• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Collecting what one...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - eighth...
 The postal stations of the Zemstvo...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The peculiarities of the postal...
 Military censorship of rank & file...
 Postage stamps of Russia used for...
 Postage stamps of Russia used as...
 New facts about the history of...
 A savings bank pass-book from Kishinev...
 Mail registered on TPOs/RPOs -...
 Soviet airmail in 1927
 Atomic secrets from a post office...
 A special warning about digital...
 Russia-Prussia convention regarding...
 Armenia 1919-1923
 Redut-Kale
 Some additional notes on the 1923...
 More data on Moldavian & Romanian...
 The Russian field posts in...
 Some more examples of the postage-due...
 Tuvan varieties
 Comments on the "KbZbL c &...
 Further frankings with the "Spartakiada"...
 The great dot and numeral hunt
 Some notes and additions to the...
 Philatelic shorts
 Correction & addition and...






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00048
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00048
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Collecting what one likes
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Zemstvo varieties - eighth instalment
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The postal stations of the Zemstvo posts in the province of Bessarabia
        Page 7
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The peculiarities of the postal handling of insured money letters of the Ust'-Sysol'sk Zemstvo post
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Military censorship of rank & file mail in Russian navy in WWI
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Postage stamps of Russia used for fiscal purposes
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Postage stamps of Russia used as savings bank stamps
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    New facts about the history of the postal-telegraphic savings offices
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    A savings bank pass-book from Kishinev in Bessarabia
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Mail registered on TPOs/RPOs - Imperial and Soviet times
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Soviet airmail in 1927
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Atomic secrets from a post office box
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    A special warning about digital forgeries
        Page 67
    Russia-Prussia convention regarding Western Europe 1 November 1843 (old style)
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Armenia 1919-1923
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Redut-Kale
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Some additional notes on the 1923 famine issue of the Ukrainian SSR
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    More data on Moldavian & Romanian posts in Southern Bessarabia 1856-1878
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    The Russian field posts in Bessarabia
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Some more examples of the postage-due mail
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Tuvan varieties
        Page 95 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 96
    Comments on the "KbZbL c & a" cancellers
        Page 97
    Further frankings with the "Spartakiada" stamps of 1935
        Page 98
        Page 99
    The great dot and numeral hunt
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Some notes and additions to the "Insufficiently franked" comments by N. C. Warr
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Correction & addition and adlets
        Page 120
Full Text
















































































Printed in Canada







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W IP2
Canada
CSRP Web Site: http://www3.svmpatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider(a-sympatico.ca
FAX: (416) 932-0853
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 48.


June 2001.


Contents:
2 Editorial: Collecting what one likes
2 Special Note. See also pp. 4, 6, 25, 32 and 110
3 Correspondence with Canada Andrew C
5 Zemstvo Varieties; Eighth Instalment G.G. Wer
7 The Postal Stations of the Zemstvo Posts in the province of Bessarabia Vladimir E
8 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos Alex Artu
15 The Peculiarities of the Postal Handling of Insured Money Letters of the D.N. N
Ust'-Sysol'sk Zemstvo Post
18 Military Censorship of Rank & File Mail in Russian Navy in WWI VI. Berdichevskii & M. K
45 Postage Stamps of Russia used for fiscal purposes Meer K
47 Postage Stamps of Russia used as Savings Bank stamps Meer K
51 New Facts about the History of the Postal-Telegraphic Savings Offices Professor A.S. Ily
54 A Savings Bank Pass-Book from Kishin'ev in Bessarabia Vladimir B
56 Mail registered on TPOs/RPOs Imperial and Soviet Times Rabbi L.L.
60 Soviet Airmail in 1927 Robert T
63 Atomic Secrets from a Post Office Box V.P. & P.V. Florenskii and G.I. 1
67 A Special Warning about Digital Forgeries Dr. R.J. C
68 Russia-Prussia Convention regarding Western Europe 1 November 1843 O.S. Erling B
75 Armenia 1919-1923 Dr. Arkadii M. Sar
79 Redut-Kale G.V. Andri
82 Some Additional Notes on the 1923 Famine Issue of the Ukrainian SSR V.B. K(
85 More Data on Moldavian & Romanian Posts in Southern Bessarabia 1856-1878 Andrew C
90 The Russian Field Posts in Bessarabia Alexander E
92 Some more examples of the Postage-Due Mail Alexander E
95 Tuvan Varieties Richard E. (
95 The "KbZbL-c" Puzzle Gwyn M. Wil
97 Comments on the "KbZbL c & a" Cancellers Andrew C
98 Further Frankings with the "Spartakiada" stamps of 1935 Michalis Tsironis and Andrew C
100 The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt Alex Artu
108 Some Notes & Additions to "Insufficiently Franked" Comments by N.C. Warr Meer Ki
111 Philatelic Shorts Various a
120 Correction & Addition and Adlets
Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer.
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary.
Andrew Cronin, Editor.
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.
Copyright 2001. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved.


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--^ IEditorial

COLLECTING WHAT ONE LIKES

When your editor first came to Canada from Australia early in 1956, one of his first priorities on arrival in
Toronto was to find out when and where the local philatelic societies met. On his first visit to the largest
one then, he was asked by one of the local members what were his collecting interests and the reply was:
"Russian". The questioner looked very shocked and said in amazement: "Oh, you can't collect those!"

Needless to say, your editor ignored that comment, but it was symptomatic of the times. Despite the often
tense political situations which arose since 1956, it was significant that they did not affect the popularity of
our areas of collecting and some very famous collections were formed during that period. Undoubtedly, the
fact that Russia was (and still is) always in the news had something to do with it. Your editor also likes to
think that our policy in the CSRP of constantly opening up new areas of investigation has contributed to the
ever-rising level of interest evinced in the stamps and postal history of Russia, the USSR and associated
territories. The fact that our articles have been reprinted elsewhere highlights that trend.

Our journal has a wide circulation in the Russian Federation and that has encouraged readers there to
contribute their findings. As the saying goes, the more the merrier and we all stand to benefit in the long
run as philatelists increasingly appreciate the wealth of material waiting to be mined.

Just ignore the bombastic and moronic politicians and axe-grinders and collect what you like!

SPECIAL NOTE :
WHITE NIGHTS FESTIVAL 2001

1 June to 1 July 2001.

Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Telephone: 1 (888) 805-4979

Web Site: www.mariinsky.spb.ru

Among works to be offered are those of five current
Russian composers, including her "St. John's Passion"
by Sof'ya Gubaidulina, also the world premiere of the
opera "Tsar Demyan" and Tan Dun conducts the
premiere in Russia of his "St. Matthew's Passion".



2 THE POST-RIDER/3IMjIiHK X2 48
June 2001






CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or clear xerox copy of the
item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.


FROM MOSCOW TO


S\ 1.


nep ne 0 4 -'/ A-fMPf-,__'

nepLJeT IOCKBA-CI. ... ,


4.__^C --

p, 0,x- -- ... .. n/...... .
D -CIIIJ.v '*'1'- y if t. is
IXtilt tf1at ih.


This subject was originally covered in "The Post-Rider" No. 6 for April 1980, pp. 3-5 and referred to the
projected flight from Moscow to the U.S.A. by the Soviet pilot Brigadier-General Vladimir Kokkinaki and
his navigator Major Mikhail Gordienko, taking off at 4:19am on 28 April 1939. The aircraft did not make it
by about 700 miles (roughly 1120 km.) and crash-landed in marshland on Miscou Island, New Brunswick,
Canada at 8pm. local time. The total flight time was 23 hours and the mail thus qualifies as coming under
the classification of "Correspondence to Canada".

The mail, all of it registered, was postmarked on this accidental arrival with a Canadian marking reading
"MISCOU LIGHTHOUSE N.B!'on the same day (28 April), but the clerk had obviously omitted to change
the time slug from AM to PM!


THE POST-RIDERISIMIIHK Ns 48
June 2001






According to William H. Peters, an American airmail dealer who handled these registered items after they
finally reached their destinations, a total of about 50 pieces was flown, including a letter to President
Roosevelt, letters of greeting to two World's Fair officials and 32 postcards. Your editor has been steadily
recording examples from this flight over the past 21 years as they came up for auction and the results are
tabulated below. The normal Soviet postal rates for that period were as follows:-
Surface foreign postcard: 30 kop. Foreign registration fee: 80 kop.
Surface foreign letter: 50 kop. Airmail surtax: 1 rouble
All the flown mail in the form of cards and covers was uniformly franked at 2r. 30k. and that meant that the
cards were overpaid by 20 kopeks. Unless otherwise stated, the mail was addressed to various employees of
the Amtorg Corporation, the Soviet Purchasing Agency in New York City. The late Norman Epstein, a
well-known specialist in Russian philately, worked there in his younger years.

Three of the flown items are shown on the previous page: Registered letter No. 28 to the Amtorg
Corporation and registered postcards No. 106 to Elliott M. Walton, a Nassau Street stamp dealer in New
York City and No. 109 to a famous U.S. dealer, H.E. Harris in Boston, who did much to popularise
philately in the 1930s & 1940s. Based on the spread of recorded registration numbers (Nos. 28 to 109), at
least 82 pieces of mail were flown, with covers being very much in the minority, as can be seen hereunder.

Reg'n
No. Addressee Sender Notes
28 Mr. Rubanov, c/o Amtorg ? cover
71 Mrs L.V. Nikolsky, c/o Amtorg A.S. Bolotova, Ulijanovskaja 53, Moscow card
97 Mr. Zhukovitsky, c/o Amtorg S. H(?)anevsky, Rozhdestvenka 19, Moscow card
101 Mr. I. Ilijin, c/o Amtorg W. Glik, Karmanitsky 2, Moscow card
103 Mr. Rostartchuk, c/o Amtorg Mrs F(?) Abramovitch,7 Rostovsky Lane,ap.15, Moscow card
104 Mrs L.V. Nikolsky, c/o Amtorg Mrs F(?) Abramovitch,7 Rostovsky Lane,ap. 15, Moscow card
106 Mr. Elliott M. Walton, 80 Nassau St. Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, Kuznetsky Most 18, Moscow card
109 Mr. H.E. Harris, 108 Mass.Ave,Bsn. Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, Kuznetsky Most 18, Moscow card

CSRP members are encouraged to send in details of the missing registration numbers, as well as of the
addressees and the senders. The latter were very likely employees of Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, which had
taken over the functions of the Soviet Philatelic Association by 1939 in supplying philatelic products to
wholesalers abroad. It is especially important to be able to determine just how many covers exist of this
flight. Let us hear from you!
*

SPECIAL NOTE:
A Unique Cultural Experience.

Until very recently, certain subway stations of the Toronto Transit Commission were the favourite
gathering places of sundry disreputable people,with objects of indeterminate origin dangling from their left
earlobes, indulging in begging, muttering incoherently to themselves and generally committing anti-social
acts against a long-suffering public. The situation was so bad at one such station that your editor got into
the habit of referring to it as "Poverty Point".

Fortunately, the Commission came up with the brilliant idea of piping in classical music at the relevant
stations and the effect on this weird floating population was devastating. They have all fled in horror and
we have now been left to enjoy renditions by leading orchestras from around the world, the programmes
being heavily weighted towards classical works by Russian and Soviet composers.

Any CSRP members intending to visit our fair city of "Tronna" should contact your editor and he will
gladly indicate the stations where they could enjoy these blissful interpretations.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK NX 48
June 2001






ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: EIGHTH INSTALLMENT
by G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties
do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send in details of their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos.
What is shown here is what I have in my collection. .


GLAZOV, Vyatka province:
Chuchin No. 4. This is Chuchin
No. 2 changed by hand to 2 kop.
Note that the postal clerk elected
to make the change by inverting
the stamp. On genuine stamps, the
cancel must be over the manuscript.


No. 10: Couch6
variety.


GRYAZOVETS, Vologda province: This Zemstvo produced an unusually high number of tee-beche
varieties. In addition, Chuchin Nos. 58, 64, 70, 59, 65 and 71 etc. were printed together. Some examples
are shown here, especially with perforation errors.


Chuchin No. 1 a:
Vertical pair,
tete-beche.


Chuchin No. 30:
Horizontal pair,
tete-beche.


Chuchin No. 44:
Pair, imperforate between and
with double perforation at left.


_ ____ I mjrPCII
40


SiS
06. $'3


Chuchin Nos. 35 and 38:
A tite-btche pair and
misperforated vertically.


Chuchin No. 91 is normal.
No. 91a has inverted frame.


Chuchin No. 101:
White dot in the
centre of figure "1".


THE POST-RIDER/JIMIIIK N_ 48
June 2001


----d


~kmc-a






















DUKHOVSHCHINA,
Smolensk province:
Chuchin Nos. 12 & 12a:
Couch6.


EGOR'EVSK, Ryazan' province:
Chuchin No. 11: Horizontal pair,
imperforate-between.


EKATERINBURG,
Perm' province:
Chuchin No. 2:
Horizontal pair,
imperforate-between


ZADONSK, Voronezh
province: Chuchin No. 25:
Vertical pair, imperforate
horizontally.


Chuchin No. 51:
T&te-beche pair.


* *


* *


SPECIAL NOTE:




The world-famous
Hermitage Museum
comes to Toronto
from Russia with
care and showing
"Rubens and his
Age" 5 May to
12 August 2001.
For more data see
http://info.ago.net/
information/ or call
(416) 979-6656, also
see www.ago.net


K HAM EAET

3PMITA)K

C 5 wan no 12 asryca a Art
Gallery of Ontario (AGO) npoiier
3Kcno3snnsi npon3BeAetmi flere-
pa nayng Py6eHca H ero cospe-
MeHHHKOB BaH 8aAKa mH IopAaHca
M3 co6paHHn My3es 3pMarajK.
3To 60onbuoe co6wrne Awr Orra-
pHnciof xyAoxKecTseHoHo rane-
peG H Ins KaHaAI B ienoM:
Bnepabe conAa npn6beaaeT oAn
a3 seAyu4Hx My3ees MHpa. Kcra-
TH, Ha 6nuxcaLuWne nRr nJer 3a-
anaHHpOBaHo eUge TpH 3KCnO3n-
gun 3pMaraxKa a OHTapn1cror ra-
nepee. A B npeacTonuSei OKcno-
3sHUN nOAC Ha3BaHqeM Treasures
from the Hermitage Museum,
Russia: Rubens and His Age 6yAer
npencTraBneHo OKono 150 pa6or
Bbl/aioutMxcSa onaMaalCK5nX Mac-
Tepos 17-ro seKa, oTpaxairouwx

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIHIK N2 48
June 2001


MHororpaHHocmb nx T~opvecTua:
1no7OTHa, pncyHKs, AeKopaTnarBe
93.qe~nHsi.

Ro cnoBaM MGTmbo Teigrenb6ay-
MDa, .qnpeKJopa AGO, npne3A 3p-
MnTaxaI sIrBJJITC5 He TOJnbKO yHn-
aJanbHoA BO3MOCHOCTUHO COfnpff-
KocHoBeHUN C YHH9KaJHOfi XYAU-
JmecTTeHHoR KannOjeKLeea My3ew,
HO H npH3HaHueM OHTaPfSif4CKo
ranepeMf Ha MexCAyHapOHoM
ypOBHe.

HanoMHmM, wIo KonneAKL4H 3pMm,-
TamaB 66Uwa OCHoBaHB a 1764 roqy
DO apeMn npaBneHln EKaTep&IHW
Banrnofi, noKpoBMTenbOsCTBOB2B-
wer mCKYCCTDDM. Cerimac 3Aecb
HaxoCAHyrr 6onee rpex MunnJO- .
HOD npoH3DeAeHil 5 cKyccTBa.

3pMuTaxc B ToPOHTo 3Wo YHM-
KanbHas D03MOMHOCTIb nP5KOC-
Hymhci K wenespam HCKYCCTBa
XMBOnInCn.




IIo'ronBue CTairan 3eMCIOx nOWT Beccapa6cicoii ryFiepHnu. BnagnMnp Ba6nq.
THE POSTAL STATIONS OF THE ZEMSTVO POSTS IN THE PROVINCE OF BESSARABIA
by Vladimir Babici.
Opzeeecxuu ye3. Ifenmp ye ta zopod OPIFEBT.
feuyscenue notnmt do docmaeKu nommoeot# KoppecnoHneHquu e ye3d u cye3sa u ucnojs0oeanue 3e.MCKx normoebtx MapoK
OPrEEBCKOTO YE3,A navamo c 22 MOa 1872 zoba u npodoo/canWocb 6o 16 Man 1916 eoa.
District of Orgeev. District centre: the town of ORGEEV.
The flow of mail for the delivery of postal correspondence to and from the district and the utilization of Zemstvo postage stamps
of the ORGEEVDISTRICTbegan on 22 May 1872 and continued until 16 May 1916.


1. CYCJIEHbI
2. KHIHEPIEHbI
3. H3BOPbI
4. M9HHIIIEYUhbI
5. PE3HHA
6. CAMAIIIKAHbI
7. KA3AHEIIThI
8. MAHHA
9. KPIYJISIHbI
10.TEJIEHEIITbI


Zemstvo postal stations: 3e.ucKue noqmoebie cmanquu:
- SUSLENY 11. 1OKOJITEHhb CHOKOLTENY
- KIPERCHENY 12. HCAKOBA ISAKOVA
- IZVORY 13. BPABHqA BRAVICHA
-CHINISHEUTSY 14. TY30PA TUZORA
-REZINA 15. rAJIEIITbI GALESHTY
- SAMASHKANY 16. XAbIIKOBA DYSHKOVA
-KAZANESHTY 17. MAIUKOYMbI MASHKOUTSY
- MANNA 18. rEPTOn'b-MHKb GERTOP-MIK
- KRIULYANY 19. nEPECBxIEHA PERESECHENA
- TELENESHTY


ccKxu ye3d (c 1887 oba Eejnabqua). Ifenmp yeia topot EJIbH(l.
.,euticenue noqmbl d OocmaeKU vacmnor Koppecnondenquu e ye3) u cye3sa u ucnob3soeanue MapoK 3seMCKio noimbi
fICCKOTO YE3,4A navamo c 1 fbeepaw 1879 zoOa. ,etecmeue notnmb npeKpamuwocb c I oMtn6pr 1879 zoda.
Hoemopnoe deumcenue novmbi u ucnoJiboeanuie 3e.MCKx novmoebL MuapoK npoeoOuJocb c I Jaiapa no I cenma6pA 1881
eoca. nIomoeoe ombenenue sWapbmocb c I Rneaps 1882 zeoa.
District of Yassy (from 1887 Bel'tsy). District centre: the town of Bel'tsy.
The postal flow for the delivery of private mail to and from the district and the usage of stamps of the Yassy District Zemstvo
Post began on 1 February 1879. The service was terminated on 1 October 1879. The second phase and the usage of Zemstvo
postage stamps were carried out from 1 January to 1 September 1881. The postal service was closed down on 1 January 1882.


1. AJIYHHII'b
2. PbIUIKAHOBKA
3. BPATYIIIAHbI
4. 3ABPHIAHbI
5. BAPATHK'b
6. BOJIOTHHO
7. FH1IHMEHbI


- ALUNISH
- RYSHKANOVKA
- BRATUSHANY
- ZABRICHANY
- VARATIK
- BOLOTINO
- GILICHENY


8. rJIOAIAHbI
9. JIHMBEHbI
10. KAJIHHEIIITbI
11. YHrEHH
12. HEFYPEHbI
13. KOPHEIIITbI
14. FJITHIDKEHbI


- GLODYANY
-LIMBENY
- KALINESHTY
-UNGENY
- NEGURENY
- KORNESHTY
- GLINZHENY


CopoKcxui yea. Ieump yewaa zopoo COPOKH.
,suewcenue novmbt oIa OocmaeKu iacmnoa KoppecnoneHnuu e ye3s u cye3a u ucnosnoaoanue MapoK eMcrcWo noqmbl
COPOKCKOFO YE3,fA Hnaamo c 5 anpemu 1879 zooa.
fHcnojab3oeaue 3eMCKaUX nomoebLx MapoK npeKpauzeno c 30 cenms6p6 1901 zeoa.
Hoemopnoe ucnoansoeanue 3eMcrKux noinmosebx apoK npoeoOWuocb c I sneapi no 1 utoI 1910 zooa.
District of Soroki. District centre: the town of Soroki.
The postal flow for the delivery of private mail to and from the district and the usage of stamps of the Soroki District Zemstvo
Post began on 5 April 1879. The usage of Zemstvo postage stamps was terminated on 30 September 1901.
The second usage of Zemstvo postage stamps was carried out from 1 January to 1 July 1910.


1. BAAHMAHbI
2. TEJIEIOBKA
3. APHOHEIIITbI
4. ATAKH
5. KJIHMOYLIbI
6. KOPBYJIb
7. HAYJIb
8. TbIPHOBA
9. IYTYJIEIIITbI
10. BPHMEBO
11. MEHJ4HK
12. IIIYPb
13. HAFYIIIHTA
14. HETPEHbI


- BADICHANY
- TELESHOVKA
- ARIONESHTY
- ATAKI
- KLIMOUTSY
- KORBUL'
- TSAUL'
-TYRNOVA
- CHUTULESHTY
- BRICHEVO
- MENDIK
- SHUR'
- NADUSHITA
-PETRENY


15. H3BOPbI
16. KEflHAPb-BEK'b
17. OKOJIHHA
18. nEnEHbI
19. COJIOHEI'b
20. TEJIEMEYlIbI
21. BACKAYIbI
22. KYqYPEIIITbI
23. PAlIKOB'b
24. KOBbIJIbHSI
25. KOTIO)KAHbI
26. TAPBYlUKAHbI
27. APAFOHEIITbI


- IZVORY
- KEINAR'-VEK
- OKOLINA
- PEPENI
-SOLONETS
- TELEMEUTSY
- VASKAUTSY
- KUCHURESHTY
-RASHKOV
- KOBYL'NYA
-KOTYUZHANY
- TARBUTSKANY
- DRAGONESHTY


* *
THE POST-RIDER/IMII[HK N2 48
June 2001










POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
By Alex Artuchov
SOROKI
COPOKH
(Bessarabia Province)












Soroki is located in the northeast corer of Bessarabia, in a narrow ravine on the banks of
the Dniester River, some 80 miles northwest of the provincial capital of Kishinev. In
1900, the population was 25,523.

Soroki was an important river port which handled the shipment of corn, wool, tobacco,
fruit and cattle. Soroki was originally founded as a Genoese colony. A fort was erected
there by Moldavians in the fifteenth century which was captured nearly two centuries
later by the Poles. In 1711, the city was captured by Peter the Great, later returned to
Turkey and finally annexed by Russia in 1812.

Soroki issued stamps between 1878 and 1898.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Red background with brown castle on top of white water and with white cross above.

1878-1879
20.5 x 26.5 mm lithographed in 4 colours on stiff white paper 0.13 mm thick, white
gum, the spear shaped ornaments are short and blunt, sheet of 7 x 7 with 49 types
differing from each other in the small ornaments next to the word IIOrTbI, perforated
12.5 13.5 in all possible combinations, 2 editions.









8 THE POST-RIDER/I$MIIMHK s 48
June 2001








First Edition (1878, April 3)


1. 3 kop. black, yellow, lilac rose and gray blue

Variety:
White dot after 3EMCKOR (25t stamp on the sheet)

Second Edition (1879, April ?)
Similar to the first edition with 49 types but in changed colours.


2. 3 kop. black, yellow, red brown and gray blue


RRRR
(4 known)


5.00


Variety:
White dot after 3EMCKOI (25th stamp on the sheet)

1880
Similar to the previous issue, the ornaments next to the word IIOHTbI have been
removed, the spear shaped ornaments are longer and more pointed, the stamps are
separated by thin lines, lithographed in 4 colours on various paper, 2 editions.









First Edition (1880, beginning)
Stiff white paper 0.14 mm thick, white or brownish gum, largest known block is 5 x 4,
without sheet margins, perforated 13.0 13.25 and known perforated vertically through
the stamp.


3. 3 kop. black, greenish yellow, carmine red and greenish blue


5.00


Variety:
A variety that is possibly unique is illustrated as part of the Baughman collection. It is a
copy of this stamp with lilac rose rather than carmine red which is the colour of the first
edition of April, 1878.


Second Edition (1880, June ?)
Thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, permeating print, perforated 13.25 and very
poorly at times.


4. 3 kop. black, greenish yellow, carmine red and gray blue


15.00


THE POST-RIDERIIMIIUHK MN 48
June 2001


9









Forgeries:
Forgeries exist on stamps of both editions which are surcharged "2" in all four covers
and the top centre.


1880- 1883
Similar to the previous issue, in changed colours, lithographed in 4 colours on white
paper, largest known block is 6 x 6, without sheet margins, perforated 12.5, 2 editions.

First Edition (1880, end)
Thin stiff paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, perforated 12.5, known imperforate
horizontally, each stamp is framed by thin lines.

5. 3 kop. red (dull or bright), light rose, yellow and gray blue 2.00
on faded stamps the background appears as gray instead of light rose

Varieties:
a. Blue colour of river is inverted and located at the top of the stamp RR ( 12
known).
b. The 2nd C of the work COPOKCKOR is larger (1t stamp of the sheet)
c. A large white dot between the letters O and K of the word COPOKCKOI (13th
stamp on the sheet)



Second Edition (1883, April)
Worn plate, the thin outer framelines are removed and only traces of them can be seen,
the print is often smeared and not clean, the thin lines of the river are barely or not at all
visible, on thick white paper 0.1 mm thick, yellowish white gum, poorly perforated 12.5 .

6. 3 kop. red (dull or bright), light rose, yellow and blue 1.00
at times the colour of the river is gray green or green

Varieties:
a. The 2nd C of the word COPOKCKOLI is larger (1' stamp of the sheet)
b. A prominent scratch across the entire word HnOTbI (13th stamp of the sheet)
c. A white dot between the letters O and K of the word COPOKCKOR (13 stamp
of the sheet)
d. A white dot between the letters O and P of the work COPOKCKOI (23rd stamp
of the sheet)

Proofs or Printers Waste:
3 kop. black on a gray white paper 0.16 mm thick with portions of picture on the
reverse side
3 kop. black on yellow paper 0.07 mm thick, imperforate and without gum



10 THE POST-RIDER/5MIHKJ X 48
June 2001








1885 1887
New design, 21.5 x 26.75 mm, lithographed in 4 colours on white paper, sheet of 7 x 7,
perforated 13.25, 2 editions.








First Edition (1885, October 15)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, brittle brownish gum, perforated 13.25 and also known
imperforate, with guidemarks on the sheet margins as shown below:

On top At sides



7. 3 kop. black, brown, blue and red 2.00


Second Edition (1887, May ?)
Similar to the 1' edition except that the 2nd O in the word COPOKCKOII appears to be
a C, all colours are darker, permeating print on yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick,
white gum, guidemarks on top and bottom sheet margins only, perforated 13.25 and also
known imperforate vertically or completely.

8. 3 kop. black, brown, gray blue and red 3.00


1892 (beginning)
Similar to issue of 1887, the inner oval is smaller, the band with the inscription is wider
and the lettering is larger, the corer numerals are smaller, the windows in the fortress are
larger, 21 x 26.75 mm, lithographed in 4 colours in white paper 0.09 mm thick, white
gum, sheet of 8 x 11 with 5 guide dots arranged as a star on the top and the bottom sheet
margins, perforated 13.25 and imperforate horizontally and completely.

9. 3 kop. dark brown, light yellow brown, gray blue and carmine red 1.00

Proofs:
All without gum and imperforate

Printed in 1 colour on thin white paper 0.07 mm thick
3 kop. black
3 kop. yellow brown


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIHHK N 48
June 2001









Printed on vertically laid paper 0.07 m thick
3 kop. light sea green

Printed in 3 colours on vertically laid paper 0.11 mm thick
3 kop. black, greenish blue and brown
3 kop. black, red brown and gray blue
3 kop. black, red brown and yellow
3 kop. black, yellow and red brown
3 kop. red, yellow and gray blue
3 kop. red, greenish blue and yellow brown
3 kop. indigo blue, red brown and gray blue
3 kop. indigo blue, yellow and red brown
3 kop. indigo blue, greenish blue and red brown
3 kop. dark green, red brown and yellow
3 kop. dark green, yellow and red brown

Printed in 3 colours on lilac paper0.13 mm thick
3 kop. black yellow brown and gray blue


1898 (November ?)
Similar to issue of 1892, the double oval is wider and with thinner letters in the
inscription, the corer numerals are larger, the inscription of value at the bottom has 2
small stars at the sides, the river beneath the fortress is straight and not wavy, 22.5 x 28
mm, lithographed in 3 colours on white paper 0.08 0.12 mm thick largest known
block is 6 x 5, without sheet margins, perforated 13.25 and known imperforate vertically
and with diamond shaped perforations.

10. 3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue and red brown 0.75

Variety:
The blue colour of the river and fortress are inverted, perforated and imperforate.

Proofs:
All without gum and imperforate

Printed in 1 colour on white chalky card stock 0.24 mm thick
3 kop. black

Printed in 2 colours on white paper 0.10 mm thick
3 kop. indigo blue, river and fortress are in gray blue

Printed in 2 colours on coloured paper 0.05 mm thick
Black, river and fortress gate are red brown
3 kop. on brown paper
3 kop. on light green paper


12 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIK J 48
June 2001








3 kop. on bright lilac red paper
3 kop. on bright carmine red granite paper
3 kop. on dark blue granite paper
3 kop. on gray blue paper

Printed in 2 colours on white paper 0.10 mm thick
3 kop. red and lilac blue
3 kop. indian red and lilac blue
3 kop. dark green and red brown kop.
Printed in 2 colours on coloured paper 0.12 mm thick
3 kop. lilac blue and red brown on flesh coloured paper
3 kop. indian red and lilac blue on ochre yellow paper
3 kop. red and green on ochre yellow paper
3 kop. indian red and lilac blue on light blue gray paper
3 kop. indian red and lilac blue on smooth light blue gray paper
3 kop. lilac blue and indian red on blue gray granite paper
3 kop. lilac blue and red brown on blue gray slightly darker paper
3 kop. same as above but with frame shifted to the left by about 4 mm

Printed in 3 colours on white paper 0.11 mm thick
3 kop. red green and lilac blue
3 kop. red green (inverted) and lilac blue
3 kop. indian red, green and lilac blue
3 kop. indian red, blue (inverted) and dark green
3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue (inverted) and red brown
3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue and light yellow brown
3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue and red brown
3 kop. as above but the river bed is without lines
3 kop. dark brown, gray and red brown
3 kop. black, gray and red brown
3 kop. black, lilac blue and red brown

Printed in 3 colours on coloured paper 0.12 mm thick
3 kop. red, gray blue and green on flesh coloured paper
3 kop. dark green, brown and lilac blue on blue green paper
3 kop. dark green, lilac and indian red on bright green paper
3 kop. gold, lilac and indian red on bright green paper
3 kop. indian red, green and lilac blue on blue green granite paper
3 kop. dark green, lilac blue and red brown on blue green granite paper
3 kop. red, green and lilac blue on slightly darker green granite paper

Printed in 3 colours on coloured paper 0.05 mm thick
3 kop. greenish blue, black and red brown on light greenish yellow paper
3 kop. black, red brown and lilac blue on orange red paper




THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK N_ 48 13
June 2001








Printed in 3 colours on yellow card stock 0.18 mm thick
3 kop. black, red and lilac blue

Printed in 3 colours on white, shiny chalk surfaced paper 0.13 mm thick
(yellowish white gum)
3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue and red brown

Printed in 3 colours on white paper 0.10 mm thick, with corer circles
3 kop. indian red, green and lilac blue (frame and corer circles)
3 kop. dark green, red brown (centre and frame) and lilac blue

Printed in 4 colours on white paper 0.11 mm thick
3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue, rose and green
3 kop. indigo blue, gray blue, dark green and violet
3 kop. indigo blue, gray, light brown and green
3 kop. dark brown, gray blue, red brown and green
3 kop. dark brown, gray, red brown and green corerr circles shifted)
3 kop. dark brown, gray, light yellow brown and green


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:

Sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ch 1 2 3 3a 6,7 4,5 8 9 10 11



3EMCKA5I HIOMTA IOJITABCKAFO Y%3JA
The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) postpaid, payable to the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at the Society address.


THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIHK N2 48
June 2001


I





THE PECULIARITIES OF THE POSTAL HANDLING OF INSURED MONEY LETTERS OF
THE UST'-SYSOL'SK ZEMSTVO POST by D.N. Nikitin.

It is generally known that exhaustive information about the fine details of the functions of the Zemstvo
Posts is lacking for the most part and nobody has succeeded yet to this day to recreate the full picture of the
history of the Zemstvo Posts. It is interesting to note that the very methodology for investigating the
Zemstvo Posts on the basis of known circumstances has been established on semi-empirical methods. It is
completely feasible that, with the passage of time, the discovery by collectors of new material of the
Zemstvo Posts leads to the thinking about and the evaluation anew of several previously published facts
and investigations.

A few years ago in a conversation with a well-known collector and expert N. Mandrovskii, we shared some
doubts regarding the possibility of forging money letters of the Zemstvo Post of the Ust'-Sysol'sk County
and we considered the investigations published by M. Minskii [1]. As often happens, the judgements
expressed previously are modified as time goes by, as supplementary data and factual material emerge.
That has also happened in this case. In examining systematically the material of the Ust'-Sysol'sk County
in my possession, I also turned to the article ofM. Minskii referred to above.

In short, Mr. Minskii analysed in his article [1] the covers of two money letters, sent from two different
provinces to the Nebdino District Administration in the Ust'-Sysol'sk County. He stated that both covers
were forged without any doubt. However, in looking at some of the deductions made by him regarding the
rules for delivering money letters, there are many reasons for not agreeing with him that:-
(Conclusion Bl) "...the forwarding of insured letters to the Ust'-Sysol'sk Zemstvo Post in the 1870s has
not been established".
(Conclusion B2) "...the private and official insured letters handed in to the Imperial Postal Service and
subsequently forwarded to the Zemstvo Posts were not franked with stamps".

Let us now turn to the illustration in Fig. 1 on the next page of one of two money letters of the 1st. Period
(1872-1880) in the former collection of O.A. Faberge [2]. This is the cover of a money letter, in which 3
roubles in cash were sent from Perm' (note the postmark of receipt of 11 Sept. 1877 and of dispatch 4 days
later) and passed through the town of Ust'-Sysol'sk. After being handed over to the Zemstvo Post, the
cover was franked with a 3-k. local stamp (Schmidt No. 7). In accordance with the practice at that time, this
stamp was cancelled by pen and then sent to the village of Nebdino in the Ust'-Sysol'sk County. Upon
delivery of this particular letter, the recipient was obliged to pay the value expressed on the affixed stamp.
As a rule, the delivery to the addressee and the payment by him for the relevant postal sending was carried
out directly at the District Administration. We thus see that, already in the 1st. Period when the Zemstvo
Post functioned in the Ust'-Sysol'sk County, the transfer of insured money letters was carried out from the
Imperial Postal Service to the Ust'-Sysol'sk Zemstvo Post (with a tariff of 3 kopeks).

It is notable that Mr. Minskii, in raising his logical interpretation of the Regulations for the Work of the
Zemstvo Posts regarding the franking of money letters, arrived at Conclusion B2 as set out above by
relying on "The Rules for the Acceptance and Despatch of the Zemstvo Mail" of 1892, which were quoted
in the article listed in Reference [3] herewith. Those Rules stated in part that.."money letters, declared
value articles, registered and ordinary letters, wrappers, telegrams and notifications of the post office" were
liable to a charge of 2 kopeks "in stamps" and that for ordinary and registered letters, "the stamps were to
be affixed to those same articles".

In examining the 2nd. Period of the existence of the Zemstvo Postal Service for the Ust'-Sysol'sk County,
starting from 1883, there was a reduction in the rate for an ordinary letter from 3 to 2 kopeks after 1892,
with the introduction of new Rules for the Acceptance and Despatch of the Zemstvo Mail. Two details
should be noted in such despatch, as given by Mr. Minskii in his article [1], namely:-
(a) As of 1888, two cachets began to be utilized with the inscriptions: "OHIJIAHEHO" (= PAID, for mail

THE POST-RIDER/ 1MIIHK M 48 15
June 2001
























Fig. 3.


Fig. 4.


0


I





sent fom the county) and "HEOIlJIAHEHO" (= UNPAID, for mail sent to the county).
(b) As of 1889, the Zemstvo Assembly introduced the requirements of "acceptance at the Zemstvo Postal
Service of registered mail upon payment of 2 kopeks for the letter and 3 kopeks for the receipt".

We find again in the 2nd. Period a confirmation of the fact that money letters were franked (see Fig. 2 on the
previous page). This cover from my collection (one of two examples known) was sent from the Irbit
County to the Vorontsovo District of the Ust'-Sysol'sk County with the enclosure of 1 rouble in cash. As
we see, the letter arrived at the Imperial Postal Station of the town of Ust'-Sysol'sk on 2.2.1889 and was
then handed over to the Zemstvo Post, where it was franked with a local 2-kopek stamp (Schmidt No. 22)
and cancelled with an oval cachet, reading "HEOnJIAHEHO". Upon arrival at its final destination, the
letter was marked with the seal of the Vorontsovo District Administration.

In addition to this fact, what is remarkable is that Mr. Minskii, in a much earlier article [4], shows the cover
of a similar money letter (the second of two known examples), which had been discovered in the collection
of the late M.V. Liphschutz (see Fig. 3 on the previous page and Reference [5]). However, the conclusion
B2 reached by Mr. Minskii is completely contradictory to the obvious fact that stamps of the Zemstvo Post
were applied to money letters, received from the Imperial Postal Service for delivery within the county.

In conclusion, I am showing in Fig. 4 yet another money sending from my collection, belonging to the 3rd
Period of the activity of the Zemstvo Post in the Ust'-Sysol'sk County (from 1892 to 1917). This letter was
sent with a enclosure of 5 roubles 35 kopeks from somewhere in the county to its capital at Ust'-Sysol'sk,
being franked with a 2-kopek local stamp (Schmidt No. 42) and postmarked on arrival at the Ust'-
,Sysol'sk Zemstvo Service with an oval marking dated 26 Oct. 1911 (the blank space at left is part of the
page on which the cover is mounted and covers some text).

In summing up, I believe it necessary to state that, throughout the entire period the Zemstvo Posts
functioned in the Ust'-Sysol'sk County from 1 February 1872 [3] to 1917, the franking existed on private
money sending, both in being transferred to the county from the Imperial Postal Service, as well as in
being dispatchedfrom the county.

References:
The catalogue numbers are taken from the work by C. Schmidt: "Die Postwertzeichen der Russischen
Landschaftsimter", Berlin-Scharlottenburg, 1932.
[1] M.MHHCKHHi."aJIrAcCH HKaTI geHeMabmix KOHBepTOB 3eMCKOfi nOqTbI", "iHJIaTejIHa", 1993,
X- 12,c. 46
[2] Oleg A. Faberg6. "Imperial Russia Zemstvo Post". Philatelic Federation of Finland, 1993, p.377.
[3] K). PyAHHKOB, "HoBoe o 3eMCKOi nIO'Te H ee MapKax","CoB. KojuneKIaoHep", 1974, 3_ 12, c. 48.
[4] M. MHHCKHii, "HeoxamaHHaa (paHKHpOBKa 3eMCKHX IeHHbIX g8enexcHbix nnceM", " CCCP", 1986, No 1, c. 34.
[5] M. JInqlHuio. "3eMcKaa noqTa", "PocCHKa", 1965, JNX 68, c. 5.

Editorial Comment: Mr. Nikitin, our contributor from Odessa, has raised some interesting questions in
this article and comments are invited from the CSRP membership on the following points.

1.Your editor has been concerned for some time about Zemstvo stamps affixed to money letters and
bearing markings that do not tie such adhesives to the covers. The item from the former Oleg A. Faberge
collection and shown here in Fig. 1 is a good case in point, albeit apparently a genuine usage.
2. It would be interesting to know how postal agencies in the District Administrations handled money
letters, since 5 wax seals had to be placed on the backs and a commission charged on the money sent.
3. Would it have been possible to send a Zemstvo-to-Zemstvo money letter with corresponding Zemstvo
stamps, but NO Imperial postage, as money letters in that service were paid for in cash? Think about it!
*
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N2 48 17
June 2001







THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP OF RANK-AND-FILE MAIL IN THE RUSSIAN NAVY DURING
WW1 (1914-1918) [Conclusion] by Vladimir Berdichevskii and Meer Kossoy.


TABLE 1.


Text-
TeKcr ueH3ypHoR neiaTH
MJnH uTreMneJni


CENSORSHIP CACHETS WITH THE NAMES OF SHIPS
LjEH3YPHbIE HEATH C HA3BAHWIMH KOPABJIEi
_ Ship/shore name Despatch date Arrival date Period of use Colour.
Ha3BaHMe KOpa6nj nn n I KaneHAapHbli KaneHnapHufi llepHon ticnonb- LterT ueH-


6eperoeoUi qacTH BMD


mTeMfnejb
oTnnaBneHHfl


mTeMnenib npN6blTHA


30BaHHA


3ypHOi
neqaTH


TABJIHIIA 1


Scale of rarity
OpHerHTpoBoM-
Has peClKOCTI


MN Fig.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1.1. Prosmotreno/na 6-a poTa JIHHeiHaro reJnCHHr- IHeTporpaai 5.-7.1915 V, S 5 1.1.;
lineinom kor.(able) Kopa6nj (opci 30.7.15 1.1.A.
"Poltava" 11.8.15
Examined/ on the 6" company of the
battleship "Poltava" Battleship
"POLTAVA"
1.2. Prosmotreno sud.(ovoy) BcnoMoraT.(ejbHmli) HIHK N2 PHra 11.1916 V 5 1.2.A.
(*) cenzur.(oy)/vsp.(omoga- Kpeficep. >
telnogo) kr.(eisera) Kapni> 26.11.16-
"Korol Karl" Auxiliary cruiser (FPO XN
Examined by the ship's "King Karl" 158 >)
censorship/of the auxili-
ary cruiser "King Karl"
1.3. Kanonerskaya lodka/ KAHOHEP.(CKASI) --- opoAmiue KieB. 10.1915 V 5 1.3.
(*) "KUBANETS" JIOJKA Gunboat/ HELb>>./HAKETb 25.10.15
"KUBANETS" GUNBOAT "KU-
BANETS'"
PACKAGE
1.4. Cenzura/ Kr.(eiser) KPEIICEP'b/ (*) "Askold" KOJIh'b> > nt 1.4.A.
Censorship/ Cruiser CRUISER/ "AS- neTporpaah
"Askold" KOLD" 2.3.16
1.5. Kreiser "Varyag"/pro- KPEICEPb --- BenHAem, 7.1.17 12.1916- V 5 1.5.A.
(*) smotreno sudovoy > 1.1917
cenzuroy CRUISER
Cruiser "Varyag"/ exa- "VARYAG"
mined by the ship's
censorship
1.6. Prosmotreno cenzuroy/ JInH.(eiiHaro) Kop. InnK .N Herporpai, 10.1916 V 5 1.6.A.
(*) l.(ineinago) k.(orablya) (a6ni)/ 158 <(e>
"IMP.(ERATRITSA) < MARIA" MAPISL> (FPO MN
Examined by the cen- Of the battleship/ 158 )
sorship/ of the battle- "EMPRESS
ship "EMPRESS MARIA"
MARIA"
1.7. CENZUROVAL/ C,- At;icTByiomuaro renbcHHr- KpoHurraxnm 5.1915 V 5 1.7.
(*) komandir 6 roty/ lin.(ei- InIoTa./ nemaT, / 4opc,
nago) kor.(ablya) "IMP. au / naKerToaB 13.5.15
(ERATOR) Pavel I" From the Active
CENSORED/ 6th com- Fleet./ Seal/ for/ the
pany's commander/ of packages
the battleship "EMPE-
ROR Pavel I"
1.8. Prosmotreno/na trans- TpaHcnopTb m. 16 -- OAecca 8.11.16 11.1916 V 5 1.8.
(*) porte No. 16/ Podpis... BOJIbBeproHI.
Examined on the trans- Transport No. 16
port No. 16/Signa- Volverton
ture...


VOYENNAYA/ CEN-
ZURA/"NIKOLAEV"
MILITARY/CENSOR-
SHIP/ "NIKOLAEV"


FOCHHTAJIbHOE
CYAHO JIAEB>> /A Ml/
IAKETOB'I
HOSPITAL SHIP
"NIKOLAEV"/
FOR/PACKAGEIS


MapiHHcK...
ToMCK.(ry6.)
26.1.15


1.-7.1915


- J I ______ _-_I I _


18 THE POST-RIDER/aIMIHK N 48
June 2001






2
PROSMOTRENO/
Kr.(eiser) "Admiral
MAKAROV"
EXAMINED/ Cruiser
"Admiral MAKAROV"


KPEICEPA ((AA-
MHPAJIt
MAKAPOB'h>/ 4-a
POTA
CRUISER "ADMI-
RAL MAKAROV"/
A' rh'rMVA'DV


4
ABO
21.10.15


5
rlomexoHbe
.Ipocnas. (ry6.)
11.11.15


6
11.1915


71 8
-V I 5`


1.11. Vskryto voyenno-mor- rinaByqaa Ka3apMa TanAoMT. Tep. 10.-11.1916 V 5 1.11.
(*) skoy cenzuroy/ N 1. (ciofi) (ry6.)
1916 g. cenzor Floating barrack 21.10.16
P.K.No.1 No.l.
Opened by naval
censorship / 1916
censor P.K. No. 1
1.12. PROSMOTRENO/ROT- 3CKAJAPEHHIbI --- -- 1916 V 5 1.12.A.
NYM KOMANDIROM MHHOHOCEI'b [13]
/MIN.(ONOSTSA) (
"POGRANICHNIK" DESTROYER
EXAMINED/ by the "POGRANICHNIK"
COMPANY'S COM-
MANDER/ DES-
TROYER "POGRA-
NICHNIK" ("FRON-
TIER GUARD")
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1.13 PROSMOTR.(ENO) BoeHHUbl TpaHCn. ? XAPbKOBb 7.1916 V + ink 5 1.13.
(*) CENZUROY/ tr. (oprb) (ansport) rTaan,>> /JUISI /
"KRONSHTADT" + TIAKETOB
Handmade censor's military transport
surname. "Kronshtadt"/ FOR/
EXAMINED BY THE PACKAGES
CENSORSHIP/ of the
transport "KRON-
SHTADT' + handmade
censor's surname


IIpmiMeviaHRa K Ta6Jime I
1.2. B5N
1.3. BSS
1.4. H3 xOJAieKIEI H.lpyJKIHHIHa /POCCHi/.
B rTOT nepaHo /c 25..II9I6r./ xpeiicep HaxoA ica B nop-
Ty TyxoH /0paHTuKI/. 06 3TOM ynoMHHyTO H B TeXcTe Ha
nowrToofi KapTroKe,
I.5.8 .TeKCTrez eeTca o6paTHud azpec : ApxaHreaLcsKoi ry6.,
rop. Pomatos,, Kpe~ceps "Baprai".
1.6. BSN/
1.7. H1a xo.iueeK IH..pyx~BHma /Pocc/.
1.8. BS/V
1.10. M3a xoJuexIU H.i.py mHiHa /POCCex/.
I.II. PacmxHpe nepnoA npmeHeasHa.
UIxipa "6" BnxcaHa OT pyIn.
I.eHaypuaH nenaTL ~I.II. onacaHa B [3,p.465,Fig.6],
[4,p.299,Type 2].


NOTES FOR TABLE 1.
1.2. BSN.
1.3. BSN.
1.4. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia). In this period from
25.1.1916, the cruiser was at the port of Toulon,
France and this is noted in the text on the postcard.
1.5. The return address of "Arkhangel'sk province, town of
Romanov, cruiser 'Varyag' is noted in the text.
1.6. BSN.
1.7. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
1.8. BSN.
1.10. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
1.11. Period of usage extended. Figure "6" written by
hand. Bears censorship marking No. 1.11, described
in Ref. 3, p. 465, Fig. 6 & Ref. 4, p. 299, p.2.
1.13. The cover shown in Fig. 1.13 is a copy and taken
from Ref. 17 in reduced size.


1.13. BSN. H3o6parKeHne KoHBepTa Ha Fig. 1.13, ainmerc KCAonHner, 3aHMCTBOBaHHOfi
H3 [17] B TOM we (yMeHImeHHnOM) Macurra6e. THE POST-RIDER/IMIIK N 48

June 2001


9
1.10.A.


I


I I I






TABJIHUA 2


TABLE 2.


Text
TeKCT ueH3ypHOR neqaTH
Hli iuTeMnejn


INDIVIDUAL SHIP CENSORSHIP CACHETS AND MARKINGS
YHHOHQM HPOBAHHbIE HEH3YPHbIE CYAOBbIE IIEMATH H UITEMHEJIA
S Ship/shore name Despatch date Arrival date Period of use Col
Ha3BaHne Kopa6ji nun KaneHaapHbif KaneHnapHnui nepHon ncnojn- Ler
6eperoBof qaCTH BMI mTeMnei miTeMneJb npn6brTHA 30BaHHA ypHC
I I noTnnannenHHl neaiT


our
ueH-


Scale of rarity
OpHeHTHpoBO4-
Han pefKOCTb


N2 Fig.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2.1. PROSMOTRENO/ SU- --- Prma 2.6.15 AtJicTByionmIi 6.1915 V 5 2.1.;
(*) DOVOY CENZUROY (JnoTb Barrr. 2.1.A.
EXAMINED/ BY THE Mops, CyzHO
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP 2.2. PROSMOTRENO/ SU- Y9EBHOE CYA- Koivisto- Serbia, 9.1915 V 5 2.2.
(*) DOVOY CENZUROY HO/ HETP'b E3bpKa Kraguevatz
EXAMINED/BY THE BEJIHKIH 9.9.15
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP TRAINING VES-
SEL/ PETER the
GREAT
2.3. PROSMOTRENO/SU- AIt'CTBYIOIIFI --- PaKKe 3cTn. 1.1916 R 5 2.3.
(*) DOVOY CENZUROY OJIOTh (naicKoii) (ry6.)
EXAMINED/BY THE OPERATING 7.1.16
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP (ACTIVE) FLEET
2.4. PROSMOTRENOSU- JIHHEMHbIH KO- HHK NM HerporpafLh 3.1916 V 5 2.4.A.
(*) DOVOY/ CENZUROY PABJIb/ 158
EXAMINED BY THE EBCTAOIH 27.3.16-
SHIP'S/CENSORSHIP BATTLESHIP (FPO X
EVSTAFIY 158 ((e)
2.5. Prosmotreno sudovoy/ 3CKAAPEH.(HbIM) FenbcaHr- IepHoBa 4.3.16 3.1916 R 5 2.5.A.
Cenzuroy MHHOHOCELIb/ 4)opci
Examined by the ship's/ Fai aaMaKib. 14.3.16
Censorship DESTROYER/
Gaidamak.
2.6 Prosmotreno sudovoy a) 3CKAPEH- FenbcHur- fleTporpaj, 4/1916 V 5 2.6.A.
(*) cenzuroy HbIl MMHOHO- 4opc,
Examined by the ship's CE'b/ CTOPO)KE- 3.4.16
censorship BOH
DESTROYER/
STOROZHEVOY

(*) -"- b) MHHOHoceu-b FreJbCHHr- IeTporpa 5.1915 V 5 2.6.b.
JIOBKIIH> d)opc,
Torpedo-boat "LOV- 8.5.15
KIY" ("Adroit")

(*) ------- c) Mine-layer "Gro- ? ? 12.1916 V 5 [4, p.
mjashchiy" 299-
300,
typ
10]
2.7. Prosmotreno/ sudovoy 3CKAAPEH.(HblI) --- Ierporpaiab 5.1916 (?) V 5 2.7.
cenzuroy MHHOHOCEIb/
Examined/ by the ship's MocKBHTAHHH,
censorship DESTROYER/
Moskvitianin
2.8. PROSMOTRENO/ SU- Yqe6Haro cyAHa --- Tyna BoK3ajr 5.1916 V 5 2.8.
(*) DOVOY CENZUROY (// 1-asl 22.5.16
EXAMINED/ BY THE POTA
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP Training vessel "Oke
an"/lst/COMPANY
2.9. PROSMOTRENO/Su- blIHCTBYIOIII -- KpoHnmra 5.1916 V 5 2.9.
(*) dovoy cenzuroy. AoJIOTb 10.5.16
EXAMINED/ by the OPERATING
Ship's censorship. (ACTIVE) FLEET_____
2.10. PROSMOTRENO SU- 3CKAAPEHHblA --- Banim 11.6.16 6.1916 V 5 2.10.A.
DOVOY/ CENZU- MHHOHOCEL-b/
ROY. JIHXOIR
EXAMINED BY THE DESTROYER/
SHIP'S/ CENSOR- LIHOI ("Valiant")
SHIP.

20 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK Ne 48
June 2001






1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2.11. Prosmotreno sudovoy/ HAPTI1I TPAJI. HHK X2 GeonociA TaBp. 9.1916 V 5 2.11.A.
(*) cenzuroy (EHII) MHH'b 158 (a>> (Hnecroii) r.
Examined by the ship's/ 3AFP.(AXCjEHI1) 2.9.16 (y6epHHH) 3.9.16
censorship qEPH.(OMOPCKA (FPO X.
FO) HOPTA 158 )
MINE-SWEEPING
PARTY OF THE
BLACK SEA PORT
2.12. PROSMOTRENO/ SU- TPAHCHOPTb/ (HeMoe)> JIeani 3crT. 9.1916 V 5 2.12.A.
(*) DOVOY CENZUROY (JIHEABA> rameHHe (iHAtCKofi ry6ep-
EXAMINED/BY THE TRANSPORT/ PeBeni HHH) 3.9.16
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP "LIBAVA" 3.9.16
2.13. PROSMOTRENO SU- fltrmcyiomiii -- Kponmirnra 2 1 9.1916 V 5 2.13.
(*) DOVOY CENZUROY (JnoTr 12.9.16
EXAMINED BY THE Operating (Active)
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP Fleet__
2.14. PROSMOTRENO/SU- TpaHcnop- < (*) DOVOY CENZUROY Bepx. FUaBH. B.K. 4.12.16
EXAMINED/BY THE HHKOJIAfI HHKO-
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP JIAEBHqb>>
Transport "...NIKO-
LAI NIKOLA-
EVICH"
2.15. Prosmotreno/ sudovoy Yqe6Haro cyanHa Ierporpara 1.1917 V 5 2.15.A.
cenzuroy (/4-aa/
Examined/ by the ship's POTA
censorship Training vessel
"Okean"/ 4th
COMPANY
2.16. prosmotreno sudovoy/ JIHn.(efiimi) Kop. HIK NK Y4a (?) 20.1.17 1.1917 V 5 2.16.A.
(*) cenzuroy (a6in) (IoaHHL 158 low
examined by the ship's/ 3naToycTb>/7-a/ 15.1.17-
censorship POTA (FPO NK
Battleship "loann 158 ,)
Zlatoust"/7'h/
COMPANY
2.17. PROSMOTRENO/SU- 143n ttiicByromuaro --- rancarm 4.2.17 2.1917 V 5 2.17.
(*) DOVOYU CENZU- inora
ROYU From the operating
EXAMINED/BY THE (active) fleet
SSHIP' CENSORSHIP_______________
2.18. Prosm.(otreno) sudov. 3CKAPEHHbIl/ -- ancaib 26.5.16 5.1916 V 5 2.18.A.
(*) (oy) cenz.(uroy) MHHOHOCEI'b/
Examined by the ship's BHAiHbI4>
censorship DESTROYER/
"VIDNIY"
("Visible")
2.19. Sudovoy cenzuroy/ KoMaHra/IIITABA/ FrencHHr- Herporpaai, 4.1915 V 5 2.19.;
(*) prosmotreno. KoMaHyloywnaro/ (lopc. 2.19.A.
By the ship's censor- unloToMw/E.(anrrHi- 30.4.15
ship/ examined. cKaro) M.(ops)
Party/of the Baltic
Sea Navy/ Comman-
der-in-Chiefs/Staff
2.20. PROSMOTRENO/SU- jltficTByioniii -- Cecrpopturc 8.1916 V 5 2.20A.
DOVOY CENZUROY/ OjioTbr/fleaTb/al / C.H.B.
Rotniy komandir naKceron
EXAMINED/ BY THE Operating (Active)
SHIP'S CENSORSHIP/ Fleet/Seal/for/
Company commander packages
2.21. Provereno sudovoy/ fltHCTBYIOIIII reFe CHHr- KpoHlirrajr 4.1916 V 5 2.21.A.
cenzuroy SJIOTh! dns/ opci
Checked by the ship's/ HaIaxerom 11.4.16
censorship OPERATING
(ACTIVE) FLEET/
For/Packages


THE POST-RIDER/IMIflHK No 48
June 2001








1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2.22. PROSMOTRENO/ 3/poTa/nunHeiHaro FenJbCnlr- HeTporpaai 6.-7.1915 V 5 2.22.;
korabelnoy cenzuroy Kopa6jia/ 4Qopci, 2.22.A.
EXAMINED/ by the > 18.6.15
warship's censorship 3/company/of the
battleship/ "Petro-
pavlovsk"
2.23. Prosmotreno voyennoy/ TPAHCnOPTb --- Peaenb 3.12.15 12.1915 B 5 2.23.A.
cenzuroy na korable. (JIIOCH>>
Examined by military/ TRANSPORT
censorship on the ship. "LUCY"
2.24. Procenzurovano 3CKAAPEH.(HbIH) -- PeBenb 20.6.16 6.1916 V 5 2.24.A.
Censored MHHOHOCEITb/
Ka3aHeub.
DESTROYER/
Kazanets.
2.25. Prosmotreno/ Rotnym 3CKAPEHHbII --- Peaenb 11.1915 V 5 2.25.
(*) komandirom MHHOHOCEI.b
Examined/by the
Company commander DESTROYER
"VOYSKOVOY"_
2.26. PROSMOTRENO/ C' fABt1CTBYIO- ( HeTporpa1,b 1.1917 R+ black 5 2.26.;
Kap. I r. LUATO OJIOTA raumeHe ink 2.26.A.
EXAMINED/ FROM THE OPER- 4.1.17
Cap.(tain) ATING (ACTIVE)
FLEET
2.27. PROSMOTRENO/ za IHHeiHHblii Kopa6jn --- eTporpaal 2.1917 V+ black 5 2.27.;
K-rom I roty/ CJIABA>/1-si/ ink 2.27.A.
michman/... POTA
EXAMINED/ I com- Battleship "SLA-
pany Commander p.p./ VA" ("Glory")/ 1t/
midshipman/ ... COMPANY
2.28. VOYENNAYA/ FOCHHTAJIbHOE --- IeTporpaal 3.1915 V 5 2.28.
(*) CENZURA CYAHO HHKO- 17.3.15
MILITARY/ JIAEB'b>>/AJI5
CENSORSHIP IAKETOB'b
HOSPITAL SHIP
"NIKOLAEV"'FOR
/ PACKAGES
2.29. Cenzurovano/ Koman- Yqe6HO-MHHmHbf --- MocKBa 12.1915 V 5 2.29.A.
(*) dirom 5 roty oTrpaA/5-s/POTA
Censored/ by the 5T Mine-training de-
company Commander tachment/5th/
COMPANY
2.30. Cenzurovano/Koman- Yme6HO-MHHHaro MioJmrpa6eH, 9.1916 V 5 2.30.;
dirom 10 roty. orTp3a./10-/ POTA JIH4n(.(AHACKoii 2.30.A.
Censored/ by the 10'h Of the Mine-Train- ry6.) 4.9.16
company Commander. ing detachment./l 0h
/COMPANY
2.31. Cenzurovano/Koman- At~icTByIlomi~ --- Ip1eBo CMon. 12.1916 V 5 2.31.
dirom 15 roty. jnoiT./fleqar/tjU/ (eHCKoii ry6.)
Censored/ by the 15'" HaKrToBl, 21.12.16
company Commander. Operating (Active)
fleet./Seal/for/
Packages
2.32. Cenzuroval Komandir C'bI AtCTBYIO- PmI6HHCKil 10.1915 V 5 2.32.
roty IuArO OJIOTA/ 3.10.15
Company Commander IIAKETb
censored FROM THE OPER-
ATING (ACTIVE)
FLEET/ PACKAGE
2.33. Prosmotreno/ sudovoy CTOPO)KEBOE --- HunonaeBi 6.1917 V+ black 5 2.33.;
(*) komitet/ CYJ1HO/ dTPH~lb> 15.6.17 ink 2.33.A.
Praporshch. (...)/ PATROL SHIP/
8/VI-917 "GRIF" ("Gryphon")
Examined/ ship's
committee/ Ensign(...)/
8/VI-917

22 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHIK 48
June 2001



































lpiamie'iaarr K Tadjinme 2
2.I.Hano'roro~oKapTowiaeTaKxe ml-uiHHaH neH3ypHaq neiaTL
lBudopra [14].
2.2. 13 KOXcIesutrnX H.4IpysiHIHa /POCCsIR/.
0rIAH M3 HemHOrxx HI3BeCTHUX npinmepOB rextnjHapoAwo1i nox-.
TOBOR KoppecnOHAei*uM. nIHOB B1i6, RIPOCMOTpeHHO2 CYAOBOfI
ileH3ypOR, a 3aTema Ox 0ecccog BoeHHOiA iteHsypoAi 1J257
[4,p.II4,Type 73. 3TO, BMHlNo, CB313aHO C WaPilpyTOi-i
,LACTaBR~i4meKIWTHapoiIHoti KoppednorH~eHuIi MS PoccxIx B Cep-
dim xiepes Oxeccy. 3TOT rOPoA 6Wi OAHMM H3 8 flyHXTOB,
rite npOK3BOAMCH IAeH3ypmi12 IlpOCA6OTp ievegyHapo2AHOr1
KoppecrioH.eHu MH [15,p.57].
2.3. fle'iaTL no BejW noxoxl Ha Ri2.2.,Pii.8 [3.p.4653,
Type 4 [4,p.3001. Ho Bce OHM OTAMH,'Ia.BTcz fdeuci codoji,
WTO BM4HO H13 cxeirylotetl Tadxmwl:
pa~~e --------------- saio iAxrs
picT. XBa IL3EI~ In~~~~
6YRB "T" /nepnofl cppoxw/
i /n i"IIPOC8O1TPbIr7" li&V a "1" /BTOPOR CTPO/


2.2. 35 I


2.3. 30,5


Fig.&. 355 T


Type 4 36,5 T
LA~
B TO Ie BPeoui Fig .8 H Type 4 /McnoJL30oanaBnecH, FaX BRX1-
HO 153 onlscaHti B COOTfeTTBYLOnjin RCTOIHmcKaX, Ha OAtHOM H TOM
zKe dposeiocyom xopadjIe "I4Mnep;rop AxesccaH~ip II" Ba1ITHRcrOro

TffE POST-RIDER/IIMEIJ N2N
June 2001


NOTES FOR TABLE 2.
2.1. The machine censorship marking of Vyborg is also
shown on the postcard (Ref. 14).
2.2. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia). One of the few
known examples of international mail from the
ranks of the Imperial Navy, examined by the
censorship aboard ship, then by Odessa Military
Censor No. 257 (Ref. 4, p. 114, Type 7). That was
apparently linked with the delivery route for
international mail from Russia to Serbia via Odessa.
That city was one of the 8 points where the
examination of international mail was carried out
(Ref. 15, p. 57).
2.3. The marking is similar to that for No. 2.2, Fig. 8
(Ref. 3, p. 465), Type 4 (Ref. 4, p. 300). But all
of them differ from each other, as can be seen from
the table herewith:-
The second column shows the length of the word
"IIPOCMOTPBHO".
The third column shows the positions of the two
letters indicated in the first and second lines.

Judging from the descriptions in the corresponding
sources, Fig. 8 and Type 4 were applied on the
battleship "Imperator Aleksandr II" of the Baltic
Fleet and may be distinguished from each other by
the style of a couple of letters: "Y" and "3", also
by the dot at the end of the 2". line (Fig. 8). Both
cachets used in different periods: Fig. 8 in 1917
Ref. 3) and Type 4 in 1915.







48


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2.34. Provereno cenzuroy ABIAUIOHHbII IIINK N Onecca 22.9.17 9.1917 V 5 2.34.A.
(*) Checked by censorship KOPABJIb
ITYBJIHKAHEr'b> 17.9.17 -
THE AIRCRAFT (FPO NX
CARRIER "RES- 158 e>>)
PUBLIKANETS"
("The Republican")
2.35. PROSMOTRENO/NA/ AticTrByiomifi nHaanoBci. 11.1916- V 5 [4, p.
(*) KORABLE @nioTb EarrificKaro 22.11.16 3.1917 300,
EXAMINED/ ON/ Mops!/ A nndnceM. Type
THE SHIP Operating (Active) 12]
fleet of the Baltic
Sea/ For/ letters
2.36. PROSMOTRENO SU- 2-A MOPCKAI FenbcHHr- --- 4.1916 (?) + ink 5 2.36.
(*) DOVOY/CENZUROY fIAPTII TPAJIE- Qopci. [16]
Praporshch. G.Mulberg HIM. TP. (AJIb- 25.4.16
EXAMINED BY THE IIMHK') X2 5.
SHIP'S/ CENSORSHIP 2"d SEA MINE-
Ensign G.Mulberg SWEEPING
PARTY. MINE-
S SWEEPER No. 5
2.37. Provereno sudovoy/ HarmBHOfi napoxona Newcastle, 1914 5 2.37.
(*) cenzuroy. <3JIbBPYC'1) England [12]
Checked by the ship's/ Supply oil tanker
censorship. "ELBRUS"







lOTra/ oTWjMairTCRa Mexly co0oii pa3MepdMH, HaniHaHMeM HeKOTO-
puX dyKB- "Y", "3", HaJImqMeM B KOHUe II CTpOKI TORMK /Fi'.8/,
paSHUM cpoXaMH npmteHeHMl- Fiq .8/3.1917/, Type4/I915/.
2.4. Ms KOJeKIU H. V.JpyXlU4aHa /PoccWI/.
BSN
B cjose "IIPOC:10TPtH0"- dyiBa "t".
B aHaxaormaHOi neiaTH Type 19[5,p.5I] Ha aTOM .iecTe CTORT
dyKBa "E". M.6. oumndca?
2.6.a. 1. UeH3ypHbie neqaTH 2.6.a., 2.6.b. H 2.6.c. nonHOCTbKO HxeHTHHbl Me ,y
2.6.b. co6ofi.
2.6.c.

2. CpaBHHBaan aHHabe, npHBeneHHbie B nHTepaType [19, 20], a TaloKe AocTyn-
Hbe HaM selmH (2.6.a. H 2.6.b.), MOW)HO saKm onHT, ITo:
a) Bce OHn npHHnane>KaT Kopa6naM Knacca CHMO OT HannHCH Ha cny)Ke6HoM mTeMnene, cTroSmeM Ha Kam0OH H3
noHTOBbix KapToqeK;
b) Bce TpH 3CMHHUa BXOnHJIH a cocTaB BanTHfCcKoro 4unoTa;
c) onlHOBpeMeHHo (10.10.1907) 6bnn nepeHcneH)I B KJnaIc ;
d) B nepnon I MHponBoi BOflHb 6a3HpoBanjHC B rFenJbcHHriopce.

Focnee cKa3aHHoro MO)KHO C AlaTb npeanoJno eHHe o AByx npHuHHax HAneHTHnHocTH
paccMaTpHBaeMbix UeH3ypHbix neIaTeiB.
1. BO3MOKHO, 'TO UeH3ypa noqTOBLix oTrrpaBjeHHu 'neHoB 3KHna)eiA 3THX
3CMHHuneB npOBonHnacb He Ha caMHX Kopa6Jax, a, HanpHMep, B Wra6e
coewAHeHHa, B KOTOpoe OHH MOr.H BXO2AHTL.
2. BO3MO)1HO, ITO B MacTepcKOli 66bIO 3aKa3aHO H H3rOTOBqJeHO HCCKOJIKO
onHHaKOBbIX UeH3ypHbLX neiaTen, nepenaaHHIX AnA HcnOJIb30BaHHA Ha
Kopa6njH oHoro (?) coenAHeHHa.
2.8. IleTaTL no Bimy noxoxa Ha 12.17. OTJIHmaq BSIHH lu 1 cJIeAy-
louqeH TadaJHIH:

IIapaMeTp JjllHa I lmHa II BHcoTa OTHOCHTejLHoe
CTpOKX, lvI CTpOKH, MM neqaTM, Mti noAoxeHme dyK-
.,au "0" /B CIO
Be ".IPO0CIOTPt-
HO"/ x dyxmBi
"P" /B CJ1oBe
S n/n "UEH3yPOi0"/


2.8. 35,5 51,7 II
P
2.17. 36,5 54,5 12



2 .9. IIeIaT oneHm noxoxa Ha Type 7[4,p.300].
OTJiraqe: y AJ2.9. B KOHne HlImHeV CTpOKH CTOMT TOEa ".".
2.1. M3 KOJMiexiuIn H.ZpyxaJMHa /PocCMs/.
5SN
2.12. 13 KoJnneKIu H.Apy.uHmna /PoccZa/.
B TeKCTe- "Taefinnas" ia acTOHCKOM nH3ae.
..I3. UeH3ypHaa neJaTL M2.I3. aHajiorrHa ineHsypHo0 neqaTH
Type 22[5,p.51], HO npHMeHeHa B.mecTe c BXOsIHO uteHBypHoV
nevaT,!O KpioHmTaHTa *2I [4, p.72, Type 2j ] nepeBoAHUM
mTeMnejeM JIm I)HKecani AaTU npoBeAeHMHH eHsypu /fineaz
datestamp/ "12 ceH".
. .14. 1eeHsypHaM neqaTB Jo2.I4. noxoaa no HanzcaHIio mpij.)Ta Ha
Type 14 [4,p.300].
OTIa sa :
I/ B )2.I4. Be 6yKBu oaHofi BUCOTr, a B Type 14 Kax-


2.4. I. Druzhinin Collection.
BSN.
Note the letter "'B" in the word "IIPOCMOTPTIHO".
In a similar marking Type 19 (Ref.5, p. 51), the
letter "E" appears instead and is a possible mistake.
2.6a,b,c. 1. All three censorship cachets are identical.
2. Comparing the data given in the literature
(References 19 & 20), it may be concluded that:
a) All of them originated from the "destroyer"
class of ships, independently of the
inscriptions on the official cachets placed on
each of the postcards.
b) All three destroyers formed part of the Baltic
Fleet.
c) They were all listed as destroyers at the same
time (10.10.1907).
d) During the WWl period, they were based at
Helsingfors/Helsinki.
In view of the foregoing, one may now suggest two
reasons for the similarity of the censorship cachets
which have been examined:
1. It is possible that the censorship of mail from crew
members of these destroyers was carried out not on
very ships but apparently at the Staff HQ of the
squadron of which they formed part.
2. It is possible that several similar censorship marks
were ordered from and prepared at the cachet
workshop and then handed over for use on the
ships of a single(?) squadron.
2.8. A cachet similar to No. 2.17. The differences between
2.8 & 2.17 are given in the table herewith, the 2nd.
column giving the length of the 1l. line in mm., the
3"r. column that for the 2"d. line in mm., the 4". column
giving the height of the cachets and the last column
the positions of the letters "0" and "P" in the words
"HIPOCMOTPBHO" and "IEH3YPOIO".
2.9. This cachet is very similar to Type 7 (Ref. 4, p. 300).
Trait: in No. 2.9, there is a dot "." at the end of the
lower line.
2.11. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
BSN.
2.12. 1. Druzhinin (Russia).
The word "Tallinnas" appears in the Estonian text.
2.13. The censorship cachet No. 2.13 is similar to that of
Type 22 (Ref. 5, p. 51) but was used together with
the receiving censorship cachet No. 21 of
Kronshtadt (ref. 4, p. 72, Type 2)) and a changeable
stamp for specifying the date the censorship was
carried out, namely "12 Sept." (linear datestamp).


LAoe CJIOBO aHa aeTca c doaismor /sarJIaBHOi/ dyKBu;
THE POST-RIDER/IIMII NK Ns 48
June 2001






2/ AWIHH CTpOK(MM):


j BepxHaa cTpoKa !MiMea cTpoxa

2.14. 35 38

Type 14 31 44,5

.16. Is KOJieKxmi M.AJpyx]mHHa /POCCHH/.
BSN
2.17. s3 *KoneKxum H.KpameHmHmIHH OBon /Haamn/.
CM. npxmeqaHne 2.8.
2.I8. HsKOJmeKxmH H.llpyxrHHHa /Poccia/.
2.19. 143 KOJeKI HM H.jpyxHHMfma /PoccHl/.
2.25. Ms3 KOJexAeK HI.KpameHmHHBnOBoft /JHiH/.
2.28. IpeAcTaBmeT pa3HOBiaHOCTB /de3 HasBaHHI cyALHa/ reH3yp-
Ho2 nenaTH 91.9.
2.29. 1s KoJmuei~ii H.1pyXEHHHa /Poccns/.
2.33. 43 KOJAUeeKmR H.4pymRHHHa /POCCIM/.
2.34. BSN
2.35. PacmupeH nepHoL npz~MeHeHas.
2.36. [I6,LotJb8448]. "npanopi. r.M~odepr"- HanrcaHo OT pyxR.
2.37. [12,Lot]92593]. OMAi H3 .HBYyx [2.2., 12.37.] X3BecTHHX
aBTopaN npHMepoB MeKinyHapoiHHo nOiTOBOI xoppecnoHneH-
umin nIHOB BM~, npocMOTpeHHOt cyjIOBOB 41eH3ypoi. B npaaoM
HMAHeM yrJiy BlieH IJIoxopasXJiiHMXfi Ha HWKjoCTpalljH npH-
MoyrOFJHMUti lOOJI0 HMTejiLHul mTeMnejIn. B [4] HasBaH "cont-
zoe mazk".
Ha HMuIocTpaa1 i nieH3ypHaH neIaTb A2.37. npeAcTaBieHa
yMeH~imeHHOfi KonHei no cpaBHeHHio c opmHHajioM.
SPECIAL NOTES:
SPECIAL NOTES:


2.14. The censorship cachet No. 2.14 is similar in font to
Type 14 (Ref. 4, p. 300), the traits being:-
1. In No, 2.14, all the letters have the same height,
but in Type 14, each letter starts with a capital
letter.
2. The lengths are given in the table for the upper
line in the 2"'. column and for the lower line
in the 3". column.
2.16. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
BSN.
2.17. N. Krasheninnikova Collection (Denmark)..
See note No. 2.8.
2.18. I Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
2.19. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
2.25. N. Krasheninnikova Collection (Denmark).
2.28. This shows a variety (without the name of the
ship) in the censorship cachet No. 1.9.
2.29. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
2.33. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
2.34. BSN.
2.35. Period of usage has been extended.
2.36. (Ref. 16, Lot No. 8448). "Ensign G. Myul'berg"
written by hand.
2.37. (Ref. 12, Lot 2593). One of two known (Nos. 2.2
& 2.37) authors of examples of international
mail from the ranks of the Imperial Navy and
examined by the censorship aboard ship. There
is in the illustration a poor strike of an
additional rectangular cachet at bottom right.
In Ref 4, it is called a "control mark".
The censorship marking No. 2.37 is shown in
reduced size in comparison with the original.


* ** ** **


______- -- n~ Tha' a2mnvPr atn ICain hsae hppn etnlPn?


I YKPAAEH CAMOBAP
CTAJMIHA
-.9 Mas 113 AoMa-My3es MocH)a
SCrTajHHa B ipy3HHCKOM paflueHTpe ropH
IHemCBecrTHbe BbiKpami caMosap "BOo) ISI
[ HaponOB". no naHHOMYy )aKTy MCecTHa
npoKypaTypa Bo36yaiaa yronoBHoe
Ieno. B r3TT aeHb B ropH oTMeianjcf
' leHb no6eflbI, IH B foMe-My3ee C'rajinHa
6buio OCO6eHHO MHOFOnIOJHo. KTO-TO
s3 Oco6eHHo pbflHbIX nOKIO1HHHKOB
SCTallHa 3axBaTHJI C co6oii cyBemip.,


Unknown persons stole the samovar of the "Leader
of the Peoples" on 9h. May 2001 from the Home-
Museum of losif Stalin in the Georgian district
centre of Gori. The local Office of the Public
Prosecutor has started a criminal investigation of
this particular act. Victory Day was then being
noted in Gori and the Stalin Home-Museum was
especially crowded. Someone who was a very
ardent admirer of Stalin grabbed it as a souvenir.


n nmic,1Afr ,- '*


DEMOKRATISCII|


I.V. Stalin and a friend
on a GDR 12-Pfg. essay.


(b) The Pridniestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) has its own Web Site!
The address is http://www.olvia.net.md and presentations are given in English and Russian. The
Moldavians are the largest ethnic group at 34%, followed by Russians 28% and Ukrainians 26 %. All
three languages are official, but its currency and postage stamps are for local use only. Although invalid
internationally, a PMR trilingual passport is now being prepared to replace the old Soviet passports.
*
THE POST-RIDER/hIMUlHK K 48 25
June 2001








HANDWRITTEN NOTATIONS OF THE CENSORS
PYKOnIMCHLIE IOMETKIH LEH30POB
SShip/shorename Despatch date Arrival date_ Period of use Colour Scale of rarity.
Ha3BaHte Kopa6ns unn ILKaneHnapHbi KaneHnapHbll nlepHOnl HcnoJnb- LBeT ueH- OpnenTrpoBoi-
6eperoBon =acTn BM A nroaflaneni I nea TH


TeKCT ueH3ypHOft neqaT
HnH uTeMnejl


I N Fig.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3.1. Neprovereno JitiTcTBylomiii --- SIpieBo CMOn. 11.1915 Black 5 3.1.A.
Non-checked JInoT /HIIEATh/ (eHcKoii ry6.) ink
wna / nAKETOB'b 6.11.15
Operating (Active)
fleet/SEAL/for/
PACKAGES
3.2. Ne prosmotreno/ KPEICEP'b/ --- 0. 33enb (3cT- ? Black 5 3.2.A.
inorodcheskoe nianacKaa ry6.) ink
Non-examined/ Alien CRUISER/ "OLEG"
3.3. Sudovoy/cenzuroy/Ne BpoHeHocHbift Kpeii- --- PeBen, 5.1915 Black 5 3.3.A.
prosmotreno cepi </ ? / ink
By the ship's/ censor- POTA
ship/non-examined Armored Cruiser
"ROSSIA"/? /
COMPANY___
3.4. Na kreisere ne BpOHeHOCHnLi Kpefi- --- PHra 5.5.15 5.1915 Black 5 3.4.
prosmotreno cep, (/ ink
On the cruiser non- 2-a/ POTA
examined Armored Cruiser
"ROSSIA"/ 2nd/
COMPANY
3.5. Inorodcheskoye Yqe6Ho-ApTmnn epiA- Koivisto AMnenb (3cT- 8.1915 Black 5 3.5.;
Alien cKaro oTpana BanT. (DHHJIH- jnRacKas ry6.) ink 3.5.A.
(DjnTa/5-s/ POTA wna) 7.8.15
Of the Baltic Sea 10.8.15
Navy Training-Ar-
tillery detachment
/5'"/ COMPANY
3.6. Podlezhit cenzure/ na Yie6Ho-ApTnuepifi- BTIbpKe KpoHInlTuaT 6.1915 Black 5 3.6.
(*) inorodcheskom yazyke CKaro oTpsaa BaJIT. 28.6.15 (?) 15 ink
Zacherknutoye ne chitat OnjoTa/5-a/ POTA
/P.S. Of the Baltic Sea
Is liable to censorship/ Navy Training-Ar-
on alien language tillery detachment
Crossed out not to read /5h/ COMPANY
/P.S.
3.7. Ne prosmotreno/ Shtabs- BJIOKHB'b/ --- PHra 25.1.15 1.1915 Black 5 3.7.;
kap... < Non examined/ Staff- AUXILIARY SHIP/
captain... "Onega"
3.8. Proshu voyennuyu B POHEHOCHATO -- 06epnanen, 5.1915 Black 5 3.8.
cenzuru/ prosmotret KPE1ICEPA 13.5.15 ink
Ask military censorship /3-a/
/to examine POTA
ARMORED CRUIS-
ER "RYURIK"/3rd/
COMPANY


11pmlenaHM. K TaOdinne 3
3.6. TeKCT neHaypHoli nemaTm "IIPOClOTPIHO/ CY0OB0, IIE'H3yPOL "
savepKHyT qepHUMK xepHuIaMH.

PyKonIcHnue noMeTKE /MYIH nOHnTncH/ IieH3opOB HMeoTCIc TaioKe
Hd cJIeflxeniix nOqTOBUX OTnpanAneHHIx /MJ/:
I.8;1.11;1.13;2.26; 2.27; 2.33; 2.36; 4.7.a; 4.7.B; 4.7.c; 4.7.d.;
4.8.a;4.8.B; 4.8.c; 4.13; 4.21; 5.6.


26 THE POST-RIDER/


NOTES FOR TABLE 3.

3.6. The text of the censorship cachet
"IIPOCMOTPBHO /CYNOBOfO
I1EH3YPOf"' is crossed out with black ink.
Manuscript notations or signatures of the censors
are also to be found on the following sendings:-
Nos. 1.8; 1.11; 1.13; 2.26; 2.27; 2.33; 2.36; 4.7.a;
4.7.b.; 4.7.c; 4.7.d; 4.8.a; 4.8.b; 4.8.c; 4.13; 4.21; 5.6.


IS MIlplK M 48


June 2001


TABJlHIA 3


TABLE 3.





TABLE 4 TAEJIHA 4
CENSORSHIP CACHETS OF THE SHORE UNITS OF THE IMPERIAL RUSSIAN NAVY
IEH3YPHbIE HEATH BEPETOBbIX qACTEfH BMQ
Text Ship/shore name Despatch date Arrival date Period of use Colour Scale of rarity
N, TeKcr UeH3ypHOfi neqaTH Ha3BaHHe Kopa6ni unn KaneHaapHfli KaneHanapHbli feploa ncnoJnb- UBer eH- OpHenrHpoeoq- M Fig.
n.n. IuH umreneas 6eperonofR acTr BMD mreMnenb mureneji npH6blTHr 3oBaHHn 3ypHoi Han peaKocTb
Son__ paBjeHl __ neqarT
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4.1. Provereno ABHAIIOHHAAI --- ApeHc6ypr- 10.1915 V 5 4.1.A.
Checked CTAHUIIq CJIY)K- 14.10.15
Bbl CBSI3H B.(AJI-
TIHCKArO)
M.(OPJI)
AVIATION STAT-
ION OF THE BAL-
TIC SEA NAVY
COMMUNICAT-
ION SERVICE
4.2. Provereno rotnoy CJIKXBbI CBAI3H Turku-A6o MonqaHoBo 4.1916 B 5 4.2.A.
cenzuroy EAJITIICKAFO 19.4.16 ToMCKOii ry6.
Checked by company MOPS/POTA/3anaA-
censorship naro/paioHa
OF THE BALTIC
SEA NAVY COM-
MUNICATION
SERVICE/ COM-
PANY/ of the
Western sector
4.3. Prosmotreno/cenzuroy/ Bar.(apen) XN 20 fip. FeenbHHr- ManoapocnaBell 4.1916 V 5 4.3.A.
batarei No.20/ Kreposti (?)Qp.(oHTa) MopcK. popca KanyecKoiA ry6.
Imperatora Petra Veli- (oi) Kp.(tnocTH) 21.4.16
kago HMI.(EPATOPA)
Examined/ by censor- HIETPA BEJI.
ship/ of battery No.20/ (HKAFO)
of the Emperor Peter the Of battery No. 20 of
Great Naval Fortress the EMPEROR PE-
TER the GREAT
Naval Fortress _
4.4. PROSMOTRENO VO- H3 A4fiTICTBYIO- CecBereHm JInHn. 2.1915 V 5 4.4.;
(*) YENNOY CENZU- IIEI4 APMIH (nuHcKoil ry6.) 4.4A.
ROY/ NIKOLAEV- FROM THE OPER- 28.2.15
SKAGO MORSKOGO ATING (ACTIVE) HepeaapecoBano
GOSPITALYA/ V ARMY B MoAeHm' JIHn.
KRONSHTADTE ry6. 4.3.15
EXAMINED BY MILI-
TARY CENSORSHIP/
OF THE NIKOLAEV-
SKIY NAVAL HOSPI-
TAL/ IN KRON-
STADT
4.5. Vskryto voyenno Mor- -- KpOHmlTa e nerporpa a, 11.1916 B 5 4.5.;
(*) skoy cenzuroy/...191 g. 17.11.16 4.5.A.
cenzor M.I.UI.N.I.
No.l
Opened by naval censor
ship/ ...191... censor
M.I.U.I.N.I. No. 1
4.6. PROSMOTRENO VO- --- KpoHumra.T MocKBa 11.1915 V 5 4.6.A.
YENNOYCENZU- 29.11.15
ROY/MORSKOGO
INZHENERNAGO
UCHILISHCHA/IM-
PERATORA NIKO-
LAYA I
EXAMINED BY MILI-
TARY CENSORSHIP/
OF THE EMPEROR
NIKOLAI I/NAVAL
ENGINEERING
COLLEGE


THE POST-RIDER/IMIMHIK N2 48
June 2001


27


I








1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4.7. PROSMOTRENO/ 1-ro BAJITIMCKA- --- MapieH6yprl, 4.-8.1915 B 4 4.7.A.
(*) VOYENNOY CENZU- TO (JIOTCKATO (?) 7.15
ROY/ I-go BALT. 3KHHA)KA/ POTA/
(IYSKAGO) FL.(OT- HHCTPYKTOPOB'b
SKAGO) EKIPAZHA OF THE 1" BALTIC
EXAMINED/ BY MI- NAVAL DEPOT/
LITARY CENSOR- COMPANY/ OF
SHIP/ OF THE 1st INSTRUCTORS
BALTIC NAVAL
DEPOT
4.7. Seal 4.7. + handmade 1-ro BAJITIMCKA- KpoHwnlTab i eTporpaan 4.1915 B+ 5 4.7.a.
a. mark with censor's O ODJIOTCKAFO 8.4.15 black ink
initials 3KHHAX A/ nEPE-
XOfl5 A31/ POTA
OF THE 1" BALTIC
NAVAL DEPOT/
CHALLENGE/
COMPANY
4.7. Seal 4.7. + handmade <------a---a (?) rerporpaAb 5.1915 B+ 5 4.7.b.
b. mark with censor's black ink
(*) initials
4.7. Seal 4.7. + handmade 1-ro BAJIT.(IrCKA- KpoHurraldT MocKBa 4.1915 B+ 5 4.7.c.
c.(*) mark with censor's FO) DOI.(OTCKA- 8.4.15 black ink
initials FO) 3KHInA)KA
POTA HOBO-
EPAHIAEB'b
RECRUITS' COM-
PANY OF THE 1s
BALTIC NAVAL
DEPOT
4.7. Seal 4.7 + handmade 1-ro BAJITIfCKA- --- Hei46axi 1915 ? 5 4.7.d.
d. mark "Prosmotreno" + FO (JIOTCKATO JInn .ry6. [18]
(*) censor's signature + 3KHnA)KA/ POTA/
date YBOJIbHAEMbIXb
/ B 3AIAC/
HH)KH.(IX'b) 1MH-
HOBI
OF THE 1sT BAL-
TIC NAVAL DE-
POT/ COMPANY/
OF THE INFERIOR
PERSONNEL/
TRANSFERRED
TO THE RESERVE
4.8. "Prosmotreno voyen- KPOHIITAJT- KpoHurTara 3cHHo 3.5.16 5.-8.1916 V+ 5 4.8.a.
a. noy/cenzuroy Kronsht. CKIIH JIOTCKIH 30.4.16 black ink
(adtskago)/ flot.(skago) IOJIY3KHIAT Ib/
poluekipazha" + hand- 1-s/ POTA
made mark "Chital kon- KRONSTADTNA-
duktor..." VAL HALF-DEPOT
"Examined by military/ /Ist/COMPANY
censorship of the Kron-
stadt/ naval half-depot"
+ handmade mark
"Read conductor..."
4.8. Censor's seal from KpoHnmraArcxii KpoHurranr AnieKcieBKa 6.1916 V+ 5 4.8.b.
b.(*) 4.8.a. + handmade mark 4jnoTrcKi nojy3KH- 10.6.16 CapaT.(oBcKoii black ink
"Poruchik" naxb/ 5-aa/ POTA ry6.) 11.6.16
SCensor's seal from Kronstadt naval
4.8.a. + handmade mark half-depot/5 /
"Lieutenant" COMPANY
4.8. Censor's seal from <--- --- --- AneKcteBa 8.1916 V+ 5 4.8.c.
cX*) 4.8.a. + handmade mark CapaT.(oBCKofi black ink
"Chital konduktor..." ry6.)
Censor's seal from
4.8.a. + handmade mark
"Read conductor..."

28 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIEHK Na 48
June 2001







I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 _9
4.9. PROSMOTRENO/ Vo- -- KponruTaAT Hapsa 10.6.15 6.1915 PB 5 *4.9.;
(*) yennoy cenzuroy/ Ko- 9.6.15 4.9.A.
mandy Mashin.(noy)/
Shkoly Balt.(iyskago)/
flota/2 A.
EXAMINED/ by Mili-
tary censorship/ of the
Baltic Fleet Machine
School Detachment/
2*A.
4.9. D (in circle) -- ------ -- --- 5 4.9.a.
a.. A.
4.10. Prosmotreno voyennoy IIIKOJIA IOHFOBI --- Pocnaan. 17.2.17 9.1915-2.1917 B 5 4.10.A.
(*) cenzuroy/ Shkoly Yun- SEA CADETS'
gov v Kronshtadte SCHOOL
Examined by military
censorship/ of the Sea
Cadets' School in Kron-
stadt
4.11. PROSMOTRENO/ 1-s PoTa/MopcKoft -- IHeporpaab 1.1915 V 5 4.11.A.
VOYENNOY CENZU- Yqe6HO-CTptJKo- 9.1.15
ROY/ Morsk.(oy) Boi/ KOMAHAbI.
Ucheb.(no)-Str.(elko- 1' Company/ of the
voy) Kom.(andy) Naval Practice-
EXAMINED/ BY MI- Shooting/ DETACH-
LITARY CENSOR- MENT.
SHIP/ of the Naval
Practice-Shooting
Detachment
4.12. Prosmotreno voyennoy APTHJUIEPIt- KpomnrraaT HeTporpaA-b 6.1915 B 5 4.12.+
(*) cenzuroy CKII OOHLIUEP- 12.6.15 +4.12.
Examined by military CKIH KJIACC'b a.
censorship ARTILLERY OFFI-
CER CLASS
4.12. B.H. (in circle) ---<------< --<< --- ---< V 5 Look
a. -4.12.
4.13. Prosmotreno voyennoy/ KpoHnrrarrcKHri BaMMenbcyy IOpbeBi, JImu n. 8.1915 R 5 4.13.A.
cenzuroy 1-go Kron- KptnocTHOii Bpe- 19.8.15 (aHACKOil ry6.)
shtadtskago Krepostn. MeHHMit rocnHTram/ 8.8.15
(ogo) Vremenn.(ogo) IIEqATb/ Wl1
gospitalya/ K.n. IIAKETOB'b
Examined by military/ Kronstadt Fortress
censorship of the 1st temporary hospital/
Kronstadt Fortress SEAL/FOR/
Temporary hospital/ PACKAGES
K.n. (initials)__
4.14. PROSMOTRENO VO- H3'b flRBCTBYIO- BonorAa 18.8.16 8.1916 V 5 4.14.
(*) YENNOY IIERi APMIH. +
CENZUROY/ 2 FROM THE OPER- 4.14.a.
VR.(EMENNOGO) ATING (ACTIVE)
KRONSHT. (ADT- ARMY.
SKAGO) KR.(EPOST-
NOGO) GOSPITA-
LYA.
EXAMINED BY MILI-
TARY CENSORSHIP/
OF THE 2 TEMPORA-
RY KRONSTADT
FORTRESS HOSPI-
TAL.
4.14. IPK. (in circle) .<-------<-- <<---< .<---<< --- V 5 Look
a. I________4.14.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK 48
June 2001


29







12 3 4 5 6 7 89
4.15. 3-y KRONSHTADT- H31, JtcCTBayomeii KpOHmTalTb Herporpars 2.1916-: V 5 4.15.A.
SKIY KR.(EPOST- ApMin
NOY) VR.(EMENNYI) From the Operating
GOSP.(ITAL)/ PRO- (Active) Army
SMOTRENO VOYEN-
NOY CENZUROY.
3rd KRONSTADT
FORTRESS TEMPO-
RARY HOSPITAL/
EXAMINED BY
MILITARY
CENSORSHIP.
4.16. PROSMOTRENO VO- --- Herporpan~, Kponuramna 11.1914 R 5 4.16.A.
YENNOY 26.11.14
CENZUROY/1-y
KRONSHT.(ADT-
SKOY) KREP.(OST-
NOY) MINNOY
ROTY.
EXAMINED BY MILI-
TARY CENSORSHIP/
OF THE 1sV KRON-
STADT FORTRESS
MINE COMPANY.
4.17. Vskryto voyennoy cen- 2-ro KPOH- Vammelsuu Kaprononb OJIOH. 4.1915 V 5 4.17.A.
(*) zuroy/ ImTAAJTCK.(OFO) 2.4.15 (euKofi ry6.)
VOYENNYI CENZOR KPtnOCTH.(OFO) 26.3.15
Opened by military APTHJIJIEP. (Ii-
censorship/ CKAFO) HOJIKA/
MILITARY CENSOR 6-a/ POTA
H31b A$HCTBYIO-
IIEH APMIH
OF THE 2nd KRON-
STADT FORTRESS
ARTILLERY/REGI-
MENT/ 6t/
COMPANY
FROM THE OPER-
ATING (ACTIVE)
ARMY
4.17. 1UI. (in circle) 0--- --- --- 0---< e--- --- <---0 5 4.17.a.
a. A.
4.18. Vskryto voyennoy cen- KPOHUITAJT- --- PyeHa JHini. 6.1916 V 5 4.18.A.
zuroy/ Voyennyi cenzor CKIi KPEH.(OCT- (5anlcKoi ry6.)
praporshchik/ Przhi- HOH) APTHJUIE- 24.6.16
setzkiy. PIMCKII HOJIK'b
Opened by military KRONSTADT
censorship/ Military FORTRESS ARTIL-
censor ensign/ Przhi- LERY REGIMENT
setzkiy.
4.19. VSKRYTO VOYEN- <---0---<---0 --- KammnH 3.-7.1915 V 5 [5, p.
(*) NOY CENZUROY/ TBep.(cKofi ry6.) 44,
VOYENNYI CEN- 12.7.15 Type
ZOR/PRAPOR- 17]
SHCHIK PRZHISET-
ZKIY
OPENED BY MILITA-
RY CENSORSHIP/
MILITARY CENSOR/
ENSIGN PRZHISET-
ZKIY _
4.19. In <---(--< --<_ ---_ --- 7.1915 V 5 4.19.a.
a. A.


30 THE POST-RIDER/IMMIIHK N 48
June 2001







1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4.20. FORT "ALEKSEEV- --- neTporpangI (DopTb AneKcteB- 7.-8.1916 V 5 4.20.A.
(*) SKIY"/ VOYENNYI/ 13.8.16 crKii, OpaHieH-
CENZOR 6ayMi
FORT "ALEXEYEV-
SKY"/ MILITARY/
CENSOR
4.21. Vskryto voyenno-Mor- Iicona npanopum- -- feTporpai. 11.1916- V 5 4.21.
(*) skoy cenzuroy/ Orani- KoBb no A nMHpan- 2.1917
enbaumskiy voyenno- TeiicT y
Morskoy cenzor No.18/ Ensigns' School by
12/XI the Admiralty
Opened by naval censor-
ship/ Oranienbaum na-
val censor No.18/ 12/XI
4.22. PROSMOTRENO/vo- --- -- CecBereH 2.1915 V 5 4.22.
yennoy cenzuroy/ JInH4Ji.(aHACKOin
Kronsht.(adtskoy) ry6.) 16.2.15
Kr.(epostnoy)
V.(oyenno)- T.(ele-
grafnoy) roty.
EXAMINED/ by mili-
tary censorship/ of the
Kronstadt Fortress Mili-
tary-Telegraph com-
pany.
4.23. Prosmotreno rotnoy PoTa KoMaHi Mop- --- MocKBa 4.9.16 9.1916 V 5 4.23.
cenzuroy cKHxb Aprnwepili-
Examined by the cor- cKHXL OnbrroB,.
pany censorship Company of the Na-
val Artillery Tests
Detachment. _
rlpmaeraHuz K Tadjume 4
NOTES FOR TABLE 4.
4.4. CM. [ 4.p.299, Type 3]. IIpe~noJ onTe.jHO, "leH30op' H.M.r." 4.4. See Ref. 4, p.299, Type 3. Apparently, the inscription
MORHO pacm poBaTL KaK "IUeH3opl, L'xKOaeBCKaro MopcKoro "UeH30opl H.M.T." may be deciphered as "ULeH30op'
rocnUTans". HHKOnaeBcKaro MopcKaro rocnHTaIna" (Censor
.MOsO Paa ?our6 of the Naval Hospial named after [Tsar'] Nikolai).
4.5. IIpeanojnoRTej ieHo, ".M..Y..H.I. "MOPCKOE MIHEHEPHOE YqKMM-
lE K.1IIEPATOPA I KOJIAfl Io.' 4.5. Apparently, the initials "M.H.Y.H.H." may be read
norlo e ,~rlEAPTO E as "MOPCKOE HHXEHEPHOE YMHJIHTIJE
Ha TwpT CTOT nepeBooiA o Teme a twm Imcaix AaTH HMIMEPATOPA HHKOJIAI 1-r0" (Naval
npoBeaena ieHaypH /ieneaz datestamp / "I7.HOH.I9I6." Engineering College of the Emperor Nikolai 1".).
4.7. Ms nKOJineKX H.KameHHHHrKOBOft /AaHwn/. There is a changeable cachet on the postcard, which
gives the date of censorship as "17 NOV. 1916"in
IneaTL J4.7. OTJIraaeTca OT IaodpLteHan noaodHol [ 5,p.5I, a linear datestamp.
Type 21] Hajr&xeeM "-" eexy "I" I "ro".
4.7. N. Krasheninnikova Collection (Denmark). Cachet
CpaBHa peA npHMeneHa easypHo near 4.7. / e- No. 4.7 may be distinguished from a similar mark
rup~x cJiyraax/ x ne'aTr Type 21[5,p.5I] MOXHO yKasarT [Ref. 5, p. 51, Type 21] by the "-" between ""
o6dmut nepnoo npHpeHeHma 4.-8.I915. and "ro". In comparing the times of usage of the
Type 4.7 cachet (on four occasions) with Type 21
4.7.B. H3 xoJIneKRUH H.KpameHHHHK0OBOi /JaHls/. [Ref. 5, p. 51], it is possible to specify the general
4.7.c. 14 KojmIeKm H.d ApyIHuia /PoccIz/. period ofusage: from April to August 1915.
4.7.d. H3o6paxenHe oTKcp1nrui a Fig. 4.7.d. aMaercA Konneii,
3anMCTBOBanHoi i3 [18] BTom Ke (yMeHbnmeHHOM) Macmrra6e. 4.7.b. N. Krasheninnikova Collection (Denmark).
4.7.c. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
4.8.n. MXa KRa exRmm H.KpameHfuHHmn KOBo /ZaHz/. 4.7.d. A. Cronin Collection (Canada). The card shown
4.8.c. sa O.neariR H.J!.py ara /PocCH/. in Fig. 4.7.d. is a copy taken from [Ref. 18 in
reduced size.
4.9. neiaTa 4.9. a 4.9.a.- Ha osaol nOrTsofi KapToRKe.
4.10. PacmepeH nepxoa npHMeHeHaa. 4.8.b. N. Krasheninnikova Collection (Denmark).
.4 4.8.c. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
leHaypHaa nears M4.IO. noxoaa Ha Type I9[5,p.44 HO
HMeeT HexoTopue OTriamm: 4.9. Cachets Nos. 4.9 and 4.9.a are on the same postcard.


THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHK N 48 31
June 2001







I/ B Type 19 dyKBa B" B nepBoM c0oBe, a B 94.I0. aTa me
dyKxa HIeeT Apyroe HanHcaHie- "b", T.e..6es "nIITHKM"
HaBepxy.
2/ B Type I9 CAOBO "KpomTaTtV" He IMeeT B KOHXIe 6yKBy "b".
BOSMOHO B Type 19 MMeeTCH HeTO'HOCTL B pHcyHKe?
4.12. IIneaT 4.12. n 4.I2.a.- Ha ORHOR OTKpHTKe.
Ha cjiyxe6Hot nenaTH "APTMJIEPi CKi 0HMIU EPCKi KIhACC'"
B neHTpe Bso6paxeH MOpCKOp l Kxop Co CXpellidHHMH opyA~maa.
4.14. HeaaTH 4.14. m 4.I4.a.- Ha oAHo0 4-TpTO-e y novroso0i KAPTOvI
4.17. HenaTH 4.17. K 4.17.a.- Ha ojuHol oTpu~ e novwrbo MrPTOrvK
4.19. PacmHpeH nepnoa nphMeHeHMH.
HleaTHl 4.19. H 4.I9.a.- Ha HoRo 4Txpulte.Y novyvroso; roTovE.
4.20. PacmxpeH nepoA npHeMeHeHJa.
UeH3ypHaa nesari J~4.20. oTjixaeTCH oT Type 27[5,p.46]
cJieJlyioii"m:
I/ Mezy CJIOBOM "IUEH30Pb" 3 sBe3esol HzeeTrcH eKopaTitBHUf
93aeMeHT;
2/ CJOBO "AJEKCtEBCKI l" saiumoeeHo B KaB'qKXI;
3/ npxMeHeHa des H.eHTisIjKaHHIOHHO nee'lTI ieHsopa.
4.21. PacmxpeH nepHo.x npMMeHeHHH.
HeHsypHaM neaTL 144.21. oTnaiaeTca OT Type 2[5,p.I8]
cjiexyloighM:
I/ Her npHMoyrojiHot paPMKH;
2/ BnIcaHH OT pyKH: HOMep ieHsopa "18" K AaTa "I2/i ";
3/ paSJIIBRHH AJI1HH CTpOK H BIaU mp IPTOB;
4/ cjioBa "MopcKoi" B I- H 31 CTpOKaX HasTHa10TCa C 3arJIa-
6HO1 6yxKBh;
5/ CJOBO "IueHsopb" HanimaeTCH c MaieeHbKoa dyKBH.
SPECIAL* *NOTE:
SPECIAL NOTE:


Soviet Victory Celebrations.

Does anyone have Soviet or
other postcards dealing with
the capture of the Reichstag
on 30 April 1945 or with the
Mammoth Victory Parade in
Moscow on 24 June 1945?


4.10. Extended period of use. The censorship cachet No. 4.10
is similar to Type 19 [Ref. 5, p.44], but it has
several distinguishing traits:-
1.Type 19 has "%" in the first word, while in No. 4.10
it is given as "V", i.e. without a "birdie" above.
2 .In Type 19, the word "KpoHnrragrt" has the last
letter missing. Is this a mistake in the drawing?

4.12. Cachets Nos. 4.12 and 4.12.a are on the same postcard.
A naval anchor with crossed arms is shown in the
e. centre of the official cachet inscribed
, "APTHJ1JIEPCKIf O4HIHEPCKIi KJIACCb"
(Artillery Class for Officers).

4.14. Cachets Nos. 4.14 and 4.14.a are on the same postcard.
4.17. Cachets Nos. 4.17 and 4.17.a are on the same postcard.
4.19. Extended period of use.
Cachets Nos. 4.19 and 4.19.a are on the same postcard.

4.20. Extended period of use. The censorship cachet No. 4.20
differs from Type 27 [Ref. 5, p. 46] as follows:-
1. There is a decorative element between the word
"I[EH30Pb" and the star.
2. The word "AJIEKCBEBCKI'" is in inverted
commas.
3. Passed without an identifying cachet of the censor.

4.21. Extended period of use. The censorship cachet No. 4.21
differs from Type 2 [Ref. 5, p. 18] as follows:-
1.There is no rectangular frame.
2. No. "18" of the censor and date "12/X1" handwritten.
3. Differing lengths of the lines and types of fonts.
4. Words "MopcKoil" in 1". & 3"'. lines start with
capital letters.
5.The word "LeH30op'" starts with a lower case letter.



*


THE POST-RIDER/IIMII~IK N2 48
June 2001






TABLE 5 TAJLA 5
MAIL OF THE RANKS OF THE IMPERIAL NAVY WITH CENSORSHIP MARKINGS OF THE OFFICES OF DESPATCH & RECEIPT
HOMTOBA5I KOPPECFOHaEHI_(4I HI4HOB BMD C UEH3YPHblMH HETAT5IMH
HTOTOBbIX KOHTOP MECT OTIIPABJIEHHI HJIH IIOJIYqEHHI
Text Ship/shore name spateh date Arrival date Period of use Colour Scale of rarity
.NP TeKCT UeH3ypHOf neiaTH Ha3aaHHe Kopa6Jn nun KaneHnapHuii KaneHaapHabli nepHolon cnoib- LseT ueH- OpHeHTrpoRol- N Fig.
n.n. nun urreunejm 6eperoBsoi 'acTH BMD mTeMnejnb urreMnejb npn66fr 3oBaHHS 3ypHofl Ha pelAKOCTb
OTnpaBieHHRa neqaTH
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
5.1. [4,p.72,Type 2,No.27]+ Ci A.icTByiomaro --- Heiiray3eHn 11.1916 V 4 ---
linear datestamp OjloTa JnlHa .(AIHcKOti
<<21 HOAI(BPJI) 1916.> From the Operating ry6.) 24.11.16
(Active) Fleet
5.2. [4,p.72,Type 2,No.27]+ IIKOJIA IOHFOBb --- PeBeJm 7.1.17 1.1917 V 4 -
linear datestamp /1 poTa.
<<_5.IHB.(AP5I) 1917.> SEA CADETS'
SCHOOL/ 1 Com-
-----_______~pany.___________________________
5.3. [4, p.304, 2" row, I" a) Kp.(eficepi) Abo-Turku FenjcuHr(bopcm 10.1915 V 4
column] > 27.10.15 27.10.15
(Military censorship/ Cruiser "OLEG"
Gelsingfors/ D.Z.) b) TPAHCHOPTb/ -- eenacunropci 12.1915 V 4
YCJIY)MIHBbIlAH 1.12.15
TRANSPORT "US-
LUZHLIVYI"
("Complaisant")
c) APTHJI.(JIEPIH) Abo-Turku FrenbcHHnropcL 9.1915 V 3
ipuHMopc.(Karo) 26.9.15 26-27.9.15
OpOHTa MopcK.
(oi) Kptn.(ocTH)
HMTI.(EPATOPA)
HETPA BEJIHK.
(ATO)/ 16 POTA
Of the EMPEROR
PETER the GREAT
Naval Fortress AR-
TILLERY/ 16
COMPANY
d) 3cxKapeHHBiM rejmcffr- CM. npHMesaHHrA 7.1915 V t
(*) MHHOHOCemu, 4opc-
16.7.15
Destroyer "VSAD-
NIK" ("Horseman")
5.4. [4, p.304,2" row, 3d IITAB'b HAqAJIb- EKaTepHH- FrejibCHnr)opci 3.-4(?).1916 V 4
(*) column] HHKA OTIfJIb- 6ypr-. (?).16
(Military censorship/ HATO OTP.(51AA) BoK3ain
Gelsingfors) CYAOB'b OCOB. 10.3.16
(OFO) HA3HAI.
(EHHWI).
STAFF OF THE
CHIEF OF INDE-
PENDENT DE-
TACHMENT OF
SPECIAL PUR-
POSE SHIPS.
5.5. [4, p.304, Is row, 2"d BPOHEHOCHAFO --- FenJmcHHropcb 4(?).1915 V 4
column] KPEiCEPA <(PIO- 28.4(?).15
(Pass/ Gelsingfors) PIHKI'b/6-A/ POTA
ARMORED CRUIS-
ER "RYURIK"/6th/
COMPANY
5.6. [4, p.304, 3rd row] BPOHEHOCHbI/ I HeMoii MoccBa 9.1916 V 4
(Opened by Military KPEr CEP'b/ nrreMneJb
Censorship/I 6/IX/1916 POCCII FejibcuHr-
Gelsingfors military ARMORED/ CRUI- 4opca (?)
censor No. 56) SER/ROSSIA 16.9.16


THE POST-RIDER/AIMII(HK N 48
June 2001






- 1 7 T r F T T


1
5.7.
(*)


[4, p.304, 4 row, 3r
column]
(Military censorship/
Gelsingfors. 28.XI.
1916)

The same, date 14.VI.
1916


a) 3CKAAPEH.
(HblI) MHHOHO-
CELUb MOCK-
BHTlSHHHb.
DESTROYER
MOSKVITIANIN.
b) Addressed: Reii-
cTByiOuiHH (4JIOT
EBarr. Mops, yqe6Hoe
cyAHo Addressed: Operat-
ing (Active) Fleet of
the Baltic Sea, train-
ine shin "Nikolaev"


renibcHrropcI.
28.11.16




FrenjCHHrtopcb
27.6.16


11.1916





6.1916


5.8. Voyennaya cenzura/ Addressed: r. A6o, MocKBa Abo-Turku 5.8.16 8.1916 R 4
(*) Abo. 5.VIII.1916 Cnym6a cBaI3H sa- 21.7.16
Military censorship/ nafHaro paiioHa.
Abo. 5.VIII.1916 TpaHcnopT ( HHKonJar).
Addressed: Abo, Na-
vy communication
service of the west-
ern sector. Transport
"Saint Nikolai".
5.9. [4, p.144, Type 7, No. 3AFPAJITEJIL/ II FencnHHr- qepHoropHa, 8.1915 V 4 ---
(*) 243]- Odessa paHra/ 4)opci Beno IHone
MINELAYER/II 15.8.15
class/ "NAROVA"
5.10. D.Z./U. (Dozloveno cen 3CKAAPEHHbI -- CaMapa 26.12.14 12.1914 V 4 5.10.
zurnym/ upravleniyem) MHHOHOCEL'b
(Permitted by censor/
department) DESTROYER
"VOYSKOVOY"
5.11. [4, p.182, Type 5, with- TPAHCHOPTb/ --- JIn6aBa 7.3.15 3.1915 R 4
out Type 4] Revel .
TRANSPORT/
"ANGARA".

5.12. [4, p.149, Type 15, No. HIOPTOBOE/ CYA- --- CecTpopluKb 7 V 4
377] Petrograd HO/ BYKCHP'
HARBOR (PORT)/
SHIP/ BUKSIR
(TUG)
5.13. [4, p. 151, Type 24, No. HoproBoe cy Ho/ Herporpais Beso 3cTn. 11.1917 V 4
1500]+ AOjIO 21.10.17 (aHlCKoii ry6.)
[4, p. 151, Type 27, No. Harbor (port) ship/ 8.11.17
72] Petrograd DULO (Muzzle)
5.14. [4, p. 238, Type 6, No. qEPHOMOPCKA- InK N2 Y(a 8.5.16 5.1916 V 3
(*) 168] Ufa FO OJIOTCKATO 158 <
nOJIY3KHnA)XA/ 2.4.16-
4/ POTA/ 3AHAC- (FPO JN
HhbX 158 <)
OF THE BLACK
SEA NAVAL HALF
-DEPOT/4/ RESER-
VISTS/ COMPANY
5.15. [4, p. 149, Type 15, No. JIeaoKoJn ( 1769 + p. 153, Type 49] MHp)>> 26.1.17
Petrograd Icebreaker "Vladi-
mir"
5.16. [4, p. 151, Type 24, No. 5-A poa/ JIHHEI- HeTporpani, KanaHu1n HHn. 1.1918 V 5
1640] Petrograd HAFO KOPABJI/ 8.1.18 (eropoacKoii
PECHnBJIHKA ry6.) 13.1.18
5h company/ OF
THE BATTLESHIP/
RESPUBLIKA
__(Republic)

34 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIRIK 2 48
June 2001


Oaecca
7.6.16






iUpMeaaHA K TaOrdne 5 NOTES FOR TABLE 5.
5.3.d. M3 KOJ~UeKmiI M.,pyXMHHma /Poccua/.
5 ovro3Ke nProca 5.3.d. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
-GTpiWaE oTrnpamiena 13 rePAcmHrC5Hopca na scoimiie "BCA.UkIK'". Postcard sent from Helsingfors/Helsinki to the
IIpm oTnpaBxe npoauia Ielaypy. IepeagpecoBaHa B HeTporpaa. destroyer "BcagHHK-"b ("Horseman") and
censored upon dispatch. Readdressed to Petrograd.
n1pH TOM Ha Hee nocTaimaea cJIyxedHaa neqaTb ac ai As a result, the official cachet of the destroyer
"BCAAFMWKh". 1IpMa ocTaBRe B neTporpai nocTaBjieH UiTeMneJnI (BCAUH{HK'b) was struck on the card. Upon
"II0JEB. rI.1ABH. H1O'T. KOtIT. / I1ETPOPPARJI/ II.7.I5." delivery in Petrograd, it received a marking
reading: "IIOJIEB. FJIABH. HOWT. KOHT. /
5.4. OTnpaseHo no nyTH oTp5Aa Bo BJnaIsBOCTOK. IETPOrPAJbL/ 11.5.15".
5.6. s KOJaIeKmlenEI H.4pyxMuxHa /Poccm/.
5.6. H43 ojoetit .pymma /Pocc-/. 5.4. Sent while detachment on its way to Vladivostok
IINpu "I6/jX i "6"- BnHcaHi OT pyKH.
5.7. H1 KoJUieKyru ..-ipyxatHxa /Pocca/. 5.6. 1. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
5.8. M3 xoueKIm M..ApyxMHtHa /Pocch/. Figures "16/I" and "6" written by hand.
IleHsypHaI netiaTb aHa7orM'Ha yKa3aHHOj B A5.7. 5.7. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
5.9. Has oJRne{IK H.py.HxuHsna /PoccHn/. 5.8. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia).
Same type of censorship cachet as for No. 5.7.
IIpuHep MexyHaapo.gHoI noIITOBo0 xoppecnoIHeHr RHHOB BM;
npocMOTpeH OAeccxoi BoeHHo2l eHasypo2 I l243 4,p.II4, Type 7]. 5.9. I. Druzhinin Collection (Russia). This is an
example of international mail from the ranks
Ocra.itrHoe- CM. nplMetaHtMaH K x2.2. of the Imperial Navy and it was examined by
5.14. BSN Odessa military censor No. 243 [Ref. 4, p. 114,
Type 7]. Further details in the note for No. 2.2.
OL4Kcl OpbHlTIpOHbpTo p PEAWtro 6 Tr//P E 8 I1pOcTAgE/1EH1 C 5.14. BSN.
yvYiZT1 HE To/IbK7 EHfYP1H X nlEYA TE6 noyT70//X KO/fHTp AlEe The evaluations of rarity in Column 8 of the
Tables are based not only on the censorship
OTnp/A~/AEHI/tR /1 nO7/oy t/EfRl /0H / C yvET"AI pEAAOciT' CA 0 /. markings of the post offices of despatch and
receipt, but also by taking into account the
nE YA TE, KXPA/ff14F l ,'41 FEP Or5A/X V,4cLT V specific rarity of the markings of ships and

shore units.


REVISED LITERATURE REFERENCES


1. Dr. A.H.WORTMAN. Russian Censor Covers of 1914-1919. The Philatelist,
1940.
2. CASEY R., EVANS B. Censor and control marks of wartime Petrograd. BJRP,
1968, No. 42, p. 4-16.
3. SKIPTON D., MICHALOVE P. Postal Censorship in Imperial Russia, 2 vols.
(Urbana, Illinois, USA, John Otten, 1987); vol. II, p. 464-465.
4. SPEECKAERT A. Russian postal censorship 1914-1918.- (Koninklijke
Postzegel- vereiniging van het Land van Waas). St. Niklaas (Belgium), 1990.
5. SPEECKAERT A. Russian postal censorship 1914-1918. Supplement. 1997.
6. novroso-TenerpaHJtii )KypHan, oTAen ob4umannarlu, 1914, No 34.
7. JIeHHHrpaacKi rFocynapTeHHnlfi HcropnqecKH1 apxHu (JITHA), ?oHtn 1543,
onncb 9, neno 49, nucT 100.
8. JIrHA, 4. 1543, on. 9, f. 49, n. 146.
9. nIorroBo-renerpaHbmi xypHaJ, OTAne o)HuHanibHLui, 1916, MN 27, crp. 568.
10JITHA, q. 1543, on. 9, A. 69, n. 77.
1 l.rloqroso-Treerpa4naHii xypHan, oraen oHIHanJUHMdi, 1914, NM 31, crp.
458-470.


12.CHERRYSTONE. Public Stamp Auction. New York, September 15-16, 1999. Lot
No. 2593.
13.KAJIMlbKOB B. (KALMYKOV V.). LjUeypa IepBol MapoBoti. < (MocKBa), 1993, XN 3, crp. 46-47.
14.KAHRS H., HURT V., OJASTE E. Russian Censorship in Estonia in the WWI.
"Eesti Filatelist", 1979, No. 24-25, p. 120, No. QE-16.
15.JITHA, 4P. 1432, on. 2, a. 113, n. 9.
16.105" Corinphila Stamp Auction. Zurich. 16 September 1998. Lot No. 8448.
17. RARITAN STAMPS. Mail auction No. 6. Highland Park, NJ, USA. November
20,2000. Lot No. 1310.
18. RURIK AUCTION. 3/2000. Vasa, Finland. 12.12.2000. Lot No. 496.
19. C.H.Monceen. CnucoK Kopa6neil pyccKoro napoBoro n 6poHeHOCHoro 4,'OTa (c
1861 no 1917 r.). BoeHHoe H3a-Bo MnHHCTepciBa BoopymeHnH x CHA CCCP.
MocaKa, 1948.
20. Kopa6n Ha scnoMoraTrevaue cyna coBercroro BoeHHo-MopcKor Oinora
(1917-1927). (CnpaBO'HHm) /C.C.EepeXKHoli a p. MocKBa, BoeHH3naT, 1981.


Editorial Comment:The illustrations that follow on pp. 36-42 of the cards and covers have been reduced
to 65% of actual size, purely for considerations of space. They are followed by illustrations in actual size of
specific cachets on pp. 43-45. Further data from CSRP members would be greatly appreciated, as the
material is hard to find for the reasons set out in the first part of this article. On behalf of The Canadian
Society of Russian Society, your editor hereby thanks Messrs Vladimir Berdichevskii and Meer Kossoy
most warmly for this wonderful investigative study, which will probably be the standard reference for
years to come!


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK Ne 48
June 2001














SSUO~O F-




s -.s i o i L -






He!singfo~rJJniverseTl" BibiBoteti F /.


Fig. 2.


Fig. 3. Fig. 4.


Fig. 1.1. Fig. 13.


Fig. 1.7.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK N 48
June 2001


Fig.1.
























Fig. 1.4. Fig. 1.8.


Fig. 1.9. Fig. 1.11.


Fig. 1.13.


THE POST-RIDER/IJMIIHK JN 48
June 2001


Fig. 2.1.
,.. .^."^ ..^- ,-*--' --
Waf I A:PTORI 10.
STALE







Fi. -. -




Fig. 2.3. .- -























Fig. 2.6.b. Fig. 2.7.


g .. ... T <.'i ..





... -. ."71 L y '--

r ;C n c.,r- ^ ,- ... .-
3 6 TA L E,.UN IVE RK LL ^.,.
TCn /% C~rr r


Fig. 2.19. THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK NM 48 Fig. 2.22.
June 2001


Fig. 2.17.


- A..-----.'. A 7-.--J'.- \. :- ,or -

-,,ferpoa aoaBE

L Z..-.:,:., --..7 7. i ,, ...C..... ,,7..
..' ,,'---... ,L---',-'-' .., A,.:,

*/ .- .- .. i .L --



. .. "., .' .- t D. .. .. .
7 /' : ; .! -- ,.' o- __, -". -
<.;. ,.- :: "n 'c~._'esF' C ts ': ...












































Fig. 2.28.

r y- -


Fig. 2.36. 39


June 2001


E~ CTENIrIuf ft OW1 ivn. roccia.

OTIMPLITOE MIl POSTBu.








A.6 0'.- 1 1 '3 .. ..




Fig. 2.25.


krl~~4IUg~l4/ ;/;L4JCu.;. !b.







Ficg. 2.26.


i. ..


Fig. 2.27.


/






a


Fig. 230.


,
.








































>. t i s-Iad Posa bI I-j Gi gi
I mst bbCet tcraLdd-tssn e5toI

*; Zw'.-






'tl I ^/'^ ''^'/,"f.X ^ ..
Cs:- -- ^- *



4-' *^z'"^
/ e-'' /$^-y .4
<* ^ *"-tg, ^


*o e4ies'f-ir tenW -
o o hs side.

- I ,.

1 "/y7f^y-',



C- -'//.I ^ / / ;^^


Fig. 3.4.


Fig. 3.6.


THE POST-RIDER/ AMIMIHK .N 48
June 2001


Fig. 3.5.


Fig. 3.7.


Fig. 3.8.














































































THE POST-RIDER/BfMIMHK N 48
June 2001


Fig. 4.5.


Fig. 4.7.b.


Fig. 4.7.c.


Fig. 4.7.d.


Fig. 4.8.a.


Fig. 4.8.b.


Fig. 4.8.b.




























Fig. 4.8.c. Fig. 4.9.


.... ....







S ..,-" ... I. '



, "' -
^ :-w -,.^ ii,. *- **- -


Fig. 4.21.


,. Postkarte C
iWcitposvrein Unir
L. .- vl Lap Ko0
Oopiaics Karta kl
Bri.fk..-Cart-C olil.
Brtvkorlt -Tarjeta Pl

.- .? .-: ,.: ,-<, *. 2, b .,, *f
"' -cPblTO



-J.^-^f^ j "^a Y-

j.

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Fig. 4.23. THE POST-RIDER/aMIHUK N2 48
June 2001


Fig. 4.12.


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THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK M 48 4
June 2001













Fig. 3.3.A.


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Fig. 4.13 .
Fig. 4.1A.


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THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N2 48
June 2001


Fig. 3.5A.


Fig. 3.7.A.


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Fig. 4.2.A.






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441 CSkc
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Fig. 19.aA. Fig. 4.20A.

POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA USED FOR FISCAL PURPOSES
By Meer Kossoy.

One of the interesting and least-studied sectors in the history of the Russian Posts is the period of official
utilisation of postage stamps as fiscal. The study of such usages is of especial interest if we take into
consideration that, according to the Regulations of the FIP (Federation Internationale de Philat6lie), fiscal
stamps are also regarded as objects worthy of philatelic investigation and elements of material that may be
exhibited in the special Revenue Class.

Fiscal stamps are special stamps, which are required to be affixed on various documents of civil and legal
character, upon presenting them to governmental institutions. For example, such documents are needed to
record the buying and selling of properties, various types of warrants, applications for the registration of
marriages or for newly opened enterprises, etc. The application on a document of revenue stamps
designates the receipt of a state fee in the form of a fiscal tax.

Upon assuming power in Russia after the revolution of October 1917, the Soviet Government revoked the
previously existing fiscal taxes. They were reinstated only as of 1 March 1922, as confirmed by the "Statute
about the State Fiscal Taxes" of 16 February 1922. According to the data presented by P. Mazur as set out
in Reference [1], this Statute envisaged various types of payment of the fiscal tax, including revenue
stamped paper, the designation of cash with the attached receipt for the payment of the tax in fiscal stamps
and, where such stamps were lacking, in postage stamps as a temporary measure. For example, an official
document is known where the utilisation was permitted of postage stamps instead of fiscal, in a case where
the latter were temporarily lacking.

If we consider that the fiscal taxes were introduced as of 1 March 1922 and that the issue of new Soviet
revenue stamps came into being only at the end of September 1922, then it becomes clear that, during this
period of time and in accordance with a decision of the Government, postage stamps were officially utilised
as fiscal. The analysis of the documents found and described in the literature allows us to confirm that the
usage of postage stamps as fiscal went on exclusively up to as long as October 1924.

The utilisation of postage stamps after September 1922 may be explained by the absence of fiscal stamps at
particular places and the presence of stocks of postage stamps. The statute not only permitted the utilisation
of postage stamps, but also specified their method of cancellation on the documents. They were cancelled
by the means of writing a text, consisting of the year, month and day of the submission of a particular
document. The Statute also included a listing of 63 stated various documents, which were liable for fiscal
THE POST-RIDER/WIMIHK N 48 45
June 2001













1 .-.


I x


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P o c n M., c KR



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THE POST-RIDER/RIMIHHK JN 48
June 2001


Fig. 2.


I


- -J.P ..






fees. A tax was levied in a specified amount and it depended upon the type of document being registered. In
the case of registering commercial documents, a fiscal tax was charged, based upon a specific percentage of
the sum stated on the document.

To illustrate the utilisation of postage stamps as fiscal, the reverse side of an application is shown in Fig.
1, written in the names of three dwellers of Moscow and presented to the Moscow City Council of National
Economy with a request for inscription in the registry (i.e. to be registered) to the effect that there be
established by the petitioners a Cooperative Enterprise under the name of"EKONOMPROIZVODITEL"'.

The fiscal and local fees for the application were paid by affixing postage stamps of the RSFSR: 16 stamps
of 22,500 r. each (Michel No. 180, Scott No.206) to total 360,000 r.; 5 x 7500 r. (Michel 178, Scott 205) to
total 37,500 r.; and 10 x 250 r. (Michel 158c, Scott 183b) to total 2500 r., thus giving an overall total of
400,000 r. for the affixed 31 stamps and corresponding to the established fiscal tax of 200,000 r. plus the
local fee for the same amount. All the stamps were cancelled by an inscription written in violet ink and
reading: "MARCH TWENTY-NINTH DAY 1922 DIRECTOR OF THE REGISTRATION BUREAU".

The amounts established of the fiscal and local fees were changed with the passage of time. For most of the
known and described documents, the fiscal charge was paid in stamps of the RSFSR, or with stamps on the
"gold standard" of the USSR. Cases of mixed frankings of the stamps of these issues are also known.. As a
result, a document in the collection of the Israeli philatelist Sh. Shtern is of especial interest, as the fiscal
fee was paid with postage stamps of pre-revolutionary Russia, which were still in postal circulation during
that period.

A type-set receipt form is shown in Fig. 2 and it reads: "1922 August 12th. I, the undersigned, received
from the veterinarian Polunin five million roubles for the sale to him of oats in the amount of 1 pud (36
pounds or just over 15 kg.) for the maintenance of horses and driver". There are on the back of the receipt
the signatures of the Director and Secretary, affirmed by a circular fiscal cachet with an inscription reading:
"Executive Committee of the Senginsevo District in the Simbirsk province". A 1-rouble Arms type (Michel
121, Scott 87) revalued at 10,000 r. and a 4-kopek Arms (Michel 67, Scott 57C) revalued at 40,000 r. were
affixed to the receipt. The total amount of the two affixed postage stamps thus came to 50,000 r., which
corresponded to the established fiscal fee: 1% of the goods being sold. Both stamps were partly cancelled
with an inscription handwritten in black ink and reading: "1922 August 12"t. day".

In spite of the fact that the postage stamps were officially utilised as fiscal for a rather long period of seven
months, philatelists up to now have managed to find only a small number of documents with such stamps,
thus confirming the rarity of this material.

Reference:
P. Mazur. "Postage stamps used as fiscals?; "Philately of the USSR", 1983, No. 9, pp. 51-52.
*

POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA USED AS SAVINGS BANK STAMPS
By Meer Kossoy.

Savings Bank stamps have long attracted the attention of investigators of the history of the Russian Posts;
see, for example, the article by Dr. R. Ceresa in the BJRP [Reference 1]. The interest in this particular
subject has not declined recently, as the article by A. Ilyushin testifies in the journal "The Post-Rider"
[Ref.2].

In his present article, the author would like to supplement the material known about this subject and to
present historical documents, on the basis of which postage stamps began to be utilised as Savings Bank
issues, as well as the reverse situation: Savings Bank stamps used for postage.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK 48 47
June 2001






Savings Bank stamps with the values of 25 & 50 kopeks, as well as 1, 3 & 5 roubles were issued in Russia
in 1889. Later on in 1895, further stamps with the values of 10 and 25 roubles were issued and, in the next
year, for 100 roubles. These latter were Savings Bank stamps with large face values and they were intended
for handling quite large money deposits.

In order to attract small deposits of money in the Treasury, special Savings Bank stamps with the values of
5 and 10 kopeks were issued at the beginning of 1900 and, later on, with the value of 1 kopek. A special
card for affixing the stamps was issued at the same time for each value. Such cards were handed out free of
charge upon the purchase of Savings Bank stamps. Cards with affixed Savings Bank stamps totalling 1
rouble were presented at the Savings Bank offices where, in place of the card, the sum of 1 rouble was
recorded as a deposit in the bank pass-book. In that way, the stamps were converted into money, the receipt
of which was carried out in the normal way in the bank pass-book.

In his article, A. Ilyushin rightly notes that the cards handed into the Savings Bank offices with affixed
stamps totalling 1 rouble were documented minutely and were strictly accounted for. As a result, such
Savings Bank cards are quite difficult to find [Ref. 2]. A. Ilyushin showed in his article in Figs. 1 & 2
examples of Savings Bank cards for the inclusion of 5 and 10-kopek stamps. Both cards have the same text
but differ in the number of boxes for affixing the stamps: 20 boxes for the 5-k. stamps and 10 boxes for the
10-k. stamps. A Savings Bank card for affixing 5-kopek stamps was also shown in the article by Dr. R.
Ceresa in Fig. 1 of his article [Ref. 1].

A hitherto unrecorded Savings Bank card is shown in this present article for affixing Savings Bank stamps
of 1 kopek; see Figs. 1 and 2 on the next page for the front and back of the card. This card differs from
those known for affixing the 5 & 10-kopek stamps, not only in the printed text and dimensions, but also in
its "accordion" format. Moreover, the card is printed on rose-coloured paper.

The differences in the text were linked with the fact that this was a specific savings card intended for
Savings Bank offices at schools. The director of a school Savings Bank office was a teacher who, upon
completion of the card with stamps up to the value of 1 rouble, had to transfer that sum to the bank pass-
book. A pupil could withdraw money from the bank pass-book through the intervention of the teacher or
directly at a Savings Bank office.

It was permitted to affix on the card Savings Bank stamps of various values: 1, 5 and 10 kopeks. For that
reason, the assertion by A. Ilyushin [Ref. 2] that the pre-revolutionary regulations forbad the application
on the card of stamps of various values does not correspond with the facts.

It was intended that 100 stamps of 1 kopek each were to be affixed on the card and it therefore had notable
dimensions: 115 x 420mm. The card was set out in 6 parts in an "accordion" format and when folded, its
size was 115 x 70mm. Eight settings were placed on two sides of the card (3 settings on the front side, as
shown in Fig. 1 and 5 settings on the reverse side see Fig. 2). There were 12 boxes in each setting for
affixing the stamps and a further 4 boxes were designated separately. Only three parts of the card have been
shown in Figs. 1 and 2; the other three parts have not been featured, as they only have settings with boxes
for affixing the stamps. Only two of the five printed frames with boxes are given in Fig. 2. The main motto
of the Savings Bank offices was also printed on the card, reading: "A saved kopek will lead to a saved
rouble!".

The utilization of Savings Bank stamps for small deposits was abolished on 2 December 1915 by a decree
of the Minister of Finances of Russia. In accordance with a Circular No. 232 of 23 December 1915 from
the Administration of the State Savings Bank Offices, the specially issued Savings Bank stamps for the
purpose of accepting small deposits in the Savings Bank offices were replaced by ordinary postage stamps
with the values of 1, 5 & 10 kopeks, which had to be affixed on special cards.

48 THE POST-RIDER/JIMIHIHK 48
June 2001








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THE POST-RIDER/5MMIlUIK No 48
June 2001 Fig. 4. 49
P~ 0 A






In referring to Circular No. 232 and for its enactment, the Postal Director at Petrograd issued Circular No.
16 for 11 February 1916, which ordered that the Savings Bank stamps be taken out of circulation and that
the remainders be handed over to the Treasury of the Postal Department, together with the corresponding
documentation. At the same time, an instruction was given about supplying the city postal stations with a
new type of cards for affixing postage stamps [Ref. 3]. The cards of the new type were printed at the Office
for the Preparation of State Papers (33FB) and were intended for the application of postage stamps with a
total face value of 50 kopeks.

The card of the new type for the 10-kopek stamps was shown in Figs. 2 & 3 of the article by Dr. R. Ceresa
[Ref. 1]. Similar cards for the 5- and 10-kopek stamps were featured in Figs. 3 & 4 of the article by A.
Ilyushin [Ref. 2]. It can be assumed that, in changing over from Savings Bank issues to postage stamps,
which latter had much greater distribution, the Government pursued the aim of increasing the deposit of
money in the Treasury. With this intention in view, the total value of the savings cards was reduced from 1
rouble to 50 kopeks. Unfortunately, World War 1 broke out and the Treasury ran a severe monetary deficit!

The Circulars Nos. 232 & 16 confirmed as documents the utilisation of the postage stamps of Russia also as
Savings Bank stamps. Circular No. 16 also explained to what extent the stocks of Savings Bank stamps
were on hand at the Postal Department. When the Soviet Government began to experience a severe
shortage of postage stamps, the HKIIT (People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs) decided on 12
January 1918 to utilise as postage stamps the remainders of the Savings Bank stamps of Russia in the
values of 1, 5 & 10 kopeks. In June 1918, Savings Bank stamps in the values of 25 and 50 kopeks were also
put into postal circulation, as well as Control stamps from 25 kopeks to 100 roubles.

However, it may be asserted with confidence that the utilisation of postage stamps for Savings Bank
purposes did not receive wide distribution in the 1918-1923 period. That situation is explained by the fact
that inflation in Russia, spurred by World War 1, assumed enormous proportions in the years that followed
of the Civil War and economic turmoil. For example, the rate for sending an interurban letter went from 15
kopeks in 1918 to 50,000 roubles in April 1922. In those conditions, the possibility of accumulating money
deposits of 50 kopeks had no meaning whatsoever.

Towards the end of 1923, the economic situation of Russia improved and a stable currency appeared in the
form of the "gold" rouble, while inflation declined sharply. As a result, the rate for sending an interurban
letter was fixed at only 6 kopeks as of 1 October 1923. In order to attract monetary resources to the
economy of the country, Savings Bank offices were opened in February 1923. By the end of 1924, the
Savings Bank offices decided to utilize the experience of previous years and instituted a broad propaganda
campaign to attract small deposits by the means of affixing postage stamps on a special card.

In 1924, the minimum total amount of deposit in stamps was fixed at 70 kopeks. In 1926, it rose to 1 rouble
and in 1933 to 5 roubles. In carrying out this programme, Savings Bank cards of a new type were printed
and distributed to the Savings Bank offices. The printing order for affixing stamps to a total of 1 rouble was
for 3 million cards. This meant that, just from the income of this issue, the Government assumed that it
would receive a total of 3 million roubles in deposits.

Cards of the Soviet type were shown in Figs. 5 & 6 in the article by A. Ilyushin [Ref. 2]. In contrast to the
Imperial issues, numerous slogans and advertising texts were printed on both sides of the cards of the
Soviet type. Upon presentation of the card at the Savings Bank office, the stamps were cancelled with a
cachet showing the name of the office. However, the stamps were cancelled not only with cachets, as
shown in Figs. 5 & 6 in the article by A. Ilyushin [Ref. 2]. A card is shown herewith in Fig. 3 on the
previous page, with stamps totalling 1 rouble and they were cancelled by the means of being crossed out by
red pencil.

It may be assumed that small deposits were popular in this period, as there was a shortage of savings cards
50 THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHlK N 48
June 2001





in some inhabited points. In the case where cards of the new type were not available, the old cards of the
1916 issue were utilized. In rectifying a shortage, such cards were torn in half and in that way two cards
were produced from one.

A torn-apart half of a Savings Bank card of the 1916 issue is shown in Fig. 4 on p. 49 for the application of
5 & 10k. stamps. Postage stamps with a total value of 1 rouble were affixed to that card and the stamps were
cancelled with a special cachet reading "Bogorodsk agency of the State Bank 192...".

Literature references:-
1. Dr. R.J. Ceresa: "The Postal Savings Stamps", BJRP No. 52, p. 17.
2. Prof. A.S. Ilyushin: "Savings cards for deposits with stamps", "The Post-Rider" No. 44, p. 35-57.
3. JIeHHHrpancKHR FocynapcTaeHHbIB 1 cTopHnecKHi4 ApxHB, (boHA 1543, onHcb 9, geno 69,
JHCT 18.
*

NEW FACTS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE POSTAL-TELEGRAPHIC SAVINGS OFFICES
By Professor A.S. Ilyushin.

After the publication in 1998 in No. 43 of "The Post-Rider" of my article about the activities of the State
Postal-Telegraphic Savings Offices of the Russian Empire, we have been able to unearth new material,
which I would like to draw to the attention of enthusiasts in that area.

In the listing which set out the types known to us of the Savings Bank pass-books, the earliest one was an
example in which the year of carrying out operations was given as 189.... This meant that such a pass-book
was intended to be utilised from 1890 to 1899. In view of that fact, the question arises as to what kinds of
pass-books were used in 1889, when 184 postal-telegraphic Savings Bank offices were opened and which
by 1890 numbered a few thousand depositors.

We recently found an unknown type of Savings Bank pass-book, the composition of which visibly differs
from the types described earlier (see Fig. 1 on the next page). Externally, it resembles Type 1; however,
instead of the heading "HoToBo-Tenerpa4Hma c6eperaTenbHaA Kacca", it reads "TocynapcTBeHHaq
noqToBo-TeJIerpaHaaa c6eperaTebjbHaa Kacca". Below that, instead of the words "FocygapcTBeHHaco
BaHKa C6eperaTenbHaa Kacca", there is printed: "TocynapcTBeirna C6eperaTejibaHa Kacca npn
ympexmAeHiH B%'OMCTBa MmHmcTepcrTa 'nHaHCOB'b" (State Savings Bank within the institution of the
Administration of the Ministry of Finances). Attention here should be drawn to the fact that, on all pass-
books of other known types, the heading, while including the word "rocynapcTBeHHaa", did so not at the
beginning, but in the middle, thus: "IlouToBo-TenerpabHnas rocynapcBenHHna c6eperaTenbHnaa Kacca"

The Savings Bank pass-book found by us has a further series of differences from Type 1. It is in the form
of a brochure with dimensions 143 x 215mm. and has 20 pages, including a cover of thick paper in grey-
brown colour. The first 16 pages are numbered and the last 4 contain an "Extract from the Statute and
Regulations", being unnumbered.

On the first page (see Fig. 2 on the next page), the year is designated only by one figure "1..." in the first
column specifying the date when an operation was carried out. The extract given on the last four pages (17
to 20) consists of 25 points and sets out in detail the regulations governing all the activities of the Savings
Bank offices of the Russian Empire. The following fact is noteworthy: there is a quotation in Point No. 22
from the Statute of the State Savings Bank Offices, authorized by His Majesty on 11 June 1895. The bank
pass-book previously listed at Type 1 contains an "Extract" of 26 points and a quotation from the Statute
issued in 1887.

THE POST-RIDER/aMBM HKM 48 51
June 2001


































Fig. 1. Fig. 2.


Pages 2 & 3 are shown here of this bank pass-book with various Savings Bank markings.




THE POST-RIDER/JSMIIHK MJ 48
June 2001




-- --


Pages 4 & 5 with various Savings Bank markings.


Further Savings Bank markings appear on p. 6.



THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIIK Ne 48
June 2001


". .^






Moreover, on the 4h. page of the cover there is printed information about the utilisation for small deposits
of Savings Bank stamps of 5 and 10 kopeks, which had appeared just in 1900. All that confirms that the
pass-book of this type appeared not earlier than 1900 and should be placed between Types 1 and 2. As
before, the question remains open about the type of Savings Bank pass-books of the first issues of 1889.

The author had at his disposal two examples of pass-books, issued in 1901 by the State Postal-Telegraphic
Savings Bank Office No. 2 in Moscow, which functioned in the Moscow G.P.O. The operations of deposits
specified in these pass-books were accomplished over a period of almost 20 years from 1901 to 1918. A
study of their contents has permitted the following facts to come to light. In the first place, in spite of the
introduction in 1900 of Control instead of Savings Bank stamps, they and others were in use for a period of
five years. Secondly, specially prepared postal cancellers were utilised at the Moscow G.P.O. for carrying
out the operations of receipt and paying-out of deposits. A similar marking utilised in Warsaw was
recorded by A. Cronin in "The Post-Rider" No. 43.

Nothing had been recorded previously about the postal cancellers used at the Postal-Telegraphic Savings
Bank office at the Moscow G.P.O. and their description is therefore given below. The usage of cancellers
of three types has been determined from both pass-books. They all consisted of two concentric circles, with
a text placed in between and giving the date of application in the centre.
Type I. Outer diameter of 22 mm.; inner diameter of 14 mm.
Text: "CBEPEFATEJI. KACCA HPH MOCKOBCK. nOTT."
Date in cross form, with the earliest use on 3.1.1901.
Type H. Outer diameter of 25 mm.; inner diameter of 17 mm.
Text: "CBEPEFATEJI. KACCA IIPH MOCKOBCKOM HnOTTAMT'B".
Date in one line, with the earliest use on 24.1.1907.
Type II. Outer diameter of 25 mm.; inner diameter of 16 mm.
Text: "IF.T. CBEPEF. KACCA JNo 2 B'b MOCKBw".

The author thanks 0.O. Al'tgauzen of Kostroma for his gesture in allowing us to become acquainted with
the material in his collection.


A SAVINGS BANK PASS-BOOK FROM KISHINEV IN BESSARABIA
By Vladimir Babici.

Professor Ilyushin has presented some interesting facts about the Postal-Telegraphic Savings Bank system
in the Russian Empire, both in "The Post-Rider" No. 43 and in the study given just above. That has
prompted me to show on the next page the outside and inside fronts and the outside back of the cover, plus
the first page of deposits of a pass-book in my possession and issued by the Office for the Preparation of
State Papers (33FB) in 1913 under the printing order "OopMa n.-T. Foc. c6. K., N2 3." (see the outside
front at top right). The excerpts from the Statute and Regulations make interesting reading and is it true
that, for the city of Kishinev, the Savings Bank operations were conducted at the 4 City Post Office, with
the application of the "a" canceller?The outside diameter of that marking is 29 mm. and, if we find enough
examples of the pass-books, it should be possible to determine which post offices throughout the Empire
assigned a specific canceller to process Savings Bank operations.

Proceeding from the classification given by Professor Ilyushin, it would seem that this 1913 issue of the
pass-books should be listed as Type 6 and that subsequent issues should be designated as Types 6a, 6b, 6c
etc. Comments are invited on such a classification.

It seems obvious that a considerable amount of searching and investigation remain to be done so as to
obtain a full picture of the operations of this interesting service offered by the Imperial Postal-Telegraphic
Savings Bank Administration.
54 THE POST-RIDER/5MIIHK N 48
June 2001












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THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIIK N 48
June 2001


1


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MAIL REGISTERED ON TPOs/RPOs IMPERIAL AND SOVIET TIMES
by Rabbi L.L. Tann.
(This article is written in memory of GEORGE MISKIN, Past President of the BSRP. His sudden and
tragic passing early in the year 2000 was a great shock to his many friends. His primary field of interest
was registered mail of all kinds, in the Imperial and Soviet periods. His collection was formidable and his
knowledge considerable. He presided at meetings of the BSRP with a rough and affable humour and he and
I would "insult" each other mercilessly and enjoy it enormously! Many of the items shown here came from
his collection of Registered Mail on the TPOs/RPOs of Russdia).

George attended our regional meetings in Manchester and, in his term of office, presided over them. One of
the important aspects of such meetings is that specialists in various fields "cross-pollenate" their knowledge
and this often results in clarifying hitherto confusing facts. George and I discussed aspects of mail
registered on Russian TPOs/RPOs and, between us, we established the following facts:-
The postal van on trains was usually isolated from the rest of the train. Travellers could not walk
down the corridor to the postal van. It had to be approached from the platform at stations.
Mail posted through the letter-box on the postal van, or handed to the clerk, had to be correctly
franked, as the TPO/RPO did not sell stamps. Mail that was unfranked or underfranked would be
marked with a "OIOnJIATHTb" (postage due)cachet and there are examples of TPO/RPO
postage due cachets, although relatively uncommon.
Mail to be registered had to be handed to the TPO/RPO postal clerk, being correctly franked for the
postal rate plus the registration fee.
The postal clerk would enter the item in a register or ledger in one of the two following ways:-
1. It would be given a number for that day, i.e. item 1, 2 or 3 for that day. Rarely have we seen a
number above 3 or 4 for that system.
2. It would be given a number next on that list. The register or ledger had commenced with number 1
and this was the next number on that continuous listing 45, 89 or 267...

George and I agreed there were these two systems operating, which is why, for the (relatively few) items of
mail registered on TPOs/RPOs, we find either very low single numbers, such as 1 to 4, or much higher
numbers. One system was the number of a registered item on that TPO/RPO for that day, the other was the
continuous numbering in a ledger or register. We do not know why these two different systems operated,
nor did we divine if it were by region or local administration. Perhaps someone else has the answer for that.
The TPO/RPO clerk had to write on the comer or side of the card or cover the number (item for the day
or number in the ledger), the TPO/RPO route and ensure that the word "3AKA3HOE" (= registered)
appeared clearly on the item. In some cases, it was already written in or stamped as such.
We assume that a receipt was issued, as for registered items in ordinary (sedentary) post offices. It would
be interesting to see such a receipt, if it exists.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
56 THE POST-RIDER/WIM NK He 48
June 2001






Fig. 1: The first item is a fine 20-k. postal stationery envelope sent to Baden-Baden in Germany. The 20
kopeks paid the foreign postal rate of 10 k. plus the foreign registration fee of 10 k. There are circular
postmarks of POCHTOVYI VAGON No. 99 (Khartsyzsk-Dolinskaya in the Ukraine). Although the cover
already had the Russian and German designations: 3AKA3HOE / Einschreiben, the TPO/RPO postal
clerk added the Latin "dotted R" cachet. He wrote in the top left corer "PV 99/No. [Postal van route 99;
No. 1 for that day], i.e. the day-numbering system. Sent on 19/VII/1903 O.S., it was backstamped on arrival
at Baden-Baden.

Fig. 2: This is a registered postcard sent on the TPO/RPO from the Baltic Provinces to St. Petersburg on 26
December 1908. It bears a 14-kop. Arms stamp. The rate for a registered postcard should have been 3 kop.
for the inland postcard and 7 kop. inland registration. But is it overfranked? At the bottom of the card, the
message runs over onto the address side and that often attracted a penalty. We have seen postcards where
this has occurred and the clerk has treated it as a "letter", taxing it accordingly. Perhaps the writer of this
card wanted to be sure there was enough postage on it and franked it for the 7-kop. letter rate. The card
bears an oval TPO/RPO postmark MOIZEKYUL*240*REVEL' "b" and the TPO/RPO clerk has written in
the top right comer "Zakaznoe/N.1/PV 240". Item No. 1 for that day; the day-numbering system. There is a
superb mauve receipt postmark of St. Petersburg at top left.


Fig. 3: This is a dark-coloured cover, so I hope
that it shows up. Sent on 28.6.1911 O.S. to St.
Petersburg. Franked with a 14-k. Arms stamp:
7 k. postage and 7 k. registration fee, it bears
fine ovals of the DNEPR-KRASNOE 142
CHERNIGOV route in Cherigov province of
the Ukraine. The notation by the clerk at left of
the cover reads "PV 141/N.4". The discrepancy
between the pmk route 142 and the notation -
141 can be explained in one of two ways: the
TPO/RPO steamed up and down the branch-
line. On going one way, it was TPO/RPO 141
and on the return journey, it was 142. Either the
clerk mistook which way he was going, or the
letter was noted on the 'down-journey' and at a
crossing-point, he handed it to the postal clerk
on the 'up-journey' train. The former
suggestion seems the more likely. We see again
the day-numbering system: No. 4 for the day.
,T


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Fig. 4.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N 48
June 2001


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Fig. 4: A registered cover to Stockholm during World War 1, to one of the enquiryy' committees there. The
cover (at the bottom of the previous page) is franked on the reverse with a pair of 7-k. Nikolai II stamps
and a pair of 3-k. Arms. There are ovals of the MILLEROVO.162.KHAR'KOV TPO/RPO 14.10.16, as
well as Petrograd censor marks and the Petrograd resealing label. On the front at centre left there is the
TPO/RPO notation: "N 2/ u3-b noq. 6az. 162" (No. 2 / from postal van 162). At top right there is already
the word "3aca3noe", so the clerk did not add it. Once again, it is the day-numbering system.

In March 1914, the Imperial Postal Service issued a circular announcing the introduction of standard
rectangular handstamps for use on TPOs/RPOs to be applied to registered cards and covers [see BJRP 72 of
1992, p. 24]. This provided for a standard handstamp that required only the TPO/RPO route number and
the number of the item to be written in either of the 'day-numbering' or continuous-numbering' systems.
Dr. Raymond Casey showed in BJRP 72 a number of items with this new handstamp. Other examples were
shown earlier by our member Jack Moyes [BJRP 70 of 1991, pp. 38-39]. However, it would seem that
some routes (many?) did not have these new handstamps, as we see the earlier system of handwritten
notations continuing. I have a cover with the new handstamp used in 1916, but it is regrettably too dark to
show here.


Fig. 5: This is a standard rate letter sent to London. "
The 20-k. rate is paid with two of the surcharged 7'--, '
Arms stamps 10 k./7 k. with oval pmks of /
RADZIVILOV*56*ZDOLBUNOVO. In the top
right corer there is the circular cachet in dull |.
maroon of the Red Cross Society and the mauve _,_ / I '?.
marking of the Petrograd censor '23'. On arrival ". I
in London, the scarce London FS (Foreign
Section) registration label was placed over the
manuscript notation of the TPO/RPO clerk,
which must have read: "PV 56 No...".
Fig. 5.







':',- ... ~ l '




Fig. 6.
Fig. 6: One more item before we move beyond the Revolution. This is a cover addressed to Tobol'sk. It
bears on the front the oval TPO/RPO postmark CHELYABINSK-167-OMSK 21.12.15. At top left there is
the notation "N. 1 / PV 167". One the reverse there are 20 kopeks in Arms stamps with poorly-inked ovals
of the TPO/RPO and a Tobol'sk arrival postmark.

The existing system continued through the Revolution and into the Soviet period.



58 THE POST-RIDER/HMImIHK MN 48
June 2001





















Fig. 7.


Fig. 7: Here we have a cover with Tambov arrival of 9.3.24. Fine ovals of the old Tsarist
KUSTAREVKA.276.VERNADOVKA route and also on the reverse over the Soviet 'soldier and worker'
stamps. On the front at top left there is a notation: "PV 276 / ..asovo-Vernadovka". Where it is torn at top
left, there was certainly the designation of the 'day-number'. Note the number "25" at top right under the
word "3aKa3Hoe". This is an example of the continuous-numbering system for registered mail.




7 -


.. ....... ....... /.




7 :...-- .' nr \-.. ..y. ., _'.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8: A cover to Moscow 3.3.25. This bears a fine strike of the ROSTOV-14-MOSKVA crew '4' oval.
There is alongside a hand-drawn rectangular box, imitating the handstamp type issued in 1914. Perhaps this
TPO/RPO had such a handstamp and it was lost, so the clerk drew it by hand. It has the letter "3" for
"3aKa3Hoe" at left, the route number at the top (PV 14) and underneath the number 976, i.e. the
continuous-numbering system. The reverse shows the Lenin Mausoleum 7-kop. stamps in a pair with the
oval postmarks and the Moscow arrival marking.
Editorial Comment: The sender designated his address at bottom front as Millerovo Station and when we
look at the flap on the reverse, we see a handwritten notation "Taken out of a letter-box". It would therefore
seem that the letter-box was at Millerovo Station and that the clerk had made a point of emptying the
contents of the letter-box for further servicing and onward transmission. We can further surmise that such
actions were part of the duties of clerks on TPOs/RPOs at every station where the train stopped along a
particular route. The Moscow-Rostov and Rostov-Moscow routes (P.V. Nos. 13, 14) were particularly
busy, so the chances of finding further examples of such handling would be good. We trust that TPO/RPO
enthusiasts will now check the backs of their covers and advise us all of additional items that have been
processed in this way.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIII NK 48 59
June 2001






Fig. 9: Our last item, taking us to 1929, .-,
shows a fine cover franked with two
Soviet stamps.Addressed to Pervomaisk
there is a strike of the oval TPO/RPO
BIRZULA-310-BAKHMACH, a new
Soviet-made canceller. At the left side
there is the handwritten notation "N. J /' "f f_
324/ PV 310". This too is the
continuous-numbering system. o 1 -i---

By the 1930s, much of the Russian
long-distance mail was being carried
by air. But the use of TPOs/RPOs
continued and they were still operating Fig. 9.
into the 1980s and later, hence the chance of much more modem "registered on TPOs/RPOs". We still need
to explore use of the rectangular handstamps, the dual system of recording the registered mail in TPO/RPO
registers, possibly to see the receipt-dockets for registered mail and more examples from other railway
routes. As our studies continue of the Russian mail system, we build on the work and ideas of past
members. Let us pay tribute to the work of George Miskin and continue the study he left us.


SOVIET AIRMAIL IN 1927
by Robert Taylor.

Although the Soviet airmail system, both external and internal, saw continued expansion in 1927, that year
has particular fascination for me because of the proliferation of the distinctive red-on-white airmail labels
that took place. Readers will recall my interest in Soviet airmail etiquettes from previous articles in "The
Post-Rider" (No. 29 of Dec. 1991 for labels and No. 38 of June 1996 for handstamps).

The 1927 airmail season (at least the Deruluft route to Berlin) was again initiated at the beginning of May,
as it had been since 1923. See Fig. on the next page for a registered card flown to Prague via Berlin for
the Moscow-Berlin flight on May 2. Note the franking of 37 k., which appears to have been an excess of 1-
k. over the newly established 1927 rate of 36 k. for European destinations other than Germany. These new
rates (actually considerable reductions from the previous rate-scale) were 17 k. for a card and 40 k. for a
letter. These rates were all increased by 14 k. for registration.

The Deruluft route from Moscow to Kinigsberg, which had been in existence from 1922 and was expanded
in 1926 to include air service through to Berlin, saw further expansion in 1927. On July 19, an interim
service to Riga was initiated. See Fig. 2 for a First Flight cover with a violet "Deruluft" cachet for the
Moscow-Riga-Berlin route, with the Deruluft symbol of flying birds and clouds. Note the printed Deruluft
envelope with the birds and cloud printed on the flap.

September 1t. 1927 saw the issuance of the first Soviet commemorative airmail stamps, the well-known
10-k. and 15-k. values issued for the 1t. International Air Mail Congress in The Hague. These conformed
to the internal airmail premiums for cards and letters. See Fig. 3 for a philatelic First Day cover franked
with blocks of both values, including the "broken 7" variety on the 10-k. value.

Now as to the airmail labels, first a brief review. As you will recall, Leningrad (Petrograd) had used a series
of unusual black-on-cerise labels from 1922 to 1926 (Tl to T3 from the Dec. 1991 listing in "The Post-
Rider" No. 29). Moscow had used a series of handstamped cachets from 1922 to 1925 (Tl and T3 to T5
from the June 1996 article in "The Post-Rider" No. 38). The 1926 airmail season saw the first of the
distinctive red-on-white bilingual airmail etiquettes, which are frequently noted on Soviet airmail covers
60 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHIIHK N 48
June 2001





















'ji .P-iP r a b a' II.
L l -------------------

MOCEBA-PRARAF. :
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Fig. 1.


Fig. 5.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIHXIK M 48
June 2001






and cards well into the 1930s. This label (T4) is seen on all airmail covers of Moscow origin from 1926 and
sometimes added in Moscow during transit on airmail covers originating in other cities. It was the only
such label issued in 1926.

However, with the continued expansion of airmail service, it is clear that the commissars in charge decided
in 1927 to authorize the printing of similar red-on-white bilingual airmail labels in a wide variety of postal
districts.. Perhaps the Soviet archives would reveal the extent of this authorization but meanwhile, we can
record quite a variety, notably all different, as each postal district issued its own style. In 1927 we can
record two new Moscow labels (T5 and T8), the first from Leningrad (T6) and examples from
Transcaucasia (T7 noted from Baku and Batum; see Fig. 4 on p. 61 for a card from Batum to Tanganyika -
what an unusual destination!), the Ukraine (T10, a trilingual label noted from Khar'kov. See Fig. 5 on p. 61
for an example from Khar'kov Station through to Prague) and the Crimea (T9 noted from Yalta [Fi
below] and Sevastopol').

In addition, two new covers have come to light since the 1991 article: one from Klintsv, perhaps a label of
the Gomel' District or of Belorussian origin (let us call it T10A; see Fi. below for the cover to Dresden
with a Dresden air arrival cachet) and another from Kiev on July 30, being the earliest noted of the new
labels, other than from Moscow and Leningrad (let us call it T10B see Fig. 8 below). I hope that readers
will share1927 airmail covers in their collections, which display airmail labels from towns and districts not
recorded above.


Fig. 6.






ATOMIC SECRETS FROM A POST OFFICE BOX
by V.P. & P.V. Florenskii and G.I. Ivanov.
(Reprinted from the Russian magazine "QHJIATEJIHWI" Nos 7 & 8/1998 and 9/1999 by kind permission
of the publishers and authors).

More than half a century ago in the depths of Russia there disappeared an entire town from maps and
documents. It was transformed into a town without name, a phantom-town, which was hidden in several
post office boxes. At first it looked as if being in Moscow, then in Arzamas, then it popped up in the
Kremlin. Here the "nuclear shield" was hammered out, which sheltered the planet from the "nuclear
winter". And when the Cold War came to an end, the town appeared in its place and reverted to its ancient
glorious name of Sarov. The town was actually hidden away, so that it remained a phantom for foreign
intelligence services and even the cancellations on letters designated the existence somewhere ofpost office
boxes without a name or a point on the map.

Sarov was famous for its hermitage where the holy worker of miracles. Serafim Sarovskii carried out
his activities. His canonization took place on 29 January 1903 and the Imperial Family was present on 17
to 20 July when his relics were unearthed. Sarov became one of the important religious centres of Russia
and an endless stream of pilgrims flocked to the relics of Reverend Father Serafim.

0BCE TOBUb COI03& POCC'WI.
PO UNiVERnSELLE RUSSiE
I Pa 61011Mt 10mopa -c s pec.- CIARTEr ta rPd.

Fig.1. I Fig. 2. .





.Ha ,cf fmaow, Havana KO.UW jupfo-C-i t .m ,v c rfdftr.

There was a postal-telegraphic office at the monastery; originally, the inscription on the cancellers was
given as "CAPOBCKAaI nlYCTblHb TAMB." (Sarov Hermitage in Tamb[ov province] Fig. 1) and
after 1910 as "CAPOB'b TAMB." (Sarov Tamb[ov province] Fig. 2). These strikes were kindly
furnished for publication by the geographer and historian P.M. Shul'gin.

The monastery was closed during the years of persecution of the Church. The remains of the Reverend
Father vanished and the very name of the town was changed to Sarovo, being reflected as such on the
cancellers of the 1920s. In accordance with an order by V.I. Lenin, corrective institutions and a lunatic
asylum were founded in the monastery and a juvenile labour colony was organised in 1928, named after
O.Yu. Shmidt and it was transformed in November 1931 into a corrective labour colony. Kulaks were also
incarcerated here. In order to keep the prisoners busy, a factory for making sports goods was built. In
November 1938, the Sarovo Corrective Labour Camp (in those days, it was already a camp) was dissolved
and the sports goods factory converted into a machine-building facility, which was given in 1941 to the
People's Commissariat of Military Supplies. The factory began making shell casings for 152-mm.
howitzers and during 1942-1945 for "Katyusha" rockets. The defenders of the Motherland went off to the
front from Sarovo and returned to nowhere; their town no longer had a name and it was not present on
maps nor on open documents.

In 1945, the Americans exploded the first atomic bomb at the test site in the Alamogordo Desert and
the second and third over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. The atomic era came into being. In 1947,
the government of the USSR decided to establish in Sarovo a scientific and production centre for the
THE POST-RIDER/I1MIHIK N6 48 63
June 2001






perfection of atomic weapons. The town became one of the most secret places in the world.


Immediately behind the organizers came scientists: physicists and mathematicians and, soon afterwards,
they brought in builders, originally prisoners in the main. A.D. Sakharov related in his "Memoirs"
(Magazine "Znamya", No. 11/1990, p. 145) that zekss" [slang term for prisoners] with long sentences
originally worked there but, after 1947, when they tried to organize escapes, people were brought in with
sentences of only 3 to 5 years. However, as they subsequently tended to carouse, they were then deported to
the Magadan province, or even allowed to stay in the town. It is possible that letters exist from builders in
the town with rectangular cachets of the camp and reading "Yvpexqaeime JN..." (Institution No...);
historians would probably know what was that number.

In the conditions of strictest secrecy, nobody knew anything. However, it is now known that I.V.
Kurchatov, the main constructor and scientific director of the project of Yu.B. Khariton and even a few
other people had information about the composition of the American atomic bomb, while others were even
determining tasks, the few answers to which were known only to selected persons. It was dramatic that, at
that time, the names of the scientists were hidden and their assistants were non-persons. There is a story
about the report of one of the main agents in the project to his supervisor L.P. Beria in the Central
Committee of the CPSU, stating: "The scientific administration of the project, in violation of secrecy, has
put into writing the details of making scientific discoveries on an independent basis".

The first Soviet bomb was exploded at the Semipalatinsk test site on 29 August 1949. The subsequent
bombs were already of original Soviet construction. One of them in the first series, which formed part of
the armaments in the period from 1954 to 1965, was called "Tat'yana". Other names from the period of war
were "Katyusha" and "Luka-Il'ya Muromets".

The first hydrogen bomb in the world was exploded on 12 August 1953 and demonstrated the
nuclear parity of the USSR. Naturally, in the circumstances of the Cold War and attendant secrecy, the
task of the Postal Service was unusual; it had to hide a complete town with tens of thousands of inhabitants,
who had relatives and close friends "on the mainland". According to the words of the veterans, the success
was due not so much to the prohibitions, verifications and censorship, but rather to the high standard of
consciousness of the citizens. It should also not be excluded that there were in general no letters from the
participants of the centre up to the beginning of the 1950s. In any case, A.D. Sakharov wrote that, in 1950,
there was "no communication by telephone and it was also impossible to send letters and telegrams(in that
regard, the restriction was subsequently relaxed [see the magazine "Znamya", No. 11/1990, p. 145]). The
enterprise in the town was called KB-11 and assumed addresses were used in handling civilian documents.
For those who were born in the town, the place of birth was mainly given as "Moscow, October Field",
which was where the laboratory of I.V. Kurchatov was situated.

Little is known about the workings of the mail service up to the end of the 1950s. In a letter to the authors
of the present article, one of the veterans of the town, Gennadii Ivanovich Ivanov (a regular contributor to
the magazine "InnaTenni", Ph. D, recipient of State Prizes, began in 1958 as a constructor and carried
out many unique tasks, as life required of him then) noted that "There is documentary confirmation that, at
the beginning of the 1940s, there existed a sole address 'Moscow, P.O. Box 49' for the entire population,
[but I never saw such a marking]. There was also another address 'P.O. Box 813, Moscow GPO' in that
period". There were still other addresses and post office boxes for the town. Boris Vasil'evich Litvinov, a
Chief Constructor for Nuclear Weapons, arrived in the town after having graduated in the summer of 1952.
He wrote to the authors that "in the first letter of 28-30 July from Sarovo to my wife, I informed her of the
address for correspondence, namely Moscow GPO, P.O. Box No. 975".

The earliest letter known to us has the outgoing machine marking of the Moscow 1st. Despatch Post Office
with the serial number "0-5" and dated 27.8.52.17 (see Fig. 3 on the next page). This same machine
canceller with serial "0-5" processed outgoing letters from the town up to the middle of 1953. After the
64 THE POST-RIDER/SMIIUHK N 48
June 2001





















death of Stalin and the arrest of the Supervisor of the Projects, L.P. Beria of the Central Committee of the
CPSU, as well as after the mass amnesty of 1953, the number of prisoner-builders in the town declined
sharply and their place was taken by military builders. It would seem that the postal service was also
reorganised. As of April 1954, there appeared the canceller of the Moscow GPO 5 Despatch Office (Fig.
3a). This subdivision of the Moscow postal service was engaged in processing the mail received directly
from the Poste Restante (General Delivery) office, from the post office boxes in the suburbs located near
the post office and also mail addressed to postal stations situated in the Moscow GPO and handling special
mail. The cancellers with a contoured star were of a pre-war type and with the serial letters "z and "a "
[see the first two cancels in the 2nd. row of Fig. 3a] There is sometimes on the backs of the covers a violet
cachet designating tariff "88"; it is still unclear where the covers were handled, in Moscow or elsewhere. A
telegram accepted according to the address "Moscow, P.O. Box 977, house 7, apt. 5, Litvinov" complicates
the reply, as it was provided with the postmark of the 1st. dispatch office and telegraph service, being dated
30.04.55. However, where no postmarks were present, the workers of the enterprise and all inhabitants of
the town were regarded as being in the centre of the capital.

B.V. Litvinov wrote to the authors that "As of 1954 there appeared the address 'Moscow 300', after which
were put the numbers designating the name of the street and then those of the house and apartment".

An official organisation of the postal service in the town was put into place in 1955 by an order of Efim
Pavlovich Slavskii, the Assistant to the Minister of Medium Machine Construction and the Minister of
Communications Nikolai Dem'janovich Psurtsev. The main task which confronted the Postal Service was
not the establishment of complete secrecy regarding the work in the town; that was the responsibility of the
Special Services Department. The Postal Service was utilised as one of the means of 'covering up'.

Each person arriving in the town was requested to read through a document of the relevant institution,
which had been abolished long ago but was still hanging on the wall and reading: "A reminder about
keeping state secrets for persons arriving on assignment at the enterprise and at organizations in the town".
Some points are quoted here:-
1. Under no circumstances and in no form whatsoever should information be divulged regarding the
numbers of the post office boxes of the relevant institutions.

6. Upon an assignment of long duration, it is permitted to conduct personal correspondence with the
obligatory designation of a return address on the envelope, which will be communicated to you by the
Director of the Group of Persons on Assignments.

7.It is forbidden to send letters and telegrams and also to take mail upon request from inhabitants of the
town, as well as make international telephone calls.
THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIHK 48 65
June 2001






Even today, secrets are hidden for
security, although the VNII Institute of
Experimental Physics, the brain of the p.a-cxea.... ..Gopoo o6 ., e
Nuclear Centre of the Russian Federation
(P~SAII), participates in international --
cooperation and some of its scientists go /
all over the world. But traces remain up /
to now from the past. The Y(IIC /
(Postal Service) at Nizhnii-Novgorod
issued a collection of cards and on the \ .rop. -
outside cover there was a map of the
southern part of the province, in which H '80o.
Sarov was not properly placed where : .
it should be (the map was corrected by ? ,
the Chief Postmaster of the city M.V. ,.? O .
Khoroshkin, the son of Vladimir o..1
Ivanovich Khoroshkin, who had P' "M
previously directed the group in the
postal area of the centre see Fig. 4). Fig. 4.

CAaBa OKWIBJPIO!




Pit- eL, ;6"/- G46




,B., is,: C Lg "

Fig. 5. Fig. 6.
Starting from 1958, we have at our disposal materials from the family correspondence of three physicists:
B.V. Maksimov, G.I. Ivanov and A.B. Solov'ev, which also form the basis of the present article. The
earliest letter known to us was sent on 15.10.58 to the address: "Moscow, Centre, 300/11, house 5, apt. 112,
to Gennadii Ivanovich Ivanov". Similar letters in 1959 went to the address: "Moscow, Centre, 300/11,
house 16, apt. 31, to Alevtina Pavlovna Kochergina-Sel'verova". The addresses of the senders are also
specified in detail (see Fig. 5). The number "11" in the denominator after "300" designated Lenin Street.
Two receipt markings were placed on the backs of the covers, namely "Moscow, Post Office, 5h. Despatch
Office" and "Moscow 300 K.S." (these arrival postmarks are shown at bottom left in Fig. 5). In this period,
the cancellers of the 5th. Despatch Office had the Russian serial letter "p" in black or violet and rarely with
serial letter "a". There is on one of the covers the transit postmark "MOCKBA-182". Letters to the 5.th
Despatch Office arrived in one or two days (see Fig. 6, the postmarks at top left).

The second category of postmarks belonged to the Moscow-300 post office, which handled the mail of
closed centres. It is not know if it was located at the Moscow GPO or elsewhere. It took one or two days for
a letter to go from the 5th. Despatch Office to Moscow-300. The "MOCKBA 300 K.C." postmarks had
the date in 6 figures: with the designation of the hour, except for the type with serial ".2". The type with
66 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK N2 48
June 2001






Russian serial letter "6" is struck in black and the serial letters "z" and "wu" are also found. Letters from
"MOCKBA-300 K.C." were sent daily by air to the town and were received by the addressees in one to
three days. Thus, the transit times for the letters was great, when compared with normal mail. In order to
shorten this period, the family members of A.B. Sel'verov (whose correspondence forms the basis of this
article) went to the train and sent letters on the Stalino-Kiev TPO/RPO. We did not find any examples of
serious delays which would have pointed to perlustration (secret opening and resealing of the mail) and,
according to the words of the old inhabitants, the letters actually arrived very quickly at the town, while
those sent from there went more slowly.

There was in the town a complex system of administration: the Scientific Director of the Project, the
Personal Representative of the Council of Ministers and the Political Department. The latter was
disbanded in 1958 and a Town Council (Soviet) and Town Branch of the Communist Party came into
being. The town was called the "Kremlin" in the Party and Komsomol documents. That nomenclature is
not found in the years that followed. (to be continued).
*

A SPECIAL WARNING ABOUT DIGITAL FORGERIES
by Dr. R.J. Ceresa.

In the last two or three years, Russian stamp collectors have been plagued by digital forgeries. These are
exact facsimiles of genuine overprints and/or surcharges, printed onto sheets, panes, blocks or even single
stamps of the common genuine issues so as to produce scarce, rare or even unique items.

The process starts with a genuine stamp (or block of stamps), which is scanned into a computer. Software is
now available which enables specific colours to be removed from the scanned image. Thus, a block of four
of, say, the 3-kopek value of the "Philately to the Children" overprint of 1922 is scanned into the computer
and the background colour removed, leaving just the overprint. The overprint is then multiplied in the
computer to give a 5 x 5 pane format and then carefully printed onto a pane of, say, the basic 1-kopek
imperf. Arms type, which is temporarily attached to a supporting sheet of paper. Dividing the digitally-
printed pane into smaller blocks, pairs etc. provides the forger with a supply of apparently genuine
examples.

This process can be, and has been, applied to a range of black overprints and surcharges on commonly
available stamps, such as the 15-kopek imperforate Arms type to produce varieties and rarities. The careful
observer can, by checking variety positions, show that the digitalized images are frequently in the wrong
pane positions.

A dealer on the West Coast of the USA has been offering these digital forgeries as genuine items at high
prices, but still lower than what the genuine items would normally fetch.. Collectors should beware of such
apparent bargains. Such stamps have been sent to me for expertising, but I have rejected them. They may
well find their way onto eBay.

The most readily available laser printers reproduce at 300 dots per inch which, when enlarged optically at a
60x magnification, give an effective 5 dots per inch, which is readily perceivable. Thus, early digital
forgeries were easily identified at such magnifications. Laser printers at 1200 dots per inch, as used in high-
quality print runs, when examined at 60x magnification, give a perceived image at 20 dots per inch.
Straight lines and curves appear as jagged. I use a magnification of 120x (240x is available, but I find that
higher magnification tiring) and that readily breaks down the image to observable dots at 10 to the inch.
There is also observable at that magnification an ink scatter outside the printed area. This scatter is
dependent on the printing engine used and it is feasible with a suitable image to identify the print engine
from the scatter pattern. Further comments and data are invited from CSRP members.
*
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N2 48 67
June 2001







Convention Russia-Prussia regarding Western Europe 1843 Nov.1st (old style)
By Erling Berger

The old convention had been active since 1822. The new one brought some changes:
The border fee of 1V2 Silver Kopeks disappeared.
Russia got an inland postage of 10 Kopeks for foreign mail.
The main border offices were Tilsit (Pr.) and Tauroggen (Russia)
(This happened already in the 1830's but now it became stated in a convention.).
Letters to and from the area between Riga and Memel went over Memel/Polangen.
The maximum Prussian postage could be 10 S.Gr. (Silbergroschen) if paid by Russia
For postal affairs the exchange rate for the two currencies was fixed at
1 S.Gr. = 3 14 Silver Kopeks (The exact silver exchange rate was: 3.0952)
The accountancy currency "Prussian Groschen" disappeared.

Interesting details from before 1843 Nov.lst (old style)
Around 1833 Tilsit/Tauroggen became main border offices in stead of Memel/Polangen.
The value of the Russian paper money was as of 1839 fixed at: 1 Silv. Kop. = 31/2 Kop. Ass.

Interesting details after 1843 Nov.1st (old style)
For all inland mail Russia got an inland rate of 10 Kopeks as of 1.1.1844 (old style)
The domestic tariff inside any Western European State was transformed to a uniform rate. For
example: Belgium and The Netherlands were considered to have a uniform rate of 4 S.Gr.
(Here I must emphasise that this was valid for the amounts paid in Russia. The accountancies between the Low
Countries and Prussia were settled according to the real individual tariffs)

* As of July 13th 1845 (new style) the Prussian transit rate to most Western Europe fell from 10
to 8 S.Gr. The Prussian share for mail to Russia (no other states involved) got four levels of 1
(f.ex. Memel), 11/(f.ex. Tilsit), 3(f.ex. K6nigsberg) or 6 SGr(f.ex. Berlin) See Table 1, 2 and 3

In Figure 1 we see an unfranked letter Rotterdam-St.Petersburg May 1845.

The inland Netherlands individual rate was "20" cent, equal to 31/2 S.Gr.

Now Prussia was allowed to charge 4 S.Gr. from Russia for any Netherlands office (for the cause
of simplicity. See above) Therefore Russia also claimed 4 S.Gr. from the Russian addressee -
even if the original individual postage was 31/ S.Gr.

The Prussian transit was 10 S.Gr. (1844-July1845). The Prussian claim on Russia was 10 + 4 =
"14" S.Gr. = 14 x 3 14 = 451/ Kopek. Russia added 10 Kopeks for the inland, ending up with a
total postage due of "56".

Furthermore there is an interesting detail on the "20"cent. When the Prussia/Netherlands
convention was made up in 18171 Rotterdam had an internal postage versus Prussia of 20 cent. In
1818 this was changed to 25cents by an internal Netherlands decision but Prussia never accepted
this for letters to Russia. In 1826 Prussia accepted the 25cent, but only for letters in the two-sided
Prussia-Netherlands correspondence.

'The magazine "Belgian Postal History" has just reported that the 1817 tariff versus Prussia has several discrepancies
relative to 30 newly found (United-) Netherlands domestic tariffs valid 1816-1818.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIHIIK N2 48
June 2001

































Figure 1. Unfranked letter Rotterdam-St.Petersburg May 1845.
Netherlands rate: 20 cent. Prussia/Russia transformed 20 cent to
Prussian transit: (1844-July1845).
Prussian claim on Russia:
Reduced to (14 x 3 1) 45 Kopeks
Russia inland postage: 10 Kopeks
Total postage due of 56 Kopeks


4 S.Gr. (See Table 1)
10 S.Gr (See Table 1)
14 S.Gr.


Figure 2


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N, 48
June 2001


[ ^/^iIl .r --1 "G -- 'o ,.
96 AUG.' ^^^^f ^'


I ,kzc c --V`wr






Figure 2: Aug.22nd.1845 Amsterdam-Christinestad (Fin.) via Hamburg and St.Petersburg.
Of reasons I do not know this letter was sent via Hamburg Stadtpost (weak oval postmark) and
Hamburg Prussian Office (see the two line postmark) to reach Russia.
The Netherlands Hamburg Stadtpost (1815-52) 10 Hamburg Schilling.
This amount was reduced to 812 S.Gr. (71 would have been enough).
After Hamburg Prussian Office had received this letter the remaining postage was found in the
July 1st (Old style) special internal Prussian tariff versus Russia (See Table 3): 6 S.Gr.
Up to the Russian border 81/ + 6 = 14 S.Gr. = 141/2 x 34 = 4714 Silver Kopeks
Russian internal postage 10 Silver Kopeks
Postage due in Christinestad 57/4 Silver Kopeks

(Rear of Letter) Figure 3 Hamburg (Prussian) March 6th 1846
291 6 Hamburg-Tilsit 6 S.Gr. = 191 Kop.
Russian Inland 10 Kop.
Postage due 291' Kop.

L6s 29/2 kop. silver HAMBURG The Prussian share of the postage was taken from the
July 1st (Old style) special internal Prussian tariff versus
Russia (See Table 3)
Ny Carleby
iiber Tilsit Finland This figure has been inspired from a real sent letter







b. ',




Figure 4
1.; Antwerp-Jacobstad
Ir, ,i. ,1 (; ;? May 1851

-1 B Belgian share 31 S.Gr.
...yet in Russia 4 S.Gr.
S' Prussia Transit 8 S.Gr.
Total to Tilsit 12 S.Gr.
which equal
12 x 3 4 = 39 Kop
Russian stretch 10 Kop.
Postage due 49 Kop


70 THE POST-RIDER/aIMI~HK N2 48
June 2001









Here are the headlines for the three tables: Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3

Table 1: The German text says (valid from Nov 1st 1843 old style):
List of the amounts paid by Russia
* for the franked mail from Russia to foreign states
* for unfranked mail from foreign states to Russia


No To and from The single letter Remarks
1 Loth incl.
Prussian Foreign The Sum
Transit Postage
Postage
S.Gr. S.Gr. S.Gr.


Table 2: The German text says (valid from Jul. 1st 1845 old style):
List of the amounts paid by the Russian Empire
* for the franked mail from Russia to foreign states
* for unfranked mail from foreign states to Russia
.- ..--I -i


No


To and from


Prussian
Transit
Postage
S.Gr.


The single letter
1 Loth incl.


Foreign
Postage

S.Gr.


The Sum


S.Gr.


Table 3: The German text says (valid from Jul. 1st 1845 old style):
Royal Prussian Postage Table
For the
Correspondence
To and from
Russia


These three tables can be found in the book
Esa Mattila: "Suomi Postimaksuja 1810 1875". Please, note that in this book you can read that
in Finland these tables didn't become valid until 1849






THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK Ns 48 71
June 2001


KemarKS







Tablel1. Uebersichlt
der von Rtif'sl~ad zu vergiilenden Porto-Sii(zc flr die Frauiko- Correspondeiiz nius Rlars-
I;tnd In;Icli frelididn Swinten findi fMlr die PoIro- Cori.espontIez aus frerndcn Staaneu
nach Rturslanid.


Der eiirclIe Blrief
I Loth hicl.
Xnieba und] awq Prenfs. Freindes. 3e in c r k u n g e n.
I Sumima.
A"Traiit. j Porto.
Portn. j
__________________________________ Sgr. 3cr. Sicr. ____________


dlem Grofhlcrogilime lLaden . .
dem Kiiligrriche Baier . . .
dein Kiinigrcicie elgien . . .
dent Hlerzogtlhumine Bralunschweig . .
den K. D.inisclhen Staaten (iin;l. Ratzehnirg)
nil|d Idei I'irslrsintlnlhue Liibecrl: (Etiiln) .
den Diinischelii Colonien ii. iler In scl Uornholmi
dem Klinigreiche Frankric . . .
den Framn:i.schen .oloniii n. . ..
(dlet Frainzils.K sitz cii bge iiNordein vnii Africa
dent Ktinigreiche Gro(fsblritannicin mid Irlaind
dein Kiniriiieirce Ilannov . . ..
Liiheck (fr Slad) . . . .
dent Kiini gricle dtlr Niedilrlanle. . .
den Niederliilndischicn Cololnien:
a) nach den Niederlindi.schen Culonlien..
1)) ans drit- Niederliindisclien Colonie .
deml Grofshlerogllh. ilecklliirg.-Sciwerin .
dent GroelilrzI7.oth. ilIc(khl'ilInbri;-Slreli .
dem IHerzopih.(ih.denhinrg. excl.demn Fiir.telith.
Libeilk Iniid demi Fii-stilllt. lirkenfeld. .
demtiKiiil grtilci Porting:: in d. .rilug. C(olonien
dem Kihiigrciche Saclsen.. ........
der Sclweiz ..................
dem Kiinigricice Spamnien, Gilirallar und dien
Slpanischen Coloic . . .
denl FiirstlicliTJlurn i.T'axissehlen Pnst.-ezirk
dent Kli;iigreichle Viirtembeirng unid den llo-
lienzollernschel Fiirs(nhiiiilnern . .
Anlerika:
a) hei hdeir Spediiion durcl die Niederlande
(Einnierichi)
nach Anierika . . .
aus Aerika. . . .. .
hi) bei der Spedition durclh Helgien (Aachen)
naclh Amerika . . .
aus Amerika . . .
c) bei der Spedition per llanihmurg:
1. cwenn die Wcilerbefurderung durcli
SchilTrsgelegenheit erfolgcn soil, in wel-
clem Ialle die Correspondenz an die
Ainerikanisilhe Expedition des Siadt-
Postamnts z IHainmbrg abggegehn 1nd
von dlerselben gelegentliclh dnrch Kanf-
lidriteischilfe hesnrt wir . .
2. wetnn die 1Veiletrhelirdcrnilg der Cor-
resplondelnz iilerEnglaiid gcsclehelln soil,
in welcheni PiFlle ;sic von Ilamburg re-
gclhnil.sig init den Damipfsechiffen iiber
Lonidon befirdert wird
nachi und ans Nord-Anerika .
nach tind ails Siid-Alnierika .
d) heci der Speditioni dirch Firnkreich .


(i
1)
9
9

18
4
4
21
4

4
10
3


2i
20
2'.
7

20
4

5



4
10

* 4
10







4





37
(i;
IS


14
17
19
2S
2S
13
12
94
14

14
20
11


111
:0

16

30
12

13



13
19

13
19







13





46
75
2S


atiferdeni dam aat den Blriert hba.
*te" Enltli-..tsPoeto, wean sot.
chi. oit ,io t'aeketisooten oder mil
Privatscihitfo in einen ognitishen
laten einglthr.















auteerdeal 412 311 den Britret hot.
tend* Eolixcht Porto, wean sot.
ci. mit da Pokettehoote noderinit
Prvatsisht en to tivenEoglinette
HUae tinlgehen.
aneersiem da. ant den ritrten bart
tesnd englioebe Porto, wean Sol.
ehetitf den Pnetethooten oderomit
PyivottSi.Iffen in ues vgoitnolbef
nate0 einghen.














14


THE POST-RIDER/I1MIIHK N2 48
June 2001








Table 2. Ue b ersicht

der von Kaiserlich Russischer Seite zu vergiitenden Porto-Siitze filr die durch
Preufsen transitirende Russische Correspondenz, in sofern solcle trankirt aus
Rufsland und unlrankirt nach Rufsland iabesandt wird.
Vum 13. Jnli 1845 an.

Der einfacle Briefbis I Loril
J'reufsisch incl. schwer
PreuC(i- "
Nach und aus sches FreI.ude Hemerkungen.
Transi. Poro. Su'a,.
No. Porto.
1 Sgr. Sgr. Sar.


dem Grofsherzogthume Baden . .
Baiern.....................
Belgien ................... .
dem Herzogthume Braunschweig ......
den Dinischen Staaren und dem Fiirsten-
thume Libeck (Eutin) . . .
'den Dinischen Colonien u. derlnselBornholm
Frankreich ...............
'den Framzizsischen Colonien ... .....
den Franz. Besitzungen im Norden von Afrika
SGrofsbritanien und irland ..........
dem Konia-reiche Hannover . . .
Libeck freee Stadt) . . .
dem. Kinigreiche der Niederlande . .
'den Niederlindischen Colonien:
a) nach den Niederlandischen Culonien .
b) aus den Niederliindischen Colonien .


Mecklenburg-Schwerin . . .
Mecklenburg-Strelitz . . .
Norwegen . . . . .
dem Grofsherzogth. Oldenburg, excl. des Fur-
stenth. Liibeck u. des Firstenth.Birkent',,il
"Prtagl ul ad den Portugiesischen Colonien
dem Kiiuigreiche Sachsen . . ..
der Schweiz . . . . .
SSpanien, Gibraltar u. den Spanischen Colonien
dem Thurn- und Taxisschen Post-Bezirk .
Wiirtemberg und den Hohenzollernschen Fir.
stenthimern . . . .
'Amerika:
a) bei der Spedition durch die Niederlande
(Emmerich)
nach Amerika . . .
aus Amerika. . . .

b) bei der Spedition durch Belgien(Aachen)
nach Amerika . . .
aus Amerika . . .
a) bei der Spedilion per Hamburg:
1. wenn die Weiterbetirderung durch
Schiliselegenheit erfolgen soil, in wel-
chem Falle die Correspondenz an die
Amerikanische Expedition des Stadt-
Postamis zu Hamburg ahgegeben und
von derselben gelegentlich durch Kauf-
fahrteischiffe besorgt wird . .
2. wenn die Weiterbeforderung der Cor-
respondenz uber England geschehen soil,
in welchem Falle sie von Hamburg re-
gelmiissig mit den Dampfsciiffen iiber
London befordert wird
nach und aus Nord-Amerika .
nach und aus Sud-Amerika .
d) bei der Spedition durch Frankreich .


6
(I
6

6
8
6
6
8

6



a
8


8
8




8






8


8
8
8


9
71
22

sth
28
8-
13
28
10

II
11



12
18



18







12





45
74
26


Aumerkuog. Nach den vit chiuem Sterne (a) betoicliguten Lndern anufs die
Abgesandt Werden.


hbl sou BeetiLmaugelorc.

dc4gL
de.gL


d*.;I
hi* sm DIteicheu Eloselhiffaugspukt.



bi. Mr bl..rr.s.ais Je.. Coutieatu.
his tor flenBime.u.g orte.
desll.


bit sar Mcrrekurte due Coatiuetu.
atunerlem dasu aufr Oriefre hafteade
Eugliih. Porto, weun solche ait den
Packetboeete od.r icit Priltsclhiffeu
in celae Eugllishee nfLeu clgiabea.
bis tuue Bfetinalu.ogtortr.



bi ....at ieetimruns ort..
'blh tr Frttiis r isclSpsaiotbet Grease.
bt saum Desrtiemuune urte.
ueJl.
bl jur Priaxaiieb-ll|>atleliKR Grror.
bi ae nrtu U tlluiauurSl ttS .





bi tur b leereskitL dee Coatiacate.
.lBerde.. d. .. de nrle.fet lt.Jde.
PIekn.lbetele odrn mit Plrinrl ehlffll
iE ciula PEmllh nera lae allt dhu.
is .. E..Siu.het. ede.ehte.
bie tur MeertekAls den Coatiteuts.
u(*erdlem de tef deu Briefe batenade
Eugillcrh Porto. we.an ..leb. ri de
PaekI=etboIte Uler mit Prietebhiffea
I. iae. 1Ettliict lief* esitlehm.





bi telr Meerelkd.tl J40 Coatio(u.





bit. t dee LandagphLtea In AIanrik.
bit Ulvr..
Correspondenzs au Rufsland frankirt


Taxirungs Bestimmungen.
(Siehe Preufsische Porto-Taxe flir die Correspondenz nach und aus Rufsland.)

THE POST-RIDER/SIMmIIK Ns 48
June 2001







Table3. Koiniglich Prelfsische Porto- Taxe

fiar die

Correspondent
nach und aus

B s s I an d.

(Vom 13. Juli 1845 an.)

Der Der Der
einfache einfache einfaclhe
Von nd nach B Von und nach Brief. Von und nach Bref.

Sgr. Sgr. __Sgr.
i8


Aachen . . .
Ahbenrode . .
Adamsverdruss ... .
Adelnan . .. .
Adenau .........
Ahaus . . .
Ahlen ...... .
Alrweiler . .
Ahsen..........
Aken . . .
Aldekerk . .
Aldenhoven . .
Alexisbad .........
Alf............
Allenburg ........
Allendorf ........
Allenstein . .
Allstedt . . .
Alpen . .
Alsdorf ........ .
Alsleben . ...
Altdamm . .
Altdbe . .
Altena . . .
Altenahr . .
Altenberge . ...
Altenkirchen (R.B. Coblenz)
Altenkirchen(R.B.Stralsund)
Altwasser . .
Anclam . ...
Andernach . .
Angerburg .......
Angermiinde . .
Anholt ......


Ankerlolz (Klein) .
Annaburg .........
Anrad ..........
Anrichte .... . .
Aplerbeck .......
Appelhiilsen . .
Arendsee . .
Arneburg . .
Arnsberg ........
Arnsfelde . .
Arnswalde . .
Arolsen . . .
Artern..., ..... .
Arweiden ........
Arys............
Asbach .........
Ascheberg . ..
Aschersleben . .
Assinghausen . .
Attendorn ....... .
Atzendorf .. .... .
Aura .. ....



Babienten . .
Bacharach ..... ....
Bahn ... .. .
Ualdenburg ...... .
Balesfeld .. ..... .
Ballenstedt .. ..
1alve .. ......

arin ...........

Barcin . . .


Barmen . ..
Barntrup . .
Barten . . ..
Bartenstein . .
Barth ...........
Baruth. . . .
Bilrwalde (R. B. Cislin)
BSrwalde (R. B. Frankf.)
Basdorf .........
Baudis (Grofs.) .....
Bauerwitz . .
Bauinholder . .
Beckum ...........
Beek .........
Beelen ... .......
Beelitz ........
Beeskow . .
Belecke . . .
Belgard . . .
Belgern....... ..
Behig . ...
Benndorf . .
Bengheim .. .
Benneckenstein ... .
Bennshausen. ..
Benrath . . .
Bensberg . .
Benischen . .
Berent . . ..
Bergedorf . .
Bergen . .
Bergheim ........
Berleburg . .
Berlin ..........

1


THE POST-RIDER/IMMIIHK JNe 48
June 2001







aSBRUSIr


APMEHM/IH 1919 1923 ARMENIA
by Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan.
April-May, 1920. Fifth issue. Republic of Armenia
"Combined" surcharges on Imperial Arms
The.Second or Third Issues stamps revalued with complete Rouble surcharges of the Fourth Issue.
Being in circulation up to July 1921.





A rare use on cover of a single 25-kopek Arms overprinted with a large-size Unframed monogram revalued with 10 r. Type 1 to make up the
correct 10 r. rate for a registered foreign letter sent from Erivan' 25.8.20 to Batum 5.9.20. Opened and sealed by the Georgian censor with a
paper label.
April-May, 1920. Sixth issue. Republic of Armenia
"Combined" surcharges on Imperial Arms
The Second or Third Issues stamps surcharged with the lower half only of the Rouble handstamps
Being in circulation up to July 1921.
II I


A rare use of a pair of 10/7k. with a large-size Unframed monogram revalued with a 5 r.
Type 3 surcharge (value only) on a registered foreign letter franked at the correct 10 r.
rate, sent from Erivan' 31.5.20 to Tiflis 18.6.20. Censored at Tiflis, marking on reverse.

THE POST-RIDER/IMII4M K M 48
June 2001










January, 1922. First Issue. Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia

25 Rouble of the First Essayan, officially revalued at 60 times face, i.e.1500 Roubles,
without any surcharge. Introduced by the Postal administration's resolution of January 9,1922 for this
value to cover the postal rate for ordinary local and inter-city letters. Remained in use up to April 1922.
Unlisted


Imperf. 25 Rouble postally used
in Giriusy on 16.3.1922


RRR


A single 25 Rouble revalued to 1500 R. without any surcharging to make up the required fee for an ordinary local letter
up to 15 gr. sent and received in Erivan on 31.01.1922. The unlisted use on cover of the first Armenian postage pictorial.
One copy of unsurcharged 25 Rouble known postally used on the earliest recorded cover in January 1922.


76 THE POST-RIDER/IaMIIBK N2 48
June 2001









April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set
overprinted by rubber and metal single handstamps of various types.
Being in circulation up to June 1923.

1 kop. surcharge by rubber (Type 1 & 2) and metal (Type 3) handstamps in black and red ink


Type 1 in red


Type 2 in red


Type 1
Type 1


Type 2 in red


1
Type 2


Type 3 in red


1
Type 3


I-. ..

1 kop (Type 1) in black on 1 Rouble imperf. franked mixed with a Famine Relief 10 kop./2000 R.
on cover sent from Echmiadzin, on 23.02.1923 to Erivan, 26.02.1923 at the total correct 15 gold kop.rate
for a Registered intercity letter up to 20 grams. The Famine relief fee in amount of 50% of the rate
(4 kop. for Ordinary intercity letter, plus 6 kop.,as a Registry), i.e. 5 kop,.is paid by the Second issue stamps

THE POST-RIDER/SMIMIHK Ne 48
June 2001


-//
t..b --.









April, 1922. Second Issue. S.S.R. of Armenia

Gold kopeck surcharges on the First Essayan set

2 kop. surcharge by rubber (Type 1) and metal (Type 2) handstamps in black and red ink


2
Type 1


-. F-1i .Lv









2 R. perf. in Olive Grey bearing 2 k. Type 1 in black on a Registered intercity letter sent from
Echmiadzin,31.12.22 to Erivan, 6.01.23 at the correct 12 k. rate (4 k. Famine relief fee charged)


Type 2 in black
postally used RR


Type 2 in red


2 R. imper. in Blackish Olive bearing 2 kop. Type 1 in red on cover sent from Nizhniye-Akhty, 19.06.1922
to Erivan, 23.06.1922 at the total correct 8 kop. rate for a Registered intercity letter up to 20 grams.

78


THE POST-RIDER/SMIJeHK N 48
June 2001


(to be continued).






(English translation on the next page). PEAYT KAJIE.
-, ".. B MaTepHaJax no HCTOPHH
S:-.P,. pocCHiiCKOi nIOqTbl, B
.'. :'-'. .. MapmipyTax nepBbx napoxoHbux
'JIHHHH Ha qepHOM MOpe, yKa3aH,
S., ,OTcyTCTByIOuI..ii Ha
COBpeMeHHbIX KapTax H B
*. -- cnpaBOiHlKax, nopT PenyT-
Kane. HkuKe H3jonKeHa ipaTtaa
.~.: ". '.-'.- '' m"" Ce_1 ScHCTOprH KRH3HeleSTej JiHOCTH
3Toro nopTa.
Hanano XIX BeKa. 1801 roA Fpy3Rs Ao6poson bHo xoAnT B cocTaB Poccm. PoccHicKHe
BOHCKa ocBo6omaaioT IepHOMopcKoe BOCTOqHOe no6epezae OT TypOK. Tenepb rpanHua
npoxoanT ionKee nopTa Iorn. B 1804 roay 6bUlo npHHnTO pemeHHe H ocymecTBjieHO
cTpOHTemJCTBo BoeHHoro ropoaKa npHMepHO B 10 BepcTax ceBepHefi HoTH B ycTbe peKH Xonn.
3TO MecTO 6bini Bbi6paHo B CBAI3H C HanHmHeM AoporH no Aonmme peKH Xonn Ao Tn4Qnrca.
KpoMe Heo6xoHMMIn x coopyweHHA, B TOM 9HCiie H npHMHTHBHM ix npmrqajin~rx, 6buI
coopyxeHo seMn Hoe yxpeneHnre penyT. MecTHIme ocTpocnoBbI B HacMenIKy Haa
"cOJIHAHOCTbIO" yKperieHHn lAo6aBHJ HT eme, Ha TypeumHii MaHep, CJIOBO "Kane" KpenocTb.
TaK H nonmUo Aanjme Peiyr Kane.
MopcKoi nyTb CB3aan nopT C Oneccoii H Kepmi)o, a ropHaaa opora o6ecneqlria pacmHpeHHe
TOprOBJIH c 3aKaBKa3beM. FopOA)OK pacmHpaJnc, cTpouimCb MHoroEHCjieHHbie CKJraabI H
ToproBbie noMeLeHHA. B 1840 roAy PeayT KKaje 6 iji npHcBoeH cTaTyc ropoiaa. OHuaKo
~IanbHeihmeMy pa3BHTIO ropoaa Memano OTCyTCTBHe HeO6xo~aMbix npHIqaanHbMi coopyxeHHii H
6ojnbinniHTBO cyYOB pa3rpymanocb Ha peiine, TTO 6wno KpaiHe He yAo6Ho H BbH3 Bajio
HeoaHoKpaTHoe nIpearnoceHHae o nepeoce novra B apyroe 6onee yao6HOe MecTO. Oco6eHHO Ha
3TOM HacTanBaji HOBOpOCCHECKHI H 6eccapa6cKHr reHepan-ry6epHaTop KHM3b M.C. BOpoHuOB
CTaB KaBKa3CKHM HaMeCTHHKOM B 1844 roay, BopOHIOB 3HeprwmHo nrrpHnmac 3a pemeHHe
3TOH npo6neMbi HnaaB cTpIOHTeCJcaTBo oporn B THnJinc H3 nopra CyxyM Kane K 1853 rony
nopora 6suia saKOHqeHa H nocjineOBano pacnopm5eHme, To6bI c HCaBHraiHH 1853 r., < HOBopoccHCiKHe napoxonlM, TaK H BoeHHmIe, npomH3BOJellIme coo6mieHmS Mexny yKpenneHM MH
Ha BOCTOHOM 6epery IepHoro Mopa, ocTaHaBiHBmaiHCb B CyxyM Kane He npoAojnKas
nnaBaTbs o PeayT Kane). TamnM o6pa3oM, PeayT Kane, carpaB ponJ Kpynmoii nepeBajoHIHOH
6a3b, yTpaTHj cBOe 3HaqeHie.
3gaHHa H coopymeHnIA BeTmajm H pa3pymajIHCb, BpeMa cAeenano CBoe Aeno, H ropoA ymein B
He6 m e. 0 nO'TOBOM o6pamenHH qsepes nepeBanosHblM nyHKT PeayT Kane aoKyMeHTaJIbHMX
aHHMIX He oGHapyxeHo. Ho TaM rae HyrT ToprosbIe noTOKH, TaM HenpeMeHHO AoraoHa 6M Tb H
nepenrmca. KpoMe Toro, o6pamaeT Ha ce6a BHMMaHme H TOT 4aKT, wTO B smHape 1828 roAa
HMeHHO >
nocTaBHj Bonpoc nepen npaBHTejbCTBOM < Mexay Oneccoii H Peyjr Kane, A~ns cuonmenm c Fpy3Heii>.
MoxHo npeanonaraTb, -TO B apxasax T6nHJHH n apyrnx ropoAoa MOKHO o6HapyxKTb cneAse
TaKOi neperHcKH.


Hoa6pb 2000 r.
Onecca
F. Awnapneium
Hcnolbo3BaHHaar jrrepaTypa:
ApXHB KHI3S BopoHIOBa. KH. 38, 39
< 3a 1837 H 1853 rr.
H. 3aneccKHmi <, JIeHHHrpaA 1987 r.
THE POST-RIDER/aIMIUHK 48 79
June 2001






REDUT-KALE
by G.V. Andrieshin.

The port of Redut-Kale is specified in the references to the history of the Russian Posts as being on the
routes of the first steamship lines on the Black Sea, although it is missing on present-day maps and
manuals. A short exposition of the activity of this port is set out below.

Let us go back to the beginning of the 19th. century, when Georgia voluntarily entered into the Russian
Empire and the Russian forces had liberated the eastern shores of the Black Sea from the Turks. The border
was now situated south of the port of Poti. In 1804, a decision was taken and implemented for the
construction of a military township specifically at ten v'rst (roughly 10 km. or 6 miles) to the north of Poti
at the mouth of the Khopi river. That spot was selected in connection with the presence of a road along the
valley of the Khopi river to Tiflis. Apart from the necessary structures and including the primitive mooring
facilities, earthworks in the form of a redoubt were also set up. In referring derisively to the "solidity" of
the earthworks, the local wits added in the Turkish manner the word "kale", meaning "fortress". And that
was how it was called thereafter Redut-Kale.

A maritime route linked the port with Odessa and Kerch', while the road over the mountains ensured the
expansion of trade with Transcaucasia. The township grew and numerous warehouses and commercial
buildings were constructed. In 1840, Redut-Kale was granted the status of a town. However, the absence of
necessary dredging impeded the further development of the town and most of the ships unloaded in the
roadstead. That was most inconvenient and there arose continued suggestions to transfer the port to another
more accessible spot. Prince M.S. Vorontsov, the Governor-General of New Russia and Bessarabia
especially pressed for such a solution.

Upon becoming Viceroy of the Caucasus in 1844, Vorontsov energetically applied himself to the solution
of this problem and began the construction of a road from the port of Sukhum-Kale to Tiflis. The road was
completed in 1853 and there followed an order to the effect that, with the navigation season of 1853 "in
carrying out communications between the fortifications along the eastern shores of the Black Sea, both the
ships of New Russia, as well as the naval vessels, would call at Sukhum-Kale and would not continue to
sail to Redut-Kale". In that way, Redut-Kale lost its meaning, after having played the role of an important
transit base.

The buildings and structures began to decay and were demolished; with the passage of time, the town
ceased to exist. Documentary information has not been found about postal traffic through the transfer point
of Redut-Kale. But since there were commercial channels going there, then there must surely have been
mail. The fact should be noted that, in January 1828, the question was placed before the Government,
namely by the "Director-General of the Postal Department, Prince A.N. Galitsin... about the utilisation of
ships on the Black Sea between Odessa and Redut-Kale for links with Georgia".

It is suggested that traces of such mail could be discovered in the archives of Tbilisi (Tiflis) and other
towns.
References:
* The archives of Prince Vorontsov, Books 38 and 39.
* The journal "OneccKifl BeCTHHK'I" for 1837 and 1853.
* H. 3aneccKHii: "Onecca BbixouaT B Mope", JIeHHHrpag, 1987 r.

Editorial Comment: Georgii Vladimirovich will be 90 years of age this coming October and, in spite of
problems with his sight, he continues to be active in philately and postal history, as we can see from the
above contribution. May he be granted many more years yet of activity, so to be able to continue his good
work! There is a possibility that Redut-Kale was even assigned a number in the truncated triangle series of
"dots" postmarks and CSRP members should reexamine their Russian Levant material for further leads. See
p.81 for a map of the Black Sea basin.
80 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK N2 48
June 2001










VaI Aleandr. -- ., S

I ik'O a v
iaa 7r ot
n~ ~ leron -..4 Zrdyns







O~~c~aHTI~onOJIT -r LnboiTreisnd
t 432; Yeisk
Oodosia:
I t~~~.ibli OVO ossiiSkO

1.~. Se~bastopo~4
P A hum
Varna .. *

B rgas k 7 ~ p

,,,~ I~ErgBatum.

71."

-2,



;>.~" HaOCHoaH nocTalHOB3611M-COBhap1oma oT 15 Nlaqi
,B IIO'1TOBMIX 1* fl~qiOBO Teflerpa4HA fpnani Yipaixam.
XaprIoe OJITaBe' Brailribcia`e BaI- O
:';:;~ a If I

peR Kurob iian c -5 cero inoirni
cpo~oM no noo~ rixi Te1~y1I~.fe~roa~a, Bhwny" IOTCfI B 0

PB fl o.aIy -r0310la!oluflX, -AOCTOHHCT om-,!gcnm nio CaT6,
:A1a~rIgaTb IIJIIOC ,BapUJaq T13, AeABHHoCM1131 IOC TPnaI1UT1 w, CTU L 0+
JIIJTI4bS cfT tF11l)C. -UHTLAeCRT'.Itp(lf B AHeB (uCiTaH. OAllH- O xinpoo. AOI
I~~a~e] l HO~)A~ 1l.'lelL' JU.3l Eft ha~ 1~ va acau
,1qe! pa.Ba X..D00r, iv Rineb R .i~~lnali123'roxpa)'... 1 ------
'1'.uuLI~n.MdpL.I3vII 'trilTp 1Tc31 -CR l-((I uaxFI CB cnpfo'I11M1 1iypcuj-
,~IOfl~iM11 LIH I I ~ aiuilia np-m _c03AI~lTe)1U 1L C
\La' BIn bpeh(B pepae.x HCCC .j lTrrihi C, M e iK ylap O A
nncb~eaeiBot~l Koppecuolloel-I I,- upu qex n ha3iamHHor BLID1I0
Hooah qrs a;ni~nx.- .-fua
jciyliae AeCBTb, BO. BTopOx -cyxae.BaB1i.1aTb L;B.TpeTbeMf-.CJty
qee.,Bae7,.- e~iiH-ocTOTo IfB1r.leTnepToM cJiyqae CO fTb~ecRT ..apo('b:
nBaunei noniPek,. -OCTaJlZa -5a. aeTm -.uniinaaa i noCT eT
.B panpnippaee4ue [1, flcJeploal q4.BY)[ih flncbmelilafROi
.cnouj"em~iiiia,a onIaeuDaa DTHM1 MiipnaWU, MCMllTHTCR nPPBU.qLjlqP. xora-.M
-qy11i-e -.l', TI1 -B -TON'', Cjy.nI qe,- i.ecnii ona 0 DPL-llpclmpoafnn
3T11MI p Meapia.l-cIfEaHOCT131O.S'B. -.-npeie.:1ax' OVL)iPCTB5'l09.Ii TMRC.
113111 XO.TI '613 qaCTMIO l1 Ma1p1zawI iDo-uk:eOr~o-.(p.I3ganOA;ua 1 Wnb' Fig. 1.
B -1IOMR11,TMX eir nPI011P3IHTEaxi II npueT Fa Ce6O i1Q1TOBg l .1
iJITI MflP'iM M IeCTa OT11pdBpeHnr tie paiue 25 moiu ire Iue nmpuIe..
iD uioan cero roua. Oaitjii le y-pl"pa.ieUl1H CBH311 o6Rq3rallrllo1TCW
?Acn31aTb: Hani12iauanu cposno~pe .~p~paCupFOpRii.Clo 110nn 6siqm H ie

I Ta P If~~ 0 11O1 Uo~ (IhnuaicoBO-D)KOHO1~U'1CKO~Iy Ipa-,
.I ~']: 'BJIOHI31O.
Fig. 2. 3.

Please see the next page for the article .. 2'aiicII1C K LtlpqlNpy1 Of 21. 1101 c. r 31. 14
K cFC1e lllL, FyUoB-.-ncrrn y II J.1 1 IannfineIaluI pacnop51flCH11fl
"Some Additional Notes on the 1923 c C'(LuLacTcn% .Irayo Y gRncim'ru1.e B 03 U1 9 e1111
Famine Issue of the Ukrainian SSR", H'rI .r PII-III iIIw l
referring to these three figures. .7..-! l HfI.L

THE POST-RIDER/$IMI N2 48 Fig. 3. 81
June 2001






SOME ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE 1923 FAMINE ISSUE OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR
by V.B. Kofman.

When they describe this set of charity stamps of the Ukrainian SSR issued in 1923 (see Fig. 1 on p. 81), all
the Russian catalogues of postage stamps, as well as the latest Ukrainian work, list the basic characteristics
of the stamps and their varieties of perforation and paper (with or without watermark). Regarding the date
when they were issued and other details, only the "KaTanor InomITOBHx MapoK YKpaTHH" of 1997
specifies the exact date of issue: 25 June 1923, while in the catalogue of Soviet issues published in parts in
the magazine "(QnIHJaTejiH CCCP" in 1991-1992, there are some, but far from all varieties linked with the
appearance of these stamps. The foreign catalogues known to us do not give any supplementary
information.

Nevertheless, the issue of these stamps was carried under quite unusual conditions and their knowledge
would be interesting to anyone seriously interested in the theme of "Ukrainica". Bearing this in mind, it
would be expedient to acquaint the readers of "The Post-Rider" with two circular letters issued by the
People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs of the USSR, the texts of which are set out hereunder. The
first document of interest to us (Fig. 2 on p. 81) was published in the "BrojuneTeHb HKLInT", No. 24 for
1923, as follows:-
"22 June 1923, No. 11/907.
On the basis of an order of the Council of People's Commissars of 15 May, the postage stamps in aid of the
starving and in the values of 10 + 10, 20 + 20, 90 + 30 and 150 + 50 karbovantsiv (reckoning one
karbovanets' as equal to one kopek in 1923 currency), issued by the IUK flocineron BYIUHK (Central
Commission of Help to the Starving at the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee of the Councils of
Worker, Peasant and Red Army Deputies V.B.K.) are to be placed in circulation in the period beginning
on 25 June up to 15 July of the current year in the postal and postal-telegraphic offices of the Ukraine at
Khar'kov, Poltava, Ekaterinoslav, Bakhmut, Odessa, Zhmerinka, Zhitomir, Kiev and Chernigov. The
stamps so indicated are recognized on the same basis as the other postage stamps in circulation for the
prepayment both of internal (within the borders of the USSR) and international mail. So far as their face
values are concerned, the first has a postal value of ten, the second of twenty, the third of ninety and the
fourth of one hundred and fifty karbovantsiv/kopeks, while the second part of the face value is at the
disposition of the Central Commission of Help to the Starving. The mail franked with these stamps will be
regarded as properly prepaid only in the case where it has been franked with these stamps completely in
accordance with the existing rates, or together with normal stamps and presented in that state to the post
offices and bearing upon such mail the postal cancellation of the point of dispatch not earlier than 25 June
and no later than 15 July of this year underlined by the present author V.B.K.). The surrounding
administrations of communications are obliged to take urgent measures in this regard in the areas within
their jurisdiction.
People's Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs: Dovgolevskii".
Yet another circular of the Financial & Economic Administration was published a few days later in the
"BIonnereHb HKIIHT" (Bulletin of the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs), No. 26 (see Fig.
3 on p. 81) and it read as follows:-
"3 July 1923, No. 11/955.
Further to the circular of 22 June under No. 11/907, it is advised for the management and the necessary
measures, that the postage stamps mentioned in the designated circular as issued by the Central
Commission of Help to the Starving are to be put into circulation at Vinnitsa, instead of at Zhmerinka.
Member of the Collegium of the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs: Nikolaev"

Thus, the stamps of the set referred to could frank mail only for a period of 21 days in the post offices of
only nine towns in the Ukraine!

The data given above may form the basis of putting together a serious, if not a unique exhibit of cards and
82 THE POST-RIDER/aMIHnK N* 48
June 2001






covers, processed with the usage of these stamps and sent from the various post offices in the enumerated
towns within the period designated by the circular. But what are the real chances of being able to put
together such an exhibit! We read in the Russian catalogue set out in the journal "QanuaTenIxH CCCP" and
referred to above that "they are rarely found on postal sendings. That is true but, in any case, only one of
the Odessa philatelists known to me had seen once a cover with the stamps that interest us. It has not even
been possible to find a colleague who had ever seen these stamps in used condition. It is not excluded that
such postage stamps and sending are to be found in a much greater quantity beyond the borders of the
former USSR. In that regard, it would be very interesting for us to read in the pages of "The Post-Rider"
further information about the presence of such philatelic material held by collectors abroad.

On the other hand, the circulars quoted here can serve as an important basis for further detailed verification
of genuine philatelic material in these cases, especially if there had been deviations both in dates or the
points of dispatch from the requirements quoted in the circulars cited above. In conclusion, here are the
translations of the titles held by the directors of the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs who
signed the circulars:-
"HapKOMno4Tenb" = People's Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs.
"TIjeHKOHapKOMnoHTejbb" = Member of the Collegium of the People's Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs.
Editorial Comment: Mr. Kofman has raised some interesting questions in the above article and the
answers appear to be as follows. In the first place and in the early years of Soviet power, the constituent
republics and specifically the Ukrainian SSR enjoyed a certain amount of autonomy, including in foreign
relations. These particular stamps had been ordered in 1922 from the German State Printing Office in
Berlin but, by the time they were ready in 1923, the Soviet rouble had declined so much that a new 1923
currency was introduced, whose single rouble were equal to 100 roubles/karbovantsi of 1922. That made
the Ukrainian 1923 Famine stamps practically useless for postage, as the top value of 150 karbovantsiv was
now equal to Ir. 50k. in the 1923 currency. The postal rates during our specific period were as follows:-
Domestic rates 10 June to 5 July 1923: Domestic rates 5 July to 20 August 1923:
Postcard 2r. Postcard 3r.
Local letter 2r. Local letter 3r.
Interurban letter 4r. Interurban letter 6r.
Registration fee 4r. Registration fee 6r.

Foreign rates 8 May to 20 August 1923:
Postcard 6r.; Ordinary letter 10r.; Registration fee 1Or.

Your editor remembers seeing a letter somewhere, addressed to the Federation of Ukrainian Jews in
London (a well-known correspondence) and including in the franking the top value 150 + 50 karbovantsiv.
The only two other covers of which your editor has records are shown on the next page and are registered
items, addressed to Germany during the proper period by a well-known Khar'kov collectorV.A.
Sapozhnikov. The first cover, sent on 6.7.23 and in the collection of your editor, was correctly franked with
300 karbovantsiv (= 3r. 1923) plus 17r. in stamps of the RSFSR 1923 issue, to total 20r. Moreover, the
cover was addressed to Oskar E. Peters, who went on to become a recognized expert in Ukrainian trident
issues. By the time that Mr. Sapozhnikov got around to sending the next registered cover on 13.7.23, he had
managed to frank it with strips of all four imperforate Famine stamps totalling 810 karbovantsiv (= 8r.
10k. 1923) plus 2 x 5r. RSFSR 1923 stamps, so that the letter was actually underfranked by Ir. 90k. (!).

In continuing the discussion, constant plate flaws can be found on these Famine stamps, especially the 20 +
20 krb. showing T. Shevchenko and including a tail to the left leg of the letter "JO" in the word
"TOJIOJYIOHHM" (see on the next page), but the sheet position is unknown. Colour proofs on a card
from the Reichsdruckerei and imperforates on watermarked paper are also shown of this value. Further
comments would be most welcome.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK 2 48 83
June 2001































Above: Registered cover Khar'kov 6.7.23 to
Chemnitz with correct 20 r. franking in 1923
currency.


Registered cover Khar'kov 13.7.23 to Berlin with strips of the Famine
stamps imperforate and underpaid by 1 r. 90 k. in 1923 currency.


. i i


VO2


Two colour proofs of the 20 + 20 karbovantsiv value on card
from the Reichsdruckerei Berlin and signed 15/1I (1923?).

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIIK N 48
June 2001


The 20 + 20 karbovantsiv value
imperforate on watermarked paper.


Constant variety: a tail to the left
leg of the letter "JO" on the
20 + 20 karbovantsiv value.






MORE DATA ON THE MOLDAVIAN & ROMANIAN POSTS IN SOUTHERN BESSARABIA
1856-1878 by Andrew Cronin.

The original article on this subject in "The Post-Rider" No. 47, pp. 66-72 has brought forth some comment,
material and further information, thus allowing a clearer picture to emerge of postal activities in this area.
The various functions will now be examined under the following headings:-

1. The postal form with the designation "Hocra JN 4" at top left.
This form was set up to list registered letters and, depending on how it was cut, measures approximately
174 x 207 mm. Your editor has three examples, namely:-

a. Iasi (Jassy) 4.5.1859 to Bolgrad 8/5, the latter marking struck in blue
b. Ismail 25/5 (1859) struck in blue, to Bucharest (see the illustration hereunder, reduced to 65%).
c. Ismail 9/6 (1859) struck in blue, to Husi.

Two settings can be distinguished in just these three samples: items "a" and "b" have the designation
"W"at top left in line with the capital letter "K" just below, while in the third form, the letters "cr" of
"rlocra" are above the letter "K" in the next line.

All three forms have a one-line inscription on the backs at bottom, translating as: "With this packet there
are also sent / envelopes of the Government", as may be seen below.
(: ..--, -.- -: .. ..

*cKo/^;pi en,,, ,,fa Y.4_ .?ra d .1 i* Is atcoc aie -a

.a. ,f. .<)
H olioeCaondcntlie: pei;onendatlc de .ia ilhpo or. 1octei deo.! -
18 f' .tra .rna

Ie.in .1a Adpeca .;la
| -------.. L ;- ;-



^. /fcl f/ f < *. .. ..










Sa.ect ua-et ca? e "cauedil wi .. Uairpr a rie:


2. The postal form with the designation "Ilocra MN 5" at top left ("Fatura" or Invoice for Letters).
Since presenting some examples in the previous article, your editor has been able to obtain quite a few
further items. He is also most grateful to Dr. Robert Bell of the USA and N.J.D. Ames of England for
additional usages and an expanded showing is now given overleaf reduced in size to 60%.
THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHK N 48 85
June 2001














Ewcawdtd 18 .AUn 5
O ileea a



*Jor I I .opi ;
CoKoteaiua ansfme nI I'



SCspisopi peRomnd '- .
S o anate .
Cane pnadatie so ncai .a .


n. op:o slZt "


Commna


Kontpoiztagie.

Kaisa adaosariul opanno sat iopto.


vKairg siade.-ei .panio saftopto.
Coma adaosviai mi a sadepii.,
Comma adinipat.

)Essnedit de: Pnedi.t rn i piimil de:


/^ f -" *


CoKoteaia annme: Ia _-
? .let. nap.


Capisopi pesomendate . .
,,s panzate . .
Cnpe'Ipidape Ks nHat'L . -
Iloplo SKazat

\Comma -

KontpoAizagie.
Kanza adiossauA epanno sa niopto.


Kauza sazdepii ppanno sai nopto.
Coma adaosua i ui a sazdepil

Comma adiBIpata.

Easnedit do: Perednil mi hpiimit de:.

,* ?,- I


N.J.D. Ames Collection.


Dr. Robert Bell Collection.


* *'..


r I


'--


THE POST-RIDER/hIMIIHK JN 48
June 2001


.De I. .11 ,r Ci2
Essnpdall 1SO 2 .a oa
Cosil 1-O .. in .


Cna z ri di ia i -" e* '
Costr.~n. nnamedin


C Cpii .pi psmenlale .
C -,, Cupe lia lipede n.ai *
., ..Tp nn; .. .. '
.-',, Ci'znlr de i nii p "
l;;bpi.eai. .- dm .


Konlpnj;z il;e,
Ad 'os .a
i ,m..l .
.* i .I ,

C m e a 1. s a-





C mi, I, h n'i f -


n 7






3. The postal form designated as "HocTa J 19" at top right ("Fatura" or invoice for sealed
bags containing money and for packets).
For space considerations, these invoices or way-bills have been reduced to 60%. They have been selected
for prominent differences in settings and include exceptional examples which were drawn up freehand,
when there was a shortage of the printed forms. The details are as follows:-

* The first example shown hereunder was written at Kahul on blue-green paper and bears on the back the
confirmatory dispatch marking in black, reading KAHUL 18/5 (1859). It has on the front the blue arrival
marking in the same type, reading BOLGRAD 19/5.
* The seventh item below was set up in basically the same way and was offered in a recent PROFILA
auction in Budapest, Hungary, the lucky bidder being Dr. Paul Hirsch of England. This very fine item was
clearly drawn up by the postmaster at ISMAIL 8/1 (1862) and received in Jassy (Iai) on 13.1.62.

The third form given below is lithographed and has the designation "Iocta N. 2 elsewhere in the margins
of the sheet; your editor has two such examples. All the other forms are type-set.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N2 48
June 2001








, /.. .. a.o 4 "o .m.l- o





KAU 27/5 (1859) in blue-een Litho caphed '





KAHUL 27/5 (1859) in blue-green. Lithographed! / / _____ ___ I _


No.
de ja a X I


4tatnpa rponspi.op Ks iani mi a naKete.iop
.id s K Deiecoanry de ja
K^ ^A.l -.


IInpnit 18 ,q)


Coct 1(


nom Hso. 19


81.!


- Oc ~ ;0'` t22.


I D e a I Ba uopa rpestat ea I panic ro I l J00 .fl t o j" N i
De ea No. a Adpeca I Ksnpindepe .. ". p B---- \ .1, tte*.^ o lmmel "c l0 131l
'_ [ I ..) IJ. -.el. | np. O i. | dpam.I eleT |IlIp. JeL I n) T-- e.. I np< JeL I lp.

___'_- __--_--__- __ I ",-/^ 'i1 O- d e^-- ____tI r.' .ld. *
y I

i;x


. ISMAIL 21/8 (1860) in black. I I I-., I VI I I I i I


*r." nt. Is


fDaT*a rponspiaop af Ban i a .naieTeaop
S v i Dee.rmanqr doJASS-]


Hopni- CosSt 18
S nopl ,* 'p -- Col l
f | B- ,1 .r g e-lP |peot'>le (Xpanso I lopto. I apo ..wT.a *p ....
_ f|. .. "...| I -I I |,nap.lo,.jD Ai., t. ln.pl .r Jet. nap. .
A let, I.- -1 Om 1p,.


KAHUL 14/11 (1860) in black.------


:7fz1ctL21t~


Lf I ,-I, :_j


-7


Kt3P-


-If-1 ~iIIZ1"/CH;UTyT-


FncrCa Io. 19.
i


de a GAL ,a Doe. rian,;r de .ag GALATZ

IIopnit --- Cosit 18


z a 3 1 NI ndeel Pa.iopa. rpeutatca IXpano loplo DpNo Iotiaie
- ___. ---- ,.



~ --. ----I-- ,


,-- BOLGRAD 21/11 (1861) in blue.


se .s
.,.^tf^^ u-^f ^--^


77


88 THE POST-RIDER/IMIlHK XN 48
June 2001


I i/


-----=--


if-^


I


--''T~T~-"-"


I


I I I I I 1


.~t~t


cbit~il, LY s 'V


QTI\UtQ.


-. ^~-


~;e~a~


'^~





























































THE POST-RIDER/flMIIHK N2 48
June 2001


To round off this section, an entire letter is
now shown from a recent Feldman auction,
franked with 15 + 25 bani of the 1869 issue
of Romania and paid to destination from
Ismail 24/5 to Syra, Greece. The Greek
internal rate of 20 lepta was levied on
arrival. Note the boxed "P.D.", also the
"P.P." and "JSMAIL" markings, the last
having also been shown in "The Post-
Rider" No. 47, p. 68 under Section "k".

While in that issue, please correct on
p. 69 the English equivalents for "LI,u"
as "Ts, ts".

89






THE RUSSIAN FIELD POSTS IN BESSARABIA
by Alexander EpStein.

The activities of the Russian field posts on the territory of Bessarabia are a topic that has remained little
studied up to now. That question was omitted even in the review article by Andrew Cronin about the postal
activities in Moldavia (see "The Post-Rider" No. 25, pp. 41-67). Incidentally, the field post offices are
always an important element of the postal history of a country or territory and it is appropriate to bring up
the subject, now that the CSRP has opened up the project of studying all the postmarks ever used in
Bessarabia.

There were at least two historic periods when Russian field post establishments were functioning on
Bessarabian territory. The first was connected with the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, when a few such
offices were opened there just prior to the beginning of this conflict. They were listed in my earlier paper
(see "The Post-Rider" No. 30, pp. 33-37), so let us be reminded of them here. They were the Field Post
Sub-Offices (or Branches) No. 3 at Kalarash (in the period between October-December 1877 to July-
September 1878), No. 6 at Izmail (25 April 1877 to October 1878) and No. 8 at Leovo (2 April to August
1877).

This article deals with the Russian field post establishments in Bessarabia during WW1. Unfortunately, I
have succeeded in discovering very few archival materials directly connected with this particular problem.
Therefore, the article, based mainly on my previous research on the attachments and locations of various
field post offices from the archival sources, military history literature and memoirs, does not pretend to be
an exhaustive treatment of this problem.

There were few Russian troops in Bessarabia during the first months of the war. Although the 7th. Army
headquarters were located in Bendery until the final months of 1915, that army included even then only a
reserve infantry division and some smaller units. Neither of them, including the army headquarters, had
field post offices assigned to them. Even when this army was expanded by incorporating three army corps,
it seems that the headquarters of the latter were situated during October and November 1915 outside
Bessarabia. In December 1915, the 7th. Army was transferred to the part of Galicia occupied by the
Russians.

However, after August 1916, Romania joined the Entente in the war and Bessarabia became the immediate
rear area of the Russian armies, which were directed to help Romania in its struggle against the German,
Austrian and Bulgarian forces.. Bessarabia never became an area of military activities, but some Russian
units, parts of the 6t. Army, the staff of which had been transferred to the Romanian front in the second
half of December 1916 and was then located in Bolgrad until the end of the war, were all quartered on
Bessaiabian territory during the whole of 1917 and the beginning of 1918. Moreover, Bessarabia was the
area where troops were temporarily quartered, after having been withdrawn from the front-line into the
reserve, or transferred to the Romanian front from elsewhere.

After retreating from Romania under the pressure of German and Bulgarian forces, the 6th. Army units took
up defensive positions along the river-bed of the left bank of the Danube. Of these forces, the 47th. Army
Corps (115th. Infantry Division and Baltic Naval Division, the latter located on the Sulina branch of the
Danube on Romanian territory) were replaced in the summer of 1917 by the 4th. Siberian Army Corps (9th.
& 10th. Siberian Rifle Divisions and the 61 t. Infantry Division), while the 115 ". Infantry Division became
an independent unit and they were all located in Bessarabia. In addition, there were also the 6th. Cavalry
Corps (3rd. & 8h. Cavalry Divisions) and the 3". Don Cossack Division. Other formations, which were
parts of the 6t. Army, were located from time to time in Bessarabia, e.g. the 124th. Infantry Division.

Some units, such as the 3rd. Cavalry Corps (10th. Cavalry, 1st. Don Cossack and 1i. Terek Cossack
Divisions), the Ussuri Cossack Division and the Native Cavalry Division were withdrawn from the front to
90 THE POST-RIDER/aIMIlHMK NOe 48
June 2001






rest in Bessarabia, while other units, e.g. the 1st. (22nd. & 24th. Infantry Divisions) and the 29th. Army Corps
(consisting of the 1st., 3rd. & 7th. Caucasian Rifle Divisions) were quartered in Bessarabia as reserves for the
Romanian front.

Up to now, the locations have been recorded in Bessarabia of the following field post establishments:-
Office
Number Type Attachment Location Period
129 Hq 6t'. Army Bolgrad Dec. 1916 to end of war
129 Cn 6t. Army Bolgrad Dec. 1916 to end of war
3 Cr 1st. Army Corps Bessarabka ? Jan. 1917 to Apr. 1917


(formerly
Leiptsigska
4th. Sib. Army Corps Reni
47th. Army Corps Reni
6th. Cavalry Corps (Bolgrad)
29th. Army Corps Kagul
124th. Infantry Divn Chadyr-Lui
3rd. Cavalry Corps Kishinev
Bessarabka
3rd. Don Cossack Divn ?
Ussuri Cossack Divn (Kishinev)
Cauc.Native Cav.Dn? (Kishinev)
6th.Don Cossack Div? (Izmail) ?
8th. Cavalry Divn? (Bolgrad)


lya)




nga

I?


Jul. 1917 to end of war
Jan. 1917 to Jul. 1917
Jan. 1917 to Jul. 1917
Jan. 1917 to Jul. 1917
Jul. 1917 to end of war
Apr. 1917 to May 1917
May 1917 to Jul. 1917
Jan. 1917 to Jul. 1917
Apr. 1917 to May 1917
Apr. 1917 to May 1917
Autumn 1917 to end of war
Jan. 1917 to Jul. 1917.


Abbreviations: Cn = Control Field Post Office; Cr = Corps FPO; Rs = Reserve FPO.
Note: The location in brackets means that the particular FPO was not necessarily in that town, but
somewhere nearby within a radius of up to 50 km. (roughly 31 miles), hence listed as Type LQ.

This table cannot be regarded as complete and precise. Most of the dates are only approximate and
tentative. The notion "end of the war" is also conventional, embracing the period from December 1917 to
February 1918: Some military formations quartered for some periods in Bessarabia are not included, e.g.
the 1st. Don Cossack Division and the 1st. Terek Cossack Division as parts of the 3rd. Cavalry Corps, since it
has not been ascertained yet what particular field post establishments were attached to them (supposedly,
Nos. 212, 216 or 217). There are indications that the 23rd. Army Corps was also staying in reserve near
Kishinev at the beginning of 1917. However, FPO No. 25 is not included in the table due to the lack of
more definite information. Some examples of mail are now shown below:-


Posikarte LEVELEZ5-LAR Cartolina postal
'' pinic '- CARTE POSTA E Br.i ,."
arta korespoidencjna ostd Fig. 1: A postcard from the Active Army, ad dressed
SPOSTAE UNIV~SEL ,J to the 18". Siberian Rifle Regiment. Mailed at FPO
SOT TOE L fC 0./ No. 129 attached to the 6". Army HQ in Bolgrad
S,. (12.1.17) and directed via the Control FPO No. 129
at the same HQ (13.1.17). The pencilled note "34"
.:;- made at the Control FPO shows the number of the
I" FPO at the destination (attached to the 2"d.
:'. -- Siberian Army Corps on the Northern Front).

_______


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK M 48 91
June 2001


40
56
104
127
145
148


209
211
229?
232
237







OTKPbTOE HHCBI, A T A.





S- .. __ ._

= H^_Ma u cnmo mopor #0, iicA mon. o aipci.

Fig. 2: A postcard from the Active Army, mailed at FPO Fig. 3: A postcard from the Active Army, mailed at the
No. 27 (30.3.17), attached at that time to the 29"t. Army Reserve FPO No. 145 (29.10.17), attached at that time
Corps in Kagul. to the 124"h. Infantry Division in Chadyr Lunga.

rHf TOBAs KAPTOtLKA' r


.... ... .. Fig. 4: A 3-kop. postal stationery card from the Active
S- Army, mailed by a serviceman in the 458"t. Sudzha
.......Infantry Regiment at the Line-of-Communications FPTB
A e-' L.,. )/,'- No. 232, attached to the 6". Don Cossack Division,
located supposedly near Izmail (15.9.17).
............. ......... .. .. .......... ..... ............ ... .... ... ..............
...... ........... ... ..............


SOME MORE EXAMPLES OF THE POSTAGE-DUE MAIL
by Alexander Epstein.

The lively discussion about Russian postage-due mail in this journal has prompted me to feature here a few
more curious examples of such items.

Fig. 1: A postcard sent from Narva 27.12.17.OT TO n T,-
At first sight, the card is correctly franked IPbTOE fl
with a 5-kop. stamp in accordance with the -
inland postal rates in force of 15 August 1917.
Nevertheless, we see a postage-due marking -
of Sillamyagi with 20 kop. written in on the
lower part of the card. However, it was done .
quite legally in this case. The fact is that the
tariffs of 15 August included also a special -" ____ .
postal rate for greeting and visiting cards, ..
equal to the corresponding rate for ordinary
letters, i.e. 15 kop. internally or 10 kop. for
local letters. The purpose of this measure was Fig. 1.
to decrease the number of sending in wartime because of the commitment of the Post to military mail.
However, this could easily be overcome by a mere increase in the content of the message. The postal clerks
often neglected looking at the message, as the clerk in Narva did in this case. Nevertheless, another clerk in
Sillamyagi did notice that it was a greeting card and taxed it.
92 THE POST-RIDER/SIMlHK N_ 48
June 2001






S.Fig. 2: In my previous notes ("The Post-Rider" No.
S46), there were shown some examples of 'mute'
.. "' postage-due markings destined especially for military
mail. The postcard depicted here shows the use of such
a marking on a civilian item of mail. Although the
... -, despatch postmark is missing, this card was sent from
Riga (as the message on the reverse shows) to Yur'ev,
/ where it was received on 6.6.17. True, the card was
/ -- / franked...but with a 5-kop. of the 1866 issue (!). Of
_.course, such a franking with a stamp invalidated long
S / ago was not recognized; the stamp was surrounded
'- w :i with small circles in accordance with the regulations in
force and a postage-due marking was applied with a
Fig. 2. double deficiency of 6 k. written in. The marking has a
small cross instead of the town name in its lower part. It could have been applied either at Riga or at
Yur'ev, but I am inclined to ascribe it to the first, since another slightly different marking of such a kind is
known used at Yur'ev.
... Fig. 3: A postcard from the Army in the Field, sent to
..con' p o -nOv-u R co-__o' Yur'ev District of Liflyand province by a serviceman
UNI R- S pOT of the so-called Tilsit Force (1". Brigade of 68th.
:^-' 'Infantry Division) in East Prussia. That Force did not
4. ... .. have its own field post office and its mail was sent to
SI and handled at Shavli (now giauliai in Lithuania).
..... While there, the card was censored and a postage-due
marking also applied with 6 k. written in as double the
-1h e 7 -,I' ,. deficiency for the ordinary postcard rate. The lack of a
.. unit cachet as required by the regulations was probably
Ithe reason why this sending was taxed. The marking
Swas then annulled by striking it out with indelible
-" "" pencil. Evidently, the postal clerk who did so had
Fig. 3 decided that the card could not be delivered otherwise,
together with the other mail that arrived from East Prussia, i.e. that it had been handed over in a legal way
through a specially appointed person. We do not know where the amount of 6 k. was written in and where
the postage due was annulled. That could have happened either at Shavli or at the destination post office of
Yur'ev (now Tartu in Estonia). In any case, this example shows how differently the same regulations could
be interpreted.
Fig. 4: This item is probably the most curious one. An
ir ONSTI.... unfranked card, posted at Karksalmi, Vyborg province,
ST. P ST T rRTT' '"' | Grand Duchy of Finland (now Priozersk in Russia) on
/.D \OruI IS. omTo 13 July 1902 N.S., i.e. 1 July according to the Julian
SOTHPTOE unC6m, .calendar used then in Russia proper, it was addressed
l .. to the town of Pudozh, village of Istomino in Olonets
S''province. There are two postmarks of Pudozh, one of
SA__t t wf t them dated 9 July, while that on the other marking is
illegible. The card was taxed first at the dispatching
SI- //u 71. office by a boxed "T" marking, as was the custom in
lsq Finland. The card was routed via St. Petersburg, where
.1 .. 00'p.......,. c.-RT",6, o, Cm i .,i ,. another postage-due marking was applied, this time a
S. standard oval one with the double deficiency of 6 k.
Fig. 4. written in. However, one can see at lower left two
more manuscript postage-due markings with the same 6 kopeks indicated, one in black ink and the other in
indelible pencil. It is natural to suppose that one of these manuscript markings was applied at Pudozh,
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHKM 48 93
June 2001






because of the lack of a corresponding cachet. However, where was the second manuscript marking
applied?

In looking at the address, we can see that the village of Istomino was the ultimate destination and the
district town ofPudozh with its state post office served as a transit point. In such cases, it was the Zemstvo
Post that shouldered the delivery of mail to district locations. It is known that a Zemstvo Postal Service did
exist in Pudozh District. It had two stamp issues, the first effected in 1903, i.e. in the year after this postcard
had been sent. One may suppose that, before 1903, the Zemstvo Post delivered mail free of charge from the
state post office in the district town to other localities in the district, as was the case in many other districts
in Russia where the Zemstvo Post functioned. Thus, my hypothesis is that this postcard was delivered by
the Pudozh Zemstvo Post in the last section of its route and that the second postage-due marking was made
by a Zemstvo postal official. The presence of two Pudozh postmarks instead of one also speaks for this
version; one of these postmarks marked the reception of the postcard by the state post office and the second
one marked handing over the postcard to the Zemstvo Post.

Finally, a comment on the item in Fig. 11 of the notes by Meer Kossoy on postage-due mail in No. 46 of
"The Post-Rider". Actually, that postcard had nothing to do with the RSFSR. It passed through the mail
stream in the Ukraine, which was then under the Central Rada government. The ordinary postcard rate at
that time was just 10 kopeks and that explains all.
lustrations for the article TUVAN VARIETIES by Richard E. Clever, as given on the next page.
ilustrations for the article "TUVAN VARIETIES" by Richard E. Clever, as given on the next page.


Fig. 1: Colour proof of the 3-kop. L
pictorial, dated 1 June 1927 Fig. 2: A cover from TURAH (!) 30.11.33 to Harbin
(reduced to 55%). (reduced to 70%)


Fig. 3: One of the
few known copies
of the 6-k. fiscal
without the "Polta"
surcharge.


Surcharge Surcharge reading up. -
reading down. _
Fig. 4: 1 KP /15 k., 2 KOP /2 r. & 5 KOP /6 k. OKTE
charity surcharges on fiscal. They were not obligatory 5
but ensured priority when added on mail. Fig. 5: One of the two known unsevered
blocks of the 25k. + 50k. green 1943 issue
(reduced to 70%).
94 THE POST-RIDER/IIMII(K J 48
June 2001





TUVAN VARIETIES
by Richard E. Clever.

I am submitting the following notes for the benefit of Tuvan collectors and comments from CSRP readers
would be most welcome.

Referring to Fi. 1 on p. 94, I have a series of six colour proofs on dark card of the 1927 pictorials, line-
perforated 11 and over printed in two lines in red: "TIPOEKT / 1 moia 1927 r." Here are the details:-

Value Proof colours Issued colours
2 kop. violet and brown violet, red-brown and green
3 kop. black, yellow and light green black, green and yellow
4 kop. light green and orange blue and red-brown
5 kop. orange, pale blue and black orange, deep blue and black
8 kop. brown and red brown, lilac-red and light blue
40 kop. bright rose and dark blue-green rose and blue-green

The possibility is not excluded that other proof colours exist, also for the rest of this set. Note that the line-
perforation 11 does not appear on any of the issued stamps; the values 1 to 5 kop. were harrow-perforated
12 1/2, the 8, 10 & 14 kop. were comb-perforated 12 /2 x 12 and the remainder up to I rouble were line-
perforated 10 z or sometimes had a line-perforation 10 for the 18 k. to 50 k. values, including in
combination.

Fig.2 shows a cover to M.F. Shooliack, a well-known stamp dealer in Harbin, Manchuria and sent from
Turan 30.11.33, to arrive one month later. Note the mistake "H" for "N" in the TURAN postmark. The two
charity labels at top left (1 KOP / 15 k. & 5 KOP. / 6 k.) were neither obligatory nor valid for postage but,
according to S.M. Blekhman, their addition to mail ensured priority treatment.

Fi. 3 features an unused copy of the 6-kopek fiscal, practically all copies of which were provided with the
"Posta / 15" surcharge. Hence, the original fiscal stamp is rarer than the surcharge for postal use!

Fi 4 has three of the four charity surcharges on the fiscal stamps, namely 1 KOP / 15 k. brown, 2 KeP / 2
r. blue and 5 KOP / 6 k. orange-yellow. There was also a 10 K9P / 2 r. blue and the Tuvan initials "0 K T
E" stood for the Cooperative Society for the Defence of the Country. Theoretically, all these surcharges
should exist two ways: reading down or up and it would be interesting to determine which position is the
scarcer.

Finally, Fig. 5 demonstrates one of the two known unsevered blocks with the 25 k. + 50 k. green of the
1943 local issue. Practically all the copies of this issue consist of vertical pairs, separating the two values so
as to avoid confusion.


THE "KbZbL-c" PUZZLE
by Gwyn M. Williams.

The Fritz Sommer cover in the Robert Taylor collection and featured in "The Post-Rider" No. 46, pp. 111-
112, Fig. 5 is familiar to me through my membership in the Tannu Tuva Collectors Society. Its Newsletter
No. 11 of March 1997 showed a similar KbZbL-c cover dated 26.6.37, with a Berne backstamp of 15.7.37
and registration number 85. Unfortunately, the back of that cover was not shown and it was not clear
whether the cover had other backstamps. The accompanying article described how new member F. Sommer
of Rancho Verde, California may have "shed some new light on Tuvan philately". When living in Berne as
a child, he had purchased mint Tuvan stamps from a dealer and, from 1936 to 1938, had placed them on
THE POST-RIDER/1MImIK Nx 48 95
June 2001





addressed envelopes to the postmaster at Kyzyl, asking that they be cancelled and returned to him by
registered mail.. All were backstamped at Berne, but unfortunately the article said nothing about other
Soviet backstamps, nor did it say what the Kyzyl cancellations were, apart from the "KbZbL-c, 29.6.37"
marking illustrated with registration No. 85. The dates for the covers he sent were as follows:-

"KbZbL-c" date Registration Nos. Berne backstamp Transit time in days
12.2.36 170, 171 13.11.36 29
17.6.36 344, 347, 349, 350, 353 12.VII.36 26
28.11.36 617,619,620 5.1.37 39
3.5.37 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1.VI.37 29
6.5.37 27, 28, 29 1.VI.37 26
29.6.37 84, 85, 86, 88 15.VII.37 17
3.2.38 19 17.11.38 14

The registered cover No. 352 held by Robert Taylor is not listed, but is clearly from this series. The
Newsletter Editor, TTCS President Ken Simon, noted that the registration numbers were out of sequence
with covers known to have come from the Soviet Philatelic Association, including to the Stamp Import and
Export Corporation in New York City and to Paul Vogelsanger in Lucerne, Switzerland. He cited a
Vogelsanger cover with "KbZbL-c 10.3.37" postmark and registration No. 1270, backstamped at Lucerne
27.II.37 (Transit time of 17 days). I have a similar Vogelsanger cover, dated 18.3.37 and with registration
No. 1868, backstamped at Lucerne 6.IV.37, hence a transit time of 19 days.

I am not sure what to conclude from all this. The transit times seem to be acceptable for postage from Tuva
up to June 1937. If that were the case, then it would imply duplicate "KbZbL-c" cancellers, rather than a
single canceller being sent to Moscow at the end of January 1937. The registration numbers for 29 June
1937 seem in reasonable sequence with what went before, but why the sudden reduction in transit time?

I too have a cover with an Usinskoe backstamp. It bears a 50-kop. Hunter stamp from the Landscapes series
and was cancelled by the Kyzyl Type 3 handstamp dated 29.10.35. It was backstamped OUSINSKOJE
4.11.35 per Fig.6 on p. 112 of "The Post-Rider" No. 46 and was received in Colwyn Bay, Wales on
28?. 11.35, i.e. 29 days in all. The cover seems to have been produced by or for a Mr. Thomas Cliffe, an
English stamp wholesaler who wished to prove the postal validity of Tuvan stamps.

I also have a "KbZbL-c"
cover with registered
No. 664, dated 29.9.36 .
and bearing the "Pota" '
provisionals with small
figures, received in
Moscow on 15.10.36. RE" \
The address is in
Russian to Moscow-9, '- 33 36\
but the rest of the. "
address has been "
removed. I have read "
that this might have. -,
been for security ".
reasons or to
discourage collecting. .
Can anyone shed any .
light on this practice --.--_
or help to reconstruct
96 THE POST-RIDER/IsIMIHK No 48
June 2001






the address? Please see the illustration at the bottom of p. 96. I am pretty certain that the stamps are of the
1936 second printing or reprints, as discussed in the Rossica Bulletin No. 24 of Winter 1996 and based on a
catalogue published by the Russian magazine "Q>HnaTeniaa" in 1992, in which case establishing
commercial use of these stamps would be of interest.

Finally, some aspects of the "KbZbL-a" canceller also puzzle me! I have two 1-akSa stamps of the 1936
Anniversary set, line perf. 11 & 14 with gum and clearly cancelled to order, one of them dated ?. 12.36 and
the other 9.12.?. Does this mean that they were cancelled to order in Kyzyl, rather than by the Soviet
Philatelic Association in Moscow or is this further evidence of duplicate cancellers?
*
COMMENTS ON THE "KbZbL c & a" CANCELLERS
by Andrew Cronin.
It seems important to answer at this juncture, as Mr. Williams has raised some interesting questions. First
of all and based on the transit times recorded on the previous page, it would seem impossible that letters
could have been registered in Kyzyl on 29 June 1937 and have reached Berne in Switzerland 17 days later.
The same applies to the registered item of 3 February 1938, with a transit time of only 14 days. Thus, the
covers in both cases must have been serviced in Moscow, courtesy of the Soviet Philatelic Association!
Coming now to the "Posta" reprints with small figures, your editor is able to present a series of registered
mailings with the "KbZbL-c" postmark dated 29.9.36 (note the dropped "2" in 29) and numbered 620, 622
(R.E. Clever collection), 629, 664 (G.W. Williams collection) and 667, all of them with the addresses cut
out (!). It is possible that the addressees had in fact been employees of the Soviet Philatelic Association and
the item held by R.E. Clever is noteworthy, as it shows three Moscow backstamps (see directly below).

".' -
;;ME. %L


It also seems from other examples that a duplicate "KbZbL-a" canceller was applied in Moscow!
THE POST-RIDER/IAMI KI 48 97
June 2001































*
FURTHER FRANKINGS WITH THE "SPARTAKIADA" STAMPS OF 1935
By Michalis Tsironis and Andrew Cronin.
A. Michalis Tsironis.
I have found four more sending with the 3 k., 10k., 15 k. & 20 k. values of this set, which commemorated
an event that never took place! All four usages are genuine examples, but each of them raises a question.
Fig. on p. 99 shows the local "IleqaTHoe" (printed matter) rate of 3 kop. within Moscow to the English-
language "Moscow Daily News", being a recognizable "Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga" sending. Up to now, we
had only seen that 3-kop. rate applied for international mail.
Fi. 2 features a registered express airmail item from Bryansk 13.6.37 to Moscow the next day. The rates
then were 20 kop. for an internal letter plus 20 kop. registration fee, leaving 45 kop. for air and express
service. This is the first franking I have seen with the 15-kop. Spartakiada stamp.
Fig. has an Intourist postcard to France from Khar'kov 5.7.35 and franked with the 10-kop. Spartakiada
value, when the foreign rate then was already 15 kopeks!
Fig.4 appears to be overfranked, as the rates on 22.10.39 were 15 kop. for a Leningrad local letter plus 30
kop. registration fee, so why the extra 25 kopeks postage? Note the 20-kop. Spartakiada in the franking.

B. Andrew Cronin.
F. tells quite a story, as an American envelope authorized for airmail service was self-addressed by Paul
C. Maroney in Chelsea, Michigan with the air routing typed in red as "VIA PRAGUE AND LONDON".
He apparently directed an enquiry to the Soviet Philatelic Association, as the franking is cancelled on
9.8.35 at the Moscow 50 post office, which handled the S.Ph.A mail. That organization replied at the 15-
kop. international surface rate (!) and, in sorting, the cover received on the back a well-known Soviet air
routing boxed cachet in French, translating as "By air as far as / BERLIN". The letter presumably then
went by surface for onward transmission. Note the 10-kop. Spartakiada value.
Editorial Comment: The usages of the stamps in the 1935 Spartakiada set were originally covered in "The
Post-Rider" No. 31, pp.56-64 and No. 41, pp. 103-105.
98 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N9 48
June 2001




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