• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Using encyclopaedias...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Classic Swiss letters sent to the...
 The Romanian army in Transnistria...
 The chronology of rate and political...
 The journal fund
 Tuva: More on the mystery of the...
 Selected Tuvan covers
 The Soviet posts in Tuva
 Matters Mongolian
 About the "Red fleet" stamps of...
 About the circulation of the Ukrainian...
 Eight further covers of the 1923...
 Another constant plate variety...
 A few comments on the famine issue...
 Still more Spartakiada usages
 Some data about the issue of the...
 Varieties of the early railway...
 Zemstvo varieties - ninth...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Some items of the Soviet Lithuanian...
 'Independent' Lithuania in...
 The April 1922 second issue of...
 Some remarks and additions to the...
 Four fine items of "Russian...
 The branch-line TPO/RPO Samtre...
 Atomic secrets from a post office...
 Some imperial postcard varieti...
 An update for the "Ypabnehie" error...
 More naval censorship markings
 Philatelic shorts














Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00049
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00049
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

00049 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Using encyclopaedias in our fields of collecting
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Classic Swiss letters sent to the Russian Empire: Part 2, 1853-1875
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The Romanian army in Transnistria (July 1941-March 1944)
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The chronology of rate and political changes in Moldova 1990-2000
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    The journal fund
        Page 30
    Tuva: More on the mystery of the 15-k. provisional (SG 41, Scott 37)
        Page 31
    Selected Tuvan covers
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The Soviet posts in Tuva
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Matters Mongolian
        Page 38
        Page 39
    About the "Red fleet" stamps of the USSR (English translation on p. 45)
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    About the circulation of the Ukrainian charity stamps of 1923
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Eight further covers of the 1923 Ukrainian famine issue
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Another constant plate variety of the 20 + 20 krb. Shevchenko stamp
        Page 62
    A few comments on the famine issue of the Ukrainian SSR
        Page 63
    Still more Spartakiada usages
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Some data about the issue of the set "10th anniversary of the October Revolution"
        Page 67
    Varieties of the early railway makings of the Russian Empire
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Zemstvo varieties - ninth instalment
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Some items of the Soviet Lithuanian posts 1940-1941
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    'Independent' Lithuania in 1941
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    The April 1922 second issue of the Armenian SSR
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Some remarks and additions to the "Automat" article of Harry von Hofmann
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Four fine items of "Russian railwayana"
        Page 100
    The branch-line TPO/RPO Samtredi-97-Poti
        Page 101
    Atomic secrets from a post office box
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Some imperial postcard varieties
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    An update for the "Ypabnehie" error on the 4th imperial postcard of 1875
        Page 109
    More naval censorship markings
        Page 110
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
Full Text

























































































































Printed in Canada


-








THE CANADIAN SOCIETY

OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada


CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider(sympatico.ca
FAX: (416) 932-0853.
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 49.


Contents:
2 Using encyclopaedias in our fields of collecting
2 Special Note. See also pp. 39, 58, 62 and 101.
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Classic Swiss letters sent to the Russian Empire: Part 2, 1853-1875
10 The Romanian Army in Transnistria July 1941-March 1944
26 The Chronology of Rate and Political Changes in Moldova 1990-2000
30 The Journal Fund
31 Tuva: More on the Mystery of the 15-k. Provisional (SG 41, Scott 37)
32 Selected Tuvan Covers
34 The Soviet Posts in Tuva
38 Matters Mongolian
40 About the "Red Fleet" Stamps of the USSR (English translation on p. 45)
51 About the Circulation of the Ukrainian Charity Stamps of 1923
59 Eight Further Covers of the 1923 Ukrainian Famine Issue
62 Another Constant Plate Variety of the 20 + 20 krb. Shevchenko Stamp
63 A Few Comments on the Famine Issue of the Ukrainian SSR
64 Still More Spartakiada Usages
67 Some Data about the issue of the Set "10 b. Anniversary of the October Revolution"
68 Varieties of the Early Railway Markings of the Russian Empire
72 Zemstvo Varieties: Ninth Instalment
74 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
81 Some Items of the Soviet Lithuanian Posts 1940-1941
86 'Independent' Lithuania in 1941
91 The April 1922 Second Issue of the Armenian SSR
95 Some Remarks and Additions to the "Automat" Article of Harry von Hofinann
100 Four Fine Items of "Russian Railwayana"
101 The Branch-Line TPO/RPO Samtredi-97-Poti
102 Atomic Secrets from a Post Office Box
106 Some Imperial Postcard Varieties
109 An Update for the "Ypannenie" Error on the 4". Imperial Postcard of 1875
110 More Naval Censorship Markings
111 Philatelic Shorts


November 2001.


Various authors
Erling Berger & Lukas Reist
Dr. Dan Grecu
Vladimir Babich

Gwyn Williams
Gwyn Williams
Andrew Cronin
Richard E. Clever & Andrew Cronin
Vladimir Berdichevskii
Vladmir Berdichevskii
Robert Taylor
Alex Sadovnikov
Alexander Ep'stein
Norman J.D. Ames
V.B. Kofman
V.G. Levandovskii
G.G. Werbizky
Alex Artuchov
Dr. Ivo Steijn
Rex A. Dixon
Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
Meer Kossoy
Rabbi L.L. Tann
Rabbi L.L. Tann
V.P. & P.V. Florenskii and G.I. Ivanov
Professor A.S. Ilyushin
Professor A.S. Ilyushin
Alexander Epstein
Various Authors


Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer.
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary.
Andrew Cronin, Editor.
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

Copyright 2001. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the
contents of this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.















= Editorial
USING ENCYCLOPAEDIAS IN OUR FIELDS OF COLLECTING

One of the prominent features of the Soviet era was the publication of encyclopaedias, not only several
editions in Russian of the BC9 (Great Soviet Encyclopaedia) but, in fact, in the languages of all the Union
republics, with the possible exception of Kirgizstan, for which latter republic your editor has no records.
They were all heavily subsidized by the Central Government in Moscow, both monetarily and in supplying
printing technology, as the editions were large and the prices remarkably low, in contrast to similar works
published in the West. The Great Soviet Encyclopaedia in 31 volumes was sold out in 632,000 sets!

All these encyclopaedias were obviously written from the point of view of Soviet ideology, but if one
separates the wheat from the chaff, they can be utilized to glean useful data, which would help to solve
some problems in philately and postal history. Another factor is that, for the Central Asian countries and
Transcaucasia, they are practically the only source of information. During the Imperial period, most of the
peoples in Central Asia were illiterate, speaking languages in the Turki family, while the educated few
wrote and spoke in Farsi (Iranian), which only the Tadzhiki minority could understand.

A salient reason for the issue of these encyclopaedias was political. Emigr6 groups in the West were
publishing comprehensive encyclopaedias in Lithuanian and Ukrainian, as well as a wide range of other
literature in some of the languages spoken in the USSR. Even in Eastern Europe, Romania with a
population of some 20 millions had printed an encyclopaedia in four volumes. On the other side of the
River Prut, the Moldavian SSR with about three millions retaliated with the "ECM" (Moldavian Soviet
Encyclopaedia) in eight volumes, in what was in fact the same language, but printed in the Cyrillic
alphabet. Your editor has in his library both these publications, as well as single volumes in Armenian,
Azerbaijani and Georgian and two different sets of Lithuanian Soviet encyclopaedias, also the BC3 set.

One of the ironies of the break-up of the USSR has been that most of the now independent republics are
impoverished and, except for relatively stable Estonia, there seems to be no chance in the foreseeable future
of rewriting and republishing any of these sources of reference. There is a moral there somewhere.

SPECIAL NOTE:
"Gifts to the Czars 1500-1700: Treasures from the Kremlin".

In accordance with the continuing CSRP policy to encourage interest in Russian culture, we are pleased to
announce that an exhibition with the title as given above is currently on display for the first time in the U.S.
until 13 January 2002 at the Museum of Art in the American Mid-West city of Indianapolis. About half of
the items are beautiful gifts from European countries seeking to curry favour with the rulers of the Russian
Empire and they include equine ceremonial trappings and hussar saddles, silver and gilt serving pieces, as
well as the robes of state of Peter the Great. The Indianapolis Museum of Art is at 1200 West 38 Street
and is open daily except Mondays. Admission is US $5.00 for juniors 5 to 18 years of age and US $14.00
for adults. The web site is at www.ima-art.org and the telephone number is (317) 920-2660 for further
details.
*


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK JN 49
November 2001







CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or clear Xerox copy of the
item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.


A SOVIET FLIGHT FROM MOSCOW TO THE U.S.A. WHICH
CRASH-LANDED IN CANADA (I1): by various authors. -


The first instalment of this article, which appeared in "The Post-Rider"
No.48, pp. 3-4, has excited quite some comment and brought to light
some further data in the categories covered by the survey.

A word of explanation here, before we go any further. The original article did not pretend to be the last
word on the subject of this flight, but deliberately focused attention on certain aspects, so as to help fill out
the picture. The centre of attention was directed at the recording of addresses of the senders and addressees,
the registration numbers and the types of mail employed (postcards or covers). Sincere thanks are due to
Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman, Alexander Ivakhno of the Ukraine, Raritan Stamp Auctions and Robert Taylor
for the additions to the original classification, as set out hereunder:-
Reg'n Type of
No. Addressee Sender mail Source
22 Mr. I. Ilijin, co Amtorg, N.Y.C. Presumably Mezhkniga of Moscow cover Raritan Stamp Auctions
26 Mr. Nikalansky, c/o Amtorg. Presumably Mezhkniga of Moscow cover Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman
63 Grover Whalen, Chairman of Presumably Mezhkniga of Moscow cover Alexander Ivakhno
New York World 's Fair
66 Mr. Zhukovitsky, c/o Amtorg W. Glik, Karmanitsky 2, Moscow card Robert Taylor
82 Mrs C.N. flijin, co Amtorg V.A. Henevsky, Rozhdestvenka 19,Moscow card Alexander Ivakhno
88 Mr. Bogdan, c/o Amtorg Presumably Mezhkniga of Moscow cover Alexander Ivakhno
110 President F.D. Roosevelt VI. Kokkinaki, Ulanskii per. 16, Moscow cover Dr. G.A. Ackerman and
front Alexander Ivakhno

Mr. Ivakhno drew his information from auction lots offered by Harmer's in New York City (3-4 Nov.
1982), Christie's Robson Lowe (6 May 1986) and Corinphila (18 May 2001). He also pointed out that item
No. 110 was sent by the pilot, Brigadier-General Vladimir Kokkinaki, but lacked the "nepeaeT
MOCKBA- CIIA" flight cachet (the same point was made by Dr. Ackerman). It is probably unique in
that state. Mr. Ivakhno also notes that item No. 63, addressed to Chairman Grover Whelan has a price of
"$725" written on the cover and he also corrects the name of the sender for item No. 97 to V.A. Henevsky.

On the basis of the known registration numbers (22 to 110), Mr. Ivakhno believes that there were 89
registered articles theoretically sent on this flight. Moreover, we have records of a total of only FIVE
covers and one cover front, so they are much rarer than the postcards. Dr. Ackerman points out that the
covers are franked at the correct rate: 50 kop. surface foreign letter, 80 kop. foreign registration fee and 1
rouble airmail surtax, to total 2r. 30k. He also notes that the cards were franked at the same rate and thus
overpaid by 20 kopeks. In short, another plus for the owners of the covers!

Last, but by no means least, Dr. Ackerman has written extensively about this flight (see "The Airpost
Journal" for July 1989, pp. 344-348 & 76 and the "Rossica Journal" No. 115, p. 57). He is also the proud
possessor of the cover front with registration No. 110 and of the enclosed letter in Russian, both of them
addressed and written personally by Brigadier-General Vladimir Kokkinaki to President Roosevelt! A
final point of interest is that the surname Kokkinaki is of Greek and specifically of Cretan origin, referring
to the colour red and presumably derived from the word "cochineal".
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N 49 3
November 2001






Classic Swiss letters sent to the Russian Empire, Part 2 1853-1875
by Erling Berger and Lukas Reist

Part 1 of this article was printed in Post-Rider N 47. In general it would be a good idea for the
reader to consult this issue for details on the period 1853-1867. Mr.Lukas Reist of Switzerland
has given us permission to show examples from his collection, as illustrated here.
Besten Dank, Herr Reist!
1853-1867
The first example is shown because it is much clearer than the previous one in N?47


Train 20: Royal
WVIrtemberg TPO
5.12.65.




i


Figure 1 Zirich-St. Petersburg, 1865. From Swiss Rayon 1 to Russian Rayon 2.
We add from table Ic (Post-Rider No 47): 10+30+15+25= 80 Rp.
Prepaid by two postage stamps of 40 Rp. each. PD: Paid to Destination.
Inscriptions: "frc": Franco
"Wf3": Wf= Weiter Franco. Russian share in SGr (See table Ia Post-Rider N 47)
"9/11": German share "9" Kr. Russian share"l 1" Kr. (See table Ib Post-Rider N 47)
This letter crossed over Wtrttemberg on its way to Russia. (Postmark on the rear)


share "11" Kr. (See table Ib Post-Rider N" 47)
THE POST-RIDER/5IMII(K K~ 49


Train 10?: Royal
Wuirttemberg TPO
18.10.64.


St. Gallen
18.10.64







The next example shows a letter from Swiss Rayon 2 to Russian Rayon 1. The only problem is
that the Swiss Postal Service for a moment believed that St.Petersburg belonged to the Russian
Rayon 1, which is not true.


" 7 '.

Text for Figure 2
Bern-St. Petersburg, 1863. From Swiss Rayon 2 to Russian Rayon 1.
We add from table Ic (Post-Rider N 47): 10+10+30+15 = 65 Rp.
Prepaid by 2 x 30Rp + 5Rp postage stamps. PD: Paid to Destination.
All the Foreign Postal Administrations did not accept the Swiss error, and the full amounts
were transferred to Germany and Russia. (See "9" & "11" Kr)
Inscriptions:
"f3": f= franco. Russian share in SGr (See table la Post-Rider N 47)
rre~-P --;n"~~~" [] ...... L m I *l--q I


I -A- I
Figure 3: The third example shows an alternative calculation for a double weight letter. Details overleaf.
THE POST-RIDER/ MUIIHK Nk 49
November 2001


.7o -/I I



0.- -
C11CCC a


#./tcci~ 02iC' c .do gqoju#c ..-,,. ._


<2C'ft~ J e_


I










A# 64- 0 :
SSCHWEIZ
i*. uber BADEN
Figure 3. Rolle-St.Petersburg, 1864. From Swiss Rayon 2 to Russian Rayon 2.
Double letter: 15-30 gram. In spite of the official tariff, here the post clerk has just simply
doubled the postage for a single letter: 2 x 90 = 180 Rp. PD : Paid to Destination
Inscriptions:
"f 6" : Russian share in SGr (See Table Ia Post-Rider N 47, but multiply by 2)
"18/21": German share "18"Kr. Russian share "21"Kr. (See Table IIa Post-Rider N'47)
Conveyance via the Grand Duchy of Baden (Postmark on the rear side)

10.Jan.1867 31.Aug.1868

The reason for the next change in the Swiss tariff was the 1.Jan. 1866 Prussia/Russia convention
that introduced a 2 SGr. (7 Kreuzer) uniform rate for the whole of the Russian Empire

Switzerland Germany Russian Empire
Rayon 2 Rayon 1 Still 3 SGr. or 9 Kr. or Uniform rate 2SGr. or 7 Kr. or
10 Rp. 10 Rp. 30 Rp. 25 Rp
Table I








Basel-Olten
TPO23.10.67





Heidelberg-

Si 22.10.67
Train 12.
*C7 L,/' 7e


SCHWEIZ
Uber BADEN
Figure 4. Bern St.Petersburg, 22.Oct.1867, from Swiss Rayon I to Russia.
We add from table I: 10+30+25= 65 Rp.
Prepaid by three postage stamps of 60+10+5 = 65 Rp. PD: Paid to Destination.
Inscriptions: "9/7": German share "9" Kr. Russian share"7" Kr. (See Table I, above)
This letter crossed over Baden on its way to Russia. (Two postmarks on the rear)

6 THE POST-RIDER/IMIMHK N2 49
November 2001














Basel-Olten
-TPO 28.11.67


BADEN


Figure 5. Morat (Murten) Moscow, 28.Nov.1867, from Swiss Rayon 2 to Russia. Basel Tr
We add from table I: 10+10+30+25= 75 Rp. 29.11.67
Prepaid by four stamps of 50+10+10+5 = 75 Rp. PD: Paid to Destination.
Inscriptions:
"f 2" : Russian share in SGr. (See Table I, above)
"9/7": German share "9" Kr. Russian share"7" Kr. (See Table I, above)
This letter crossed over Baden on its way to Russia. (Two postmarks on the rear)

1.Sep.1868 25.Jul.1872

The reason for the actual change was the 1.Jan. 1868 postal re-organisation of northern
Germany. The members of the North German Post District: Prussia, The Hansa Towns plus all
other German states down to Frankfurt am Main.

The rate became 50 Rp. We can show two examples from this period (Figure 6 and Figure 7),
but the postage is 60 and 90 Rp.




: ly .^ -/. *. .. .



/ ( Note by Swiss
L -- exhibitor: Swiss
S1\ \ Rayon 1 to Russia
cftM ^^ Uvj^ \" --^ .60 Rappen.

~, ,




Basel
... .. 10.3.69 N.S.
Figure 6. The postage is 60Rp. We would expect 50 Rp. We have no further comments.
THE POST-RIDER/rIMINHK N 49 7
November 2001


Heidelberg-


22
.


F----- ~PIL~P---_ -----n~i~mas--m~---~ I


b', I














I'Y Note by Swiss

.,,,, Rayon 2 to Russia
S r ;=90 Rappen.

I ,-;'\~ f f~..y r,,


^ -Geneva
S- 8.5.69 N.S.
Figure 7. The postage is 90Rp. We would expect 50 Rp. We have no further comments.

26.Jul.1872 30.6.1875

The reason for this change was the introduction of new Russian postal conventions with several
European Countries dealing among other things with closed post-sacs across Prussia.

The rate became via Germany or Austria 45 Rp
Yet via Austria 26.Jul.1872 25.Mar.1874 50 Rp


All Moscow dates are
O.S., i.e. 12 days behind
Gregorian in 19th. century.


S8 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N 49
... November 2001

















































B-*<



i7)

y~y^ '' *"




'4' '- "
/"Yf 'ii
^*^^ ^


.c-~j7~ As~ -~----ri c







C-
'-A; e: O ~Ci~/~


Editorial Comment: Upon the formation of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, with both Switzerland
and the Russian Empire as founding members, postal rates were standardised and we have here the 5-
Rappen/gold-centime printed matter rate from Bern 29.7.79 N.S. on a wrapper addressed in French to the
Entomological Society of Russia at the Ministry of Crown Lands building in SPB. A Russian translation of
the address is on the back with a "4PAHKHPOBAHO" (Franked) cachet & SPB VII mark of 21.7.79
O.S. 5pm. Note also the "A.'I." censorship cachet at top left front, applied in Russia to incoming foreign
printed matter.
pned m THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIMHK NJ 49 9
November 2001


" -~ "-~""--~.II~---~'~-~~^-----.------I-






THE ROMANIAN ARMY IN TRANSNISTRIA (July 1941 March 1944)
by Dr. Dan-Simion Grecu.

This article aims to be a rapid guide for identifying and locating the Romanian military units which
participated in the campaign against the USSR and which found themselves at a given moment in the
territory between the Dniester and Bug rivers, hence the name Transnistria. It is the first chapter in a
series that will cover in full all the Romanian campaigns in the USSR. It refers only to the land forces of
the Romanian Army, as the Air Force will be treated in a separate article. After a short historical survey,
the present study in set out in two parts:-

1. The first part, being that of identifying the military mail by starting with the number of the OPM (Oficiu
Postal Militar = Military Post Office) as the most rapid method of recognition, is ensured by the Table
herewith, containing all the known OPMs used by the Romanian units in Transnistria. Some OPM numbers
have not yet been identified.

2. The second part, that of pin-pointing the locations, presents each of the large units specifically during the
period in which they found themselves in Transnistria, with details regarding their battles, operations and
postings (it has obviously been necessary to formulate the information, so as to be able to include it within
the scope of an article). Those who would like further information about any aspect at all concerning the
Romanian Army in the USSR are invited with pleasure to contact the author of this article at his postal
address, namely : Dr. Dan Grecu, C.P. 103, R-2700 DEVA, Romania, or by e-mail:dang@deva.iiruc.ro.

HISTORICAL SURVEY
Romanian military units operated or were stationed on many occasions in the territory of Transnistria in the
years from 1941 to 1944:

1. Within the framework of the general offensive of the 3rd. Romanian Army and 11 t. German Army, when
the Romanian units used the territory between the Dniester and the Bug as a transit corridor from Bukovina
and Bessarabia towards the Ukraine and the Caucasus. That action took place in the months of July &
August 1941 and the units involved were as follows: the 3d. Army with the Cavalry Corps (5th., 6t~., &
8'h. Cavalry Brigades) and the Mountain Corps (1st., 2nd. & 4t. Mixed Mountain Brigades).

2. The most important presence was that of the 4th. Romanian Army within the framework of "Operation
Odesa" (Translator's note: the Romanian language generally avoids doubling a consonant), which began on
8.8.1941 and finally ended in the capture of the city on 16.10.1941. The participating units were as follows:
4th. Army, s., 3rd., 4th., 5th., 6th. & 11th. Armoured Corps, 1st., 2nd & 3rd. Fortifications Brigades, It.
& 9th. Cavalry Brigades, 1st. Armoured Division, 1st. Guards Division, 1lt. Frontier Division and
Divisions 1 to 8, 10, 11, 13 to 15, 18 & 21 of Infantry.

3. After the fall of Odessa, the Romanian presence was maintained from November 1941 to March 1944 by
staging troops and also by occupation units, entrusted with guard duties, anti-partisan security, etc. The
units were as follows: 3rd. Army, Eastern Staging Command, Odessa Military Command
(Comandamentul Militar Odesa), 2nd. & 3rd. Armoured Corps, 1st. & 2nd. Fortifications Brigades, 1".
Fortifications Division, Guard Divisions 1 to 3, Cavalry Divisions 1, 5 & 9, Infantry Divisions 4, 8, 10,
14 20 & 21 and the Police Force. In addition, some of the units withdrawn from the Stalingrad Front were
stationed in Transnistria, especially in the months of March & April 1943, so as to be brought up to
strength and regrouped, after which they stayed there for guarding and security duties, from May 1943 to
March 1944. The forces involved were: 3rd, & 4th. Armies and Infantry Divisions 1, 5, 6, 9, 14 &15.

4.There were obviously also sporadic stays of several days duration by other military units on their way
towards the front or to the homeland (especially towards the end by the 19th. Division), but these were not
significant and will. not be treated any further hereunder.

10 THE POST-RIDER/AIMII(HK M 49
November 2001




TABELUL O.P.M. FOLOSITE DE UNITATILE ROMANE DIN TRANSNISTRIA.


OPM
OM Period Unit
No.
5 7.41...3.43 4t Army
10 7-10.41 14h Infantry Division
14 8-10.41 1st / 4th Army Corps?
15 8.41-1.42 Odesa Military Command
18 8-10.41 8 Infantry Division
21 8-10.41 7t' Cavalry Brigade
21 12.43-3.44 3r Army
22 7-8.41 Mountain Corps
23 10.41-2.42 3r Army Staging Command
23 2.42-4.43 Eastern Staging Command
24 1-3.43 14" Infantry Division
30 7.41...4.43 3r Army
30 12.43-3.44 Eastern Staging Command
31 8-10.41 1st Guard Division
32 9-10.41 18t Infantry Division
32 12.43-3.44 5t Infantry Division
33 7-8.41 4h Mountain Brigade
34 8-10.41 5 Army Corps
35 7-8.41 6t Cavalry Brigade
36 12.43-3.44 21st Infantry Division
38 8-11.41 7' Infantry Division
42 10.41-4.42 4 Infantry Division
44 7-10.41 13th Infantry Division
51 3-4.43 15'h Infantry Division
54 10.41-2.42 1st (2nd") Fortifications Brigade
54 2.42-5.43 1st Fortifications Division
62 12.43-3.44 14 Infantry Division
66 7-8.41 1st Mountain Brigade
69 3-4.43 3d Army Corps
72 8-10.41 1st Frontier Division
77 7-8.41 1st Mountain Brigade
80 7-8.41. 8t Cavalry Brigade
80 12.43-3.44 15' Infantry Division


81 8-10.41' 1 sArmoured Division
84 8-10.41 21st Infantry Division
86 9-10.41 2nd Infantry Division
104 7.41 Cavalry Corps
107 3-4.43 9 Infantry Division
108 8-10.41 11h Infantry Division
115 9-10.41 1st Infantry Division
116 8.41-8.42 9th Cavalry Brigade / Division
120 8-10.41 3rd Infantry Division
131 8-10.41 3rd Army Corps
135 3-4.42 20h Infantry Division
139 10.41-7.42 2nd Army Corps
147 9-10.41 6th Army Corps
159 7-8.41 5h Cavalry Brigade
161 8-10.41 15h Infantry Division
163 8-10.41 5th Infantry Division
176 9-12.41 10t Infantry Division
177 7-10.41 6h Infantry Division
180 8.41-8.42 1st Cavalry Brigade / Division
514 5-11.43 Eastern Staging Command
575 5-11.43 15h Infantry Division
763 10-11.43 6t Infantry Division
811 ? 5-11.43 3rd Amy
941 5-9.43 9t Infantry Division
974 9-11.43 14th Infantry Division
986 10-11.43 21st Infantry Division
? 12.43-3.44 3rd Army Corps
? 8-11.41 11h Army Corps
? 1-3.44 5h Cavalry Division
? 5-11.43 5th Infantry Division
? 12.43-3.44 6h Infantry Division
? 2-3.44 8't Infantry Division


TABLE OF THE OPMs USED BY THE ROMANIAN UNITS IN TRANSNISTRIA.


Ij
0
C,'


* k






Note No. 1: Some of the divisional OPM numbers could not be put into use in the January to April 1943
period, as the cancellers had been lost, or the divisions had been regrouped after the retreat from Stalingrad.
In such cases, the mail of the division was sent through the OPMs of the Commands of the Army Corps, of
the Army or Staging Forces.
Note No. 2: Police and Staging Units did not always use OPMs, as they also sent mail through the civilian
post offices in Transnistria (see Figs. 4 & 6 in the section on illustrations).
Note No. 3: Apart from OPMs, some Cartographic Centres and Sub-Centres also existed in Transnistria
(for an example, see Fig. 9 in the illustrations and note the noun CARTARE, meaning Map-Drawing).

LISTING OF THE MAJOR ROMANIAN UNITS IN TRANSNISTRIA
Their activities and locations are given and, in parentheses, the lengths of periods in which the respective
units found themselves in Transnistria. Where possible, the exact location is given of the Commands of
Major Units, being designated as HQ, as the OPMs were actually placed there. Some data are also given
regarding the casualties suffered by the units in the following form; "Losses: officers + NCOs + troops
(dead, wounded and missing)".
3rd. Army
(July-Aug. 41; Nov. 41 to July 42; Dec. 42 to Apr. 44)
Its units crossed the Dniester on 9.7.41, heading toward the Bug river and reaching Voznesensk on
11.8.41. They crossed the Bug during 19-21 August 1941.
The Command was set up at Tiraspol' on 4.11.41, from where subordinate units ensured security along
the area between the Dniester and Bug rivers. The Command was sent to the Caucasus in July 1942, then to
Stalingrad (HQO: October 1941 to 20.6.42 in Tiraspol').
After the retreat of the Romanian troops from Stalingrad, the 3rd. Army arranged in Tiraspol' for their
return to the homeland. On 9.12.43, it assumed command of the forces along the lower concourse of the
Dnieper river, as well as in the area between the Dniester and Bug rivers. In addition, it was responsible for
maintaining order in the south of Transnistria (counties of Tiraspol', Ovidiopol', Odessa, Ochakov and
Berezovka). In the period from 28.3 to 14.4.44, the 3rd. Army was relocated to the west of the Dniester river
(HQ: Dec. 42 to March 44 in Tiraspol').
4th. Army
(Aug. to Oct. 41; Mar. 43 to Mar. 44)
After its units crossed the Dniester on 8.8.41, they participated in "Operation Odesa". After the fall of the
city, the 4th. Army was sent back home to lasi (Jassy) on 1.11.41 and demobolised (HQ: 17 Sept. to 13 Oct.
41 at Baden and Odessa).
After the withdrawal from the Stalingrad Front, the Command of the 4t. Army was fixed at Tiraspol', at
least from 9 to 25 March 1943. The 4 Army was reactivated on 15.3.44 and received from the 3 Army
the duties of maintaining order in Transnistria.
1st. Army Corps
(Aug. to Oct. 41)
* In August 1941, it was placed in the front line during "Operation Odesa". After the fall of the city, it was
sent back home in November 1941.
2nd. Army Corps
(Oct. 41 to July 42)
* It was moved to Tiraspol' after the fall on Odessa on 16.10.41 with the mission of guard duties and
maintaining order in Transnistria. It was moved to Odessa on 20.12.41, where it assumed the duties of the
Odessa Military Command and which had been abolished (see further below), as well as the defence of the
area between the Dniester and Bug rivers. In July 1942, it left Transnistria for the north of the Sea of Azov.
HQ: Nov. 41 to 19.12.41 at Tiraspol'; 20.12.41 to 12.7.42 at Odessa.
3d. Army Corps
(Aug. to Oct. 41; Mar. 43 to Mar. 44)
* It forced the Dniester river on 4.8.41 and then participated in the campaign towards Odessa. After the fall
of the city, it was sent back home (?) in November 1941. According to other sources, it remained in
Transnistria. HO: 6 to 23 Dec. 1942 at Tiraspol'.
12 THE POST-RIDER/IHMIXHK KN 49
November 2001






* Once again in Transnistria (or perhaps in continuation?), at least in March 1943. In December 1943, it
performed duties of security along the lower concourse of the Dnieper river (within the framework of the
3rd. Army). As of the beginning of 1944, it also carried out anti-partisan actions in Central and Northern
Transnistria. From 25 March to 3 April 1944, it withdrew from the Bug river to the west of the Dniester
river.
4"t. Army Corps
(August to October 1941)
It crossed the Dniester river on 4.8.41 in the region of Vadul Rascu, together with the 11th. German
Army. It then participated in "Operation Odesa", being the first to enter the city on 16.10.41. The action of
returning to the homeland began on 19.10.41.
5th Army Corps
(August to October 1941)
It received the order to cross the Dniester river on 28.7.41 and then went into action towards Odessa.
After the fall of the city, it was brought back home to Ploesti.
6'. Army Corps
(September-October 1941)
It was placed at the disposition of the 4t. Army on 24.9.41 on the Odessa Front. After the fall of Odessa,
it moved to Nikolaev, with guard duties between the Bug and Dnieper rivers.
11h. Army Corps
(August to October 1941)
The first units were put into action on 9.8.41 on the right flank of the 4t. Army in the Tiraspol' zone. It
then went into action towards Odessa. After the fall of the city, it returned to the homeland at the end of
October. HO: around 13.10.41 at Marienthal.
Cavalry Corps
(20.7 to ?.8.41)
It forced the Dniester river during 17 to 20.7.41 south of Mogilev Podolskii and was in pursuit of the
Soviets towards the Bug river, in the direction of Kapustyany-Vrad'evka-Sirovo-Novopavlovka-Bobrik.
Mountain Corps
(17.7. to 10.8.41)
It forced the Dniester river on 17.7.41, after which it headed rapidly towards Voznesensk along the Bug
river (a distance of 400 km. = 250 miles), fighting at Kozintsy, Verkhovka, Levkov (25-27.7.41) and in the
Kodyma valley (3-4.8.41).
Eastern Staging Command
(6.2.42 to 3.44)
It was set up on 6.2.42 by the change in designation of the 3rd. Army Staging Command (which had
functioned from 7.8.41). It had as its zone of activity the entire territory of Transnistria, as well as the
maintenance of complete internal security in the counties of Dubossary and Tiraspol'. It was evacuated to
Tecuci in March 1944. HO: Feb. 1942 to March 44 at Tiraspol'.
Comandamentul Militar Odesa (Odessa Military Command)
(16.8.41 to 1.42; 4.42 to 20.1.43)
* It was established on 16.8.41 (in the same way as a divisional command) with the duties of administrative
security and of guarding the city, the delineation of the zone and the elimination of partisans therein. It
actually began to function on 17.10.41 after the conquest of the city and General Ion Glogojanu was named
Military Commander of Odessa; he assumed his post in the former OGPU building. On 22.14.41, an
explosion destroyed the building and the Odessa Military Command lost 37% of its officers, including
General Glogojanu. After being reorganized, the Odessa Military Command functioned with the same
duties. On 31.1.42, it was transformed into the Zone "C" Tactical Command, with the duties of defending
the shores of the Black Sea in the Sosnovka and Arkadiya sectors and to guard against sabotage, terrorism
and revolts. The duties of the former Odessa Military Command were taken over by the 2"d. Army Corps
(see below). The Odessa Military Command was reestablished on 11.4.42 under the command of General
Constantin Trestioreanu. It was abolished on 20.1.43 and the duties bestowed on the 1lt. Fortifications
Devision (see below). HO: October 1941 to January 1943 at Odessa.
THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK M 49 13
November 2001






1t. Fortifications Brigade
(?.8.41 to 20.2.42)
On 6.8.41, it was transformed into the 4h. Army Staging Command. On 19.10.41, it assumed guarding
duties along the Black Sea in the Odessa zone. On 20.2.42, it was changed into the 1't. Fortifications
Division (see there). HO: October 1941 to February 1942 in Odessa (?).
2nd. Fortifications Brigade
19.10.41 to 20.2.42)
As of 19.10.41, it was regrouped at Tiraspol' with the duties of security and the maintenance of internal
order in the county of Tiraspol'. On 20.2.42, it was transformed into the 2nd. Guard Division (see there).
HO: October 1941 to February 1942 at Tiraspol'
3"r. Mixed Fortifications Brigade
(4-19 Oct. 1941)
On 4.10.41, it replaced the 1t. Cavalry Brigade (see there) between the harbours of Khadzhibei and
Kuyalnik, participating there in the battles at Avgustovka, Golodnaya Balka, Pritsepovka, Plinka etc. On
19.10.41, it was abolished and changed into the 2 Fortifications Brigade (see further above).
1". Cavalry Brigade/Division
(3.8.41 to 7.8.42)
It crossed the Dniester river on the night of 2/3.8.41 at the Dubossary bridgehead. During 3-12 August, it
headed towards Odessa up to the harbour on the Black Sea, during which time it fought at Nikolaevka
(7.8.41), Katargi (8.8.41), Belka (9.8.41) and Severinovka (10.8.41). On 11.8.41, it occupied the area
between the harbours of Tiligul and Bol'shoi Adzhalik. On 13.8.41, it occupied Aleksandrovka. On
14.8.41, it reached the coast to the east of Grigor'evka and between 14 and 20.8.41, it fought at
Buldinovka. On 24.8.41, it reached the Lompaki-Vorlovo-Antono-Kodyachevo zone (30 km./19 miles from
Odessa). On 26.8.41, it commanded the Hadji Bey Detachment in the defence of the shoreline between
Elyaka and Morozovo. From 27.8. to 1.9.41, it fought between the harbours of Khadzhibei and Kuyalnik.
On 4.10.41, the Khadjibei sector was handed over to the 3"r. Mixed Fortifications Brigade (see there). On 8
October, it undertook operations of security along the Bug river in the Savran zone. On 20.10.41 (after the
fall of Odessa), it widened its security zone, taking over entirely the counties of Berezovka and Ochakov,
as well as parts of Odessa and Ovidiopol'. On 1.11.41, it was guarding the Black Sea area between the
harbours of Kuyalnik and Adzhalik. On 15.3.42, it was reorganized under the name of the 1". Cavalry
Division. On 7.8.42, it crossed the Bug river in the direction of the bend in the Don river. HO: 24.08.41 at
Lompaki, 6.10.41 at Mariukovka and October to December 1941 at Berezovka.
5h. Cavalry Brigade/Division
(17.7. to ?.8.41; 1-3.44)
It forced the Dniester river at Lyasevtsy on 17.7.41, set up a bridgehead on 18-19.7.41, then continued in
pursuit towards Kunevo and got to Obodovka on the evening of 20.7.41. The station of Sirovo was taken on
6.8.41 and it supported the Germans in capturing the locality of Vrad'evka. On 8.8.41, it attacked in the
Filimonovka-Veseloe area, repelling the enemy at Novopavlovka and on 9.8.41 at the Bobrik siding and at
Mukezhovo.
*It was remobilized in January 1944, divided into detachmants and placed on the front in Transnistria. The
"Rares" Detachment fought from 27.2 to 17.3.44 against partisans at Mitki, Stanislavchik, Shargorod and
Trest'yany, securing and organizing the bridgehead at Mogilev Podolskii. At the same time, the "Fulger"
Detachment was in action in the Yampol' and Rezina zones in defence of the Yampol' bridgehead and in
the sector between Koshautsi and Soroki. On 17.3.44, the brigade retreated to the west of the Dniester river
and blew up the bridge in the air.
6h. Cavalry Brigade
17.7. to 21.8.41)
*It crossed the Dniester river on 17.7.41 in the Mogilev Podolskii area. Up to 20.7.41, it engaged in battles
at Lyasevtsy in the Lyadovo zone and in the forest at Vili (against casements of the Stalin Line of
Fortifications). It then fought at Aleksandrovka (22.7.41) and Odaya (23.7.41). On 4.8.41, it attacked the
130th. Russian Division in movement in the Nemirovka-Mikhalkovo-Gnezilovo area and in the Krivoe
Ozero sector (5.8.41), then later on past Kodyma. On 21.8.41. it crossed the Bug and headed to the Dnieper.
14 THE POST-RIDER/aMImHK N- 49
November 2001






7t. Cavalry Brigade
(Aug. to Oct. 1941)
After the campaign in Bessarabia, it assumed guarding duties along the Black Sea and at the harbour on
the Dniester river, being moved to the west of Dalnik at the end of August 1941. On 2.9.41, it went into
battle between Josefsthal and Tatarka. On the night of 14/15.9.41, it was in pursuit of the enemy and
reached the Black Sea shoreline on 17.9.41 in the area of the Sukhoi Lake. On the night of 5/6.10.41, it
reached the harbour at Sukhoi. It returned home after the battle of Odessa.
8th. Cavalry Brigae
(17.7. to ?.8.41)
It forced the Dniester river (17-19.7.41) in the Naslavcha-Verezheny sector. From 21.7 to 10.8.41, it
pursued the enemy towards the Bug river, fighting at Lipovka and Timanovka (23.7.41), Novopavlovka
and Federovka (7.8.41) and at Nikolaevka Vtoraya (8-9.8.41).
9h. Cavalry Brigade/Division
(24.8.41 to 1.8.42)
It was placed on the Odessa Front on the night of 23/24.8.41, between the harbours of Bol'shoi and Malyi
Adzhalik. From there, it attacked to the south-east of Dufinka. On 26.8.41, it occupied the village of
Staraya Dufinka and then received an order to be regrouped on the shore to the west of the harbour of
Bol'shoi Adjalik. The casualties from 23 to 30.8.41 were 57% of the officers, 34% of the NCOs and 55%
of the troops. On 22.9.41, it replaced the 11th. Infantry Division on the front between Khadzhibei and the
Vygoda-Odessa railway line. On 2.10.41, it was moved for guarding duties to the counties of Mogilev
Podolskii, Tulchin and Yampol'. On 15.3.42, it was reorganized under the name of the 9th. Cavalry
Division. In the spring of 1942, it assumed guarding duties in the counties of Rybnitsa, Balta, Golta,
Anan'ev and Dubossary. On 5.5.42, it was moved to the zone of Tulchin, Obodovka, Chechelnik and
Oligopol'. On 1.8.42, it was moved to the shores of the Sea of Azov, to the east of Sirokinskii.
1st. Mixed Mountain Brigade
(17.7. to 20.8.41)
It forced the Dniester river in the Voloshkovo-Kozlov-Negoryany sector and pursued the Soviets towards
the Bug river, fighting at Levkov, Tsibulevka, Obodovka and Zhabokrich (26.7.41), along the Kodyma
valley to Poznanka, Golma and Yasenovo (4.8.41). It crossed the Bug river on 20.8.41 by the bridge at
Akmechet.
2nd. Mixed Mountain Brigade
(19.7. to 20.8.41)
It crossed the Dniester river on 19.7.41 by the bridge at Kozlov and it then fought at Khonkovtsy,
Yaryshevskaya (Yaryshev) and, from 25 to 27.7.41, fought at Kapustyany, Savintsy, Kitaigorod, Kozintsy
and Verkhovka. On 28.7.41, it fought at Obodovka, then at Yasenovo and Gvordovka. It crossed the Bug
on 20.8.41.
4'h. Mixed Mountain Brigade
(17.7. to 20.8.41)
It forced the Dniester river at Ozhevo (17.7.41), pursued the enemy towards the Bug river in the
Vapnyarka-Savran-Voznesensk direction. It crossed the Bug river on 20.8.41.
1'. Armoured Division
(6 Aug. to Oct. 41)
* It crossed the Dniester river on the night of 5/6.8.41 at Criuleni and Vadul lui Voda. On 7.8.41 it seized
Veselyi Kut and Terbikovo, then cut the Katargi-Zherebka highway (8.8.41) and the Berezovka-Odessa
railway line (9.8.41), occupying Andreevka. On 11.8.41, it took the area between the harbours of Kuyalnik
and Malyi Adzhalik. On 11-12.8.41, it fought at Blagodatnoe and Argirovka, to the east of the harbour of
Kuyalnik. On 14.8.41, it was replaced with the 15h. Infantry Division and regrouped at Baranovo,
Vasil'evo and Zhelepovo. On 18.8.41, the 1st. Armoured Regiment attacked at Karpovo, with heavy losses.
The rest of the division was placed in the reserves of the 4 Army. On 21.8.41, 46 damaged tanks were
sent back to Chisinau. The rest of the division supported during 20-24.8.41 the capture of Freudenthal by
the 1t. Corps, being then included in the Eftimiu Mechanised Detachment (formerly called the 1st. Assault
Detachment) and it then participated in the battles at Belyaevka, to the east of Mayaki and south of
THE POST-RIDER/IMImHK N2 49 15
November 2001






Marienthal. On 16.10.41, the Detachment was the first unit to enter Odessa and it was subsequently sent
home. The casualties in the 1941 campaign were: 34 + 102 + 1125 (dead and wounded).
1st. Fortifications Division
(20.2.42 to 1.5.43)
It was established on 20.2.42 by the transformation of the 1st. Fortifications Brigade (see there). It
assumed duties of guarding and security in the Odessa sector, the Dniester harbour and at Sukhoi Liman.
On 1.5.43, it was merged with the 6t. Infantry Division and took the latter name (see there). HQ: February
1942 to March 1943 at Odessa.
1st. Guard Division
(7.8. to 18.10.41)
It forced the Dniester river on the night of 6/7.8.41 at Pugacheny and Tashlyk and then advanced towards
Odessa. By 10.8.41 it became a rapid detachment, which fought at Gradinitsa, Troitskoe and Yaska,
occupying the waterworks at Belyaevka on 17.8.41 and opening the way to Odessa. At that time, the main
body of the division was victorious in battles between Mannheim and Kagarlyk against the 25 Soviet
Division, although with heavy losses. From 21 to 27.8.41 it was in action in the Petrovskii Khutor-Novo-
Belyaevka-Dubinovo zone, reaching Petersthal and Friedenthal on 30.8.41. On 4.9.41, it attacked in the
Leninthal direction, penetrating to the north of Josefsthal. From 12 to 26.9.41 it was fighting in the Dalnik
zone and then assumed lighter duties in other zones of the front, between the harbours of Khadzhibei and
Kuyalnik. It entered Odessa on 16.10.41 and was merged with units of the 3'". Mixed Fortifications
Brigade. On 18.10.41, it was moved to Tighina (Bendery) in Bessarabia.
1st. Frontier Division
(14.8. to 6.10.41)
It crossed the Dniester river on the night of 13/14.8.41 and then went into action. After a march of 100
km. (63 miles) made in three nights, it was to the south of Kagarlyk on 18.8.41. On 21.8.41, it reached the
Dubinovo-Vakarzhany alignment and repulsed Soviet counter attacks. On the night of 31.8/1.9.41, it
replaced the 21st. Infantry Division between Vakarzhany and Krasnyi Pereselenets. On 1.9.41, it went into
action again to advance one km. (5/8 mile), losing in two days 41 officers and 739 soldiers. On 12.9.41, it
attacked to the west of Dalnik. On 17.9.41 and after merging with the Guard Division, it attacked to the east
of Dalnitskii Khutor. On 21.9.41 and after heavy fighting with big losses, it went on the defensive to the
north-west of Dalnik. It was attacked there and pushed back to Dalnitskii Khutor from 2 to 6.10.41. It was
regrouped on 6.10.41 in the Belyaevka-Dobrozhany zone and crossed over to the west of the Dniester river.
The casualties from 22 June to 6 October 1941 totalled 10,064 (286 dead, 6642 wounded and 1366
missing), out of an original force of 10,603 men!
1st. Infantry Division
(25.9. to Oct. 41)
* From 17 to 25.9.41, it was being transported to the front at the north-west of Odessa. On the night of
27/28.9.41, it replaced the units of the 13h. Infantry Division in the Simanovka-Kubanka-Kremidovka
sector and then fought at Staraya Dufinovka (29.9.41), Kremidovka (2.10.41) and Kubanka (6-8.10.41).
Advance elements of the Division reached the shores of the Black Sea on 16.10.41. After the conquest of
Odessa, it was moved about 500 km. (312 miles) away to the Krivoi Rog zone, where it assumed security
and guarding duties.
2nd. Infantry Division
(16.9 to 18.10.41)
* Upon mobilization, it was introduced into the Odessa Front on 16.9.41. From 27.9 to 2.10.41, it had
defensive duties to the west of Kobachenko. On 2.10.41, it went on the offensive in the Bol'shava
Dalnitskaya-Kobachenko sector. On 18.10.41, after the fall of Odessa, it began to march towards
Kirovograd, where it assumed security duties between the Bug and Dnieper rivers.
3rd. Infantry Division
3.8. to 17.10.41)
* On 2-3.8.41, it crossed the Dniester at Vadu lui Voda. From 4 to 8.8.41, it undertook its first supportive
actions of battle, with victories at the Timush Farm (Gut Timusch) and Shibka (5-6.8) and at Plosskoe (6-
7.8.). It approached Razdelnaya on 9.8.41, followed the enemy in the Kardomichevka-Bakalovy-Freudorf-
16 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIK JZ 49
November 2001






Dimitr'evka direction and gained victories on 9-10 & 10.8 at Razdelnaya, Bakalovy and Ponyatovka. On
11-12.8.41, it fought to conquer the heights to the north-west of Karpovo and on 15.8.41 it began an action
in the Karpovo-Vygoda direction.On 19.8.41, it secured the heights to the west of Mikhailovka and south
of Egorovka, taking the heights to the south of Buzhanskii and the village of Ostradovka on 20.8.41, as
well as the villages in the Svinaya valley, between Ostradovka and Brinovka. On 23.8.41, it overcame
enemy resistance at Oktyabr' and went to the east of Vygoda on 26.8.41. It then regrouped so as to operate
again in the Lenino-Budyanskii-Pervomaisk zone. It went into action again on 1.9.41, attacking in the
Gnilyakovo-Dalnik area, getting as far as the Bol'shaya Bostanaya Hill on 12.9.41 and a fortified position
west of Kobachenko. From 7 to 20.9.41, it fought to capture the Bol'shaya Dalnitskaya Hill. Because of
casualties, it regrouped at the end of September in the Vygoda-Petrovskii-Nikolaevka-Georgenthal refitting
zone and was then sent to pacification garrisons on 17.10.41. The losses at Odessa were: 311 + 112 + 8528.
HO:11.8.41 at Evdok'evka.
4th. Infantry Division
(Oct. 41 to 8.4.42)
It was placed on the Odessa Front from 10 to 16.10.41, without participating in the battles. On 19.10.41,
it assumed security duties in Transnistria, in the counties of Anan'ev, Balta, Dubossary, Krivoe Ozero,
Rybnitsa and Tiraspol'. At the end of December 1941, it was relocated in the Odessa zone. On 8.4.42, it
crossed the Bug river, on its way to the Khar'kov Front.
5'h. Infantry Division
(5.8. to 10.41; 3.43 to 3.44)
It crossed the Dniester river on 4-5.8.41. On 18.8.41, it was in the reserves of the 4t. Army in the
Egorovka region. From 19 to 22.8.41, it supported battles between Lake Khadzhibei and the Svinaya
valley. On 28.8.41, it went on the offensive in the Vygoda Station-Gorodetskoe(?) direction and reached
the Gnilyakovo-Oktyabr'-Vazhnyi zone. It fought on 29.8.41 north-west of Gnilyakovo and from 17 to
21.9.41 at Dalnik. From 2 to 5.10.41, it helped to restabilise the situation at the lt. Frontier Division,
pushing back the enemy 3-4 km. (2-2 1/2 miles) to the south of the Dalnik-Dalnitskii Khutor highway. At
3pm on 16.10.41, it occupied the zone to the north-west of Odessa. On 5.11.41, it returned home.
Casualties: 74 + 25 + 2102.
After the retreat from Stalingrad, it regrouped in Transnistria for refitting and stayed there up to 31.3.43.
On 1.5.43, it merged with the 1st. Guard Division (see there), assuming security and defensive duties in
Northern Transnistria. It carried out anti-partisan actions at Savran, Slobodka Station, Peshchanaya,
Koloderka, the Starolug Forest, as well as in the Bershad zone. In March 1944, it supported the retreat of
German troops at positions in Balta and the neighbourhood and organized bridgeheads at Rybnitsa and to
the west of Roskov. It then withdrew to Moldavia after heavy fighting. HQ: 20.8.41 at Pavlinka.
6kh. Infantry Division
(26.7. to Oct. 41; Mar.-Oct. 43...Mar. 44?)
After crossing the Dniester river to reach Mogilev Podolskii, it participated in mopping up there and then
fought at Tsibulevka, Zhabokrich and Pavlovka (26-29.7.41), Balta and Moshnezh (2-6.8.41). Sent to the
Odessa Front, it went into action at Vazhnyi, Oktyabr' (29.8.41) and at Dalnik. On 2.10.41, it resisted a
powerful attack before Dalnik (in the sector of the Frontier Division, where the Soviets had reached
Dalnitskii Khutor). On 16.10.41 at 3pm., it entered Odessa and began mopping up in the sector assigned to
it. It went back home up to 1.11.41.
Following upon the retreat from Stalingrad, it remained in Transnistria, even after being refitted.On
1.5.43, it was merged with the 1st. Fortifications Division (see there) and carried out guard and defence
duties up to 30.10.43 (and probably later into 1944?) in the Odessa zone and along the Black Sea, between
Luzanovka and Karolina Island.
7th. Infantry Division

(3.8.41 to 11.41)
* It crossed the Dniester river on 3.8.41 at Vadul lui Voda, overcoming enemy resistance on 4.8.41 at
Grigoriopol' and Kolosovo. On 6.8.41, it went on the offensive towards the East, cleared the Grigoriopol'-
Tiraspol' zone, advanced to north-east of Taslok and then supported battles at Kolosovo (5-6 Aug.),
Kuchurgan, Rozal'evka and to the south of Razdelnaya (9-10.8.41). On 10.8.41, it began to pursue the
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK ?- 49 17
November 2001






enemy in the directions of Razdelnaya-Karpovo and Vygoda-Odessa. It fought at Georgenthal (19.8),
Mikhailovskaya and Karpovo and broke through the front, resuming its advance. On the evening of
23.8.41, it reached positions north-east of Berezeny and fought at Vygoda, north of Vazhnyi and at
Oktyabr' from 22 to 24.8.41. From 26 to 30.8.41, it was refitted in the reserves of the 4th. Arm. On
31.8.41, it went into action again to the north of Dalnik, encountering strong Soviet resistance. It was the
first division to reach the fortified position between Gnilyakovo and Dalnik. On the night of 15-16.9.41, it
was replaced on the front line and regrouped in the Petrovskii-Myndrovka-Makarov zone. On 20.9.41, it
was moved to another fortified point, which defended Odessa, to the south of Tatarka. On 16.10.41, the
Division broke through the front between Tatarka and Sukhoi Liman and entered Odessa. It returned home
at the beginning of November. Casualties: 72 at Grigoriopol', 1096 at Vygoda, 594 at Dalnik, 152 at
Tatarka and 306 at Berezeny and Vazhnyi.
8th. Infantry Division
(3.8. to 17.10.41; 20.2. to 27.3.44)
It crossed the Dniester river on 3.8.41 and fought at Bol'shoi Molokish on 4-5.8.41. On the night of 18-
19.8.41, it arrived at the Odessa Front (HQ: Mannheim). It supported battles at Freudenthal and Dalnik
(27.8 to 8.9.41), also south-east of Leninthal (11-12.9.41), Petersthal, Marienthal and at Neuburg (12-
17.9.41). From 18 to 21.9.41, it worked at Tatarka, the Bolgarskaya Farm and along the Gross Liebenthal-
Tatarka highway. On 27.9.41, it went into the reserves at the Yaska-Troitskoe-Gradinitsa zone, where it
remained until the fall of Odessa. On 17.10.41, it began leaving for home. Casualties: 295 + 135 + 7235.
HQO 19.8.41 at Mannheim; 22.8.41 at Freudenthal/Colonie Mannheim; 27.8.41 at Dalnik.
From 20.2. to 27.3.44, some subordinate units were included in the "Cantemir" Group, set up to combat
the partisans in Central and Northern Transnistria.. Together with other forces, the Division supervised and
defended the traffic across the Dniester river, between Zaleshchik and Kozlov (also called Secureni), with
similar efforts at Otach in the Mogilev Podolskii zone, for which purpose the "Cemauti", '-Hotin",
Moghilev" and "Zalescik" Detachments were organized.
9th. Infantry Division
(March to September 1943)
After the retreat from Stalingrad, it was moved to Transnistria. On 1.5.43, it was merged with the 3'.
Guard division (see there), assuming guarding and security duties in the counties ofAnan'ev, Balta, Golta,
Krivoe Ozero and Tiraspol'. In the middle of September, it went back to the Dobrudja in Romania.
10th. Infantry Division
(29.9. to 9.12.41)
On 28-29.9.41, it began fighting in the Tatarka zone (between the south of Dalnik and the south of
Sukhoi Liman), supported battles at the Bolgarskaya Farm and occupied the anti-tank ditch at Tatarka. It
entered Odessa on 16.10.41, setting up the Command in the former building of the OGPU on Angliiskaya
Ulitsa (the building was dynamited on 22.10.41 by the Soviets). It assumed defensive duties along the
shoreline, between the Dniester Harbour and Starozhovochinaya. On 20.10.41, it received a new guarding
mission in the counties of Odessa and Ovidiopol'. On 9.12.41, it was moved to Nikolaev. HO: 9.10.41 at
Bolgarskaya Ferma; 17-22.10.41 at Odessa in the OGPU building.
11th. Infantry Division
August to October 1941)
* It crossed the Dniester from 8 to 13.8.41 (?) from Varnitsa and Tighina (Bendery). On 18.8.41 in an
offensive to capture the first line of defence at Odessa (in the direction of the principal thrust), it occupied
the Karpovo Station and then fought at Vygoda (21.8.41) and Palizhovo (22.8). Going on the offensive
again on 28.8.41, it advanced to the zone west of Gnilyakovo, east of Oktyabr' and east of Vazhnvi. From 9
to 12 .10.41, it fought at Gnilyakovo, Golodnaya Balka and overcame the pocket at Gnilyakovo on
13.10.41. It returned home after 16.10.41. Casualties: 3573 men.
13'". Infantry Division
(23.7. to 30.10.41)
* It crossed the Dniester river on 23.7.41 near Soroki. From 27 to 29.7.41, it pierced the Stalin fortified line
and fought at the Belochi Brook and Vadu Turkului. From 1 to 4.8.41, it fought at Goraba and Molokish.
On 18.8.41, the cavalry of the Division reached the Bug river and rested there for four days; it then went on
18 THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHK 4X 49
November 2001






a forced march of 170 km. (106 miles) between Kozarka and Worms, towards Odessa. On the night of 21-
22.8.41, a Soviet naval landing with air support in the Chebanka zone to the east of Odessa obliged the
division to retreat to the south of Kubanka, between the harbours of Kuyalnik and Adzhalik. It fought there
at Kubanka (22-24.8.41) and at Gildendorf (25-31.8.41). In the first half of September, it took the positions
at the Zhilitsevka Collective Farm and the Agrokombinat Grove. On 21-23.9.41, a powerful attack at the
east of Kuyalnik harbour by the Soviet 157th. Division was stopped with heavy losses; the Division lost
1300 men and also the strategic point of Gildendorf, as well as the opportunity to put the port of Odessa
under direct fire. On 16.10.41, it penetrated to the shoreline facing the port of Odessa. On 30.10.41, it was
at Tiraspol', on its way back home, arriving there on 5.11.41. Casualties: 192 + 53 + 5025. HO: 20.8.41 at
Pavlinka; 5.9.41 at Kremidovka; 5.10.41 at Blagoevo and 30.10.41 at Tiraspol'.
14th. Infantry Division
(19.7. to 26.10.41; 1 to 3.43; 12.9.43 to 23.3.44)
It crossed the Dniester river on 18-19.7.41 (?) at Vadu Rascu. On 20.7.41, it continued to pursue the
enemy between Baili and Rezina and participated in the capture of the casements along the left bank of the
Yagarlak valley. It arrived at the Odessa Front on the night of 18-19.8.41. From 19 to 22.8.41, it cleared the
heights to the west of Baraboi and occupied Freudenthal Colony. On 23-24.8.41 it was fighting at the
Petersthal Colony, which it occupied and it took Josefsthal Colony on 25.8.41. On 28.8.41, it was on the
offensive with heavy fighting against the first line of defence in Odessa, with the Tatarka zone on its left
and Petersthal Colony on its right. It took Krasnyi Pereselenets (30.8.41) and Leninthal (1.9.41). It was
violently attacked on 2.9.41 and the front was restabilized with the help of the 1st. Guard Division along the
battle-line at Josefsthal, the north of Marienthal and to the west of Dalnik. From 12 to 19.9.41, it was
involved in heavy fighting in the Dalnik and Tatarka zones. It went into the reserves on 19-20.9.41 and
returned home on 26.10.41. Casualties: 273 + 109 + 7459.
After the Stalingrad disaster, it was reorganized in the Debaltsevo-Voroshilovka sector and moved to
Transnistria around January 1943 for refitting. It went home on 4.4.43.
From 12.9. to 15.12.43, the Division carried out security duties in Transnistria, namely in the Balta zone
and from 12.43 to 10.1.44 also in the Buzinovo-Katargi-Razdelnaya zone. It was then moved to the
Antono-Kodinchevo zone. On 27.1.44, it was stationed along the Black Sea shoreline, between Kubanka
and Popovka. At the same time, it also helped to combat the partisans in Northern Transnistria. It was
moved to Bessarabia on 23.3.44.
15 Infantry Division
(1.8. to 10.41; 3.3.43 to 3.44)
* It croosed the Dniester river on 1.8.41 at Vadul lui Voda and on 2-4.8.41 it widened the bridgehead at
Grigoriopol'. It fought in the Shibka region and at the Timusch Farm on 3-5.8.41. On 6.8.41, it advanced
almost parallel with the Dniester river in the direction of Aleksandrovka, Mikhailovka, Veselyi Kut (taken
on 7.8.41) and Katargi (8.8.41). On 9-10.8.41, it overcame resistance at Lozovaya and advanced towards
Kubanka and the Colony of Malyi Buyalik. It occupied the localities of Blagodatnaya and Buyalik on
12.8.41. On 16.8.41, it went into action at the Adzhalik harbour, where the 1st. Armoured Division was
situated. During 11-22.8.41, it took the village of Kubanka and the (anti-tank) ditches to the south of
Kremidovka Station. On 22.8.41, it attacked along the Chernaya Valley and on 25-26.8.41, it took the
Krutsaya Valley and the village of Aleksandrovka. Between 24.8. and 1.9.41, it attacked to the west of
Bol'shoi Adzhalik harbour, crossed the Chernaya Valley and headed south (25-29.8.41).On 31.8.41, it
reached the Black Sea shoreline between the harbour of Bol'shoi Adzhalik and east of Marievka, taking the
latter and the village of Volch. During 1-22.9.41 it was in action to the west of the Chernaya Valley, in the
zone between the Odessa radio station and the Agrokombinat Farm and along the positions at Fontanka. On
16.9.41, some of its units were moved to the Ochakov zone to ensure the security of the shoreline between
the Bug river and the harbour at Tiligul. On the night of 21-22.9.41, a Russian landing took place to the
rear of the Romanian troops to the east of Odessa (at Grigor'evka and Chebanka), but the Division
reoccupied Grigor'evka and the localities in the zone up to the north of Novodufinka. On 11-12.10.41, it
was withdrawn from the front for refitting. Casualties in 30 battles: 218 + 43 + 6005.
* Finding iself in retreat from the Stalingrad Front (the casualties there were: 270 + 230 + 9334), the
Division crossed the Bug river and stopped in Transnistria for refitting. On 1.5.43, it was merged with the
THE POST-RIDER/HIMIHIHK N 49 19
November 2001






2nd. Guard Division (see there) in the Antonovka-Malaya Roshcha zone. In May 1943, the Division
defended the Black Sea shoreline between the Tiligul harbour and the Bug river. From 5.11. to 5.12.43, it
was fighting on the Kimburn Peninsula. On 10.12.43, it was subordinate to the German forces and given
the mission of operating between Berezan Island and the harbour on the Bug river, being directed from
Ochakov. In March 1944, it broke contact with the Soviets with difficulty in a heroic battle around Lake
Berezan and at the bridgehead at Koblievo. After forced marches, it defended the bridgehead at Yaska,
went across the Dniester river and then retreated to Bessarabia. HQ: 5.43 to 3.44 at Ochakov (?).
18th. Infantry Division
(24.9. to 31.10.41)
It crossed the Dniester river on 24.9.41. During 6-16.10.41, it participated in the final phase of the battle
of Odessa, to the south of the Vakarzhany-Dalnik highway. On 31.10.41, it crossed the Bug river and was
given a guarding sector between the Bug and Dnieper rivers.
20th. Infantry Division
(March-April 1942)
It was mobilized in March 1942 and placed in the Odessa zone. On 25.3.42, it replaced the 41h.Infantry
Division (HO: Gnilyakovo) between Ochakov and the harbour on the Dniester river, with guarding and
security duties. At the end of April 1942, it was moved 500 km. (312 miles) in the direction of Odessa-
Berezovka-Trikhaty-Nikolaev (on 1st. May)-Dnepropetrovsk and towards Khar'kov.
21st. Infantry Division
(16.8. to 19.10.41; 10.43 to 3.4.44)
It crossed the Dniester on 16.8.41 and then advanced along the Dalnik-Odessa line. During 17-20.8.41, it
participated in the capture of the water reservoir for Odessa at Belyaevka. During 21.8 tol.9.41, it fought at
Vakarzhani, with heavy losses. On 4-7.10.41, it fought along the heights to the west of Dalnik. After the
fall of Odessa, it began moving back on 19.10.41 to peace-keeping garrisons, in the direction of Yaska-
Korkmaz-Bolgrad-Vulcanesti-Galati-Tecuci. Casualties: 188 + 56 + 2959. HO: 31.8.41 at Vakarzhany (?);
11.43 to 3.44 at Odessa (?)
It was located at Odessa in October 1943, with guarding duties between Kuyalnik harbour and the port on
the Dniester river. It was subordinate to the Germans on 26.3.44, but began withdrawing from Ovidiopol'
and Bugaz on 3.4.44.
1st. Guard Division
(20.2.42 to 1.5.43)
* It was established on 20.2.42 with guarding duties and ensuring military security in the territory in
Northern Transnistria in the counties of Jugastru, Mogilev Podolskii, Rybnitsa and Tulchin (Translators
note: The word "Jugastru" means "Red Maple" in Romanian and it was the renaming of Yampol county in
Transnistria). On 1.5.43, it was merged with the 5 Infantry Division (see there). Ha: 2.42 to 4.43 at
Tulchin.
2nd. Guard Division
(20.2.42 to 1.5.43)
* It was established on 20.2.42 by the transformation of the 2nd Fortifications Brigade (see there). It
assumed security and guarding duties in the sector between the Kuyalnik harbour and the Bug river
(Berezovka-Marievka-Ochakov zone). On 1.5.43, it was merged with the 15t. Infantry Division (see there).
HO: Feb. 42 to Mar. 43 at Berezovka.
3r". Guard Division
(20.2.42 to 1.5.43)
It was established on 20.2.42 with security and guarding duties in the counties of Anan'ev, Balta,
Dubossary, Golta, Krivoe Ozero and Tiraspol'. On 1.5.43, it was merged with the 9th. Infantry Division
(see there). HO: Feb. 42 to Apr. 43 at Balta.
Transnistrian Police Inspectorate
(Nov. 41 to Mar. 44)
* It was formed in November 1941 at Tiraspol', then moved to Odessa and split into two new
Inspectorates: Odessa (with 7 Legions) and Balta (with 6 Legions). They were evacuated from Transnistria
to Romania at the beginning of 1944.


20


THE POST-RIDER/SMIHWK N- 49
November 2001






Structure:
*Battalions 1 & 7 of Police (at the Prefecture of Police in Odessa)
*Battalion 4 of Police (Odessa). Legions of Police at Odessa, Odessa Mobile, Berezovka, Ochakov
and Ovidiopol'.
*Battalion 5 of Police (Balta): Legions of Police at Balta, Golta, Krivoe Ozero (?) and Rybnitsa.
*Battalion 8 of Police (Tiraspol'): Legions of Police at Anan'ev, Dubossary and Tiraspol'.
*Battalion 11 of Police (Mogilev Podolskii): Legions of Police at Mogilev, Tulchin and Yampol'.

False Localizations: Many collections contain mail which has been erroneously considered as having been
sent from military units in Transnistria. These false localizations appear in two situations:-
1. Correspondence written on postcards specially issued for Transnistria and including in the stamp design
the inscription "Duca-Vodi, hatman al Ucrainei" (Duca Vodl, hetman of the Ukraine). They have been
considered as having been sent by units in Transnistria, since they bear OPM markings; in reality, the
majority have originated from units stationed elsewhere on the front!
Explanation: Because of the shortage at the front of the usual post-free cards, all kinds of postcards were
tolerated in practice as supplements for military mail, namely post-free items, cards with reduced rates,
civilian cards paid at the full rate, German and Soviet cards and including those for Transnistria. They were
usually available from authorized persons who had been sent from the homeland to the front and who had
supplied themselves with postcards obtained at the last localities under Romanian administration. See an
example in Fig. 7 herewith.
2. Mail which has in the address the name and number of the OPM of a military unit, sent by a
Transnistrian civilian official and which normally originated in military units stationed outside Transnistria.
Explanation: Such items had usually been written by authorized persons on their way from the homeland to
the front and who were sending to their relatives a final "stable" address, which they had not known until
then. See an example in Fig. 8.

In lieu of a conclusion: The present author of this article has deliberately abstained from making any
comments about the campaign against the USSR. The tragedy of war in general and the dramatic events
linked with the name "Transnistria" (and not only there) cannot be the subject of a postal history article and
it should be handled by disinterested and objective historians. That can well be illustrated by an innocent
piece of mail, sent from the Crimea by a "Volksdeutsche", an ethnic German from Carangebes in the
Romanian Banat, enrolled in the Romanian 19th. Infantry Division, in which he went in March 1942 by way
of Transnistria on his way to the Crimea (the 19t. Division had crossed the Dniester river during 7-19.3.42
and the Bug river during 24-30.3.42, marching on foot). The realities seen there impressed our soldier, but
in what a way! For those who are acquainted with the kind, hard-working and decent Swabians of the
Romanian Banat, his written lines should be a cause for reflection about the effect that a fanatical and
extremist ideology and a destructive war could produce on a simple mind, on a man so kind, industrious
and decent. Here is the text in German, the first part of which describes the visit of Antonescu to Kerch' in
the Crimea on 7.6.42: "Wir hatten heute hochen Besuch u.z. Herr Marschall Antonescu war bei uns und
verkilndigte seinem und des ganzer Landes Dank, es wurden Dekorierungen gemacht und die Aussicht
verlautet iiber dem linken Ufer die Schlacht vorzusetzen. Er ist ein sehr lieber Mensch und gar nicht so
strong wie man ihm sich vorstellt" ("We had today an important visit, namely Marshal Antonescu was here
and he expressed his thanks and that of the whole country. Decorations were bestowed and the outlook
reported and the battle set out regarding the left shore. He is a very good man and hardly as strict as people
imagine".

In the second part, he gives the impressions he gathered in Transnistria: "Uber den Nyester sind weit und
breit keine Juden mehr, sie wurden alle vernichtet; es ist wohl dieses zu erleben, man ftihlt sich weis Gott
wie in einer andere Welt...Leutnant Radoi Tatucu Valeriu's Schwiegersohn ist auch gefallen" ("Around the
Dniester, there are no Jews about any more, they have all been wiped out; in experiencing this, God knows
that one feels like being in another world.....The son-in-law of Lieutenant Radoi Tatucu Valeriu has also
fallen in battle").
THE POST-RIDER/IIMII(HK N2 49 21
November 2001



















_W7 1 11 __ 1 _U


Fig. 1: An example of standard mail from a military unit
fighting in Transnistria during the 1941 campaign. Written
on 30.8.41 on a 4-lei civilian postcard at the 17. Infantry
Regt., Battalion 1, OPM 84 (see the address at top left and
the round military mark). Sent on 1.9.41 via OPM 84 (=
21 Infantry Division). At that time the Division was
engaged in heavy fighting at Vakarzhani.


Fi. 2: An example of mail from a military guarding unit in
Transnistria sent via the Civilian Post as a postfree semi-
illustrated military card, written at the Medical Ambulance
No. 82 (according to the address on the back, it belonged to t
the 15". Infantry Division) and sent registered at the-
Nichanoe P.O. (see the NICEANOE 16.12.43 cancels), being / r':'
Additional franked with 7 Transnistria stamps to total 166 lei. ,
Normally, it was not permitted to indicate a military address .. .
(with unit names and OPM Nos.) on mail sent through a c,, l., 12300.
civilian post office `as that would indicate the location of /.
the unit and be a contravention of a military secret. In general,
mail of that type had the address erased by the censorship. The ,' ^,' .. o. .. fto_ -
example described here is very rare and was due to inattention """' *"'"'"" ....'Mo A. E s c
by the military censorship. ,. """"",

"The borders of a nation are the splendid frontiers of its conception.
Their defence is the most grave and holy hour in the life of a country".
Marshal Antonescu, 29 September 1940.


Fig. 3: A 4-lei civilian card from a Police unit, namely from
the 4. Police Battalion in Odessa and sent via OPM No. 15
(= Odessa Military Command). Note address "Batalionul 4
Jand. Odesa. Compania 1-a" and the military cachets :
"Compania Jandarmi ODESA" &
"COMANDAMENTUL COMP. ODESA, Cipitan".


Fig. 4: A "Transnistrian" card from the same Police unit as
before (see address: Bat. 4 Jand. Odesa)) and sent through the
Odessa P.O. Note the markings ODESA EXPEDIE
7.10.42 and Cenzurat Odesa / Nr. 17.


THE POST-RIDER/IMmIHK NS 49
November 2001
















,2^ZLc .4z 2_ ___
ur. 7/,.E /

---


--I-


Fg. 6 A military card at the 1-leu reduced tariff
additionally franked with a 6-lei "Duca VodA" stamp
and sent from a staging unit at the Re-Supplying
Centre at Balta (where stores of munitions and fuel
were depositied). Note the cachets: Romania *
Central de reaprovizionare & eful Centrului de
Reaprovizionare and the cancel of the post office:
BALTA 27.12.41.


Fig. 7: An example of Erroneous Localisation (Situation 1).
A 6-lei Transnistrian card, sent through OPM 140, 6.11.42
from the 16'h. Artillery Regiment (part of the 6". Infantry
Division). It could thus be assumed that the unit and OPM
No. 140 were located somewhere in Transnistria. Not so
and, in reality, they were at the Stalingrad Front at that
date! It turns out from the text that the sender had recently
returned from the homeland and had surely bought this
card while going through Transnistria (Horst Scherrer
Collection).


Fi. 5: A civilian card, overprinted GRATUIT (so as to be
r used by the Field Post) and sent from a staging unit at Field
Hospital 531,located at Tiraspol' (see the address and marks
ROMANIA Spitalul No. 531 & OPM No. 514,1.7.43?)
= Eastern Staging Command at Tiraspol'. While the Field
Post Service was free, except for registration fees and the
sender had reaffirmed this privilege by writing at the top
"Exempt from postage in conformance with PTT Directive
No. 47298/1943", why was it also franked at 5 lei in
being sent?


Fi. 8: Another example of False Localisation (Situation 2).
A 12-lei Transnistrian card with a further franking of 66 lei,
sent registered at the ODESA H office on 7.5.43 and censored
in Odessa. The address of the sender is Batalionul 18 iVantori
Munte, oficiulpostal military 33. That 18th. Mountain Hunters
Battalion belonged at the 4h. Mountain Division and one could
conclude that this unit was in Odessa. Not so and, in reality, the
sender had stopped in Odessa, while returning from the
homeland to his Division. At that date, it was in the Feodosiya-
Kerch' sector in the Crimea! He says in the text that: "After a
difficult night of travelling by train, I have safely reached
Odessa. After an hour, I will be proceeding further".


THE POST-RIDER/MIMII[HK N2 49 23
November 2001


- IJ *' f

ii -


m


-: : IF !-.








i;epe Iro-i. = ig 9A letter, written by Comandamentul
o3W lui .. MU, oficiulpostal 21 (in accordance with the
-4 address on the back, this would have referred
SPETRAU to the 3". Army Command in Tiraspol'), but
sent through the Sub-Centre of Cartography
("Cartare") No. 1. See the marking S.C.O.
--Cai."M- Jud. ElT"POAR2. .. POSTAL MILITAR No. 1, which is very
.. J. t'0A. ". -- rare on mail and applied wholly at
_CEg g sTt Of .P. Z ? M. Tiraspol' on 10.1.1944.
CE :" 0f.p. z u. -* .:





MILITARY GRATdi ,
Fig. 10: A post-free military card sent from the Odessa Military
S... Command, according to the address written on the back:
S- -a Comandamentul Militar al Odesei, Serviciu Geniu, OPM 139.
See also the cachets: ROMANIA Comandamentul Roman
a! __ -Z__________ al Odesei, EXPEDITIE & CENZURAT. It went through the
/ Odessa post office on 30.4.42. It is interesting to note that the
S / Odessa Military Command, newly reestablished on 11.4.42,
C-0 indicated in its address the OPM number of the 2"". Army Corps
/. __ and not its former designation of OPM No. 15.




Editorial Comment: It would seem in order to add the following information to the excellent study
supplied to us by Dr. Grecu:-
German Farming Colonies in the Ukraine: Dr. Grecu has listed several of these communities and all of
them have obviously been renamed since WWII. Quite a few of them had postal services during the
Russian Imperial period and we will eventually get around to writing up the associated postal history.
Casualties in WWII: Participation in the Axis
assault on the USSR was an absolute disaster for
L2OO 2 Romania, as the account given by Dr. Grecu
confirms. When Odessa had finally been taken on
-. 16.10.1941, the Romanian losses were 70,000 killed
Said 100,000 wounded. By the summer of 1944, the
OAS1%7R .Soviet Army was in Northern Moldavia and
VRomanian casualties on the Eastern Front had now
U-, 4 -/ totalled 350,000 killed or missing. On a philatelic
"Cc A note, the three stamps for Transnistria were issued on
6.10.1941 and your editor is showing herewith the
12- & 24-lei values on pieces with the Soviet
Odessa-1 Despatch Office "M" postmark and the date of capture of the city (probably backdated, as it is
doubtful that the attackers were carrying supplies of these stamps upon entry).
Marshal Ion Antonescu: He forced the abdication of King Carol on 6 September 1940, after Romania lost
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the USSR and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. Carol's son
Michael ascended the throne for the second time, but the real leader of the country was Ion Antonescu as
"Conducator". He joined in the attack on the USSR to get back Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Against
the advice of King Michael, Iuliu Maniu and other prominent Romanians, he did not stop there, as the
Finns had done in taking Karelia and the outcome was inevitable. King Michael had Antonescu arrested on
24 THE POST-RIDER/HMIMIIK Ng 49
November 2001






23 August 1944 and that was
followed by three days of S-----
heavy fighting against the :'
German forces in and around
Bucharest, until they gave up.
Romania then declared war -- --~ -..--- "
against Nazi Germany on
26 August and the Soviet
Army entered Bucharest on
the 31st. Antonescu was put ".-" .
on trial by a national tribunal,
convicted of being a war
criminal and executed on 1 June 1946. The two Romanian cards
of 1940-1941 shown here speak for themselves and, at the very .....................
least, it seems fair to say that he was most unfortunate in his
choice of friends.
The "Cartare" (= Cartography) Centres: Their functions were urgent since, during the Soviet retreat in
the early part of the campaign, large quantities of incorrect maps had deliberately been left behind as






,.Q G ,. .. . '..
decoys. That practice is known in Russian as "MacKHpOBKa" (= masking).
Additional Comment from Viktor Borisovich Kofman in Odessa, Ukraine:










C.,

P -cp. 7
cv69./V 'J \, xlColarth JV









Shown here is a 6-lei Transnistria card sent by a Romanian engineer in merinca (KMepHHKa) 21 OCT.
942 and examined en route by Censor No. 1 at Moghilev (MoraneB-flo~oSJcK1KH) the next day. A further
transit marking at bottom left reads "CENTRU DE CARTARE 24.X.942" (= Cartographic Centre) and the
card was received at OPM No. 135 on 6 November. This marking of the Mapping Centre is not mentioned
in the article "Transnistrian Date Cancellations and Censor Markings (1941-1944)" in "The Post-Rider"
No. 36, pp.46-58. Is Dr. Grecu able to tell us where the Cartographic Centre and OPM No. 135 were
located in October-November 1942?

THE POST-RIDER/5IMII(HK Ne 49 25
November 2001







The Chronology of Rate and Political

Changes in Moldova 1990-2000, by V. Babich.

XPOHOJIOFOIH H5MEIEHEH1Z TAP HJ1HOH I1IOJIHTHKHM
n cmryazu sz B MOJI OBE c 1990 no 2000 rr.

(The English translation starts on p. 28).
eeswIenxHocTs novroBos agmMHH;icpazL n senpH saHHaRo IITpH ecTpoBCKoX
Moxngascroi Pecaydnai H.
AHaniH uposegee Ha ocHose Tapn0os Ha npocroe nzrcuo go 20 rp.
rmn Hacenerr H n apegnpaL';Mn.

(CoeraBaJI: BjiawdHmp MnxaIUgoBI Bsa6xq).
Mara codaII 1Ho Mongone ITo IIpgAnecepos0Bio (1MDP)
23.06.1990 gerxapaHux o cysepeaiHTeTe
02.09.1990 4eKjaparum o
cysepeaHnTeTe
23.06.1991 BsogTC r codcTBeHrme MapRH. HcnoJbayviTcq maprn CCCP
Hlcno.r-.aymoTc. Maprm CCCP H Maprxx MoRJ)oBE
21.12.1991 IUperpaTan cywec'Bosaane CoBsecxKii Coan (CCCP).
npogojnraa m= cnoxisosBaca genexa ie aHala H noxuzOBzze
Maprx CCCP.

-o 31.12.1991 Hacejien e 0,07 py6 0,07 pyd npeAnpargiTn
C 01.01.1992 HaceneHne 0,35 pyd 0,35 pyd npHaunpHL m
31.06.1992 HaznevaTKa Ha Maprax
CCCP
vTsspacuon. 30.6.92>,
HOuHano oM <<0.28 py6 xI
MapKxpoBaHnws rioHsepTaw
CCCP c Mapxoii 7 xon.
C 01.07.1992 HacejeHse 0,70 pyd 0,70 pyd npeanpazrnau
21.10.1992 B Klinmxese yHnvToxeHx nyTeM coixeHMn 107997 Mapox c
HagnevaTro8i Tmpacnoj~ 30.6.92o HounHanawr <<0.20o H
<<0.28o
)aeadp. 1992 Mamm~HHuFn urrenmeni. <35 xon PyvHok Ira awi <65> zon
naeadpr 1992 IMam nrmii mirewena. w63> ~on
geradpi 1992 PyvrHo m'aMn n65o ron gain
pafoHHux ysnoB cBsan; po)par,
rjnogenH Karyjn, Opxe
C 25.11.1992 )Aenexnzai ana wrynoH, woTopu M MeeT xowxense
COBMHCTmHO C OHXIIzUIM aoHaxamu CCCP
C 01.01.1993 HaceneiHe 3,00 pyd-6,00 pyd npeanpmTmfr
annaps 1993 PyvuHoA .samu .nHO0TA 2-
S 93> pyd
nuoap. 1993 PyHogi wTaam TRM, saaMoenHaii B naaniiefim oH a oTrgennux
yanax cnBaH nyTeM cpoaaanwrf no Hr dyrn *y R nHa wTP
nHnap. 1993 Mam nwumfi t reuen. w Po.ta 3.oo Moldova o


anpon. 1993




OxCTrdp. 1993


C 06.07.1993


THN6poPHnU nurhnycriaoT pyvnon
lTramn 2,95 pyd. Anst
nopoournrK XMK
c uaproJi CCCP 5 ron. gan 15

TMndpo0xMt numnycKaom pyVo1om
urImrn w2,95 pyd. jAnn
an0 p ionin yoanon c no n odpautn npor CCCP
3anpol McnoJILe&onaliia n oTonoM odpnucOnnit Mapoi CCCP


C 06.07.1993 PyvHoA nTa-mn
I oO.TA 30oo IMP py6
C 02.08.1993 aaceneire 12,00 py6 24,00 pyd npegnpmKTam
asrycw 1993 PyVHOa iwraM
C 02.08.1993 Pyvaoi muaun w12 p MOJIAOBA HOWTA>,
C 29.11.1993 HauxiosanJzias Bano a-neri, Reaeaxie Harlax CCCP c
nov~oaue owgeineHRa tpH I R A HarcJeeHHOM Maprom
Beaymr oduea BanAz IpoasBegenHa nepeoaeaxa nIBea c HouMHanOM,
noTroBwu Mapox m aes rax sneeA Koop=I cooTBercTByeT
no rypcy 1 nJe.=1000 py6, HoM uaniy gesemxoA
Tapw. npocToro nHcsuMa 1,0 dan rrynioplm
9eKad6p 1993 Tnu6pojIn amunycxaer pyvHog
wapsami i mTa~n <<12,00> pyd c
Raasassem 25 yaino ca 9s
31.12.1993 Co0crBearnr e novroane
MapRH, mcnonhmayeMue
TOJUIKO ; j OTnpaBJeHrzi
no weppxwopz ; 14P.
Sa npegejw IMP
cnoirOn.ayimTc nov'oaune
MaprA Mojngosi no
TapH an Monraomnu .
20.01.1994 RaceneHne 1 dan 10 6an npeAnpua~nq
0eapani. 1994 Pyrmnue wmTanra -3,10,45,60,90,150,180,360 daiow
gan roppecnoHzeHrH a 6jnazued Hn anajIHee sapydexre
28.08.1994 Co6cTsBeHHe geHexzme
zHa yI
pydaMi-pyd.
C 28.08.1994 2.00 5.00 pyd
SaraaHoe 3.00 10.00
pyd
Asryc' 1994 XIeimnem d7OrTA 2oo

* C 01.10.1994 ;3asTu ma novroioro odpaiteaH~ Bce panee BrunyiaeHue
(go 31 gera6pn 1993 roga) novToaBe Mapir Mon2oau,
HoMIHaana
xOTopSMX B pydJnaX a roneixax
5.10.1994 3asepmuea nonJas aamnoHa IIpogonmramv
KanengapHux arToeimnee CCCP na HcnonI3onaTSCa
WrmounenG Iovqru MoJnonu xanoiouapinu a Ifounona
CCCP
C 15.10.1994 10 dan, naxaanoo- +30 dan
(Tapmoum oagniuo nan ncoanowna It nponzrnpsTn&i)
C 01.11.1994 __15 pyd, Saraanon-60 pyd
15.12.1994 PyuHo w mToHnon w.IOVTA
15 lpMP _
30.12.1994 MaprKponanIru ronnopT c
HoM~uManOHm Mapr A>A
01.01.1995 60 pyd, cara3aoo-240

04.01.1995 IlWaTOuna. IIOUTA 60 fMP_






01.04.1995 120 py6, saxasHoe 480

py6
MTeunen. r
01.08.1995 480 pyd, sarasHoe -
1920 py6

04.09.1995 --e-mnems MNMP> K
< 01.11.1995 3000 py6, saaasHoe -
12000 py6
12.11.1995 maTenemn n109TA H
15.12.1995 HoBsopHoe aBseessBe a odpawenzie ocTamrom napoi MonjoaBs
py6jeaoro omuranja ma copiA c MapoK, 2 MaprKj
08.02.1996 Yrasom IHpesa;esHa IlMP
;aaHHReM MapoK ca BMP
Ha HHaeT saBRHuaTcsH
PecnydzJxaHazcoe
ynpaBsneme CBmas
23.02.1996 BEnyiwexa B novTOBoe
o6pauease mapra wHIoHa>a
c HOmnIuajoM <
Maps 1996 IIoBsopao aBONsTca B
o6paieHuse nepasa MapKa
a12 py6d c HOsoS
CTO"MOCTWO 3000 py6
16.03.1996 CepHa novronux Mapox
HOmuHaiJI <
, u,
01.07.1996 9000 py6, saaaaHoe-36
000 pyd
18.08.1996 PyvHue raun <
Jn
rax oro paKoHHoro ysna
CBAS3H
25.09.1996 HasszTu 3 no rovoro o6pawenR HananevaTxi Ha Mapxax
CCCP
01.11.1996 Tapmiz a3sMeHs~Maca
rexeecaHHO B
COOrBeTcTBRmr C
aSMeaeameM rypca
npqwanecponcroro py6jdn
K aMepxKaHcKOMy
gonnapy.
MlapKxr magaJaTc TOJlmKO C
HoMIanaiaM B Bsqe dy x
pyccroro axaBjsHa.
12.04.1997 IIovToare Mapxa <205 zne
Trpacnoanriw, Ho u anJx
19.06.1997 1nouoam e Mapzm
rozmnan= <



09.09.1997 novrowae Mapar <100 ner
KBMITY>, aoMursan <(A,EB
02.08.1998 IouFroa e mapr germ
UIpmHgecTpoBts>>, aOMnanjI
<>.
01.09.1998 25 6anH, aaKaMsoe +1,00 .nei
anA ogloro saceneaHoro nyaHxa mni ropoxa 15 dass
ceHTjdpL 1998 Havara saMeaa
rcaneHgapHax m=ermernej
CCCP Ha tsTeimenm Moldovei" B Tapacuonx,
AZecTpoBcK, Kpemeavyr.
,ia BHaypenaeg
KoppecnoHgseamu
HCinojn.symETc mWeunenj
CCCP.
08.10.1998 Ho~vTose Mapra <590 neT
ropogA BeHgepUn,
Hounan <
>
17.12.1998 Pyvrue maTaMnu c mxTepoi
<< '> H E>>, anz raxaoro
pafoHHoro yana CBans -
oTxvsiT'rejLhRas dyrsa
BHYTPN Iff'e~ejl
27. 02.1999 1nou~oae Mapirc repdr
ropogosB BEeepsi,
rpmrXopfonons, HsoMHaJIa
<
28.02.1999 7IovroEue Mapra repdr
ropoga THpacnon.,
HomRanaI <
06.06.1999 1ovroame MapKX lTymrincny, HsouaHana
. 06.06.1999 Hov!osaa Mapra
CnaBsacKara
nI CLMHeeocT Is, sounsan

27.11.1999 1ovroare Map=f Padu6>,,
HOUM*HaJm 04.12.1999 noqroBaue MaprH
wHaceroMiiue, aomnsajn
_!A,B,E_>
31.12.1999 IIouroane Mapsm <2000
rozn, HoMxHajm iA,B,E
Sa nepmog c BEunyeso 344 aHaKa novTOBOf BrmyweHo 68 asaKxo
23.06.1991 onjaT. IIOWrOBOH onjaTu,
no 31.12.1999 reccTBymsix TonaXo Ans
orwpaBJeHffS no
TeppPropHJ IMP.
25.02.2000 BaozsTca nosBopao B
odpawease noevroae
MapRp nepooro H Bsoporo
CTaRgapT~ x aBuycroa
1993 i 1994 rr. c HOBO#
CTroHMOCTp.R








Il7p;MevaHKe:
1 esapajis 2000 roga.
( Kypc 1 USD = 3 842 000 pyd 1IMP = 12.85 MOjr.je) )
BzX norvoBoro or'npaBJiea. no 12MP (py6) no ojzgose (xe2)
B npocaa5 6aHgepoJr
,f noVwoBasr Xapsorva 50 000 0,20
A npocwoe nZCs.MO 60 000 0,25
r npocaoe nIcEMNo B og noM BaceJleHHOMo nyR nae 40 000 0,15
B sazasHoe nmcMno 290 000 1,25
E saxaassoe nIcBMo B OfHOM HaceJieaHoM nyaKTe 240 000 1,15
2001-01-12
THE CHRONOLOGY OF RATE AND POLITICAL CHANGES IN MOLDOVA 1990-2000
by Vladimir Babich.
(This study includes the activities of the Postal Administration of the unrecognized Pridniestrovian
Moldavian Republic [PMR]. The analysis has been carried out on the basis of the rates for an ordinary
letter weighing up to 20 grammes [roughly 2/3 ounce], for commercial enterprises and the public).

Date of event In Moldova In Pridniestrovia (PMR)
23. 6.1990 Declaration of sovereignty_
2. 9.1990 Declaration of sovereignty
3.6.1991 Introduction of Moldavian stamps and Usage of Soviet & Moldavian stamps
continued use of Soviet stamps
21.12.1991 Termination of existence of USSR and continued usage of Soviet stamps and currency
To 31.12.1991 7 kopeks for the public and commercial enterprises
From 1. 1.1992 35 kopeks for the public and commercial enterprises
31. 6.1992 Surcharge "TnpacnoniE 30.6.92 /
28" on 7-kop. Soviet envelopes.
From 1 7.1992 70 kopeks for the public and commercial enterprises
21 10 1992 107.997 stamps surcharged "Tiraspol' 30.6.92 / 20 & 28" burnt in Kishinev
December 1992 Machine surcharge "35" kopeks Handstamped surcharge "65"
December 1992 Machine surcharge "63" kopeks
December 1992 Handstamped "65" kop.for postal districts of
Cahul, Drochia, Glodeni and Orhei-
From25.11.1992 "Coupon" currency in circulation together with Soviet banknotes
From 1. 1.1993 3 roubles for the public and 6 roubles for commercial enterprises
January 1993 Handstamped "IIOHTA 2-93" rub.
January 1993 Handstamp "TR", then later in some offices, letter "R"cut by knife to read "TP"
January 1993 Machine surcharge "Posta 3.oo Moldova"
April 1993 "Timbrofil" issues handstamp "2,95" roubles
on 5-kop. Soviet envelopes for 15 postal
districts
October 1993 "Timbrofil" issued handstamp "2,95" roubles
for 28 postal districts
From 6. 7.1993 Usage of USSR postage stamps prohibited
From 6.7.1993 Handstamp "IIOqTA 3.oo ITMP" rb.
From 2. 8.1993 12 roubles for the public and 24 roubles for commercial enterprises.
August 1993 Handstamp "IIOTA 12.oo IIMP"rb.
From 2.8.1993 Handstamp "12 r MOLDOVA POSTA"
From29.11.1993 Post offices changed money for 3 days into the Soviet banknotes had "Suvorov"
national "leu/ban" currency.Stamps & envelopes labels affixed with corresponding
were revalued at 1 leu = 1000 r.Letter rate:l ban face values
28 THE POST-RIDERIMmtHBa K N 49
November 2001






Date of event In Moldova In Pridniestrovia (PMR)
December 1993 "Timbrofil" issues rate handstamp
"12,00" r. with names of 25
postal districts
31.12.1993 Specific stamps for usage only within the
PMR territory. Moldovan stamps and rates
_to apply for other destinations
20.1.1994 1-ban letter rate for the public and 10 bani for commercial enterprises
February 1994 "MOLDOVA POSTA" handstamps of 3, 10, 45, 60, 90, 150, 180 & 360 bani for
both territories on mail to the Near and Far Abroad
28.8.1994 Special banknotes of the Tridniestrovian
rouble
From 28.8.1994 2r. public; 5r. commercial enterprises
Regn: 3r. public; IOr. commercial"
August 1944 Stamped 'TIGOTA 2oo IMP" and
___"IIORTA 3oo IIMP"
From 1.10.1994 All Moldovan stamps in kop. & rbl. issued up to 31.12.1993 now withdrawn
5.10.1994 USSR datestamps now fully USSR datestamps remain in use
___replaced by POSTA MOLDOVA I
From 15.10.1994 Public & Commercial Enterprises: 10 bani for letters and 30 bani registration fee
From 1.11.1994 Letters 15 roubles ; registeredletters 60 rbl.
15.12.1994 Handstamp "I"IO TA 15 IMP"
30.12.1994 Envelopes with "A" impressed stamp die
1.1.1995 Letters 60 rbl; registered letters 240 rbl.
4.1.1995 Stamped "IIOTA 60 nMP"
1.4.1995 Letters 120 rbl.; registered letters 480 rbl.
Stamped "IIO__TA 120 nIMP"
1.1.1995 Letters 480 rbl.; registered letters 1920 rbl.
4.9.1995 Stamped "IIOHTA 480 IMP" and
"IO__TA 1920 IIMP"
1.11.1995 Letters 3000 rbl.; registered letters 12,000 r.
12.11.1995 Stamped "TIMP 3000 IIOITA" and
"IIMP 12000 InOrTA"
15.12.1995 Moldovan reissues in rbl. currency: 8 definitive; 6 "Birds IT" & 2 "Airs IT
8.2.1996 Republican Postal Admn. issues stamps in
PMR by Presidential Decree .
23.2.1996 "Icon" stamp issued with "A" value
March 1996 Re-issue of first 12-rbl. stamp with new value
of 3000 rbl.
16.3.1996 Archeological set with "A", "B", "B" and
"A" values
1.7.1996 Letters 9000 rbl.; registered 36,000 rbl.
18.8.1996 Handstamp "A" for each postal district
25.9.1996 "Bunch of Grapes" overprint on stamps of the USSR withdrawn from circulation
1.11.1996 Rates varied monthly according to the
PMR rbl./USD exchange rates and stamp
values shown only by Russian alphabet letters.
12.4.1997 "205 Anniv. of Tiraspol" set in A, B, B values.
19.6.1997 _________"Bendery Tragedy" stamp in "A" vale
9.9.1997 "100 Anniv. of KVINTU, values "A" & "B"
2.8.1998 __"Childrens' Drawings" set, values "A, & "B"

THE POST-RIDER/ IMII HK 2 49
November 2001






Date of event Moldova In Pridniestrovia (PMR)
1.9.1998 Local rate hamlet or town: 15 bani; elsewhere 25 bani; reg'n fee 1 leu
September 1998 USSR datestamps applied internally, but
changed to POSTA MOLDOVEI: Dnestrovsk,
_Kremenchug and at Tiraspol'
8.10.1998 "590t". Anniv. of Bendery" set with "A" values
17.12.1998 "F" & "E" handstamps for each postal district,
with distinguishing letter within handstamps
27.2.1999 "Arms of Bendery, Grigoriopol"' "A" & "B"
28.2.1999 "Arms of Tiraspol'., "A" & "B" values
6.6.1999 "200". Anniv. Pushkin", "A" & "B" values
6.6.1999 "Slav Alphabet" stamp with value "A"
27.11.1999 __"Fish" stamps: "A", "B", "F", "J", "E" values
4.12.1999 "Insects" stamps: "A", "B" & "E" values
31.12.1999 ___"Millenium" stamps: "A", "B" & "E" values
23.6.1991 to Total of 344 stamps issued Total of 68 stamps issued, valid only within
31.12.1999 _the territory of the PMR


25.2.2000


1st. & 2 definitive of 1993 & 1994 reissued
with new values


Note:
As of 1 February 2000, the exchange rate for 1 USD = 3,842,000 PMR roubles = 12.85 Moldovan lei.

Letter Rate in Rate in
Values Type of postal sending PMR roubles Moldovan lei
B Ordinary wrapper __
A Postcard 50,000 0,20
A Ordinary letter 60,000 0.25
r Local ordinary letter 40,000 0.15
B Registered letter 290,000 125
E Local registered letter 240,000 1,15



THE JOURNAL FUND
Please make all orders payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

POCCHH 1992-2000: A 218-page catalogue of Russian Federation stamps, special cancels and postal
stationery. Very detailed in Russian and easy to follow with colour illustrations. Price postpaid USD 20.00.

CJIOBAPb rEOrPAODIIECKHX HA3BAHIHl CCCP: A 296-page Gazetteer of Soviet place-
names in Russian, issued in 1983 and ideal for postal historians. Price postpaid USD 9.00.

KHIIIHHEB 3HInHKJIOHEAHIH: A 576-page encyclopaedia on high quality paper, devoted entirely
to the city of Kishinev, capital of Bessarabia and Moldova. Issued in 1984 with many colour illustrations
and highly detailed in Russian, with old street plans, etc. Price postpaid USD 10.00.

POST OFFICES OF THE UKRAINE WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE POSTAL CODES. Special
CSRP reprint of this 1932 Kharkiv work on the world's first postal code system. Thousands of postal codes
listed alphabetically and numerically. Ideal for Ukrainian postal historians. Price postpaid USD 20.00.


30 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIUHKM 49
November 2001






TUVA: MORE ON THE MYSTERY OF THE 15-k. PROVISIONAL (SG 41; Scott 37)
by Gwyn Williams.

What an impressive selection of covers bearing the Sixth Issue provisionals that our editor assembled in
"The Post-Rider", No. 48, pp. 96-98! It helps to confirm that these covers were probably made to establish
postal use of the 1936 reprints of the 1933 provisionals. Whether the stamps themselves were produced to
replenish stocks of the 1933 issue for philatelic purposes, or to cover further local shortages, may never be
known.

Such covers also appear to have been made for earlier issues, including reprints of the 1927 Second Issue
surcharges (1) and of the 1 to 5-k. values of the 1928 Third "Ethnographic" issue (normally addressed to
Jak Baicher). The idea that the addresses were removed from the Sixth Issue covers to protect the identity
of Soviet Philatelic Association employees, as suggested by Mr. Cronin, seems highly plausible. Inspection
of what remains of the addresses suggests that they are different, yet they were clearly produced as a batch
and posted on the same day (29.9.36), implying that true commercial use was unlikely.

There is another conundrum associated with the Sixth Issue provisionals one posed by J. Eric Slone in a
footnote to the English translation of Blekhman: "If these stamps were needed as provisionals, why did
officials overprint "15" on the 6-kopek value and "35" on the 15-kopek ? (2). Why not use the "35" on the
6-kopek and just print 'Pota' on the 15-kopek fiscal?" He goes on to suggest that, "if they are genuine,
because the 6-kopek was no longer needed and so was used up and then they ran out of the 35-kopek, so
had to eat into the stock that was left of the original 15s".

Information given in the 1992 article "Filateliya" article suggests that this was unlikely, given that both
values of the original set of overprints produced in glossy ink in 1932-1933 were reprinted in heavier sooty
ink in 1936 (3). Clearly, adequate supplies of both the 6- and 15-kopek fiscal were available at this date.
So, what alternative explanation might there be? My suggestion is that the reason was political rather than
technical.

The fiscal stamps were printed in September and October 1926, about the same time as the original "Wheel
of Eternity" definitive. Both series have values inscribed in old Mongolian characters of the Uigur
alphabet. During the early stages of independence under the New Economic Policy, Tuva enjoyed
considerable political and economic freedom and the economy grew rapidly. Under the government of
Prime Minister Donduk, Buddhism became the state religion, Mongolian the official language and
unification with Mongolia was favoured (4). Soviet representatives in Tuva became alarmed and, in 1929,
Moscow installed a dependable Communist, Solchak Toka, as Prime Minister. The Party was purged and
the NEP suspended in favour of collectivization, state ownership and state monopolies in trade. In 1930,
Tuvan, the vernacular Turkic tongue, became the official language; originally written in the Latin alphabet
and only later converted to Cyrillic.

Against this background, it seems likely that Tuvan officials decided that the Mongolian values of the 1926
fiscal stamps could not be allowed to remain. As well as applying the word "Posta" with a rubber
handstamp, a new value in Latin script was applied, using a numbering machine. That also had the effect of
obliterating the old value in Mongolian script.
References:
1. Williams G., 2000. Tuva: A cover from the 1927 Second Issue. BJRP No. 84, pp.35-36.
2. Blekhman, S.M., 1997. Trans. R. Hogg. The Postal History and Stamps of Tuva. Second Edition. Tannu
Tuva Collectors' Society Inc., Lake Worth.
3. Anon., 1997. Untitled. TbBA 13/14:3 (translation of 1992 article from "Filateliya", originally from the
Bulletin of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately No. 24, Winter 1996).
4. Manchen-Helfen, 0., 1992. Trans. A. Leighton. Journey to Tuva. An eye-witness account of Tuva in
1929. Ethnographics Press, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles.
THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHK N 49 31
November 2001







SELECTED TUVAN COVERS
by Gwyn Williams.

Some examples are shown hereunder with explanatory text and comments would be most appreciated.


KIZIL bilingual
postmark dated
10.IV.28.

MINUSINSK
transit dated
11.4.28.


r.


&,.-. -_. -


141








.2 ?dg 4a
O xa
*' 1 0 -,.'..--_.,.. _. _- ~ ..

-fM U -c I --T -
t1i'~a 11

z tr I-


K-,- .S

...tk...

%: ~" s~r .-o."


0.
,,,. D _- ..,.


V.
4-.


-"j L ...M.O --. .
.:.' ~'.'1^ 2



--:7:
HA It
"-) .."S ':^')-"-: ".- ..,H. A- r1u..rIO ,_ 4.-.&W K a .;- .- ..
!,..."--,' ." .',* ,' .'';. r' to i.oi /. '. -,. _.









;".'r^. -/.,'? | ,d"-y k- iIL" -A a. r" "
: -..:.' .:' -: .t ,,: :: .. -, _' ',"


Cover with 8 & 10 k. Ethnographic issue with bilingual
KIZIL marking dated 23.XI.28 and backstamped at
Moscow-5, 16.12.28 and Moscow-2, 17.12.28.








GZ"I 9-S


..- ._ -' .- -_-- .. _.-- :-


.)a 0


-- -i .t" "u E .n *,,F t. -''



'.- -"- .- ^ i' --'d' : ',
--- -
S *.... .. -' -. -
:-" '. ..:-.:-;Mr --^ i--. ,/'-,fn' :- ....
"."T- -" J 7 l_
.. .., .:.. .: .. .. ,. .~ --
:. '- -" -",. r .. .. -& --,.-. -- ... 7 '.. -- .. . .
: -_" .;. -". '.. : ,. .. :-

." .c '-7" .- .. -" -' "


[ _:- -'z -"- ... "-'-" -" -'- :_ .. .- "" -
-';;. 7 : ,- ; -." -- .- .


The "35" surcharge on the 18-k. Ethnographic stamp on a Soviet advertising
envelope, sent from Kyzyl 7.7.32 and received in Moscow on 24.7.32.


THE POST-RIDER/SJMIlHK N4 49
November 2001


A registered letter with a set of the First
Provisionals, addressed by typewriter,
probably by the addressee, M.F.Shulyakz
a stamp-dealer in Kharbin, by whose
efforts we owe many interesting covers.
See also BJRP No. 84, pp. 35-36.


~- -~-





F
.. C.).


'~ ~ *~ n *r --* r'7.,
~c, cCr;.:; cngec



,r .- *. *,*' I, '. i '
......




/ /.*. -. g- .. .
-" /,y,"-"." ,.- ,- ', :. -
/* #* :./ / i -'i. i-"-. 'y. ^ -c !' ;. ._. '

-..


S* -..
,:1-,, _' ., ". ..


* *'**'~"~~' .4
*1i~


Postmarked: i "
KbZbL-MAZALbK '42a 1 -,
TbBA. 11.11.33.d ;


A registered letter from the Trading Base
at Kyzyl-Mazhalyk 11.11.33 to a doctor
at the town hospital in Kyzyl 14.11.33.


-i 1. ;
-\:: e" -"
'^*..** -i.


The "Registered" set, sent from TURA14
2.IV.34, with Moscow transit of 20.4.34
and backstamped at Spigno Monferrato
25.4.34 on its way to Genoa, Italy.


N- OVA -


-,,
C._.-. 4 z "'c- .


/, /


-I-


,6 -Jo


,.' .& -- r. .L.... .
': '"'

_-.'-. .-..-," .".
;'i C-<-' \^-'-',- -- 'J> ,-*A -",';>.*. /. ^ o,,,r .-,
/


^-- v .. ..:....


-' "" .
.-- "
.: ::- ? : .:- .
I ,,'


A registered letter bearing the 10-k. ordinary & airmail and 30-k. ordinary Jubilees changed colours,
with KbZbL "a" cancel 11.5.44 to Moscow 1.6.44 (2 strikes) and with a Soviet censorship marking.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N2s 49 3
November 2001


n.


I -






THE SOVIET POSTS IN TUVA
By Andrew Cronin.

Introduction.
Tuva was incorporated in the USSR on 13 October 1944 as an Autonomous Province of the RSFSR and
was upgraded to an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ACCP in Russian initials) on 10 October 1961,
again within the RSFSR. Appropriate Soviet postal procedures and supplies were introduced and they
naturally affected the postal history of the republic.

Your editor first touched on the Soviet period in the article "Some Notes on Tannou-Touva", in "The New
South Wales Philatelic Annual 1954", pp. 13-19 and was able to include a listing of 20 post offices in the
Tuvan Autonomous Province, as at 1951. That initiative was achieved by wading through the names of
more than 500,000 post offices of the world, arranged in strict alphabetical order regardless of country and
published as the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste du Monde" by the UPU in Berne, Switzerland. In
short, it was a very boring, tedious and time-consuming job, but also very rewarding and the list has been
copied ever since by some writers.

The same back-breaking process had to be repeated in 1977, by going through the next edition of the UPU
work, now called "Nomenclature Internationale des Bureaux de Poste" and, for our purposes, compiling an
updated listing of the post offices in the Tuvan ASSR, together with their postal codes. The postal markings
applied during both periods of political status in the Soviet era will be covered hereunder.

The activities of Viktor Indra.
Your editor was in spasmodic contact with this Czech postal historian from about 1954 until his death at
Olomouc in Moravia, just before the "PRAGA '88" International Philatelic Exhibition and had even met
him personally in 1981. He basically operated by sending off unusually franked and self-addressed
envelopes, generally marked registered, to various out-of-the-way offices of the German Dienstpost on the
Eastern Front, Carpatho-Ukraine, Greenland, Mongolia and Tuva, just to name a few areas and his harvest
was often startling, to say the least. Unfortunately, his ethics were somewhat elastic and, in the case of
some Tuvan offices that had not complied (or could not comply) with his request for registration during the
Soviet period, he would draw in by hand a corresponding registration cachet on the covers or cards that
came back. In addition, some Tuvan offices could only apply an internal "3" (short for ".3aKa3noe" =
registered) cachet and it was changed by hand to "R", possibly at the Olomouc P.O. Some examples of
such dubious "improvements" will be shown hereunder, as your editor was able to acquire the Indra
collection of Tuva after his death. Now to the postal history.

The "Autonomous Province" period 1944-1961.
First of all, the 1951 listing taken from the UPU "Dictionnaire des Bureaux du Monde" is now presented
with the names transliterated into the English spelling system, as follows:-

Bai-Khak Fedorovka Mugur-Aksy Sug-Aksy
Balgazik Khandagaity Samagaltai Teli
Chaa-Khol' Kochetovo Saryg-Bulun Tora-Khem
Chadan Kyzyl Saryg-Sep Turan
Chirgalandy Kyzyl-Mazhalyk Shagonar Uyuk

In the second half of the 1950s, your editor sent off stamped and self-addressed envelopes to the
postmasters of all the above offices and repeated the same process with the very kind help of Dr. Marcello
Mochi, a philatelist specializing in China, who was then stationed in Moscow and was able to forward
requests through the Soviet mail stream. The combined results are set out below and it should be noted that
the postal markings had diameters of 23-25 mm., depending on the angle and force of the applied strikes.
34
THE POST-RIDER/IIMHIIK N2 49
November 2001






Russian Serial
Place-name Inscription Letter Dates Notes
Bai-Khak BAH-XAK a 10.3.58
TYBHH. OBJI.
BA -XAK a 19.5.59
TYB. ABT. OBJI. a 12.11.59
Balgazik No reply.
Chaa-Khol' TAA-XOJIb 6 7.3.58 Serial "a" should exist.
TYBHH. OBJI. 6 22.8.58
Chadan IAJTAH 7.3.58 No serial letter.
TYB. ABT. OBJI. a 12.9.59 Serial "a" now issued.
Chirgalandy ____No reply. Near Kungurtuk.
Elegest State Farm C/X 9JIEFECT a 8.3.58 Not in the UPU Listing.
_TYBHH. ABT. OBJI.
Fedorovka OEAOPOBKA 15.8.58 No serial letter. Later
TYBHH. ABT. OBJI. renamed Khundustue.
Khandagaity XAHRATAHTbI a 18.9.58 Mispelt Khandagaimy in the
TYB. ABT. OBJI. UPU Listing.
Kochetovo No reply.
Kungurtuk KYHTYPTYK a 10.9.58 Not in the UPU Listing. A few
_TYBHH. ABT. OBJI. a 19.9.58 miles E. of Chirgalandy.
Kyzyl KbI3blJI 24.9.59 No serial letter.
TYB. ABT. OBJI.
KbI3bIJI. 2 14.11.50 Ex Viktor Indra Collection.
TYBHH. OBJI.
KbI3bIJI a 27.3.58 Serials "6" and "6" should
TYBHH. OBJI. exist,
KbI3bIJI o 7.3.58 Serials "a", "6", "e" and "2"
TYB. ABT. OBJI. possibly exist
KbI3bIJI a 22.2.61 The "R" cachet reads
TYB. ABT. OBJI. "KYZYL 5".
Kyzyl-Mazhalyk KbI3bIJI-MA)KAJIbIK a 10.3.58
TYBHH. OBJI.
Mugur-Aksy MYFYP-AKCbI a 27.9.58
_TYBHH. OBJI. a 16.1.59
Naryn HAPbIH 23.8.58 No serial letter and not in the
TYB. ABT. OBJI. __UPU Listing.
Samagaltai CAMAFAJITAR a 7.3.58 The "R" cachet reads:
TYBHH. OBJI. a 22.8.58 SAMOGALTAI TUVIN. OBL.
Saryg-Bulun CAPbIr-BYJIYH 6 23.8.58 Serial "a" should exist.
TYB. ABT. OBJI.
Saryg-Sep CAPbIF-CEn a 21.8.58
TYBHH. OBJI.
CAPbIP-CEII 6 2.11.58
TYBHH. OBJI. 6 6.4.59
Shagonar LUAFOHAP a 22.8.58
TYB. ABT. OBJI.
IIIAFOHAP e 28.9.59 Serial "6" should exist
TYBHH. ABT. OBJI.
Sistig-Khem CHCTHI-XEM 29.9.58 No serial letter and not in the
_TYB. ABT. OBJI. ____UPU Listing.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N2 49 35
November 2001






Sug-Aksy CYF-AKCbI 6 7.3.58
TYB. ABT. OBJI. -a 25.8.58
Sut'-Khol' CYTb-XOJIb a 2.12.58 Not in UPU Listing
_TYBHH. OBJI
Teli T3JIH 8.3.58 No. serial letter.
,____TYB. ABT. OBJI. 2.3.61 See illustration at bottom right
Tora-Khem TOPA-XEM a 6.2.59
TYBHH. OBJI.
Turan TYPAH a 10.10.56
TYB. ABT. OBJI.
TYPAH 6 23.8.58
TYB. ABT. OBJI. 6 11.5.62
Uyuk YIOK 21.8.58 No serial letter.
TYB. ABT. OBJI. 30.1.59

To round off the "Autonomous Province" period, some usages are set out hereunder.







Ky- ., -.
KOY fx -,-2 .,. o.,y _____ ,
K. .y........ A... ,_ -


Aapec omnpaaumAR _______ AJ; "- e_ 1
S.. ...... .!'
L.3


Kyea _



Koaiy L i._

..pec omnpaUme Z. CC.

/+++ a ~drl?+


The card here at right was franked for registration from
Teli 2.3.61, but had the R-cachet crossed out. Your
editor had included a gift of stamps with his request to
the postmaster, hence his note "Many thanks for the
surprise" !


VI. V1. Drozdov was operating out ofPoste Restantel
General Delivery addresses ("aKKo oMonpoBKn") at
Novosibirsk and Sverdlovsk in obtaining Tuvan
postmarks. Note that he numbered his covers at
bottom right front (2, 3 & 5). Does anyone have the
rest of his covers? More importantly, is Vladimir
Vladimirovich still alive?


S


W (IaV "4 B K.i


c ro '- I. ...S -
.A. C C ..... ( e/eni Cr ls 0 O


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK N2 49
November 2001


-----c-~-


f


i


1





















Registered letter from BAI-KHAK, 29.5.59. Registered letter from TORA-KHEM, 6.2.59.


22.8.58.


TURAN 23.8.58. I UYUK 21.8.58.
(to be continued) 37
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIWHK 49 (
November 2001






MATTERS MONGOLIAN
by Richard E. Clever & Andrew Cronin.
(This is the first instalment in a projected series of articles on the stamps and postal history of Mongolia).


Richard E. Clever:
With the Civil War raging in Russia from 1918 to
1921, the Russian postal services in Mongolia
were disrupted and, in the period from 1922 until
the appearance of the first native issue in August
1924, the mail that circulated was stampless. The
former Russian YPFA B'b MOHFOJIIH "e"
canceller was applied at Urga to indicate the date,
together with a straight-line "Onanaqeo"
(= Paid) and a rectangular double-frame cachet in
English and Mongolian, which indicated the
amount paid. The initials of the postal official
were also placed on the mail.

The example that I have and show here is ex
Liphschutz and has the rate "15" specified faintly
in the cachet at bottom left, which is also
initialled. It was accepted at Urga on 5.1.24 and
received in Moscow on 29.1.24.

Andrew Cronin:
(a) The earliest known stampless example
was recorded by the late Meiso Mizuhara
and is a registered item, sent on 17.9.22
to A. Gutbezahl & Co. in Kharbin. Note
the smaller style of "Paid" cachet at
bottom right, reading "OniaqeHni" in '
the old spelling and with the initials
"N.B." below.
(b) Another example in the files of your
editor is one of two items known to have
been addressed to Sweden, probably by
missionaries in Mongolia. The cover
shown here was sent on 19.1.24 to
Stockholm and has the initials "N.B."
placed at bottom centre. The rate paid
was 30 (Chinese) cents.
(c) Your editor has an unaddressed
and stampless envelope with strikes of
Mongolian cachets and markings of the
1920s and they are shown on the next
page in actual size. The double-circle
URGA postmark with a diameter of
29 mm.and dated 29.2.28 is a puzzle,
as it has not been seen on mail and
only on the piece with the 1-mung
stamp, dated some time in 1927.
Comments are invited!
38 THE PO


&J>


Sadz-
Ph.






*~~~~C Anr; 24,f~
--
.i 1
~IWF~jw~1
Ak" ~ $~


p


IleI
-1 -.- .

I' -a-- 7
LX ~. ;e ckq! 7
T__~c




1Pr


iST-RIDER/SIIMHK MN 49
November 2001


;


\r



























Via the Red Skies is designed to provide a
comprehensive study of the development of the Soviet
civil air network and air mail service from its beginning 'IA THE RED SKIES
in 1922 to World War II. Flown covers illustrate routes
and stages in the air network expansion from a regional UThe A)cvopmcnt of
standpoint with accompanying maps of the operative air Sovict Air Mail 1922-1945
routes.
Via the Red Skies is organized from a regional- .



chronological standpoint; maps are included in each
chapter to illustrate the regional operational air routes forbeginning R

the period. Each chapter is presented as a self-contained -
unit and a wide variety of flown covers have been
included. This book provides the air mail collector andal The Developm
postal historian with a basic reference source for their Sovi-t-ir Mail 1922-1945
studies and collecting endeavors. a regional-



Limited edition: Spiral bound, twenty chapters, 330
pages with nearly 500 b/w figures including over 440
illustrated covers/postcards and 25 regional air route
themaps. Adolph Eckarmn-n






Price $60.00 U.S. plus $6.00 postage/handling for
U.S. Contact author for price for mailing (surface/air) to Order from: G. Adolph Ackerman
foreign destinations. U.S. currency only accepted 629 Sanbridge Circle E, Worthington, Ohio 43085

e-mail: ackerman.3@osu.edu

SPECIAL NOTE:
Obituaries:Derek Palmer RDP, FRPSL of Chile and Georgii Vladimirovich Andrieshin of Odessa.
Derek Palmer was our oldest member and passed away in his 95 t. year in Santiago de Chile on 6
September 2001. Born in the United Kingdom, he had gone out to Chile in 1924 and, to the end of his days,
spoke Spanish with a strong English accent. He was a man of many philatelic interests and detailed steps
have been taken to dispose of his valuable collections. Your editor was honoured to know him personally.
Georgii Vladimirovich Andrieshin had turned 90 years of age in October 2001 and he was active
philatelically right up to his sudden death in Odessa on 27 November 2001. He contributed to the Russian,
Soviet and foreign philatelic press and also exhibited internationally. Map npaxy ero!
It can truly be said of our departed colleagues that their abiding interest in philately kept them young!


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK N& 49
November 2001









0 O "KpacHo0JIoTCKHx" MapKax CCCP


BjiazrMHp B;epas qeHCKHi

B 1924 roAy B CCCP ebauen "KoaeK'c 3aaKOH o nbroTax H npeHMyilecTeax ;IRA BOeHHO-
cjqiyiamu x PKKA H PKK(D H Hx ceCmel B MHpHoe BpeMR'. B HdM 6Euza rnaea C Ha3BaHee M "floqTO-
WMCe iromi". KpacHoapMeiiuaM ( H KpacHo4nofllaM ) IIpeaocTaBJIAjioch npaBo oTIparBJIAT 6ecnjia-
THO no noqTe TpH flpOCTh1X 3aKpb1ThlX riibMa B MecBLI, BecoM, He npeCBbialuou[iHm 20r Ka3Qoe, Hji
TP noqToBbre OTKpLiTKH. Bce flHchma BecoM Ao 20r a anpec BoeHHocny)KaILUHX c yKa3aHXHM 3BaHiHH
Tiore nepechuiaiucb 6ecmraTHo [ 1 ].
B 1926 rony BLOITo nocTaHoBJIeHli CoBHapioMa CCCP "0 jnroTax no nepecaulKe noqITO-
Bux H Tenerpadnbtx oTnpaBJIeHHH". B H6M YTO'HAJ1TOCb, 'ro 6ecrxaTH o nepecunaeia KoppecnoH-
AeHIIH PAAOBoro H Hjia2merO HaaajacTBypoiero cocTaBa PKKA H PKK(D npH YCJIOBHH cnaaiH ee B
noq7roaTBe yqpeJueffm COOTBeTCThyIoULHMH qacTaMH, 3aBC2CeHHlMHH H y'lpe)KeHHsIH apMHH H
4noTa[ 1.
B 1927 roiy HapoAnHrf KpMHccapBHT no BoeHHnum H MOpCI~HM genaM CCCP HJaTi LtpKy-
juip N2118 "06 yperyJIpOBaHHH nopwZKa c2aaH Ha no'ry IpacHoapMericKax H KpacHo4JJoTCKMx
IHCeM H KOHTOJIT[ 3a nparBHJIHLTM HCnoJIL3oBaHHeM HopMbi 6ecruaTmori nepecLIUnu nHHcem".
Ho 3TMM gOKYMeHHTM oTBeTCTBeHHbIMH 3a co6moAeHie yKa3aHbM x HOpM CTaHOBHJMCL
KOmaH21HpbI 'acTefi apMIu H 4noTa, B TOM IHcjie KOMaH21HPLI Kopa6nerl. 3mu KOMBH21HPM
Ha3HamiJIH cneuHajibHLjx Mni, KOTOpLIe 2omIomI 6wUm cc6,IpaTL nHCaMca y KpaCHo4TJnoTLjeB H
c)IaBaTh RX Ha nonTy. Kaic yuie 6buLo CKa3aHo, KaxJImiX icpacHodnoTell HHCen npaBO Ha oTTpaBKy B
MecAlu 3-x rmcem. Ha Kpynnux Kopa6arqx, HMeBLHix 6oJIum e 3Kmna=H ( 'lacTo no HeCKOJalKO
coTeH, a HMor2a H 6onee T.ICA'iH qenOBeK ), Bonpoc co6.noeHHA KomrqecT~ HHo9 HopMbi
oTmpaBKH KoppecrioH21HwIH cTaHoBHJc[l cepl.83HLIM H Tpe6osaan pememm. H OHO 6imno HaAjeIo a
BH21 "KpaCHod1oTcacHX" MapoK. BnepBwe uHH)opManHma o Hix npuaen AI.BOBHI a cOerl TaTc e
[2 ], a 3aTeM H B.CHHery6OB [ 1 ].
Cpiacn peaeimA npo6nemLI 3aKnioaiancA B c3iientoiflM. KOMaHUAHpwI muHOPOB ( TOJbhKO
3m Kopa6jui ynoMiliaHoTCa B cTamsoc [ 1 ] H [ 2 ] ) oT21BIH pacnopsntceHmx Hane'aTamh B Kopa-
6eimimrx ( WnM B 2pyrHI ? ) mnorpalHPtx cneaHanTbtbxe mapKH. Kaizoly KpacHo3JloTIy Bmia-
BanOCb a mecani no 3 TaKle MapiaIt. On IHaKlreHBan eaC iia oT paBniJemirft KOHBePT H claaan ero
"no'rapto" ( lefoeeKy, Koropug Ha3Ila'lancR KOMaHAHPOM ARA1 c6opa imceM y 'eHOB KoMaii2U,1 H
c21a'lH Mx Ha noqiy ). HaJiH'He "Kpac11o(fuoTcKorl" HapBKH cJyHJno pa3pauejluieM "rioIapio" na
npHdM nrlcbma, o3wa'lano, ITO fHCLMO oTnpaBBjieTcm n C'tCT 01.orO H3 TPdX pa3peUICI8HIIX. IHocne
3TOro Ha KO-BCepT cT-BBivacL rep6oiara ( Rn itpyraA ) KopatefbliaB ne'Iam, Wno cnyWHiwo
yKa3aiMtem no'ITonhiH cny*6aM IlKflhT o 6ecnnaioft nepeCLIJIKe. Ila no'iTe KoII3epT raciIncH
Kaneulmap~lI.IM nO'ITOBI.IM UInTcmnenem MecTa oTfpaBneJiIs, a no npHI6biTH a nyImc Ila'liaicfHlf -
KanC1Iap1(LIM no'Tonniam IITcmIneJicM IpH6ITHST.
B cBoocn ciamle 51.oiiii, npuanomnir 2 unnioc-rpauHH. Ila nepnoll noic3aai Koiiacpr ( (Nir.1,
naiBonBC cro "KoHIBepT NAI" ) Ic HaKJCciIIool "KpacIIO4)JnoTcKofl" MapKol Xi IIKIOnpa "'1apwiccKax
KOMMylia" ( o06111a'iwiM Cd "MRpBa NXl" ). Ioiincpr iuipoCeai a CCflaaconojru, norarmcii rcp6onoll
icoparcximion nc'lalIo 11111KOpa "fl "HLpHKCKaIg KoMMynna", KfnelJCIIpIII]LM Fo'ITOBIAM IIMHlur lciM
(cds ) owpaBlICII1IS "JTF! 1111 PnAR 26r 29.9.27" ( ITO3MOKIIO, 'ITO ipalII3IITIIIXIM 3TO P3CCMOTPIIM


THE "RED FLEET" STAMPS OF THE USSR
r Berdichevskii: see the English translation on p. 45.
HHiKe ), cds npH6biTm "CEBACTOIIOJIb 2.10.27", a TarKxe urTeMnejne "KPACHOAPMEIH-
CKAI" ( KoppecnoHneHUHA ? ) B nppMoyronJabHO paMKe.
Ha BTOpoi nHnmocTpaunH ( QHr.2 ) nOKa3aHa "KpaCHOJIOTCKaSI" MapKa Toro wce IHHKOpa
( "MapKa Xg2" ). OTlenn.H o Hefn 5I.BOBAnH craTe He ynoMHHaeT. B TO me apeMa, ecnH cpanBHHTb
3Ty MapKy C HaKiieeHHOR Ha KOHBepT, TO MO)XHO 3aKfI)OHTb, ITO 3TO IBe pa3Hsie MapKH. OHH OTJIH-
qaIoTcr cieayroiituHMH napaMeTpaMH ( paaMep, cpaBHHBaTb Hejeni.3, TaK KaK HJnnocTpaunH
npHBeneHbI B pa3Hbix MacurTa6ax):
1) pa3Jns'Hme JIHHHH o6puBa MapoK ( o6e MapKH 6e33y6uosBie);
2) pa3jHusmbe noanHCH KOMaHAHpoB Ha MapKax;
3) "Mapra N 1" HMeeT HenpepiBHyro neesyo BepTHKanBHyiHo JIHHmI paMKH; "MapKa No2"
HMeeT pa3phmI B aHajiorHquof JTHHHH.
MecToHaxomeHHe "MapKH N_2" MHe HeH3BecTHO.
HyuaH OTMeTHTb, rTO ormcnsaeMLfIH KOHBepT 6buI TaroKe H306paxeH Ha HJnIOCTpauHH K CTaThe
E.UIaMHca [ 3, BKunaAlbm 11 ]. B HeC onHrmcbaeTca BbicTaBO'mHri 3KcnoHaT E.LIaMHca "PoccHi-
CKoe MopennaBaHHe". O KOHnepTe ynOMiHyTO KpaTKO. Oum60qiHo CKa3aHO, qTO "MaTpocCKaA Map-
Ka" 3THKeTKa MopcKHx CiHu IepHOMopcKoro lnuoTa. K cowanJeHmm, MHe HeH3BecTHo MecTOHa-
xoxmeHme 3TOro KHBepT Ha cerO1HRA, TaK KaK KojuieaUmm E.I1IamHca pacnanacs.
B KaTaJore nosTOBbix MapOK CCCP noa penaaiaHei B.3aropcKoro [ 4 ] H3o6paxeHa,
no-BHsnMoMy ( MII nepeneqaTiaaeM ee Ha ur-.2A ), Ta xe Mapra MHHIcopa "nIapIioccKa
KOMMyHa", qTO Ha lDHr.2. B noJs3y TaKOro npernonoxcemI roaopaT a2a MOMeHTa:
1) noanHCH KoMaHnHpOB Ha o6eHx MapKax oIMHaKOBhl;
2) 3jneMeHTbr 'epirix paMOK ( 3a30pbI B yrnax H pa3psrB Ha JIeBOl BepTHKaJnHOr JIHHiH ) -
Taloce oaHHaKOBLI.
K cocanemHo, Ha Our.2A KpaA MapKH He H3o6paKeHM. IloKa3aHa TOJILKO q epHa paMica c
TeKCTOM BHyrpH.
TaKHM o6pa3oM, MOxKHO roBOpHT 06 H3BeCecTiMbx A HeAaBHero npomnoro IBvx pas3Hix
"KpacHoJInoTrcrx" Mapiax moriopa "IlapMtKCKaA KOMMyHa" ( Q)r.1 H 2 ).
TaKi Ka MaTepWani 5.BoBmia [ 2 ] 6E.u HaneqaTaH a 1969 rosy, H, B03MOXHar, Tpy2AHOAo-
cryneH MHornM 'IHTaTenrM, TO upHraeay HeKOToptle BEsiepxrCK H3 3Tori CTaT H, cna6AliB ix
CBOHMIf KOMMeHTapHIMH.



"B orir6pe npoiumoro ronaa apxHBe MocKOBCKOrO KonJTJiCKHonfepa C.M. BnexMana a
o6HapyXaKn pyKonllCH IIblHC nOKof6iorO (j)iuaTeCJHCTa B. K. FOJIoBKHia H3 noRroTOnBnenIoro
a 1940 roay, no ne ocyiecTBJnetmioro H31naHrIT KaTanora nIIOTOBLIX MapoK CCCP. 1H 3THX
BecbMa OTpbIDO'IibIx cneAenlCH yganoc, ycralIlOHTb, 'ITO Ha Bayx Apyrux lnJIHefinix
Kopa6ilnx TaKxeC npHMCeIIIHCbI KOITpOjILIIb nHO'ITOBbll MapKH AJI a 6CccInaTIIix
Kpacuot),noTcKIIX nlHCCM. Oim oTjH'Isanchb npyr oT gpyra TCKCTOM H pa3MepoM. Bee MapKH
6jmnl oTrneiaTalllt cnocoGoM B, coKofl nC'iaTH Iia 6cjoft pa3siix OTTCHKOn npocTroi 6yMarc
'ICepILIM erBCTOM. MapKic 6e3 3y6iOBn".


6


















Tyr HyaHo cKa3aaT, rTO B KpacHoM (jnoTe BO BTopoii noInBHHe 20 x ronoB HaxoarHUJmc B
pa6oseM cocTOSHHH 3 jnmefiHiix Kopa6ns:
1) "HapHucKaa KOMMyHa" ( no 03.1921 "CeaacTonona" );
2) "MapaT" ( no 03.1921 "HerponajoaBcK" );
3) "OKcra6pacKaxPeBOJorIX"( no 06.1925 "FaHryr").
Bce OHH BxoAzIm B COCTaB MopcKHX CHi BaErsMicKoro MopA H 6a3HpoBamrc, a
KpOHmTaxTe.
SI.BoBH a cTrarse [ 2 ] BBae onpeneneriHe "KOHTpoJLHLIe rIO9TOBble MaplH". YsMtr~Ba
4ymHmHH, KoTopbhe BamoJnIH 3TH MapKH ( 0 -HM roBopHrocs pamee ), a C nHOJMrM OCHOBaHHeM
Mory Mn Has3aTh "pa3peImrrembHbiMH MapKaMH KpacHo~nIOTCKOfi noTbRe". B [ 5 ] jaHo cneAylomiee
ToJIOBaHHe TepMHHa "MapKa noieBoii ( B HameM cJiyae "KpacHoRnoTCKOfi" B.B. ) nomnT
pa3pemHTejiHa.a" "Bui MapiaK nojneBOl noTrra. B nycKamnch AhJ KOJnmqecCBeHHOro orpaHM-
qeHna oinpeIenjeHHlix BHOB ompaBne dii nonenoir norqT".
HacqeT "MapKH 6e3 3y6uoB" norOBOpHM UsKe.
Ianiee B CTaTbe AI.BoBHa:


"CyMMHpya game no MapKe iHHRKopa I'apiaxcKaa KoMMyna' H cBeAermH H3 pyKorHCH B.
K. rToojaoKHa no aByM ApyrHM JmHHKOpaM, MU MOXeM cocTaBrTb cIeayioimee onHcaHHe
E3BeCTHix noKa MapoK:

1. 'Becrnaroaoe Kp-4anoTcKoe IImLMo K-p' (cM. pacyaOK). Pa3Mep 19,25 x 18 MM. BuIcora
6yKB 'B' H ':' 2 MM., ocraJIbaIX: 1,5 MM.

2. 'KpacHobnIOTCKoe J.K. "Mapar" *. Pa3Mep 28,5 x 13,5 MM.

3. "KpacHonorcTCKoe J.K. "MapaT" *. PaaMep 29 x 14,5 MM.

4. 'KpacHopnjoTCKoe J.K. "Mapar .'PasMep 28 x 13,5 MM.

5. ....poTa J.K. O. P.'. JAnia 28 MM. (0. P. = "OKTa6pCKaa PeBOJKonRa").

6. '....pora JI.K.O. P.'. iAnmaa 22,5 MM.

MapKa No 6 meeT Ba THna. TniI: "O. P." B ABnotHIx CKO6Kax; Tmn n: "O. P." B KaBibiKax.

B. K. ronoBKaHH H OCHOB CBO eo ai ycra HOBHjr peMa KypCHpoBaHHSI
'KpacHno4JoTcKHx' MapOK Mea)Ky 4esBpajeM 1927 rona aH espaneM 1929 roaa".


TaKHM o6pa3oM, B.ronOBKHHy 6bulo H3BeCTHO o cyieCCTBOBaHHH 7-MH pa3nJIHHb[X
"KpaCHO~nJOTCKHX" MapOK C yqeTOM HX THnOB.
OKOno jnyx JneT Ha3aJ B co6paHHH aTopa noRBIucaR BTOpon H3BecTHbIAi MHe Ha cero)anL
KOHBepT ( "KOHBepT .N2" ) c "KpacHO(JnoTCKOi" MapKOii ( "MapKa N23" ) nHKcopa "FaparcKas
KOMMyHa" ( ONr.3 ). KOHBepT aApecosaH B KpoHurTaaT ( cds npH6bmrru "KPOHIIITATT .N2B
11.10.27" Ha o6opore); TaloKe, KaK H nepasBi KOHBepT, noramen rep6oaof Kopa6eJmHofi nenamThr
nHHKopa "nlapMrtcKaa KOMMyHa", imTeMnejieM "KPACHOAPMEHCKOE" B npaMoyronbHoi paMKe.
K cowKajemHo, KaneHaapHM~i iiTeMIneji oTrpasneHma ( ? 06 3TOM Aanee ) nponeqaTanca TonbKO
iacTHiHO, HO ero nm CooTBeTCTByeT mnTeMnejnI OTnpaBnneHHs ( ? ) Ha "KOHBepre No1". rlo3ToMy
MOrIHO npeanoJoa)rHT, Iro 3TO irrenejbn "JIEHlHHWPAA-26A 10.10.27".
OTMeqy cneayMouie HHTepecHbr e oco6eHHOCTH.
CaMH KOHBepThi BHeuII fi BHA KjianaHa Ha o6opore, cooTHomeii HHA AH61 H BICOTII ( K
coKaniemio, HeH3BeCTeH MacITrra6 yMemmeHuHH "KOHBepra Nal", no3TOMy HejM3s roBopHrri o ero
a6comoTHLix pa3Mepax ) noxoxce, oHHarKOBbi. To eCTh, MOxaHO npeannoonqirro Hn BAulaBanj
jnaHOMy cocraBy. Pa3Mep "MapKH NM3" ( no Hapyac paMKH ) 19,25MM X 18MM; BEICOTa 3arnauBHix
6yKB "B", "O", "K" 2MM; ocTanHrLix iyr O 6onee 1MM, HO He 1,5MM ( KaK CKa3aHO y SI.BoBHHa a
onHcamm "MapKH MN1" ).
Io~rHCb Ha "Mapxe XN3" ( Dur.3 ) oTjrmaeTlc oT noArncefi Ha aByx yxKe onHcaHHlix
MapKax ( mr. H 2).
Teiccra npapMoyronaLHix mTeenejiei "KPACHOAPMEHCKAA" ( "KOHBepT X1" ) H
"KPACHOAPMERiCKOE" ( "KOHBepT Na2" ) orTniaraora pyr oT apyra.
KcraTT, HecKOJihKo CnoB 06 3THX rmreMnenax. B.CHHery6oB B CTaThe [ 1 ] aIrT HM cineAy-
ormnee o6&cHeHHne: "...Kaczaril KpacHo4nOTeI iepe3 KOMaiHApa nojpa3senemmu nonyqaji Ha Me-
cam TH BsHHLerCT IpH npHeMe nHceM norSTOBHIi no BmIeTKaM rrpoBepaim 3aKOHHOCTh 6ecrma-
THO l nepeca rnH CTaBwHH imreMnejm "KpacHoapMeficioe". BHHLeraH rmHHopoB BO BHMnaHHe
He npIurmanjmc. Ee3 Kopa6enjHORi neiamr nHcLMo 6e3 MapKH He Morno uporrar norny 6ecrnna-
THO, a AOwrjaiy rpoH3BooaUn nonyqaTerm Ha o6unx ocHOBaHirx".
MHe IrpyAHO CorJiacHTLH C cHammrMH yrBepX eHRnnaMH no cjeielyionIM npumaM:
1) KRa 6hauo cKa3aHo panee, "KpacHoInOTcmHe" MapKH (y B.CHHery6osa "smamer-
K" ) cnyxmmu pa3pemeHmeM "norrapro" Ha npHne rmCLMa, a Kopa6ejmHaR negarT ja-
sana npaBo Ha 6eciuaTHyM nepecahuny. Ino3TOMy B 6eperoBoe norTOBoe orTeneHHe
rIECLMO 6e3 MapKH H Kopa6eJMIHOl neqaTH npocTo He MorJIo nonacTm.
2) Bpa JIH Ha Kopa6ne nocraBnm 6i LI reMneib "KPACHOAPMErCKOE", a He
"KPACHOOJIOTCKOE";
3) KaK MOaHO yBHLeTb Ha KoHBepre, orTpaBjieHHOM c xpeicepa "Aspopa" ( CMOTpH na
OaHr.6 pe%' o HOM nofAiT HmKe ), Ha HeM IIpHcyrIcTByrT B Tee T aKe eMerCHTs o MopMJe-
Hmr, rro H Ha orHcamHHix KOHBepTax, KpoMe urreMnejn "KPACHOAPMEICKOE", Tro He
noMemajio eMy AorIT no anpecaTa;
4) a He Bsaen Ri oaroro (! ) noAo6Horo rmcsMa c AonraTofi. Ho norrme HX npocTo He
nonxao cyiecTBOBaTb, TaK KaK K H H aJIHqHe npoTHBopeqHno 6ai cumbcjy npHMeHeHeH
"icpacHo(JOTCKHX" MapoK. ECJIH H cymecTBylor AonnaTHLie imcbMa, OTmpaBjneHHme
JiHeHaMm 3sKmaweii Kopa6nefi, Ha KOTopaDI ( Kopa6njx ) HCnoJn3OBajmch
"KpacHoJ1OTCKHe" MapKH, TO TaKHe nrHLMa Mornj 6biTm 6pouen t TOJmKO npaMO a sR=lHK
6eperosoro noqTOBFro OT~eejienH, H Ha HHX He noHnxuO 6umo 6I6rr HH "KpacHoQ4noTCKHX"
Mapoi, HH Kopa6ejmHbIX neIaTeii.












OgmaKo, Dce 3TH1 paccyxceHHA He o6BcH3IofT #acr HajiHq11A iTeMneiieil "KPACHO-
APvE4CKOE" Ha KoHnepTax.
HHTepecHo, 'ITO "KOHEePT NX21" aIPeCoBaH B "r. CeBaCTOnOJI, n\e KpaCHM.1 MOPAK,
Ha'ajmm4HKy Lflm6a MopcKfhx cin lIepHoro mopil", a "KoHBepT Ni2" B "r. KpoHwuTaAr,
KpoffmnTraaucKl Mopcicoii Focmrrn~aj, HH. CeMamico ...". To ecmE, o6a aApeCOBaabi B yBpe seHHA
HMeioiXie oTHomueHe K KpacHoMY (noIy. MoxceT 6bIb, npeznonrnxeHlRA 0 4YHKI{HAX 3THX HapOK
HenpaBHIHbl, H 011 HCIOJIh3OBaJIHCb ARA oTnpaBKH nIHceM TOJIbKO B yIpewKeHHA 4lnoTa? A,
HoiKeT 6hum., 3To IIPOCTo coBna2eHHe?
D HOT COBceM HeJaBHo KO MHe nonana Bbper3K 113 KoHBe-Ta c ellA o02111 MapKOrI ( Ha3o-
Bie ed "Hapica NX4" ) JmHKoPa "rlapmieKai KoMMyHa" ( (Dm.4 ). Bbipe3Ka cneiaHa 113 npaaoro
DepxHero yrna JimeBoii CTOPOHII KOHBepTa, a mapra HaKiieelia B rIPaBOM BepxHem yr)'y BIpe3Ki.
OT y)Kxe ornMeamix, "MapKa NX64" oTni{aeTcA cJe2ylollx:
1) Tommmia mIniii paMKIi MeHamte;
2) BepCxH1A H HmxcHA roPH3oHTajImHbie mUIH BacTynaIoT 3a JieBylO H npafBYO BepTHKa-
nIimie mumm pamxH. MoxKno AaxKe flpe~inonIomm, 'TO BepXHA[ H HmOKHAJ roPH3OH-
raitimie mmjiz 6wmH o6WHMHI Ans Bcera piga Hane'lataumlx Hapox, T.( oam ( Mu =m)
Ha'IIIHaJOTCS H KOHqa1OTCAI B MecTax oTpbrBa "MapKH N24" 0T coceiHHX ( cC2eBa H cnpaaa);
3) flO2nHCb KOmaHAHpa oTJTaeTCsl oT no2IHCer Ha APYUHX MapKax;
4) OTTH'laloTCA pa3Mepwl no ropH3o0IHWIH H BepTmaanH;
5) BbicoTa cTpoa'Horo 1IpH4)Ta y "MapKH NX6" MeHblne, 'IeM y "HapKH NY3" ( c yBpeHlo-
CThIO MONKHO cpaHaMaam pa3MHCb1 T02%KO MeXsq 3T1MH MapKaMH );
6) BIcoTa y "MapKH J~3" M HY PB H pamx 16,7 MM, a y "MapKll NoA" 18,7 MM;
7) y "MapKH NX4" B cJIoBe "Becruxamoe" nocneAMM 6yrcaa "e" oTCToHTr OT npe2Abl2ywlrli
6yIcaaI Ha 6onmLIeM paCCT0IHIi, '1CM Ha Apyr~x Hapmax;
8) 6yicaai "K-p." na "mapxe NoA" pacnonoiieffr 6mrme K HHXcHerl mnami paMHm, qeM Ha
jpyrnX Map~ax;
.9) Harnicaline 3arJaBliol 6ycabI "K" B nociieA1eri c1poTK y "MapicH NX4" oTmrmaeTcA OT
ocTO.JEHBix MapaK;
10) Ha "MapKe NM3" BepxHHul ypoBeHb 6yK13 B cjioBe "Kp4jioTcKoe" Haxo21HTCx Ila 0201011
mitum, a Ha "mapKax NK 3 K 4" BepxHlH ypaseirm 6yxB "TCK" o6pa3yeT "noxc6rmxly";
11) Ha "MapKe NX4" nocne 6yxB "K-P" B nocneanel CTPOKCe CTOHT ..'. a Hia ocmamnHix
Mapicax Ha TOM MeCTe -
12) Ha "mapKe NX4" mipe Ho BTapora CTPoKCe uaxolHTcR 6mme K 6yice "4V', a na ocraBmmULx
mapxax nocepenlllle Me)w1aY 6yKBaam "p" H
13) ila "mapKe NA" nocnexigar 6yKna "e" HO BTopol cTpoKC IIBaxoIHTc 0 no DepTKan2H neBee
nocJlCAleR f6yKbI "C" 113 Icpxllen cTPOKH, a Ilia OCTaiInrlX mapKax Hao6OPOT. MONCIIO Boo61Ge
CKa3na, 'ITO na "MapKC NA" nropai CTPOKBa c2iltHIyra BjicBo oniocItC21iiho ncpooA cTpoKii a
cpanuejuniii c OCTa1nIwlII.IMH MapKaMll.
I303lO)KO0, 'ITO 3TOT CIIIHCOK MOWKIIO IpOAOJIIHI.1T.
Ila umblpC3e CTOIIT (I)IoncTOBLl cJly[Ce61mill IIIICMIICjH, C TCKCTOM "JIIluCflInlfl Kopaki,
'llap1lccKaM KOMMyIIa"/ JIU[ / 1AKETOI" I IIITCMIIC)Ib. ( np166nmilsl ui omlpailcima? )
"JE.I1[ir'PAh( 26g 7,3.29", nIHlnoriviH'iLIl IIunCMIICIIIM la "iKOIIeCpTaX N1 it NM'22". K co)KIIcaiIHIo,
TPy;IIo ceKaaiJi., CToHir 1I11 cnywKC6111a11 1IIT1CM1l1CII JlllHIKOpa IIOIlCPX MfpKH1. 9)r IIJIOXO 111120. 1l1
KaK 6iuio cM311i110I p3i ICC, ripol ICCC O1UIpDKI 1101'r1O-Of1 KOppI)CCIIOIIIcII 1, no0-1thmOlly,


npenriojiaraJI Hajio)KeH~e ne'aTH JIHHKopa noBepx "KpacHotio1oj cKOir" MapKH. B nio6oM cny'ae a
no1iIHHHoc Tu BhlPe3KH COMHCaaTbCAl He fpHXoAHTcAl.
TaKoiM o6pa3oM, MOwKHO 3aKji[O'HTb, qTO Ha 1aHHlii HOMCHT I3BCCTHbI 4 paaJIH'Hbie
3K3eM1UlRpa "KpacHojiJoTCKHx" MapOK J1HHK0pa "napuowcKaA KOMMyHa". rUpH 3TOM MOwKHO
yaepeHHo cKa~aa, 'lTO "HapKH Na2,3 4" ( q)Hr.2,3 H 4 ) oTnWaioTcCR tpyr OT Apyra, TO ecmh,
npeACTHBJU1OT pa3iniH'{He TMnbi. B CBJ31 C nnOXHH KaqeCTBOM H306paxceHHA "HapIKH NX1",
onpejienHTh ed npHHa211emKHocTh K OAHOMY 113 yKa3aHHbIX THITOB 3aTPYAHHTCJiLHO.
32ecb cjeityeT BHmMaTejTLHee np1HcMoTpeTECS1 K OJMi CTOMIUX Ha KOHBCepTax H Hbjpe3Ke
mTemeneii "JIEHMIFWPAAj 26". O1RR BEb3blBalOT HeManO BonpoCoB H nonpo6yto C HHMH
pa3o6paThCA. Cpa3y eKaxcy, 'ITO MOA rHnOTe3a He HMeeT 21OKymeHTaJTLHrO noATHep)KaeHIHIA, a
5sfHJIeTCI JI1 pe3yrJTaTTOM moHx 20r11ecIcKHx paccy)KAeHHi4.
Itax, npmripy KaK 4air yraepxKlefHe o TOM, 'TO Jmicop 6a3HapoBaJca a KpomnTaAlTe. Ha
"KoHaepTe NK2" nrreMnenL "JIEH=IllPAq j 26" MOxKHO 6bio 6MI paCCMaTPHBaTb KaK TpaH3HT-
11,1, TaK KaK K0HBepT inen 13 KpoH11ITa ( o HBJIH'IH une=emlenA omTpaB2eHm Kpom.rra2Ta Nie
IeH3HecTH0 ) a CeBacTOno.1 'lepe3 Remmrpaut. Ha "ioHaepTe NM2" fTemiiejiL "JIEHIAI=PAJJ -
26" yi)e BLWrYH1HT KaK-61 JntHunniM, Taic KaK KOHBepT inen H3 KpoHam=ra.2a ( HecTo 6a3HpOBaHHA
mmxopa) B Kponun-irau. Be3THi KoHBePT a JleHHxrpaA, 'IT06ar Ha Hero H0CTaBHTb urreineJIb He
HMeeT cmhicna. Hpemo.ioxKum, 'ITO IIHCLHO 6bui0 Ha:HHCaHO H ObOpMJWeHO a Kpo~mumrre, a
6pomeeHo a JlelmirpaAe cjio)Ho, TaK KaK nocne Haji0)KeHm Ha Hero cnyXCe6Horo urremneCJI
mIHcopa, OIcbMo He AjlDKHo 6Euro nonacL ( no JiorHce ) B pyKu omnpaairre~il. Ho Jiame, ecmr
TaKoe H Cly'MOCL, TO npOCTO TPY2Ho npe2CTaBHTh, 'T06L1 a ReHIfllrpaate OHo 6buio noraLneHO B
TOM )Ke I0'TOBOM 0T2enenmH No26. C.1mnuioM mana Bepoz-macm Taxora Co6lTsWI.
Tpymo o61acHHxm Ha3Ha'leHHe irTemnenA "J1EHIDWPAR 26" Ha BblpeC3K, TaK KaK oH
MO)KeT TaM CToRTl KBK B KaIeCT~e TpaH3HTHOrO, TaK H a xa'ecTae urTeMneIm UpH6ITHXR. fpil 3TOM
Hy)RH0 y'ecTh, 'TO KoHBepwT npouum no'ry a 1927 ro2y, a Bispe3Ka a 1929 roA2y.
B camabe JI.Pamepa [ 6 paccMarp1aaeM1l urTemnenie "JIEF HUPAIIU 26" M0)KeT 6brm
oTHecei K mny 4 ( cip. 9 ). Ha puc.102 ( cTp. 31 ) H3o6pawKCH allaj2ioH'iHA Irlenenll
"JIEHMHIFAZ 34", a a Ta6mwe ( Iia crp. 32 ) AaHo era ormcaHie ( "J1EHHHJPAJI 34" ). Ho
BOT 6e21 cpe2H no1o'hiT oXTe2elerHrii, npuHMemBtunHx 2awidi Tim m feMneRA, nOIToBoe oT2ejle-
iHe N126 He mcnircj A.
H BOT TyT cj1C2yerT BRHHBTCJnhHo np'iecm 0211111 H3 a63aieB CTaTlH .lI.Pamepa. Ha crp. 19
raaop=.cR: "B aIaune 30-x roioB (a MOiKCT 6bri it paimme? B.13. ), Kqve oM6br'irx roponclcx c
noqToBtLix B.S. ) mT1enc2tuiA, 6EIJIH c032ajaLu ropOicKHe oT2ne1iCix Tax Ha3L1BaeMora 3BKblTporo
rnia. Ouii pa3MciianJHCb na TeppHTop"1H nIinnppHTHb H y'peK2eirHri I1 3antima211C b o6cny>Iu-
BaiIHCM TORILKO 3TIX opralHautirt".
Kai Mile KicaKcTcS, 3AecL H IH axo21HTCS o6ircuciieiie J1IH 1UTCMcnenr "J1E-1H'T1 PA4 26".
EcJIn IlPIllRh,'ITO 317 uiTCMOCIne 3aKpirroro no0iToBoro oT2CIeivrl, o6cny)KHtaBuwtero Kpoii-
IITaA2TcKpI noeCiIo MopcKyio Gaiay (112111 KBKyio TO Cd 'iach ) a paccMaTpHBaMemill nepuloA, TO
TOrla 1CC cTIOHown1cm Ila CB0H MCCTa.
MUic Oilla "KpacOl~lj)Jl0cKasl" M[pKa JIIIIIKOpa "Mapai" lpilnicecHa a KaTanorc no10 pc-
AaKlKWuell B 3aFopcKoro [ 4, Cip. 262, lluIHr. 270 ]. Otia npc2cTanjicla Ia (lfIr.5.
Iw "CIIIiCKC I3.rOjoBKHIua" MfpKlI J1HiK0opa "MapaT" 3a~lllMaIOT 3 noiimuH 1 13 7 oijucajuiuuux,
it MC)KJ1y CiiBofl 01111 om'f onuai0CS( pa3McpanMmI. IC CrnOflJCIItIO, 110 PCIIPOflYKIIII1 B [ 4 1 Icloi3MOwKIIO
CKalfl11n K KIKOnH OIItIII (113 3-x ) i 31OM CHIIICKC IIPllIal211C)KIIT I3no6paeIIIIZmll mapKa.











YqHTrnBaA npsHBeeHHbie Bbile coo6paceHHna, a Mory pacumipHr "cnucoK B.FonOBKHHa" H
Ao6aBnTb a Hero no KpailHef Mepe 2 HOBbie nom3HuH, Kacalomneca MapoK JHHKropa "flapHicKCaa
KOMMyHa". TaKHM o6pa30M B HeM ceiiqac 6yneT 9 no3u.Mi. OAHaKo, y MeHA HeT HH)OpMBauHH 06
ocTanabHMx 5-TH MapKax H3 3TOrO CIIHCKa. B03MOHO, TO y KOrO-HH6yZb H3 IHTaTeinef B cKOJIeK-
umax HaxoiaTrca TaKHe MapKrH?
KaK y)e CKa3aHo, B CTaTbax [ 1; 2 ] 6ub1J onHcaHnu "KpacHoQnJoTcKne" MapKH, Hane'aTaH-
Hmae Ha mHKopax. Ho 3a BpeMa, nponmeamee nocne noaaneHHA 3THn MaTepHajnOB, BsuCHHmioc, Tro
"KpacHO4nIOTCKHe" MapKH neqaTam H npnHMeHmjH He TOJItKO Ha InHHKOpax. B ormcaHHH 3KcnoHa-
Ta E.IIaMHca npHBOAnHrcA H3o6paceHHe KOHBepTa c "KpacHonIoTCKOfi" MapKoH Kpericepa "ABpo-
pa" [ 3, BKjiaRaun 12 ]. B KaTajiore non penaiarteii B.3aropcKoro [ 4, CTp. 262 ] Taroce npHBOAnT-
ca 3Ta MapKa, HO B HeramIeHHOM Bmne. He coBceM ACHO, BbmojiHeHa IH ed penpoAyKiIA c OTAejlb-
HO B3arTOf MapKH, UHu 2Ke cxenaHa c KoHBepra, Ha KOTOpoM oHa He 3aTpoHyra IrreMnenjMn. KcTa-
TH, B craTie [ 3 ] M3o6paxeH MCeHHO TBKOi KOHBepr orTHcK rep60oii neqaTH Kpeiicepa "Aapopa"
a nrreMneln. KpomHi aRATa ( 3.6.29 ) He 3anenj MapKy.
MHe H3BecTHO o cyumecTBOBaaHHH H6oe o nJIe n 3K3eMnIUIpoB nono6HLIX KOHBepTOB. Bee
oHH oTnpaBaneni epe3 Kponrmramr c Kpeficepa "Aspopa" no O1HOMy n TOMy xce anpecy a r.rpos-
rHLI. B KOJneaUKm aBTopa HMeeTca oARHH H3 3THX KOHBepTOB [ QIHr.6 ]. Ha ero JmmeBoil cTOpoHe
a npaBoM BepxHeM yrny HaKIeeHa 3y6uoBaa MapKa c TeKCTOM B paMKre ( ce sepHoro uBeTa ) "ipe-
ficep / "ABPOPA" / KpacHnouoTcrKoe". Pa3Mepu paMKH 27,8 x13 MM. Mapxa norameHa rep6oBOfl
neRararno peiicepa "ABpopa" c TeKCTOM "Hap.(oAHBmi) KOM.(Hccap) no BoeH.(HuI) Mop.(ci M)
enj.(aM) EajrJinoT. Kpeiicep "Aapopa". Anfla xo3aiTBuceHHLIX H aeHeKH~Mx AoKyMeHToB" H Ka-
neHAapHLiM m reMneneM oTHpaBJieHrH "KPOHIIITAnT .IEHHHIP.(AACKOrO) OKP.(YFA)
13.6.29. HHAleKC "B". Ha o6paTHoil cTopoHe KOHBepra Kanejn apHLm rTeMneejn npn6rrunR
"TPO3HbLIa qEq.(EHCKASI) ABT.(OHOMHAI) OBJI.(ACTb) 18.6.29. HHIfeKc "r".
TaKain o6pa3oM, B 3aKmnoieHHH pa3roBopa o "KpacHojiorciarx" MapKax MOKHO CKa3aTB
cneAylomee:
1) BuscHannoc, iro "KpacHo4norcKHe" MapKH HcnoJir30BainHc, He TOJIlKO Ha mnIHKpax,
HO H Ha Kpetcepax ( noica H3BecTHO, TO TOJILKO Ha KOpa6njx BEaricKoro jinoTa ). Ha
ceroLAH H3BecCTa TaRKa MapKa Kpeiicepa "ABpopa". Ho He HCmosOeHO, To co BpeMeHeM
( a Mo)KeT 6Brln H ceimac, y Koro Mu6yAL B KronnerKH ) o6HapyxcaTc MapKH H n;pyrax
KpeiicepoB. BenB B KoHue 20-x rooB Ha BamTHKCe Ha TepHOM Mope a cocTraB nIOTOB
Bxoa rn eit 3 ipeficepa:
a) "KpacHLii Kpar" ( 6bIamUni "CBernaHa", "'poHirrepH" ). B Hoa6pe 1929 rona ne-
peBeAeH c EarJrniH Ha qepHoe Mope;
6) "qepBoHa YIpaHHa" ( 6hiBmiimi "Aajmpan HaxHoaB") Ha HepHoM Mope;
a) "KoMmTrepH" ( 6rBrmdii "Karyn", "IIaMATr MepKypHa" ) Ha q9pHOM Mope.
2) Moxiao pacinmrprT cpOK KypCHpOBaHHa "LcpaCHO(joOTCKrX" MapoK no moHn 1929 rona,
a He AO eCBpajni 1929 roga, KaK yr~ aHo B [ 2 ].
3) Moacuo KOHCTaTHpOBaTb, wTO "KpacHo4)JOTCnKe" Maprai 6Luml He TonrKO 6e33y6uosBr-
MH [ 2 ], HO H 3y6o0Br.IMH.
4) "KpacHo4inorclMe" MapKH cneAyeT oTrecTH K Tnly "pa3pemriTejnHrix MapoK KpaCHo-
IJiOTCKOHi noTTl", KOTOpble BimycKaniHC, NaI KOJ ecrTBeHHoro orpanHqerHH OTnpaa-
nenHii KpacHonJiOTcKOF noITr ( 3eCCb TepMHH "KpacHo4JnioTCKaa noqra" aHanormneH
TepuMHy "noneaaa norra", HO yiwriBaeT cnewUdirqeclarti xapacrep KoppecnoHeHMiHHH).


ABBREVIATIONS


PKKA
PKK@
COBHapKOM
HKIFHT


- Pa6oqe-KpecT-iHcKaa KpacHaA ApMHn
- Pa6o0e-KpecTbMHCKHii KpacHbifi Q(nOT
- COBeT HapoJuHbx KoMHccapoB
- Haponifii KOMHCCapHar nowr H Tejerpa4OB


LITERATURE

1. B.CHHEFYEOB. es3Mapo'miHe ImcBMa BOrHOB. OHjiaTeml CCCP, 1981, KN5, c.45 47.
2. I.BOBHH. EecnuaTHoe KpacHonJIoTCKoe ITHCLMO. OHinaTemm CCCP, 1969, XN4, c.11 13.
3. E.IIIAMHC. PoccHHicKoe MopernnaaHmie. OHinaTejml ( MocrKa ), 1997, N'4, c.12 14,
BKnaALumi 9 16.
4. CnerianuH3HposaHHmiil KaTranor noqTOBb MapOK. TOM 5, 'acn 1. CCCP, 1923 1940. nog
o6mefi penaKiefii B.B.3ATOPCKOFO. CamnT HeTep6ypr, CTaHAapT Konneiam, 1999.
5. B.rPAJUIEPT, B.-PYIIIKE. (IunarenjmcrnecrKm cjoBaps. CoKparmHHLi nepeBon c
neMeacoro. MocKBa, "CBI3I", 1977.
6. JI.PATHEP. H3 HcTopHH noTmi rIeTporpaaa JInemnrpaa. CoBercKoif KojunelaoHep,
MocKBa, "PaHO H CBa3S", 1987, N25, c.3 35.





LITERATURE

1. V.SINEGUBOV. Bezmarochnye pisma voinov. Filatelija SSSR, 1981, KN5, p.45 47.
2. J.VOVIN. Besplatnoje krasnoflotskoje pismo. Filatelija SSSR, 1969, N'4, p.11 13.
3. E.SHAMIS. Rossijskoje moreplavanije. Filatelija (Moscow), 1997, N'4, p.12 14,
vkladishi 9- 16.
4. USSR. Specialist Catalogue of Postage Stamps 1923 1940 Part 1. 5 th of a series. Editor
V.ZAGORSKIY. Standard Collection of St. Petersburg, Russia, 1999.
5. W.GRALLERT, W.GRUSHKE. Lexikon Philatelie. Moscow, "Svijaz", 1977.
6. L.RATNER. From the Postal History of Petrograd Leningrad. Sovetskij Kollektsioner, Moscow
"Radio i svijaz", 1987, Xo25, p.3 35.









I IeenIaroe
Kp-foTexoe
fHCIMO.



CIir.2 "MapKa XN2" mumopa
'"HapricKCKa KOMyHa"
Fig. 2Stamp No. 2 of the
battleship "Paris Commune".
SEecnaaiToe
Kp-.Iorexoe
nHlCLMO.
K-p:- k

(OHr.2A "MapKa X2" mmHKopa
"rTapmrKCKaA KOMMyHa"
H3 KaTajora [ 4 ]
Fig. 2A: Stamp No. 2 of the
battleship "Paris Commune",
from the catalogue [4].


CrH. 1 "KoHBepT N21" C "MapKOHi Xl" JIHHKOpa
"-IapmDKcKas KOMMyHa"
Fg. Cover No. 1 with Stamp No. 1 of the battleship
"Paris Commune".
n 7


O(Hr.3 "KOHBepT .'2" c "MapKoiH 3" jnHHKpa "HapmKcKaA KOMMyHa
Fi. 3 Cover No. 2 with Stamp No. 3 of the battleship "Paris Commune".
THE POST-RIDER/~IMIHHK N- 49
November 2001


zJt"- C.I 41 -a
^L~waY' 2 ti













CQrT.4 BbIpe3Ka c "MapIKofi X'4"
rHHKOpa "HaprmKcKAr KOMMyHa"




Fig 4A piece with Stamp No. 4
of the battleship "Paris Commune".


IH r.5 "KpacHoljiOTCKaA"
MapKa JIHHKOpa "MapaT"
Fig. 5 The "Red Fleet" stamp
of the battleship "Marat".


S| Fig. 6: Cover with a "Red Fleet"
S1 stamp of the cruiser "Aurora".
OuHr.6 KOHBepT c "KpacHoJIOTCKOiH" MapKOHi KpeHcepa "Aspopa"
*
ABOUT THE "RED FLEET" STAMPS OF THE USSR
by Vladimir Berdichevskii.

A "Codex of Laws about the Exemptions and Privileges for the Servicemen of the Red Army (Russian
initials: PKKA) and Red Fleet (Russian initials: PKKE) and their Families in Peacetime" appeared in the
USSR in 1924. The Red Army men and Red Fleet sailors were assigned the right to send post free three
ordinary letters per month with a weight limit not exceeding 20 grammes (about 2/3 ounce), or three
postcards. All letters weighing up to 20 grammes and addressed to servicemen with indications of their
ranks could also be sent post free [1].

A Regulation of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (CoBHapKOM CCCP) headed "About
the exemptions for the dispatch of postal and telegraphic sending" appeared in 1926. It was specified
THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIMHK N 49 45
November 2001






therein that mail of the rank and file and non-commissioned officers enrolled in the Red Army and Red
Fleet could be sent post free upon presentation of the same to the post offices by the relevant units,
institutions and establishments of the Army and Fleet [1]. In 1927, the People's Commissariat for Military
and Naval Affairs of the USSR issued Circular X2118, with the title "About the regulation of the order of
presenting to the Postal Service the letters of the Red Army and Red Fleet and the controls for the correct
application of the procedures for sending letters post free".

In accordance with these documents, the responsibility for the observation of the specified procedures was
placed upon the commanders of the units of the Army and Navy, including the commanders of ships. Those
commanders appointed special persons, who had to collect the letters of the Red Fleet sailors and hand
them over to the Postal Service. As already stated, each sailor had the right to send three letters per month.
On large vessels that had big crews (often a few hundred men and sometimes more than one thousand), the
task of observing the numerous procedures for dispatch became onerous and required decisions to be made.
And that led to the appearance of"Red Fleet" stamps. The first data about them were set out by Ya. Vovin
in his article [2] and V. Sinegubov [1].

The essence for solving the problem was carried out in the following way. The commanders of battleships
(only such vessels are mentioned in the articles [1] and [2]) assigned the arrangements for printing special
stamps aboard ship (or in other printeries?). Each sailor was handed three such stamps every month. He
would affix same to the envelope being sent and hand it over to the "postman" (the person who had been
appointed to collect the letters from the crew and hand them over to the Postal Service). The presence of
"Red Fleet" stamps served as an indication to the "postman" to accept the mail and showed that the letter
was being sent as one of the three such sending allowed. The official (or other) cachet of the ship was then
placed on the envelope and that served as an indication to the clerks of the Postal Service (HKTIIT) that it
should be sent post free. The envelope would be cancelled at the post office with the postmark of the point
of dispatch and, upon arrival at the destination, with the receiving postmark.

Ya. Vovin showed two illustrations in his article. On the first cover featured (we will call it "Cover M 1;
see Fig. 1 on page 44), there is affixed a "Red Fleet" stamp of the battleship "Paris Commune" (we will call
it "Stamp XN 1"). The cover was addressed to Sevastopol', struck with the official cachet of the battleship
"Paris Commune" and also the postmark of dispatch, reading: JIEHHHFPAJ 26r 29.9.27 (that could be
a transit marking; we will examine further below), together with the arrival cds reading:
CEBACTOInOJIb 2.10.27 and a rectangular cachet inscribed "KPACHOAPMEIICKA'I" ("Red
Army" correspondence?).

A "Red Fleet" stamp from the same battleship is shown in the second illustration (Fig. 2 on p. 44). Ya.
Vovin does not say anything about it in his article. In any case, if we compare this stamp with the one
affixed to the envelope in Fig. 1, it can be ascertained that they are two different stamps. They may be
distinguished by the following parameters (exclusive of the dimensions, as the illustrations are presented in
different sizes):-

(1) Different lines of separation of the stamps (they are both imperforate).
(2) Different signatures of the commanders on the stamps.
(3) "Stamp X 1" has an unbroken vertical frame line at left and "Stamp XN 2" has a break in the same line.
The present whereabouts of "Stamp N2 2" is unknown to me.

It should be noted that the described cover was also shown in the illustrations for the article by E. Shamis
[3, Supplement 11]. That article described the "Russian Navigation" exhibit of E. Shamis and the cover is
mentioned briefly. It was erroneously stated that this "sailor's stamp" was an etiquette of the Naval Forces
of the Black Sea Fleet. Unfortunately, the present whereabouts of this cover is unknown to me, as the
collection ofE. Shamis was dispersed.


THE POST-RIDERI/IMIIHK K~ 49
November 2001







There is shown in the catalogue of postage stamps of the USSR edited by V. Zagorskii [4] what is
apparently the self-same stamp of the battleship "Paris Commune" already illustrated in Fig. 2 and which I
am reproducing in Fig. 2A. Two aspects buttress such a conclusion:-

(1) The signatures of the commanders are the same on both stamps.
(2) The elements of the black frames (narrow empty spaces in the covers and a break in the vertical line
at left) are also the same.

Unfortunately, the margins of the stamp are not illustrated in Fig. 2A and there is shown only the black
frame enclosing the text. In any case, it can be said that two different "Red Fleet" stamps of the battleship
"Paris Commune" are now known to have surfaced recently (Figs. 1 & 2).

As the data given by Ya. Vovin [2] were printed in 1969 and are possibly not easily accessible for many
readers, I am setting out several excerpts from his article, supplementing them with my own comments.:
"In October last year, I discovered in the archives of the Moscow collector S.M. Blekhman some
manuscripts of the now late philatelist V.K. Golovkin, which had been prepared in 1940 for a catalogue of
postage stamps of the USSR that was never issued. From these very fragmentary data, it was possible to
ascertain that specific postage stamps were also applied on two other ships of the line for post-free letters of
the Red Navy. They could be distinguished from each other by the texts and sizes. All the stamps were
printed by typography in black on ordinary white paper in various shades. The stamps were imperforate".

It should be noted here that three ships of the line were in working order in the Red Fleet in the latter half
of the 1920s:-
(1) "Paris Commune" (originally named "Sevastopol'"until March 1921).
(2) "Marat" (originally "Petropavlovsk" until March 1921).
(3) "October Revolution" (originally named "Gangut" [Russian name for the town of Hanko in Finland]
until June 1925).
All three were within the composition of the Naval Forces of the Baltic Sea and based at Kronshtadt.

In his article [2] Ya. Vovin inserted the designation "control (i.e. specific) postage stamps". Taking into
consideration the functions that these stamps performed (as previously mentioned), I can firmly call them
"permissive stamps of the Red Fleet Posts". In source [5], the following definitions are given in the terms:
"Permissive stamp of the Field (in our case "Red Fleet" V.B.) Post" and "Type of stamp of the Field Post.
They were issued in a restricted quantity for specific types of dispatches of the Field Post".
With regard to the statement "imperforate stamps", that aspect will be covered below. Further from the
article by Ya. Vovin:-
"Summarising the data about the stamp of the battleship 'Paris Commune' and the information from the
manuscripts of V.K. Golovkin about two other battleships, we can set out the following description of the
stamps known up to now:-
1.'BecrumaTHoe Kp-cnJIoTcKoe IIHcbMO K-p' (see the illustration). Size 19.25 x 18 mm. Height of the
letters 'B' and 'V': 2 mm.; the rest of the letters: 1.5 mm.
2.'KpacHO(JIOTCKoe JI.K. 'MapaT". Size 28.5 x 13.5 mm.
3."KpacHO(JIoTcKoe JI.K. 'MapaT". Size 29 x 14.5 mm.
4.'KpacHo4(p oTCKoe J.K. 'MapaT". Size 28 x 13.5 mm.
5. ...poTa JI.K. O.P.'. (O.P. = "October Revolution"). Length 28 mm.
6. :...poTa J.K. O.P.'. Length 22.5 mm.
Stamp No 6 comes in two types. Type I: "O.P." in parentheses; Type II: "O.P." in inverted commas.

On the basis of his investigations, V.K. Golovkin fixed the period of use of the "Red Fleet" stamps as from
February 1927 to February 1929. Moreover, V.K. Golovkin knew of the existence of seven different "Red
Fleet" stamps, taking into account their types.

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHKM 49 47
November 2001






There appeared about two years ago at my stamp club a second cover now known to me ("Cover M 2")
with a "Red Fleet" stamp ("Stamp X_ 3") of the battleship "Paris Commune" (see Fig. 3). The cover was
addressed to Kronshtadt with a cds of arrival reading on the back "KPOHIIITAJT 2 2 11.10.2T. As
with the first cover, it was also struck with the official cachet of the battleship "Paris Commune" and with
the rectangular marking "KPACHOAPMEICKOE". Unfortunately, the date-stamp of dispatch was
only partly impressed (about this, see further on), but its type corresponds to the dispatch (?) postmark on
"Cover XM_ 1". For that reason, it may be suggested that it was the marking "JIEHHHT PAJ-26 6
10.10.27".

I will now note the following interesting characteristics. The same types of envelopes, with the same
external appearance of the flap on the back and corresponding in length and height, thus appearing to be the
same. Unfortunately, the scale of reduction of "Cover N2 1" is unknown and we therefore cannot speak of
its actual dimensions. The measurements of the outer frame of "Stamp M 3" are 19.25 x 18 mm., the height
of the capital letters "B", "D" and "K" is 2 mm.; for the remaining letters rather more than 1 mm., but less
than 1.5 mm. (as stated by Ya. Vovin in the description of "Stamp N 1"). Moreover, the signature on
"Stamp NM 3" (see Fig. 3) differs from those on the two stamps already described (Figs. 1 & 2).

The texts of the rectangular cachets reading: "KPACHOAPMEHCKAq on "Cover M 1" and
"KPACHOAPMEICKQE" on "Cover Mo 2" obviously differ from each other. By the way, a few words
about these cachets. V. Sinegubov in his article [1] gives the following explanation for them: "....Each
"Red Fleet" sailor received three vignettes monthly from the commander of his section. Upon accepting the
letters, the postmen verified the legality of post-free dispatch as signified by the vignettes and applied the
"KPACHOAPMEHCKOE" cachet. The vignettes of the battleships were not significant. Without the
official cachet of the ship, a letter without a postage stamp could not go through the mails post free and the
postage due would be levied on the recipient in the normal way".

I find it difficult to agree with those assertions for the following reasons:-
(1) As stated earlier, the "Red Fleet" stamps (the "vignettes" ofV. Sinegubov) served as permission given
to the "postman" to accept the letter and the cachet of the ship bestowed the right to post-free dispatch.
As a result, a letter without the vignette and the cachet of the ship simply could not pass through a
post office on shore.
(2) It is doubtful whether the "KPACHOAPMELICKOE" cachet would have been applied aboard ship
and not the "KPACHO (3) As can be seen from the cover sent from the cruiser "Aurora" (see Fig. 6 on p. 45; it will be dealt with
below), all the formalities had been complied with, as well as for the covers so far described, apart
from the "KPACHOAPMEIICKOE" cachet, which did not prevent it from reaching the addressee.
(4) I have never seen even one such cover with a "postage due" indication. It logically could not exist, as
its presence would have contradicted the functional intent of the "Red Fleet" stamps. If indeed there
do exist "postage due" letters sent by crew members of ships, upon which the "Red Fleet" stamps had
been available, then such letters must have been dropped into the boxes of shore post offices and
they must have lacked both the "Red Fleet" stamps and the official ship cachets.

However, all these comments do not explain the presence of the "KPACHOAPMEICKOE" cachet on
the envelopes.

It is interesting that Cover N2 1 was addressed to the town of Sevastopol', Krasnyi Moryak postal station,
to the Staff Commander of the Black Sea Naval Forces and Cover JN2 2 went to the town of Kronshtadt, to
the Kronshtadt Naval Hospital named after Semashko. In other words, they were both addressed to
establishments having connections to the Red Fleet. Could it be that the assumptions about the functions
about these stamps are incorrect and that they were in fact utilized only for the dispatch of letters to
institutions of the Fleet? Or is the above case just a coincidence?
48 THE POST-RIDER/~MIIIK X2 49
November 2001






Quite recently, I was able to secure a portion of a cover with yet another stamp of the battleship "Paris
Commune" (we will call it "Stamp N2 4" see Fig. 4 on p. 45). The piece comes from the upper right
comer of the front and the stamp was affixed to the upper right corer of the piece. It differs from the
"Stamp N2 4" already described in the following manner:-
(1) The frameline is less thick.
(2) The upper and lower horizontal lines extend to the left and right vertical lines of the frame. It can even
be postulated that the upper and lower horizontal lines were common for each row of the printed
stamps, as the lines begin and end where the breaks occur on "Stamp N2 4" at left and right on the
impressions.
(3) The signature of the commander differs from those on the other stamps.
(4) The dimensions are different both horizontally and vertically.
(5) The height of the lower case inscription on "Stamp N2 4" is less than on "Stamp XN 3" (one
can compare the sizes with certainty only between these stamps).
(6) The height of "Stamp J- 3" within the frame is 16.7 mm. and for "Stamp XN 4, it is 18.7 mm.
(7) On "Stamp No 4", the last letter "e" in the word "BecnnaTHoe" sticks out at a greater distance from the
previous letters, than on the other stamps.
(8) The letters "K-p" on "Stamp N2 4" are placed close to the lower line of the frame than on the other
stamps.
(9) The font of the capital letter "K" in the last line on "Stamp 3N_ 4" is different than on the rest of the
stamps.
(10) On "Stamp 2Ni 3", the upper level of the letters in the word "Kp-boJIOTCKoe" is in a straight line and
on "Stamps N2s 3 & 4", the upper level of the letters "TCK" shows a dip.
(11) In the last line on "Stamp N2 4", inverted commas stand after the letters "K-p", while on the other
stamps there is a colon between the inverted commas in that position ":"
(12) On "Stamp N2 4",the hyphen in the second line is closer to the letter "(D" and, on the other stamps, it is
in the middle between the letters "p" and "(b".
(13) On "Stamp NJ- 4", the last letter "e' in the second line is placed vertically more to the left of the letter
"e" in the upper line, while on the other stamps, the reverse is the case. In general, it may be said that,
on "Stamp JM 4", the second line is shifted to the left with reference to the first line, in comparison
with the other stamps.
It is possible that this list can be extended.

An official cachet has been struck in violet on the piece with the text: 'JIHHefiHblbI Kopa6ib "fIaplKcKCKa
KoMMyna" / )JIII / rIAKETOB' and also the postmark (of arrival or dispatch?)
reading:"JIEHHHFPAn-26 6 7.3.29", similar to the markings on "Covers J-s 1 & 2". Unfortunately, it is
difficult to say whether the official cachet of the battleship has been struck upon the stamp, as it can hardly
be seen. However, as has been said earlier, the process of sending mail apparently required the application
of the battleship cachet upon the "Red Fleet" stamp. Anyway, the authenticity of the piece is not in doubt.

Hence, it may be concluded that four different examples are known of the "Red Fleet" stamps of the
battleship "Paris Commune". Moreover, it can be said with certainty that "Stamps XNs 2, 3 & 4" (see Figs.
2, 3 & 4) differ from each other, i.e. they demonstrate different types. Regarding the poor quality of the
illustration of "Stamp JN 1", it is difficult to assign its relationship to one of the specific types.

We will now examine more carefully the role played by the postmark "JIEHIHHPAA 26" struck on the
covers and piece. They give rise to quite a few questions and I will try to discuss them. I can say in a word
that my hypothesis does not have documentary confirmation and is only the result of my logical reasoning.
Thus, I accept as a fact the assertion that the battleship was based at Kronshtadt. On "Cover N2 1", the
postmark "JIEHIHHrPAA 26" can be regarded as a transit marking, as the cover went from Kronshtadt
to Sevastopol' via Leningrad (I do not know if the dispatch postmark of Kronshtadt was also present). On
"Cover N? 2", the presence of the "JIEHHHFPAj 26" postmark already looks somewhat superfluous, as
THE POST-RIDER/SMIImHK 1- 49 49
November 2001






The cover went from Kronshtadt (where the battleship was based) to within Kronshtadt. To have conveyed
the letter to Leningrad, so as to place a postmark upon it, would have made no sense. It is suggested that the
letter was written and addressed in Kronshtadt and then dropped off in Leningrad. That is hard to believe,
since after application of the official cachet of the battleship, the letter could not have logically fallen again
into the hands of the sender. But even if that were the case, then it is frankly difficult to surmise why it
would have been postmarked at that Leningrad-26 post office. The likelihood of such an action is small.

It is difficult to explain the designation of the "LENINGRAD-26" postmark on the piece, as it could have
been either a transit marking or an arrival postmark. In this regard, it should also be taken into account that
the covers went through the mails in 1927 and the piece in 1929.

In the article by L. Ratner [6], the "LENINGRAD-26" postmark mentioned by him can be ascribed to Type
4 (p. 9 of his article). A similar LENINGRAD-34" postmark is shown in illustration 102 (p. 31 of his
article) and it is listed in his table on p. 32. But there is a problem here; the postal station .N 26 is not listed
as one of the offices receiving this type of marking.

It therefore remains for us to read carefully one of the paragraphs in the article by L. Ratner. He say on p.
19: "At the beginning of the 1930s (and perhaps even earlier? V.B.), in addition to the ordinary city
(postal V.B.) stations, there were also set up city stations of the so-called 'closed' type. They were
located on the premises of undertakings and establishments and were only concerned with serving such
organizations". As it seems to me, that must be the explanation of the role played by the "LENINGRAD-
26" marking. If we accept that this was a postmark of a "closed" postal station which served the Kronshtadt
Naval Base (or one of its sections) during the period under review, then everything falls into place.

There was yet another "Red Fleet" stamp of the battleship "Marat"; it is listed in the catalogue edited by V.
Zagorskii [4, p. 262, Fig. 270]. It is also shown in Fig. 5 on p. 45 herewith. In the Listing by V. Golovkin,
the stamps of the battleship "Marat" consist of three out of a total of seven described items and all three
have different dimensions. Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine from the reproduction given in
source [4], what position out of the three items the illustrated stamp belongs in this Golovkin Listing.

Taking into account the notions set out above, I can expand the Golovkin Listing and add to it at least two
positions, referring to the stamps of the battleship "Paris Commune". As a result, we now have a total of
nine positions. However, I do not have any information about the remaining five stamps in this Listing. Do
any of the readers possibly have such stamps in their collections?

As already stated in the articles in sources [1 & 2], the "Red Fleet" stamps were printed on battleships.
However, with the passage of time since the appearance of these items, it has become clear that the "Red
Fleet" stamps were printed and utilized not only on battleships. In the description of the exhibit by E.
Shamis, an illustration was shown of a cover with the "Red Fleet" stamp of the cruiser "Aurora" [3,
Supplement 12]. This stamp is also listed in the catalogue edited by V. Zagorskii [4, p. 262], but in
uncancelled state. It is not quite clear if that was a reproduction taken from a loose stamp or whether it was
done from a cover, upon which it had not been struck by markings. By the way, such a cover is illustrated
in the article of source [3], showing a strike of the official cachet of the cruiser "Aurora" and the postmark
of Kronshtadt dated 3.6.29, neither of which hit the stamp.

I know of the existence of not more than five examples of such covers. All of them were sent from the
cruiser "Aurora" via Kronshtadt to one and the same address in Groznyi. One of these covers is in my
collection (see Fig. 6 on p. 45). A perforated stamp with the text all in black in a frame has been affixed in
the upper right corner of the front side and it reads: "KpeAicep / ABPOPA / KpacHod)iroTCKoe". The
frame measures 27.8 x 13 mm. The stamp was cancelled by the official cachet of the cruiser "Aurora",
reading: 'Hap.(ogHbifi) KoM.(nccap) no BoeH.(HaIM) Mop.(cKHM) Jej.(aM) BanT4TiOT. Kpeficep
"ABpopa". Jlra xo03sJicTBeHHblX H geHex~HbIX OKyMeHTOB' (People's Commissar for Naval Affairs -
50 THE POST-RIDER/I SIMIIK ri 49
November 2001






Baltic Fleet. Cruiser 'Aurora'. For economic and monetary documents"), as well as with the date-stamp of
dispatch, reading: KPOHIIITAJT JIEHHHFP.(A,CKOFO) OKP.(YFA) 13.6.29 e. The date-stamp
of arrival is on the back of the cover and reads FPO3HbIII. qEH.(EHCKAAI) ABT.(OHOMHASI)
OBJI.(ACTb) 18.6.29 z.

In concluding the discussion about the "Red Fleet" stamps, the following points may be made:-
(1) It has turned out that the "Red Fleet" stamps were utilized not only on battleships, but also on
cruisers (known so far only on ships of the Baltic Fleet), including on the cruiser "Aurora". However,
with the passage of time and perhaps even now in somebody's collection, it is not excluded that
stamps may be discovered for other cruisers. By the end of the 1920s, there were a further three cruisers
in the composition of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets, namely:
(a) "The Red Crimea" (formerly "Svetlana" and "Profintern"). Transferred in November 1929 from
Baltic to the Black Sea.
(b) "Chervona Ukrayina" (formerly "Admiral Nakhimov") on the Black Sea.
(c) "Komintem" (formerly "Kagul" and 'Pamyat' Merkuriya") on the Black Sea.
(2) The period of circulation of the "Red Fleet" stamps may be extended to June 1929, and not to
February 1929, as stated in [2].
(3) It can be asserted that the "Red Fleet" stamps were not only imperforate [2], but also perforated.
(4) The "Red Fleet" stamps should be listed under the category of "Permissive stamps of the Red Fleet
Post", being issued in restricted quantities for the dispatch of the Red Fleet mail. In this case, the
term "Red Fleet Mail" is similar to the term "Field Post", but it takes into account the specific
character of the correspondence.

ABOUT THE CIRCULATION OF THE UKRAINIAN CHARITY STAMPS OF 1923
by Vladimir Berdichevskii.
(Viktor Borisovich Kofman of Odessa, Ukraine has really opened a "Pandora's box" with his article "Some
Additional Notes on the 1923 Famine Issue of the Ukrainian SSR", as published in "The Post-Rider" JN 48,
pp. 81-84. His excerpts from official postal documents of the period have encouraged several of our leading
philatelists to submit additional comprehensive and valuable information on this subject, which we are
proud to set out herewith, starting with a highly interesting presentation by Mr. Berdichevskii. In addition,
the cooperation rendered by Robert Taylor and Alex. Sadovnikov of the U.S.A., and Alexander Epstein of
Estonia is also most warmly acknowledged).

The article by V.B. Kofman [1] presented interesting documents about the period of circulation for the
charity stamps of the Ukraine and about the towns where they went on sale. However, there were no
examples of usages of these stamps in the article, apart from those set out in the Editorial Comment. The
author writes in the article that there are only mentions in the catalogues about their rarity on postal
sending and that only one Odessa philatelist had seen a cover with such stamps. It is intended here to fill in
the gaps.

Up to now, I know of 11 postal sending (covers, postcards etc.) franked with the charity stamps of the
Ukraine. Their description is set out here below in chronological order, i.e. until they were withdrawn from
circulation.
Fig. 1 shows an ordinary intercity letter sent from Ekaterinoslav 28.6.23 to Moscow 30.6.23. The letter was
franked with an Arms Type stamp with the "star" overprint (Michel 206A) and a new value of 100 r., a
further control stamp of Russia with a value of 100 r. and two Ukrainian charity stamps with a face value of
150 + 50 karbovantsiv. The pre-revolutionary control stamp attracts attention. Such stamps were taken out
of circulation on 15.9.22 [2, p. 23] and its face value therefore did not influence the franking. It can be
assumed that it was used to seal the envelope.

It should be noted that, from 1 January 1923, a transition took place to a new scale of prices: 100 r. of 1922
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N 49 51
November 2001






























































-1



t '"


'Rc .,

L. -:1.


T,



'-J 4 .

E.N
/L:


Fig. 4. Fig. 5.
52 THE POST-RIDER/aMIIIHK M 49
November 2001






currency were now equal to 1 r. of the 1923 issue. Taking that into account, one may compute the actual
franking of the letter: 1 r. (Michel 206A) + 2 x 1.5 r. (in charity stamps of the Ukraine) = 4 r., which
corresponds to the tariff then in force per the table set out at the end of this article. The surtax of 2 x 0.5
krb. on the Ukrainian charity stamps = 1 r., was collected to help the victims of famine.

The ordinary international letter shown in Fig. 2 on the previous page was sent from Odessa 2.7.23 to
Berlin, but there is no postmark of arrival. It was paid with a 1923 RSFSR 4-r. definitive, three RSFSR
1922 definitive of 100 r (Michel 211A) which were valid until 31.12.22 and finally two Ukrainian charity
stamps of 150 + 50 krb. value. The total franking of the letter thus consisted of 4 r. + 3 x 1 r. + 2 x 1.5 r.
10 r. 1923 currency, corresponding to the tariff then in force (see the table of rates). Once again, the surtax
of 1 r. from the Ukrainian charity stamps was in aid of the victims of famine. It should be noted that the
Odessa control marking of 3.7.23 with the "triangles" was struck on the front of the cover.

A cover bearing Ukrainian charity stamps of 20 + 20 krb. is featured in the catalogue edited by V.
Zagorskii [3, p. 104]. It is reproduced in Fig. 3 as a registered intercity letter, sent from Vinnitsa, Podoliya
province 7.7.23 to Moscow 10.7.23. It is franked with 29 stamps of the 40 r. "Star" surcharge (Michel
205A) and two of these charity stamps. One of the surcharges is partly on the back of the cover (a part of it
is seen at top center above the upper strip of stamps and the rest of it is obviously on the front side). Thus,
the franking of the letter consists of 29 x 0.4 r. + 2 x 0.2 r. (from the postal value of the charity stamps) =
12 r., corresponding to the rate for a registered intercity letter, in force as of 5.7.1923. The surtax of 40 krb.
(= 0.4 r.) went to the Republican fund for aid to victims of famine.

The back of a registered international letter is shown in Fig. 4, which was offered for sale at the
Cherrystone Auction of 26.2.1992 [4]. As stated in the catalogue description, the letter was sent from
Vinnitsa to Berlin, but the front has unfortunately not been illustrated. It is evident from the photograph that
the cover was franked with two 1923 RSFSR definitive of 10 r. value (Michel 218) and five 150 + 50 krb.
charity stamps. Hence, the total franking was 2 x 10 r. + 5 x 1.5 r. = 27.5 r., plus a surtax of 2.5 r. in aid of
victims of famine. The arrival marking of Berlin with the date 10.7.23 is seen in the centre and although the
dispatch postmark cancels all the stamps, it is very difficult to read it. The only portion of it that can be read
is on the definitive at bottom, namely: ".....A IIO.". so it can be deciphered as "B14HHHHILA nIOJ".
The date of dispatch is not specified, but it would be logical to suggest that the letter was sent no earlier
than 25.6.23 (the day that the charity set went into circulation) and no later than 5.7.23 (i.e. a minimum of
five days up to the arrival of the letter in Berlin). To what degree does the franking correspond to the tariff
for registered international letters? That rate, as can be seen from the table, came then to 20 r. and the over-
payment thus came to 7.5 r. It is possible that this was due to an error on the part of the postal clerk but, in
any case, it is evident:
(1) that the letter is clearly non-philatelic and
(2) it is not likely that this was a case of the next weight-step, for which an extra fee would have been
charged.

We see in Figs. 5 & 6 two registered international letters, sold at the Harmer's Auction [5]. The cover in
Fig. 5 (Lot 2508) was sent from Khar'kov 30.6.23 to Berlin (there is no arrival marking shown on the
address side. On the other hand, there are notations and a label in German, stating that the letter was being
returned, as the addressee could not be reached). The letter was franked with two charity stamps of 10 + 10
krb., one 90 + 30 krb., one 1922 100 r. "star" surcharge (Michel 206A) and four 1923 RSFSR 4 r.
definitive. Hence, the franking seen on the address side consisted of 2 x 0.1 r. + 2 x 0.2 r. + 0.9 r. + 1 r. + 4
x 4 r. = 18.5 r., thus being 1.5 r. less than the rate in force at that time for the given type of postal sending.
The surtax in aid of the victims of famine came to 2 x 0.1 r. + 2 x 0.2 r. +0.3 r. = 0.9r.

The cover on the next page in Fig. 6 (Lot 2509) was also sent from Khar'kov 5.7.23 to Berlin 12.7.23. By
the way, this letter was sent to the name of "Herr Heinrich Kohler", i.e. the proprietor of a well-known
auction house. It was franked with a 10 + 10 krb. charity stamp, 6 copies of the 20 + 20 krb. (five of them
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK N! 49 53
November 2001













C ,-/ .,-

/ /
:/, ,:;,,-./, ...?<';,



/>% : .' ',-:
/. 1 /LA,
C. <,. -f. l .,,. /e t' "2 /.'
,/. ,... /
144


* `---- ---A -.y





-c9+: /.


._y '- _.-- _;- -- <,...
,. -. : .
i .-. _
"" :. :. .- .-. :, ._.f
.. .l 'r -_- ,. -

-, ,__:'


Fig. 8.


Fig. 6.


Fig. 7.


r- --
/1< /3 b <^c.Z --l .< *- ,0 c
..



zfi


C --- l- -

,' i.
t ." ,2-. .- .* .. .f ..
-. -I .:




--' ... .. .. .:.... -, *"..

C ","- ', : 7 ., $2\. -


..Fig 9 *.g. 9


THE POST-RIDER/MUMImHK 2 49
November 2001






in a strip, three 90 + 30 krb. in a strip, six 150 + 50 krb. in a strip, a 5-r. 1923 RSFSR definitive (Michel
217), a 100 r. "star" surcharge (Michel 206A) and a 200 r. "star" surcharge (Michel 207A). Hence, the
franking of the letter consisted of 0.1 r. + 6 x 0.2 r. + 3 x 0.9 r. + 6 x 1.5 r. + Ir. + 2 r. = 21 r., which was 1-
r. more than the tariff then in force for a registered international letter. By the way, both letters were sent by
the Khar'kov philatelist V.A. Sapozhnikov [1,7,8], who had a direct bearing on the appearance of the
Ukrainian charity stamps on the international scene and these two examples are "philatelic".

Fig. 7 features the address side of a registered international letter, which was sold at the Heinrich Kohler
Auction [6]. It is also-purely "philatelic", being sent from Khar'kov 15.7.23 (i.e. on the last day of official
circulation of the set of stamps under review) and addressed to Berlin. Unfortunately, I do not have an
illustration of the back, but it is stated in the description of the lot that it was backstamped on arrival in
Berlin and had additional franking.

As may be seen from the illustration, the letter was franked on the front with three horizontal strips of
imperforate stamps in the values of 10 + 10, 90 + 30 and 150 + 50 krb. They are also mentioned in the
description of the lot, so the 20 + 20 krb. value must not have been on the cover. In any case, the total
franking on the front consisted of 3 x 0.1 r. + 3 x 0.9 r. + 3 x 1.5 r. = 7.5 r. As noted from the table, the
tariff then for a registered international letter was 20 r. It can therefore be assumed that the additional
franking on the back came to 20 r. 7.5 r. = 12.5 r. The surtax in aid of the victims of famine consisted of 3
x 0.1 r. + 3 x 0.3 r. + 3 x 0.5 r. = 2.7 r.

In addition, postal sending were shown and described, having been sent after 15.7.23, i.e. after the official
date of termination of circulation of these Ukrainian stamps "In aid of the Starving" (",OfIOMOrA
FOJIOnJYIOH4M"). Thus, we have an ordinary international letter in Fig. 8, sent from Vinnitsa 17.7.23
to Prague, Czechoslovakia, but there is no backstamp (Editorial Comment: Central European countries such
as Czechoslovakia and Austria normally did not backstamp mail, ordinary or registered). The letter was
franked with five copies of the 20 + 20 krb. and one each of the 3 r. & 10 r. 1923 RSFSR definitive
(Michel 215 & 218). As can be seen from the table, the tariff for such a letter should have been 10 r. Let us
look at the relationship between the franking and the rate. It can be said right off that the letter was
overpaid, as the total for just the two RSFSR definitive came to 13 r. and that does not even take into
account the five additional stamps of 20 + 20 krb. value. So the reason for the overpayment is unclear as,
judging from the cover, this was not a case of exceeding the first weight step of 20 grammes.

An analysis of the problem shows that there were several options, whereby the face value of the 20 + 20
krb. stamp could or could not have been taken into account in the total franking of the letter:
(1) The case where the charity stamps were utilized in the same way as during the period of their official
circulation, namely:
10 r. + 3 r. +5 x 0.2 r. = 14 r. for the postal rate and
5 x 0.2 r. = 1 r., being the surtax in aid of the victims of famine.
(2) The case where the 20 + 20 krb. stamp was no longer regarded as a charity issue and its face value was
fully included in the postal charge:
10 r. + 3 r. + 5 x (0.2 + 0.2) r. = 15 r.
(3) The case where, in connection with the end of the period of their official circulation on 15.7.23, the
stamps in question could have been sold purely as charity stamps. Hence, their entire face value
would have been reckoned as being in aid of the Charity Fund:
10 r. + 3 r. = 13 r. for the postal rate and
5 x (0.2 + 0.2) r. = 2 r., being the fee in aid of the victims of famine.
It is not possible to say at the present time which of the options examined above was utilized by the postal
clerk but, in any case, we have an example here of overpayment.

Two externally very similar postcards are shown in Figs. 9 & 10, in the form of ordinary intercity sending.
The first of them (Fig. 9) is in my collection and the second (Fig. 10) was published in an article by V. M.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIII(K N 49 55
November 2001






Mohyl'nii, from which its illustration is reproduced. The sequence of description of these postcards is in
accordance with their dates of dispatch.

We thus see in Fig. 9 the front of a postcard, which was sent from Odessa 21.7.23 and received by the
addressee in Petrograd 29.7.23. The postcard issued under the Provisional Government in August 1917
with a face value of 5 kop. was utilized for the sending. In 1923, these postcards were used as blanks
and the impressed stamp was not taken into account in the dispatch of ordinary mail [9]. Four stamps
were affixed to the card, as follows:-
(1) A 100 r. definitive RSFSR 1922 currency showing a Red Army soldier (Michel 211A) and which
was now equal to 1 r. in 1923 currency.
(2) A 1922 stamp with the 40 r. "star" surcharge (Michel 205B), whose face value now equalled 40 kop.
(3) A 10r. definitive RSFSR 1922 currency showing a worker (Michel 208D), whose face value now
equalled 10 kop.
(4) A charity stamp of the Ukraine with a face value of 150 + 50 krb. 1922 currency.

Apart from the stamps and markings of dispatch and arrival, a postage due marking, reading:
"AOITJIAT4Tb / O)JECCA 2 / 7 p(y6.) 50 (Kon.)" was also struck on the front If we sum up the
franking, taking into account the irrelevance of the impressed 5-kop. stamp as shown above, then the
total is equal to 3 roubles, which corresponds to the tariff then in force (see the table). However, we
should remember that the postcard was sent after the 150 + 50 krb. stamps had been taken out of
circulation. It then becomes understandable why the face value 150 + 50 krb. of the stamp, now postally
equal to 1.5 r. in 1923 currency, was not reckoned in sending the card and postage due was therefore
levied.

We will now check to see if the extent of the postage due was specified properly. In the article by L.
Ratner [10, p. 49), it is stated that "From February 1923, there has started to come into force a new
'Instruction about the order of dispatch and the accounting of postage due sendings. For the sending
taken out of letter boxes, either insufficiently or completely unpaid, the postage due shall be levied to
the extent of the full amount for a registered article in the relevant class of mail and weight.. With regard
to the frequent changes in the tariffs, it was specified that, upon erroneous payment of registered postal
sending, the postage due cachet for the charge of the insufficient amount to an ordinary extent should
be applied at the destinations, only in the case where the letter had been presented during the first 10
days from the time that the new rates had been introduced...."

We see from the Table of Rates that the total amount of payment for an intercity letter consisted of 3 r. +
6 r. (registration fee). Therefore, if the sum of 1.5 r. were not taken into account, then the postage due
must have been 9 r. 1.5 r. = 7.5 r., which was levied. In spite of the "exotic" franking, it is not likely
that the postcard is "philatelic". The message on the back rejects such a hypothesis.

The postcard in Fig. 10 is franked exactly like the item described in Fig. 9. It was also sent from Odessa,
but on 23.7.23, i.e. two days after the previous example, being received in Petrograd on the same day as
the first card. Moreover, they were both sent to the same address and written by the same hand.. It is
interesting to note that the postcard in Fig. 10 was struck with the same postage due cachet, as for the
first card. It is likely that the Petrograd arrival marking is also the same.. However, the Odessa dispatch
postmarks differ somewhat from each other, mainly in the diameters of the inner circles and the heights
of the letters in the word "OJECCA".

The question now arises about the amount of postage due. It cannot be said with certainty from the
photograph if the charge levied was 1.5 r. or 7.5 r., but V.M. Mohyl'nii accepts the first version. We
should thus look at the compliance by the postal worker with this instruction as set out in [10], as well as
in levying the amount lacking according to the tariff to a single extent for an ordinary intercity postcard.
In short, the insufficiency in the 3 r. rate came to 1.5 r. and we see that this amount was charged as due.
56 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIK JN 49
November 2001






The present author believes in the more correct
compliance that has been discussed in examining
the postcard shown in Fig. 9, which reckoned the
correct postage due as being 7.5 r. Fig. 10.

It is stated in the article of source [10]: "Stamps
which had been withdrawn from utilization, "'.......
but had been applied to postal sending, were
not to be cancelled (the postmark was to be
placed alongside the stamps); they were not to .............
be taken into account for prepayment and the
................~ .... ... .......
postage due cachet was to be placed upon ..." ._
such sendings. That situation was clearly
illustrated on the postcard in Fig. 10 herewith. The Ukrainian charity stamp and the 5-kop. design
impressed on the card were no longer valid at the time the card was being sent and were therefore not
cancelled with the dispatch postmark of Odessa. The Ukrainian stamp was cancelled on arrival in Petrograd
and the Odessa dispatch marking placed to the right of that value. The rest of the details have been
discussed in the case of the item in Fig. 9.

Furthermore on the postcard in Fig. 9 the charity stamp in the value of 20 + 20 krb. and the impressed 5-
kop. design were cancelled with the dispatch postmark of Odessa, which was a violation of the situation
described above. Apart from that, all the other points were complied with, i.e. the face values of the two
items specified here were not reckoned in the prepayment and a postage due cachet was placed on the card.

Questions arise as to how the two cards were franked in the same way and how they came to be in the
possession of one person. That may have come about in the following situations:-
(1) The person sending the cards may have bought them up to 15.7.23 with the stamps already affixed.
(2) He had affixed the stamps to the cards, which were utilized as blanks up to 15.7.23 in accordance with
the rate then in force, not knowing that the charity stamps had been withdrawn from usage. The cards
were prepared for dispatch in that way.


-.OI. K A- j ,1A.

..- I ... .. .i










Committee of Odessa province. On the next day, it was used for a second time by turning over, with a 20 +
20 krb. stamp affixed on the back and sent from Vinnitsa 30.1.24 to Odessa. A clear strike of the Odessa
arrival postmark dated 5.2.24 may be seen on the same side to which the stamp has been affixed and below
it the address to which the advice was sent: "To the town of Odessa, Kanatnaya St., House 6, apt. 3, to
"- :...;'. : ;-- ";' *' (T,,' .;; .." 3 a aB rii Bia :d.ja .. .. -






An advice is shown in Fig. 11, issued on 29 January 1924 in the name ofM.F. Basankina in the Executive
Committee of Odessa province. On the next day, it was used for a second time by turning over, with a 20 +
20 krb. stamp affixed on the back and sent from Vinnitsa 30.1.24 to Odessa. A clear strike of the Odessa
arrival postmark dated 5.2.24 may be seen on the same side to which the stamp has been affixed and below
it the address to which the advice was sent: "To the town of Odessa, Kanatnaya St., House 6, apt. 3, to
Basankina". It is evident from the Table of Rates that the 1st. Tariff of the USSR for an ordinary intercity
"open letter" or postcard was in force at that time (from 15.12.23 to 14.7.28, i.e. outlasting several general
changes in the rates) and it was fixed at 3 gold kopeks. It is known from source [11] that the 1st. Tariff of
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK M! 49 57
November 2001






the USSR, introduced on 20.8.23 and expressed in convertible units, had to be reckoned in gold kopeks.
The stamps of the RSFSR officially stayed in circulation until 1.12.1923 and therefore the rate of exchange
for gold kopeks in the previous banknote issues constantly changed in October-November 1923.

This tariff for an ordinary intercity letter was equal to 6 kopeks from 1.10.23 to 31.8.24. In the case here,
we can speak of the utilization of the charity stamp with the portrait of T. Shevchenko in the capacity of an
ordinary postage stamp with a face value of 0.4 r. = 40 kopeks, around 61/2 months after the set had been
officially withdrawn. Moreover, it can be suggested that, although the advice had been used twice, it had
been sent in accordance with the rate for an ordinary intercity "open letter" or postcard (3 gold kopeks) and
not as an ordinary intercity letter (6 gold kopeks). It is obvious that there were no other stamps at the post
office at that time and it worked out that the exchange coefficient of the gold kopek in former roubles at
that moment could have been reckoned as : C = 0.4 r. : 3 gold kopeks = 0.13 r. (1923 currency) for one
gold kopek.

The question arises: why was the advice, which had been received in Odessa, sent by mail from Vinnitsa
back to Odessa on the following day? It is possible that the owner of the advice had received it in Odessa
and had to leave it there for some reason, for example with relatives. But she must have forgotten about that
and had gone off to Kiev, or in that direction, only remembering about the advice when she got to Vinnitsa
From there she sent it to Odessa.

I would note in conclusion that, as stated in the Regulation dated 15 May 1923 of the Council of People's
Commissars, the charity stamps of the Ukraine were placed on sale in nine towns. Their utilization is
known to me on postal sending from Ekaterinoslav, Khar'kov, Odessa and Vinnitsa. Does anyone have
these stamps on postal sending from the other five towns: Bakhmut, Chernigov, Kiev, Poltava and
Zhitomir? The question remains open.


TABLE OF RATES MENTIONED
IN THE ARTICLE.
RATES FOR INTERNAL MAIL:
10.6.1923 4.7.1923:
Ordinary intercity letter 4 r.
5.7.1923- 19.8.1923:
Ordinary intercity postcard 3 r.
Ordinary intercity letter 6 r.
Registration fee 6 r.
15.12.1923 14.7.1928:
Ordinary intercity postcard 3 gold kop.
1.10.1923 31.8.1924:
Ordinary intercity letter 6 gold kop.

RATES FOR INTERNATIONAL MAIL:
8.5.1923 19.8.1923:
Ordinary international letter 10 r.
Registration fee 10 r.


LITERATURE
1. V.B.KOFMAN. Some Additional Notes on the 1923 Famine Issue of the Ukrainian SSR The
POST RIDER (MIIIIHK), 2001, X_48, p.81-84.
2. B.KAPJIHHCKHH. HIoTrosBe Mapiai PCOCP. 1917 1921. CoBercmn Ko.in.esazce-,
MocKBa, "Cram", 1966, XN4, c.17-27.
3. R.S.F.S.R. 1918 1923. POSTAGE STAMP SPECIALIZED CATALOGUE- Edi-.d b-
V.Zagorski. Standard Collection. St Petersburg, Russia, 1997.
4. CHERRYSTONE. Public Stamp Auction. New York, Februar 26, 1992. Lot X2830.
5. GUIDO CRAVERI. HARMERS AUCTIONS SA. "LIPHSCHUTZ part 5 SOVIET RUSSLA_
LUGANO (Switzefland), 19 February 1994. Lots Q,_2508, 2509.
6. HEINRICH KOHLER. 309 Kohler- Auktion. Wiesbaden, 6 10 Juni 20C0. Lot -S12
7. E.CTEQAHOBCKHt. HonneBeKa 3mLaare.m B XapKOBe. O'iLare.-n CCCP, 1971, X10,
c.12.
8. B.MOTHJIbHHIR. ICTOPISI nOIITOBHX MAPOK YCPP. Der Ukaine Phile'ist,
Germany, November 1995, N440, s.106-111.
9. A.HJIIOIIIHH. florroeble KaprTOOi PoccHM Bunycsa 1917 roa. Q rta.-mia CCCP, 19S5,
N6, c.37-39.
10.JI.PATHEP. lorunaTHaa KoppecnoHiaeHi=H Pocct H H CCCP (1858-1945r.r.). Co.mreeri
KonneaiHoHep, MocKsa, "PaaHo H cBAsr", 1991, M28, c.4560.
11.B.KAPJIHHCKHH. COBETCKHE nIOqTOBbIE TAPHObI. (O.niae.mn CCCP, 1967, I1,
c.8-11.


SPECIAL NOTE:
The absence of the "Review of Literature" section.
Your editor and his collaborators would hasten to assure all our readers and colleagues in the Russian
International Philatelic Community that this absence is most certainly not a deliberate policy on our part,
but due to the lack of space caused by the wonderful support given to us by all our esteemed contributors.
The backlog of intensely interesting discoveries and data is steadily being reduced and we will then be most
happy to pay due homage, respect and encouragement to all our literary confreres in our fields of interest.

Please pardon also any delays in the mail service, as a result of the tragic events that took place on 11
September 2001.

58 THE POST-RIDER/IMMII/ H NJ 49
November 2001







EIGHT FURTHER COVERS OF THE 1923 UKRAINIAN FAMINE ISSUE
By Robert Taylor.

Further to the most interesting article by V.B. Kofman on this subject in "The Post-Rider" No. 48, pp. 82-
84, I am now submitting prints of the usages in my collection to our editor for appropriate comment by him.


Khar'kov-3, 6.7.23, R. No. 744.
7~.0 ) Properly franked at 800 r. 1922 +
S. .. -12r. 1923. SentbyE. E.
., S .-, Stefanovskii, a Great Survivor of
I Collectivisation, the Great Purge
3 C.-* *"~7 .?B and Nazi occupation ofKhar'kov.:
Still active in 1971 (see on p. 58
i ', Literature No. 7). Published a
.. .. survey of Soviet Fiscals for the
... C---. American Revenue Assn. and
S.. Y l was interested in Tuva! Used a
S: ''C- s'" 5315a .C Poste Restante address after
S t WWII,, as shown by his covers.







1 1-

,. Odessa 10.7.23 & 11.7.23 (3 triangles), R. No. 301.
Franked at 410 r. 1922 + 16 r. 1923, so overpaid by
10 kop. Non-philatelic letter to the Federation of
Ukrainian Jews in London 20.7.23. That was a
well-known correspondence in the Inflationary
Period.


- ';.-'--(--~






W II-.


Khar'kov-3, 13.7.23. Faint R. No. 202.
Properly franked at 700 r. 1922 + 13 r.
1923.
Sent by P.N. Kotov, Sumskaya 104 to
Stanley Gibbons Ltd., in London.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N 49 59
November 2001














Khar'kov-3, 13.7.23. R. No. 222.
Properly franked at 300 r. 1922 + 17 r. 1923.
Addressed in old spelling by a former upper-class
lady A. Illarionova, Sumskaya 130. Received in
New York City 3,8.23.
















Khar'kov-3, 15.7.23 (last day
of validity). "R" in circle.
Properly franked at 700 r. 1922
(Ukrainian stamps with "circles"
watermark) + 13 r. 1923. Sent
by V. Sapozhnikov to Peter
Dyatlov, Representation of ...O ..i.
Ukrainian SSR in Berlin.












Khar'kov-3, 15.7.23. "R" in
circle. No. 400.
Franked at 1100 r. 1922 + 10 r.
1923, so overpaid by 1 r. Sent
by former upper-class man
S. d'Illarionoff, Sumskaya 130
to dealer Heinrich Kohler in
Berlin. One 20 + 20 krb. stamp
has broken "H" in the word _
"rOJIOTYIOIHM". See
also note by Alex. Sadovnikov.
on p. 62.


THE POST-RIDERI/SIMImK N 49
November 2001




















4& Z /-ibg4,l
"'1?" -
2~~l 24 r 4./$/VC~c
-S.-,.l i -
Ir


Khar'kov-3, 15.7.23. "R" in circle,
..- No. 401.
*-, .. Properly franked at 2000 r. wholly in
I^. -U % Ukrainian stamps, imperf. on front
a .^ -. ; and perforated on the back. Sent by
Q .V. Sapozhnikov to Berlin.








"t 7'9'"r / \'-5-^-. ...'

104 r,. 12 bu rcie





Povenets, 21723. R No. 35.
Completely philatelic, with
a Ukrainian philatelist, hence P- x -- It ,- h. N 'c: e; ,
completely invalid "3a Medi .A:1- A .. ".-;..
YKpa1HC.Ko'PCP" (beyond :. "
the borders of the Ukrainian. ..- -. :.:.. ". .- ,. ..
SSR). Much underpaid at "
1040 r. 1922, but still received q0
in Kaunas (illegible date). ... '-. ;cr. \f" -:" ...



See overleaf for the back of -- "
this cover from Povenets. '",-j, ..-
', ". ': -. -" -' .. '** '

THE POST-RIDER/OlVME K Ng 49 61
November 2001









Neither Vladimir Berdichevskii T ... I 7 ''
nor your editor could find '
POVENETS in the Ukraine and. L :-
it must be the one in the i '
Medvezh'egorsk (Karhunfiki)
District up in Karelia! The
abbreviation in the sender's
address: "C. K. T. KOM." 7,;
stands for "CoBeTCKaS
KapenbcKax TpygoBan .
KoMMyna" (Soviet Karelian -
Labour Commune), the official
title for Soviet Karelia until it"
became an ASSR ., .
(Autonomous Soviet Socialist .
Republic). .'.



In summing up the data presented so far by the foregoing contributors, the following conclusions would
appear to be in order:-
(a) The Ukrainian Famine Relief issue of 1923 was on sale in the capital ofKhar'kov only at Post Office
No. 3.
(b) There was a last-day rush on 15.7.23 to send philatelic mail from that office.
(c) We now know of cases where the 150 + 50 krb. value was affixed to non-philatelic mail during the
period of validity of this Famine Relief set.
(d) We still do not have usages from all the Ukrainian post offices authorized to sell these stamps and it
would be appreciated if members could fill in the gaps.
(e) If the arrival postmark of Kaunas were genuinely applied to the example shown here on pp. 61-62 and
sent by I. Bemshtein to his relative A. Bernshtein in Lithuania, then it seems that this registered letter
from Povenets in Karelia had gone through the post by oversight, although it had been prepaid only at
the ordinary international letter rate (10 r. 1923 + a small surplus of 40 kop. 1923).

ANOTHER CONSTANT PLATE VARIETY ON THE 20 + 20 KRB. SHEVCHENKO STAMP
by Alex. Sadovnikov.

.:....... Further to the "JO" flaw described by our editor in "The Post-Rider" No. 48,
I:pp. 83-84, I can advise the constancy of yet another variety on this stamp,
namely a broken letter "H" in the word "TOJIOAYIOHMW", together with
a nick inside the right leg of the letter "n" of "nOHITA", as shown here.
SThe plate positions of the varieties discovered by our editor and me are
O2O ^ :unknown, as the sheets of this issue must have been broken up many years
SoMor r'. 1 ago for the philatelic trade. Does any member possibly have any multiples of
., the 20 + 20 krb. Shevchenko stamp that would enable us to pinpoint the
S locations of these interesting flaws?
SPECIAL NOTE:
Coining a new Anglo-Russian word for "Dots" collectors.

The Canadian Society of Russian Philately has decided in its combined wisdom that all such postal
historians shall henceforth be known as "gOTrHKH" ("Dotchiki"). It follows from the coining of this new
word that any such enthusiasts in Great Britain shall be regarded as being ."dotty". We trust that our
members will be suitably underwhelmed by this portentous announcement.
62 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK N- 49
November 2001






A FEW COMMENTS ON THE FAMINE ISSUE OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR
by Alexander Epstein.

As Mr. V.B. Kofman points out quite justly, these stamps are rarely found on covers and even used copies
are sufficiently scarce, so one can assert that they are priced too low in the standard catalogues. Indeed, the
reason is in the inconsistency between the face values of the stamps and the postal rates in force at the
actual date of their issue. When the order was placed at the German State Printing Office in Berlin in the
last quarter of 1922 (one may wonder why the Moscow Goznak was not chosen for this work), the face
values matched perfectly the rates for the most widespread classes of mail in force in November 1922: 10 r.
for inland postcards, 20 r. for inland letters, 90 r. for foreign postcards and 150 r. for foreign letters.
However, only the stamp with the highest face value made any sense by the summer of 1923. For example,
it could be used as a single copy with the addition of a 50 r. RSFSR definitive of 1922 for franking ordinary
postcards at the 10 June rate, or for the same purpose as a pair in accordance with the 5 July rate, or by
affixing four copies for an intercity letter. I must confess, however, that I have never seen an item of
domestic mail franked with stamps of the Ukrainian Famine Issue, except clearly faked postcards.

I would add that the great majority of such covers preserved up to today were prepared by philatelists and
their franking usually includes at least one set of the Famine stamps, sometimes in multiples, such as those
shown in "The Post-Rider" No. 48, p. 84. Mr. V. Sapozhnikov seems to have been the person most active
in this business, sending registered letters to stamp collectors and dealers abroad.Two more of his covers
from the Liphschutz Sale have been shown by Vladimir Berdichevskii herewith in Figs. 5-6, pp.52, 54. V.
Sapozhnikov was the Plenipotentiary of the Soviet Philatelic Association in the Ukraine in those days, so it
is no wonder that even such rare varieties as the Famine stamps imperforate were accessible to him in
noticeable quantities.

Normal commercial covers are still rarer. Such a cover from the Brender Correspondence (another well-
known one) sent from Kiev 26.6.23 to Berlin 3.7.23 is shown overleaf. A pair of the 150 + 50 karbovantsiv
stamps completes the franking, consisting also of four 4 r. RSFSR 1923 definitive and one 100r. RSFSR
1922 definitive (= 1 r. of 1923) to make up the 20 r. rate.

A few used copies from various Ukrainian towns are
shown here as well:- i

Stamps Nos. 1 & 2: Kiev.
Stamp No. 3 : Chernigov.
Stamp No. 4 : Bakhmut.
Stamps Nos. 5 to 7: Odessa.
Stamp No. 8 : Khar'kov.

Note the preponderance of
the 150 + 50 krb. value!
Editorial Comment: (a) As already seen from the registered letter of 15.7.23 sent by V. Sapozhnikov to
Peter Dyatlov at the Mission of the Ukrainian SSR in Berlin (in the Robert Taylor collection; see the
middle cover on p. 60), the Reichsdruckerei in Berlin would have seemed to be a logical place at which to
place the order for the Famine Relief stamps. Mr. Dyatlov may have even placed that order!

(b) The cover shown overleaf from Kiev 26.6.23 to Dr. M. Brender in Berlin 3.7.23 is yet another example
of the widespread usage of the 150 + 50 karbovantsiv value on non-philatelic mail.

(c) That same cover also adds the city of Kiev to the list of known points of sale for these Famine Relief
stamps, so far as their utilization for postal purposes was concerned. Bakhmut and Chernigov may be added
from the loose stamps.
THE POST-RIDER/WIMII(HK X 49 63
November 2001













A non-philatelic registered letter from : .
the Dr.M. Brender correspondence,
properly prepaid at 20 r. 1923 -
currency. Sent from Kiev 26.6.23 to <"!
Berlin 3.7.23 and including a vertical '. -
pair of the 150 + 50 krb. value in the ',. -'
franking (Alexander Epstein StW
collection). .. '






STILL MORE SPARTAKIADA USAGES
by N.J.D. Ames.

Figs 1 & 2 on the next page show examples of locally sent postcards, paid at 5 kop. in Moscow 10.6.35 and
at 4 kop. in Gor'kii 12.1.36.
Editorial Comment: The correct rate for a local card was 5 kop. from 25.2.33 to 15.2.38, so the second
item was underpaid by 1 kopek. Furthermore, both cards have "g k" postmarks; those letters stand for "dlva
kollektsii", i.e. they were applied by cancellers-to-order, which were also supplied to the State philatelic
shops in various cities. There is a possibility that these two cards were "handed back" items, i.e. that they
had not gone through the post.

Fig. 3 shows a registered international surface letter from the Soviet Philatelic Association in Moscow
14.6.35, with the 10 k. & 20 k. Spartakiada stamps included in the franking. According to V.A. Karlinskii,
the total rate paid of 35 k. is correct for a foreign registered letter in the period from 1.7.30 to 1.5.36.
Editorial Comment: The addressee, Bela Szekula, was notorious for selling reprints and dubious items.
Your editor visited him at his hotel in the late 1960s and was offered some Mongolian "POSTAGE"
overprints on the revenue stamps. Everything was forged: the basic stamps, the overprints and the
postmarks and Mr. Szekula was so advised. He became so angry that your editor thought he would be
seized forthwith, escorted forcibly to the front door and be ejected bodily from the premises.

Fig. 4 includes the 40-kop. value in the franking, which totals 1 r. 55 k. for transmission by registered
airmail from Moscow 9.12. 35 to Switzerland.
Editorial Comment: The Table of Rates for international mail as given in the USSR Catalogue of the
Cercle Philatelique France-URSS contradicts V.A. Karlinskii somewhat and states that the tariffs in the
period from 26.2.33 to 1.5.36 were 35 kop. for a foreign letter, 70 kop. foreign registration fee, plus a
presumed 50-kop. airmail surtax for transmission to Switzerland. Can any of the Swiss airmail specialists
confirm these rates?

Fig. 5 features a registered airmail letter from Moscow 24.4.51 to W. Watkins, the maiden name of the wife
of John Barry, for many years Secretary of the BSRP. The rate of 2 r. 30 k. is correct, but included in the
franking is a Spartakiada 20-kop. essay, dated "1934" as shown. Using an essay to prepay postage must be
some sort of a record!
64 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N 49
November 2001

























Fig. 1.


SOVIET PHILATELIC ASSOCIATE ON

USSR Moscow 50, Nastasyiosky per. 3. Cable address: PHILATELY-MOSCOW




41 Irz,


Fig. 2.


~?PWfCABIIECflOOEHHE JDV aa-l__________-
--CCC ---I I --- -----


1'16 uon, 114 Q cljlk", 141le Lilly Rouxp lr

P_1 11~o II9 LAUSAM / SUISSE
Avenae Cdnil 2
H-rna~~q-
1A B.' f ThCIn
t Hotel White
Lexiiaton Avea'ie at 37th Street u Par Avio*.
NEW YORK USA el Be





Fig. 3. Fig. 4.



a __ Re.cmn~adeC
7,
o II 2302

I.f C6c--

H~'~Ujl i ~s~L\ FB oscou Li
114 C'/ E


-'I ~7r','7~iI CSI ...!G -.*.. SA ,:~~

"i -, -~~~ \~ W 2~




Fig. 5. TILE POST-RIDERISIM9IQI JN( 49 F .ig. 6. 65
November 2001








Editorial Comment: Many thanks are due to Mr. Ames for the interesting usages shown by him. His last
item in F. 5 was part of a philatelic exchange that John Barry was conducting with A. Ionov through the
Moscow-82 post office on 24.4.51, using an "aKKOMOgHpoBKa" (Poste Restante / General Delivery
address). On the cover in Fig. 5, the Poste Restante address given by Mr. Ionov was Moscow-82. On the
item in Fig. 6 on the previous page (Lot 2302 in a recent Cherrystone Sale, showing the 30-k. pilot
definitive in an imperforate pair), the Poste Restante address on 17.2.49 was stated as Moscow-5. Was Mr.
Ionov trying to keep one step ahead of the authorities? Does anyone have examples of other Poste Restante
addresses used by Mr. Ionov? Contacts with foreign philatelists were not encouraged during the Cold War.
*


Loi' f .r mn, [ sif llpe~lCTaBi ITc.lLIK C211;r.


Ur 22 -


H3 /io60 sri.


HPFxynnJPS Ha1po/AHoro CM!icCaP'1aTa 1o0lT
H Tenarpaicoa CCC?.
0 AbrOTax Hwitrcpojcdofi` nAaopaTopIN.
15 CCIIRIGprr 1927 r., %; 37/345.
rlpe.1oc~rarweriHoe IIIpty.'rnpo.OT 18 oKT6pR 1926 r., X9 371542
j'(c6Boa.1. .N1 32) HiiReropqomcRfi pa uri21a6doparopII 6ecniaxmoe e
rTOJ1b30i3a1uIe [OlITOfi IITe.ie0H0M fl npo~l.iite .o 1 oK-r5T6pq 1928 r.,
npit qee,, ycrarroZ- .-ei-rHI,'e Uw'iprxyRPO.1i OT 7 Rnimap 1927 i-., .NJ 371S
j(<510.1.7.) j2I ), orpaurrr'reitteri II OTHOWel-HII rIjLb3013nflisi Te.iCeO-
1-1o.;r1--CUOr CII;IY' COXPaHRK)T II 1ra ,1'lbfl efwee- uperisa
Hq MycaoRs.

/0 bilydlle cepil nHo9ToBbIX lapol a o3HKameHo88Hl1 AecaFIT-
JeTUR 0HTR6PbCHOWj Pe8OnIIoQH.
15 ceH-rqdpr 1927Lj.;.j~ ? 671346..
B 03HaileHoB1iHile Aecrrrtnerrrr OKTR6PbCKOPI PeBonrowIit obun)yC-
KafOTCR B o0opd11eHite nOtITOrbie )IPKf cneR1yroufrrx ACTOIIHCTB 11

. 3- ion.' tiocTOIIHCrMa c ,ep BeTfaix HblM PIICyHR.OM, pa3.V:LPOM\1
~20 X 95 MIM Kr~pacHro teTa, HSo~pa-Kaiout flm rpo(13H25 ro.ion
padIOOero, -rpactioa.pa\letll~a If iRpeCTb5IHHii, 1 ate 6apenberpa. Ha-uirrcrt:
d', neflesro l Ep.Xlerl y Iy <(CC*, E.. nFpanoii 'BepxiHei-(C.CP)>
* ea(.ly- HI;Ill jarTbI-<(1917_-1927 i, C npanoii c .iietoi CTOPOHLt
'6aIpe.Tbei(Da_ 6Lio' a:floiram> ira c .r i'..t ylpaifrucio.Ni 13rr,.aX, pac-
noJ10oRel-Hoe no BEpTirfrabM19; 1oiA dapeabecpoi, no ropHf3OfITajuH, TO.
..we onotoi ((lO'f Ta Ha TI0cPiciio-m-TapCK0A gl abrie. B -nmi-rniL vraax
.1,pyrTHbie qriiqjpw <(3>,* a rrewicty i ikoln, 6oaee .reilK~rl UIwpRDTOr, CnOBO

20 X3 arm. jCeToIIHoCTta,* crop1130HTna.ai rfnnpiIcyuhOrrt pal r epy oii .
< 383' A1,11, cngeno-;plO LTaTO eiiI-, '1130(5PjAraIuwI,.1j i rpr3oaiii


-CR, p eacav HIUMH C.iOno 'i(jYqTai l a pVcc.c1 P l -y: n
yrnlax, fia KPr'MUX 1!3ITaX 'a e7~. v-m) 15-1:1 C.Wx2_', '-,17!:772,
Ha TIOPKCKTo-MTaP1p S K0on. ,IOCTQI!HCTB;, Pa3mepO'l 20 X 25 '~; P;:C
NanbHUN, licno.7ieur Te~m1l0-KOp:llHC50l i-_.1ChCfi 1I t1L'C: :co p>.
tuerlo, 3;IP2axaouter,- 13 llT0C[V. it Pa;CI C I 'MW.t X C TOLKC:01
rplf31Inroutero o K 6o0pi-C. H Fa-;ir e:a
cIeePX--CAO a 'HoIra> !i pyVCZKOMIt iI yKpaf!hCKOIl ra;f x.l'-;
Tepbr ZCCCP; B Hht.iiiiX vr.ra i'a:p: .S", J:~acz. r:r::;: CM7:.2

14 iNon. .1ocTHH-CT-1a, pra31cpci 20 X 39 M'M. P::c1.C C7.;-
3OHTa.1IHNP, It3zfpflac ael` reor Pa,IVIE E I:O1 c KaPTV, Ha 7'7Th 12
SfluTpiix0c-cHbt ropHl30FTI.TZHIANMil C11U-1-:l1l a a
CoLei-cuoro COroaa aapawena m neora b rcpafi o:F 0 5
Ha Hen .t1ITepa.mi t(CCCP)). B a pno'i iepxHe'r Hp an'a-c i:.A-oe':
yrTXI. CAGca c'1'tTa> 4 ia 7C0liT yIMpa; mcsc-o' F.WC1f, l
HfiuHe.r-,l-ocTGIIHCTBO mapmi4 x14 hKon0 cuiero IzeTa.
OI.pyweH IpOCTOui PZ0'KOi crimero QS.3Ta.
18 Nfon. 9!OCTOHIHcTBa. -rop130HTH:!I5 fvHrR, P-_2 "1 o
20 X 37 MIl, cBeTflo-ci!Hero izCe-a, llcC7A-2eT crrx:Telan
UwecTif Hapo~IocTeii COBETCrOf-O Co003a, C P:3:;eaaYJ"'Ct"': H.'C7 pa_
sHaeHaacem, HmOwLum AIITEpbl 0CCCPa. B R'eao'a 2\u1, i C'wnv y Fa
NeTb:pevroa1bHo.l [mITRe, tI(pa C19S, B r.Bon eED re=-;---c. C
CRQ01 1, aP.NrnjCK0.11 I3uimaX.
28 ROn. AOCTOMIICTNa. rcplI30HTa-1Ilr n P~YH0R Xc,::t.
Ilne-a, pa3iMepo~m 20 X 38 mi.. Kpyr.-u-5 meiaa!5.q 3 c. C .-c-
rcao pa6airero Fia nepucmC IWM nHe it Ha-1P-3 ECCTOa -' i.X
HiecROAbWOl noof3.ib. Hoaairr BMe~2.ThHZ1 r.efpCr.c-Z.1, :* K
o. 00or1al OROaHHU, yIpaII2HHt1e r.:p1H.ZawlI. H,::ca c
-17o'ira cepxy Hia PyCCiRo.li it VKp-,11fHCKQM1 R3!Z:d1x, 41
6parweirieMi Kpem.wa, Ha rl-pvcinucNm H ZP'.IMi-1LCK0M s31-cc(L. ha i~
i~e Kperasl~ 6e.mue atn u1917-1927). B i-rjcH; TZ.X cC7_-i:FZrc9
Mapln i2 Se de)ioro 1acTa3 Ira KOpil'oie3OM r3GiP, I
"Saa.lbl noBTopeij&ue c1o00o cK- C..HHI3V A-e, rccrpez-:ie, e


sBIOjIJETEHb H. K.-. I'I. T.":._:: ," ., 6


peyrozlbH0.l lI~lT1C, .C6YK~b1 ((CCCPYI pacnono0teHHble KOHjqeH-
TPlItecKil. .
Bce 3Tp mrapirp H3roTOBnRffOTCR H"a .iejioniDoi 6yvlare 'c**3y64awI1.
it-B[fC"yIOTC5 B Pa31llepe RtyxiieCROHOir nOTpediHOCTi. flo nony're-
Hinta 513 LteHII' a*TITiX 4IMapOK 1sncARM4 IHe4e~lJIeHHO cilt6aUrjgb HIMi(
uce -noxweAolmrcoeHHre npeAnPWrsrrf1, C. yita3a H1e.i, 4T0 B:npo~axv
,oHiI A0ulKHb1 6bru'b BUinlyLieHIlI 1 irosr6pa Ii paCxO)1oiaTbCF1 9npeAb iO
1IOr[fOrO IICTOIICH1IR IIX 3anaca B3aaieH oQ1HOQIHUX 11,tapo0K-nOCTo-
siiorfo Tuina..
H3noweHHoe coo0lgaeTcR AR ctgeienin it iriaanetnKaujiiux pacno-
PPn eHrffl. ; .
H3 110o60B1V. -


1Xn T.j/ g Hk19Q 7-T r 2Z

o 1AOCP04HllM flbInqflyC "AefJ1eH54pa~e ioIM 51-11,HbV fl'ITC7a5XMa
poll it jAeCnmRT 11TIC OK 6PCiro. PeaoA:3U.-;I.
8OICT upg 1927 r. _.Ni 671367.- .
B'. cmfit3~ C IlepelIocoM- tTopoi. cecci-rls LU!,K- CCCP -,emc--c-o
'Cobi a B RsA rpaji ltn a Inycic a o0pawei.c 10 facj;iiux Howl-c rx -.a-
P0KC. f:1 0neT11 .0 crstdpr3CICO Peooco.'Otnif YCTU!f_.2eT
31a-tow ro e,-u a a'flT1nI.4!p !-ECE


Reproductions of excerpts from the "Bulletin of the HKHIT" for the article on the next page.


66 THE POST-RIDER/aMlM(HK 2 49
November 2001


'230






SOME DATA ABOUT THE ISSUE OF THE SET "10M. ANNIVERSARY OF THE OCTOBER
REVOLUTION" by V.B. Kofman.

All the catalogues issued in Russia say without exception, that the set of seven stamps commemorating the
10th. anniversary of the October Revolution went into circulation in October 1927. However, that may or
may not have been the case. In the "Bulletin N2 26 for 1927 of the HKrinT" (People's Commissariat of
Posts and Telegraphs), a Circular was included with the following contents (the Russian text is on the
previous page), namely:-

"About the issue of postage stamps to mark the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution
15 September 1927, N2 67/346.
Postage stamps to mark the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution are being issued with the following
values and designs ...... (a detailed description follows of all seven stamps in the set).
All these stamps are being prepared on chalk-surfaced paper with perforations and are being issued to cover
the requirements for a period of two months. Upon the receipt of these stamps from the Central Stores, it is
required that they be immediately furnished to all the subordinate offices, with the directive that they must
be placed on sale on 1st. November (my emphasis V.B.K.) and used up thenceforth until stocks have been
fully depleted, in place of the current stamps of definitive type.

This declaration is also being announced to advise about the requisite arrangements to be made.
People's Deputy Lyubovich".

Thus, not October, but November! However, there was yet another Circular published in Bulletin XN 28 of
the HKfINT (the Russian text is on the previous page), as follows:-

"About the issue ahead of time in Leningrad of the commemorative stamps for the tenth anniversary
of the October Revolution.
8 October 1927, J- 67/367.
In connection with the transfer to Leningrad of the second session of the fourth convocation of the Central
Executive Committee of the USSR, the emplacement in circulation of the commemorative postage stamps
for the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution is to take place in that city on the 15t. of this month of
October (my emphasis V.B.K.), in contrast to Circular NJ2 67/346.
People's Deputy Lyubovich".

In short, the set actually went into circulation in October, but only in Leningrad. Based upon this
information, it could be regarded that items of mail with earlier dates were possibly forgeries. However,
two undoubtedly genuine covers are shown in "The Post-Rider" No. 40, p. 57, Figs. 4 & 5, which were sent
from Kiev on 26.10.27 and ... 10.27 (the day is not readable). It appears that the postal clerks did not carry
out the directives of their "H3", i.e. of Lyubovich, the Deputy of the People's Commissar!

There is yet another point to which I wish to direct the attention of the readers. All the circulars referring to
the issue of commemorative and other non-definitive stamps in that initial period specify without exception
that such categories of stamps had to be used up in the first instance in place of the "stamps of definitive
type", as stated in one of the circulars set out above. To what extent the postal clerks carried out such
directives can only be judged by the items which had gone through the post and are now in the collections
of philatelists.

Editorial Comment: The last point raised by Mr. Kofman is important both philatelically and in regard to
postal history. Information from our members about additional examples of such usages would be most
appreciated.
*


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHIK N 49
November 2001






VARIETIES OF THE EARLY RAILWAY MARKINGS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
by V.G. Levandovskii.

The year 2001 is also the 150th. anniversary of the opening for public use of the St Petersburg to Moscow
railway line, linking the two capitals of the Russian State. The first public train left St. Petersburg on 1t.
November at 11:15 am and arrived in Moscow the next morning at 9:30 am. This event was without
exaggeration epochal for the nation and Russia became a railway country. The date of the official opening
of the line was specified in a ukase of H.I.M. the Emperor Nikolai I, after which he, with a great retinue
consisting of four German princes, his consort and the heir to the Throne, Grand Dukes and court officials
completed on 19 August 1851 the journey to Moscow along the new railway line [1].

The story of the first Russian railway postal markings is linked with this railway line, upon which the mail
began to be conveyed in 1851 and accompanied its initiation with the introduction at the end of 1852 of
pre-stamp markings, utilized at the stations in St. Petersburg and Moscow.

For the sake of historical accuracy, it should be noted that this line was erroneously called the "Nikolai"
from the beginning of its operation. In actual fact, it was only in September 1855, in the year that
Aleksandr II ascended the throne that an Imperial Decree was issued, naming the St. Petersburg Moscow
railway line as the "Nikolai". At the same time, the Moscow station also became the "Nikolai" and, by the
way, it was so named until February 1923.

The present article sets out the results of the investigation over many years of a wide range of postal
sending by the author, enabling him to show a series of hitherto unrecorded varieties of early railway
postmarks of Russia. On the basis of this analysis, the characteristic features can be set out in developing
the further classification of these markings [2]. The most interesting postal items, illustrating the results of
these investigations were first displayed by the author in the exhibit "Railway Postmarks of Russia 1853-
1917", which has been awarded Large Vermeil and Gold medals at international philatelic exhibitions, such
as "Moscow '97", "Ilsapex '98" in Johannesburg, Philexfrance '99" in Paris and "Stamp Show 2000" in
London, as well as a Large Gold at the international exhibition "Philex '98" in Tartu (Estonia).

Pages from the exhibit of the author have been utilized in illustrating the present article.

The pre-stamp postmark of the Moscow station of the St. Petersburg Moscow (Nikolai) railway line.
This rectangular date-stamp with a two-line inscription (Fig.1 on the next page) was utilized from 1853 to
1859, being described and illustrated in sources [2, 3] as a postmark measuring 44 x 20 mm., in the second
line of which the date is given in the following way: at left the day of the month, in the centre the name of
the month in 4 or 5 letters and at right the year in four figures.

There are several letters in the collection of the author, sent in 1853 from the Moscow station of the St
Petersburg Moscow railway line, with one of them bearing the earliest known date of the postmark as 27
January 1853 (Fig. 2). A second letter with a similar postmark (Fig. 3) was sent on 22 April 1853 "To the
Administration of the St. Petersburg Moscow railway line", thus clearly confirming the name of the line
in those years. In these early markings, the year is indicated in four figures at left with a height of 4.5 mm.,
the month with letters 3.5 mm. high and, at right, the day of the month with a height of 4 to 4.5 mm. The
dimensions of the outside limits of the frame for the marking in this variety come more accurately to 44 x
19 mm., the lengths of the lateral sides being 1 mm. less than in the variety of the postmark with the setting
of the year at right. Moreover, the author has been able to show that the heights of the figures for the year
come to 5 mm. in the setting at right and to 6 mm. for that at left.

It should be noted that, in both varieties of the postmark, the bottom side of the frame is curved outwards,
so that the height in its central portion is 1 mm. more than at the lateral sides.
68 THE POST-RIDER/MIEMHK X4 49
November 2001






The Moscow Railway Station
Postmarks with year on the left 1853-1854 (type I: figures height 5 mm)

Letter with earliest recorded postmark of the Moscow railway station.




t" "t NLl ; MOC.CT. kE. O.,R0P.
; V? 1? 7 1853 PEHB. 27












'*. : : c



Letter from the Moscow Station of the Nikolae\ska a Railway (27.1.1853) to St Petersburg
12x I) \th the earliest recorded pre-adhesive postmark of the Moscow railway station.


". MOC.CT.KEA.A0E

r

0 I 4
O T185'ioxT B 18






,




l.cttr from hlie Moscow Station of the Nikolacsskaya Railway (16.10.1854) to St Petersburg
(17 lu) \lith the pre-adhesive period postmark of the Moscow railway station Fig. 2.






The latest letter known to the author with the setting at left of the year is dated 3 December 1854. Hence, it
is possible to come to the following conclusions:-
(1) At the very least, the postmark was utilized from January 1853 to December 1854, whereby in the
second line the year was designated at left and the day of the month at right.
(2) Beginning from 1855, the postmark was applied with theyear set at right and the increase of 1 mm.
in the height of the frame may have come about as a consequence of the resetting of the postmark,
the composition of which may have showed variations.

The distinguishing characteristics of these two varieties of the postmark of the Moscow station of the St.
Petersburg-Moscow railway line are set set out hereunder in Table 1.
Table 1. Central
Type of Period Setting Setting Dimensions Height of Height of
Postmark of use of the year of the day of frame-mm frame-mm. vear figs.-mm.
Tvyel 1853-1854 at left atright 44 x 19 20 5
Ty 2 1855-1859 at right at left 44 x 20 21 6

The dots postmark of the Nikolai station in St. Petersburg.
With the introduction of postage stamps in Russia and in accordance with the Circular of the General
Administration of Posts NJ 138 of 26 February 1858, there appeared new railway postmarks in the form of
hexagonal dot markings with a numeral in the center [2, 3]. The numeral "1" was assigned to the postmark
for the Nikolai station in St. Petersburg.

The investigation of this "dots" postmark on stamps and letters of the 1858-1866 period has enabled the
author to show that there were at least two varieties of the figure "1" within the postmark which can be
distinguished from each other, inasmuch as the angle a (see Fig. 4 on the next page) between the sloping
serif and the vertical body of the "1" is 36 degrees in one variety (Type 1) and 16 degrees in the second
variety (Type 2), with the thickness of the vertical part of the "1" coming to 1.3 and 1 mm. respectively.
The distinguishing characteristics of these two types are set out in Table 2 below. It should be noted that
the measurement of the angular parameter is hampered by the fact that the sloping serif of the figure "1" is
very frequently either not visible, or badly so, such that the date of application of this marking can be
clearly specified only on letters with an accompanying date stamp.

A sheet from the exhibit of the author is shown in Fig. 5 on the next page, with two postal stationery
envelopes sent from the Nikolai station at St. Petersburg. The first envelope was sent on 26 June 1864 via
Tver' to Rybinsk and the Type 2 dots postmark is clearly visible. The second envelope was sent on 21
February 1866 to Tikhvin with a clear postmark of the first type, being one of the latest sending known to
the author with a marking of this type. One of the earliest letters known to the author with the Type I
postmark and franked with the first Russian stamp is dated from July 1858.
Table 2.
Type of Angle Period of Thickness of the vertical
Postmark of a application part of figure "1" in mm.
1 36 1858-1866 1.3
2 16 1864-1866 1.0
Thus, as a result of studying a large quantity of letters with hexagonal dots postmarks of the Nikolai station
at St. Petersburg, they were shown to be of two types which may be distinguished by the geometric
parameters of the figure "1", with the second type beginning to be applied in 1864, judging by the facts, i.e.
six years after the postmark of the first type started to be utilized.
The author would be grateful for any supplementary information on the questions raised herewith
References: 1. Xene3HogopoxcHbiA TpaHicnopT, 1997
2. JIyNHHKr H. 3Kenje3HoAopo0KHaA noTa POCCHH, < COBerTKHi KOJUIeKiLHOHep >), 1974,
X?11
3. A.V. Kiryushkin and P.E. Robinson, Russian Railway Postmarks, 1994
70 THE POST-RIDER/IMmIIHK N 49
November 2001




































01 tile N
Raiilwav
via Tver
to Ribin
0









*c*
















Y44 Cover frc
..... t as







s Station ol

I ~Nikolacv!
Ratilwa~yI
to Tikhvi

7/72 1/ ~ // ~ ~ 4i ~N ov'ioro
4..








F ig 3. Fig.4
~~:/It'AL~~~7L-(~~i~' Cc)1~ X i.3 ig.4







ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: NINTH INSTALMENT
by G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties
do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is
shown here is what I have in my collection.


Zen'kov, Poltava province.
Most of the Zemstvo stamps
of Zen'kov were printed were
printed typographically. This
means that the designs were
made up of individual letters,
numerals and ornaments. As
the designs were fairly
elaborate, a significant
number of varieties came
into existence. What is
shown here are examples of
the more obvious varieties.
It is suggested that Zemstvo
collectors examine their
Zen'kov holdings and send
their discoveries to the
journal editor. Good hunting!






Chuchin No. 14:
Tete-beche vertically.


Chuchin No. 52:
Strip imperforate
vertically. Note
the vertical and
leaning "ls".


.. ...........
~ = 5': |\ -
/I

% I
:

SS \


a
S a
= poasxs/


;8 -
=* S J33 |/ S
S \ *


S 9
;g1 3 is ;j/





n-I
I l gi









q~
"= no~Ya \ '


0 tosia /
'- \


0 Bosaxar ^/ -

... ............

4i
rt4
O r s
^^- -^--


72 THE POST-RIDER/SMIMUIHK 4 49
November 2001







Chuchin No. 23:
T8te-b8che block of 4 & vertical pair.
Note the letter "AI" in the word
"1IOITOBASI" is displaced
upwards on the upper right-hand
stamp in the block. Also, the letter
"A" displaced upwards on the top
stamp of the vertical pair.


Chuchin No. 25:
(a) Horizontal strip of 3, imperforate (b) Vertical pair, imperforate
vertically. horizontally.


'/ MAPKAA I MAPKA\
rpu-- ja I ; Tp. Hon.l^'
u.* ;, t1 ..' o sd .
.1.. 1 'l1109D IMd.L



Chuchin Nos. 36A & 36 Aa (imperforate):
Note the vertical perforation on the used
copy of No. 36! The Zemstvo postal
service used every stamp available.
No. 36A at right has additional vertical and
horizontal perforations.
No. 36Aa at left: The "3" is missing in the
upper right-hand corer.
No. 36Aa at right: The "3" inverted in the
upper left-hand corer.


. 3eMCKOH o
o .


r .



4a .
MapKa 3. 9.


,3-MCKOA c



M H5i 1 h.


Chuchin No. 55:
The single stamp with additional
horizontal and vertical
perforations.
The vertical pair with additional
horizontal perforation between
the stamps.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMHIIK N* 49
November 2001








POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
By Alex Artuchov
SPASSK
CHACCK
Ryazan Province









I


Spassk is a port city on the Oka river in the central section of the province some 30 miles
from the city of Ryazan. In 1910, the population was 4,800.
Across the river from Spassk are the ruins of old Ryazan founded in 1095 and destroyed
by the Mongols in 1237. Spassk itself was founded in 1778 and chartered as Spassk-
Ryazanskii.
The local agricultural activities included cattle and crops and a small cement factory was
shortly after the turn of the 20th century.
Spassk issued stamps between 1883 and 1913.
Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Silver background with black dragon with golden crown and red wings on
green grass.
Bottom: Ochre background with golden tower on green grass.

1871- 1913
19.5 x 24.75 19.0 x 24.25-.50, lithographed in black on white or coloured paper,
imperforate and also perforated 11.5 from 1903, 13 editions.


THE POST-RIDER/IaMIHK NS- 49
November 2001










First Edition (1883, February 13)
On yellowish white brittle thin smooth paper 0.06 mm thick, postage due is on mauve
paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 5 x 10 with a transfer block of 5 x 2, each
transfer block is printed separately and spaced differently from one another, each transfer
block is divided by a long horizontal line and has short vertical lines between stamps,
these short lines are even with the bottom of the stamps in the upper rows and in the
lower rows they are even with the top of the stamps, the position of these lines is very
important in identifying the various issues of this district.


1.3 kop. black on yellow paper 2.00

2. 3 kop. black on dark mauve paper (postage due) 2.00


Typical Block of 10





F 1F7w B 9

Types ?
Some of the stamps in the transfer block of 10 have definite identifiable characteristics
which can also be found on other editions. The position of the stamps would however
vary from edition to edition.

Some of the characteristics are:
Stamp # 3: Part of the outer frameline on the top right is missing.
Stamp #4: Dot near lower left 3.
Stamp #6: Dot over the upper right 3.
Stamp #9: White spot to the left of the upper right circle





Stamp 3 Stamp 4 Stamp 6 Stamp 9

Second Edition (1884, January)
The same transfer block of 5 x 2 and the same sheet of 5 x 10, on thick smooth white
paper 0.12 mm thick, white gum, imperforate.

3. 3 kop. black 3.00



THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N 49 75
November 2001








Third Edition (1884, end)
Differing from the previous editions by the position of the small vertical separating lines
between the stamps, in the bottom row the lines between the 6t the 7h the 9h and the
10th stamps are placed in the middle, the lines on both sides of the 8h stamp are placed
evenly with the bottom of the stamp, yellowish white and coloured papers 0.08 mm thick,
smooth white gum, sheet of 5 x 10 + 5 x 10 with the left half inverted.
4. 3 kop. black 2.00

5. 3 kop. black on mauve paper (postage due) 2.00

Fourth Edition (1885, beginning)
New transfer block with "types" rearranged; stamps 3, 4, 6 and 9 are now in different
positions, sheet of 5 x 10, on white (0.08 mm) and coloured paper (0.09 mm), brittle
white gum, the top row has vertical separating lines even with the bottom of the stamps,
on the bottom row the vertical separating lines (from right to left) are even with the
bottom of the stamps and the fourth is in the centre.

Reconstructed Transfer Block





6. 3 kop. black 2.00

7. 3 kop. black on mauve paper (postage due) 5.00

Fifth Edition (1889, May 17)
New transfer block with the stamps rearranged again, without any vertical separating
lines on the white sheet but each transfer block of 10 has top and bottom vertical lines
separating it from adjoining blocks, the sheet has two 5 x 10 blocks arranged side by side
and spaced 19.5 x 20.25 mm the lilac sheet is of an identical configuration but contains
vertical separating lines which are placed in the middle of the stamps at an equal distance
from the top and bottom of the stamps, the white paper is 0.13 0.19 mm thick with thick
brittle gum and the coloured paper is 0.09 mm thick.

The White Sheet The Coloured Sheet


0 0 0 0 0101010 O0


E[O 0 0 O1 II-101010

76 THE POST-RIDER/IMIUHK X 49
November 2001









8. 3 kop. black


9. 3 kop. black on dark carmine lilac 1.00

Varieties:
Double impression
Gummed on front


Sixth Edition (1890)
Stiff yellowish white paper 0.14 mm thick and coloured paper 0.09 m thick, new transfer
block of 5 x 2, sheet as for previous issues and without vertical lines between adjoining
transfer blocks and with a long horizontal line through the centre of each group of 10 and
under the bottom row separating it from the transfer block below, space between stamps
is 2.5 mm, two additional "types" from this issue on.

10. 3 kop. black, gray black 2.00

11. 3 kop. black on mauve paper (postage due) 3.00


The Transfer Block






The Two Additional "Types":
A. Damaged frame on the lower left circle
B. Damaged frame on the lower right circle


Type A Type B







Seventh Edition (1895)
A new transfer block, the stamps on white paper have dotted separating lines, sheets and
transfer blocks unknown so that the arrangement of types is not certain, all "types"
previously identified are found on this issue, lithographed in black on white paper 0.12
mm thick, shiny yellow gum, imperforate.




THE POST-RIDER/1IMIIMHK M 49 77
November 2001


5.00









The coloured postage due stamp has separating lines, sheet of 10 x 10 with 2.5 mm
between stamps which are in 2 groups of 5 x 10 and situated side by side, the space
between the transfer blocks is 3 mm, lithographed on coloured paper 0.09 mm thick,
shiny yellow gum, imperforate.

12. 3 kop. black, gray-black 1.00

13.3 kop. black on dark mauve (postage due) 3.00

The Transfer Block (a probable arrangement)



----------------- ------------I


n I

Eighth Edition (1900)
New transfer block of 10, without any separating lines, sheet of 10 x 10 in 2 panes of 5 x
10, space between transfer blocks is 2 3 mm and space between stamps is 1 mm and
1.75 2.0 on postage due stamps.

14. 3 kop. black 2.00

15. 3 kop. black on dark mauve (postage due) 2.00


The Transfer Block






Ninth Edition (1903)
New transfer block, on white and coloured paper, white gum, without separating lines,
space between lines 1.75 2.0, sheet 10 x 12 perforated 11.5.

16. 3 kop. black 1.00

17.3 kop. black on dark mauve (postage due) 1.00

The Transfer Block







78 THE POST-RIDER/I5MIIHK N 49
November 2001








Tenth Edition (1906 1909)
New transfer block of 5 x 2, without separating lines, distance between stamps is 2.75
mm, the width of the transfer block is 106 mm, same types as earlier but rearranged and
without type b", the sheet for the white stamp is 5 x 12 and 5 x 10 for the coloured
stamp, 0.11 mm thick paper for both stamps, white gum, perforated 11.5.

18. 3 kop. black on white paper (1906) 2.00

19. 3 kop. black on dull rose (postage due, 1909) 2.00


The Transfer Block


D000W




Eleventh Edition (1910 11)
White paper 0.11 mm thick with white gum and a dirty rose coloured paper 0.12 mm
thick with dull white gum, single stamps from this edition cannot be distinguished from
the stamps of the 10th edition, a new transfer block of 10 with the types rearranged and
without "type b", sheet of 5 x ? + 5 x ? and with a space between the two panes of 17 mm
for the stamp on the white paper, perforated 11.5 the sheet for the postage due stamp is
5 x 12 and the space between the stamps is 3.5 mm imperforate.

20. 3 kop. black 2.00

21. 3 kop. gray black on dirty rose coloured paper (July,1910) 3.00

Transfer Block


04 D1 0



Twelfth Edition (1912)
New transfer block of 2 x 5, all types including type b", the sheet for the white stamp is
20 x 5 and the space between stamps is 2.5 mm the white paper is 0.10 mm thick with
brittle white gum and no gum, the postage due stamp is on a sheet of 5 x 12 and the



.79
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHIK N 49
November 2001








stamps are space 1.75 mm apart, the paper is 0.07 mm thick and it is with and without
gum, with wide sheet margins, both stamps are imperforate.


22. 3 kop. black-gray
23. 3 kop. black on dark lilac rose paper (postage due)


1.00
3.00


The Transfer Block


F1

n


The Thirteenth Edition (1913, end)
New transfer block on 5 x 2 without types "4 and b", sheet for white paper is 5 x 14 and
the stamps are spaced 2.5 mm apart, the sheet for the postage due stamp is 5 x 12 and the
paper is 0.09 mm thick, perforated 11.5.


24. 3 kop. black- gray


1.00
1.00


25. 3 kop. black-gray on yellowish rose paper


The Transfer Block

DDD000D


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:
The Chuchin catalogue is extremely confusing, making a full cross-reference virtually
impossible.
Sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Ch 1 3 2 9 12 16 13 17 5 10 15 18


80 THE POST-RIDER/SIMHIIK M- 49
November 2001






SOME ITEMS OF THE SOVIET LITHUANIAN POSTS 1940-1941
by Dr. Ivo Steijn.

It has been my experience that Lithuanian postal history material from that period is much harder to find
than for Estonia and Latvia and examples are shown hereunder in chronological order to spark discussion.
The Lithuanian 10 ct. definitive showing a traditional wayside cross was declared invalid because of its
religious connotation, even after having also received the "LTSR / 1940 VII 21" overprint, but I feature two
usages below without overprint on non-philatelic mail and with overprint on an overpaid cover.
Editorial Comment: Lithuanian stamps and postal rates were valid up to and including 14 March 1941. As
of the next day, only Soviet stamps and rates were applicable. According to the Small Lithuanian Soviet
Enclyclopaedia, the exchange rate for currency was fixed at 1 Lithuanian litas = 90 Soviet kopeks, i.e. the
litas was discounted 10% against the rouble. A
l- __ -- __ --- --- _ _- ,, nr.-- -- --- --------- -*-- <,


Above: The Red Army entered Wilno/Vilnius
on 20 September 1939 and the Polish postmark .
is dated 9.10.39, one day before an agreement
to give the city and district to Lithuania. -n
That took place on 28 October and
Soviet stamps were theoretically valid
until then.

Above at right: A registered express cover from
Vilnius-C, 6.8.40 to Warsaw 10.8.40, properly
paid at 60 ct. foreign letter, 60 ct. registration
and 1 It. 20 ct. express fee. Note the invalid 10 ct.
definitive in the franking.


VvhA:~-

?A\AZ4'

?IYV&Ab


Pastaba: Patalsor-sutepimai neleidziamf.


c~~


Unpaid letter from Varputenai 6.9.40 to Vilnius,
taxed at double the internal deficiency = 60 ct.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK Ne 49
November 2001


i_90i99


~lg~Py
















ra


r a t a as
45L




ED,-U.N;A




577-0


2_




'T N. L~-5i~


uz-IP


This registered express item from Ukmerge 28.10.40 to Gotenhafen 1.11.40 may have been a multiple rate cover,
as the total fee paid was 2 It. 60 ct. Note the street name in Gotenhafen (Gdynia in occupied Poland).


Card from Mariampole 28.10.40 to Zurich,
properly paid at the 35 ct. foreign card rate.


Svoris k'Lz ~ >g S'/i g M okestis
Ivertinimo
Pristatymo
Expres
Pren.ejo v i9o.


Parcel card from Kaunas 16.12. 40 to
Gruzdziai 19.12.40 at 1 It. 20 ct. rate.


THE POST-RIDERIIIMIIHK N_ 49
November 2001


Eu.te Aryardea T'1o


A:iv* M. Kelis,
z XiifiLi, 9.4.. Ety.


-I-- Nxuo 'T


Lf~au eT4:LwA:R.


*.-.-L


* \'.~/ *>'/ I
\~ .~-,
*'Ti~ _


LI ETUVA+LTHIUANIE T HUN


r __ ___


~ ___ __


__


Registered letter from Kedainiai 23.10.40
to Kaunas, properly paid at 30 ct. internal
letter rate and 30 ct. registration fee.







































Four Lithuanian cards sent from Siauliai 21 to 31.1.41 to Tallinn, Estonia with additional Lithuanian
and Soviet frankings, which were not necessary, as the internal 15 ct. card rate also applied to Estonia.


.r c. pI H V p t













Above: Cover with mixed franking from Naujamiestis
8.2.41 to Kaunas 10.2.41, overfranked /2 ct. at the
Lithuanian rate or underpaid 2'2 ct. at the Soviet rate.




At left: Local registered letter Kaunas 20-21.2.41
with Soviet 60 kop. postage, thus overpaid by 15 kop.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK Ne 49
November 2001


83












:1 Li
V 3;


Local registered letter Kaunas 14.3.41, overfranked 15 kop. in Soviet postage and with additional
unnecessary Lithuanian postage, including the invalid 10 ct. "Cross" definitive with LTSR ovpt.


/2j5,lOLL


.- -": -'.._ -- : ."-_----- .. *



-- -. ': ..


l~l. .:.... ""






Cover from Kaltamenai 21.3.41 when Soviet
postage and rates were in force, overpaid by
10 kop. on a non-philatelic letter to the U.S.


A Soviet 60-kop. postal stationery registered envelope Soviet 2C
properly used to pay the internal rate from Dukstas stamp to
22.4.41 to Zarasai. from Aly
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIK N 49
November 2001


akze71"-t-C


)2J 9


e~cx uo


Non-philatelic letter Sudargas 2.4.41 properly
paid at 50 k. Soviet surface rate to the U.S.


-kop. postcard with additional 10-kop.
pay the proper foreign surface rate
tus 2.5.41 to Brussels, Belgium.


3AKA3HOE



Kyda Llaaj\%



-'' '. A .........




Aapec omnpa8UMeAjR: .a.' ~
...... ......


-f V l1ypA1KAT4
CARTEIPOSTALE










-~ U
: lOJ:j3Y.TE.b L." AE I T
C~i- /
/:P J


- -- -------


f ---


- ---


CLly. j~~~8~e ~'~LLK


I

.~
., -I






















Soviet 20-kop. postcard paying the proper internal rate from Another Soviet 20-kop. card, paying the proper
Paneveys 22.5.41 to Paveneiai 24.5.41. internal rate from Butrimonys 15.6.41 to Kaunas
the same day (at the height of the deportations!).


A souvenir piece with Soviet postage, which
went nowhere, but has the KAUNAS-C
/c- canceller turned back to the day of the Nazi
(z, 22 -31 invasion: 22.6.41.
-6" Final Editorial Comment:
Sm Lithuanian postal rates as of 1940:
Postcards : local 10 ct.; interior 15 ct.; foreign 35 ct.
/i Letters 20g.: local 15 ct.; interior 30 ct.; foreign 60 ct.
Reg'n : local -35 ct.; interior 60 ct.; foreign 11. 20 ct.
'- '- Express : local & interior 90 ct.; foreign 11. 20 ct.
.-_, _-,, Printed : local 5 ct.; interior 5 ct.; foreign 12 ct.
"____ __........\ '_ Papers to 50 g.



3EMCKAM HOnOTA HOJITABCKArO Y'B3JA

The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District

by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.


$25.00 (US) postpaid, payable to the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at the Society address.


THE POST-RIDER/ IMIIIK N 49
November 2001


FInOTOBAF KAPTOHKA
CARTE POSTAL

Ky a .........

Pmnpaeue.**o o pu. a fj-. *.
r .eier ........ ........... ..



omnpasumeA-
Adresse
d e I.ex pe d ite u r j - - .


S g /.fl KAPTOqKA ... .F
-. ~' ''- -| ;, c. I "Ber a : : :
Zi A\^ 77 STALE VI



2^ -^r" "" -'
: / ...... .. a U. ..-


* :...' 3. I L~ L '.' 7 ^. | v, A. -. |. ..I
ji. t O UL i


, 85






'INDEPENDENT' LITHUANIA IN 1941
by Rex A. Dixon.
(This article is also appearing in the News Sheet of the Third Reich Study Group of the
Germany and Colonies Philatelic Society in the United Kingdom).
When Germany launched Operation Barbarossa against the USSR on Sunday 22 June 1941, the Germans
overran the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic in the first six days. On the second day, 23 June, a
nationalist uprising broke out in the capital, Kaunas, and the radio station was captured that morning. A
prominent intellectual, Dr. AmbrozeviCius, went on the radio at 9:00 am. and announced the renewal of
Lithuanian independence and the establishment of a Provisional government, over which he presided. All
Soviet resistance in the city ceased the next day. The Lithuanians made contact with the advancing
Germans, who told them to stay put: they would enter Kaunas on Wednesday 25 June.
The Lithuanians had overthrown Soviet rule two days before the Germans arrived. Up to 100,000 men
joined in the revolt, suffering 2,000 casualties. They were glad to be rid of the Russians following their
occupation and annexation in the summer of 1940, which had culminated in the mass deportations of 14-15
June 1941. During the following week it is estimated that some 34,000 Lithuanians were shipped to
Siberia; possibly 75,000 had been deported or killed during the whole year the Soviets had been there. An
underground resistance network under the Lithuanian Activist Front had been established with the purpose
of rising against the Russians immediately the German army crossed the frontier.
According to Vardys, this move to regain independence took Berlin by surprise. It was not part of
Hitler's grand design, which was for the eventual incorporation of the Baltic states into the German Reich.
He would not accept the faith accompli and refused to recognize the Provisional government. It was
grudgingly permitted to function until 5 August when it was disbanded by the German military authorities.
A German civil administration, the Reichskommissariat Ostland, covering Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and
part of Belorussia, had been established on 25 July following a decree dated 17 July.
The Provisional government started overprinting Soviet stamps in Kaunas and they were released early
in July. The overprint reads: 'Independent Lithuania 1941-VI-23'. Apart from this national set (Mi.1-9), an
issue for the Vilnius region appeared on 16 July (Mi.10-18). Both were printed by the firm of Spindulys.
Several towns celebrated their freedom and independence by locally overprinting Soviet stamps with the
name of the town and the date of their freedom. The Michel catalogue lists all these stamps under the
misleading heading 'The German Occupation of Lithuania', whereas they were all products of the move
for independence and had no origin in the German occupying powers. The table below lists these various
overprints, together with translations noticeably absent from Michel.
Issue Overprint Translation
National issue NEPRIKLAUSOMA / LIETUVA /1941-VI-23 Independent Lithuania
Issue for the VILNIUS Vilnius
Vilnius area
Alsediiai Laisvi / Alsedziai / 24-VI-41 Free Alsediai
Panevys Laisva / Lietuva / 27-VI-41 / Panev6 ys Free Lithuania / Panevevs
Raseiniai Raseiniai/ 1941.VI.23. Raseiniai
Rokilkis Laisvas / 1941-VI-27 / RokiSkis Free Rokikis
Telsiai Laisvi / Telgiai / 1941.VI.26 Free Telgiai
Ukmerge ISlaisvinta / 1941 VI 24 / Ukmerg6 Liberated Ukmeraee
Zarasai Lietuva / 1941-VI-26 / Zarasai Lithuania / Zarasai
Except for the first set from Panevezys. and Alsediiai which were overprinted by hand, the listed
overprints were done by machine. In addition to these, Michel also notes that a few other towns (for
example, AnykgSiai) hand-overprinted Soviet stamps with the date. All the overprinted stamps ceased to be
valid from 1 September 1941. Until the introduction of the 'Ostland' overprints on 4 November, German
stamps or Lithuanian 'postage paid' ('apmoketa') cachets were used.
Apart from giving the political background to these overprints, one purpose of this article is to rectify
the distorted map in Michel as to where these towns lie and to offer the readers a more accurate map. The
Michel catalogue also quotes German names for these towns, some of which are suspiciously odd; I have
therefore tried to relate the various names by which the towns were known at different times.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMI[HK NE 49
November 2001






For each of the seven towns that produced the local overprints, the next table gives the German name
given by Michel and the name and date of the Dienstpostamt. For comparison it also gives the name of the
German 'Ober Ost' post office during the First World War. The names Rossingen and Zargrad in Michel
seem not to relate to any other form, and Telschen has an extra 'n'. Rakischki reverts to its previous form.
Note also that the names Telsze and Wilkomierz used by the Germans in the First War are simply the
Polish names for the two towns.
Alsedziai was just a small village some 15 km WNW of Telsiai, and is not listed by Schultz as even
having a suboffice (Postzweigstelle) in the Ostland period; I cannot comment, therefore, on the accuracy of
the German name, Aledschen, given by Michel. (The other six towns were each county towns in
independent Lithuania between the wars, each county being named after the county town.)
Town Michel Ostland post office Ober Ost post office
(1941-1944) (1916-1918)
lsedziai Aledschen --
Panevelys Ponewesch Ponewesch (17.8.41) Poniewiez
Raseiniai Rossingen Raseinen (9.8.41) Rossienie
Rokiskis Rakischki Rokischken (12.9.41) Rakischki
Telsiai Telschen Telsche (9.12.41) Telsze
Ukmerge Wilkomir Wilkomir (19.8.41) Wilkomierz
Zarasal "Zargrad Ossersee (1.10.41) -
The German names used by the Ober Ost are closely related to the Russian names for these offices pre-
1914. As there is no single standard for transliterating Russian Cyrillic into Latin letters, the following
table gives transliterations according to three different conventions in common use. I have given a German
transliteration as it clearly relates to the names used by the Ober Ost, and an English one to aid collectors
too used to seeing only German spellings. And I have given an internationalised transliteration as it shows
up the relationship between the Russian and Lithuanian name forms. (This latter convention has not gained
widespread usage in the West because of its use of unfamiliar accents. Note also that each of the
conventions has variations.)
Town Russian (pre-1914) German translit. English transit. Internat'l transit.
Panevzys IoHeBstcM Ponewiesh Ponevyezh PonevjeZ
Raseiniai PoccieHbRossieny Rossieny Rossieny
Rokiskis PaKrnH H Rakischki Rakishki Rakiski
Telsiai TeJmum Telschi Tel'shi Tel'si
Ukmerge BimiKOMHpb Wilkomir Vilkomir imi
Zarasai HoBoanieKcaimpoBcKi, Nowo-Alexandrowsk Novo-Alexandrovsk Novo-Aleksandrovsk
In the period of the Lithuanian SSR from 1940-1941 (and post-1944), the Lithuanian names were
retained. New Soviet postmarks gave the same name in both Latin and Cyrillic characters. The former
Russian Empire names were not re-introduced.
On the map I have taken the opportunity to show the frontier changes affecting Lithuania before the
German invasion in 1941. The Klaipeda (Memel) area was lost to Germany on 23 March 1939. The
Vilnius area was gained in two phases: the main area was transferred from Russian-occupied Poland to
Lithuania by a Mutual Assistance Treaty of 10 October 1939 with effect from 28 October; the districts
around Svencionys, DieveniSkes and Druskininkai were added on 3 August 1940, the day the Lithuanian
SSR was established. The stories behind these border changes are beyond the scope of this article.

Sources include:
1. Michel Deutschland-Spezial-Katalog 1998, Schwaneberger Verlag GmbH, Miinchen
2. Vytautas Fugalevikius, P.O. Cancels in Lithuania, Germany, 1990
3. Harry v.Hofinann, Baltische Postorte 1858-1916, Harry v.Hofmann Verlag, Hamburg, 1986
4. Dr.Hermann Schultz, Deutsche Dienstpost 1938-1945, Handbuch und Stempelkatalog, Volumes 4 & 5,
Neue Schriftenreihe der Poststempelgilde 'Rhein-Donau', 1955
5. V.Stanley Vardys, 'The Baltic States under Stalin: The First Experiences', in The Soviet Takeover of the
Polish Eastern Provinces, 1939-41, edited by Keith Sword, London, 1991
(concluded on p. 90).
THE POST-RIDER/aMIIHIK KN 49 87
November 2001








































LIETUVOS RESPUILIKA 1939-1940.VI.15

) Lictuvos teritorija 939 in. kvo 22 d.-1 939 m. spalIo 27 d.

_____ Klaip~dos kra~tas, hitlerines Vuiietijos okupuotas 1939 m.

Teritorija, pripaiinta Lieticvat 1920 m. liepos 12 d. sularlimi sit
Tarybq Rusija. 1920 m. spalio tnin. okupuota I.enkijos
Demarkacijos lini)a tarp I cluvos ir Icukijos. 1920 n. spalin mWn.-
1939 m. rugsnjo mrn.
tIicluvos-Tarybq Rusijos siena, nusin yta Muskyos so ii tuim 1920
m. lie pos 12 it
U.Y.w Iw LictuvoS 'I SRS si.5;, nustai Ona 1939 m. spalio 27 d. prntokulii.
TSRS it Vokictijos itakos sfcrq riba pagal 1939 ci. rugptiio 21 i.
11110111I111111I11 sutm.rucs slapt911 piolokolj
1511S it Vkictilos Ilakos lcrq rihna Ipa.al 1439 m. iugstjo 29 0i
Mitiarliles slapti3tircitokolI
ILictliu"I V4MIiillos M10 lys 13)9 m. spilio 27 d. nuistnlvtis
b sluvo-%ISIRS sienos
bmj jW 1;ihrl ine, I.icitivits Rospublllko\ kicn;,

(0 hefltv sisilie M;enas Miisiai
I'ako1 ,iikii ji V0 I i,~' 'li0o Ksam, rjs'ojjipk I;

A I'kIiij c imii ?Imiclis~ l:I',000 SilIi' I) lli.ki'


Map of the Lithunnian Republic 1939 to 15 June 1940: (see the explanatory text on the next page).






Lithuanian Republic 1939 1940.VI.15


Translation of map legend








)--()-()--(







)-()-()-(







Latvija
Lenkija
TSRS
Vakaru Baltarusija
Vokietija


Lithuanian territory 22 March 1939 27 October 1939
Klaipeda district, occupied 22 March 1938 by Hitler's Germany
Territory recognized on 12 July 1920 as Lithuanian in a treaty with the Russian
Empire. Occupied by the Poles in October 1920
Demarcation line between Lithuania and Poland, October 1920 September 1939
Lithuania Russian Empire border fixed by the Treaty of Moscow 12 July 1920
Lithuania USSR border, fixed by the protocol of 27 October 1939 [Note 1]
Limit of German & Soviet spheres of influence according to a secret protocol to the
treaty of 23 August 1939
Limit of German & Soviet spheres of influence according to a secret protocol to the
treaty of 28 September 1939 [Note 6]
Areas (???) of Lithuanians living beyond the Lithuanian USSR border of 27 October
1939
Present border of Lithuanian Republic [Note 2]
State border from 15 June 1940 [Notes 3, 4]


Capital of Lithuania
Provisional capital of Lithuania
County town [Note 5]
Railway

Latvia
Poland
USSR
Western Belorussia
Germany


1939 m. Vokietijos okupata Occupied by Germany 1939
TSRS nuo 1939 m. pab. USSR from late 1939

Notes
1. The Lithuanian Soviet Mutual Assistance Treaty was signed on 10 October 1939, with the border change
effective from 28 October. Presumably the protocol effecting this change was dated 27 October.
2. The original legend shows a mixed border style: )-(-)-()-( but it is only the colour that is significant.
3. The original legend incorrectly shows: )-()-(.)-(
4. This date seems wrong: other sources give the border adjustment as 3 August 1940, the day the Lithuanian
Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a republic of the USSR. 15 June 1940 was when Soviet troops
occupied Lithuania.
5. The counties were named after the county town, except that Lazdijai was the county town of the county of
Seinai. The town of Seinai was on the Polish side of the 1920 1939 demarcation line.
6. The protocol included an agreement that the Germans would take possession of VilkaviSkis, Kalvarija and
Lazdijai at the time the Soviet Union took 'special measures' in Lithuania. However, when Soviet troops
occupied Lithuania on 15 June 1940, Stalin broke his word and occupied this strip, not willing to appear
publicly as agreeing to a partition of Lithuania with the Germans. The dispute was resolved in January 1941,
when the Soviets agreed to pay Germany 7,500,000 gold dollars for the territory they had taken.
THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIW(K 49 89
November 2001
Rex A Dixon, 10 February 1998







6. John Hiden & Patrick Salmon, The Baltic Nations and Europe : Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania in the
Twentieth Century, Longman, Harlow, 1991
7. Euro-Regional Map, Lithuania, 1:300 000, GeoCenter International, RV Reise- und Verkehrsverlag,
Stuttgart, 1993-94

My grateful acknowledgements to Robert J Konowicz for providing helpful comments on an early draft,
and for assistance with information; and also to Mr.Stabas of Toronto for his recollections of the events.
Illustrations of stamps have been computer-enhanced to increase the contrast between the overprint and
the stamp. This has been less successful with the red overprint on the RokiSkis stamp and the greyish
overprint on the Als6ediai stamp.


Examples of the Lithuanian overprints.
From left to right: National issue, Vilnius,
Panev~eys, Raseiniai Type III, Types II & I
se-tenant, Zarasai Types I & II se-tenant
and Rokilkis at far right.


Sketch man of the localities where the


I. nt IA-- LITHUANIA




Et
H -----.i--.-














November 2001
f ... ,










> i ,


O THE POST-RIDER/HMIImHK?.*49
November 2001


This card, signed by the German expert
Keiler, was franked with a 10-kop. of
the "Independent Lithuania" overprint
and a 5-kop. of the Raseiniai "Small
Capitals" overprint (1860 issued).
Note that all the postmarks are
Lithuanian, not Russian., namely:
Raseiniai 18.VIIL41: a small town
70 km. NW of Kaunas and
Sirvintos 21.VII.41: an even
smaller town 70 km. ENE of Kaunas.








THE APRIL 1922 SECOND ISSUE OF THE ARMENIAN SSR,
by Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan.

The "2" gold-kopek surcharge by rubber (Type 1) and metal (Type 2) handstamps in black and red ink.


Type 1 in red
2 r. imperf. in olive-green


Type 1 in black
2 r. in blackish-olive.


Type 1 in red.
2 r. imperf. olive-grey. Variety on
stamp No. 65 on both panes of
11 x 10: lower frameline crooked.


Types 1 & 2 in red applied
se-tenant on 2r. imperf.
olive-green. A variety on
stamp No. 32 (break in the
right frameline on both
panes of 11 x 10 stamps


Type 1 in black
2 r. imperf. in olive-grey
Variety on stamp No. 77
on both panes of 11 x 10:
dot between the right
framelines.


2 r. imperf. in blackish-olive, bearing the "2" surcharge Type 1 in black, in a mixed franking with a Third Issue "3"/500 r.
surcharge on a cover from Novo-Bayazet 12.7.22 to Erivan' 16.7.22 at the correct 5 gold-kopek ordinary intercity letter rate.



THE POST-RIDER/HIMIII(K N 49 91
November 2001


. .- ,^ '' -. e? 1 *' *
.*:. ^ : ,< :.. ^ ..-
7
_


Il I









April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set


"3" gold-kopek surcharge by a single metal handstamp in black ink.




P'"'. r 'o r '



Pale rose-red


"3" surcharge on 3 r. imperf. on a registered foreign cover sent
from Allaverdy 1.7.22 to Warsaw 16.7.22 at a total rate of 23
gold kopeks. Underfranked by 1 kopek, as the correct rate
consisted of 12 k. for an ordinary foreign letter + 4 k. reg'n fee
+ 50% of the total 16 k. rate (= 8 k.) for Famine Relief.


Double strike


Pale rose-red:
surcharge omitted
on the middle stamp.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK NM 49
November 2001


Carmine-red


Carmine-red







April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia


"4" gold-kopek surcharge on the 25 r. stamp by a rubber handstamp (Type 1) in black or red ink.


Type 1 in black:
"white spot" variety.


Type 1 in black
Variety: part of bottom
right frameline missing.


A pair of imperf. 25 r. with "4" surcharge Type 1 in black, in a
mixed franking with a "4"/1000 r. Famine Relief stamp on a
registered intercity letter from Echmiadzin 29.9.22 to Erivan'
2.10.22. Franked at the correct 12 gold-kopek total rate.


-' : LIC. .. | "
-i f //










bjlfd L j `t1LnL 4 pr iI 115 wI;wl jiki It /IIIPh UlW J Ulye UUjI iIt lIitl W11

,,K&PM.Hi!P Yr4" (KpacHbi;1 nyTf);e 1eH@AenjiHPdK fi



A "4" gold-kopek surcharge Type 1 on an imperforate 25 r. in red, franking
an ordinary intercity wrapper sent from Aleksandropol' 2.12.22 to Erivan'.


THE POST-RIDER/IM WIgK M 49
November 2001








April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set

4 kop. surcharge in manuscript or by metal handstamps (in three types) in black or red ink


. "1" Type 1 error corrected
to "4" Type 2: Unlisted RRR.


Revalued and cancelled
RR in manuscript in red ink
at Barany P.O.


Type 2 in red
Strike to strike differences due
to degree of inking and angle of
strike. Surcharge has impression
of figure "1" on the lower stamp.


Type 4 in black


Type 2 in red
Double strike postally
. used at Keshishkend: R


. ,- ...." ;,- *,:" -- ;- i.. _. ; -- 1. --** <".^--.'--- -'".. .- ---s.-- '
- ... ; '. T, "; *.- -, .. -- --
S.'.. .--'" sI '

5 1-Z 1 7. .... :r Q, -: -




"V ....


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIK N2 49
November 2001






SOME REMARKS AND ADDITIONS TO THE "AUTOMAT" ARTICLE OF HARRY VON
HOFMANN by Meer Kossoy.

I have acquainted myself with great interest with this article, published in "The Post-Rider" No. 42, pp. 7-
24 and covering the utilization of automats for the receipt of registered correspondence [1]. The great merit
of the author of the article lies in the fact that he was able to collect information and describe the markings
of automats, operating in various cities of Russia: Essentuki, Kislovodsk, Minsk, Mogilev, Moscow, Riga,
St. Petersburg, Saratov and Vil'no and, in a supplement: Rostov-on-Don [2]. Moreover, it should be taken
into account that such markings are to be found most rarely.

This particular subject has also interested me. I even published an article "Accepted by automat" [3]. I can
only regret that the author did not have information about my article, as it is missing in the list of utilized
literature. However, it should be noted that the data about the five markings shown in my article [3] were
also set out in the corresponding tables by Mr. von Hofmann [1]. It would be desirable here to give some
short notes about the work of the automats in accepting registered mail. It was assumed that the installation
of such automats would facilitate the elimination of possible obstacles, the main aim being to ensure the
receipt of registered mail in the hours when the postal establishment was not working.

Only letters which had been prepaid in advance by weight and including the registration fee were
permitted to be placed in the automats. Upon turning the handle, a rectangular marking in red was placed
on the letter with the following inscriptions: the initial letter "3" of the word "3AKA3HOE" (=
Registered), the post office where the automat was installed, the consecutive number of the sending and the
date. This marking was applied not only on the letter, but also on the receipt, which the automat issued to
the sender and which served as an official document, confirming the receipt of a registered sending.
Upon presentation of the letter, the receipt was automatically
cut from the roll of paper installed in the machine and it bore
a previously printed text; see Fig. here. The coat of arms
was printed at the top of the receipt and, below it, a text L-.iral o b ,ma
reading: "From the St. Petersburg General Post Office. / ,T*, M WISU*,t
The present receipt / confirms that / the letter with the / y A oTa~parb, 4TO
number indicated below / was placed / in the automatic / Ieou merua-
machine". There is a rectangular marking in red on the I Im an"taaps or.-
receipt, reading "R / St. Petersburg. 331 June / 19. (19)13". I ee'aanarpara

It is interesting to note that, in all likelihood, the receipts j Prip
for St. Petersburg and other cities were printed only for the
General Post Offices, as can be seen from the text. ait.
However, these receipts were also utilized in other postal
stations, where automats had been installed. r.'.'',
It should be noted that the presence, both on the letter and ...;.
on the receipt of such a marking also makes the receipt a
valid piece of philatelic material in the search and study Fig. 1
of inscriptions applied by the automats on registered mail.

As pointed out above, the automats only placed the rectangular registration marking on the sending and
issued to the sender a receipt with an identical impression. The sending were then periodically taken out of
the automats for further handling. The postal official would check the affixed stamps to see if they were in
accordance with the tariff in force and cancelled by hand the stamps with the dated postmark of the post
office, being in conformance with the inscriptions on the rectangular cachet.. He would then apply on the
back of the envelope a cachet reading: "nPHHSITO ABTOMATOM'b"(ACCEPTED BY AUTOMAT).
Such cachets are known in different variations: in black or red ink, with the text in one or two lines and
with or without a frame. For the Warsaw railway station in St. Petersburg, the cachet had a changed text:
THE POST-RIDERI/IMII(HK NJ 49 95
November 2001






"IIPHH5ITO H37b ABTOMATA" ("ACCEPTED FROM AN AUTOMAT').


The analysis of the material published in source [1] gives rise to a series of questions for which there are
still no answers, but it is possible that further studies will be able to clear them up. For example, why did
some automats have a rectangular marking with the text only in the Russian language and others with the
text in Russian and French? It could be suggested that the automats with the text of the marking in Russian
were intended for the acceptance of internal registered sending and those with the text in two languages
for the acceptance of international mail. However, such an assumption is refuted by the markings for
Moscow (see items Nos. 156, 382 and 788 in source [1]), in which the text is only in Russian and all the
sending are international.

It is difficult to explain the handling of the registered sending, bearing the marking of the automat:
"PHFA. BOK3AJI-b, No 800, HIOJI(b). 30. (19)13, to which an additional registration label with jX
800 was affixed and, specifically, as to what way there was a coincidence between the numbers on the
marking and the label.

It is possible to utilize the analysis of the material presented in [1] to obtain the answer to the question: how
many registered sending would an automat accept over a 24-hour period? That can be done if we consider
the date designated on the rectangular marking and the consecutive number of the sending. By comparing
the markings of one and the same automat according to the dates, it is possible to specify the interval of
time and, when going by the numbers, the quantity of registered sending for that period. In comparing the
consecutive numbers on the markings, it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that there was a
counter installed in the automats with the maximum possible number of 999, after which the series of
numbers would start again with "1". For the credibility of the analysis, it would be desirable to compare the
markings with close dates:

Example 1: The marking of the automat of the Nikolai station at St. Petersburg from 26.12.12 to 7.1.1913..
Period of time = 13 days; Amount of sending: 999 656 + 645 = 988 items; Daily take:'988/13 = 76 items

Example 2: The 3rd. station of the St. Petersburg City Post on 19 June 1913.
Period of time = 1 day; Amount of sending: 379 331 = 48 items = Daily take.

Example 3: Mogilev, between 8 and 18 June 1915.
Period of time: 11 days; Amount of sending: 999 -522 + 88 = 565; Daily take: = 565/11 = 51 items.

Example 4: The railway station at Vil'no, between 4 and 15 November 1913.
Period of time: 12 days; Amount of sending: 914- 257 = 657; Daily take: 657/12 = 55 items.

If we consider that an automat would accept 50 to 80 registered sending in a 24-hour period, then it can be
stated that the markings represent rare philatelic material. It is feasible that the automats for accepting
registered sending were also installed in other towns in Russia, which have not been listed in the literature
references, but their markings have not been discovered so far. There is no precise information about how
long such automats were in operation. Judging by the material cited in source [1], all the markings found so
far are from the period up to 1917. However, it is known from the literature sources that such automats
were working in 1923 at the Moscow General Post Office and the references also state that the installation
of new automats was also being planned [4].

It would be important to conjecture why the automats did not receive wide diffusion. The main
disadvantage would have been that, in sending registered mail by means of an automat, it had to be prepaid
beforehand with postage stamps. Hence, even if the sender went to the post office to buy the stamps, it
would have been most preferable to send the letter also by utilizing the services of a postal clerk, rather
than an automat.
96 THE POST-RIDER/IMII HK 49
November 2001









,'XT..:"- 'COHai me YTa HpmAeH rOi 'AHIoHEpii~ro OiecTa ,i

Guobxb. c.. '. t,,,BAHOBb H. rFOJIbA BEPFl b. ..A ...
C.-neTepoyprb', LoniTaBCKa1R, 12 (AOMb .EnpmHi). Telne oHb NK 44-60.




Vb .71% c tb th Fig. 2.




S '- .. ,'- ..









ABTOMATOML.". The stamps on the envelope were cancelled with an oval postmark, reading: C-
'., '. '" :' ../ ",










IETEP.YP b, HKOJIAEBCKI.II BOK3. 14.11.13 fL. The' letter was addressed to Perm', where
It would be desirable to continueee the search for these markings and, with this aim in view, a registered letter
is shown in Fig. 2 above, which was deposited in the automat installed at the Nikolai station in
StPetersburg. That was confirmed by the rectangular marking in red of the "3/R" type, N2 905, NOV. 14,
(19)13 and also by te o he t, struck on the back of the cover and reading "yIP.4HATO
ABTOMATOM'b". The stamps on the envelope were cancelled with an oval postmark, reading: C-
arETEPBYPrrb, HHKOJIAEBCKInn BOK3. 14.11.13 z o.. The letter was addressed to Perm', where
it was received by the addressee on 17.11.13, according to the postmark on the back of the envelope.

Another unknown automat marking has been found in the archival sources [reference 5]. It was a local
registered letter, which had been deposited in an automat, installed at the 4th. postal station of the St.
Petersburg City Post. That operation was confirmed by a red rectangular marking with NO 367 and dated 27
February 1913. It was received by the addressee the same day.

It is also necessary to define more exactly some of the material published in source [1e e n he original
article by Harry von Hofmann, as printed in "The Post-Rider" No. 42. In the table for "St. Petersburg:
Warsaw Railway Station" on p. 18 of that journal, registered sending N2 884 is erroneously included with
the date 3.12.13. The cover for this registered letter is shown further on herewith in F i. and it was
deposited in an automat, installed not at the Warsaw station, as stated in [1], but at the Nikolai station in St.
Petersburg. That is confirmed by the oval postmark in black, reading: "HH4KOJIAEBCKII4 BOK3.
3.12.13", together with a rectangular marking in red of the "3/R" type, with the letters "H.B. / G.N." (the
first two initials standing for "HHKoJiaeBCKifi BoK3ajiFb", while the last two were the French initials for
"Gare de Nicolas"); please see a supplementary drawing of that latter cachet in Fig. 3a. The letter was
addressed to Moscow, arriving the next day. Especial interest is demonstrated by the strike on the back of a
two-line cachet in black with the text: "IIPHHSITO / ABTOMATOM'b". Most of the known cachets,
including the one shown in source [1] had this text in one line.

In any case, this particular sending should be transferred and considered in the Table for the "St. Petersburg
Nikolai Railway Station (see "The Post-Rider" No. 42, p. 16). In the Table on p. 18 of the same journal for
the "St. Petersburg Tsarskoe Selo Railway Station", sending NJ 213 is listed with the date 1913 17.10,
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK N 49 97
November 2001






about which there is no information and a question mark has therefore been placed against it. However, the
interesting cover of this registered letter is shown further on herewith in Fig. 4 and it was deposited in an
automat at the Tsarskoe Selo station in St. Petersburg This was confirmed by a rectangular marking in red
of the "3/R" type with the initials "L.B./G.Tz." (the first two initials standing for "lapcKOceJibcKiAi
BoK3aji", while the last two were the French initials for "Gare de Tzarskoe Selo"); a supplementary
drawing of that latter cachet is shown in Fig. 4a

The name given on the rectangular marking as for the Tsarskoe Selo Railway Station is in contradiction to
the inscription "BHTEB.(CKIII) BOK3.(AJIb)" in the oval postmarks in black with the date of
17.10.13, which cancelled the numerous stamps on the envelope. Such a contradiction came about as the
result of the fact that the Tsarskoe Selo Railway Station was changed to the Vitebsk Station already by
around 1907. It is also especially interesting to note the strike of a cachet in black on the back of the cover
with a non-standard text in two lines and reading: "fIP4HHATO / H3'b ABTOMATA"; a supplementary
drawing of that cachet is shown in Fig. 4b. The letter was addressed to London, England, where it was
received on 3.11.13.


(80%).
-- .IETEPBYP U.


I i -s, "- -. o-R 8N 44 lEX .-3. r





Ie c o .-I ... A.e ,tersb ur, cTz


213 2KT.i7. I

F- : ig. 4a.
3. .,..,K.o..o.. .."...... T T-, ..... TJ 6/190,pp.53-54.

4 ,. -' c" :, '- .. 1 2 6. p O1;.- :6;

5e ... yp1 n. P H TO
.r^ .3'b ABTOMATA

98a T^ P^rIFiOg. 4b.
References:

1. Harry von Hofmann: "Some New Considerations on Registration Machines for Registered Letters in
Imperial Russia", "The Post-Rider", No. 42, pp. 7-24.
2. Harry von Hofmann: "More Notes on Registration Automatic Machines","The Post-Rider" No. 43, p.84.
3. M. Kocoih: "IIpHaMTO aBTOMaTOM", "DEmnaTejIHA" X 6/1990, pp.53-54.
4. ".CKm3H, cBa30", 1923, X2 6, p. 123.
5. JIeHHHrpagcKHR rocyqIapCTBeHHbri HcwTOpHtecKHi ApxHB, cboHg 1543, ormcr 14, gejno 3, jincr
27.

98 THE POST-RIDER/AMMHK N2 49
.- November 2001




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs