Oct., being also postmarked there with the unusually inscribed cds: YPFEHCKOIA II.K. *
BECCAPABCK. FYB. 20 OKT. 1877" (Ungeni P.O. Bessarabian Province). Then on to Station 14
of P.V. Nos. 29-30 Warsaw-Minsk, 23 Oct. 1877, to arrive finally in Warsaw on the same day.

., v -tx- -- ,. ,c L/' -

r...9/, r 27. .", '- .. -t/ ..,- .41 / 1/- I- --,

ell-, /i,,,
,- 1 ,L .." /. -./ t .,' / -

*I--. 4 t -Z tL..C0 ..c- dK/:; ..t .
..... .. ; "---. .-L^ 3^ ,f.../ .y u f. */^ .

:'. < -. *-'. 'j,,-e't' *' "v.t if^ ^,... .. -. -. .. / ,, ..<-. c ,z,.,t'..n ^l ,a,.4 /,,-.e.rs 'vr .... ,--.--,^




'7- 7,,

-.i 10
*6j`(l L~LZ/C SIC
* -' -r:- '~t-. /~tL~

Fig. 4.

The third letter-card in this correspondence is
also not that easy to read, even with the larger
handwriting (Fig. 4). By now, our letter writer
is at "Telish, 18 October, to the south-west of
Plevna [Pleven]. Kindest Uncle, I was again
involved in the affair about Telish, where our
artillery distinguished itself". He goes on to say
that about 6000 prisoners were taken and that
there were about 1000 men killed at an
important fortified point on the road to Sofia,
causing panic among the Turks. The letter-card,
once again postfree, was handled at Field Post
Station No. 16 on 21 Oct. 1877, then by
Ungeni-4 on 28 Oct., Station 14 on P.V. Nos.
29-30 Warsaw-Minsk on 31 Oct., arriving in
Warsaw on the same day. The letter-card is
endorsed at bottom front: "From the Army on
Active Service".

November 2002

~~~~~-~~~~-~~~~-~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~'~~I1~~~~~I~1'~~~~Y




C. Mail to the Army on Active Service in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878
Fi. 5 shows the front and back of a cover from the Grand Duchy of Finland, addressed completely
in Russian as follows: "JIef6-FBapuIH [Life-Guard] 3rd. Finnish Sharpshooter Battalion, to Captain O.
Andelin, To the border post office at Ungeni (underlined in blue crayon, as shown), for delivery to the
Army on Active Service". The cover bears a 32-pennif stamp; that appears to be a high rate, possibly
paying for some special service and comments are invited. A double-circle date-stamp cancels the postage
and is also struck on the back, reading in Swedish: "HELSINGFORS POSTSTATION, 28.1.78 N.S." (=
16.1.78 O.S.).
The cover was backstamped at St. Petersburg 1 on the same day (16.1.78 O.S.), but the hour
indication could not be inserted, as that space was taken up by the century indication "18". Most unusual,
to say the least and three investigators of SPB markings: Messrs I.L.G. Baillie, M.A. Dobin and E.G. Peel
have stated that the "II" designation refers to the St. Petersburg 3rd Despatch Office. The cover was then
backstamped the next day at the St. Petersburg 1st. Despatch Office and there the trail ends!

. / -_ ,

Fig. 5.

j" .

7 4-. '!

As there are no indications of return from St. Petersburg to the sender, the letter appears to have been opened
on arrival by the addressee, but how did it proceed after 17 Jan. 1878 O.S., since the destination of the Ungeni border
post office was specifically underlined? The only tentative explanation that your editor can offer is that there was a
high postal rate for special mail addressed to officers and that such mail was forwarded by courier to the Ungeni
border post office after passing through St. Petersburg, thus not being treated to any further transit and arrival
markings. The question can only be answered satisfactorily by searching the Archives in St. Petersburg and Helsinki.
D. Some final points of contention
It would seem from the military postal material so far observed that there was a sole sedentary Field General
Post Office No. 1 ("IIoneBofi IIoqTaMT JN_ 1"), to which mobile field postal stations ("HoneBoe Ilo'ToBoe
OTAwneie") were subordinate. As the province of Bessarabia appears to have been the staging area for Russian
military operations in the Romanian and Bulgarian sectors of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, it seems likely
that the sedentary Field General Post Office No. 1 was situated either in Kishin6v or in Ungeni. Confirmation of the
locations, as well as listings and locations of all the mobile field postal stations, may possibly be found in the
Moldavian Military Postal Archives in ChiAineu/Kishindv and/or in St. Petersburg. Any help from interested
members would be greatly appreciated.
November 2002

6JaroTBapHTenbHbie MaPHH
F'oA TOr.Y 11 a,3atx YIprneaeTOPr II UJK
1ociretro.a B5'MJK rro.iy'irr1.i cor'aacno
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(eprlf nlapox, Haiorrea, 6iiai Hanictialara
B rocyAapcTBelrrroi) 'rrllzorp(ilr i repirapirioro
npaBrrTejracTna B 13opuitie 11 AO0CTaB.1Mia
B XartEROB. 13M.1 BOIlpOC 06 eo iopaririio
RoMr rrpii3lialrrrr. Ho IC DTo0i1 Bpenlelrrr
6iijir ailryariponailLr o06mhrt nocTarlome-
Hirrei CHIC Bee Bbfnyceir 6laroTBopUlCJrb-
1151 iiapont PC4)CP, TaC aitau roaoA y-r
ripoureni if npeKtlrrrla oCTpani niymu B no-
MroIlI nr11iHOra. Ka TOIC Y o xc, xart rr cWre-
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TaHlinii apoi, 3a rparirulli B OTroi1RiIIIII
ltorTPo-11 Ire 6ar.lrr 1 He MorJIrr Bb6sra3 B1,-
ir0Aiieuri n0cuewnarrr. 3aBfsiajrCir y3eJi,pa3-
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'ipe3Bb'iaiiro TPYAHO, Tal izai; Best 3Ta 3a-
Te.J[ CTOInIrI YCCP AoBo.'Isno 6o0.rrrrrsX
,Haiorrer, yiparicimii ToRapJrtaMin,
ynoJIrroso'1eir'la[m IIJC IIocJreAiroji BITHI ir
HICMT, IrocJIe 33aiririix YCTyiIOR, 6bl.1r
AOCTuI'iyTO if nojinicaiio I3BeCTHoe corira-
erirrie no noBojy oprarHrraAiri Beero Melat
qciraaT0Jrrrxr B CCCP H zisBBaaaiin sany-
TaHioro 1IIH1lIjeIRTa HyTen COBMe1CTBOro Iipo-
13CAOeiii B CHIK PCDCP cneurmLibnioro no-
cMnioBJreriri, paapenarorgero cnopuirii Bo-
npoc B 6aaronpusxTIrOM AJr.s (PIraIraelrrlf
csrsrcjre. Hoesir 6.arOTBoprrreiTrsra cepnia
)apoic YCCP npill3a1aa iopfriecunrr xi ira
AHIlX nOJIBiiTCJi B IIPO)Xarce lIepeC3 11o'TOBW
011a COCTOHiT 113 caeAyiongru xierbIPCX
Miaport, ipC3BL'rauiBo opuriniiiiBo 3aTypsai-
irix Bf npeBOCXOHO TeXHI'eCKrII BblnOJillelI-

10 + 10 icap6onaarrrCB-C1lHCiIB1I c uo
11306pawitaeT Y'cpariiy B ItracHoap-
meizieom roJioRHOII 3ope, 03110
pyroli npirrrtualoulyro K Ce6e noA-
PdCTKa-KpeCTbrr~pHi it Apyrofl py-
KOC OTCTpaHIrOliyiO OT or101O I:Ocy
1apq-roAo~ja (prrc. 1).
20 + 20 xap60narruen-OpaH)KeBa3 C Bl eio-
JaI&AbrM ropTper Haifurouajrriioro
peBonrroarOrlepa-nO3Ta T. 1'. 111cR-
,ieHKo (purc. 2).
90 + 30 iap60aHceB-prCOprr'eoa 9 Crep-
iihiir-iii06paxcaeT tCopiOy itpeCTbR-
hirHa.Co ceepTbrO. KpCCTEI1IIIH BIA-
PYK creJJeTa (puc. 3).
150 + 50 rHaploRatlile KpacroHKoprIVORaA
C 9HeptiMn ir13opa)KaeT aronoJpyM
CMIoIbt, ogiHOil pyloft uoitaloyltRIn
xieC ro5i0oaH.M ulteairi1ue H pe-
6eHicy, a Apyroil ii02ep iCArompo
Crion oneaux IHojioeeB fii newrri
(prC. 4).

Ila Dcox Aiapfcax ialllicH Iio-yl;palHolRr:
,0'. C. P. P. IoWra. Aonomora rojio~y1o-
'I131 11 MBnie ysa333d1bIC iBor1HIC CTOIIMO-
CTII B tap6oaiifaraX, nprrpaerreilribix no-

ClaIoBreiirieM1 CHIC PC'ICP B 3TOMi roiry
it py6amu, B kl1iji3itx o6pa1r311a 1922 r.
Bee biapiri ncpqiopiporatiu: 20 X 20 -
131/4 :14 11 OCMajibsrmc 14 : 13'14. T.-C.,
tiiipoiziii 11 BbICOIMIIC npiiol-rojib HuRri n. Ile-
'raTaHIloi. cnfoCo6os ofsotdrieCk, OTjin'iaio-
IIIBMc0I OT iiriorpaqcitoro Tesi, WO1 BIeCTO
.rBTpaqorpaqcoro RaIrIlA ynOTpe6JJIcTCc i IrXiH-
uOBsifi Bail 11 63irhara 13 Bo Hpe3 neiiaTaZiiiin
AeaaeTCJI Baltiziori. Hocie1rAee o6CTOTJTeJ]L-
013O I0BCJIO IC TO03y, 'ITO 1334TaJI cla'a1a
AJ15 ne'iaTlaffif 6ysrara C Bo10,1l~brr 31Ha-
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B IIJIOTHbIX If TO111131 A1OCTaX, 'ITO rlnll
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ficICSaetnri B Ca M pOM piroyryie. Tapawr
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itoTopast npli3iraaia B Ra'iCTBO eHirICTBeH-
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no10 i1 Ila (qI)rjrTeJrrcTIrrIeCTtyIO BIrelUIIlIO
TOprOBJrrO, BlrrryoitaL eell3 npeQeJon CCCI1
ire iawe, iair no rraroziiiinii ha itaiit;orl
fapIce 0T1 HBoriOrl ceprru IiTeMlnexis rapair-
1111 ocNrieprnroro Bropo Ynoaiiosroirieiioro
BIIIIIC (3YB), KartoKoc o6CTORa i.-bcTBO BCe
IHHOCTparnItie IROjuriicrrr.IoJleICIoHepmI Am0.1-
ZlHUbi npri HlOCyHrOc o3HaqeH~oil cepi 10o-
jleHlbri Ha BcOTep i He nonECmCJsI Ha yloiOcy
Olcyz OT cnexy1ji1Uiii Ha #.=rEaCff.
B o6rfienr mul He COMHeBsaeirc, 'TO
ycreX AJIJI 1TO1 CeBr1H YCCP y KorJIneic-
kairire rpit iroJB.'Ienri ee B CBCT, Brro.11e

0. qyquu.

irn 7 by F.G. Chuchin.
lt3 (kindly supplied by Alexander Epstein, to whom many thanks, from
the magazine"CoBeTcKHA EHiaTeJIHCT" X 5-6 of 1923, pp. 10-13. I
L. The English version has been retranslated and corrected here).

A year ago, the Ukrainian Foreign Trade Organisation and the Central Committee of the
Consequences of Famine at the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee asked for and received
permission from the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs to follow the example of the RSFSR
and issue its own charity postage stamps with doubled nominal face values. Part of the sum obtained by the
sale of these stamps was to be kept by the Postal Service in payment of the rates and the other part was to
cover the needs arising from the consequences of famine in the Ukraine which, as with the RSFSR was
partly struck by famine in the years 1921-1922, but to a lesser degree.
Of course, nothing could be said against such a request at that time, as philately in a workers' state
and with the wish of the legislators would be called up to help the victims of famine of all nationalities and
could not shun this noble duty at the moment of acute need, when the necessity of help was felt by
everyone. Therefore, the support of such intercession asked for by the Ukrainian comrades was manifested
by us through the "PBM" (Russian Bureau of Philately ?) at the People's Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs. THE POST-RIDER/51MIIIK 51 53

November 2002

Having received permission from the "PBE" at the People's Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs to issue a set of charity stamps, together with a prohibition to print them abroad, it being
impossible to control the printing, the Ukrainian comrades still decided to have it their own way and
succeeded in obtaining the personal permission of Dogolevskii, the People's Commissar of Posts and
Telegraphs, to print these stamps under certain conditions in Berlin, Germany.
Exactly one year later, a new set of stamps had finally been printed at the Reichsdruckerei (State
Printing Works) of the German Government and had been brought to Khar'kov/Kharkiv [Trans.: then the
capital of the Ukrainian SSR]. There arose the question of its juridical legality. At that time, all issues of
famine stamps of the RSFSR had been invalidated by a special decision of the Council of People's
Commissars, as the famine was already over and help was not urgently needed any more. Moreover and as
was inevitable, the conditions set by the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs concerning the
printing of the stamps abroad were not complied with by the Ukrainian comrades and could not be fulfilled
regarding the control of the printing. There arose a difficulty which, in spite of all wishes, could only be
resolved with great difficulty, as this whole enterprise cost the Ukrainian SSR quite a lot of money
Finally and after mutual concessions, a well known agreement about the organisation of the entire
philatelic movement in the RSFSR was reached and signed by the Ukrainian comrades, the Representative
of the Central Committee of the Consequences of Famine at the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
and the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs, as well as about the liquidation of the complicated
incident by means of a special statement of the Council of Commissars of the RSFSR, binding on all parties
and solving the question in dispute in a way favourable to philately. The new set of charity stamps of the
Ukrainian SSR has been legalised by law and is soon to appear on sale at the postal wickets on the territory
of the Ukrainian SSR. It consists of the following four stamps, all in most original designs and in perfect
technical execution:-
10 + 10 karbovantsiv: In black and blue, with a representation of a Ukrainian wearing a Red Army cap,
clasping a peasant youth with one arm and removing from him the scythe of King Hunger with the other
arm.(design No. 1).
20 + 20 karbovantsiv: In orange and chocolate, with the portrait of the national revolutionary poet T.H.
Shevchenko (design No. 2).
90 + 30 karbovantsiv: In brown and black, with a representation of the struggle of the peasant against
Death; the peasant draws the scythe of Death from the bony hands of a skeleton (design No. 3).
150 + 50 karbovantsiv: In reddish-brown and black, representing a young peasant maiden in national
costume, offering with one hand some bread to a hungry woman and child and, with the other hand,
holding up a sheaf of ripe ears of wheat (design No. 4).
All the stamps bear an inscription in Ukrainian, reading: "Y.C.C.P. Inorra. AonoMora
rojionyioHM" and, at top, the indication of the value plus surtax in karbovantsy, adapted from 1922
roubles by a statement of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR dated May of this year (1923).
All the stamps are perforated: the 20 + 20 value 13 :/414 and the other values 14:13 i.e. in horizontal and
vertical rectangular designs. They have been printed by offset, which differs from the lithographic process,
a cylinder of tin being used instead of a lithographic stone and with the paper being moistened during
printing. The latter feature was the reason why watermarked paper, which originally had been used for the
printing, was soon replaced by ordinary paper. The watermarked paper did not contract equally in the dark
and light places, thus causing the two colours of the printing and the minute details of the designs to be
displaced and disfigured. The average quantity of printing is about 1,000,000 for each of the stamps.
In order that foreign collectors buying this present set would be guaranteed against forgeries and
illegal reprints, which could easily happen as a consequence of the printing having taken place abroad, the
Representatives of the Central Committee of the Consequences of Famine of the Ukrainian SSR and the
RSFSR have signed an agreement, stating that these stamps should sold abroad solely through the
organisation of the Representative of the Central Committee of the Consequences of Famine of the All-
Russian Central Executive Committee, which is acknowledged as being the sole Centre for the Monopoly
of Philatelic Foreign Trade, and that they should not be allowed to cross the frontiers of the USSR without
a guarantee mark being applied of the Expertising Office of the Representative of the All-Russian Central
Executive Committee (3YB). All our fellow collectors abroad should remember this well in buying the set
November 2002

just mentioned, so as not to scatter their money to the four winds and be the victims of the speculative
sharks of philately.
Although this set of the Ukrainian SSR has appeared somewhat late, we still have no doubt about its
success among collectors.
Editorial Comment: Fedor Grigor'evich Chuchin was born on 5/17 February 1883 in the village of
Zamishche, Kirillov district of Novgorod province and he died in Moscow on 15 January 1942. He was a
member of the Communist Party from 1904 and was appointed by the authorities in 1921 to direct all
philatelic affairs as a State monopoly. Several well-known catalogues and early issues of the Soviet
philatelic magazine were published under his editorship until 1928, although he himself was not a
philatelist. The Soviet Philatelic Trading Organisation even had a booth at the International Philatelic
Exhibition held in New York City 16-23 October 1926 and he was directing the staff selling stamps,
doubtless including the charity set of the Ukrainian SSR! His handstamped signature appears on the backs
of envelopes containing philatelic exchange material going abroad until about 1928.
As set out above, his article was written and published just prior to the sale and validity of the
charity stamps in the Ukraine from 25 June to 15 July 1923. It is obvious from his tone that the RSFSR
authorities were definitely less than enthusiastic about the Ukrainian initiative in having the stamps printed
abroad and using up valuable foreign currency. However, it should be remembered that, in the early years
of the Soviet State, the Union republics had the right to establish diplomatic representation abroad and that
concession was terminated only when I.V. Stalin consolidated his hold on power, in the struggle for
succession after the death of V.I. Lenin.
Apart from the material noted above, the only other items of "Chuchiniana" appear to be a
"QtHnno'Ta" ("Philatelic Postage") imperforate label applied by him on a postcard in the early 1920s and
now believed to be in the collection of the A.S. Popov Museum of Communications in St. Petersburg, as
well as an illustrated and stamped Soviet 4-kop. card issued in 1983 and bearing his portrait at left front.
Any other data on "Chuchiniana" held by our members would be most welcome.

.1.. sROYCZO BA- A.iA wY


90-950 L6di 1. ul. 2eromskiego 25 Skr. poct. 325 Tel. 633-01-15
Konto PKO I OM w Lodzi nr 47513-5715-132

Our Silver Jubilee

L. dz.

L6d. dnia2!-SL0QL 000t

This letter of congratulation
dated 23.07.2002 and sent by
Dr. Ing. Wtadyslaw Farbotko,
Editor-in-Chief of the leading
research journal "Historyczno-
Badawczy Biuletyn
Filatelisyczny" in Lo6d, Poland
is especially appreciated, as our
esteemed counterparts include
advanced Polish philatelists with
a knowledge of the Belorussian,
Russian and Ukrainian
languages. We make sure that
our colleagues in L6dz receive
all the data that we uncover and
which are also of Polish interest.

Pan A. Cronin
Toronto, Canada

Szanowny Panie,
W imieniu Kolegium Redakcyjnego ,,Historyczno-Badawczego Biuletynu
Filatelistycznego" i swoim wlasnym z okazji podw6jnego jubileuszu pisma ,,SIMUHK" -
25-lecia wydawnictwa oraz 50 numeru przesylam serdeczne gratulacje dia Pana osobiScie i
catego Zespolu Redakcyjnego. Zyczymy wielu sukces6w i zadowolenia w dalszej
dzialalnoici, aby kolejne numery pisma byly zawsze r6wnie interesujace jak dotychczas.
Pismo jest redagowane na najwyiszym poziomie, a kazdy number zawiera artykuly, kt6re
wnosza istotny wkiad do badafi nad znakami pocztowymi i historic poczty na ziemiach
rosyjskich. Szczeg6lnie wielki jest wklad pisma w badania nad pocztami ziemstw. Wielkie
znaczenie dla czytajacych pismo filatelist6w maja zawsze starannie wykonane i czytelne
ilustracje ukazujace oryginalne przesylki, ostemplowania i calostki pocztowe. Bardzo
przydatne sq om6wienia nowo wydawanych ksiazek filatelistycznych.
My ze szczeg6lnym zainteresowaniem studiujemy oczywikcie te opracowania, kt6re
dotycz4 dzialania poczty rosyjskiej na ziemiach polskich w r6znych okresach historic obu
painstw. JesteSmy pewni, ze jeszcze niejednokrotnie na lamach Pariskiego pisma pojawia sie
m.in. takie wladnie artykuly, kt6re w znaczacym stopniu wzbogacq r6wniez wiedzq 6 dziejach
poczty na ziemiach polskich.
Zyczymy r6wnie2, aby praca nad kolejnymi numerami pisma dawala Panu i calemu
Zespolowi Redakcyjnemu wiele osobistej satysfakcji.
Laczq wyrazy szacunku i serdeczne pozdrowienia
Redaktor Naczelny
Biuletynu Filatelistycznego"

Dr int. Wladyslaw Farbotko

November 2002

JI. PaTHep L. Ratner
CaHcr-HeTrep6ypr, PoccHr S-Petersburg, Russia

(Editorial Note: The English translation of this remarkable article will follow in No. 52 of "The Post-Rider")
nIOTOBoro o6paineHHa 6JIaHKOB aApecHbiX JIHCTKOB, npeHHa3HaqeHHbIX AJIw norJyqeHHH no noITe
cnpaBOK B aApeCHOM CroJIe 0 MecTe npo)HBaHHAI rpaxcaH.
TeMa 3Ta AOKyMeHTrajbHO He HCCjiefoBaHa. JIrTepaTypa no Her KpaiHe MaJIOqHCJIeHHa H,
qaine Bcero, orpaHH'HBaeTcA oiHCaHHeM anpecHblX JIHCTKOB Ha 6JIaHKax OTKpbITbhX nHCeM.
OAHOHi H3 HeMHOFHX CTraTe, conepKcailHX HeKOTOpbIe cBegeHHI, 06 H3roTOBJIeHHH H
npHMeHeHHH agpecHbiX JIHCTKOB, nepecbinaeMbix no noYre, aIBJieTrc CTaTbR C.BEiexMaHa H
C.KpHCTH (< OTHOCAT TaKHe agpecHbie JIHCTKH K ueJIbHbIM BeiaIM H yKa3blBaIOT, HTO OHH npoaBaJIHCb Ha noRTe.
AenapTaMeHTa, CaHKr-ferep6yprcKoro noMTRMTr H KaHUeJIspHH CaHKT-ICIeTep6yprcKoro
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npIHMeHHHa anpecHbrx JIHCTKOB Ha 6naHKax OTKpbrrbix nrHceM B CaHrIr-nerep6ypre. gena 3TH paHee
He H3y-ajiHCb.
IpH HanHcaHHH CTaTbH HcnoJIb30BaHbi apxHBHble MaTepinaJbI, xpaHaiXHeca B gaHHbiX Aenax.
1) CTaTbA nocTpoeHa CTporo Ha gOKyMeHTaJabHbIX MaTepHnajax;
2) B cTaTbe HcnHOnb30BaHa TepMHHOjnOrH (agpecHblii JIHCTOK, aApecHoe nuCbMO, 6naHK
OTKpbrroro nHCbMa AJD cnpaBoK anpecHoro CTOja H T.n.), KOTOPOi nOjb30Bajnocb B
nepenrHCKe H pacnopaneHHnax no 3TOMy Bonpocy noMTOBoe BegOMCTBO.
TaK KaK agpecHble JIHCTKH Ha 6jnaHKax OTKpbiTbli nnceM co3gaBaJsHCb H InpHMeHrInHCb npH
HenocpeACTBeHHOM yaacTrHH Tpex BegOMCTB: KaHuennpHHI rpaAoHaTaJIbHH Ka CarHKT-HeTep6ypra,
FopoAcKoii YnpaBbl H IoHTOBoro genapTaMeHTa, TO B ccaTbe paccMaTpHBa~OTCa TaIoKe BonpocbI, He
HMeIOmHe npAMoro OTHOIIeHHI4 K HOqTOBOMy BeeOMCTBy, HO pacKpbiBaioiIne AaHHyIo TeMy.

HpeainomKeHHe o rpuMeHeHHH aApecHbix JIHCTKOB B 4opMe OTKpbrrbIx riceM ALnn nojiyeeHHa
cnpaBOK B aApecHoM cToje CaHIcr-Herep6ypra BnepBble noaBHIOCb B 1874 rogry. B anpene 3Toro
roaa CTaTCKHHi COBeTHHK JIyKHH npeAlnozxn ( acpecHblM cmoInoM... ycmanoeumb, 6 eaue onblma, maKue CHnoutenH no noume, na oco6brx adpecHW x
uzucmKax 6 (opMe deoHblX omKpbmblix nuceM. J6oitHbie 6Jauru ...moJnu 6bi 6bimb u3womoieneMbt,
npooaaeaeib u pacnpocmpanHfeMbl Ha mex M ce ocHOeanuuix, KaK 6jattHKu npocmbix omKpbtmbix nuceM,
no 3a 6eofinyo geny, c ynnamori enepeo 6eHez, cmed)yioutux e normo0bfiu ooxoo Ha nepecbwnKy omeema
u 3a cnpaeKy adpecnozo cmoinaO.2
B aBrycre 1874 rola CaHKT-nTerep6yprcKHii rpa HaraHJIbHHK reHepan-aiIoTaHT TpenoB,
KOTOpOM npocuni BBecTH TaKHe JIHCTKH B CaHKT-I'eTep6yprcKOM noITaMTe. qaCTb BbIpyqeHHbIX 3a
HHX AeHer npeAniaranocb ocTaBHTb B nowraMTe, KaK norTOBbli AOXOg, a AleHbrH, ronoxceHHbIe 3a
cnpaBKy aApecHoro corona, nepeHiHCJIaTb B FopoAcKy1o YnpaBy. rlo pacnopaxeHHuo MHHHCTpa
BHyrpeHHHX gAen 3TO IHHCbMO 6bino nepeAaHo B IIoqTOBbIi aenapTaMeHT JIra paccMOTpeHnA.
K nHCbMy npuHiaranHCb o6pa3sbI 6JiaHKOB ropoACKoro H HHoropoaHero agpecHbix nrHCeM,
rpegHa3HaeHHbx AnrA nepecbijKH no nowTe. OAHy cropOHy 6naHKa npeAjnonaraiocb Hcnojib30BaTb
anI sanpoca B agpecHbMfi. CTOn, a npyryio jAn oTBera Ha 3anpoc. JIHIeBble HacTHr MecTHorO H

November 2002

HHoroPOAHerTO nHCbMa HeMHoro pa3ns qaJncb (pHc.1 2), a o6opOTHbIe 6bUInH OHHHaiKOBb (pHc. 3).
Pa3Mep 6naHKOB 178 x 113 MM.

10 X. nVo0. jAM. 2 x. l chpancy.
rgp zium?

eu, i. *

uaNlij eUpawanoaeMaro asna: G) o mNonBKKXunix pllNaoll~fa arI-sq i I 8 3BSail Eix
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rujiMi, .I Tme ~ ropoIX. nIIwo Xli o~eroa ri yaeecri~u : r) o auanuanx x Meroatuxi
pexecmuearB-Mbna cM rjt aIIlancaIu af N Ncraof JAN nfax; x) a speafT&raxs--oTo-
po rypllria, IXA, tscKTsor ,cIsaN mA. npwIBNa; 0) odi oTCTnruu x IrMNuxb ba
oIlUyI ofs.mn 1xoeriZKxs il snrI6-axI i xxInom a I a 4ONL I RAM sOXUAIU., X
uo x' C~oCtDIM JA %uaRCJTZl It C.iZG*., -K 6rOacpoIO AK 3otIe I npOBX1Eno. M
x) oft zoctpRznax-anuaris X sx MAN upoumueins IsauBolk anEl.
JAtpetud GeoN St n 0exa oM epuocnms cNpaeWx ajaure fps waVauocus seuc e


6 K. noT,. Aox. 2 9a cnpaEsy.
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OntccO. s

AIL uaucAneHin cnpaBiK HOO6XOAWWx.n ciatAyoinll CBiA'buil: a) Hufa, OTsecnTo IH
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XACTca cymesia B a 6ILTaocTb o'rcTaniH: ) o n0 ynOqx%-yneYeeIqee HnX* AOCTOHU'Trn HIKa
l rKaLaih, a Taa1e ropoa, s son S cocTOXrZo s Bt ynesecra? ; r) o M UgnaRaxi H Inexo0nXb
peueceHBEsHax.-- MCTa, rAlx RaancaHu B i.1galUCT'B O H Il Uex1; A) o lpecTh buaxHX-soTo-
poft ryt6puiv, ytaa, uBOOCTa, ceia .JKs AepeuuH; e) o6h oTcrasaLlx U yBOIeaHHRLX. 'l
NOHXI. COCTOa-K MHUL uISCaeTCI Ha cIyBGz, u 6e3cpoquo a ysno.1enLa nxr peveuno, u
K) o6b aHUocTpaHgax'b-auaHTri HXI. Hna npouncer i x aofot etIil{.
Adpecuuam CInoni oitrm'aema a al e mppnoo cnpaseK minOArO np Hla.cuuocmu cAs.a os-
Ha'lenIubxa condtania.




03SaieBoae n. 33anpoct AIRo npDoE

s.panry nasaodus


November 2002

roqTOBbIH eenapTaMeHT He Bo3pa)Kaji 1pOTHB BBeAeHHa aApecHbIX JIHCTKOB, nepecbinaeMbix
no nOTre, HO yKa3an, wro noxraMT He AOJDKeH 3aHHMaTbCA AeHeKHbIIMH paceTaMnH H 6naHKH HyacHO
npoafl aTb He B nOrTOBbIX yqpexleHHSIX. HIIoTOBbIe nraTeaKH 3a nepecbuIKy JIHCTKOB npeAnaranocb
npoBOHnTb nyreM HaKjeiKH IInoTOBblX MapOK Ha KacKAOF cTopOHe 6IaHKa caMHMH OTnpaBHTejirMH.
TaOKxe 1oTOBbdli aenapTaMeHT cqHTraJi Ho6XOHMblM, 'To6b Ha 6JIaHKax agpeCHbIX JIHCTKOB,
nepecbinaeMbrx no noTre, o603HaqaJIoCb MeCTO ARI HaKJneHKH HOtTOBbIX MapoK, a caMHn 6JaHKH
coBnaaaIH no 4)opMe H pa3Mepy c 6iaHKaMH OTKpbrrbLix nceM.
ITocne Aopa6oTKH corjiacOBaHHbiX c IInoTOBbM aenapTaMeHTOM npeanoKceHHR, reHepai-
aalioTaHT TpenoB HanpaHsun ax B FopoAcKyKo YnpaBy. B Hoa6pe 1875 roga FopoAcKas YnpaBa
npeacraBHjia AoKjiaa o BBeneHHH agpecHbix JIHCTKOB B 4)opMe OTKpbrrbix iHCeM anX nonyqIeHHA no
norre cnpaBoK H3 aApecHoro CTOjia CaHKT-nerep6ypra B ropocCKy1o 0JyMy um yrBepxceHHI.
OAHaKO, TOJIbKO B HioJe 1878 roAa 3To npeAniox>eHe 6bijo H3yIeHO, a B AeKa6pe 1879 roia
ropoAcKasI LyMa pa3peinfna YnpaBe BBeCTH agpecHbie JIHCTKH B opMe OTKpbrrb1x nHCeM no
cornacoBaHHIo c noroTBbiM. eOMCBOM. B (eBpane 1880 roAa FopoAcKoii FoJoBa CaHKT-
ieTep6ypra 6apoH Kop0 o6paTHjnca B IoTrrOBbI aenapTaMerr c nHCbMOM, K KOTOpOMy 6buiH
npHno)KeHbi 5 o6pa3sOB 6naHKOB aApecHbrx JIHCTKOB B 4opMe OTKpbITbIX rriceM OAHHaKOBoro
pa3Mepa H C OaHHaKOBbiM TeKCTOM, HO Ha 6yMare pa3JIHlHblX IBeTOB H KaqecTBa: 6enoi, CBeTJIo-
cepoi, rojy6ofi, QcHoneroBoi H CBerjno-KHpriHHHOH. Ha plc. 4 5 noKa3aH BHR BonpocHOHi
OTBerHOH CTopOH 3THX 6naHKOB. Pa3Mep 6jaHKa 126 x 93 MM.
I~ I


*s C.-ReSepdyprcKii AApWced CTrA I
o + + r..............

'i -l .
IDIuis 4
AI a .nBeiaii celpl ua me165iai u ciutnyiOi crtlltsi: a) ass, nIecuo xa auuil oT-
I aj Csusem aqaI; (e osnsux a polI PIeuOu..na--sIu Iue in, MicTra cJIselis u
5 umoi n r ,LyeTultst ) o qsifan-s-yiwecl e ui gonIeacnx u ru&Ai, a vTrie rfp-
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rAt la I 111 a6s m.ata nem II u lun;A)l el p s-, axi o ry6epa. III CJAsAa I IseSO,
Six sepes; c) h6. ,cnun m yaS...n Ss orayen sas....... .oen nu s-Isa-.
P a acy ner uI spano>; 4 ) 06i aocTpmuaan--runpouceu n mionmoen.o

PacyHOK 4



Onpa7y RaBonuas 188 roxa.

PHcynoK 5

Ho 3a npoimeAxre roMAbI MHeHHe noHTOBOro BegOMCTBa H3MeHHJIocb. AJ peKTop oIrroToro
aenapTaMerra 6apoH BeinHO B OTBeTe yKa3aJI, 'TO 6JIaHKH AlJI OTKpbrrbIX nHceM Moryr

November 2002

6jaHKax He pa3pemaerca.
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wmyKy u3secmnoe Konulecmeo 6.aaHKo6 )n omlKpblmblX nuceM. H3 3mo2o KonuCecmea nonoeuna
npeOna3HuaaemcA na npoawcicy ny6AuKe no 9 KoneeK 3a utmyKy bnw 3anpocoe e AopecHbi cmon, a
opyzan nonoeuna nepeoaemcA a 3mom cmon oan omeema Ha 3anpocbt. Ha 6jaHaax npeoeapumeAbHO
oenatomcA, no pacnopaicenuio Ynpaebi, neamnHbie yKa3anuCi, coom6emcmeyioutue yfenu rmux
6iaHnKo6 u owemr HlaKac)bleambcA KOlmpoRbHblii o6aWbHbli turmemneab Ynpaebl).3
K naCbMy HppeKTopa IoMTOBoro genapTaMeHTa npHIarajincb Aa i6naHKa OTKpbrrbix rineM,
co cAenaHHbIMH, B KaSecTBe o6pa3sa, HanneqaTKaMH H HanAIHCcMH TeKcra (pnc. 6 9).

a .d. C.Et EPbYPr.I .. .
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ifena 6jianry (HOa o6opome) noKa3ana 9 econ.y>.)
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YnpaBaoi Ha OTeflrbHblX JIHCTax. TaioKe YrnpaBa noMecrTna o6,bABjieHHe o6 3TOM B ra3eTe

November 2002


B o63IBjsneHHIH roBopHJocb: < ...Hpocasica a"pecHblx JlUCmKO6 Ha nepeoe epeMfi
... npou36eoumcn e FopodcKoii Ynpaee u 6 acpecnom cmolne).


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noACHeHHIMH no HX 3anOJIHeHHIO. Ha pHc. 10 11 iHmeBar H 60opOTHaai cTOpoHbI 3anpocHoro
6naHKa. JIHueBaa H o6opOTHaA CTopOHbl OTBeTHoro 6naHKa Ha pnc. 12 13 aaHbI TaK, KaK OHH 6buJI
November 2002

nomeineHbI B o6pa3ue, npHcnaHHOM ropoACKOH YnpaBoH B rIoTrOBblIi AenapTaMeHr, BMeCTe C

.US %...3-1. cpI aO..um ca1-n-iA C.a -L. .u 1 a au .I.,
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af yarleN ma. uS, SPOrSe n &1 S 6 o.frt.K unp u%" PWC0L ULI -aW11adon..IN
Iua sTrro OjaH"a 9 mOl., sB% KOTOpilX ahRIOIDaeT&IT. IaTT1il &B
OrUITS orpaztyT O.IIeTtppTyprowaro Appeoaaro OTo.a.

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a) inueeaa cmopona omeemnozo 6naHKa u
6) o6opomHan cmopona omeemnozo 6naHKca.

I : OTRPblTOE [1f6bMQ .

j. .a *_ g*lpl Spoo a, p..os ..osm soN .pro SNCts.
n^3. _-+_ ....... ee^_ e. _^^. 5s m

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PHcyHOK 12

K ce~.y Ynpaea npucoeoicynanem, Ymo 3anpocbl 6 aopecnbiu cmon MomCHno nucamb ml7ORbKO
na 6naHKax cezo o6pa3ya, 3azomo6teAeMblX 20poOOM na omKpblmblx nolimogblx nucbaxbMm u uAleotiux
o6agbHbl mucHenHbfi u meineMii c u3o6paiceHtueM eopoocrozo eep6a u c HnabnCblO 6o0cpye <(C
17emep6ypecKiil adpenblfl cmoRb>D.)
17 HIoHA 1880 rota FopogcKas YnpaBa CaHIcr-Ierep6ypra noJnyanHa AeHbrH AnII IOKyr KH
20000 6naHKOB oTKPrnITIX nHceM, a 2 HIonJI 3Toro roga ropoAcKoi FOJIOBa coo6iian
rpaRoHaqaJIbHHKy CaHnIr-rlerep6ypra: <(opoacran Ynpaea ...npenpo6o&uea 6 AbpecnHbi cmon 5
November 2002

mbicnA 3K3eMnAfrpoe conpocHbIX u 10 mbicA 3K3(eMnAIpo6 omeemnbix 6iaarKoe...>.5 5 Tbican
3K3aeMnnJpOB 3anpocHbix (BonpocHblX) 6naHKOB OCTanHcb ARLa npogaa)H B ropoACKOf YnpaBe.

14C'*.// 'A^-^t4G *, CW 'MtCs^'fl

/ / --- /. .. .:'.

9 mionA 1880 roha apeTop C loqeroor genapaw eHT OHC HpKyAPHO
OTK: p.rrix n.ce '. o6 oe't,. OHOrf HaIf.f K 6I a p ."HKX..
i62 THE POST-RIDER/IMII.... ,i, 51
hbE s rtt
I .fu.pSeay ECkC.>a, i/. i t4 .r. Cu .fl Ajt r-j

/ 41 L'f/fi^/l YO>U 4'4J' cc.^ .A'&~6.t ;P



S0.Jmpnr" .^ i r ., (,?:".< /,."

'November 2002
& ecYc *r 'vy~ t"4 &~Z-Zcr
^^^ ,/<>'/, r,.;^^,-^. ^,~~~'I^ ^>^^?^ .^tC t&t<.^
I^/-' ^'C''? .^ *!iZ W ^ ,^ ^ ^ )*^ ^.
's -"/ *
C^.s^.-y^^f^-w &^- In^/ ./ y r ^ n

$4 /f ryZtc'rt rC

C^ ^ t siy^ i E^/^ > /'/^f~^e

PH^yHOK 13^? y^ y^.^ <^ ,^ ^<^.^^ ^
9~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ HIJI 188 roa xueco lwo oo" OfH~I L1K SPO
pacnopxxce .-ue X2 12809 (<0 3fl'-OC^^'X B*i' CaH'/cr-fle' pr~i BA.^C'bH CTOA a 6nHica xu
O'-pI/I HHC H o6 OTB^ OHI' Ha T-H xce 6J.H O
62 THE.^S~ POT-IDRSIIIH 1651'. ?<-./<' '^/*

Ilpoaaxa aHpecHbri JIHCTKOB Ha 6JiaHKaX OTKpblTbIX nHCeM Ha.Inaacb c 15 HIonJ 1880 roaa.
CTOHMOCTb 3anpocHoro aspecHoro JIHCTKa COCTaBjIMna 9 KoneeK H BKnInonaja B ce6w: croHMOCTb 2-x
6njaHKOB OTKpbrrbix nHceM (ARii sanpoca H OTBera) 6 Kon, nnaTy 3a HalneqaTKy TeKCTa Ha 6naHKax -
1 KOn, onniary cnpaBKH AgpecHorO cTona 2 KOn.
(IpHMepaHHe aBTOpa: c 31 MapTa 1858 roAa Ao 20 anpenia 1892 rowa rnaTa 3a Kax~aio
nIHCbMeHHyIO cnpaBKy AgpecHoro cTrona, BblgaBaeMyIo xaCTHbIM JIHnaM, COCTaBJnna 2 KOneIKH,
no3AHee 3 KoneiiKH.)
B nepBbie MecaSbI npHMeHeHHA 3anpocHbIX agpecHb1 JIHCTKOB 6blJIH cjiyqaH HenpaBHsnbHoro
B anpecHbli CTroJ. B ceHrr6pe 1880 roa 3KcneHHTop 3KcneHCHIHH BbIlaaH npocrTof BHyrpeHHef
KoppecnoHeHlUHH CaHIT-IIeTep6yprcKoro norraMTa H. JIapHH nrcaj, HTo npH'HHHa 3TOrO B TOM,
wTo <(naOnucb, HanetamanHaA na adpecHuo cmopone 6tnaHKa omKpbimoeo nucbMa ...Mtalo
omauraemcA om o6blKHoeeHHozo 6naHKa omKpblmo2o nUCbMa) H npeanaral Ha 6.naHKe ria
anpecnoro crona ( ommucKueamb KpacHblAMU 6yK6aMU).
B KOHue ceHTI6pi 1880 roaa caHKT-neTep6yprCKHH noIrT-AHpeKcop o6paTHncs K
FopoAcKOMy Ionoae c npejinoKceHHeM geJIaTb HaIIHCb Ha aapecHfH CTOpOHe 6JnaHKOB KpacKOH
KpacHoro UBeTa, a 11 4eBpaju 1881 roaa FopoAcKas YnpaBa pemruHa npH H31rTOBJneHHH HOBbIX
3anpocHblX JIHCTKOB neqaTaTb HanlHCb Ha agpecHOH CTOpOHe OTKpbITbix HHCeM KpaCHbIM UBeTOM.
14 4eBpa.r 1881 roAa FopoAcKaA YnpaBa BbmlHcaina 600 py6neii Ha noKynKy ewie 20000
c In-pHHRTbIM pemeHHeM HaAInHCb Ha
apecHOH CTOpOHe HOBblX 3anpocHbIX
T TOCE IEGlf^ GaJIaHKOB nexaTaInacb KpacHbiM uBeTOM.
_t._ v TaKHM o6pa30oM, MOKHO yrBepxactaTb, HTo
I6n. 6aHKH C HaAIneqaTKOHi epHoro UBeTa Ha
S aApecHOfi CTOpOHe 3anpocHblX JIHCTKOB
6bijiH TOJIbKO B THpaxce 1880 rota H
~ do...a 9.. Z...... ~ 3K3eMIUnpOB.
K__dat..-.h -_'. ----_ ---- PonJb nOSTOBOTO BeaoMCTBa B 3TOT
nepHon no-npeXKHeMy 3aKJHOmanJacb B
I .a *" .o4 M" p. .... l.. ," ... npogaaxe FopOACKOH Ynpaae CaHKT-
Herep6ypra 6naHKOB OTKpblTbix niceM H B
nepecbinKe aApecHbri JIHCTKOB, TO eCTb B
mjo6oMy gpyroMy KOppecnoHeeHTy noqTbI.
Cexu HyKHO OTMCTHTb, HTO alpecHbie
C" ....-nellcxppr JIHCTKH He 6bInIH nepBbIM onbrroM
ag O .M. Vea. ApP
c AoneqaTKOH Ha HHX TeKCTa B HHTepecax
a, B ame. np o a cai, n, ... apyroro BeoOMCTBa. 3THM nIblTOM
'ttC ia.. -., l/i. nojIno30BaJIHCb pa3JInHHbIe OpraHH3aUHH.
...t..a i', .{ .._. ,r. _-ar. HaanexaTKH, BbinoHSIaeMbie HMH Ha
Xlaopoo 'u Ji X s~. wrt. ia 0t. 6JnaHKax OTKpbITbix nHceM, HOCHJIH
OIc-crTop,pr. ...... aCTHbIfi xapaKTep. Ha pnc. 14 15
hoat. Toupa. C(Tar. n .k sctaa A .
^lYar. a. .:nTL... n)pHBeAeHbI, AIR nrpHMepa, JnieBaA H
yfpayr:.a ) ITIw n me N lporrp p*0 dl o .a san
V 1 1 to-Cr ; ,~.~, : NO ";- 3 ,.reo6 ss.,t C.m. o6opOTHaA CTOpOHbI 6inaHKa OTKpbrroro
Cco, ylrI.,-, nw.r ., ,. -,-,f,, ranp. nHHCbMa, HcnoJIOb30BaHHOrO KeJie3HOrf
.o______ oporofi An onoBeimeHrHH acKHTene
PHCOHOK 15 TOJIHbI o nojiyeHHH npeHHa3HaqeHHOrO
PaCyHOK 15
HM rpy3a.
THE POST-RIDER/aMIIIHK N2 51 B 4eBpane 1881 roga FopoAcKaa
November 2002 63

YnpaBa o6paTunacb B nouraMT no Bonpocy o BO3MO)KHOCTH npogaXH 6JIaHKOB aApecHbIX JIHCTKOB B
TproOBbix 3aBegeHHix. IIorTaMT OTBeTHJI, qTO B03paxKeHHHr ARJ 3TOr HeT, (maK KaK K 3mux
3a6e(eHnuax yice npou360eoumcn npodamca MapoK U utmeMineibHbbix KOH6epmo6 u 6jnaiKoe6 bt
omipblmbix nuceM>).
C anpeniA 1881 ropa ropoacKaa YnpaBa Haqana uponaBaTb aapecHbIe JIHCTKH,
npeHHa3HaqeHHble WI nepecbIJiKH nO nHOTe, B TOprOBbIX 3aBeAeHHsIa, o qeM coo6IIaJIa B
OTrneaTaHHbIl eIO o6,IBBjieHHrx (pHc. 16).

C.-neTep6yprcHaa ropoAcHan Ynpasa onsaMa er,, WTO
6natHKui aApecHtaurx artIc'nMOB3R W topA OTETpTra IXTax' unceO
Aaa noavnyrleia mr O0.-Hlerep6yprcitaro AApecHaro CrTna,
Ip-l.ea, Tno~Cy, cnpaoR n 0o 3derCh marITeafna o6toaeaeIetf
ropojta -,-lle'tep6ynR, Mory'rL 65aHT upowaeaeMm ~ a pas Hbiax
'tpron0aX' 1aBsa3AeHiaxs%, Ba TOMWL te. ocHOBam iil nab po-
,AaOTCef noIrom-ta MapKn, InTeneaRi&mie Kon0aepTe H'6aiant n
o, aprariax- nRetH .
BaaHwt aTrpecmr1x' nacTnoBT'I. orynr 66rmT npio6pO aex6
y 'iamcLy'ro(opa ,.-IIrepCyprioKott ropocnoft Yapanbr n 1 '~
U.-lIte'reepil|rci>'l OI' AApecuoM'i, cronh no1 9 KOu. ta KaJ./iFbl
6uainIr, (rh T'rOM'T, tf4'i 3 I~on. nia BoripoHmwIfi, 8 ron. ut
OTI'rhTHhitf 6aa~lKH, 1 I01n. tut BHa(ie'lolloi 011O0IIHI ono uTh O It 11a-
( pa iu 2 iorr. :;t cnpauiny).
fIuoropoAtriie, mealoumie npio6phicriH 6aaHIaH apil)ecHOuxI
artCTOBror, Mory'L pe6olauia CnoH o UpHICum'I arTnx R' JIaHCT-
KOB'S, ,ipHucaa'Trh oNeROyTOpy 0.-IITeep6yprcRoft ropoActPoft
Yupaseii, c0% upH.IomeiteMs UeM' enJt, no HcaYy rpe6yeMIIx'
6aranowIH. I a UH eperCMay O'U, 1 Ao 0 arto'IoE B 34 Ron.
II T'. .
'PI[TaIM' M (e nopn1iTo)Hi, MoryTr, npio6p'kraFT[ anpecHire
.'[IIrrcT it Popotci t H BexcuKin YnpamB.r, oToprurar nomenaaJu
6Ou,-Ba, iuIrax'O, goTanerin niff hcTHarimtj a.irl'rl:.lw's y o060la
lnonyeWHim, Ispe:r, no1uTy, capaRowr war, 0.-oeTep6yprcIturo
Apecnaro C'rona, o rhc'rTi jsareais.cra o6dmlre~sur ropoAu
.-IIerTepyppra,--o'rupH'rr, pol(asIy onaui'eemnifaiXh ATI nC'OBM,.

1Haneqenio Ia BiAosxU Tel O.-IIerop6fypIdaro PpaAoIAttaltun ri O.-lsrep-
6ypreCto- opomwoI I~ohmi.
Tanoripnmia Sftrtrepa, Yruon Itueaexot it f PolixoBio it. J1 24.
He yKa3aHHble B KaTaJiorax. TaK, no omH6Ke, Ha He6oJIbMIOM KoJiHnecTBe 6JIaHKOB 3anpocHbix
JIHCTKOB, B JeBOi HX qacCTH, 6bI.l HaneqaTaH qepHofi KpacKoif TeKCT, npeIHHa3HaIeHHbIfi AJISI OTBeTHbIX
JIHCTKOB >. Hocne o6HapycKeHHn onIH6KH, 3TOT TeKCT 6bIJI
3aqepKHyr, a BMecTO Hero KpacHOi KpacKOR cejiaHa npaBHjibHaa HaIneOaTKa TeKTra. B Mapre 1882
November 2002

roAa caHKT-nerep6yprcKHii noHT-lHpeerop o6paTrHcj B ropoAlcryio YnpaBy: ?<...3a nocneanee epeAni
cmanu nepecbijambci 6aanHKu ne co GHO6b omnenamaHHblAMu, a c ucnpaenennib~iu na a6pecnoii
cmopone naonucLMu. Hpenpoeocatan nucbMO, adpecoeannoe 6 MocKey, Ha u.mq Aopecnozo cmona,
...nanucannoe na ucnpaeneHnoM 6naHKe, CaHKm-H1emep6ypzcKui nomauMm npocum yeebdoMumb,
...no VbeMy pacnopwicenuio 6naHK 9mom ucnpaenen u cneoyem nau ciumamb nooo6nbre 6nanuK
o)efcmemeeabHbltM)>. Bo3Bpaumaa 6nJaHK, YnpaBa coo6mmu a o npHqHHe InoABJIeHHS TaKHX 6JIaHKOB
H 06 HX nOAnIHHHOCTH (pHc. 17).

C.-nfIBTEP rYPF r, KA}][ ,, -, "-


OTAtneHiO .1
CrTon.b 3

(tlpu eaf tBT pa: T.' p .... np"'I r"a p 1... 7. Bosepazya
n cbM < y -W.HU Cnpaeo ,,l3 C176< Ae c o o cm" -Oa,, oIpo C K- -p--a *-s't teet ec'

S.- r 4November 2002
ts? ru ;^.'. <-

yee)oaumb CH6 Ho17maMm, Tmo npu nevamanuu 6ononHumenbHozo na6opa na 61aaKax omKpblmb7x
nuceM no ouiu6Ke meKcm na aeeoi cmopone 6aanxa nanevaman (Ha 100 6naHmax) emecmo Kpacnor
rpacKu vepnHoi KpacKOio, a nomoMy maKo6eou 3avepKnym u Memic)y cmpoK naneTaman Kpacnofi
KpacKOio. Utmo 0 ce KacaemcR npaeuabHocmu 6naaKa, mo maKoeaq yoocmoeepnemcf npuWnooceHHblt
utmemnenem c CH6 zep6oM u nadnucblO c(C.HJemep6ypzcKii AMpecHbifi Cmon7b>.)
Hy)cHO 3aMeTHTb, HTO npHBefeHHbIl BblUCe 3anpoc CaHIT-HIeTep6yprcKoro nowraTra B
ropoacKyIo YnpaBy H yKa3aHHe B AoKJIage HaanibHHKa alpecHoro CTOJia OT 6 Hoa6pa 1901 roga:
(<...nocemumenu Cmona e 6o0bulOu Konaurecmee omnpaenuom na npuo6pemaeMblx 6 Cmoie 6iaHmax
omKcpbimbe nuCbMa 6 unHOopocnue adpecnUbe cmonblr> A9OKyMeHTaJbHO norBepxaaloT H3BeCTHbIH
aBropy craTbH QarKT, rTO 6JIaHKH, npeHa3HaeHHble zCaI CaHKrr-nerep6yprcKoro (HeTporpancKoro)
no npaBHiaM, ycTaHOBJneHHbIM FopoAcKOil Ynpanoii B 1880 ropy, 3anpocbI B agpecHbIi CTron
no noxre MornI neniaTbca TOnbKO Ha 6jiaHKax ycraHOBneHHoro o6pa3ua Ha aapecHbIx naHCTKaX Ha
6naHKax OTKpbrrbIx nHceM. Ho K cepeAHHe 1880-x roAOB anpecHbliH CTOJI Haqajl laBaTb OTBerb H Ha
3anpocbi, rpacjiaHHbie B 3aKpbrrITbIX nHCbMa, ecCji
CfiTpb;i C.-TT wryprl arI A3N~aro Cro OTrnpaBHTejb BKjiaAbIBaRJ B HHX orMJaTy CTOHMOCTH
S :. cnpaBKH H IIoqTOBOH riepecbIJIKH OTBeTa aapecHoro
la LIcbLAJC. 'TI,) 0) CToJia I AeHbraMH HJIH nHOTOBbIMH MapKaMH.
;B'nL aRa i'i:o6 yUcTaollCUsjlnXI 10 r;on. G6a~- jna OTBeTa Ha 3anpocbi, cneinaHHbie c
Ir p OTcpunixLT, nlMHiV, e ia KPLITTUMH HapymeHHeM 3TOrO nop5lKa, agpecHbIM CTOJIOM
S. npHMeHRm c cneiHHaJibHbIH I TaMn (pic. 18). LUer
nIIjrTroj paixina nlermWH,. HaII JoITCBsuMf B KOHLle 1901 rona Ha npeJaoxce0ne
MapKaMl. npoaaBaTb 6JIaHKH OTKpbITrrX nHceM nnj cnpaBOK
SapecHoro Trojia CaHI-r-nerep6ypra B Ino'TOBbrx
yqpex)KeHHiaX CTOJIHLbI norT-nHpeK-rop OTBerHJI
cornacHeM H B Haanje 1902 rona nojryqHJ yKa3aHne
HaRaJIbHHKa FJIaBHoro ynpanjeHHsa nIOHT H TenerpapoB
yCTaHOBHTb B nfIOBerOMCTBeHHbIX eMy noqTOBbix ynpexmeHHax npoAZaKy apecHbIx JIHCTKOB Ha
6IaHKax OTKpbITrbX nceM. B pacnopeHHH, HapaeHHO Hanpa M noqT-gHpeKTopoM 15 MapTa 1902 rona
Ka3Haqeio no rraMTa, roBopHjocb: <...npucinaHHble om FopoacKoii Ynpa6bl ... 'Iemblpe mbicAvmu umyK
10 KoneevMblx 6,aHnKo6 omKpblmblX nuceM Ba cnpaeoK a)pecuozo cmona ... npodaeamb ny6auKe>.10
TaKHM o6pa3oM, alOKyMeHTaJIbHO ycTaHOBJIeHO, HTO B nepRno c 15 IIonJI 1880 roaa no 15
MapTa 1902 roga noiTOBoe BenoMCTBO He 3aHHMaJIOCb npoaaKxef afpecHblX JIHCTKOB Ha 6nIaHKax
B nocinegyioueM, novrTOBble yqpexcHeHHS CaHKcT-nHeep6ypra npIHHHMani ysacrie B
peanj3anLH 3THX JIHCTKOB. CorFJaCHO crpaBKe norTaMTa qepe3 norTy 6blni npoRaHo 6JIaHKOB
OTKpbrrbIX nriceM Aia cnpaBoK aRpecHoro cro ia: B TeqeHHe 1903 roga 34100 mTyK, C 1 RHBapa no
31 aBrycTa 1904 roaa 25400 mTyK, a OTnpaBneHO no noITe B aapecHbil CTOJI 3anpocHbix JIHCTKOB:
B HOa6pe 1903r. 48049 mrTyK,
aeKa6pe 1903r. 58166 IrTyK,
aBrycTe 1904r. 32894 mTyK,
ceHTR6pe 1904r. 42815 urryK."
HcxoAti H3 Bcero BbIUmeCKa3aHHoro, MO)KHO cxAejiaTb OAH03HaqHblH BbIBOf: agpecHbie JIHCTKH
CaHKT-lerTep6ypra, ipeHHa3HaqeHHbIe Anir nepecbinKH no nonTe, npeAcraBniorT co6oii qacrHbIe
Hal-nelaTKH Ha qeJIbHbIX BelRax, CgeJIaHHbIe B HHTepecax anpecHoro CTOjia CaHKr-IHeTep6ypra. OHH
B 3aKjIqeHHe Hy)KHO HanOMHHTb, HTO B CTaTbe peMb HAeT TOibKO O nRHCTKax aApecHoro
corona CaHKTr-IeTep6ypra. ApecHbie IHiCTKiH iAJI HaBeJBeHHH cnpaBoK no RnoTe, npIIeHMiBmHecH B
MocKBe, BapmuaBe, Oecce H KneBe, noxoXXH Ha CaHKrT-Ierep6yprcKHe, Ho a~n pemeHHSr Bonpoca o6

November 2002

anpecHbX CTOJIOB B 3THX ropoAax.

1 KypHaj i< ~t aTejmL CCCP>>, X 6, 1974r., MocKBa, c.39 42.
2 IerrpawmHMfi rocynapcrBeHmnii HcropHreciKHu apxHB CaHKr-Ierep6ypra (LITHA CII6), oioHA 569, orncb 17, geno 5
croJnOM), JI 1.
3 PoccHcrKHc rocygapcrTeHHmU HCTOpnHecKHH apxmB, OHaI 1289, orncb 1, Aemo 3798 ropoacKoi no'Ire B CaHKT-Inerep6ypre oco6bix aapecHblx IHCTKOB B (opMe OTKprTblix iHceM>>, xL 35.
4 TaM xce, JL 38.
5 IVHA CII6, 4OHai 569, oimcb 17, Aeno 5, n. 49.
6 LHA Cr6, ongH 1543, omncb 2, Aeno 132 <<06 ycraHOBJIeHHH CHomeIHHHi acTHhix jmn c CamHKr-IerTep6yprcKHM
AapectimM CTOJIOM Ha 6JIaKXax oTKpIrPmix ImceM HOBor o6pa3Iua, Jicr 6.
7 TaM xce, nL 10.
8 TaM )Ke, j. 16.
9 UHA Crn6, 4)onm 569, ormcb 17, aejo 22 06 yBemeHHmi cocraBa cniycaniix B ApecHOM cronje H pacnopaxDKemK
no OHOMy)>, ji. 187.
10 LTfHA CnI6, FoHA 1543, onmcb 2, .eno 578 06 ycTaHoBJIemHHH ipoaaaM B roponcxKx noTrroBLIX yqpexmemuix
6namHKOB OTKpuIThX IIICeM aJi CnpaBOK B apecCHOM croae>>, a. 6.
" TaM me, n. 9 11.

P.S. &Ig cnpaBKH:
HacToAniee BpeMI. Ho MOXKHO yKa3aTb, qTO
ropoxAcKaA YnpaBa HCnOJIHHTeJIbHaI BJIacTb ropoga;
FopoAcKoii FroOBa riIaBa (npeAceaTTeJb) FopoacKoii YnpaBbi;
FopoacKaa fyMa 3aKoHoaTeJIbHai BJ~acTb ropoAa;
ynpaBieHHe (KaHMenapur ) rpaAoHaiaJIbHHKa CaHKr-Ierep6ypra -
CaHKT-nTerep6ypra (MHJIHnHI), HO HiMeJO 6onee IHpoKHHI Kpyr efAeJIbHOCTH H
6ojibIuHe BsacTHbie noJIHOMo0HH;
rpaAoHa'qaJbHHK CaHKT-nIerep6ypra no AOJDKHOCTH 6JIH30K K
HbIHeCmHeMy HaqaJIbHHKy FjaBHoro ynpaBjieHrn BHyTpeHHHIX Aen CaHKT-
Herep6ypra, HO HMMeC 6onee InHpoKHe noJIHOMOqHR.


Bol'shoi Theatre:
"Filatelija" magazine:
Hermitage Museum:
Kremlin Museum:
Moscow "Nord-Ost" Theatre:
"Moscow Times" newspaper in English:
Moscow Tourism:
Moscow Travel & Patriarshy Dom Tours:
Pridniestrovian Moldavian Republic Site:
PMR Philatelic Site:
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts:
Rossia Hotel:
Ukraina Hotel:

www.thenordost.com (Chechen Atrocity Location!)

We will add further sites as they come to hand in future issues of "The Post-Rider". Worthwhile additions
from our members would be much appreciated.

November 2002

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

The 190psta St- Petersburg in, F was sent unfranked. *t" tr'l "'" on' t N 2
filledin7for06 or doublethedicin pot g. AE

We-3W0 h n aom MCb-ig
.4... .e-grd- F--.n' witha L'atvia ", ,,. .'.T ,.+,._ .o ,, < .\

....IJA.... /,- 'J--EH.H HYPA' 4-P ^", /
^. *- ^ ,. .^--- = 1

The 1902 postcard to St. Petersburg in Fig. was sent unranked. It travelled on Postal Van No, 2
Moscow-St. Petersburg 9 October and picked up the oval "JO JIAT / 2 I T. BAOH b",

filled in for 6 k. or double the deficient postage.
The 1911 postcard in tigI to Emil'chino, Volyn' province was sent unranked from the Warsawc/
SPB Station on 13.9.1911. There is a matching oval postage-due cachet at top centre, reading
", 7,....ATHTb BAPIIABA C.- .B.)K". ."', also filled in for 6 k. or double the postage due.
Mosow-St. Peter in sburg, 9 October anr d frompicked up the oval "ATT / 2 T. BA",
filled in for 6 k. or double the deficient postage.
The 1911 postcard in Fig. 2 to Emil'nchino, Volyn' province was sent unranked from the Warsaw /

"seOndrATHTB BAPehIABA C.n.B..1. *", also filled in for 6 k. or double the postage due.

10.4.28 to Leningrad. Franked with a Latvian 1. '" A^ .TY I
25-santimu stamp, it was still deficient. A Latvian Te e T
encircled "T"indicated that further postage had to -th. a pa ,
be levied. It therefore received a fine Soviet '4 e "ad
marking. The manuscript tax appears to 4k. Can a ," i. ..Lor
anyone explain the postage due and how it was i '.e;- t.'"
"the e1d at. top OCTOBI STT AT- I ON at ? '' botm sra le and dated 7.723. The crw/
cachets are not common! re s th nl Ote Sa- i, al--.-e .
Editorial Comment: The treatment of the .i..- -. '0'. / -.
card was determined by the Latvian postal le te m h l .. i .l "
rates of the period.. The foreign postcard rate Fig. 3.
for a maximum of 5 words did not apply here because of the long message and the card was therefore
regarded as a foreign letter. Up to and including 31 March 1928, that rate was 25 santimu, as paid by the
sender. However, the rate had gone up to 30 santimu on 1 April 1928 and so this sending of 10.4.28 was
underpaid by 5 satmnt = satimu double the deficiency = 10 gold centimes per the U.P.U. regulations.
It is assumed here that the Latvian latss" currency was then at par with the gold franc. The exchange rates
were 10 gold centimes = 1 penny sterling = 2c. U.S. = 4 gold kopeks, which complies with the amount
levied on arrival in Leningrad. A goodly item, Leonard!!
Fig. 4 at the top of the next page shows a registered cover to Baku. It bears one of the most common
registration labels reading: "ST. PETERSBURG / P.O. on the Nikolai Railway Line", with an oval
postmark alongside at right. When you turn it over to see the back, a block of six of the 200 r. surcharge on
the 15 k. Arms makes you realise that this is a Soviet cover, not an earlier Imperial one! Then you look at
the strikes of the oval postmark, reading in the new Soviet spelling: PETROGRAD (without the old hard
sign "'a" at the end) at top, OCTOBER STATION at bottom, serial letter "0" and dated 7.7.23. The clerk
obviously did not have any registration labels for the newly-named October Station, so he applied one of
the old pre-Soviet St. Petersburg labels.
Now, this postmark has serial letter "d". There must therefore have been serial letters "a", "b", "v"
and "g". We look to our experts in the Soviet field: what is the earliest recorded oval marking of this type
and when did -the first Soviet labels come into use, matching the inscriptions on the new oval canceller?
Editorial Comment: The rate is correct: 1200 r. 1922 = 12 r. 1923, i.e. 6 r. each for letter and registration.
November 2002

Fig. 5 features a postcard from Voronezh 19.VI.1905 to Khutor Mikhailovskii. There is at bottom left the
transit postmark of TPO/RPO No. 175 Vorozhba-Khutor Mikhailovskii, as well as the arrival postmark of
the destination at top centre, all on the same day. The day and month of receipt had to be written in by
hand: "19/VI".
Finally, we see in Fig. 6 a postcard addressed to Warsaw and showing two strikes of the s.si
mail van for the unnumbered local railway route WARSAW GORA KALWARIA, 22
dated 3.XI. 1912, arriving on the same day. A clearer representation of this interesting 122
marking is shown here by courtesy of our Travelling Post experts, Messrs A.V. VI /
Kiryushkin and P.E. Robinson, to whom many thanks are due. yr ,

Postcard Illustration Wanted!
Tuvan philately continues to be full of surprises and V. Chagin of Krasnoyarsk, writing in "IuniaTenjw "
4/2002, p. 9, states that a pre-WWI card showing a rocky outcrop in his area, issued by Golike & Vil'borg
Co. and inscribed "CHn6pb. OKpecTHOCTH rop. KpacHospcKa. BinHxarilasa CT. EHnceii (OT-b C-
[IeTep6ypra 4695 BepcTb)" was used by the artist V.V. Zav'yalov as the subject for the 15-kop. value in
the Tuvan "Landscape" set of 1935, Gibbons No. 65 (!). Who has such a card, so that we can verify this
action? The Siberian town of Krasnoyarsk is at least 320 km./200 miles from the Tuvan border!

November 2002

by Per-Anders Erixon, Harry von Hofmann, Asst. Prof. David Jay & Andrew Cronin.
Per-Anders Erixon, Sweden.
Regarding the
series of articles on s
this subject, as set i
out in"The Post- -4-
Rider" No. 50, pages .."-
92-99, I can add the '
following items ''
from my collection
of Imperial Russia.
Fig. 1.

I n Fig., I have a letter, showing what appears
a to be the first day of issue of the City Post
stamp in St. Petersburg, being clearly sent on
1V 15 July 1863 O.S. by Joseph Fraget to himself
/L in Warsaw! (Editorial Comment: Moreover,
-Crvv.. v .- fthe letter was underpaid by 5 kopeks for an
interurban sending and yet no postage due was
.. ...___- .... ________, raised. We know from the article by V.V.
Lobachevskii that an order was issued by the
Fig. 2. Postal Department on 1 August 1863 O.S.to
take delivery of 500,000 copies from the State Printing Works (33FB), so did Monsieur Fraget get copies
ahead of time?).
I also have a characteristic Friedrich Breitfuss sending (Fig.2), where he used again a 7-kop./10-
kop. postal stationery envelope, to which were added the City Post stamp and a 2-kop. Arms type. The total
franking covered the registered single-weight foreign rate (7 + 7 kop.) for a letter to a well-known firm of
stamp dealers in London (Pemberton, Wilson & Co.), sent on 30 July 1881 O.S. through the St. Petersburg
Despatch Office for the Receipt of Foreign Mail and where canceller No. 2 was applied.
Harry von Hofmann, Germany.
I can confirm that two of the postal stationery envelopes bearing additional franking of the 5-kop.
City Post stamp and shown on pp. 98-99 of "The Post-Rider" No. 50, are in my collection, as follows:-
(a) A 5-kopek envelope of the St. Petersburg City Post (1845 issue, 170 x 110 mm.), to which a pair of
the 5-kop. City Post stamp was added for a registered interurban single-weight letter sent from St.
Petersburg 1st. Despatch Office 23 March 1885 (per canceller No. 6) to Moscow the next day and
thus overpaid by 1 kopek. It is shown reduced to 70% in Fig. 3 on the next page. Strictly speaking,
the St. Petersburg Local Post envelope was by now invalid and, moreover, it was against regulations
to add stamps to postal stationery. However, examples were tolerated and did go through the post,
especially as Herr Friedrich L. Breitfuss was a respected merchant in the capital.
(b) The second item that I possess is the registered letter sent to Paris on 29 April 1881 O.S.and already
shown on p. 99 of "The Post-Rider" No. 50. It is repeated here in Fig. 4 on the next page at 100%
for the convenience of the members..
November 2002

Assistant Professor David Jay, U.S.A.
I had thought the idea that the 5-kopek City Post rate was valid in summer at the various suburban
offices came from S.V. Prigara, but I could not find it in his book. I know that I have seen it elsewhere
than in the Journal of Classic Russian Philately, but I cannot recall where.
Imperial Russian stamps are known for their fine engraving, carefully chosen colours and precise
production. The 5-kopek City Post stamp of 1863 in grey, black and blue is a fine example of the aesthetic
quality of Imperial stamp design and production.
Further to my second paragraph on p. 93 of "The Post-Rider" No. 50, examples from this
correspondence exhibit two peculiarities. Firstly, the Petergof cancels are all light to indistinct. In two
cases, that has caused the St. Petersburg City Post Office to obliterate the stamp with the red receiving
mark. That receiver was, at least in the case of the letter posted on 23 June, repeated in the expected
location on the back of the letter. It is likely that the obliteration of the stamp in red was a step taken to
prevent re-use of a lightly cancelled stamp, which could probably have easily been done on this dark
coloured stamp. The second peculiarity is that of the writer, C.F. Neuenkirchen, who constantly ran words
off the right edge of the paper, or over the fold of the letter sheet, giving the letters of that correspondence a
distinctive style.
Andrew Cronin, Canada.
Referring first of all to the registered letter of 23.3.1885 O.S. sent to Moscow, as held by our
respected colleague Harry von Hofmann and featured here in Fig. 3, the handwriting does not appear to be
that of Friedrich Breitfuss, as it is not inclined slightly to the left. However, the cover was addressed to
John (Johann?) Siewert, an ethnic German merchant and noted philatelist in Moscow. As with Herr
Breitfuss, he knew English and conducted an international correspondence with foreign collectors, as
November 2002

confirmed by the postcards and covers he sent during the last quarter of the 19th. century. In other words, he
was a contemporary ofFriedrich Breitfuss. The mail sent by him is well worth looking for.

uI '. '- ."
77 ,, (

6. -, .; ,-

Fig. 5. Fig. 6.
The registered letter of 26 February 1881 O.S. with a pair of the 5-kop. City Post stamp and sent to
Bologna, Italy (p. 99 of "The Post-Rider" No. 50) has now turned up as Lot 2249 in the Cherrystone
Auction of 25-26 September 2002, with an estimated value of US $3500.00. It is shown here in Fig. 5.
Getting back to Herr Breitfuss, he certainly had a soft spot for postal stationery, as we can see on p.
12 of the February 2002 issue of "Philatelie" (official organ of the Federation of German Philatelists) an
unissued 7 kop./20 kop. postal stationery envelope, sent by him on 29 June 1881 O.S.(per SPB Despatch
Office for the Receipt of Foreign Mail, canceller No. 2) to J.B. Moens, the well-known Belgian dealer in
Brussels (Fig.6). The starting price was DM 300,- and it sold for DM 3550,- (roughly US $ 1780.00!).
Moreover, it seems that Herr Breitfuss had
obtained 100 copies of this unissued item
in 1881 and sent another example within ;
the Empire as a double-weight registered
letter four days later on 3 July 1881 O.S.
to Samuel Koprovskii in Dyatkevichi, via uHAT KGO
Rovno in Volyn' province (Fig 7). It
was included in a collection of Russian
was included in a collection of Russian AUSGABE 1880/81 Die Wertstufe 7 Kopeken hunter 20 Kopeken blau
postal stationery as Lot 163 in the 275t. kam nicht zur Ausgabe. Es gelangten aber 100 StUck in den Besitz
eines Petersburger Sammlers der auch einige Umschlage unbean-
Gotz Auction 19.8.2002 in Germany. standet durch die Post gehen lieB (hier auf Umschlag nach Rowno)
In checking his Imperial Russian
postal stationery, your editor has found
a 7-kopek envelope of the 1879 issue
(140 x 60 mm.), used by Herr Breitfuss .
on 9 April 1882 O.S. (SPB Despatch
Office canceller No. 2) in writing to the
noted Viennese dealer Sigmund Friedl ,-
(Fg8); illustration on the next page. ,
Members will surely agree that his /L, -, *
distinctive handwriting is a dead V -' .
In summing up, it seems likely /vA
that further usages of the 5-kop. City "-
Post stamp will turn up and we will then -, .
be able to assign degrees of rarity for the '
various categories of application. It is a /''^^,-'^^"
fascinating issue, to say the least. Fig. 7.
November 2002

Jut.v TH, 1931. 31 Philatelic Magazine.


We can supply the NEW ZEPPELIN STAMPS issued on the occasion of
the flight of the


from Leningrad to the North Pole.

The values to be placed on Sale are
30k., 35k., Ir. and 2r.
The design shows the ice-breaker .Maliguine, which is escorting the Graf
Zeppelin to the North Pole and which will take on board the mail from the
We will accept mail at Leningrad for Franz Josef Land and for the submarine.
All letters will be franked with the new stamps. At Leningrad and at all points
of call in the Arctic special cachets will be used.
Mail will be brought back from the North Pole by the .l[aligiiine.

Address all Orders to:-
Nastasjnskj per 3, Moscow 50, U.S.S.R.
(Telegraphic Address: Moscnw-F-il:tclic).

WHOLESALE ONLY.-Cash with order by cheque or banknotes. We do not under-
take responsibility for the delivery of letters sent by the airship. No money returned.
\!; -----W--------- ^-E
November 2002



A worthwhile project
would be the continued
search of postal items
sent by Herr Breitfuss in
his philatelic mail,
as more surprises may
still await us. They
would also be notable
examples of
L "Germanica".
Fig. 8.
See also p. 115.

by Henry Blum.

The full-page advertisement taken
here from p. 31 of the "Philatelic
Magazine" issue for 4 July 1931 is
of interest to aerophilatelists and is
also an important indication of how
the Soviet Philatelic Association did
business with potential customers
abroad 71 years ago. At that time,
the demand for airmail stamps and
special flights was both high and
constantly increasing. In short, the
Soviet Philatelic Association
struck while the iron was hot!

by Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan.
10 kop. surcharge by rubber handstamps of two types in black or red (in shades) ink

10 kop. Type 1 in black on 100 R. imperf. (orange) used on a cover sent from Delizhan,
22.02.23 to Erivan, 26.02.1923 at the correct 10k. rate for a Registered intercity letter

Type 1

Type 2

Type 1 in black
retouched plate (doted)

Type 2 in black
double strike

Type 2
in black-red

Type 2
in red

10 kop. Type 2 in black on 100 R. imperf. used on a Registered local letter sent and
received in Alexandropol on 8.05.23 at the correct 10 kop. Famine relief not charged

November 2002


April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

10 kopeck surcharge by metal (Type 3,4) handstamps in black ink

Type 4
recorded only

Scarce use on cover of 10 k. surcharge Type 4 on 100 R. imp. used on a Registered local letter sent and
received in Alexandropol, 26.03.23 franked at the correct total 12 k. rate ( 4 k. Famine relief tax included)

Type 3

..... ...A' ... :72., "2""^"'?.', ',*:-- 2:" -'''. "' *.'-

RR. .
Rare use on cover of 10 kopType 3 Inverted on a pair of 100 Roub. impe. on an underfranked Registered foreign
-, -t .- ,

,-i'- ..J'." : *

.. .. .. ... .* '." ":'. '..-' ." : ,,- -'*.".". '* -. ,. :.

--",' **-.-' .;.-"' .-' ,^ ^ "/^.:''- -' '.-: *";: .

letter sent from Erivan, 6.03.1923 to Leipzig, 23.03.1923, in Germany franked at 21 Gold kop. rate with 6 kop. deficiency.

November 2002

April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set

15 kop. surcharge by rubber (Type 1) and metal (Type 2) handstamps in black

Type 1

Type 2

Type 2 in black

15 kop. Type 1 on 250 Roub. imp. used on a Registered intercity letter sent from
Alexandropol, 24.02.23 to Erivan, 27.02.1923, franked at the correct total 15 kopeck
rate ( 5 kop. for an Ordinary intercity letter, 5 kop. as a Registry, added 50 % of the
rate as Famine releif tax in amount of 5 Gold kop.). Thus, the franking with a single
copy of a 15kop./ 250 Rub. secures the Famine releif tax being charged.

Type 2 in black
on perf. 250 R.

A complete variety of the 37-th stamp

A "complete" variety of
the 37-th stamp
in its late print on the
upper & lower panes,
each pane 16 X 9

A block of ten of imperf. 250 Rouble with the "complete" variety of the 37-th stamp.
Note variations of the 15 kop Type 1 surcharge due to degree of inking and pressure

November 2002

_ ~I_

by Gregory Epshtein.
With the onset of autumn each year, the attention of the whole world is turned to two of the
Northern capitals: Stockholm and Oslo. Here on the 21st. October, i.e. the birthday of Alfred Nobel, the
Swedish Academy of Sciences and a Special Committee of the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) announce
the awards of the special Nobel Prizes for the current year. These prizes in the areas of Science, Literature
and Humanitarian Activities have become the most prestigious in the world in the history of the past
The founder of this basis was the Swedish chemical engineer, inventor and businessman, Alfred
Nobel. The safe Nobel explosive, as it was then called, permitted the accomplishment of such unique
projects as the laying of a railway line in the Alps, the removal of submerged rocks in the East River in the
New York area and many other works. All of these activities resulted in enormous capital gains for Alfred
A year before his death, Alfred Nobel set up his famous suggestion, on the basis of which there was
established a Special Fund, designated as "....being for the annual awarding of prizes of money to those
persons who, in the course of the preceding years, have been able to bring about the greatest possible
benefit to mankind". The sum of 31 million Swedish crowns was handed over to the Fund, corresponding at
that time to 8.5 million dollars. According to the appraisement of experts, the Nobel Fund now has at its
disposal 250 million Swedish crowns.
In accordance with the wishes of Alfred Nobel, the Awards Fund is divided annually into five equal
parts for work in the various spheres of scientific and humanitarian activities. One of the parts of the Fund
is awarded for work in the area of physics, another for achievements in chemistry and a third for advances
in medicine and biology. A fourth part is designated for the author of an outstanding literary production and
the fifth for a political or public personage, who has made the greatest contribution in the area of
strengthening the cooperation among nations.
The international authority of the Nobel Prizes is especially high. Every year, the portraits and
biographies of consecutive laureates appear on the front pages of newspapers around the world. Kings and
Presidents send the laureates their congratulations. In what manner is such a high evaluation of these prizes
determined? One of the answers is obvious and is derived from the unusually high monetary compensation.
The amount of each prize during the first awards in 1901 came to 150,000 Swedish crowns or 42,000
dollars. That sum was 70 times greater than the monetary compensation in awarding the Rumford Medal of
the Royal Society in London and was five times greater then the annual budget of the Cavendish
Laboratory in Cambridge, England.
However, it is not just a question of monetary compensation. The establishment of these awards
came about in an epoch of truly revolutionary changes in the field of the natural sciences. The discoveries
in that era determined the development of science and the progress of technology for many decades. Let us
remember that among the laureates in the first years were W. R'dntgen, Marie and Pierre Curie, J. Thomson
& E. Rutherford, R. Koch and I. Pavlov, I. Bunin and R. Rolland, H. Dunant and T. Roosevelt.
The adjudication of the Nobel Prizes and the ceremony of their bestowal are an event of national
importance for the Swedish people. The media of television, radio and newspapers disseminate the
biographies of the new laureates, giving short and of course popular descriptions of the achievements, for
which the scientists, men of letters and political leaders have been honoured with such high prizes. The
bestowal of the awards is carried out on 10th. December, the day that Alfred Nobel died, in solemn
surroundings and in the presence of the King of Sweden.
During the course of 100 years, the Nobel laureates have become the representatives of many
countries on all continents. In connection with such an occurrence, it is not advisable to accentuate the
origins of the laureates to a specific country. The subject becomes even more complicated when we note
that many scientists and writers attained recognition and high awards not in their native countries in the full
meaning of such cases, but in places where they carried out their professional activities.
The high intellectual potential of Russia is well known. Unfortunately, the social cataclysms
throughout the whole of the past century were an obstacle in the development of science and culture. A
whole series of outstanding cultural personages was :obliged to leave Russia for political reasons. However,
November 2002

Russia has contributed achievements of international importance in the fields of Science and Culture, which
were marked by Nobel Prizes.
The first representative of Russia, who received the Nobel Prize in 1904 was the physiologist I.P.
Pavlov. His investigations in the fields of physiology, circulation of the blood, digestion and of the upper
nervous centre received international recognition. I.P. Pavlov warmly welcomed the February Revolution
in Russia, but did not accept the October Revolution. In experiencing all the burdens of post-revolutionary
life in Petrograd, he submitted a petition in 1920, in which he wrote: "I most humbly ask the Council of
People's Commissars to allow me to begin correspondence (even if controlled) with my scientific comrades
and friends abroad about the search of a place for me outside the motherland" and, further: "both my wife
and I find that we are feeding ourselves badly both in quality and in quantity (we have not seen white bread
for years, nor milk or meat for weeks)". The authority of I. Pavlov was very high in the world and that
compelled the Council of People's Commissars to issue a unique decree, signed by V.I. Lenin and headed:
"About the conditions for guaranteeing the scientific work of Academician I.P. Pavlov and his
collaborators". This stipulation was repeatedly set out in various official publications, but for some reason
or other without the letter from I.P. Pavlov.
Quite a few countries have devoted special postal issues, covers and postmarks to the memory of
I.P. Pavlov. The USSR issued a set of two stamps (Scott Nos. 1390-1391) in 1949 on the 100th. anniversary
of his birth and the portrait of I.P. Pavlov was taken from the painting of the well-known artist M.V.
Nesterov. Stamps were issued twice again in Russia with the portrait of I.P. Pavlov (3649, 5999) and a set
of three was put out by Argentina for the 21st. International Congress of Physiologists (No. 684); there were
also portraits ofB. Harvey and Claude Bernard in that set. In various years, the following countries devoted
issues of stamps to I.P. Pavlov: Cuba (3486), Hungary (3217), Romania (873), Saint Vincent (2218e) and
Sweden (674, 676). It is well known that collecting stamps was a favourite pastime of I.P. Pavlov and to
which he devoted his leisure time. He would say to his doctors that "stamps work better for me than your
Potassium Bromide" (Translator's Note: Potassium Bromide was a traditional sedative)
.Yet another Russian physiologist was awarded a Nobel Prize. In 1908 the Prize was awarded to I.I.
Mechnikov (together with P. Ehrlich). I.I. Mechnikov was born in Khar'kov province. After completing his
studies at Khar'kov University, he worked at the "New Russia" University in Odessa. In 1886, he organised
the first bacteriological station in Russia and the works of Mechnikov in the creative development of the
teachings of C. Darwin have great significance for biologists. I.I. Mechnikov was the first in Russia to
organise grafts against Siberian ulcers. His greatest achievement was his formulation of the Phagocytic
Theory of Immunity, which formed the basis for the development of microbiology and gerontology.
However, this Theory by Mechnikov did not garner support among Russian biologists and he was
compelled to go abroad. In 1886, he began to work at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in the capacity of Head
of Laboratory and then as Deputy Director of the Institute. A postage stamp was issued by France (B398)
on the day of the 50th. anniversary of his death, showing a portrait of Mechnikov and with the Pasteur
Institute in the background. Postage stamps devoted to Mechnikov were issued by Russia (1101-1102, 2803
& 6000) and Sweden (804-807).
The American microbiologist S. Waksman(Comoro Islands, 254; Gambia, 910) was born in Priluky
in the Ukraine. He emigrated to the United States in 1922 and, in 1944, he synthesized streptomycin, which
was the first antibiotic and he even coined its name. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1952 for
achievements in the areas of medicine and biology.
Three physicists from Russia Pavel Cherenkov (Russia 625; St. Vincent 2218d), Igor' Tamm
(Guyana 3007) and Il'ya Frank received Nobel Diplomas in 1958 for the "Discovery and Explanation of
the Cherenkov Effect". S. Vavilov and P. Cherenkov had discovered the effect of lighting on solutions
under the activities of gamma-rays; I. Tamm and I. Frank gave a theoretical analysis of this manifestation.
The role of I. Tamm in contemporary atomic physics should be especially noted; he and his pupil A.D.
Sakharov elaborated the principle of the magnetic thermonuclear reactor. If E. Teller is regarded as the
"father" of the American hydrogen bomb, then A.D. Sakharov would be by rights the "father" of the Soviet
hydrogen bomb and his fate was unusual. This foremost scientist made a great contribution to
contemporary physics and in the elaboration of the Atomic Programme in the USSR. He started a campaign
in 1961 against the testing of atomic and hydrogen bombs in the atmosphere by the countries possessing
November 2002

atomic weapons. At that time, A.D. Sakharov was carrying out a wide campaign in the country for civil
rights. From that moment onwards, humanitarian activities became the main role for A.D. Sakharov and
constituted an opposition to the Soviet government. His high intellect and moral qualities brought together
around him a large group of adherents. In 1980, A.D. Sakharov was exiled from Moscow to Gor'kii, where
he remained until 1986. Returning then to Moscow, A.D. Sakharov entered again into the political life of
the country and was elected a member of the Supreme Soviet. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in
1975 for outstanding services in the fight for peace and disarmament. Postage stamps in honour of A.D.
Sakharov were issued in Russia (6001), Sweden (1917), Antigua & Barbuda (1988e).
The President of the Soviet Union, M. Gorbachev, was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace
(Guinea 1136). Thanks to the efforts of M. Gorbachev, the beginning of the end was laid of the Cold War
and an important event at that time was the union of the Western and Eastern parts of Germany.
In 1964, the Soviet physicists A. Prokhorov (St. Vincent 2218) & N. Basov, together with the
American physicist C. Towns (St. Vincent 2218d) were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for
"Fundamental work in the field of quantum electrics". The investigation of processes, originating in optical
quantum generators, was the basis from which lasers and masers of various types and designations were
produced. Masers were used as the basis for setting up atomic clocks.
The physicist and chemist, Academician N.N. Semenov (Russia 6301; Malagasy 1132j) established
a new direction in science: the study of chemical processes. He developed the theory of detonating and
combusting explosive matter. There was developed from this basis a perspectival direction in technology:
the working of materials by shock waves. There was founded on the basis of the work by N.N. Semenov
the science of conditions and rapidity of flow of chemical reactions. This branch of science is nowadays
called "chemical kinetics". In 1956, N.N. Semenov and the British chemist Sir C. Hinshielwood were
awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
The Belgian physicist and chemist I. Prigojine (rIIpnroxMH Sweden 1712) was born in Moscow in
1917. In 1921, the Prigozhin/Prigojine family emigrated from Russia and, in 1977, he received a Nobel
Prize "for work in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes".
When we refer to people who have been awarded the highest awards in the world, then we are
naturally speaking about outstanding personages. But even in this area, there are people about whom we
have to say something special, namely P.L. Kapitsa. The fate of this man was unusual. Upon completing
his studies at the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute in 1918, he became one of the first collaborators of the
Institute of Technical Physics, organised by A.F. Ioffe. P.L.Kapitsa was soon assigned for postgraduate
work in England. As it turned out, the Russian Government came to understand that it was necessary to
revive the scientific potential of the country, which had been disrupted by the years of revolution and civil
war. Many scientists from Russia were holding positions in the various scientific centres in Europe, among
them being A.F. Ioffe, N.N. Semenov and Ya.I. Frenkel'. After beginning work at the Cavendish
Laboratory under the leadership of E. Rutherford, P.L. Kapitsa soon became one of the leading scientific
collaborators and Rutherford organised a special laboratory for him. The scientific work of P.L. Kapitsa
was so successful that he was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1925, which was the English
equivalent of an Academy of Sciences. He arrived in the USSR in 1934 for the preparation of plans for
mutual scientific projects with the physicists living in the Soviet Union. However, the Soviet government
did not allow him to return to England. It is hard to say what talks went on at that time between P.L.
Kapitsa and the government, but as a probable inducement for him, it was permitted to establish a new
Institute of Physical Problems, which he directed for many years. E. Rutherford deeply regretted the
departure of his esteemed collaborator and Robert Jung, the author of the well-known book "The
Brightness of a Thousand Suns", wrote: "The departure of Kapitsa deeply affected not only Rutherford; it
also exerted a destructive influence on the Cavendish Laboratory". Nevertheless, E. Rutherford regarded it
as permissible to hand over free of charge to the Soviet Union the entire equipment of the Kapitsa
Laboratory. E. Rutherford said that this equipment would not work without Kapitsa and that Kapitsa could
not work without this equipment.
P.L. Kapitsa arrived in Moscow at a difficult time. A new wave of the Stalinist terror was gathering
force (for those who are young in years and who would have a poor understanding of the circumstances in
the country at that time, I would recommend the reading of the book by A. Rybakov "1933 and other years")
November 2002

(A.PbI6aKOB: "Fo TPuHuaTb TpeTfiH H Apyrne"). It is difficult to evaluate the courage of people,
displaying high moral principles in such extreme conditions. One of them was P.L. Kapitsa. In 1936, the
Party and government press began a witch hunt against a well-known mathematician, the Academician
N.N. Luzin. The well-worn slogans of "unmasked enemy and anti-Soviet person", etc. were trotted out and
N.N. Luzin was expelled from the Moscow State University. P.L. Kapitsa wrote a letter to V.M. Molotov,
asking for an explanation of the absurdity of the accusations directed against N.N. Luzin, bearing in mind
his importance for Soviet and world science. Two days later, P.L. Kapitsa received his letter back with the
notation: "Because of irrelevance, return to Citizen Kapitsa. V. Molotov".
The well-known physicist and theoretician V.A. Fok was arrested in 1937 and, once again, P.L.
Kapitsa entered into the battle on his behalf. He wrote a letter about the matter to V.I. Mezhlauk, Vice-
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. As he did not receive a satisfactory reply,
P.L. Kapitsa wrote to I.V. Stalin, saying: "The arrest of V.A. Fok is an act of brutal treatment of a scientist,
in the same way as the rough treatment of a machine spoils its operation. Smearing the ability of V.A. Fok
to work will do damage to international science". People of the older generation can certainly evaluate the
bravery and perhaps even the audacity of such a step. Anyway, V.A. Fok was soon freed.
One of the most remarkable achievements of P.L. Kapitsa was the discovery by him of a hitherto
unknown appearance of the superfluidity of helium at temperatures near absolute zero. The theoretical
analysis of this appearance was worked out by L.D. Landau, who was the Director of the Theoretical
Department in the Kapitsa Institute. However, the work was unexpectedly interrupted, since L.D. Landau
was arrested in May 1938. Many years later, he wrote: "I was arrested because of a stupid denunciation and
they accused me of being a German spy. I was in prison for a year and it was even clear that I would not
last for another six months; I was frankly dying". P.L. Kapitsa turned to the government and demanded the
immediate release of L.D. Landau. He declared that, otherwise, he would leave the Institute. L.D. Landau
was freed.
In 1946, there was a sharp twist in the fate of P.L. Kapitsa, as he refused to participate in the
Uranium Project. Immediately after that, a Commission was sent to the Institute of Problems in Physics and
that Commission determined that the activity of the Institute was not essential and that the style of work
was incorrect (being regarded as too democratic). P.L. Kapitsa was obliged to leave the Institute and he
went over to his summer cottage not far from Moscow, where he lived practically secluded for several
years. He built a little laboratory in modest sheds attached to the house and he worked there for several
P.L. Kapitsa (Russia 6224; St. Vincent 2218f) was elected an Honorary Member of the Academies
and Universities of 25 countries. In 1978, he was awarded the Nobel Prize, which he shared with A.
Pinzeas and R. Wilson.
The outstanding physicist and theoretician L.D. Landau (Israel 1330d, St. Vincent 1563e, 2218g)
made a whole series of fundamental discoveries in various fields of physics. He gave a theoretical
explanation for the appearance of the superfluidity of helium, which had been determined by P.L. Kapitsa.
L.D. Landau and E. Lifshits set up a unique course in Theoretical Physics in many volumes, which were
translated into many languages. In 1962, L.D. Landau was a victim in a serious automobile accident and
with the aid of efforts by scientists of various countries, he remained alive, but was completely paralysed.
In that same year, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in the field of Theoretical Physics .and it
was handed over by the ambassador of Sweden in Moscow.
The Nobel Prize was received in 2000 by Academician E. Alferov, director of the Institute of
Physics and Technics in St. Petersburg for his work in the field of semiconductor techniques.
Five Russian writers were awarded the Nobel Prize. I.A. Bunin (Russia 5938, St. Vincent 2218e)
was the first of the Russian authors to receive this award in 1933. After graduating from the Moscow
University, he worked as a journalist. In 1903, I.A. Bunin received the Award of the Academy of Sciences
named after A.S. Pushkin for his translations of the American poet H.W. Longfellow and of the English
poet G.G. Byron. He emigrated to France after the Revolution. I.A. Bunin was known as the author of
realistic novellas and short stories, in which he described the hard life of people in the lower depths. There
flows in the works of I.A. Bunin a remarkably pure and lucid style of the Russian language.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Russia 5368-5370, 5940) was born and lived in a Cossack
November 2002

"cTaHHLa" (Cossack village) on the Don river. The majority of the works of Sholokhov are devoted to the
dramatic events and lives of the people in that region. His best known novel is "THxHI AOH", which was
translated into English as "And quiet flows the Don". After World War II, Sholokhov wrote the trilogy
"They fought for their country". He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1965.
The Nobel laureate A.I. Solzhenitsyn (Antigua & Barbuda 1970c) was born in Kislovodsk and
served in the army during World War II. Because of a denunciation by a person with whom he had
correspondence, Solzhenitsyn was arrested and sentenced to 8 years in a camp. The lives of prisoners in
concentration camps were described by Solzhenitsyn in the widely known novella "A day in the life of Ivan
Denisovich". He also wrote a series of other creations from a social viewpoint, the greatest for which were
the works "The GULAG Archipelago" and "The Cancer Ward", in which he sharply criticised the existing
regime in the Soviet Union. He was deprived of Soviet citizenship for anti-Soviet activity and deported
from the country. The award of the Nobel Prize to Solzhenitsyn in 1970 was carried out at the height of the
Cold War, when the social problems in the USSR were especially severe. Soviet citizenship was restored to
Solzhenitsyn during the period of Perestroika and he returned to Russia.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russia 6224) was one of the brightest figures in Soviet literature. His
early works were noted for their modernist tendencies, in which the appearance of nature and history were
associated with his philosophical representations of those years. Those works were subjected to sharp
criticism, as they did not fall within the officially accepted standards of Socialist Realism and he was
obliged to concern himself with translations of the classics of international literature. The novel "Doctor
Zhivago" written by him was published in 1957 in the West and it described the life of the Russian
intelligentsia during the first years of Communist rule in Russia. The novel was subjected to severe
criticism in the Soviet Union, but received wide recognition and distribution in the West. As a result, he
was expelled from the Union of Soviet Writers. B.L. Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
in 1958, but under pressure from the means of mass information, he was forced to decline the Prize.
The American poet losif Brodskii (Nicaragua 2139k) who was born in Russia, received the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1987. I. Brodskii began writing verses from an early age. Much of his verse was of a
clearly anti-Communist and anti-establishment character and that was the reason for his expulsion from
secondary school. Everything that he achieved was the result of being self-taught. In 1964, I. Brodskii was
sentenced for his verses to five years in a concentration camp. He was subsequently deported from the
Soviet Union and he settled in the United States. The poetry and prose of I. Brodskii is widely known in
various countries and a large collection, titled "Selected Verse" was translated into English by the author.
In addition to his literary activity, I. Brodskii lectured in several American universities.
There was no provision in the will of Alfred Nobel for prizes in the areas of mathematics and
economics and the reasons for such exclusion are unknown. On the occasion of the 300th. anniversary of its
foundation, the Bank of Sweden presented in 1968 a proposal for the establishment of a Prize in the field of
economics. After some wavering, the Royal Academy of Sweden took upon itself the obligation for
presenting such an award, corresponding already with the principles and rules existing for the awards
established by Alfred Nobel, but the Bank of Sweden would itself bear the cost of the monetary
compensation. Officially, that award was named as the Prize for Economics in memory of Alfred Nobel,
but it is often erroneously called the Nobel Prize,with the same level as the other awards. The Russian
economist L.V. Kantorovich was presented in 1975 with the award in memory of Alfred Nobel (Maldive
Islands 2571e). Finally, the Nobel laureate Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa once said: "The significance of the
Nobel Prize as the greatest award in the world is widely recognized".
Something by the way of statistics:
There were 706 Nobel Diplomas and Medals awarded in the period from 1901 to 2001. Only four Nobel
laureates were awarded the Prizes twice: M. Sktodowska-Curie (for physics in 1903 and chemistry in
1911), L. Pauling (for chemistry in 1956 and the Prize for Peace in 1962), J. Bardeen (for physics in 1956
and 1972) and F. Sanger (for chemistry in 1958 and 1980). Some family collections of Nobel diplomas are
known and the record is held by the Curie family: Marie Sktodowska-Curie two diplomas. Her husband
Pierre Curie was also a laureate, as well as their daughter Irene and son-in-law Fr6ddric Joliot-Curie. Prizes
were also awarded to fathers and sons: Joseph & George Thomson, W.H. & W.L. Bragg, Karl & Kai
Siegbahn, Hans & Wilhelm von Eiler, Nils & Oge Bohr. Three men refused the Nobel Prize: the Soviet
November 2002

writer B.L. Pasternak did so under pressure from the Soviet government and the Union of Soviet Writers;
the French author Jean-Paul Sartre declared that "...he did not want to be reduced to being a common
institution" and the third nominee Le Dak Tho of North Vietnam refused to accept the Prize for political
reasons. The youngest laureate was the British physicist William Lawrence Bragg, who received the Prize
at 25 years of age. The longest wait for the Prize went to the American physiologist Francis Rose. The
Nobel Committee only evaluated his work in studying sarcoma 55 years after his discovery had been made.
There is an especially small percentage of women among the award winners a mere 3.5%. The greatest
contribution by women was made in strengthening peace and in the development of literature.
Some philatelic material relating to this article is set out below.

Scott 2218e Scott 3007b


S/lawy'am Ho,MAeWwl n4,A'
tn.lAp epe6 O4-1990
Scott 6225

150 c-

)laypeam HoameM npemuu
MA Kapuwa 1894-1984
Scott 6224

Scott 1330d

Scott 1917

Scott 873

c 750

Scott 6301
Scott 6301

Scott 1390

Scott 2218j

Scott 1970c

Scott 3007c

Editorial Comment: Grigorii Epshtein has provided us with most interesting data in the above article. Re
the translations from other languages done by Soviet writers, that did not mean that they were fluent in
those languages. Literal translations into Russian were done by native speakers and they were then
reworked into Russian poetic and prose style by writers such as B.L. Pasternak. That type of activity
proved to be a safe haven for quite a few Soviet writers during the years of Stalinist terror, as the texts
chosen for translation turned out to be ideologically acceptable to the authorities. Please refer to the next
page for a collage of further stamps and postal stationery, as kindly supplied by Mr. Epshtein. Comments
and additional information from members would be appreciated.

November 2002

organis6e par le Cercle Phllati6ique FRANCE-U. R. S. S.
et la Societ6 des Philat611stes de I'Union Sovldtlque,



0:4M 1- .F

B aeK ndepHou ,nepzuu, ioeda c/3cKtt
cod39aAu cTpautmoe op]ipcue ,tero iOce-
0H, an a 6e3yna t np.cryn7a.

B eBhepo epeuu, Oa 3HKI

.naypeaT Jlennicuoii,
FocvylapCTBeiinoii H
Hone.nencxofi npeMiii In the age of nuclear energy, when
a Itay (1908-1968) weapon of destruction, war is a craze
and a crime
Prominent physicist L. LANDAU
Academician Lev Lan-
dau. Lenin, State and
Nobel Prize winner am

November 2002

; .... .'
H. M E 4 HIKOB'0
1 846-1 91

repol CouNajiKcTmecuoro TpyAa
aAeotex AH CCCP M. E. TAMM 1895-1971

By Alex Artuchov
(continued from No. 50)

10th Edition (1882, end of)
On white paper 0.08 mm thick; brownish gray gum; coarser corer numerals; sheet of 8 x
8 with 4 types placed vertically and repeated twice in each vertical row; perforated
differently from all previous editions at 11.5; the blue stamp is known imperforate
vertically; some traces of corer numeral outlines are visible on stamps 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 34,
37, 40, 41, 52 and 53.

21. 3 kop. blue, light or dark

22. 3 kop. yellow
Variety: FPH instead of TPH

The Sheet

1111 1111
3333 3 3 3 3
44444 4 4 4
1111 1111
2222 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4444 4 444



The 4 Transfer Types:
The four transfer types of this issue, as in most of the preceding issues, can be identified
by differences in the corer numerals of value which in this case are rather difficult to

The top of the numeral 3 in the NW corer of type 3 touches the white frameline on the
left and the letter k of type 4 in the NW corer has a long curved bottom stroke.

11th Edition (1882 ?)
Printed on thin white paper 0.06 mm thick, thickly applied brittle white gum which
causes the front of the stamp to appear crinkled, poorly formed corer numerals, sheet of
10 x 6 (?), with guide dots in right and left sheet margins between the 3rd and 4th rows, 5

November 2002

types placed vertically 10 times across the sheet and with a 6h and irregular row as
illustrated below, perforated 11.5.

23. 3 kop. lilac blue RR
(11 copies known)

24. 3 kop. yellow (postage due)
Variety: The left upper 3 has a long upper stroke (21st stamp of the sheet)

The Sheet

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
1 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 3
~5_ J 5_5 5_ 5_5_ 5 5 55
i_ 4_ 5_ 4_ 5_ 45 ^ 4_ 5


12th Edition (1883, February)
Printed on white paper 0.08 mm thick, light brown gum, sheet of 11 x 7 with 6 types
placed horizontally, perforated 11.5 and also known double perforated horizontally
through the stamp and perforated vertically through the stamp.

25. 3 kop. bright ultramarine blue 4.00

26. 3 kop. golden yellow (postage due) 3.00

The Sheet

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5

November 2002

The 6 Transfer Types of the 12th Edition:
As on the previous editions of this issue, the 6 types can be identified by differences in
the corer numerals. In addition, the following minor flaws have also been noted:

Type 1 A small blue of yellow triangular spot of colour on the white outline over
the SE numeral 3.
Type 2 The outline of the oval under the SW numeral 3 and over the letter EM is
defective, there is a small dot on the top horizontal stroke of the numeral 3
in the NE corer.
Type 3- The outline of the oval under the numeral 3 in the NE corer and over the
letters Bib is defective.
Type 4 There are spots of colour inside the 4t and 5t links (counting from the
bottom)of the chain like frame on the left, there is a spot of colour over the
letter E of 3EMCKAAI, the outline of the blue or yellow background
with 3 k in the NE corner is damaged above the numeral 3.
Type 5 There is a bulge in the oval outline under the letter 3 and over the letters
53 in the SE corer, the blue or yellow background with 3 k in the NE
corer touches the 2nd link of the chain like frame above it.
Type 6 A short white line connects the top of the numeral 3 in the SE corer to the
white frameline, the blue or yellow background with 3 k in the NW corer
touches the 2nd link in the chain like frame on the right side.

1885 (August 1 November 14)
21.25 x 30 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 11 x 6,
perforated 11.5.

These stamps display a good number of plate flaws and can probably be plated.

27. 3 kop. blue 1.00

28. 3 kop. red, light or dark 1.00

1886 (October 15)
19.66 x 27 27.5 mm lithographed in black or colour on white paper 0.09 mm thick,
yellowish white gum, sheet of 10 x 10 in 4 panes of 25 stamps each (5 x 5) with a 14
mm horizontal and 14.75 mm vertical space between the panes, perforated 11.5, the black
stamp is also known imperforate horizontally or vertically.

November 2002

29. 3 kop. black on a gray paper 1.00

30. 3 kop. violet 1.00

Without gum and imperforate

A. On white chalky paper 0.09 mm thick
3 kop. black
S3 kop. violet
-3 kop. brown violet
3 kop. violet red

B. Ordinary, yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick
3 kop. dark violet

C. Thin gray paper 0.06 m thick
3 kop. black

1888 (April)
New design 18.5 x 24.5 mm, typographed on yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick, shiny
yellowish gum, ornaments in covers, sheet of 10 x 10 in 4 panes of 5 x 5, horizontal and
vertical distance between the panes is 21.5 mm perforated 12.5 as well as imperforate
and perforated vertically through the middle and also known double perforated

31. 3 kop. light blue green 0.75

32. 3 kop. rose red 0.75

November 2002

A. On white paper 0.1 mm thick, without gum and imperforate
3 kop. violet
3 kop. blue green

B. On white paper, perforated 12.5 and imperforate as well as single double and
triple imperforate horizontally
3 kop. blue green

C. On white chalky paper, in small sheets of 3 x 2, printed as a photographic
negative with all portions that are supposed to be dark in a light colour and
3 kop. black

1888 1891
Similar to the 3 kop. stamp of the previous issue, ornaments in the bottom corners are
removed, 2 editions.

First Edition (1888)
On yellowish white vertically laid paper 0.12 mm thick, shiny brownish yellow gum,
sheet of 8 x 8 in 4 panes of 4 x 4 the horizontal space between panes 14.5 mm and 20.25
for the vertical space, perforated 12.5.

33. 3 kop. dark green 0.50

Second Edition (1891 1892)
On greenish paper 0.07 mm thick and yellowish paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet
of 10 x 10, perforated 12.5 .

34. 3 kop. blue on light green paper 0.50

35. 3 kop. red on yellow paper 0.50

1893 1895
Similar to the previous edition but with arrow shaped ornaments in the bottom corners,
sheet of 10 x 10, 2 editions.

November 2002

First Edition (1893)
Similar to the blue on green paper stamp of the previous edition, perforated 12.5 and

36. 3 kop. blue 0.50

Second Edition (1895, June)
Coloured paper 0.11 mm thick, white shiny gum, perforated 12.5 and imperforate.

37. 3 kop. dark green on a light green paper 0.50

38. 3 kop. red on light rose paper 0.50

Proofs of the Second Edition:
On coloured paper 0.07 mm thick, without gum and imperforate
3 kop. red on rose paper (the same as for the issued stamps)
3 kop. green on light green paper (same as for issued stamps)
-3 kop. green on light lilac paper
-3 kop. green on rose paper
3 kop. red on light lilac paper
3 kop. red on light green paper

The Starobelsk Zemsto Post was closed in 1904

Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:






November 2002

by Alan Leighton.
(Editorial Comment: The information set out here has been supplemented by the convenient insertion in
the proper consecutive order of the details of the registered cover No. 758, held by Professor John Osburn
and it is also illustrated below. Data on further unlisted usages in the possession of members would be most

welcome) o

Address Reg. Date Transit Arrival Franking Source
nao. Kyzyl date date

Ernest 63 11 35 -6 11 35 no cds Landscape 50k Williams 2002, p. 70
Philangles 1998

Thomas 71 _11 35 -6 1135 26 NO 35 Landscape 50k Weber 1994

Thomas 84 ?-3 11 35 -6 11 35 _NO 35 Landscape 10k, 15k, Williams 2002, p. 70
25k Ivy & Mader 1998
Alevizos 1986,

Thomas 112 -3 11 35 -8 11 35 26 NO 35 Zoological 50k Blekhman 1976, p.
87 and fig. 68

[Thomas] ? ? ? ? [cds] Zoological 10k, It Alevizos 1990-1991
(Colwyn (correct rate for a
Bay bkstp) letter weighing 140-
160 g)
Ernest 118 -5 11 35 -8 11 35 no cds Landscape 50k Leighton collection
from Sandafayre

Ernest 120 -5 11 35 -8 11 35 no cds Landscape 50k eBay 2001

Ernest 121 -5 1135 ? ? Landscape 10k, 15k, Sandafayre 1990s

Thomas 128 -5 1135 ? ? Landscape 10k, 15k, Alevizos 1989
Zoological 25k

Thomas 134 -5 11 35 -8 11 35 26 NO 35 Landscape 10k, 15k, Leighton collection
25k from Alevizos 1989-
[Ernest] ? 24 1035 ? ? Zoological 10k, It Alevizos 1989-1990
(no arr (correct rate for a
bkstp) letter weighing 140-
160 g)

Ernest 631 24 1035 ? ? Landscape 50k Minderaa, p. 8

Ernest 632 24 10 35 ? ? Zoological 50k Alevizos 1990-1993

Ernest 635 24 10 35 ? ? Landscape 50k Alevizos 1989-1990

Ernest 639 24 10 35 28 10 35 no cds Landscape 50k Williams 2002, p. 70
Ivy & Mader 1998
Alevizos 2000

Emest 641 2__035 28 1035 no cds Landscape 50k Ivy & Mader 1998

Ernest 645? 24 1035 ? .? Landscape 10k, 15k, Alevizos 1989-1990
648? 25k

Ernest 659 ? ? ? ? Cronin 2002, p. 65

Ernest 660 24 10 35 28 10 35 no cds Zoological 10k, It Leighton collection,
(correct rate for a from Alevizos 1990
letter weighing 140-
160 g)
November 2002

.. tY1ET PH1LATELj-,

-.e~ .--Yk


f-I I Z PI
1.9 ,:zuizoe "~
I .
* .

Registered letter No. 758 from Kyzyl 29.10.35, via Usinskoe 4.11.35 to Ernest Cliffe
in Manchester-2, England (Professor John Osbum Collection); reduced to 70%.
November 2002

Address Reg. Date Transit Arrival Fralnking Souirce
no. Kyzyl date date
758 291035 Prof. John Osburn
Ernest 758 29 1035 -411 35 no cds Landscape 50k Collection

Ernest 760 29 10 35 -4 11 35 no cds Zoological 50k Scan of unknown
origin, possibly eBay

Thomas 763 29 10 35 -4 11 35 27 NO 35 Landscape 50k Williams 2002, p. 70
Ivy & Mader 1998
Alevizos 1986, 1998

Thomas 767 29 1035 -4 1135 17DE35 Landscape 10k, 15k, Ivy & Mader 1998

Thomas 768 ?29 10 35 ? ? Landscape 10k, 15k, Blekhman 1976, p.
(Blekh- Zoological 25k 86 and fig. 69
man says
24, but it
looks like
29 to me)

Thomas 769 29 1035 -411 35 26 NO 35 Landscape 10k, 15k, Williams 2002, p. 70
(Alevi- Zoological 25k Ivy & Mader 1998
zos's Alevizos 1999-2002
tion is

Thomas 774 29 10 35 ? ? Zoological 50k Williams 2002, p. 70
Alevizos 1991-1993,

Thomas 775 29 10 35 ? ? Zoological 50k Alevizos 1989

[Thomas] ? 29 10 35 ? ? [cds] Landscape 10k Alevizos 1990-1992,
(arr bkstp) (double perfs, i.e. perf 1996, 1998
28), 15k,
Zoological 25k

[Thomas] ? -2 1135 ? ? [cds] Landscape 10k, 15k, Alevizos 1990
(arr bkstp) Zoological 25k Vertical file fold

. i iI

-- ---c- 7-- --'---~~



by Alan Leighton & Andrew Cronin.

Alan Leighton:
Further to the classification of the
Cliffe registered covers sent from
Kyzyl in 1935, I can show here
reduced to 70% another example
with reg'n No. 806, franked with
the 35 & 70 kop. Jubilees and
cancelled with the KbZbL-c cds
dated -5.3.37. It is addressed this
time to Thomas Cliffe in Colwyn
Bay, England and was offered in
G. Alevizos sales in 1990 & 1991,
so the transit time is unknown. The
question is, who has the cover now?

Andrew Cronin:
Not to be outdone, herewith is a reg'd
cover No. 111 (in pencil) with 55-kop.
franking, prepared by Viktor Indra and
serviced on the same day 5.3.37, with
the KbZbL-c cds applied in grey black.
The cover was backstamped in Horka,
Czechoslovakia on 23 March, so the
transit time was 19 days. That would
have been too short a time to assume
that the cover had actually been
handled in Kyzyl! The illustration has
been reduced to 70% and this item is
in the collection of your editor.

Editorial Comment: It would appear from the above examples that both items were serviced in and sent
from Moscow on the same day. It also seems that two sets of registration numbers were being allocated on
that day by the Soviet Philatelic Association and further data on such usages would be appreciated from
interested members.


Letter Bombs!
Postal history writer is interested in data
from early or pre-1970 letter or parcel
bombs from any country. Also any
illustration would be most appreciated.
Ready to pay for costs or copyrights.
Please contact:
Salvador Bofarull
Apartado de correos 13036
e-mail: raposa@teleline.es


November 2002

're ef Z)C'


ViAtbu Yn~dmx,
~3 ''IC
c~e~~wr~o~c~tozr ~u, ~7~moLcLe


The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko
The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even.
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) postpaid, payable to the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at the Society address.

" '
"' '''

by Andrew Cronin.
As already noted in "The Post-Rider" No. 49, p. 34, Tuva was elevated from an autonomous
province to an ASSR (in Russian ACCP = Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic, in this case within the
RSFSR) on 10 October 1961. That political status lasted until 26 December 1991, when the USSR was
dissolved and Tuva became a republic within the Russian Federation (PECITYBJIH4KA TbIBA).
By 1962, post offices in the ASSR were being issued the standard type of the Soviet circular date-
stamp with a diameter of 24-25mm., stating the place-name and followed by the new abbreviations "TYB.
The situation regarding the registration cachets was notably different, as pairs of new rectangular
handstamps had to be prepared for each office: (a) inscribed in Latin letters for foreign mail, including the
initials ASSR and with a capital "R" at left and, (b )in Russian for domestic mail, including the designation
ACCP and the capital letter "3" at left, i.e. for "3aKa3Hoe" = registered.
As it took quite some time before the new "R/3" cachets could be supplied, the old types reading:
"TYB. / TYBHH. (ABT.) OBJI." (Tuvan Autonomous Province) continued in use together with the new
ACCP (ASSR) postmarks, thus giving rise to a mixed status. The late Viktor Indra of Olomouc,
Czechoslovakia and a contact in Estonia were fortunate enough to have had a series of registered letters
posted back to themselves from Tuva during that transitional period and they are now in the possession of
your editor. The details are set out below and are followed by the corresponding illustrations. Needless to
say, they are interesting items and further details from members would be much appreciated. All these
rectangular registration cachets measure 43 x 18mm.
Fig. Inscription R-Designation Date Notes
1. R: KHANDAGAITY Foreign mail 6.3.63
N 33
2. R: MUGUR-AKSY Foreign mail 30.1.62
N 12
3. 3: N 18 Domestic mail Backstamped
HAPbIH Tallinn
TYBHH, ABT. OBJ1. 6.9.63
4. R: NARYN Foreign mail 29.9.63
N 12
5. 3: N 54 Domestic mail 1.1.65 Canceller says CAMAFAJITAI
6. R: SAMOGALTAI Foreign mail 27.2.63 Canceller says CAMAFAJITAI
N 143
7. R: SARYG-SEP Foreign mail 21.6.63 "ACCP" overwritten on "OBL."
TUVIN. OBL. by attentive postmaster!
N 116
8. R: CHAGONAR Foreign mail 22.10.62 French spelling for SHAGONAR
N 385
9. R: TORA-KHEM Foreign mail 23.1.63
N 82
10. N 10/1 Domestic mail 4.11.64
November 2002

It can be seen from the above tabulation that the latest application of such mixed status markings was on
1.1.65 from Samagaltai. Does anyone have later usages?. The illustrations follow below.
By the way, this was not the first time that mixed status markings had come about in the Soviet era.
In the 1939-1941 period, Soviet-style cancellers quickly came into use in Western Belorussia and the
Western Ukraine but, in many cases, the old Polish rectangular registration cachets continued to be applied
in conjunction right up until the Nazi invasion!

November 2002


Fig. 7. _& _-_

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5. 196

i *9..

November 2002

APlIlh~IlJ], r'Nh r5S P. 5I.i DI IE.H O. O'AL' iE C 5
*I t .- ~ "- n d. "-' .r
Service -de, posted
SV6c poitovnf iluiby Tl', 2


r oI -' J. .l I tlil ITr ~. n il .

B- ... ............ a'
At' W -a.
'~i_;" 'Tr./^_* ^ *- iserr IJd n ymn i ~? t9\aa?)~';. 7.' r '/*',0 '

IL.c:u -' *CIL. IP~C r,, -).
rll h~l~i. "2... ~i~liu~.......-~~~uI'~~ ,~l,,~


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Further to the article "Japanese POWs in the USSR" by A. Cronin in "The Post-Rider" No. 50,
pp.83-91, I am setting out in FigJ a copy of an example of mail from a Japanese serviceman involved in
the unfortunate Nomonhan Incident, in the belief that it might be something of interest for CSRP members
to see. The return address on the back of the envelope includes mention of the major element of which the
sender, a Mr. Yendo, was a part. Nomonhan (Khalkhin Gol) involved what became known to the Japanese
as the "Mongolian, Expeditionary Force"; he was attached to the HQ, Hitami Company, Nakaguma Butai
(Regiment?). The cover is addressed on the face to Gifu prefecture in Japan. The other major force in the
region at this time was, of course, was the Manchurian Expeditionary Force, sometimes also seen referred
to as the Northern China Expeditionary Force.
It would have been nice had this mail received some sort of a dated cancellation. However and as
we know, it was quite typical of Japanese WWII military mail from a front not to have been cancelled.
Since the Nomonhan Incident occurred over several months in 1939, we can at least be certain that it was
probably posted in that year.
Editorial Comment: Turning to the face of the cover, the boxed printed inscription under the star
translates as "Military Postal Service". The three characters printed below the box stand for "It has been
checked", i.e. censored. The circular chop in between the two sets of printed inscriptions is the personal
seal of the censor Suyama.
Mr. Yendo was writing to his relatives of the same surname in the town of Mino, in the Gifu
prefecture in Japan.
96 November 2002

by Dr. Hal Vogel..

Fig. L

k>, *




" : : ) '_^. 1,;1 Fig. 2.

-" I am also showing in Fig. 2 an example of a 12
January 1948 Vladivostok "JIF" cancel on a
Japanese POW card from the sender's Russian
-. internship. This is the upper half of a double
-7 1L *; card from a Japanese POW to post-war Japan
,.. ... on "No. 613" stationery, which has neither the
.i Red Cross nor Red Crescent imprints. The
'.. -- article in "The Post-Rider" No. 50 mentioned
1' ";. ,that a variant existed without those imprints,
-1 'L but on "3aK. 87"-type stationery. This example
would indicate that the lack of imprints can
L also be found on a type of "No. 613" cards as
i well.
Editorial Comment: The card is addressed to
S- Oita City, Oita prefecture in Japan and the
sender gives his address as P.O. Box 372,
A 'X Vladivostok post office, Soviet Union.
S-- According to the book "BoeHHoneJIHHbI B
S%' CCCP 1939-1956", Camp No. 372 functioned
-' from April 1946 to May 1948 at Angren,
S ')--L .. Tashkent District in Uzbekistan. The message
SL.': s -side is also shown for our Japanese readers and
'. refers only to family matters. It is a beautiful
I' /^ -example of Japanese calligraphy and thanks are
"r." ,:.: \ due to the staff of the Japanese Consulate in
L Toronto for helping to read the handwriting.

November 2002

by Meer Kossoy.
Writing in "The Post-Rider"
No. 46, p. 119, Vladimir .
Babici showed an interesting 1.Y// rcEMArPii InO 1 coIos0. POC
TYJI."a", dated 29.11.06 A om -
and which was located in the .
Tula province. -
Presented herewith is a card. .
with yet another postmark of' ---
an educational institution, ,.-." .......... ............. .... "
not as a school but as a J ,- L _7"
college. That is what some r ,_-*-- _,
educational institutions were .
called in Russia up to 1917, 2 U .
wherein one could continue ....
studying for a degree after .
completing high school.
There is an interesting despatch marking on the card, reading: KOKAHJb 0EPF. OBJI. 29.1.13
(the town of Kokand was the capital of the Khanate of the same name as of 1740, entering into the
composition of the Russian Empire in 1876. It is now in the Republic of Uzbekistan). The card was
addressed to the Agricultural College in Kazan'. The designation as a college specified the faculty for
which tuition was offered, namely Agricultural Science. Courses in such disciplines were required to take
place in rural localities. That is the reason why, in accordance with the address, the card was originally
delivered to Kazan', receiving the transit marking: KA3AHb-z 4.2.13 and then the arrival postmark:
CEJIbCKO X03. YqHJIHIEIIE KA3. a, 5.2.13 (Agricultural College).
An analysis shows that both the Bogoslovskaya Religious Teachers' College and the Agricultural
College were situated in rural localities. It should be borne in mind that, around the end of the 19t. and the
beginning of the 20t. Centuries, the network of post offices in Russia was somewhat rudimentary, being
placed mainly in the towns, and more than half of the rural settlements were not even provided with postal
services such as the Zemstvo District Posts.
With a view to improving postal communications in rural localities, Temporary Regulations were
approved by His Majesty the Emperor on 24 January 1900 about the provision of postal operations in
District Administrations (BojiocTHbie rlpaBieHHua). In conformance with the Regulations, "District
Administrations had the right to carry out the receipt and delivery of ordinary and registered mail and the
sale of postage stamps". In carrying out postal operations, District Administrations had their own cancellers
for application on mail. There appeared in that way a new form of the Rural Post, i.e. the postal operations
of the District Administrations. Special premises and a Civil List for postal officials were not required in
the operation of such a postal service.
It could be claimed that the volume of mail for both the Bogoslovskaya Religious Teachers' College
and the Agricultural College was not great and, for that reason, it was not possible to set up postal stations
with their premises and Civil List staff. Based on the foregoing assumptions, it could be assumed that the
postal operations in the specified educational institutions were organised and carried out in the same way as
for those in the District Administrations. Since these educational institutions were situated in rural localities
and there were no post offices nearby, they obtained the right to perform postal operations with
corresponding cancellers, while the duties of a postal official were carried out by appointing one or another
of the employees of such institutions.
Editorial Comment: In addition to the important points raised here, the card is addressed to U.
Sharafutdinov, an obvious Kazan' Tartar, respectfully called a "Khan" in the text, written in Arabic script.
That script is poor for Turko-Tartar, as it is deficient in vowels and thus difficult to read. Congratulations
on a very interesting item, Mr. Kossoy, as few people were then literate in that language! See also p. 115:.
November 2002

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