• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - sixth...
 The organisation and work of the...
 The first issue of stamps of the...
 A classic Swedish letter sent to...
 Finland-Germany via Sweden...
 Some distinguishing features of...
 Postage due markings of Moscow
 Some further postage due appli...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The mysterious triangles on Soviet...
 Postmarks of the Moscow Northern...
 The third (November 1919) issue...
 The "KbZbL TbBA a, b & c" postmarks...
 Philatelic shorts
 The collectors' corner
 The journal fund
 Advertising






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00046
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - sixth instalment
        Page 4
    The organisation and work of the postal service in the Bessarabian province during the pre-stamp period (1812-1857)
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    The first issue of stamps of the Kotelnich County
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    A classic Swedish letter sent to the Russian Empire
        Page 70
    Finland-Germany via Sweden 1814-1848
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Some distinguishing features of postage due mail in Russia
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Postage due markings of Moscow
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Some further postage due applications
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    The mysterious triangles on Soviet datestamps
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Postmarks of the Moscow Northern Station
        Page 105
    The third (November 1919) issue of Armenia on covers
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The "KbZbL TbBA a, b & c" postmarks applied in Tuva
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The collectors' corner
        Page 120
    The journal fund
        Page 120
    Advertising
        Page 121
        Page 122
Full Text



















































































Printed in Canada







RUSSIAN ALPHABET


A


B

r







3.
H










IT




P.


Pronunciation
a as in far.

b

v

g as in go

d

ye as in yet
yo as in yore
s as in treasure
z

i as in hit

i as in hit

short i

k

1

m

n

o as in for

P
r


C c

T T




X x


3 -









gB u

*3 3

VK) K

"8 e

e e

*V y


abolished in 1918.



TRANSCAUCASIAN BOOKS AVAILABLE

"POSTAL CANCELLATIONS OF THE TRANSCAUCASIAN RAILWAY",
84 pages in A4 (legal) size. US S 18.00 or-E 12 Sterling.

"GEORGIA: POSTAL CANCELLATIONS 1918-1923",
158 pages in A4 (legal) size. US S 16.50 or-E 11 Sterling.

The prices include airmail postage and orders should be accompanied by the remittance to the author-
P. T. ASHFORD, 9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Cheshire CH3 8BR, ENGLAND.


* * *


Pronunciation
s
-t

u as in put

f

hard h sound

ts

ch

sh

shch

hard sign (no sound)

y as in pity

soft sign (y sound)

ye as in yet
e as in ret

yu as in yu-le

ya as in yard
f

i as in hit






THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada

CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/postrider/postrider/
E-mail: postrider@sympatico.ca
FAX Number: (416) 932-0853.


"THE POST-RIDER" No. 46.


June 2000.


Contents:


Inside Front Cover: The Russian Alphabet.
2 Editorial
2 Special Note: Hermitage Museum Collection in London; see also pp. 69 and 75.
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Zemstvo Varieties; Sixth Instalment
5 The Organisation and Work of the Postal Service in the Bessarabian Province
during the Pre-Stamp Period (1812-1857)
66 The First Issue of Stamps of the Kotelnich County I
70 A Classic Swedish Letter sent to the Russian Empire
71 Finland-Germany via Sweden 1814-1848
S76 Some Distinguishing Features of Postage Due Mail in Russia
83 Postage Due Markings of Moscow
88 The "IOnJIATHTb 10" Marking
89 Some Further Postage Due Applications
92 Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos
103 The Mysterious Triangles on Soviet Datestamps
105 Postmarks of the Moscow Northern Station
106 The Third (November 1919) Issue of Armenia on Covers
111 The "KbZbL a, b, & c" Postmarks applied in Tuva A. Cronin,
113 Philatelic Shorts
120 The Collectors' Corer
120 The Journal Fund


Alex Artuchov
G.G. Werbizky
Vladimir Babici


Larisa Petrovna Ryl'kova
Erling Berger
Erling Berger
Meer Kossoy
Meer Kossoy
Michael Ercolini
Professor A.S. Ilyushin
Alex Artuchov
V.B. Kofman
Rabbi L.L. Tann
Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
H. Weikard & R. Taylor
Various Authors


Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer.
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary.
Andrew Cronin, Editor.
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.
( Copyright. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents
of this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.




















Editorial
PRESENTATION versus CONTENTS

Our Society has been asked on several occasions to exhibit "The Post-Rider" internationally and we have
generally declined. The reasons are as follows:-

(a) Some Exhibition Committees require three copies of a yearly run of the journal, which we think is
excessive. The copies are not returned and their cost has to be added to the entry fee. After all, they are
expensive to produce.

(b) We have never had feedback from any interested reader at a particular exhibition. Thus, we can only
assume that the Philatelic Literature section at international shows is not heavily patronised by the public.

(c) Turning now to the judging of such entries, one is faced with several hurdles: presentation, philatelic
knowledge, importance of the sphere of collecting, contents, etc. If anything, the layout and presentation of
the journal can go to as much as 30 points out of 100, which seems rather high. In particular, setting up the
text in double columns appears to be preferred by the judges. We have avoided that type of layout (i)
because it wastes space and (ii) with the 12-point fonts that we normally use, going right across the page cuts
down on the eye strain caused by jumping back to read the next line.

In summing up, our experience has been that the contents are the most important component to be
considered in judging the journal of a specialist society such as ours. Not only are our journals packed to the
gills with solid, clear and original information, but we know from the letters we receive from our members
worldwide that they greatly appreciate what we serve up to them. What could be a better reward than that ?
Yes, it would be very nice if we could improve the graphics and layout, but the fullest utilisation of the space
takes first precedence in our journals. At US $20.00 per year, they are the best bargain around.
*
SPECIAL NOTE:
A Permanent Exhibition in London of the Hermitage Museum Collections.
In keeping with the CSRP policy to promote an appreciation of Russian culture, our members in the United
Kingdom will be interested to learn that space is being set aside at Somerset House in the centre of the
British capital to establish a permanent base for the collections of this world-famous museum. In an
agreement concluded between Lord Rothchild and Mikhail Petrovskii, Director of the Museum, the first
exposition in London will open in September 2000, with Catherine the Great as its theme. This initiative will
certainly enrich further the cultural life of London. Readers will be interested to note that Somerset House
has also had a philatelic connection in the past, as the embossed 6d., 10d. and 1 s. imperforates of the United
Kingdom were printed there between 1847 and 1854. See also the Special Note on p. 69.
*
2 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIMHK N 46
June, 2000






CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this journal.
Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to Canada is invited
to share it with the readership by forwarding a photograph or xerox
copy of the item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text


A REPLY-PAID CARD FROM
CENTRAL ASIA TO THE
PROVINCE OF QUEBEC


by Alex Artuchov.


a N f







UNION POST. I.F. EA1 RFMI R U5.h1r f :.
SAA OBI y? REPONSE
I ..









2 ---._/^ j -_. -L_._ -


LE(LMI:rilUTfl OTLiuufl COKt.L, P'CCliS
LISUS Ft3STAlA. L'U1NF1idT.Li. In :tP.
CPTrP1TOE UII'bM CAJRTF POSTA
*L LlttfrllhSt O F'l tC" mTFi ll-a FIthb.






~.., r---


This double card was sent from Kokand, Fergana province 28.VII.1900 O.S. via TPO/RPO No. 208 ?
(Andizhan-Chernyaevo)the next day and passed through New York City, on its way to Long Point, province
of Quebec.

The double card remained unseparated, since the reply half could not be used, as the original sender also
erroneously wrote in the Canadian address for the destination !

3
THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIIK N 46
June, 2000


-.4




it

r-,

r.; ~":


q


f~;""







ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: SIXTH INSTALMENT
by G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties
do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send their discoveries from that and other Zemstvos. What is shown
here is what I have in my collection.


2U kop. lilac-blue.
Second horizontal
perforation just
above the
denomination "20".


BORISOGLEBSK, Tambov province.


Chuchin No. 8: 3 kop.
sky-blue. "Occurs on
patched paper", as
stated in the catalogue.
A fine horizontal line
shows that the paper
was spliced to make a
larger sheet.


BRONNITSY, Moscow province.



Chuchin No. 3: 5 kop. blue & rose
in a block of 20. There is an
additional vertical perforation at
the left edge of the'fourth vertical
row, running down the whole block.
The stamps have been cancelled-to-
order with crossed lines.


VALKI, Khar'kov province.


Chuchin No. 6a: 2 kop. blue in a strip of five, with tete-beche at the end.

4 THE POST-RIDERSIMIIIHK P 46
June, 2000


Chuchin No. 14a: 5 kop. red
in a block of four with two
vertical tete-b&ches.


BOGORODSK, Moscow province.

VEYI.- Chuchin No. 124:
***.''", L. ** -^ .


-------~-~


(.'I,-...
,rY'~ ~
yl-rr,,l~,~






THE ORGANISATION AND WORK OF THE POSTAL SERVICE IN THE
BESSARABIAN PROVINCE DURING THE PRE-STAMP PERIOD (1812-1857)
by Vladimir Babici.

One of the series of Russo-Turkish wars ended with the signing in Bucharest of a peace treaty between
Russia and Turkey on 16 May 1812 O.S. The Prut river became the border for both empires. Bessarabia, as
part of the Principality of Moldavia and situated between the Prut and Dniester rivers, was taken by the
Russian forces from the influence of the Turks and entered into the confines of Russia.

On 18 December 1835 O.S., the territory of the province was divided into eight "uezdy" or counties:
Akkerman, Bendery, Kagul, Khotin, Kishiniv, Orgeev, Soroka and Yassy (with its centre at the town of
Bel'tsy; it was renamed as the Bel'tsy county as of 1887), as well as the governorship of the town of Izmail.
The subsequent wars between Russia and Turkey partly changed the boundaries of the areas of the southern
counties, but the greater part of the province remained under the influence of Russia until the October
Revolution in 1917.

A Civilian Governor was appointed to administer the province and he was also the representative of the
Provincial Government, which was composed of Moldavian boyars and also Moldavian and Russian
officials. Up to 1816, the Governor was subordinate to the Commander-in-Chief of the Moldavian Army.
The last Commander-in-Chief was Admiral P.V. Chichagov. Later on, the Governors of the province were
selected from the Governors-General of New Russia.

The first Civilian Governor of the province of Bessarabia was the Acting Councillor of State Skarlat
Dmitrievich Sturdza. The Military Governor was Major-General I.M. Garting and he became the Civilian
Governor in 1813, after the death of Sturdza. The first Provincial Governor invested with full powers was
A.N. Bakhmet'ev and he was replaced by I.N. Inzov in 1820.

An Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan See for Bessarabia was established in 1813 and the first Metropolitan,
the Ekzarch of Moldavia & Wallachia Gavriil Benulesku-Bodoni, selected as his seat the settlement of
Chisinau (Kishinev), in the centre of the province. As of this same year, Kishin'v also became the
administrative centre of the area.

The organisation of this new territory of the Russian Empire necessitated the solution of many problems,
from the reform of the administrative apparatus of the area, the installation of Customs and Quarantine
Points, the establishment of border posts and arranging for the delivery of written correspondence, both
within Russia and beyond its borders, as well as inside the province of Bessarabia. Customs Points were set
up along the banks of the Danube and Prut rivers at Akkerman, Lipkany, Novoselitsa, Reni, Vadu-lui-Isak
and Zagarancha, as well as at the border posts ofFalchii, Izmail, Kiliya, Movila Rabyi and- Shtefaneshty.

The coordination of activities for the delivery of mail was ensured by the Bessarabian Provincial Post Office,
which was directed by the Provincial Postmaster. The post office was originally established in Kishinev at a
house on Zolotoi Street (now renamed: strada "Alexandru eel Bun") and from the middle of 1822, it was
relocated in two buildings along Kaushany Street.

The first routes of the State Postal Service in this new territory of the Empire were those connected with the
delivery of mail where the Russian forces were situated in the south of the province and namely in the
districts of the fortresses of Akkerman, Bendery, Izmail and Kiliya. A "Timetable for the Despatch of Mail
in the Post Offices, established in the Bessarabian Fortresses, as of January 1813" is to be found in the
National Archives of the Republic of Moldova (Stack No. 2, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 11) and it contains
details of the following routes:-

THE POST-RIDER/aIMHK N2 46
June, 2000






To KISHINEV from BENDERY: 10 hours, 50 v'rst (1 versta 1 km. or 5/8 mile)
LEAVES on Tuesdays and Fridays at 7 pm.
ARRIVES on Wednesdays and Saturdays at 7 am.

To BENDERY from AKKERMAN: 26 hours, 130 vBrst.
LEAVES on Mondays and Thursdays at 2 pm.
ARRIVES on Tuesdays and Fridays at 3pm. (*) Must be a textual error; see
the manuscript excerpt below.
To AKKERMAN from KILIYA: 24 hours, 120 v'erst.
LEAVES on Sundays and Wednesdays at 12 midnight.
ARRIVES on Mondays and Thursdays at 12 midnight.

To KILIYA from IZMAIL: 14 hours, 70 verst.
LEAVES on Saturdays and Tuesdays at 9 pm.
ARRIVES on Sundays and Wednesdays at 11 pm.

In accordance with the situation at the end of 1814, the "Timetable for the Flow of Written Mail in the
Bessarabian Province in 1814" was issued with the following modifications:-

To KISHINEV from BENDERY: 10 hours, 50 ve'rst.
LEAVES on Mondays and Thursdays at 7 pm.
ARRIVES on Tuesdays and Fridays at 7 am.

To BENDERY from AKKERMAN: 26 hours, 130 v'rst. "
LEAVES on Tuesdays and Fridays at 2 pm. -- (r -
ARRIVES on Wednesdays and Saturdays at 3 pm. (*) .

To AKKERMAN from KILIYA: 24 hours, 120 v'erst. ..
LEAVES on Saturdays and Thursdays at 12 midnight.
ARRIVES on Sundays and Fridays at 12 midnight.

To KILIYA from IZMAIL: 14 hours, 70 verst.
LEAVES on Fridays and Wednesdays at 9 pm.
ARRIVES on Saturdays and Thursdays at 11 am.

To DUBOSSARY from KISHINEV: 9 hours, 45 v'rst.
LEAVES on Saturdays and Wednesdays at 2 pm.
ARRIVES on Sundays and Thursdays at 7 am.

As can be seen from the quoted timetables, the Bessarabian Provincial Post Office concentrated all the mail
in Kishinev and originally maintained postal communications with other regions of the Russian Empire only
via the border post office at Dubossary. The latter forwarded the mail into the depths of the country by two
State postal routes at BALTA (Podoliya province) and ODESSA (Odessa province)

The links of Kishinev and the southern part of Bessarabia with Khotin were ensured by the pre-war border
route along the left bank of the Dniester river, via Dubossary, Rybnitsa, Kamenka, Yampol', Mogirv-
Podol'skii and Kamenets-Podol'skii. That significantly complicated the operations of delivering mail and
resulted in dissatisfaction on the part of the recipients. In turn, it necessitated the immediate adoption of a
decision to open a postal route between Kishinev and Khotin within the territory of Bessarabia, which had
not existed previously.
6 THE POST-RIDER/ISMIIHK Ni 46
June, 2000






More than twenty years were to pass for the completion of the network of postal routes along the entire
territory of the province of Bessarabia, the foundation of which was laid down in 1813.

On 16 May 1813, the Kishiniv Post Office addressed a report to the Civilian Governor of the province, S.D.
Sturdza, in which it was stated:-
"With regard to the transmission from this despatch office of mail and messengers to Khotin, as there is no
route for sending to that particular place and bearing in mind the number of virst from Kishin'v to Khotin, it
would be convenient to provide funds for the conveyance of the mail and messengers. Hence, this despatch
office asks Your Excellency to make such provision".

Already by December 1812, the Khotin Despatch Office had informed the Governor that:
"....the first despatch of Your Excellency, which had been forwarded on November 18th., has been received
on 12th. December. The receipt in Khotin of papers from the various towns in the province of Bessarabia
remains delayed..."

As a supplement to the above, the Military and Civilian Administrator of the province of Bessarabia, I.M.
Garting, informed the Governor that: "...for military reasons, I must needs have of the despatch of a FAST
COSSACK POSTAL SERVICE from Khotin to Mogilev and I ask Your Excellency to set up an ordinary
postal link from Kishin'v to Khotin" (File : No. 2, Inventory 1, Dossier 11).

By a decision taken in 1813 by the Civilian Governor, the Mogiltv Route was established for the delivery of
mail through the province of Bessarabia. It consisted of 11 postal stations, with a transmission time of 54
hours. The route facilitated the linking to Khotin and Kishin'v of the hamlet of Ataki, which was on the right
bank of the Dniester river and opposite the Mogilev Quarantine Station in the province of Podoliya. This
same route also permitted the possibility of receiving and sending mail via Ataki and Mogilev-Podol'skii, to
and from St. Petersburg and Moscow, quite apart from the existing Consular Postal Route, which went via
the hamlet of Dubossary.
THE "MOGILEV" POSTAL ROUTE
Hours
1. From KISHINEV to Teleshov 5
2. From Teleshov to Morozeny 4
3. From Morozeny to Velereny 4
4. From Velereny to Synzhereny 4
5. From Synzhereny to Bel'tsy 5
6. From Bel'tsy to Kainary 6
7. From Kainary to Rospopeny 5
8. From Rospopeny to Ataki (Mogilev) 5
9. From Ataki to Oknitsa 4
10. From Oknitsa to Bricheny 4
11. From Bricheny to Vartinoutsy 4
12. Fron Vartinoutsy to KHOTIN 4

The route was maintained and became an integral part later on of the Odessa-Novoselitsa, Bel'tsy-Khotin,
Skulyany-Ataki and Khotin-Ataki routes, which were eventually established on the territory of Bessarabia by
the middle of the 19th. century.

At the same time, the postal route which had been restored on 1 May 1792 for the Consular Mails from St.
Petersburg to Constantinople and return via the hamlet of Dubossary continued to operate on the territory of
the province of Bessarabia. A letter from the Dubossary Border Post Office and dated 5 September 1813
O.S. has been preserved and it states the following:-

THE POST-RIDER/H5MIIIHK N 46 7
June, 2000






"...The Dubossary Border Post Office has the honour to announce that the St. Petersburg mails to
Constantinople are being sent from here twice monthly on the 1st. and 15th. and are being received from
Constantinople also twice monthly and around those dates.." (File : No. 2, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 11).

The development of trade and of civilian life in Bessarabia mandated the almost annual extension and
improvement of the postal routes established on its territory and which crossed the province both from north
to south, as well as from east to west. Already by 17th. March 1815 O.S., four postal routes were organised
and put into service in the province of Bessarabia (File No. 1, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 147):-

DUBOSSARY ROUTE: From Kishinev via Kriulyany to Dubossary.
IZMAIL ROUTE: From Kishinev via Bendery, Akkerman, Tatarbunary, Kiliya and Izmail to Reni.
MOGILEV ROUTE: From Kishinev via Bel'tsy, Ataki and Brichany to Khotin.
SKULYANY ROUTE: From Skulyany via Faleshty and Bel'tsy to Kishinev.

Especial interest is evoked by the organisation of reciprocal cooperation of the postal despatch offices
situated on various banks of the Dniester river in the districts of the Bessarabian hamlet of ATAKI and of the
Podolian town of MOGILEV. On 16 March 1816 O.S., the postal despatch office reported to I.M. Garting,
the Military and Civilian Governor of Bessarabia, as follows:-
"...with regard to the urgent requirement of the Mogilev Quarantine Office in arranging for the benefit of the
messengers being conveyed and proceeding from Russia to Bessarabian postal stations, this despatch office
is in great difficulty, as there is no commitment from anyone about the supervision of the right bank of the
Dniester river, for which the despatch office has no resources, nor the possibility of receiving such means for
the further extension of the Ataki Quarantine Office. The Captaincy here has been requested to appoint one
of its officials or serving personnel to be stationed permanently on the bank, especially at night, so as to
carry out quarantine functions. The officer should let this despatch office know where he is at all times and
we will immediately send a postal official for the receipt and forwarding of articles sent by others from this
despatch office. Although the Captaincy has received such requests, it has done nothing to satisfy
them...."((File No. 2, Inventory 1, Dossier 11).
The reaction of the Civilian Governor was immediate. The Rural Police Inspector at Soroka and the Postal
Despatch Office at Ataki received the following instructions, which were to be carried out:-
"29 March 1816 O.S.
To the Rural Police District at Soroka.
As a consequence of a report to me of the Postal Despatch Office at Ataki under No. 148 and explaining the
urgent requirement of the Mogilev Quarantine Office regarding the despatch of -a necessary arrangement for
the reception on the right bank of the Dniester river at that office of the messengers, proceeding from Russia
to the Bessarabian postal stations, I order the Police District upon receipt of this letter, immediately to
instruct most strictly Captain Detyrg at Ataki to appoint in turn a person from among the personnel there to
be stationed at the Military Range opposite the Mogilev Quarantine Office, so that such a person would be
on duty on the bank day and night and be ready to receive the summons of the Quarantine officer about the
arrival and forwarding at that point of messengers and, at the same time, let the Postal Despatch Office know
about sending an official there for the reception of the messengers and that such officials should by no
means take measures leading to the slightest dereliction of the duties entrusted to them, which should be
carried out strictly in accordance with the regulations. Such an official should be appointed from among the
inhabitants of Ataki to carry out the responsibility laid down here and Captain Detyrg should be ordered to
perform a strict reckoning and inform the post office about this matter".

"To the Postal Despatch Office at Ataki:
In accordance with the report to me under No. 148 of this Despatch Office, I have now ordered the Police
District Office at Soroka to proceed to arrange for the appointment of a person from among the inhabitants
of Ataki to the Military Range on the Dniester river, situated opposite the MogilEv Quarantine Office, so as
8 THE POST-RIDER/sMIIHM K N 46
June, 2000






to be advised by a Quarantine officer about the conveyance of messengers proceeding from Russia to the
Bessarabian postal stations and letting the Postal Despatch Office know about payment for the same, when
assigning an official to receive them as necessary. I am also letting the Postal Despatch Office know about
this matter" (File :No. 2, Inventory 1, Dossier 11).

On 6 December 1817 O.S., the Kishinev Chamber of Commerce addressed the Military Governor of the
province of Podoliya, the Representative of the Governor of the province of Bessarabia, A.N. Bakhmet'ev,
with a petition, as follows:-
"...Having in our commercial dealings frequent relations with the merchants, residing abroad in the
Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, we are encountering extreme difficulties in our correspondence, as
the mail from Kishinev going abroad is sent together with the Constantinople mail only twice monthly and
not always at the appointed time. As we do not even know the actual day of despatch, our commercial
correspondence is being delayed and we are sustaining considerable losses, while the Treasury loses its
income. As we come under the protection of Your Excellency, we humbly beg you to be so kind as to accept
this petition and issue orders to arrange for the flow of the mail going abroad in the same way as that is being
done within Russia, i.e. twice weekly. For our part, we do not wish to subject the Treasury to further delays,
which are obliging us to pay the necessary postal rates twice for such services. We are awaiting the kind
resolution of this matter on the part of Your Excellency...."

To settle this matter, the Civilian Governor of the province, Konstantin Antonovich Katakazi, directed the
Provincial Post Office to take measures to arrange for the delivery of correspondence abroad and the latter
reported back as follows:-
"...15 January 1818 O.S.:
In carrying out the orders of Your Excellency dated 12 January, the Bessarabian Provincial Post Office most
respectfully has the honour to advise that in despatching mail abroad, it is being carried out under the
General Regulations issued for postal points in Russia. It is not possible to specify a particular day for the
receipt of correspondence, as this mail is of express character and never arrives at the same time and cannot
be held in the office for a long period of time, as it cannot be delayed for more than two hours, according to
the designated Postal Regulations. It was not possible to arrange for other measures to be taken, so as to
begin a few days earlier and await the arrival of such mails. Such a procedure was observed for the Field
Post Office then in existence and the mail was handled in a satisfactory manner. Up to this year of 1818, the
mail going abroad from Dubossary has been sent four times monthly: two despatches designated as
"ordinary" and also including the correspondence going to the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, as
well as a further two sending, called "extraordinary" or "ministerial". Apart from the above-mentioned
postal packets, there should be included all the Constantinople mail. However, in the present year and by an
order of the Minister of Internal Affairs, the flow of "ordinary" mail has been completely abolished and
there remains only one "extraordinary" mail, which goes through this office in the first days of the month,
while around and after the middle of each month, it is bundled together with the mail here. The protracted
delay of the mails is a most important problem for this area, not only because it hinders the development of
trade, but also because it impedes the official connections with the Customs and Quarantine Offices on the
frontier, situated on the border between the Military Command and the Yassy Police Inspectorate. Moreover,
the Treasury is deprived of a considerable income..."
And on 12 February 1818 O.S.:
"...In carrying out the orders of Your Excellency, dated 9 February, the Provincial Post Office has the honour
to announce that, in an arrangement taken with the Dubossary Post Office, the latter would appoint a postal
official and assign him to the bank of the Prut river, both to receive the mail proceeding from Kishinev to
Jassy and to forward correspondence to the Skulyany Postal Despatch Office. The latter has been so
informed by this office on February 10th. Moreover, on 28 January of this year, the Jewish Commercial
Society of Commissioners has assured this office that, with the passage of the expenditures established by
them in setting up the flow of mail once weekly from Kishinev to Skulyany, if the Treasury were to sustain

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK X2 46
June, 2000






losses after levying the double postal fees, the Society of Commissioners would over a three-month period
immediately make a payment reckoned at 327 leva (Editorial Comment: = piastres?) and 24 paras. On the
basis of this desire of His Excellency, the mails received from Ataki and incorporated with those from
Kishinev to go to Skulyany and addressed to Jassy are to begin being sent once weekly on Wednesdays.
Apart from that, the correspondence received in Jassy is to be added to those mails which are passing
through from Dubossary via Kishindv to Constantinople..." (File No. 2, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No.568).

In that way and with the peaceful conditions prevailing in the area, there arose the requirement to set up
new postal routes, not only within Bessarabia but also so as to institute improvements in the system of
sending postal correspondence beyond the borders of the Empire, via Skulyani and in the direction of the
Moldavian town of Jassy.
THE POSTAL ROUTES & POSTAL STATIONS ORGANISED AND IN SERVICE IN BESSARABIA AS
OF 4 APRIL 1818 i(File No. 2, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No.586).
From Kishindv to Bendery 3 postal stations
From KishinEv via Orgeev, Bel'tsy & Brichany to Khotin 15 postal stations
From Kishinev to Skulyany 5 postal stations
From Skulyany via Bel'tsy to Ataki 5 postal stations
From Brichany to Novoselitsa 2 postal stations
From Khotin to Kriulyany 2 postal stations
Via the fortresses from Bendery to Izmail 13 postal stations
From Izmail to Reni 6 postal stations
From Kishinev via Leovo to Formoz (Editorial Comment: 6 postal stations
This name possibly from the Romanian "frumos" = beautiful).
TOTAL: 58 postal stations.

The utilisation of postal markings to handle mail in the province of Bessarabia began in 1819, according to
documents in the National Archives of the Republic of Moldova. An official postal sending from the
Akkerman Police Station to the Bessarabian Office for Foreign Immigrants was provided on 3 June 1819
O.S. with the negative single-line marking : "AKKEPMAHb N'" in black. This is the first marking
known to the author, which was utilised by the Russian Postal Service on the territory of Bessarabia.

As of the middle of 1820, single-line markings with the name of the postal station in the Russian language
began to be utilised in some offices for the handling of mail. The first sending with a black marking of that
type is an official letter from the Yassy Police Inspectorate in Bel'tsy, despatched on 23 June 1820 O.S. to
Kishiniv. Similar markings were also applied at Bendery, Khotin, Skulyany and Tuchkov (Izmail). Up to
that period, the name of the postal station accepting and despatching the mail was designated in manuscript
on the back of the postal sending. Many such postal sending also bear notations about disinfection
procedures, carried out at the Border Posts and Quarantine Points.

In the summer of 1824, the Bessarabian Provincial Postmaster Colonel & Cavalier Aleksei Petrovich
Alekseev, in investigating all the postal stations in the province of Bessarabia, advised the Supreme
Council of the Province of Bessarabia about the necessity of taking steps "with the onset of inclement
weather in the autumn" to begin again to open postal stations, houses and stables, as well as bridges, dams
and roads, especially from Kishindv to Bel'tsy and Ataki and also from Kishinev to Leovo and Formoz. The
Listing set out hereunder confirms the fact that the Postal Service continued to be improved on the territory
of Bessarabia, closing postal stations that were not viable economically and opening new ones.

THE LISTING OF POSTAL STATIONS IN THE PROVINCE OF BESSARABIA AS OF 1 MAY 1826
O.S., ESTABLISHED BY THE BESSARABIAN PROVINCIAL POSTMASTER, COLONEL A.
ALEKSEEV (File -No. 3, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 618).

10 THE POST-RIDER/IM IImHK 46
June, 2000






Route No. 1: From Kishin'v to Dubossary.
Route No. 2: From Kishinev to Skulyany via Kalarash and Bakhmut.
Route No. 3: From Kishin'v to Bel'tsy and Ataki.
Route No. 4: From Bel'tsy to Khotin.
Route No. 5: From Brichany to Oknitsa.
Route No. 6: From Brichany to Novoselitsa.
Route No. 7: From Khotin to Novoselitsa.
Route No. 8: From Kishinev to Bendery.
Route No. 9: From Bendery to Akkerman.
Route No. 10: From Akkerman to Kiliya and Izmail.
Route No. 11: From Izmail to Reni.
Route No. 12: From Kishin'v to Reni via Leovo and Formoz.
Route No. 13: From Kishinev to Izmail.
Route No. 14: From Skulyany along the Prut river to Leovo.

As of 1832, the Postal Administration began to replace the previously utilised single-line postal markings
with two-line types. The name of the postal station was designated on the markings, as well as the day,
month and year the postal article was handled. Later on, cachets were introduced for the receipt and
despatch of mail and bore the corresponding designations: "noJys.(eHo)" or "oTnp.(aBsieHo)".

The arrangement of the letters and numbers on the markings set daily by the postal clerks show various
modifications in the length and breadth of the postal cachets. Many markings demonstrate the lack of
individual letters and numbers and many of them are inverted on the markings. The replacement of the
single-line markings in some postal stations continued up to the middle of the 1850s.

"The Postal Map of the Province of Bessarabia", prepared by the Bessarabian surveyor B. Eitner at the end
of the 1830s demonstrates the final version of the postal routes running along the province of Bessarabia,
which remained practically unchanged well into the future i (File No. 11, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 15)
[see overleaf the map adapted by the author]. The map shows the existing, suggested-again and slated-for-
abolition postal roads and stations:-
(a) Postal stations were closed on the route from Kishinev to Bel'tsy via Kalarash and Bakhmut and opened
via Peresechino, Orgeev and Sarateny.
(b) Postal stations were closed on the route from Bel'tsy to Ataki via Nadushita and Pelenei and opened via
Kainar Veki, Soroki and Tatarevka Vek.
(c) Postal stations were closed on the route from Glinnoe to Brichany and opened from Glinnoe via
Lipkany to Stalineshty and onwards to Novoselitsa or Khotin.

The area continued to remain a polygon and a staging area for subsequent Russo-Turkish wars, requiring
the provision of eight basic postal routes, along which the Russian Empire advanced on the Balkans. In
1837, a tabulation prepared by the Department of the General Staff was included in the Military Statistical
Survey of the Province of Bessarabia, showing the distances in versty (roughly equivalent to a kilometre or
5/8 mile) from county towns and fortresses to the provincial capital, as well as of the towns and the
fortresses in between and designating the basic postal roads of provincial and county character, which
could provide postal communications and be used for military aims.
"Postal roads were established along the following routes:-
From the city of Kishinev:
1. Via the town of Dubossary to the Kherson province: a major postal road.
2. Via the towns of Bendery and Akkerman: a minor postal road to the fortresses of Kiliya and Izmail and
via the latter to the Turkish Possessions.
3. Via the towns of Leovo and Kagul: a minor postal road to the Izmail fortress and Reni and from the
THE POST-RIDER/IMIITHK J2 46 11
June, 2000













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The "major postal roads" and the "provincial and county postal roads" set up in
1837 on the territory of the Province of Bessarabia are specified on the map.


12 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N* 46
June, 2000






Table
showing the distances in v'rsty (1 versta = 1 km. or roughly 5/8 mile) of county towns
and fortresses from the provincial ones and of the towns and fortresses between them.










S/t d- f /%l.,,7g... 4
U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9 e,,*-f C1 d4


This table has been drawn up not only
for individual postal roads,
but also for major,
intermediate and
passable roads.


Kishinev

Khotin


Bel'tsy


Soroka (Soroki)

Orgei (Orgeev) All

Bendery d

Kagul L 4 //4i /


Akkerman

Tuchkov (Izmail) ,,

Kiliya ^ y


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cu?


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THE POST-RIDER/IAMI HK J 46 13
June, 2000


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latter to the Principality of Moldavia.
4. Via the town of Orgei (Orgeev) to the town of Bel'tsy: a major route.

From the town of Bel'tsy:
5. Via Skulyany: a major route to the Principality of Moldavia.
6. Via the town of Soroki in the Podoliya province to Mogirlv on the Dniester a minor route.
7. Via the village of Glinnoe to the town of Mogilev on the Dniester: a major postal route.

From the village of Glinnoe:
8. Via the town of Khotin to Kamenets-Podol'skii and via Novoselitsy to the Austrian Possessions.

The bridges on all these routes are sufficiently solid i(File :No. 11, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 26).

In that way, regular postal routes were established by the end of the 1830s. on the entire territory of
Bessarabia, utilising major and minor postal roads and with permanent postal stations, ensuring the
delivery of correspondence in the following towns and hamlets: Akkerman, Ataki, Bel'tsy, Bolgrad,
Faleshty, Izmail, Kagul, Kaushany, Kiliya, Kishinev, Leovo, Lipkany, Novoselitsa, Orgeev, Reni, Skulyany
and Soroki.
"Listing of the number of waggons, as well as summer and winter vehicles, which were on hand at the


postal stations of the Province of Bessarabia in 1850.


,(File No. 24, Inventory No. 1, Dossier No. 92).


A. Consecutive number.
B. Name of the postal station.
C. Number of waggons.
D. Number of summer vehicles.

A B
1. Kishinev
2. Peresechino
3. Orgeev
4. Sarateny
5. Kopachany
6. Bel'tsy
7. Faleshty
8. Skulyany
9. Rezeny
10. Bratushany
11. Glinnoe
12. Korzheutsy
13. Lipkany
14. Stalineshty
15. Novoselitsa
16. Khotin
17. Oknitsa
18. Ataki
19. Tatarevka Veki
20. Soroki
21. Kainar Vek'
22. Kubolty


E. Number of winter vehicles.
F. Number of covered carts (H6HrrTKH).
G. Postal markings observed: (*) denotes those recorded by M.A.
Dobin in his "Postmarks of the Russian Empire: Pre-Adhesive
Period", Standart Collection, St. Petersburg, 1993.
C D E F G
4 12 20 6 *
8 9 4
8 9 4 *
8 9 4
8 9 4
3 8 14 5 *
6 6 3
6 6 3 *
8 8 4
8 8 4
7 7 3
6 6 3
6 7 3 *
10 10 5
6 6 3 *
8 8 4 *


THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHK NY 46
June, 2000


1






A B C D E F G
23. Oknitskany 6 6 3
24. Mereny 6 9 4
25. Tsentsereny 6 9 4
26. Bolboky 6 9 4
27. Bendery 2 8 12 5 *
28. Kaushany 3 4 2
29. Popovka 3 4 2
30. Lotovskaya 3 4 2
31. Gura-Rosha 3 4 2
32. Akkerman 6 9 3 *
33. Alkaliiskaya 4 6 2
34. Sar'yarskaya 4 6 2
35. Tatarbunary 4 6 2
36. Zmievskaya 2 5 7 3
37. Kiliya 4 4 2
38. Krinichskaya -4 6 2
39. Tashbunary 6 8 3
40. Izmail 2 4 6 2 *
41. Bolgrad 4 5 2 *
42. Volkaneshty -- -.. 6 8 3
43. Reni 2 3 4 2 *
44. Kagul 7 7 3 *
45. .Largutsa 5 5 2
46. Tegechskaya 5 9 2
47. Leovo 2 4 5 2 *
48. Gura-Sarata 4 5 2
49. Gura-Galbina 4 5 2
50. Rezeny 4 5 2
(Editorial Comment: Rezeny appears twice in this Consecutive Listing, under Nos. 9 and 50).
NOTE: The waggon for conveying the mails must have a covering and a lock of sheet iron, be painted in an
oily green colour; be 2 arshins & 8 vershki in height, 12 vershki deep and 1 arshin 2 vershki wide (1 arshin
= 28 inches long, or roughly 70 cm. and there are 16 vershki to an arshin); must bear a load within of two
postal vehicles, i.e. up to 40 puds (1 pud = 36 pounds or roughly 15 kg.). It must have iron axles; the
wheels must be durable and covered with thick rims.

The summer vehicle should measure as follows: 2 arshins 8 vershki long, 12 vershki deep and clear of the
rear axle by 1 1/2 arshins; bound in a firm fashion and with a seat for the postman, with oaken axles and
with open loops; with iron pole-bolts and linch pins.
The winter vehicle should be of the same size, provided with a seat for the postman and with flaps and
clips.

There should be provided horse collars with breech-bands and reins, saddle-straps, plaited straps for
driving; the saddles must be of the quality corresponding with their price and the shaft-bows should be
painted in oily black colour and, finally, the bells should not be small".

"Listing of the postal stations in the province of Bessarabia, showing the number of horses, the distances in
vErsty from one station to another and of the routes, as well as the amounts to be levied on each route for
the travelling expenses.Drawn up on 29 February 1852 O.S. (File No.190, Inventory No.1, Dossier No.87).

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N2 46 15
June, 2000






Distance Number of
in versty pairs of horses
1st. Route: From KishinEv to Dubossary @ 2 1/2 k. silver.
At Kishin'v -30
To Onitskany 27 9
To Kriulyany 11
To the river crossing over the Dniester towards Dubossary 1 1/4

2nd. Route: From KishinEv via Orgeev & Bel'tsy to Skulyany @ 2 1/2 k. silver.
To Peresechina 24 1/2 14
To Orgeev 16 1/2 14
To Sarateny 26 1/4 14
To Kopachany 28 1/4 14
To the town of Bel'tsy 25 1/4 20
To the hamlet of Faleshty 263/4 9
To Skulyany 28 1/4 9

3rd. Route: From Bel'tsy via Soroki to the hamlet of Ataki @ 2 1/2 k. silver.
To Kubolta 17 8
To Kainar Vek' 14 1/2 9
To the town of Soroki 23 10
To Tatarevka Veki 27 10
To the hamlet of Ataki 23 1/4 12
To the river crossing over the Dniester towards Mogilev 3/4
on the Dniester
4th. Route: From Ataki via Stalineshty to Khotin & Novoselitsa @ 2 1/2 k. silver.
To Oknitsa 28 4
To Glinnoe 23 3/4 10
To Korzheutsy 14 9
To the hamlet of Lipkany 17 3/4 11
To Stalineshty 14 1/4 15
To the town of Khotin 23 1/2 12
To the river crossing over the Dniester towards the town of 5 1/4
Kamenets-Podol'skii
From Stalineshty to the hamlet of Novoselitsa 27 1/2 9

5th. Route: From Bel'tsy to the station at Glinnoe @ 1 1/2 k silver.
To Recha 25 12
To Bratushany 25 12
To Glinnoe 23 1/4

6th. Route: From Kishin'v to Bendery @ 1 1/2 k. silver.
To Mereny 13 14
To Tsentsereny 16 1/4 14
To Bolboky 14 14
To Bendery 15 1/4 18
To the river crossing over the Dniester 2 1/4

7th. Route: From Bendery to Akkerman @ 1 1/2 k. silver.
To the hamlet of Kaushany .21 6

16 THE POST-RIDER/IMIH~K N2 46
June, 2000






Distance Number of
in vUrsty pairs of horses
To Popovka 15 5
To Lotosa 16 1/2 6
To Gura Rosha 27 6
To the town of Akkerman 29 1/2 13
To the crossing at the Dniester estuary & crossing to Ovidiopol' 1 1/2

8th. Route: From Akkerman to Kiliya and Izmail @ 1 1/2 k. silver.
To Alkalii 27 9
To Saryry 15 1/2 9
To Tatarbunary 23 9
To Zmievskaya 21 10
To Kiliya 31 6
From Zmievskaya to Krinichka 23 9
To Tashbunar 20 12
To the town of Izmail 22 9

9th. Route: From Izmail to the town ofReni @ 1 1/2 k. silver.
To Tatarbunary 22
To the hamlet of Bolgrad 23 1/2 7
To Volkaneshty 19 24
To the town of Reni 25 1/4 6

10th. Route: From Kishinev to Reni @ 1 1/2 k. silver.
To Rezeny 24 1/2 11
To Gura Galbina 22 3/4 11
To Gura Sarata 24 3/4 11
To the hamlet of Leovo 22 1/4 11
To Tigecha 23 7
To Largutsa 19 1/4 7
To the hamlet of Kagul 21 10
To Volkaneshty 29 1/4
To the town of Reni 25 1/4
To the Prut river in the direction of Galatz 3 1/4

The Crimean War between Russia and Turkey was terminated with the Peace Treaty of Paris in 1856,
whereby Russia ceded to Turkey the mouth of the Danube river and to the Principality of Moldavia the
southern part of Bessarabia, namely the Governorship of Izmail and parts of the neighboring counties of
Akkerman and Kagul. As a consequence and by an Order No. 116 of the Postal Department announced in
an ordinance to the General Administration of Posts of the Russian Empire, it was stated that:
"...On the occasion of the delineation of the new borders in Southern Bessarabia and regarding the former
districts ceded by us to Moldavia, the post offices therein have now been moved to other places, namely:-
The IZMAIL office to the colony ofKubei.
The RENI office to the hamlet of Tatarbunary.
The KAGUL office to the colony ofKomrat.
The LEOVO office to the hamlet ofKarpineny.

The KILIYA and BOLGRAD post offices have been vacated. In accordance with a decree of the Ruling
Senate of 29th. May O.S. of this year regarding the relocation of the offices to new places, they have been

THE POST-RIDER/IMIm(HK 2 46 17
June, 2000





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renamed according to those places where they are now situated: KUBEI, TATARBUNARY, KOMRAT
and KARPINENY".

The further activities of the post offices at Bolgrad, Izmail, Kagul, Kiliya, Leovo and Reni on the territory
of the Principality of Moldavia and later on in the Kingdom of Romania up to 1878 have been covered in
detail in the book by Kiriac Dragomir '"tampilografie poytala, Romania: 1822-1910", published in
Romania in 1990.

The history of the town which was founded near the fortress of Izmail is especially interesting. A small
settlement arose in 1810 by the eastern walls of the fortress of Izmail, which was named as the town of
TUCHKOV, by a decree of the Senate, dated 14 October 1812. It was so named after General Sergei
Alekseevich Tuchkov, Commanding Officer of the fortress of Izmail and of the 16th. Division of the
Russian Army. He personally chose the spot where the town was to be, divided it into neighborhoods and
laid the foundations for the first premises of the Town Court and Governorship. The first school, hospital
and town library were opened under him. He founded the Pokrovskii Cathedral, planned the Greek Square,
the town boulevard, the Alexander and Mariinskaya streets and extended the town from the Danube to the
outskirts 7 to 8 kilometres (approx. 5 miles) to the north.

In 1818, the town of Tuchkov received the status of a county town and in December 1821, the leading
Russian poet, Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin, called upon A.S. Tuchkov in the course of being in service at
that time in Kishiniv. In September 1830, the District of Izmail was founded, as well as the Town Court,
Town Council and other administrative establishments and A.S. Tuchkov was appointed the first Governor
of the town.

After the defeat of the Russian Empire in the Crimean War, the town of Tuchkov went from Russia to the
Principality of Moldavia and the founder of the town, as well as its name, which it had borne for 44 years,
were forgotten for a long time.

In handling the receipt and despatch of the postal correspondence, the town of Tuchkov only applied
single- and two-line markings, which bore the name of the fortress: H3MAHJTI' (Izmail).

The Prestamp Markings of the Postal Stations, functioning on the Territory of the Province of Bessarabia
from 1812 onwards.
(Those markings denoted with an asterisk [*] are in accordance with the catalogue by M.A. Dobin:
"Postmarks of the Russian Empire : Pre-Adhesive Period", Standart Collection, St. Petersburg, 1993).
From 1819 to 1831, single-line markings in black were applied inclusively, with the names of the postal
stations in the Russian language:-
For Akkerman: AKKEPMAH'b No negative) AKKEPMAH'b.
For Bel'tsv: B'1JIbb1*;
For Bendery: BEHAEPbI*
For Bolgrad: BOJIFPAA. IIOHT: CTAH:, BOJIrPA'b.
For Izmail: 43MAHJI'b.
For Khotin: XOTIHHb*
For Kiliva: KHJIIt, KNJIIAI (!)
For Kishin'v: KHIIIHHEB'b*, KHIIEHEBb*, 1H3b KHIIIHHEBA*
For Leovo: JIEOB'b.
For Lipkany: JIHFIKAHbI.
For Novoselitsa: HOBOCEJIHI4A.
For Reni: BEC. OBJI. F. PEIfH.
For Skulvany: CKYJI5IHbI.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK Ne 46 19
June, 2000






As of 1832, two-line postal markings began to be utilised for the despatch and receipt of postal
correspondence and with the name of the postal station in the Russian language. The colour used was black
and there were also postmarks in a rectangular frame or in a circular form.. A listing of the post offices and
the years of utilisation of the markings so far found is given hereunder, with an asterisk [*] to denote those
already recorded by M.A. Dobin. Missing numbers, or the appearance of dashes in the dates are also noted.
The names of the offices are given in the Russian alphabetical order:-

AKKEPMAH'b (Akkerman): 1832, 1833, 18 0*.
BEJIbIbI / B'SJIbUbI (Bel'tsy): 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1843, 1844, 1846*, 1847, 1858*.
BEHAEPbI (Bendery): 1832, 1841*.
H3MAHJI'b (Izmail): 1832, 1833, 1837, 1844, 1849*, 1853, 1853*, 1854*, 1856*, 1863*.
Quarantine marking: 184-r.* (see Type 6.12 in the Postmark Illustrations later on).
Quarantine marking: see Type 6.13 in the Postmark Illustrations later on.
KAFYJIb (Kagul): 1843, 1844, 1854*.
KHJI3IS (Kiliya): 1832.
KH4IIIE HEB'b (Kishinev): 1832, 1833, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1839*, 1841*, 1846*, 1847*, 1854*, 1859*,
185 *.
KYBEi (Kubei): 1858*.
JIEOBO (Leovo): 1842*, 1843.
Quarantine marking: see Type 15.06 in the Postmark Illustrations later on.
Quarantine marking 1834: see Type 15.07 in the Postmark Illustrations later on.
Marking of Receipt: see Type 15.04 in the Postmark Illustrations later on.
HOBOCEJILHIA(Novoselitsa); 1832, 1834, 1835, 1839*, 1841, 1842, 1855*, 1860*, 1862*.
Port marking: see Type 17.13 in the Postmark Illustrations later on.
OPFBEB'b (Orgeev): 1834, 1839, 1843, 1844.
PEIH. / PEHHbI (Reni): 1832, 1833, 1843, 1846, 1849*.
CKYJIIHbI (Skulyany): 1832, 1834, 1836, 1843, 1844*, 1845, 1846, 1849*.
Rectangular marking, size 37x16.5 mm.: 1849, 1850, 1851*, 1853, 1854,1855.
Rectangular "received" marking, size 37x16.5 mm.: 1847, 1853.
Circular marking with Latin letters, diameter of 29 mm.: 1856 (see Type 2-17).
Quarantine marking* (see Type 2-18 in the Postmark illustrationss later on).
COPOKH (Soroki): 1842, 1843.
XOTHIH'b (Khotin): 1832, 1833, 1835, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1845.

Pre-Stamp Single-Line Markings of the First Period, utilised in the Province of Bessarabia.
(The postmark types are those as given by M.A. Dobin in his work on the Pre-Adhesive Period).
Inscribed name of Name in Postmark Size Years of
the postal station. Latin. type. in mm. utilisation.

1. AKKEPMAH'b XN Akkerman 1 Ir 30 x 5 1819
la. AKKEPMAH'b Akkerman 1 Ar 30 x 4 1824-1831
2. BEJIbIbI* Bel'tsy 1 Ar 28 x 5 1820-1831
3. BEH)EPbI* Bendery 1 Ar 30 x 5 1830-1841
4. BOJIFPAWTb Bolgrad 1 Aa 32 x 5 1830-1831
4a. BOJIrPAA.nO TT.CTAH. Bolgrad 2 Fa 55 x 6 1834
5. I43MAIJIb Izmail 1 Ar 31 x 5 1824-1831
6. KHJI51 Kiliya 1 Aa 22 x 4.5 1827-1831
6a. KNJIII Kiliya 1 Aa 17 x 6 1824-1831
7. KHUIEHEBb* Kishen'v 1 Aa 30 x 4 1824-1832
7a. KHIIIIHHEB'b* Kishin'v 1 Aa 30 x 3.5 1824-1832

20 THE POST-RIDERJIMMIIHK Nh 46
June, 2000






Inscribed name of
the postal station.


7b. HA3 Kutuuneea*
8. JIEOBTb
9. JIHIIKAHbI
10. HOBOCEJIHIAA
11. 6ec. o6j. r. pefiA
12. CKYJISIHbI
13. XOTHH'b


Name in
Latin.


From Kishin'ev
Leov
Lipkany
Novoselitsa
Reni
Skulyani
Khotin


Postmark
type.


1 rr
1 Aa
1 Fa
SAr
1 Fr
1Ar
1 Ar


References:
1. The National Archives of the Republic of Moldova:
File Nos. 2, 3, 11, 24, 88, 134, 190, 195, 198, 199,202 & 305.
2. M.A. Dobin: "Postmarks of the Russian Empire: Pre-Adhesive Period", Standart
Collection, St. Petersburg, 1993.
3. H. Xanjnna (I. Khalippa): "Foponi KHumnHeB BpeMeHH XR3HH B-b HeM-h A.C. -IyIUKHHa
1820-1823", r. KmnHHneB,, 1899.
("The town of Kishiniv when A.S. Pushkin lived there in 1820-1823",
Kishinev, 1899).
4. The Files of the House and Museum ofAleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin in Kishinev.
*
Reproductions now follow hereunder of the various postal marks and they are followed by illustrations of
letters in the National Archives of the Republic of Moldova.

1. KHIIHHeB Kishinev


1.01
KHWUJHE3b 1 B AX
1 93 !ro
1.04



R:' '1. 0 !i83 ro,: *:.. '
1.07


KH WHEE? 3 APTrA

1.10




1.13


1.02


* i,344W HttE~h(9 ~~PAAS
Iflet. VOAA
1.05



1833 rod
1.08



I-.3R RB-39.::roXXA.
1.11

ijK~Ul1~iHEB'b: :!
O *trAA b 1841
1.14


K W.-E H EB. 3
1.03


KIL~U~JU1ES 2 14A I '
1831 ro A.
1.06


XIIUIUl14E It ItOA$
I a 3 6
1.09



&CEKA 1 8 4 1
1.12

iKtiIlrW~HE~b:i;

2 OK T 4A854
1.15


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK ( 46
June, 2000


Size
in mm.


59x5
18x5
33 x 3.5
35 x 5
26 x4
30 x 3.5
29.5 q 4.5


Years of
utilisation.

1860
1831
1843, 1848
1831
1821-1824
1821-1831
1822-1831











2. CKcyJIMHbI Skulyany


2.01.


.c 'y.i.qHVbL

S 2.02




2.05

c. Mt b.H bl
9PAAs 46 S4 20
2.08


C \ YA .s i: bl.:.
SA;scTA :'83t2Jro
2.03



2.06


1APA.17. .85
2.09


ars'1Ap.183?vroA
2.04

c- ie Y A ai H{ L
3 OCEHTA SPg jI8ti
2.07


2 .10 "
2.10


Sctya..Rqbx :
10 A.M .11
2.11


CKyAAH I.

" '' 1:"3233 : -'
S2.13 .

oKAy E RO-1
21 0 KTW. IS53
2.16





2.18


2.12

A J IOAY H O.
As ABFYC. 1IV, I
2.15






S7 8 5 1

2.17


L: 13PI 256
2.14


THE POST-RIDER/ZIMIUHK Ne 46
June, 2000






3. AlKepMaH Akkerman


3.01
AT AREPAHA"
4AKA9P A,. 1633


KK3.02
3.02


aKKepMaH Ornpas
4easpaAnil 18 0


AKKEPAMwb
AEKAtl s. 10183

3.03


4. Iejieij Beltsy


4.01


: .- .13'ro4.A..
4.04
So S;A6bt~I ECAP.
i4 MmAA 193T3 roi
4.07
|,O 6tAl btll ECAP.
f3 AsryC ISIS roA
4.10

4 EAb1Ub -
LIA.EKAsP 18464b3
4.13


S<

4.02
SlAWbUSI OrnABAFM.
.i llOHJ 1832j'OAA
4.05
no0 rbA LU1 6FCAD.
1i. ABrY I833ro
4.08


sEAbtblt
i6 oh;


AP
IE43 rO


4.11
~bidbL4l 6sLCCAPA 0
19 2ir0,r AA-.c'A I
4.14


4.03


no 616Aku QnPAWOAtti
1T AEKA6S t61roAA
4.06
--4LWl SE CAPAs60
ISEcrAA{ 1 f^ roA
4.09
/tbtAbl
-1 1 O 1rs rOA
4.12
6'tA l4bi 18Ss


4.15


5. BeiHepbI Bendery


- eCKAePb5
5.02


ISEHAr Pl
5 1 5.04
5.04


THE POST-RIDER/IAMIIIHK N 46
June, 2000


23-


5.01


6EM&E.
A 4eKASPA 1853ro.
5.03






6. H3MaiTI Izmail


6.01
iI: C3MAHA.
* II.MA1 M.1Sf.rOA.

6.02

113WIAI1.15
.2ccln-jnPR 183,7
6.05

W43MAMAAOT rPA
FAAiX 1853

6.08

3 ,3M a m A b
13 HOJGp5 1263
6.11


HtOPi 6 PA AH
6.03

43 L3M.4AiA1,

6.06 :



6.09


- ,3 A A i A A
-31\Ma(. isu33
6.04

H~i~iAK01 QnfPAS,

6.07

H3 KAA& oTnp
S AeK~a5pR 856rv
6.10


O'P: Bb HI3A14A: KAI:


ii I8'i ri


6.13


7. Karyji Kagul


*:KA TiYAAU 1,


7.03


8. OpreeB Orgeyev


OPtEBbb
4 PAd'b 1tI3roAA
8.01


8. ito 04
8.04


optCg
An 8.0
8.02


8.03EE(3

8.03


8.05
THE POST-RIDER/IIMMHK N 46
June, 2000


S


I1VAR 1-943


0 d'f- %C /-?1 1936







9. CopoKa Soroka


-C o p o K :EC9.

9.01


\5 4' E-PAA9' "lt "
9.02


10. XOTHH Khotin


10.01


10.04
XOTIt oif T
5. i o4. 1$%35.
10.05

no XoT 'i :
A1 HOAE 183 a?
10.08


10.11 -


10.02


.O- QTH 'orn
1& iAO.t:Y iS
10.06



10.09
x: o "Ir n H *
3 10fio p 168t5
10.12


10.03


no XOTK ":
5, cartT 3Ox
10.07

X OT iH
6 Most 1<
10.10

~... O-1T U 0 H.:
S EBP-1 1 S:
10.13


11. ATaKH Ataky


11.01


12. BoIrpaA Bolgrad



iEoe Anoonm : TA IP-l '


12.02 23
THE POST-RIDER/~MIIIHK N 46
June, 2000


Oqr0 PCIA"


12.01






13. Kiajin Kiliya


13.01


13.02


-13.03$
A13.03


KIxg(mc OTQPABAEH
S ~AF A6P13r0
13.04


14. Ky6eiH Kubey


wy6ew OmpagA::
22 ourKT6pR 858r0
14.01


15. JIeoBo Leovo


15.01
15.01


r rolbo 6ECAPA5V.'c:O".


15.02

AWEOBODECCAPA6CK.MA
1. ww ~lr 43rcA
15.05

0q14Uj, EHO

KCAPAH rrILI I TR


4AE0 306SC!ErAA A CJ Oil
A9 Al YC.TA 1843'OAA
15.03


15.04


1O 1U4;i;;~i;;. H C)':::


15.07


15.06


16. JIHIKaaHbI Lipkani


. THE POST-RIDER/1IMRIIK & 46
June, 2000


Ci c flM~I'kAHilb


1601


i









17. HoBocejlnua Novoselitsa






17.01



17.02


ITHoocl (1AM '
17 4EtB.-4-5.

17.03

1L:OBoCEUAlt iAg W15..

17.06


Ho scE A& .ul A

17.10


3'013 O OCEAL


17.04

CEITA6 A '18.39
17.07



27ICEH~ivsi855 1.1
17.11


467A.~ 4E R lr 19 A

17.05

flog 0 c E A V14A
4C- KA-Ci 19 1SqI.

17.08




17.12


]UbJCKAIC b nopmf2hObI
ofna
MCOBIUCa
OMrrh RO

17.13


18. PeHH Reni


18.01

Pclirbt tWiro AA

18.02

PEHEAv A orsproA"
C:: 18.5 : AH
18.05


:PE 13 H bl .i.83

18.03


THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHIK N 46
June, 2000


PeA4Lt &i
pait
okr. 10 IM4S
18.04






IHO'TOBLIe TpaKTrI

I3eccapa6cKoii o6JacTH B 1852 r.

Postal Routes of the Province of Bessarabia in 1852.


o; .IY6occapu


-- rpaHHra TepplTopHH,
oTromeemaa K MonAaBcKOMy
KHHaKeCTBy no IapaHccKoMy
MHpHOMy AoroBOpy Mexay
SPoccHei H Typimefi B 1856 r.


-- shows the border of the territory which went to the Principality of Moldavia
in accordance the Peace Treaty of Paris between Russia and Turkey in 1856.


THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIK N 46
June, 2000





























CoxpaHBiueecg B KxI~n eBe sgaH;ie no-TOBOk KxOHTOpuI no
yJI. 3ojioTOf (HIHe yajiZIia AJIzecaxHpy lejin EB ) ,
B KOTOOpox paMei-,ajaci no-TOBsas KIOHTopa B 1822 rogy.
The building in Kishinev on Zolotaya street (now: strada "Alexandru eel Bun"), in
which the post office was located in 1822.
Frr ~ 1 11 SESSMl-~w


CoxpaHMBnue ecF noMemieHia normOBnok xOHTopm
B K;nC eBe no yj. KojiyMHa,
B iOTOopW pasmenraJIac. IxoHTopa c 1822 roga.

The subsequent buildings in Kishinev on Kolumna street, where
the post office was situated later in 1822.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIlHK Ne 46
June, 2000

















































ITovroaoe ornpaaneYisse ws Azxep KCxoX ro-OpogCxo* nazonxnjsw
a xK.mMrea or 3 mowxs 1819 roga
c xc=O.nosonaaKmew mxW ona <

Postal sending of 3 June 1819 O.S. from the Akkerman Town Police to Kishinev,
bearing the negative "AKKEPMAHTb marking.



30 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK N2 46
June, 2000








gx-:- -1.


U.


?~ :i! -.

T: ~ U i.'


*r /:




:





''r .:




r .., -I', 1 ~-;


Ac .


ITIorosoe o lnpaIrerHae s OKEHTI B aEmrarGeaN
o, ,asR3aps 1820 roa c o06Me eo .APA~HTHIE ZEHBAPR 9 >> noZnucesZ xap ansfmJ~aoo v uoaroxxia.

Postal sending from Oknitsa in January 1820 to Kishinev with the notation "Cleansed in the
Bolboka Quarantine Point January 9" O.S. and the signature of the Quarantine official.

THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIHK Nk 46
June, 2000






















































ITov'oaoe oanpasmjrexa e vs ropoai Eej.map
oO 13 ans aps 1820 roxa.
HassaRxe novr osoBo0 cranrZ qrn anxcaRo os pyxr.

Postal sending from the town of Bel'tsy 13 January 1820 O.S., with the name
of the postal station in manuscript.



32 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N 46
June, 2000













i "4 I" +': ...^ ; -S -
* i K. o .-. i




-..' .- 0..'.: .- :' *. : ... '. ".




.. ., '. -.
it







. ..-.. ., .. *, .^
7,j












-' ^:. K^^!." ;*-." *-'" ,: -" : '... '


5," .'




.4. ...;.. : .- *



.,aI. ,n 5-
-.".-

i .






































June, 2000
.-;+ June, 20. -,



a o: o onare~ o 3 ., I9.0Ioa
Apliato oftepstlmring "eabb",konfmJue12
fo e's nasedn ae ecme 80OS

TEPS-RIE/MII ~ 63
;fT~~.:.~ :f~ Jun,-' 2000 /






















*/V


*. S. )L i


Q&


-^/ ;..^9 9?.
0- d t


Tovro /'soe o/rnpa/. e .1820 zro.a ms OFU ~f M -.B c
EKABPR 3-ro I K 12 JACCA CB CTY B>


















Postal sending of 1820 from Oknitsa to Kishinev with the notations "Needed" and "Cleansed
at the Vendenchanskii Outpost, December 3 [O.S.], Official of the 12th. Class, Sstunov.
r*-.-. __..







ITovroaoe osnpasjXer se .1820 zToja js OKHJ^HbI s KICSUSHEB c
o estaQsXSS 0 Hy!KHOM js (OYJ^EHO BE f0 y0HCKO 3BCTBBE ,
nEKEPR 3-ro ViHOBHSRK 12 FIA7CC& CBHCTYHOB

Postal sending of 1820 from Oknitsa to Kishin'ev with the notations "Needed" and "Cleansed
at the Vendenchanskii Outpost, December 3 [O.S.], Official of the 12th. Class, Svistunov".


THE POST-RIDER/HMIMHK N2 46
June, 2000


i II


,'


11':---. t
;-- i
''i~
:
i


~2-~3 27~-r337~r













..
''"' "'
''' '/. ~
': ~b~
,
.' 4
t



F' ..
pr


KY 22 rr '


:~

$i~55--" 3


7,77-1


Cc& .Lc7a4t$7


/


fcnoa,,3 asoalxe neov-oazoro aseznej= &sEC. OEJI. r. Po&H.
novaoaorZo orgerenAinx ropoga Peaj nar novosoOM
o'npazsexxx Ns! PeRrAxMc~.cr!o nopsoaBo0 KapaaxrafHof 2CoNTop3z
a JIranicaryio rapa.2'Mnr ylo sacfraBy c yiasa.arfeM novsosozro
Mapmpyra: <
Letter No. 780, bearing the postal marking "6ec'o6jnrpeHH" from the Reni Port Quarantine on
29 April 1821 O.S., endorsed "via Khotin to Lipkany" to the Quarantine Point there.


THE POST-RIDER/j1MIUHK N 46 35
June, 2000


I


> .**


;....


GclzzZTt
.


I,~c~
----


s























































fflcaMo AiJexcazH pa Cepreeearva 17Jtymz a
WeaTpaJnnHOMy Xpj2r'TKy 1. H. Tojncxomy,
oTnpaBinernoe zs- KumjT neBa 27 cenTmw ps 1822 rozra z
oepadoTanHoe novTroBsed lTemenejeM Letter written by the greatest Russian poet Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin
to the theatre critic Ya. N. Tolstoi, sent from Kishirinv 27 September 1822
O.S. to St. Petersburg and struck with the "KHIILEHEBb" postal marking.
36 THE POST-RIDER/RMIlHKM N 46
June, 2000






























I/
I Y)9~cO.A4c 1/ CA~ia264


01'n~1!~42a~


/'5 ,
'C "-e
~~~J~, *Q.isp
~' ~r
3""


'9.


MCnojnJsoma3fne novwosoBro U12ZeGJTiS <<3MNAX>
Ha ownpasjsezo or 8 waax 1824 roxa.

Application of the "uamaun-b" postal marking on a sending
from Izmail 8 May 1824 O.S. to Kaushany.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMmIIK N2 46
June, 2000


I- I


-------- -----




LL~MC~L/Z~
















1
i
i
i
.4


/ v VVA


46 -


1 dr/


//7
(Iy
^/^ y^^^y

S/ t\. / f

'.^ -^a ce/^ f


C3/ .X//







A-4


Ih


Inovwos oe owipawJrexae, odpadozranaoe novooazaM
x'0Meb7eJreM
Postal sending, struck with the "KHJII5I" postal marking from Kiliya
29 November 1824 O.S. to the Bessarabian Office of Foreign Settlers.
38 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK 46
June, 2000


I"~


(Q~Y7)


r
























.. . ...- -, .

.. "< *"'.**." j .' ^.-



: . ., -:- .,...- ," .. ... .. .... ".. "








ow 3 gpepajra 1826 rogoa
c Isagnscxz vepes XoFAM a JIsnraami


A postal sending from Akkerman 3 February 1826 to Lipkany
and with the notation "via Khotin to Lipkany".



THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIIHK N 46 39
June, 2000







-," F" "..-." "


.' ... ... .







.4.-- ^,; ** ; "




t* "... -. ^"-.-















-7~
^. : ..' ..-5 : .: .. 5r. ,*.
.:.,,..:. .5' ... ^ :'. .- .. :.. .




... .. ... -

W`( -l .. ,
4-1























ITovWomo0 oR2'7pAMfGRMse, odpadoWaRROoe rlovflo'sw OM eNce.ZQGM
.' JI-- os? 15 o. azdps 1827 .ro.a


Postal sending, struck with the erroneous "KNJIII postal marking and sent
on 15 October 1827 O.S. from Kiliya to Kaushany.


40 THE POST-RIDERI[M]IMHK X 46
June,2000
.k.:.;-; J. .'" ...... .. ,.
;itr r .

































Postal- sednsrc ihteernos"N..I~otl mrin ndsn
on~ 15Otbr12 OS rmKlyat asay

40~~ ~ TH PS-RDPaMIHK _o
Jue 20
















A).r? r, :, *.
';. .








S-- t .-
: ..- -i. ..








^^FtE.,,^ 2 > _. ,,-.-- ..
: "---":--'--"~ -. -"-...- -"-"'-- :-- '.-.

.,, v'r z, ..... .i 2 Y, -z...... .....2 .






'.. .. : i "



B. .... .,, .c yx .aa.Hl ... .. ,.. OB oc M .I.y ;















eAIMBE-ITOflCU2B' 1828 OKT. 24 ;sXO





Postal sending with the marking at top of Kamenets-Podol'skii 24 October 1828
O.S. in Podoliya province, a further "xomu,-b marking for Khotin at upper
left and endorsed "Via Novoselitsa to the Quarantine Point at Lipkany".





THE POST-RIDER/RMIRIMK N2 46 41
June,2000
'""/ "/ G ''" '""" """' ;
irii-: ..,,., .
.|, o. O
.... .. i, ..., ... .. ...
i, '- -" ," ,, " .-. .






'-- ; "; & "" .. '' ,
,r~ : .n- I n. ':.' n : n n h f N .
-- t'.' .. ,, -- L -
", ":' "" ,_ ."- 'I ,-. -. _.. .




I;:y~~ 15 J;.1n;a-a 2 Hoxpx182 -a


Potlsnigwt h akn ttpo aeesPdlsi 4Otbr12
O..in- Pooly provnce a furher xom -rt" aringfrKoinape
lef an enorsd "ia ovoelisa o te Qaratin Pont t Lpkay"


"H POST::-RII)Vca-U o 4 4
June 200












6.*-


..' .
." ,,








$8*' .?" ". *. "
*. *

i
i











i ,\ /r. '.'" *


,, .
"$ /1^ : ":
'* '' .. ":
-.' *. *

~.

i ".. .


;0



.6~)"~"


170oosoe ornpaBTreoHze as ropoga TY:'4OB
{o6pa6o~aanoe sWemneJIeM a Seccapacdxyio NRonropy ; xocepaN~issL noceNeUBze,
naxozWsznyioca sa nc~revre KAY1HAiR-.
AocLra Ba xoppenoHneHZiUs x B KayZaraR s ocylecaBJnsjacZ
vepes novToBoe o.rneJrena e ropoga EE=EPMI c
coo~se'crsBy20re perjcepaquee OTarer'ror
novTroalba m1reMnelreM <


Postal sending from the town of Tuchkov (Izmail), being struck with the "u3.uarun -"
marking of 14 January 1829 O.S. and sent to the Bessarabian Office of Foreign
Settlers in the hamlet of Kaushany. The delivery of mail to Kaushany was
performed via the post office at Bendery, as noted by the marking at bottom.




THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIHK 3' 46
June, 2000


9f


.1c


-i d


--


c.4-3Ur)G' Ae PI




1 1 1 1


Ms zrepenmrcxx dpar.ea Pamar,
B zgoMe KoTOpswu qacro 6drBan A.C..IyrncaH.
IlTcbaMo rpavopma PaJRaj o~npazjneraoe xs3 KEamresa
4 ceznrrsap 1829 rogra s odpadowaFn oe novossMw
reMwrreiJewM K>


An item from the mail of the Ralli Brothers, in whose home A.S. Pushkin
was often present. This is a letter from Grigorii Ralli, sent
from Kishin'ev on 4 September 1829 O.S.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIUIHK N. 46
June, 2000


2Hin







I V
,. >J


%~6r


~6g~


~~6-~


VHO AVUM-C f.


ITovrosoe oazpaasfreKne Ka HomoceJniar, oSpad6oea.,roe
novrozasa nreaaeJnew M cHOBOCEMSJMf 13 anpej.z 1831' r'oga

Postal sending with the "HOBocejnu'a" marking from Novoselitsa
13 April 1831 O.S. to Kishinfv.

44 THE POST-RIDER/DIMIIHK NJ 46
June, 2000


EIBr


.,i


4Z25

















\ t-
,






























-apawI ra r*aan a r:pea
S1831 -a.
S. r .' o




Postal sending ma g fr S, st to te

























Point at Lipkany. Delivered via Khotin and Novoselitsa with a handwritten
.
. .. .... . ... ,... ,....,.- ..




















."h :'-- .-.- -













xaipau ayio Sacasy, ,ocsax.RJuneoe 20epe00
Xosiss-HomoceJissTy c OSMeSXO7 n0ov0oso01 c'anzU47 Xosjs4s
os 5 xiam 1831 zvoya.

Postal sending with the "CKYlItIHbI" marking for Skulyany, sent to the Quarantine
Point at Lipkany. Delivered via Khotin and Novoselitsa, with a handwritten
notation of the Khotin post office, dated 5 June 1831 0.S.
THE POST-RIDER/SMIIIHK I_ 46 45
June, 2000



















'' I ) ,:...: ...-..,






*1,-* .....


'i4:. ;:5 ..
'(1*1 drn~'v r.


'eC llS


3 ''. -


1.r







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Lrl


t. a
,v.C


**,., I *,.


ITovTosoe oTnpaaZenae XSj ropora Xo.mra.
HassaRa e nov~osof cTsauaz.nn Bncano ow pyxsx.



Letter No. 2824 of 11 June 1831 O.S. with the name of the despatching office
in manuscript, from Khotin to Tarutinsk (Tarutino).




THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK N2 46
June, 2000


I -


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*y


LC~/L~Tr~-;T/lr: I-M

















.. .:'
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nflo oBoe oTnpaBzeHxe xm zxoOzoHxx So rpag,
o6pa6oTaHHoe noTOm~b zmeame ex <>
OT 19 moHn 1831 roa

Postal sending from the colony of Bolgrad to Kishinev and struck with
the "BOJIrPaI'b" marking on 19 June 1831 O.S.

THE POST-RIDER/MIIIHK N2 46
June, 2000


' EO'Oi^0At


:;


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il I 0 ,I I











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.S. and addressed to Kaushany.
I
', (- I -"'









*'* *A'a ,







clcnJ7 ~om s ane nofomrozo o x eez MGecm'evBa JTEOBO
13 aCzyc'a 1831 zo a


Application of the "JIEOB'b" marking of the hamlet ofLeovo 13 August 1831
O.S. and addressed to Kaushany.

48 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIII4K N_ 46
June, 2000






















it,4a


I.

I.


S..o



.



r^-
t-\
4.
o


Tfov~omoe ownpafrenZi e As XoiMra B JIziSazIsl
ow 6 ce ajrdpz 1831 zroaa c pyvaof owmewrCok novasoBoi
cmaznraw HoBocejrnti <<4 HOBO..


Postal sending with the "xomuin-b" marking for Khotin 6 September
1831 O.S., sent to Lipkany and with a handwritten notation "4 HOBO"
of the post office at Novoselitsa.


THE POST-RIDER/5MIIIHK MN 46
June, 2000


""


G//

I,


I__













/- I


~,


.- + -- <- .,
.' -' .', .* .' *- -" ,+ .9 +
^^-*^*^c"^ F-.
\. ; re.'rA --"*v -^


ITovwoaoe ornpatrerxxe "d s uMcevawna Cryrxazz.
odpadoxarrnoe novronsiM arewerreM
<> ow 25 cewszdpz 1831 roga.
Postal sending from the hamlet at Skulyany to Lipkany and provided with
the "CKYJIYIHbI" marking of 25 September 1831 O.S.

50 THE POST-RIDER/MIIUHK N 46
June, 2000


~ii~3

~5~,




~*E9-~~



















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-.'


Icnnonssonanre novrosoroo nrTemnejiz <>

na noro0 BOM oTnpasBjTel3dx oT 26 assaps 1832 roga.

Ha n.Ic-iMe yr.a5anH ~ apmpyT xocra if <
MECTEUKO KAyMFVAHIh3

Application of the "KHIIEHEBb" marking on a postal sending from

Kishin'ev 26 January 1832 O.S. The route to be followed is marked

on the letter: "Via Bendery to the hamlet of Kaushany".


THE POST-RIDER/HM1IIHiK N2 46

June, 2000


I .
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;
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-

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:
: 'li' .C"
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r
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~-~ .. j~l).i~. i-i:: _~r.: '' -""' '.. "'. i i;.i
:-r:.~t;c~ //q C-~ i. 1
'.
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i t:
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aB M IrHE I 1E I ZA
,Ii3e~roz A


Tnomoaoe ownpasJeHxe na KInmrHeBa c xcnoJ ~onaHxex

fyxc'WpovHorzo zremnezts 1832 rzoga

c aponyc~ox 6y < <

> a cazoae >

x 6ycmi <





Postal sending from Kishinev 1 February 1832 O.S. to the Skulyany Quarantine

Office, with missing Russian letters E, P & J in the Kishin'v postmark.





THE POST-RIDER/IIMIlIIK Nq 46
June, 2000


/


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x <

Postal sending from Skulyany February 15 1832 O.S. (uppermost
two-line marking) and via Novoselitsa 17 February 1832 O.S.
/























(two-line marking beneath) to the Lipkany Quarantine Point.





June, 2000
June, 2000


I II r


















S c : '1 "
MA-PTA 18.35


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J. 4Z


a


ro6vwos oe o'npaazQSVeze =k CxyJnzz a JIamxaaz
odpadoaRKnae novaoan=r M&reamearzewma
<
a < Postal sending from Skulyany February 29 1832 O.S.(two-line marking at
upper right), via Novoselitsa 1 March 1832 O.S.(marking
54 touched up at top centre) to the Lipkany Quarantine Point.
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIllIK N2 46
June, 2000


- II I I


I


a7 I -"-D
to, /60H,6fw4


;~t;A-,'~A~LL r


- *-s. *












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. Ab.bl OTfPA.lPAIS.f.

U-'2jj 1I


- -** C -.~
. .


-12


~j4z AwV


Hccnon0j.osanxe ,sayxcTpovnoro mes Weia

EiSJlZlS OTPnABJIE H. 25 .1 OHE 1832 rOpA>



Application of the two-line postal marking "Bel'tsy despatched /
25 June 1832" O.S. on a letter to the Skulyany Quarantine Office.




THE POST-RIDER/RHMIIK N_ 46
June, 2000


..
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ITovrosoe or'npaaBJirer o s OiECCUI B JIlnraHcrymo
IrapaHnRxfr Hyi o aacTaay Beccapadc~o~i' or6acOrx,
otpadorannioe .Bsyxc'povRnMw dJ =r Anejzcr n :
. 3 cens~ap.2 1832 ro;aa,
<< YBOCCAPI>>4 ceHnv 6pz 1832 roa
I <> 9 ceKsxzpz 1832 roga.


Postal sending from Odessa to the Lipkany Quarantine Point in Bessarabia
and bearing the two-line markings of Odessa 3 September 1832
(bottom left), Dubossary 4 September 1832 (lower centre) and Novoselitsa
9 September 1832 O.S. (bottom centre).



56 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIUIHK M 46
June, 2000


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4 ) .: \.I ;





.-z /v / -
I: .. VI I. .*1**1*:*4'***


LJI, `: g
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'1~1' I'~fCl'il: '' i
:i:
Ik;iEiLlL,1. 101tF38~' 'I "
t t
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JC.





~,Cka


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:"'-~s,
.-" C
-~
:


r1ov~ozoe ornpaaJTenxe ms Arrepaxaa

ae'nexen <

odpadosalnoe

101832>


Postal sending from Akkerman to the Bessarabian Office of Foreign Settlers and

bearing the two-line marking: "AKKERMAN / DECEMBER. 181832" O.S.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIHIK N 46
June, 2000


. -


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--


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/-)-


7J
6?.


'b()Af PA ilT'C


e~ Cf~%


noaToooe noTpaz eHxe oT Yapasfasnomer o 3ayHaIWdc~oa
nepecejeHnatm xa KOJoOHIx SBorpag,
o6pa6SoaHHoe meTnemne.neM OJlrPAA nOYT:CTAH.>
OT 25 Mas 1834 roga.
Postal sending from the colony of Bolgrad, bearing the boxed marking
"BOJITPAn'rIOMT:CTAH:", dated 25 May 1834 O.S. and
sent to the Director of Settlers beyond the Danube at the
Bessarabian Government Offices in Kishinev.
THE POST-RIDER/HMIJIHK N 46
June, 2000


~


,a.,. ',' *













SII3AA IIArO LCA O' .

rPA.lAOlrAiIASJLHRKA. p -^ ^. .-,- -r


---- t--rbO
]To IIACTu



: Cmno .-." -
70
y^-^^^ -4


it o.y e


--)





_' / ,)
., -, "- .7
'c? /' A '
^~~~~ ~~ ~ u- ^ ^ -? .- -^><^^-t^^-^
^(:y'r
"> /' 'd ^-


FNCCNN nrfln-IZIC f lfff f*


r. Y i. t- o .


7 '" "' -")- A-Z'J -9 "



/















A communication dated 27 November 1834 O.S. from Lieutenant-General Sergei Alekseevich
Tuchkov, the Town Governor of Izmail, to the Civilian Governor of Bessarabia, P.I. Fedorov.
Tuchkov, the Town Governor of Izmail, to the Civilian Governor of Bessarabia, P.I. Fedorov.


CooCerae z'enQepa&-~ne7i eLeaaRL!a,
HsMawaCcXrcoz'o zparoHavaJanmaca
Cepz ez ARiexceeoJrva TYTKOBA
Beccapad6cxoMy rparcancoCMy rydepnamopy IT.M. Segopozy
os 27 Hoz6pa 1834 rora.

THE POST-RIDER/HMIUMK Ns 46
June, 2000

















O~~r~u fOI44


~X ?YL5(/& iYr~

S.p


Z1

i~i- -- .-.; I; -
-o


g14 / U-


.W







Postal sending from Chernigov to the Lipkany Quarantine Point, where a note
Swas added: "To Wallachia to Craiova" and amended to: "To the
Bessarabian province to Skulyany". Only after getting to Skulyany
did the letter go correctly to the Novoselitsa post office,
which added at upper left the two-line marking, reading
"NOVOSELITSA 1835 / OTPR. APRIL 12" O.S.


ITovsosoe o'npazBneKise ws epaiaroBa B JlxZnasns.
Ha roK epwe ow9ewmS nouWO nZr padornmoM onpene&rJmMMx
MeCSonaxotrgeMHJ MaecSQevra JILZnCasI
.
ToJaZxo noc.re CxyVJrza nov7osoe ownpaZnje~J e y.mno B 2syXrOM
nanpepajnexHJa c owMe'XOM nfovrroBoo crasrI KU HoBocejnazz~
<

THE POST-RIDER/H1MIIHK Ng 46
June, 2000


II ---~


il|


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p


^'^f/^^ -^> r-^^

loori




07 Z' ka -. Y '" 7!


nIovrosoe ornpaairejW e s3 XoMsxa
of 18 avaycra 1835 'o.a
c yxasalreSM Wapmrpywa ;ocsaaMA <
Postal sending with a two-line marking, reading: "KHOTIN OTPR. /
18. AVGU 1835" O.S. and sent to the Lipkany Quarantine Point
with the notation: "via Novoselitsa".


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIm(K N 46
June, 2000


~Mwlcx,



/%;~,~J~~


00;00;z

















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n J'
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c~~s~a;3c,,~ JpCc;(rL


4~-s~*~ 5


-I 4j:tccc~~3~ F'
V~cu


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a.


ITov~sooe ownparaeree Ass Aeeps awa odpadoaasRoe
xAyxc'povamuw z reanereae 7 gerxadp 1835 zroga
c axznmcusso < ropog EXXmXmesB

A Report from the Akkerman Rural Court to the Official Commission
for Settlers in Kishin'v and bearing a boxed two-line marking,
reading "AKKERMAN / DECEMBER 7 1835" O.S.

62 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK NM 46
June, 2000


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qsyxcepovassati novwossmi aroeiQae.'b XooRmra
nzosaoj;n9 r manz7rsacsa pezTrc'paz.n onsRm& r Hnoep novmoisoro
ornpaa.fReazM nocure 6yr



Letter bearing the boxed two-line marking: "PO '2' KHOTIN /
1 NOV. 1839" O.S., with the registration number '2' added
by hand. Addressed to the Skulyany Quarantine Point.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIUMHK 2 46
June, 2000


II -r lip













I


HcnoAb3oeanue normosozo mmeMneaj: "C JIHHKAHLI"na
noqmo6bex omnpaejaenuax om 26 Mapma 1843
(naeepxy) u 3 beKa6pa 1848 zoba (6nu3y).

Application of the single-line "C JIHTIKAHbI" (Lipkany) marking on postal
sending of 26 March 1843 (above) and 3 December 1848 O.S. (below).


te^. : ...:- ... -'--.^--^ ^ ..
..4.

*-' ,;"'- '"; .' :, " i .-
V t

.": "- ... .: -. -- ,I ,'

iiiW



THE POST-RIDER/RMIHK Nq 46
June,2000


e> C













-7


--- IW-firryrp~llplWI~B11~IPDII


o~~




















c K y n 1bL
CL]HTnrIT 18413,


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r 5
'r
i~
;n,~
i-

c-


Mcnon1JZToBaRme n7ovcoaoZ'O zXeWAeM ZJ CZIyJzEz
8 co~wadpa 1843 rozga
c omadxawf x ad6ope dyc B CJIOBQe < z nJepeaepfyroxo qn' pof <<8>.



Letter from Skulyany with a boxed two-line marking: "CKYJISIHbI /
CbIHT5IBPA 8 1834" O.S. (September mispelt and with inverted
day '8'), addressed to the Lipkany Quarantine Point.



THE POST-RIDER/sIMIIHK Ne 46
June, 2000


III


I


1 1


C~/~u/2/l~a~;Lce~


~es ~-


~3~clP~uMa
;:JL~;


c-~a/~o





THE FIRST ISSUE OF STAMPS
OF THE KOTELNICH COUNTY

by Larisa Petrovna Ryl'kova.
(Larisa Petrovna Ryl'kova is a graduate of the Faculty of History of Leningrad State
University and the Directress of the Investigative Section for Postage Stamps at the
A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications, Russia 190000, St. Petersburg,
Pochtamtskaya ul. 7. She specialises in the history of the Russian Posts and in
Zemstvos. She has acted as a philatelic consultant at exhibitions of various
categories and has published articles in the magazine "<'EnaTejinH" since 1979).

The first issues of stamps of the Kotelnich Zemstvo in the Vyatka province have always been shrouded in
mystery. Stamps with coupons were utilised there in 1869-1870, which served as receipts for the
prepayment of mail. Upon affixing a stamp on a letter, the coupon was cut off, inserting the number, day,
month and year, as well as the signature of the acceptor. All these data were inscribed in postal books or
ledgers, thus permitting one to trace the route of the letter to the destination and the number of the
incoming mail was also recorded in a book.





18 toai -


i I 3U 1) IFig. 2.

[L ; "r I


The interest in Kotelnich became more intense as the stamp on yellow paper (No. 2 according to the
Schmidt and Chuchin catalogues) has turned out to be one of the rarest stamps in the world, even more so
than the famous 1 cent of British Guiana of 1856. A complete copy of this Kotelnich stamp has never been
found and only one half is known, being the coupon with registration number 1066 and the date of 10
December 1870. The design of stamp No. 2 is analogous to that for the stamp on grey-blue paper (No. 1
according to the Schmidt and Chuchin catalogues; see Fig. 1 above). According to the information in these
catalogues, that stamp was issued on 22 June 1869. There is a warning note in the philatelic literature that
stamp No. 1 is "supposedly a proof'. However, more concrete testimony to support that version has not
come to light so far. This stamp denotes a debt or postage due. It was not sold to the public and was held at
the disposal of the Zemstvo Administration to be affixed to letters arriving from the Imperial Postal Service
for onward transmission by the Zemstvo Postal Service within the county. The accounting of these stamps
was performed in the registration ledger of the Zemstvo Administration.

The stamp of the following issue in 1870 on bright orange paper (No. 3 according to the Schmidt and
Chuchin catalogues) differs somewhat in design, but again has a coupon and also denotes a debt (Fig. 2
above). Stamps of this issue are not rare and are even known in sheets of 1 x 4 (four types).

A stamp in the same design as the "orange" one is in the holdings of the State Collection of Postage Stamps
of the A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications in St. Petersburg, but on thick yellow paper ,type 3,

66 THE POST-RIDER/fMIIIHK N2 46
June, 2000






in the form of the coupon cut off (see Fig. 3 on the previous page). It was obviously taken off an envelope,
which is confirmed by the damaged gum on the back and the registration number "2", inserted in ink on the
right side. The stamps of the Kotelnich county had a printed space for the number only on the coupon,
which was duplicated on the stamp in any free space after it was affixed to the letter. When the Zemstvo
Collection of the Museum was put together in the 1930s, this stamp was designated as a proof of stamp No.
3 in the album of Zemstvo stamps of Kotelnich, for the simple reason that the issue on yellow paper
was not noted in any of the known Zemstvo catalogues.

It is still not in any of the catalogues even now; even worse, it is not known to collectors. The yellow
colour of the stamp led to the thought in the mind of the authoress of these lines that: rather than being a
"proof", could this not have been'a postage due stamp of the 1870 issue? Even the known and rare "half'
of the postage due stamp was also on yellow paper. We should remember that postage due stamps were
issued in a series of counties with the same face value as the ordinary stamps, but differing from them in
colour. For example, in the county of Bogorodsk, they were red instead of blue and designated for the
transmission of letters within the county. Unfortunately, the Chuchin catalogue does not show the
differences in the designations of the stamps, unless there is on them a specific text with the designation
"ConIroBaa" or "onna'eHHai". In the search for data about the postage due stamps, I have consulted
several foreign catalogues of the last couple of centuries and I found information about the colour of
postage due stamps in the Belgian catalogue of Moens for 1893. For the Kotelnich county, they were
actually yellow up to 1873. My supposition therefore turned out to be correct.

A natural deduction then followed to the contrary, that the "orange" stamps in this same design could not
be for postage due, but must have been ordinary postage stamps for intracounty transmission and with the
designation of "oninaqeHHaa". And, indeed, the Stanley Gibbons catalogue (London, 1881), in
distinguishing between ordinary and postage due stamps, does not refer to the "orange" stamps as postage
dues. Even more importantly, Gibbons regarded the "orange" stamps as the first issue, dating from 22 June
1869. They are also referred to as the first issue in the Catalogue-Handbook of the Zemstvo Stamps of
Russia by Hugo L'bkert (Vienna, 1882).

Hence, in postulating the insertion in the catalogue of a hitherto unknown stamp in yellow, which has been
discovered in the holdings of the State Collection, we have made it possible to define more precisely the
designation and numbering of stamps of the first issues of the Kotelnich county.

In searching for the truth and because of the impossibility of turning to the archives of the Kotelnich
Zemstvo Administration, I also dug into the study of materials, published at various times by Zemstvo
investigators in the Russian philatelic, periodical literature. The results exceeded expectations and
confirmed my conjectures. Even better, a like-minded person was found, the noted investigator and
Zemstvo collector D. Kuznetsov of Tula, who was one of the regular authors of articles about the history of
Zemstvo stamps in the journal "
In the article "First Issues of the Stamps of the Kotelnich County" ("DiunaTenaw CCCP", No. 7 for 1976),
D. Kuznetsov presents archive documents, namely "The Proceedings of the Kotelnich Zemstvo Assembly
for 1869-1870" which, in my view, make everything clear. With the expression of deep thanks to D.
Kuznetsov, I am now quoting these important lines:-
The Kotelnich Zemstvo Administration has reported to the Zemstvo Assembly at the IVth. Special Session
of 1870 that "the Zemstvo Postal Service has already been established according to the instructions of the
IInd. Special County Assembly on 22 June 1869 with the utilisation of Zemstvo postage stamps...of two
kinds: some on red and others on yellow paper..."(underlined by me L.R.).

It would be appropriate to set out here the stated rules in the documents of the Zemstvo Administration for
the utilisation of these stamps:-
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHKM 46 67
June, 2000






"Stamps on red paper:
- They serve for the payment in sending letters between the inhabitants ofthe County and they are on
open sale for money in cash at the post offices of the Service and at District Administrations.
- The Registrar of the Service and one of the members or the scribe in the District Administration, upon
receiving the letter for despatch in the Zemstvo Postal Service, will hand over to the sender 'a receipt
cut off from the stamp and insert on it the running number and price of the stamp, time of receipt
and the surname'.
- The letters paid with the red stamps are to be handed over to the recipients without charge.
- The Zemstvo Service will send to each of the 25 District Administrations '15 sheets or 60 stamps'
on red paper ".

Upon reading this document, there can be no doubt that "the first stamps of the Kotelnich County were
the "prepaid"(onnaaennHble) stamps on orange paper, which the Zemstvo Service called the stamps on
the "red paper". Namely, they were the ones printed in four units on the sheet and sent in the quantity of
"15 sheets or 60 stamps" to the District Administrations (BonocTHbie npaBJemia).

The other stamps on yellow paper, which are also mentioned in the document and probably all of that same
design, were postage due stamps of thefirst issue.

It is stated in the document that the stamps on yellow paper:
"- will serve for application on letters, arriving at the Zemstvo from the Imperial Postal Service for
onward transmission by the Zemstvo Service.
are not to be sold to the public and are to be disbursed by the Registrar on credit to the 'account
of the District Administrations until they collect the money from the recipients of the letters' ".

Thus, the unique copy of the stamp on yellow paper, held by the Museum as a separated receipt-coupon is a
postage-due stamp of the first issue, going into circulation on 22 June 1869 simultaneously with the
"prepaid" stamps of bright orange colour. Their place in the catalogue should be asfollows:-
No. 1: dark orange and No. 2: yellow.

The issue of these stamps in 1869, as already noted by the investigator D. Kuznetsov, is confirmed by the
identical figures on the coupons of the stamps for the first three numbers (according to Schmidt), as well as
by the reference in the date of the two figures "18...", in contrast to the issues of 1870, where the year is
designated in three figures "187.." and the font changed from inclined to upright.

Regarding the issue of stamps on grey-blue and yellow papers in 1869 (listed as Nos. 1 & 2 in the Schmidt
and Chuchin catalogues), only one thing can be said about them: the postal circulation of these stamps in
1869-1870 is not confirmed by the documents of the Kotelnich Zemstvo Postal Service. That is yet another
unresolved secret of the postal issues of Kotelnich. The absence of gum on the grey-blue stamp does not
exclude the probability that this is a proof, prepared in 1869. While there is gum on the "orange" stamps, it
has not been sighted on the coupon, but that is not significant. The "finding' in the Museum of the yellow
stamp also has gum.

The registration number 1066 on the coupon of the yellow stamp held by the Museum shows that, in the
eighteen-month period from June 1869 to December 1870, more than one thousand copies were used up for
the payment of letters, proceeding from the Imperial Postal Service to the County. Unfortunately, the
numbers printed for the first issue are not known. It is fully possible that, for such a new venture, they were
restricted by the amount that was distributed from the County to the District Administrations. Going by the
fact that 1500 copies of the "prepaid" stamps were sent to the District Administrations and that some of
them remained unused, even in sheets, the mail between the inhabitants of the County was apparently not
68 THE POST-R[DER/IHMIIIK N 46
June, 2000






frequent. The utilisation of the postage due stamps was more intensive and required an amount of stamps
more than double that for the ordinary ones (a payment of 6 kopeks was levied for a letter delivered from
the Imperial Postal Service and that corresponded to two copies of the postage due stamps). This shortage
of postage due stamps led either to supplementary printings or to the utilisation of those stamps which were
on hand at the Zemstvo Administration and mainly consisting of printer's proofs.

It is fully possible to postulate the probability that the rare "separated coupon"of Kotelnich held by
the Museum is a proof, which went through the mails eighteen months after its issue, when there arose a
shortage of the postage due stamps. Of course, this is only a version which requires proofs and that means
further searches and investigations. That also applies to new investigations of the subsequent
"inexplicable" issues of stamps of the Kotelnich County during the 1870s.

SPECIAL NOTE:
The world-famous Hermitage Museum now has a wonderful Web Site!
Two years ago, the IBM Corporation gave the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg a technological grant
of US$ 2 millions to develop the site at www.hermitagemuseum.org, which has been on line since the
beginning of 2000. The Digital Library Data Base now has around 3000 high-resolution images in colour
and it will eventually display all three million objects in the Museum Collections.

There are two explanatory programmes in Russian or English and 12 different categories, including
paintings, drawings, prints and other art, armourial and arms pieces, etc. etc. The Java-based site is an
outstanding research tool and allows viewers to look for an item, not only by creator or name, but also by
shape and colour, by clicking on the "Query by Image Content" icon. One can also enlarge any portion of
the piece being examined. There is an extensive glossary of the artistic and technical terms used and this is
the next best thing to being present in person. It more than makes up for the mere one hour given our
tourist group to cover the entire Hermitage Museum back in 1978!
SStanleyGibbons


!88 RUSSIA
This long-awaited 5th edition, the first since 1991, now brings together all the new independent states
of the former U.S.S.R. Separate listings are now included for Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia,
Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan as
well as the pre-independence Russia issues, and those of Mongolia.
O Over 7,000 illustrations, accurate descriptions and Stanley Gibbons catalogue numbers.
0 Prices completely revised and updated to reflect the current market.
0 Additional information on perforation and watermark varieties, shades, booklets and much more as well
as footnotes on forgeries, printings and dates of issue.
S2839(00) Part 10, Russia 5th Edition................................... ................................. 24.95 r U S $ 40.00.
Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd., 5 Parkside, Christchurch Rd.,
Ringwood, Hants BH24 3SH, U.K.


NEW! The Specialised Catalogue of Postage Stamps of the USSR (1923-1940), Vol. 5, Part 1, edited
by V.B. Zagorskii and the Board, consisting of M. Dobin, I. Brune, A. Gdalin and N. Mandrovskii.
Proofs, Varieties and Specimens of USSR postage stamps are given, as well as Essays not approved.
Postage stamps and Revenues that were used for postal duty in 1923-1940 are also described.
Information is also given on stamped & blank postal cards and envelopes, postal rates and postmarks.
Comparative prices of philatelic material are set in dollars. 288 pages in colour. Retail price US$ 45.00.
Contact us at: stand-coll@pop3.rcom.ru "Standart-Collection", P.O. Box 103,
Phone/fax: 7 (812) 311 96 47 191186 St. Petersburg, RUSSIA.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIUHK N 46 69
June, 2000





A CLASSIC SWEDISH LETTER SENT TO THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
by Erling Berger

For the direct exchange of mail between Russia and Sweden the postal rates were rather simple
because the exchange did not involve a third state (f.ex. Denmark, Hamburg, Libeck or Prussia).
From 1809 to 1917 Finland was a Grand Duchy under the Russian Empire, and all direct mail from
Sweden to Russia landed in Finland.

The direct exchange had two routes:
Over the Baltic sea. In the period 1814-1850 the border offices were: Grisslehamn, on the
Swedish Mainland, just north of Stockholm. The Russian office was Eckero, on Alandsoerna (The
Aland Islands)
Over land via Haparanda-Tornea situated at the northern end of the Baltic Sea.

The rates to Russia were (not to Finland, which was cheaper)
1855-1858 20 killing banco, in 1858 changed into 60 ore (same value)
1858-1868 60 ore
1868-1875 38 6re
1875-1920 20 6re

The actual letter, shown here, was directed by the order "via Aland" to cross the Baltic Sea. It was
posted in Upsala, but the postage stamps were cancelled in Stockholm, not at the origin office. The
postage was prepaid by three postage stamps of: 30+3+5 = 38. The addressee was staying at the
Hotel Rome in Moscow.











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This excellent Journal of the Australia and New Zealand Society of Russian Philately has
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amount of information has been published in the 13 years covered by these numbers.
The cost of this CD-ROM is US $60.00 or DM 110.- or 35 Pounds Sterling. Banknotes are
very acceptable and the updates will be about one third of this cost. Full details from Dr. A.
Ross Marshall, Box 7, Otorohanga, New Zealand. FAX: 64-7-873-7078; E-
mail:Marshall.R@xtra.co. nz

70 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHIK /N 46
June, 2000







FINLAND-GERMANY via SWEDEN 1814-1848
by Erling Berger

Finland was a Grand Duchy under the Russian Empire 1809-1917. The mail from Finland
could reach the European Continent by two different routes
* Via St.Petersburg
* Via Sweden (this route will be the subject for the present article)

The mail from Finland to Sweden had two routes
* Over land. The border offices were Torned (Finland) and Haparanda (Sweden)
* Over the Baltic Sea. The border offices were Ecker6 (Finland) and Grisslehamn (Sweden)
Ecker6 was situated in the middle of the Baltic Sea on the Aland Islands.

The mail from Sweden to the Continent could follow two routes
* Via Denmark. The border offices were Helsingborg (Sweden), Helsinger (Denmark) and
the Swedish/Norwegian Office in Hamburg.
* Via the Baltic Sea. The border offices were Ystad (Sweden), Stralsund/Greifwald (Prussia).
Greifwald was active as border office 1827-1840. The Swedes preferred the route via the
Baltic Sea, because the alternative route was extremely expensive (See: Note 1)

To add ten percent to the foreign share via Sweden. Since 1816 a correspondent in Finland
should pay an extra 10% of the foreign share. In 1841 this condition was continued and
incorporated in the new Finland tariff for Swedish transit. The 10% were to the benefit of the
Finland Postal Service. One may ask if the mail over Prussia also was charged with 10 %. The
answer is a formal 'no', but you may say that an extra amount of 50% was charged via Prussia,
because each silver kopek of a foreign postage was paid with 6 paper-kopeks, even if 4 paper-
kopeks would be more correct.

The tariffs
In all actual postage calculations you can isolate a Finland domestic part

* The Finland domestic tariff
In this article there will be listed the postage for five selected Finnish offices: Brahestad,
Christinestad, Helsingfors, Jacobstad, and Abo.

The Finland tariff, published during the Swedish period, was valid in the beginning of the
Russian period:


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK Xh 46
June, 2000


1807-1810 Ecker6 Tornea
Office Skilling Banco Skilling Banco
Brahestad 6 3 3 /
Christinestad 6 6
Helsingfors 51/4 71/2
Jacobstad 6 34 5 14
Abo 33 6 3/






The Finland domestic tariff was now expressed in silver-kopeks:

1810-1816 Ecker6 Tornei
Office Silver-Kopek Silver-Kopek
Brahestad 20 14 11 1A
Christinestad 18 18
Helsingfors 15 3 22 1/2
Jacobstad 201/4 15 3
Abo 11 1 20 14

Finland got a new tariff in 1816 valid for any destination in Russia and Finland:

1816-1841 Ecker6 Tomei
Office Paper-Kopek Paper-Kopek
Brahestad 46 23
Christinestad 33 42
Helsingfors 33 56
Jacobstad 42 33
Abo 23 56

Please, note that all the 1816-1841 amounts have been divided with 31/ to obtain the 1841-
1850 tariff. The occasion was that Russia in 1839 introduced a fixed relation between paper-
and silver-money: 1 silver-kopek = 312 paper-kopek:

1841-1850 Ecker6 Tornei
Office Silver-Kopek Silver-Kopek
Brahestad 13 /2 7
Christinestad 91/2 12
Helsingfors 9 /2 16
Jacobstad 12 9 /2
Abo 7 16


SThe Swedish Transit from Grisslehamn or Haparanda to the Continent

1814-1833 Postage per Swedish Loth
Killing Banco
Hamburg via Helsingborg-Helsingor 60
Stralsund via Ystad-Stralsund 24
(Greifwald 1827-40)
Add 10% since 1816.


72 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK N 46
June, 2000






The reason for this change was that Sweden had obtained 25% discount via Denmark
1833-1835 The component The component
Here you must add two components South of Sweden Inside Sweden
Per 1/2 Swedish Loth Per Full Swedish Loth
Killing Banco Skilling Banco
Hamburg via Helsingborg-Helsingor 32 8
Greifwald via Ystad-Greifwald 16 8
Add 10 %

The reason for this change was that Sweden increased its domestic tariff
1835-1841 The component The component
Here you must add two components South of Sweden Inside Sweden
Per 1/2 Swedish Loth Per Full Swedish Loth
Killing Banco Skilling Banco
Hamburg via Helsingborg-Helsingor 32 9
Greifwald via Ystad-Greifwald 16 9
Add 10 %

In 1841 the Finland Postal Service published a tariff, now expressed in Silver-Kopeks. It can
be derived from the 1835-41 table by:
1. Add 3/32 (ca. 9.3 %) for the Skilling Banco to Silver-Kopek conversion
2. Add 10% according to the normal routine

1841-1848 Transit Sweden
Simple letter:
Up to 1/2 Swedish Loth
Silver-Kopek
Hamburg via Helsingborg-Helsingor 491/2
Stralsund via Ystad-Stralsund 301/2
The postage for higher weights can be calculated like in the 1835-1841 table, remembering that
the Swedish inland share only increased perfidl Loth, while the "South of Sweden" share
increased per /2 Loth. Letters marked "/2" were allowed to weigh up to and inclusive 1/2 Loth.

* Postage for the stretch south of Hamburg/Stralsund
Sometimes the addressee in Finland had to pay for a stretch on the Continent. Before 1841
such a share was expressed in Hamburg Schilling. The Swedes converted to Skilling Banco by:
1. Before 1832: Multiplying with 2
2. 1832-1841: Multiplying with 21/2
After 1841 the actual amounts were expressed in silver-groschen. The Swedes converted to
Killing Banco by multiplying with 3.

The Finnish Postal Service adopted this principle by saying (From 1841):
Each Hamburg Schilling is calculated to 3 silver-kopeks
Each Silver-groschen is calculated to 4 silver-kopeks
00ooo




THE POST-RIDER/JIMIIIHK NM 46
June, 2000 73
























































1840. Rotterdam-Christinestad via Hamburg, Prussia, Baltic Sea, Sweden, Aland to Finland
Rotterdam-Hamburg (1827-1852) "50" cent. Prepaid. Single letter up to "M" Loth for Greifwald-Grisslehamn
Hamburg-Greifwald "4" Hamburg Schilling = 10 Sk"
Greifwald -Ystad (1835-1848) 16 Sk.
Ystad Grisslehamn (1835-1848) 9 Sk.
Addition of 10 % to the foreign part 4 Sk.
Foreign part "39 Sk Banco"
Ecker6-Christinestad (1816-1841) in Kopeks "33 K"
Totally written as "LOs 33 K & 39 Sk.Bn ". L6sen = To be paid
Border marks from: Hamburg Stadt Post Amt: St. P. A in oval. GREIFWALD and GRISLEHAMN
Sweden + Norway Office: K. S. N. P. C. / HAMBURG

74 THE POST-RIDER/IMIhIIKM N 46
June, 2000






Note 1: Sweden and Denmark had been involved in a war in 1814. After the peace the Swedes
were afraid to send letters across Denmark in single transit, because the Danes might spy on
the contents of the letters. The Swedes preferred to gather all mail in a big sealed sack. Now,
the Danes considered the sealed sack as "Letters enclosed in another letter". This form had a
triple postage, because the uniform weight limit steps were as low as ca. 1/6 ounce (5.2 grams),
while a normal single letter had a weight limit of ca. a 1/ ounce (15.6 grams). The Swedes tried
to avoid the route via Denmark, but during the winter they were forced to use it, because of ice
in the Baltic Sea. In 1832 Sweden was granted a 25% discount; and from 1848 Sweden agreed
to perform single transit through Denmark.

Loth Weights (ca. 1/2 Ounce): The Swedish Loth was used in Finland.
Russian Loth 12.7 gram, Swedish Loth 13.2 gram, Danish Loth 15.6 gram


Sources:

1. Esa Mattila: "Suomi Postimaksuja 1810 1875" Die Finnischen Postgebiihren fiir das
Inland und ffir das Kaiserreich 1810 1875 und nach Ausland fiber Russland 1816 1852.
Espoo 1994. This book has the Finland domestic tariffs. (Both Finnish and German)

2. Borge Lundh: "European Letters to Finland 1819 1873". Lathi/Gentofte 1990.
This book has at least twenty relevant examples. (English)

3. D.A.Dromberg "Via Gothenburg" Lathi 1990.
This book has the Swedish transit tariffs of 1833, 1835 and 1841. (Swedish)

4. Finland Philatelist Union: Postal Circulars 1813-1820. Lahti 1986 (Swedish)

5. Finland Philatelist Union: Postal Circulars 1820-1828. Lahti 1987(Swedish)

SPECIAL NOTE:
The Restoration of the Amber Room at Pushkin (Tsarskoe Selo).
This elaborately carved masterpiece, originally begun by German craftsmen, was presented
in unfinished state by Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia in 1716 to the visiting
Russian Tsar, Peter the Great. It was eventually completed by Russian technicians at the
Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo by mid-century. Stolen by the Nazi invaders in 1941, it
was last seen at K6nigsberg (now Kaliningrad) in 1943 and then vanished. One of the
mosaics finally surfaced in Germany three years ago and is now the subject of a court
action.
Symptomatic of the enormous losses of Russian art treasures during the BOB (WWII),
RUHRGAS, the largest natural gas company in Gerrmany, is now sponsoring the restoration
of the Amber Room, together with an American benefactress, who has donated $10,000.00.
The new Amber Room should be ready by April 2003, in time to celebrate the 300th.
anniversary of St. Petersburg and will probably then be featured on stamps. There seems to
be no doubt that further sponsorships by German firms to compensate for the appalling
devastation visited on the USSR in 1941-1944 would go a long way towards solving the
vexing problem of war booty removed from Germany by the victorious Soviet Army.
Meanwhile, three volumes have already been published in a 50-volume series, documenting
the irreplaceable Russian art losses and issued by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian
Federation. The foreword to the series states: "A whole stratum of Russian national culture
has disappeared forever without leaving a trace".
THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHK JNq 46
June, 2000 75






SOME DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF POSTAGE DUE MAIL IN RUSSIA
by Meer Kossoy.
In accordance with the postal regulations, postage due mail refers to the sending, which were partly or
completely unpaid with postage stamps, or which bore stamps that were invalid. From the time that postage
stamps were introduced in Russia, the rules for sending postage due mail were repeatedly changed. As of
1892, it was permitted to send local, intercity and international mail with partial payment of the postal rates
or even completely unpaid. In such cases, double the deficiency in the postal rates was levied on the
recipient of the mail. The amount of the fee was designated on a postage due cachet of oval form. The
postage due sending was handed over to the addressee only after the payment of the fee designated on the
due cachet. These regulations remained practically unchanged for quite a long period.

The types of postage due cachets and their characteristics are not being examined in this article. The author
wishes only to examine several distinguishing features of unpaid or underpaid mail, as well as some
cachets and official manuscript notations which have been encountered on such correspondence.
A postcard is shown here in
Fig. 1, which was sent from
Korovaevo, Vladimir prov. T.C OI
8.11.10 and received by the l
addressee in Moscow a day o i p.i0
later. The card was franked
with a 3-kop. 1908 issue, in
complete accordance with
the postal rate. However, it -,
should be noted that there
is an oval cachet on the card
reading JOFIJIATHTb *
KOPOBAEBO, within
which is written the amount -, -
of the postage due: 8 kopeks. O V ,,,TC."iI MeTem.oona,
On seeing such a card, many"
experienced philatelists .- :
cannot explain the reason Fig. 1
for the postage due, and
especially the amount: 8 kopeks. As specified above, even in the case of a completely unpaid sending,
where stamps are missing on the card, or which have been deemed invalid, the postage due fee could not
exceed 6 kopeks i.e. double the deficiency in the rate of 3 kopeks. The answer to these questions may be
found by turning to the postal regulations, as set out in the work "HocTaHOBJIeHis no fnosTOBOfi qacTr",
C.-neTep6ypr-b 1909.In the text that follows, excerpts will be given under the numbers of the articles
therein.

There existed in Russia strict requirements regarding postcards. For example, Article No. 96 specified that
a card had to be divided into two parts by a vertical line and that the address half on the right side had to
occupy no less than half the area of the card. Article No. 99 designated the "penalty" for non-compliance
of the requirements regarding the size of the card (14 x 9 cm.), the thickness of the paper stock from which
the card was prepared and the inscriptions thereon. In the case where these requirements were infringed,
such cards were subject during transmission to the postal rate specified for letters. For that reason, double
the deficiency was levied on the recipient.

Let us now look again at Fig. 1. The dividing vertical line cuts the card into two parts, but the address side

76 THE POST-RIDERIMIIIHK N2 46
June, 2000














Fig. la


OTKA3AHO

Fig. 4







Fig. 3a


.aONTPOq/lb
.Ilo IhllTNblXl (
OTnPAB EHi /



Fig. 12

XEPCOH-b
KCOHTPOJlL AOnUIATHLIX

Fig.16


. Fig. 2'


Fig. 5a


KoHmponb-Tu Fuca

Fig. 7a


Fig. 9a


1KOHTPOib
,JOiATTHblXb
OlinPABJlEHi 3



Fig. 13


KOHFTPifl

Fig. 8


Fig. 10,a


FJlHCABETPAAI'
KO.HTPOJ1b
OTriIABil.


Fig. i14


; ~HM9EPonon/b
i KOHTPO/nb

Fig.4 7


S= BblHyTO M3'b RsLjMKa:
s a= 6e3" MapKH
r Cb MupKOIO, 6bIBIU. Bb
ynoTpedneHia.
S .- T. VHuOBmH.


Fig. 22a


THE POST-RIDER/JMIIHK No 45 77
November, 1999


Fig. 6.


IIOJiTABA


Fig. l..


Fig. 15


Fig...f.


Fig. 24a


J BblHyTO H3b RlUIKa:
: 6e3b mapHH
SCb MapKHOO, 6buL Bb
ynoTpe6aeHia.
He iHOjIHb OHqemHHMbMb
a d


Fig.-23






at right is clearly less than that at left, thus being an infringement of the requirements in Article 96. A
further violation was the text, written at top and bottom on the address part of the card. Only the address
was permitted to be written there.

We thus see featured in Fig. 1 a postcard on which there were clear violations of the requirements of
Article 96 regarding inscriptions. In accordance with Article 99, such a card had to be sent at the letter rate
of 7 kopeks. The card was franked with a 3-kopek stamp and the missing fee at the letter rate was 7 k- 3 k.
= 4 kopeks; double the deficiency was 4 kop. x 2 = 8 kopeks. Everything is explained quite simply and one
only needs to know the postal regulations!

There is an interesting postmark on the card shown in Fig. 1 with an abbreviated text which reads in full:
"MOCKBA / HE BHOJI(Ht) OIJIOH(EHO). 9.11.10. V 3(KCfIEJHIIIJI). See in addition Fig. la
on p. 77) for a drawing of this marking. As is evident from the text of the postmark, it was applied in 1910-
1911 on mail that was not fully prepaid, i.e. postage due correspondence. Much greater distribution was
achieved by a variation of this marking in which the horizontal lines are missing in the date bridge (Fig. 2
on p.77). It was utilised in the 1911-1916 period. The application of markings with the text "HE
BnOJIHTB OIJIOHEHO" is known only for Moscow.

It is necessary to note that not all postal officials applied uniformly the requirements about the inscriptions
on the postcards. For example, some of them did not regard as a violation of Article 96 the presence of
additional writing on the address side at right of the postcards.
We see in Fig. 3 a postcard,
which was sent from Samara .- m*/ uL.f.I .'
30.6.10, passed through 2 in' .
Moscow 2.7.10 and was then o-w, ,.D ,Tr n d
received by the addressee in
Pushkino, Moscow prov. on z- J r
3.7.10. Text is written both
at top and bottom of the --.l
address part of the card at
right, which was a violation .-
of Article 96. An oval i,> -e-. .
marking was struck reading ,. -
" OlIJIATiTb. ... ... i
CAMAPA. 8 KOn." in, .e
accordance with Article 99. .Z-, '
However, this postage due w- .K ". y ---"
fee was regarded in Moscow-- -
as baseless and it was Fig. 3
cancelled by applying a
rectangular dotted marking with the text "CHITA" (= WITHDRAWN). See Fig. 3a on p. 77 in addition.
This type of marking was applied in the 1910-1917 period. Strikes are known in violet and red, but it did
not receive wide distribution. When it was necessary in the majority of the post offices to cancel a postage
due cachet, that was ordinarily done by crossing out by ink or pencil.

It is also necessary to note that, in accordance with Article 476, if an addressee did not wish to pay the
postage due fee when the postal sending was presented to him, he had the right to refuse to receive it. The
refusal of receipt was noted in writing on the cover of the postal sending after the signature of the
addressee. In the case when an addressee refused to sign, the postal official applied on the mail a marking
inscribed "OTKA3AHO" (= REFUSED); see Fig. 4 on p. 77.


THE POST-RIDER/LMMIIIHK Xh 46
June, 2000






Such mail was regarded as not having been delivered to the destination. After its refusal, it was forwarded
to a post office of a town where there was an Accounting Department (KoHTponbHa nian aTa), held there
for two months from the day of receipt and then destroyed by means of incineration.

The representatives of the Postal Service carried out checking activities for the correct rating of postage
due sending. A special marking was applied on the sending after undergoing such a control. Such
checking was performed at random. As a result, such markings are rarely encountered and known only in a
few examples. The markings were not uniform, but were prepared in each town upon an individual order.
They were not only of different shape, but also differed by text. The strikes of these markings known to the
author are in black, red and violet. They were applied in the 1902-1918 period. The control/checking
markings applied on postage due sending are found together with an oval postage due cachet.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 5,
sent from Yalta 10.7.10 to
Odessa 13.7.10. The card was .BCEMIPIHLll noTTOBlbrI co1 yC roccmn.
not franked (the stamp is UNION POSTALE UNIVE ~SSIE. .
missing) and so an oval OTIPUTOE IIICM10. CA I'E OSI :
rOFnIATHTb. OJECCA. (n, nc Ma.) ,, -
cachet was applied and the ""'
amount of the postage due
was written in: 6 kopeks.
In order to direct attention to
the necessity of collecting
the postage due fee, a hand-
written note in blue pencil
was made with a large ....
capital "D" (the first letter
of the Russian word
"OHOJIATHTb"). The
card also went through the Fig. 5
Control of postage due
sending, as is confirmed by the circular marking in black. See also Fig. 5a on p.77. A variation for Odessa
with another type of cachet for the checking of postage due sending is shown in Fig. 6 on p. 77.
A postcard is shown in Fig. 7,
from Dresden, Germany
21.1.09 N.S. and received in 79-- -a, 4 t
Tiflis on 16.1.09 O.S. The oo <-,-.' -, '-.,-,,-a
card was not franked. y ,
However, instead of a cachet G .
with the letter "T", which b-..... C ...
presumably would have o.
existed, a handwritten "T" .e ,- J.-, "
in blue pencil was applied, .,o ,-sa -- '
being the first letter of the unn to- rd0, ,
French word "TAXE". The -t/., .- OW "
amount of the postage due -- <-... Oa <-.
was also noted:: 25 c(entimes). t e
For some unknown reason,
the oval cachet for the -- ,., .
postage due was not applied,
but the amount owing was Fig. 7

THE POST-RIDER/IIMlIHK N 46 79
June, 2000






noted in Tiflis as "8k"(opeks) in black pencil, which corresponded to double the rate for sending a postcard
abroad (the international tariff was 4 kopeks). In order to direct attention to the necessity of receiving the
postage due fee, a handwritten indication of the capital letter "D" (the first letter of the word
"AOnJIATHTb") was done in red pencil. This card went through the Control of postage due sending,
which is also confirmed by the single-line "KoHTponb Tnqpnmc"b" marking struck in violet; see also the
illustration in Fig. 7a on p. 77. A variation in another type of marking for the control/checking of postage
due sending is also known from Tiflis (see Fig. 8 on p. 77).
The postcard featured\ '
in Fig. 9 was sent from i' -"i.
Saratov 6.2.16 and ."b 7 "

8.2.16. As it was not. \ i ..'
franked, an oval 1 IN .
"ROnJIATHTb | lf
JIYFAHCK'b*" was .
applied and the D "
amount of the postage |
due was entered as "6" () ..0
kopekss). The card
went through the /
Control of postage due .o
sending, as confirmed / (,
by the rectangular \ 0, .
marking in red. See I;IHUa IU.Mi1 i.., n.H. eb,
also Fig. 9a on p. 77. (po

We see in Fig. 10 a. "
postcard sent from T i
Aleksandropol' I o i.
19.5.13 to Sevastopol' '
(there is no arrival ,
marking). The card -
was not franked, so
an oval 1. .
"JjOnJIATw Tbh" N '
cachet was applied -- '
in red and the amount .............
owing was written in m7 : ,
as "6" kopekss). In
contrast to the due ..J-. \-/.- "
markings shown ini 1 -
Figs. 1, 3,5 & 9, the 10 e rM .............. e.
cachet in Fig. 10 is IBg d 'D
of an earlier type,
which was officially
applied up to 1892 and where the name of the locality is missing in the text. The postcard went through the
Control of postage due sending, as confirmed by the circular marking in red; see also Fig. 10a on p. 77.
There are two strikes at top right in violet of the datestamp "27 May 1913"; that was presumably the date
when the checking of postage due sending was carried out.
Please refer now to Figs. 11 to 18 on p. 77 for further markings of the Control of postage due sending.
80 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK N2 46
June, 2000






Postal sending are sometimes
found which are franked with- -
stamps according to the rate i Bbi
in force, but have been struck Niv
with a postage due marking, TKPbl ,N 0. --
as for example in Fig. 19.
Here we have a postcard,
sent from Gatchino 16.10.10 /4 .
to St. Petersburg 17.10.10. It
is franked with 3 x 1-kopek
stamps, but has a strike
reading "OHnJIATHITb *
FAT'IHHO 2 Kon". The 2 -.-
explanation for the postage
due is simple: one of the (e 'ea,-
stamps was regarded as I -/ ,
invalid.
Article 38 of the Regulations Fig. 19
specified that stamps were
regarded as invalid if they were from previous issues that had been taken out of circulation; if they were cut
out of envelopes or wrappers; covered with gum or lacquer and also stamps which had been used
previously. Two stamps of the 1907 issue were affixed to the card and one of the 1889-1892 series. The
stamps of that latter issue had been withdrawn and so one stamp was deemed invalid; the postage due was
reckoned at double the deficiency, i.e. 1 kopek x 2 = 2 kopeks.

Also, in accordance with Article 70 of the Regulations, the stamps regarded as invalid were denoted with a
numeral "O", which we also see on the postcard.
The numeral "0" also denoted foreign stamps which were regarded as invalid and that also applied to
stamps issued by other countries.
For example, a postcard is
shown in Fig. 20. to which V" '
is affixed a 1-penny stamp' ,'. I
of England. Judging by the i.
date on the card, it was -.. X .....mn.; W
N oim0unimaution.
written 1.IX.1910 N.S. in For
Scotland (the card has a A ""
view of Edinburgh),
where the stamp was also -'-. '
applied, in accordance :.
with the postal rate. 7Z -
However, the card was not .
sent from Scotland, but
from the territory of l """
Belgium. That is confirmed I
by the postmark BRUSSEL ,
TENTOONSTELLING /
BRUXELLES Fig. 20
EXPOSITION 8.IX. 1910
N.S. The English stamp was regarded as invalid in Belgium. It was therefore surrounded with a frame and
marked with the numeral "0" in blue pencil. In addition, a marking was struck on the card, in the form of a

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK N2 46 81
June, 2000





capital "T" (the first letter of the word TAXE = to pay). The mail from Belgium to Russia was forwarded
via Poland, where an oval "JOHJIATHTb*BAPIIIABA" cachet was struck and the amount inserted of
the postage due: 8 K(opeks). The card was received by the addressee in Moscow on 31.8.10 O.S.

The postal rules took into .
account the fact that, in '
order to separate postage te Pos I taledi"
due sending from the .o snlale. ele'
general mass of ,. artBnei'-rev k
correspondence, it would Tarjeta postal -Catlo'pos/ '
be necessary to apply a .U: on.posile umvei : .
0 .
distinctive marking on such '
pieces of mail, such as, for
example, in the form of a .
capital "n" (=D), which was
struck in violet. Sucha a' -
marking with a height of '
27 mm. is shown on the card. ..
in Fig. 21,sent from Arzamas .. .- .
3.4.07 to Nizhnii Novgorod ... ..".
5.4.07; see also the mark in Fig.
Fig. 21a on p. 77). The card
was not franked and so an
oval JOHIJIATHTb cachet was applied (an early type, which lacked the name of the locality); the
amount due was written in as "6" kopekss).

A similar "A" marking was utilised at Perm' in 1914, but with a height of only 6 mm. It should be noted
that the distinctive cachets with the capital letter "A" were not assigned widely and they are rarely found
on postage due sending. Instead of such markings, a notation in the form of a capital "D" was normally
written by hand with a colour pencil; see Figs. 5 & 7.
Special labels printed on
blue or violet paper were "
used in St. Petersburg to BLIfH iQ.
distinguish postage due. -NI E
sending. The labels were SCARTEd Ot
affixed to the postage due
mail and the text explained
the reason for the fee. We ---
see inFig. 22 a card sent
from St. Petersburg 3.6.06 7, --/v.-.. '
O.S. to Terijoki (Finland)- ,7
16.6.06 N.S. The card was *,/ .- ..
not franked, hence an oval -/ .-- -


(E)HI41AI) cachet was
applied and the amount
due: 6 K(opeks) was Fig. 2 2
written in. A blue label, in
use 1904 to 1906, was stuck
82 THE POST-RIDER/IMIAHK N2 46
June, 2000






on the card (this label is also shown in double size in Fig. 22a on p. 77). The text translates as "Taken out
of a mail box: without a stamp; with a previously used stamp" (the irrelevant text had to be crossed out).

The label in violet is reproduced in double size in Fig. 23 on p. 77 and was applied in the 1906-1911
period. It differs from the one shown in Fig. 22a only by the presence of an additional line of text,
specifying a third possible reason for postage due: "not fully paid", i.e. where the total face value of the
affixed stamps was less than the postal rate.

POSTAGE DUE MARKINGS OF MOSCOW
by Meer Kossoy.

Having acquainted myself with the article by N.C. Warr (Reference 1) published in "The Post-Rider" No.
45, I would like to add some supplementary comments and notes, based on the material held by me on this
subject.

As rightfully noted in his article, the postage due marking of Type D1 was officially utilised in the 1872-
1892 period. It was replaced by a new cachet, which also gave the name of the inhabited point where the
post office was located, in addition of the word "AOnIJIATHTb".
It should be noted that ,
the cachet in Type D1 Postkarte "
may also be found .I
later than in 1892. For cf / 4/
example, a postcard is
shown in Fig. 1, sent
from Marienbad (in *- '
Bohemia; now in the ,

Mariinske Lazne) "
6.9.10 N.S. to Moscow 'I
29.8.18 O.S. The Type /.--- .
D1 postage due cachet
is struck in black and
the amount due noted 1
as "12" kopekss). If we /.A ^ -
take into consideration ....
that this type of due e..--h- Fig 1i
marking was officially
applied only up to 1892, then its period of use in Moscow can be extended by another 18 years. The
postage due cachet shown here in Fig. 1 is a variety of the marking noted by N.C. Warr. The main
differences are in the size of the oval: 25 x 17.5 mm. for mine, as against 24.5 x 17 mm. for his; also the
font in my example is taller and narrower. There is also an interesting handwritten line in black pencil
surrounding the stamp at left and bottom. That was one of the ways of specifying a stamp, regarded as
invalid and the capital "T" cachet was struck at top centre for that reason. Although the postcard was
mailed from the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Austrian stamp was no longer valid!

A local postcard is shown in Fig. 2 on the next page, sent in Moscow 29.11.10 and received by the
addressee 30.11.10. The card was franked only with a 1-kopek stamp and a postage due cachet was
therefore applied, with the amount of the fee written as "4" kopekss). That corresponded to double the
deficiency in the rate of 3 kopeks. An oval type of postage due marking in black is featured in Fig. 2, which
has not been described by N.C. Warr. This type is characterized by the fact that, at bottom and after the

THE POST-RIDER/IMII!HK .N 46 83
June, 2000





number 17, there stand the
letters "'.FI.O.", being the C-;- BCEMi1HbHI0-COO'b: POCCi.::.
initials for FopoAcKoe U P0i S T :" E LLE RJUSSIE
FnoToBoe OTneHie ~.OTKPbiTOE- MC .-C
(City Post Office). Fig. 2
also has in black a mark
reading "MOCKBA -
HE BfIOJI(HB) :
OnfIIOM (EHO) i". It
differs from those shown (i
by N.C. Warr in his Type A 1
D11 in that the bridge is y. "
formed by two horizontal
lines with the date -
30.11.10 and flanked by..- y- 9Y4
V 3(KCFIEE MLUIII). :-: .
In conformity with the : :
classification by N.C.
Warr, this is a new type of postage due marking.

Fig. 3 shows a cover, sent from Moscow 25.3.11
to St. Petersburg 26.3.11. There is a 7-kopek
stamp on the cover, agreeing with the rate for
sending intercity letters. However, a postage due
cachet was applied and the amount due "14" .
kopekss) written in, corresponding to double
the deficiency. The reason for the fee was
simple; the affixed stamp was regarded as
invalid, as traces of black colour could be seen.
on it in the upper right corer. That testified
that the stamp had been used previously. In
accordance with the postal regulations,
invalid stamps had to be noted with the
numeral "O"numeral, which may be seen -
on the cover at left and below the stamp.
There is an oval postage due marking in .
violet of the Moscow 34 post office in Type:
D5. This office is not listed among the known
numbers in the article by N.C. Warr.g

Especially scarce and interesting are the postage due cachets of Travelling/Railway Post Offices and
Railway Station Post Offices. A postcard is shown in Fig. 4 on the next page, deposited in the coach of the
TPO/RPO route Khar'kov-16-Moscow 6.9.09 and received by the addressee in Moscow the same day. The
card was not franked and it was therefore struck with the oval postage due cachet in black inscribed
"OTArBJIEHIE IIOMT.(OBAFO) BAFOHA 16", with the amount due noted as "6" kopekss). The
postage due marking featured in Fig. 4 with the word "OTTBJIEHIE" is a new type, not described in the
article by N.C. Warr.

Fig. 5, which is also on the next page, features a postcard, deposited in the TPO/RPO route
Novosokol'niki*210*Moscow, & received by the addressee in Ryazan' 19.6.13. The card was not franked.

84 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N2 46
June, 2000










b O .....Cb MO ART aPOST"-L. U


+ ._._..._... ................ ........ ..
F ig .......5........ ...... ........................ .... ... + \.(j + .. .. ....... ..........





OTP TOE CbMO.- ............CARTE POSTALE.........
*+ \,.",,./. .-....................... ..... ......... ...
OTKPbliTOE n. CbMO.-CARTE POSTAL. .,,....... .
BCEMIPHbilH nOti 0103b. POCCIR. 3s1152
ncmnt o adu kwri eizontaes11 "6" (okpec -
(, ,/ -9. ..... .. .. .....


.. .... ...... ....




riiL^ ^ .' \ '6'' \ ,
41.-...... Fig. 4.





H" 8. T-.a K. n. ___ 7 : ,,. .I T '. oot P o p MocKa.

An oval postage due marking in red of TPO/RPO No. 210 (Type D.TPOI) was therefore applied and the
amount due was written in as "6" kopekss).

I would now like to express some comments about the article by N.C. Warr. It should be stressed that
postage due markings were applied on mail for the purpose of directing attention to the necessity of levying
the fee and of designating its amount. It therefore follows that the "HE BIIOJI. OTIJIOH." postmark does
not refer to postage due, nor should it be assigned a consecutive number (Type D11), as the characteristic
word "AOIIJIATHITb" is not present, nor is the amount specified. It is not a postage due cachet, but a
circular datestamp of the Moscow V (5th.) Despatch Post Office. However, it was a marking with a special
purpose, as it was only applied on postage due mail. The cachets which do not bear the word
"AO1 IJIATHITb", but which refer to postage due, such as, for example, the types: HE BnIOJI(H')
OnIJIOH.(EHO, HE &IPAHKIPOBAHO, OnIJIATA CHAITA, OTKA3AHO OTb
AonIJIATbI, KOHTPOJIb JOnJIATHblX'b OTIIPABJIEHIF"and others, should rather be placed
in a separate group, where they would have their own consecutive numbers.

TheType D.TPO2 marking shown in the article by N.C. Warr is apparently described erroneously. It is not
clearly struck and for that reason only the Russian letter "B" (beginning of the word "BAFOH'b") can be
seen, while there is no number showing to the right. No abbreviations of the word "BAFOH'b" are known
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIK e2 46 85
June, 2000






on postage due markings. If it is regarded that the absence of text after the Russian letter "B" at bottom is
the result of an imperfect strike, then the postulated inscription "11 IIOMT. B(AFOH'b) 11" allows us to
infer that this postage due cachet is of Type D.TPOI, and not Type D.TPO.2, as stated in the article by
N.C. Warr.

His suggested classification is based on characteristics of form, where there have been taken into
consideration in the first instance not the main, but the secondary significance of the characteristics, such
as the sequence of laying out the text on the markings, the abbreviations to be found therein, the
dimensions of the markings, etc. Such a classification does not allow us to set up an orderly system and
there are some discrepancies. For example, one may also present the postage due cachets of the 1st., 2nd.,
5th., 6th., 8th., 9th., 10th., 11th. & 55th. and many other city post offices of Moscow, which have not yet
been described. They all belong to Type D5 and do not differ one from the other. And they all have a
principal distinguishing feature: the number of the post office, which is in fact one of the main
characteristics of the markings. That characteristic is appreciably more important than the dimensions of
the cachet, which are for example the features for distinguishing Type D3a from Type D3b. As a result of
such a classification, numerous types of postage due cachets may appear, but they do not give information
about the main question: the post office to which the a particular marking belongs.

For example, the postage due cachets of only 13 city post offices are described in the article by N.C. Warr,
but there were more than 60 such offices in Moscow. Five types (D5 to D9) have already been assigned for
the classification of the known markings. A new type of postage due cachet has been shown in Fig. 2 of
this present article and could tentatively be labelled as Type D12. A new type of the "HE BHOJI.
OFIJIO1." marking has also been identified in that same Fig. 2, which could correspond to Type D13.
The question arises as to how many types would be required for the postage due cachets still not described,
if it is assumed that their total number would be four times greater than for those already recorded, since
each city post office must have had a postage due marking.

In order to modify the classification of postage due cachets presented by N.C. Warr, a new system for
classifying the postage due markings of Moscow is set out below. Such a system can also be utilised for the
classification of postage due cachets of other cities, where there were many post offices as, for example, in
St. Petersburg. The suggested classification is based not on the formal characteristics of the marking (text
and dimensions), but on the functional peculiarities of the post office, to which the cachet belongs. Under
such a system of classification, the number of types would be reduced drastically to six in all. The
following basic conditions were taken into account in setting up the classification:-

Type 1DM: This is an isolated case, assigned to the earliest postage due marking and utilised in the 1862-
1870 period. Apart from Moscow, this cachet was applied only in St. Petersburg.. The marking was issued
only in a single type, consisting of two concentric circles with diameters of 22 and 9 mm., between which
there was the inscription "OnHJIATHITb" and in the centre the number "10", which designated the
normal amount of the postage due fee in kopeks. All the succeeding types of postage due markings were of
oval shape and the amount due was written in by hand, depending upon the franking already on the mail.

SDuring the period that this cachet was in use, the postage due was levied for any excess in
Sthe specified weight of 1 lot (= 12.79 grammes, or roughly 1/2 oz.) for a letter. The postage
d} ue fee was equal to the rate for sending a letter: 10 kopeks for 1 lot. This type of postage
Sdue marking is rarely encountered, but it has been featured in various sources of philatelic
literature, for example in an article by L. Ratner (Reference No. 2), from where its
Fig. 6. illustration has been taken and shown here in Fig. 6.

Type 2DM: Postage due cachets of the City Post, i.e. of the General Post Office. Under the suggested

86 THE POST-RIDER/HMIMHK X2 46
June, 2000






system of classification, the marking described above and shown in Fig. 6 also refers to this present
situation. As already stated, it is a special case.

It should be noted that, in accordance with the postal regulations in force up to 1911, all the postage due
mail from the city post offices was forwarded to the General Post Office in that particular city and a
postage due marking applied there. That signifies that all the postage due cachets up to 1911 should be
attributed to a specific type, inasmuch as they were applied at the General Post Office. For example, the
postage due markings of Type D4 shown by N.C. Warr in his article refer to a specific type (applied at the
General Post Office), although there are circular datestamps of the 22nd. and 34th. city post offices struck
on the correspondence. Only towards the end of 1911 (the exact date still has to be determined) did the city
post offices begin to apply their postage due cachets on the mail and the number of the office was specified
in the inscriptions.

Type 3DM: Postage due markings of the city post- and postal-telegraphic offices.

Type 4DM:Postage due markings of the Travelling/Railway Post Offices, having routes where the
beginning or end points were in Moscow.

Type 5DM: Postage due markings of the railway stations in Moscow (with the registration of the renaming
of railway stations, there could be more than 10 variations of this type, although this author does not know
if they have been described in the literature).

Type 6 SM: These are various official or service markings, with reference to postage due mail, e.g.: HE
BFIOJIHB OrJIOHEHO, HE OPAHKHPOBAHO, OTnIJIATA CHSITA, KOHTPOJIb
OnTIJIATHbIX'b OTIIPABJIEHIH, etc.

In designating the types of postage due markings, the numbers are given in consecutive order and the letters
refer as follows: D for postage due; M for Moscow and S for Service cachets. We can then proceed to
specify the subtypes, which are the characteristics of a specific marking. The types, subtypes and other
numeral or letter designations are differentiated one from the other by inserting dots. It should be taken into
consideration that there are several distinctions in the designation of various subtypes.

For Types 2DM and 5DM, the subtypes are designated in consecutive order: 1, 2, 3, etc. and the variations
which have been discovered are noted by supplementary numbers, corresponding to the consecutive
number of the postage due marking, e.g. 2.1, 2.2 etc. Colour and other designations may be designated in
that way.

For Types 3DM and 4DM, the subtypes would always be designated by the numeral 1 (the basic marking)
or by the numerals 1.1., 1.2 etc (variations of the marking), after which would be specified the number of
the city post office to which the marking belongs (for Type 3DM), or the number of the TPO/RPO route to
which the marking belongs (for Type 4DM).

A designation in two letters would follow after the subtype. The first letter would in practice replace the
word "jrOnIJIATHTb" and would show its location on the marking: the letter "U" would signify the
"upper" and the letter "L" the lower part of the marking. The second letter would specify the colour of the
marking: "B" for black, "R" for red and "V" for violet.

The postage due markings belonging to Type 2DM would be best set out in chronological order and for
Types 3DM and 4DM in ascending order of the numbers.

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIURHK N 46 87
June, 2000





This basic system of classification has been set up in such a way as to specify clearly what post office a
particular postage due marking belongs to, if it had any variations and whether there are markings for
hitherto unrecorded offices, etc. As this system of classification unfolds, provision has also been made so
that supplementary data characterising a marking may be noted bit by bit. Such data could refer to the text
of the marking and the date and, for variations, it would also be possible to specify other differences from
the basic type, such as the sizes of the oval, another number of the marking, font varieties etc. It would be
possible under such a system to know how to distinguish the markings, even without having seen their
illustrations.

For example, a description is set out below in the suggested system for the classification of the markings
demonstrated in the present article. In the case where they are varieties of the markings described by N.C.
Warr, those markings are also shown in the new classification.

Type D1: (N.C. Warr) now Type 2DM.1.U.B.; 16.7.94; oval size 24.5 x 17 mm.
Fig. 1: Type 2DM.1.1.U.B.; 29.8.10; oval size 25 x 17.5 mm.; different font.
Fig. 2: Type 3DM.1.17..U.B.; Moscow 17th. City Post Office; 30.11.10.
Type D11: (N.C. Warr) now Type 6SM.1.4.; HE BIOJI. OHJIIO.; 10.6.14.
Fig. 2: Type 6SM.1.1.4.; HE BIIOJI. OHnIOM.; 30.11.10; with horizontal lines in the date bridge.
Fig. 3: Type 3DM.1.34.U.V.; 34 MOCKOBCK. OTJ.; 25.3.11.
Fig. 4: Type 4DM.1.16.U.B.; 16 OTA JIEHIE HOHT. BAFOHA 16; 6.9.09.
Fig. 5: Type 4DM.1.210.U.R.; 210 IHOHT. BAFOH'b 210; 28.6.13.
Fig. 6: Type 1DM.1.4.; OfOHJIATI4Tb 10; 1862-1870.

Literature:
1. Warr, N.C.: "Moscow Postage Due Marks", "The Post-Rider" No. 45, November 1999, pp. 70-74.
2. Ratner, L.: "Postage Due Mail of Russia and the USSR 1858-1945", "The Soviet Collecto'r, No. 27,
1989, p. 52.

THE "AOHIJIATHTb 10" MARKING
by Michael Ercolini.






"--I 0


( J. J ;
\t ,a* ____









88 THE POST-RIDER/IHMIIIHK Xo 46
June, 2000






As can be see from the illustrations at the bottom of the previous page, the date of the first utilisation of
this postage due marking can now be pushed back to 7 September 1861, according to the thoughtful
notation written by the postman on the back of the envelope.
Editorial Comment: The unfranked envelope is addressed to M.N. Katkov at the Editorial Board of the
"PyccKii~ BecTHHKb" ("The Russian Messenger") in Moscow. The handwritten notation at top back of the
envelope appears to read: "6blinymo U3'b ,ZoMta KoHopeea (?) 6ea- MapKcu / 7. ceHmni6pa 1861 2.
Hom. (no)nucb)" ("taken from the Konorev [?] House without a stamp / 7 September 1861. Postman:
signature). This House would appear to have been a mercantile building, which may have had a box for
mailing letters. Further comments from CSRP readers would be appreciated.

SOME FURTHER POSTAGE DUE APPLICATIONS
by Professor A.S. Ilyushin.
Further to the articles by N.C. Warr and Meer Kossoy in the previous and current issue of "The Post-
Rider", I should like to bring the following items to the attention of CSRP readers:-


Cate pnsle Po arte Correspn, Inekarte
Carloina poslale 1[f Levelezi-Lap Kana nrespondttcylna
A Moscow local card, obviously Hrifk Ur o postal scrslle -aUionipos roale ivcali- os t adl
underpaid by 1 kop. Sent from the ovpon db.. I' i"
ef0 T "t r0 ""-'u"
5th. City Despatch Office 15.IV. U. c "-,.. : ) :.-
1908 and assessed "2" kopekss) ac .,,.t.
due at Moscow G.P.O. Mm- ocad~p --,
X 5MXVOdt I'f t _dwtt I0
ther a17d ( .4'*. .- '. ...-.





--Regulations, as stated by M. Kossoy.
SAnother Moscow local underpaid cardsuburban
from 63rd. City P.O. 23.9.14 and1710 and
assssre assessed ""2" kopekss) due. i.e.
'conf g tt te m a yr bere te 11 c e i
',, & ,r Regulations, as stated by M. Kossoy.

A further Moscow sb'ubMoscow local underpaid card,

^ from 63rd. City P.O. 23.9.14 and .n i10 and---- .
assessedhe there assessed "4" kopekss) due. i.e."".
Confirming ta th -: a year before the 1911 change inn
Se.. Regulations, as stated by M. Kossoy.











of Moscow P.O.s went past 60. 1 r. "'."




THE POST-RIDER/MIIIHKIM S 46 89
June, 2000
June, 2000









k a TOIPLnroE nilicLo
CARTE PoSTALE.1*==C V.
.o ,C T A LnE. A Moscow local unpaid card, sent
ca.S.WI Icrito 4 IA mtcr o A. MPE.CA. from 5th. City Despatch Office and
r ,. with incorrect "HE BnOJI. OrjIO."
- l. ..... ............. : -
,.,.. (not fully paid) marking. Taxed "6"
.... ... ... ..... .... ..... kopeks at Moscow No. 2 P.O.

S ,, ... ...... .''
.. ...... .. ... .....
/ "f, Q -"- .- ... : ,g -' -- ( I
-V I ,Lk .. ,-I


Here is an unpaid card, posted at
TPO/RPO No. 167: CHELYAB.
(INSK) OMSK 15.4.13 and with
due mark, reading at bottom
"NEJSIIB.167.OMCK. ". Sent
to Bogotol 19.4.13.


Y--r




01
Alp
V II
't&4:~ '#t-!A*>' ~f~qL


An underpaid card from Tallinn
8.4.26 to Moscow 5th. Despatch
Office 12.4.26, where a 19th.
century oval "JOnIJIATHTb"
mark without name was applied!


Now we have an unpaid post-Civil
War card from Kislovodsk 5.9.21.
taxed there at 10 r. (double the old
rate valid to 15.8.21) and sent to
Groznyi 8.9.21.


* *
THE POST-RIDER/fMIIIHK X2 46
June, 2000


fIILtNVA~C 4(
b- 1f~j

































3EMCKASl HOnTA HOJITABCKAFO Y3A63
The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P. P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited quantity of this
very rare publication has been reprinted and is available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100
pages is the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even
to the present remains as the most detailed accounting of the
issues of the zemsto post in Poltava. In Russian.

$25.00 (US) postpaid, payable to the Canadian Society of
Russian Philately, at the Society address.

THE POST-RIDER/sIMIIK 46 91
June, 2000


hostage gStcmnps isueb by tfe

Zemstvso, 1oLos. -4




OST S' E S^W^t








by ALEX ARTUCHOV
Vol. 4 Odessa Rzhev

$30.00 (US) per volume postpaid. Payable to Alex Artuchov at
P.O. Box 5722, Station A, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2
I------~~-- -~--Ts-1-9 -









POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
By Alex Artuchov

SOLIKAMSK
COJIHKAMCK
(Perm Province)


Solikamsk is located
population was 4,000.
Kama".


in the central portion of the province of Perm. In 1900, the
The name of the town was derived from the phrase "salt from the


Solikamsk is ancient having been founded in 1430 by immigrants from Novgorod who
came there to open salt mines. In addition to being the location of the world's largest
potassium salt mine the area is rich in forests used for the manufacture of writing paper.

Solikamsk issued stamps between 1887 and 1917.
Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Red background with a silver sheep that has a golden bible and a
silver cross above is standing on green grass.
Bottom: Golden background with a stone well and wooden timbers on
green grass and a green coloured field.

1887 (Jan. 1)
20.5 x 28 mm, lithographed in black on coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum, sheet
of 12 x 6, imperforate.


1. 2 kop. black on rose paper


1.50


THE POST-RIDER/IMIlHK NM 46
June, 2000









1887 1889
20 x 27.75 mm, lithographed on white paper, white gum, sheet of 8 x 8, perforated 11.5,
imperforate sheet margins, 2 editions.



Y...i





First Edition (1887, Dec. 9)
White paper 0.11 m thick.

2. 2 kop. blue lilac 1.00

Second Edition (1889)
White paper 0.09 mm thick.

3. 2 kop. red lilac 25.00


1890- 1891
19.25 x 26.5 mm, lithographed in 2 colours on white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum,
perforated 11.5, 2 editions.





, 21MCr Al naq' T


First Edition (1890, May 12)
Sheet of 10 (?) x 5 with sides that do not have margins.

4. 2 kop. brick red and greenish blue 0.75

Varieties:
A. Dot in right spiral ornament. 2nd, 5th and 8th stamps of each row.
B. Dot on upper end of the right thin frame line. The 6th stamp of each row.

Second Edition (1891)
Colour changed from 1't edition, without the varieties of the 1st edition, the 1 kop.
stamp is made from 4 stamps of the 1st edition by changing the numerals of value


THE POST-RIDER/aMIMIHK N 46 93
June, 2000









resulting in 4 types placed horizontally and can be identified by the differences in shape
and size and the position of the numerals 1, the largest known blocks are 10 x 6 without
sheet margins.


5. 1 kop. blue, light or dark and light blue

Variety:
Dash between the letters K and A of MAPKA.


6. 2 kop. carmine red and light blue


0.50


0.75


1891
21.5 x 29.5 mm lithographed on white paper 0.11 mm thick, yellowish white gum,
perforated 11.25, sheet of 10 x 10.


7. 4 kop. dark red

Proof:
White paper, no gum, perforated 11.25, clear print in darker colour.

4 kop. dark red


1892 -1893
19 x 27.5 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.1 mm, perforated 11.5, 2 editions.


First Edition (1892, Jan. 1)
White paper, sheet of 10 x 10.

8. 2 kop. orange or orange yellow
used


2.00


0.50
2.00


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK iNe 46
June, 2000









Second Edition (1893, Jan.)
Change of colour, the 4 kop. stamp was made by changing the numerals of value of 6
stamps (3 x 2) of the 1st edition resulting in 6 types, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 10 x
10.


9. 2 kop. lilac blue, light or dark


10. 4 kop. brown


The Sheet


1231231 2 3 3
4564564566

4 516 4 5 6 4 5 6 4
12 3 12 312 31
4564564564
1231231233
4 5 6 4 5 6 .4 5 6 6
1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1
- -- 2- - - -^" -3'
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 7
12 312 31 2 3 ?
4 5 6. 4 5 6 4 5 6 7


0.50

5.00


1893 (Feb. ?)
Similar to the issue of 1891 but with a changed coat of arms, the bible on the bear's back
is closed, the bear is thicker and the well is narrower, lithographed on yellowish white
paper 0.11 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 10 x 10, perforated 11.5,


11. 4 kop. green


1.00


1895 (July, end)
Printed by Kushnarev in Moscow, 18.33 x 23.66 mm typographed on white paper 0.09
mm thick, 2 types of the 2 kop. stamp placed side by side 5 times in each row on the
sheet, perforated 11.5 and imperforate. This stamp was reissued again in 1898 in a
somewhat lighter colour.


0.50

0.75


12. 2 kop. dark blue

13. 2 kop. red violet


THE POST-RIDER/HM IIK N2 46
June, 2000









The 2 Types:
Type 1 The foot of the left 2 points down, the 2 on the right has a pointed foot.
Type 2 The left 2 is bent forward, the foot of the right 2 is with a blunt point.





Type 1. Type 2.

Proofs:
A. Chalky white paper 0.12 mm thick, imperforate.
2 kop. black

B. Yellowish white paper 0.09 mm thick, imperforate, no gum, sheet of 3 x 2.
4 kop. violet red 4 kop. black

1899 1909
18.33 18.75 x 23.33 23.5 mm coarse local printing imitating the previous issue, both
of the upper numerals are larger, the head of the large lower numeral is smaller, some
differences in the design of the bear, many editions differing in shades and sheet
composition.


First Edition (1899, March)
Smooth white paper 0.09 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated 11.5 the
imperforate stamps are proofs, the known sheet of the 2 kop. stamp is 17 x 5 + 15 x 1 =
100 as shown below and with a transfer block of 5 x 1, the sheet for the 4 kop. stamp is
10 x 10.

14. 2 kop. dark blue 0.50

Variety:
The second stamp in the transfer block has a spot to the right of the letter bI of the word
IIOHTbI.

15. 4 kop. light lilac 0.75

The 2 Kop. Sheet

123 451 23 4 5 1234512
1234512 34 51234534
123 4 5 12 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3 4
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5


96 THE POST-RIDER/AMII(HK N2 46
June, 2000









Proofs:
On thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, no gum, imperforate.
4 kop. light lilac
4 kop. black, black gray
4 kop. carmine red
4 kop. olive green
4 kop. reddish brown
4 kop. orange

Second Edition (1901, January)
Smaller than the 1st edition, the bear is retouched and has a v-shaped cleft between its
ears and its fur is darker, the curve of the head of the right upper numeral 2 is connected
to its neck, white paper 0.12 mm thick, yellowish brown gum, sheet of 10 x 10,
perforated 11.5.




16. 2 kop. dark blue 0.50


Proofs:
On white paper 0.07 0.08 mm thick, with or without gum, imperforate.

2 kop. black
2 kop. dark blue (colour of the original stamp)
2 kop. black olive
2 kop. emerald green (with a metallic sheen)
2 kop. carmine rose
2 kop. carmine red
2 kop. red lilac
2 kop. violet
2 kop. violet (with a metallic sheen)
2 kop. gold



Third Edition (1902, July)
Stamps of the 1st edition but in changed colourswhite paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish
white gum, the stamps are placed further apart and are poorly or incompletely perforated
11.5, sheet unknown but from known multiples it has been established that there is a
transfer block of 5 x 1 and 5 types.

17. 2 kop. gray blue 1.00

18. 4 kop. light gray lilac 20.00



THE POST-RIDER/HMIMHK N2 46
June, 2000









The 5 Types:
Type 1 A colour spot on the white frame line at the bottom under the letter of
the word HETbIPE.
Type 4 The numeral 4 in the NW corer is broken on the top, there is a spot of
colour under the circle on the thin outer oval frame line.
Types 2, 3 and 5 No apparent flaws.


Fourth Edition (1904, beginning)
On white paper 0.07 mm thick, perforated 11.5, unused copies unknown, the stamps of
this edition were used up before their existence was known to collectors.

19. 2 kop. sky blue 15.00


Fifth Edition (1905)
The same as the previous edition except that the colour is changed, white paper,
yellowish white gum, sheet unknown, perforated 11.5.

20. 2 kop. indigo blue 0.50


Sixth Edition (1908, June)
Similar to the previous edition, white paper, yellowish white gum, in a changed shade of
colour, sheet of 8 x 9, mostly poorly perforated 11.5 .

21. 2 kop. dark blue with a metallic sheen 0.50

Variety:
Right upper circle is cut off at the bottom, 1" stamp on the sheet.


Seventh Edition (1909)
Similar to the previous edition but slightly darker and without a metallic sheen, sheet of 9
x 9.

22. 2 kop. dark blue 0.50


Varieties:
a. Spot under the right band, 34h stamp on the sheet.
b. Upper right circle is cut off at the bottom, 42nd stamp on the sheet
c. Spot next to the centre 2, 61st stamp on the sheet.





THE POST-RIDER/UIMIIHlK N 46
June, 2000




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