• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - fifth...
 Blagoveshchensk Tete-Beche not...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Bessarabia: A Guberniya postal...
 The "Latvijas PSR" issue and related...
 The beginnings of the Romanian...
 A classic Danish letter sent to...
 Foreign letters to the Baltic area...
 Moscow postage due marks
 The journal fund
 The second issue of the Republic...
 Regarding the double letter-card...
 Philatelic shorts
 The collectors' corner
 Advertising






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00045
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00045
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Zemstvo varieties - fifth instalment
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Blagoveshchensk Tete-Beche not mysterious
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Bessarabia: A Guberniya postal history project
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The "Latvijas PSR" issue and related matters
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    The beginnings of the Romanian posts in Bessarabia in 1918
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    A classic Danish letter sent to the Russian Empire
        Page 67
    Foreign letters to the Baltic area around 1820
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Moscow postage due marks
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    The journal fund
        Page 74
    The second issue of the Republic of Armenia: October-November 1919
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Regarding the double letter-card of Russia
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    The collectors' corner
        Page 96
    Advertising
        Page 97
        Page 98
Full Text




H5MIIHIK


ThE POST-RIDER


No. 45
November, 1999


ThE CANAdiAN SociETy oF RUSSiAN PhilATEly


Printed in Canada







CYRILLIC ALPHABETS
by Rex A. Dixon.
This table is designed to show that it is frequently easy to determine the language
of a piece of Cyrillic text just by observing which alphabetic letters have been
employed.

Russian Belorussian Ukrainian Bulgarian Macedonian Serbo-Croat


E e


y y


H1 I i


N.B.: "'b" is the hard sign in Russian, but
a vowel in Bulgarian (R.A. Dixon).
"fi" (hard g) has been retained by the
Ukrainian Diaspora (A. Cronin).
"S" in Macedonian is an old Slav letter
= "dz". "i" & "" = "gy" & "ky"
(A. Cronin).


.9 A


M4


K K

JI Jn


y y


JI JI


E e


K K

JI J


y y


E e


M M


K K

J n J1


b b


H a







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada

CSRP Web Site: http://www3.sympatico.ca/postrider (click on postrider)
E-mail: postrider@sympatico.ca
New FAX Number: (416) 932-0853.


"THE POST-RIDER" No. 45.


November 1999.


Contents:


Inside Front Cover: Cyrillic Alphabets
2 Editorial
2 Special Note: "BULGARIA 99". Also on p. 4 in honour ofA.S. Pushkin.
3 Correspondence with Canada
5 Zemstvo Varieties: Fifth Instalment
7 Blagoveshchensk T8te-Bache not mysterious
11 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
27 Bessarabia: A Guberniya Postal History Project
34 The "Latvijas PSR" issue and related matters
62 The Beginnings of the Romanian Posts in Bessarabia in 1918
67 A Classic Danish Letter sent to the Russian Empire
68 Foreign Letters to the Baltic Area around 1820
70 Moscow Postage Due Marks
74 The Journal Fund
75 The Second Issue of the Republic of Armenia: October-November 1919
84 Regarding the Double Letter-Card of Russia
86 Philatelic Shorts
96 The Collectors' Corner


Rex A. Dixon


Dr. A.J. Schlichter
G.G. Werbizky
G.G. Werbizky
Alex Artuchov
Andrew Cronin
Various authors
Dr. Dan Grecu
Erling Berger
Erling Berger
N.C. Warr

Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
Professor A.S. Ilyushin


Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.

()Copyright. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of
this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.


* *b* ***


Joca~e





















"' v s Editorial
THE IMPORTANCE OF PHILATELIC LITERATURE IN OUR FIELDS OF INTEREST

Members will have noticed that our Society has run a Journal Fund basically since inception. Over the 22
years of our existence, we have offered what we think is an impressive array of titles selected from many
sources and we are the only specialist society in our areas of collecting which offers such a comprehensive
service.

Although operating under the title of the Journal Fund, that feature is not a revenue-producing operation,
when one takes the costs of packing and postage into account. Rather is it a service which we extend to our
members and other prospective purchasers, to help them in their collecting activities and to widen their
philatelic horizons.

That last point is very important, since the more that one knows, the more one is able to recognize material
of significance. The more significant material one has, the more one appreciates the effort and the
satisfaction that have gone into putting together such a worthwhile study.

In our own fields of interest, the investigative standards demonstrated in the philatelic literature being
published are now so high that they really constitute an intellectual, or even a scientific discipline in their
own right. One really has to admire the compilers for the many tedious hours they have spent in checking
and verifying their findings before issuing their works, not to mention the patience and tolerance manifested
by their families and relatives while all this is going on.

We salute them and we hope that there will be special and honoured places reserved for them in the
Philatelic Club up in the sky. Meanwhile, we in the CSRP will continue to give them all possible
encouragement in disseminating their investigations, within and without the Journal Fund- The more we
popularise the publications in our own fields, the more we all stand to benefit.


5-10 October 1999
SOFIA. BULGARIA
National Palace of Cult







The Europen Philateb Ex~ibirion "
GARI.-Vo is orgamnsed by the Fo
lio.n of the same name "European
lelic Exhibition "BULGARIA'9W
Cnmmittee of the Poit and Telecomr
catiLkn and the "Buli.man Posl." I


* *
SPECIAL NOTE: A Report on this show
will appear in "The Post-Rider" No. 46.
MEMBERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL JURY
ture
SHONOURED PRESIDENT KNUD MOHR president of FTP
PRESIDENT CHRISTO NIKOLTCHEV BULGARIA
VICE PRESIDENT INGOLF KAPELRUD, president of FEPA
VICE PRESIDENT JOSEPH WOLFF FIP- LUXEMBOURG
SECRETARY ANTHONY VIRVILIS- FEPA, GREECE


BUI -
BUL.
unda-
Phila-
",ihe
muruni-
' I


Members:
DETCHO DETCHEV BULGARIA
HUBERT HAVRENNE BELGUIM
JANE MOUBRAY GREAT BRITAIN
JOSE ANTONIO HERNAN SPAIN
JUSSI TUORI FINLAND
NICOS RANGOS CYPRUS
LEO CRANDEL NETHERLANDS
THE POST-RIDER/IIMII(HK N& 45
November, 1999


PAUL JENSEN NORWAY
VIT VANIMEK CZEHIA
VJACHESLAV KLOTCHKO RUSSIA
ZIYA A6AOGULLARI TURKEY
Expert team for the European Philatelic
Exhibition "BULGARIA'99":
ANDREW CRONIN CANADA
IVAN KOSTOV BULGARIA
REINHARD SCHMIDT GERMANY






CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this journal.
Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to Canada is invited
to share it with the readership by forwarding a photograph or xerox
copy of the item to the Editor, along with some explanatory text.

A REGISTERED POSTCARD FROM MOSCOW TO CANADA IN 1901
by Dr. Andres Jorge Schlichter.


g n


S* L o n g ViP-o ioi n t
-' r k t'1 ^---- -- '^-- -^ ^
>'l 2Z7 a n gC- a-"'
..Oentil- Signo \/
etto scmpra arncora vostra ris-
posta. *lla mia raccommanda-ta dal. 22.;- Marzo st.v, con
francobolli etc. o vi prego ancorluna volta a voler-
mi xispondere senza piu di ritarioo di ritornarmi
il contenuto della mia lett-ra.
Jn attcsa vi saluto distitamenpte

Mosox., ii 27/9 Agosto 1901

--------- ---- ------------* -


9M A1 r. V i c to.r R ut r. t
..... 4b,,. ...... .... ..... ..... ,a. _

._-.-L_ .. .---. -..._ --_. i..- _.i. n _a -Masco -.
$i 1746. a. Aa-n a


-if this l ----tter-..anr---- -b d- liv.rd--
in 10 days p-


Registered postcards are unusual and this one with the correct postage of 14 kopeks was posted in Moscow on
9 August 1901 N.S. (the postmark shows 27.VII.1901 O.S.). It bears a "3AKA3HOE" cachet at top left as an
indication for registration, as well as the circular "R" and the R-label in UPU type for Moscow. This Russian
formula postcard with the Imperial Arms at top left is addressed to an Italian, Mr. Victor Ruggeri in Long
Point, Quebec, Canada and is written in that language.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIINHK N 45
November, 1999


TUTEFLITOE IIHIGbM-1-M
R u S S i a i.


1 7IN


__


a// "L,'
V .r r






While the front side of the postcard is interesting, the reverse is still more. It shows an oval postmark,
reading "DEUTSCH-AMERIKANISCHE SEEPOST / BREMEN / NEW YORK, 14.8.01 N.S." and
apparently with the Roman number "V". That postmark was applied by the German mail clerk on board a
Norddeutscher Lloyd ship, who was in charge of the reclassification of registered mail. Such a postmark was
mostly applied to letters posted on board, or to mail that came on board at intermediate ports before arrival
in New York. The remaining postmarks on the card are of Montr6al in transit on 21st. August and two
arrival markings of Long Point, Que., the same day.

The typewritten message in excellent Italian reads as follows:-
"Dear Sir,
I await still further your reply to my registered letter of 22 March O.S. with stamps, etc. and I ask
you once again to be good enough to reply without any more delay, or to return to me the contents of my
letter.
Thanking you in anticipation,
Moscow, 27 July / 9 August 1901. J. George Siering".

One hopes that Mr. Siering did receive a satisfactory settlement of his request!

SPECIAL NOTE
The 200th. Anniversary of the birth of Russia's greatest poet A.S. Pushkin.

p^ In addition to the Russian Federation, this event has also been commemorated this
This year philatelically by both Belarus' and the Ukraine. Apart from a special stamp,
Commemorative postmarks were also applied in the Ukraine and a strike from Odessa
Sis shown herewith.

d .9 In continuation of the policy of the CSRP to provide background information and an
appreciation of Russian culture, we would like to recommend to prospective visitors
to Russia that they include a trip to the Pushkin Museum Nature Preserve, situated at Pushkinskie Gory, a
town in the province of Pskov and 360 km. (225 miles) south of St. Petersburg. This Preserve includes
Mikhailovskoe and two other estates, which were the property of the Pushkin family and their close friends.

There is also a recreation from the late 1940s of the house where A.S. Pushkin wrote most of "Evgenii
Onegin" and also "Boris Godunov". It had been rebuilt after fires in the early part of this century and was
destroyed again by the Nazi invaders during WWII. The poet is buried nearby in the Svyatogorskii
Monastery of the Dormition and there are literary conferences held every August in his honour.

There is a 900-bed hotel at Pushkinskie Gory and guest houses at Mikhailovskoe and Trigorskoe. For further
information on festivities and accommodation, visitors may contact the Pushkin Museum Nature Preserve at
telephone (7-81146) 21762, or its Travel Office at (7-81146) 23352. The Pskovintour Travel Agency in
Pskov, telephone (7-8112) 72-00-06 is fluent in English and offers accommodation and tours.

Statues of .
Alexander
Pushkin
and Adam
Mickiewicz ..--
in Minsk. "


4 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N 45
November, 1999








ZEMSTVO VARIETIES: FIFTH INSTALMENT

by G.G. Werbizky.
This is a continuation of Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given Zemstvo is
omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean that varieties
do not exist. It is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that or other Zemstvos. What is
shown here is what I have in my collection.


BUGURUSLAN, Samara province.


Chuchin No. 7. Block of 10, one row inverted with respect to the row below it.


.~rl~c~i
r
.c:-


,.; i~


-
I





~"i'C~c/
,----~


`It


J ,

S...


4h


'?A '*


-i .. .


Chuchin No. 7. Fifth edition, oily and permeating print. This block fits the description and sheet layout as
given in the Zemstvo catalogue by A. Artuchov, p. 199. The handwritten note "1880 issue" must be in error.


BUZULUK, Samara province.
Chuchin Nos. 11-27 are stamps of similar design, with many editions difficult to distinguish one from the
other. Therefore, my identification may not be correct.


.. I"





Chuchin No. 11, 2nd. edition, tete-beche pair. Chuchin No. 24,

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N2 45
November, 1999


)lock of 4, two stamps couch (sideways).

5


-1 I.C I *.Ii rl~




9~~1 *.


T- 7


-- : -'


j. r








BEZHETSK, Tver' province.


SMapN? Mapupaa .


c
le. a, I oZ


Chuchin No. 7. The stamp on
the left is a variety: the crown
is separated into seven
sections instead offour. This
is the ninth stamp in a row often.
The sheet is laid out 10 x 10.


Chuchin No. 8, block of four. The sheet was
printed 5 x 2, the bottom row being inverted
with respect to the top row.


3e.9;R -li




Y 9 d V Ki







---a -a-a


Chuchin No.13. Tete-beche
vertical pair. Stamps 9-13
were printed in sheets 5 x 3,
the bottom row being
inverted with respect to the
two rows above it.


'9 WI .i =-, V
'I T 161 _



) '' 9' i' -
L 0 a C
A~r


C C3 CLh C~P Q~i yrj r.
i
;il ;
4 ~,,
ii; 11~~ 111 ~~1 Ilrr
C .E, 3 ~ ~O ~.~~


I rI..jj



i I1 1~1i.
-- -dii~


II.


a~~-- a-~t


I-----------------
Chuchin Nos. 17 (small stamps) and 21 (large stamps). The small and large stamps were printed together on
the same sheet, with the outer rows of five being large stamps and the two middle rows of six consisting of
small stamps. This layout applies for stamps Nos. 14-21.


6 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIHHK NM 45
November, 1999






BLAGOVESHCHENSK TETE-BECHE NOT MYSTERIOUS
by George G. Werbizky.

In "The Post-Rider" No. 44 for June 1999, p. 39, three philatelists: G. Kul'chitskii, V. Ustinovskii and 0.
Forafontov discussed the discovery of a tete-beche pair, Scott No. 46a, the 30-rouble value in dark violet in
an article entitled "A Mysterious T8te-Beche Variety of Blagoveshchensk/Amur". This tte-beche pair had
large margins at right and at left and, as the authors claim, could not have come from a sheet.. The sheet
layout is not specifically described. The tete-beche pair was subjected to various tests and the conclusion
reached was that it was genuine. The only difference between this tete-beche pair and regular stamps was the
observation that it "glowed more white". It was also concluded that the tete-beche pair was "printed from a
genuine transfer, but did not come from a sheet".

Apparently, the authors did not have access to a complete sheet and postulated that the sheet had a standard
layout of 100 stamps, grouped into 4 panes of 25 units, or of 200 stamps, grouped 8 x 25. Not so! The 30-
rouble sheet, in addition to 8 groups of 25 units, has at the bottom a double row of 25 stamps at 90 degrees to
the eight main groups. The margins at right and left are ample: at right the margin is 18.5 mm., while at left
it is 9.5 mm, as measured from the dotted frame line to the edge of the sheet and from the dotted frame line
to the dotted frame line of the stamp above it. Therefore, it is my judgement that the "mysterious" tete-beche
pair and other wide-margin tete-beches come from this unique strip at the bottom of the sheet. Both the strip
A
and three similar tete-beche pairs are shown overleaf with this article. There were also two articles in the
Rossica Journal, describing the 30-rouble sheet and showing the stamp layout (see [a] G.G. Werbizky: "The
Postage Stamps of Siberia Additional Comments and Illustrations", Rossica No. 115 for October 1990 and
[b] G.G. Werbizky: "Puzzle Solved BLAGOVESHCHENSK 30-rouble Sheet", Rossica No. 118 for April
1992).

The "glowing more white" effect has several explanations: how was this tete-beche pair stored, was it
exposed or not, how clean was the paper, did volatile substances in the paper have greater or lesser
opportunity to escape, etc. A test of my stock with an ultra-violet lamp of two wave lengths (long and short)
showed no difference among all the stamps and sheets. Wide-margin 30-rouble tete-beche pairs are not all
that scarce. However, the end position of the strip with the blank space next to the 25th. stamp is scarce. A
significant find would be a used block of four with one position left blank.

I have in my collection one 5-rouble sheet, separated in the middle. The left half consists of 4 panes of 25
stamps with two tete-beche pairs in the second (upper right) block of 25 units. The layout of the right half is
also 4 x 25; the top group of 25 (5 x 5) has three tete-beche pairs, all at the beginning of rows 3, 4 and 5;
there are no tete-beche pairs in the second and third panes of 25, while the fourth left-hand group at bottom
has a peculiar layout: the last two stamps in rows 3 and 4 are reversed, while in the last row, stamps 22 to 25
are reversed! The sheet does not appear to have been trimmed, but I cannot be certain. There does not seem
to have been groups of stamps at 90 degrees to the main body, as on the 30-rouble sheet.

Annulment.
As reported to me in private correspondence by a stamp dealer in the U.S., the late Adolf Ernst of Unusual
Stamp Service, the Blagoveshchensk remainders were purchased from the Postal Ministry in Moscow by
"the New York dealer Michael Gluck" who, after a while, sold what was left to Mr. Ernst. By that time,
"sheets were separated into smaller blocks, because the tete-be"ches have been cut out". At the time of
purchase by Mr. Gluck, all the sheets were annulled with a crayon: a single line, or with a bar overprint. The
colours of the crayons used were light blue, green or red. The overprint was in black: parallel lines,
horizontal or vertical, or diamond-shaped, similar to the cancellations of stamps on the savings bank cards.
Editorial Comment: Very many thanks are due to Mr. Werbizky for his valuable corrections, which were
confirmed by A. Ivakhno, Michael Ercolini and V. Ustinovskii. Mr. Werbizky's holdings are shown overleaf.
THE POST-RIDER/IaMIIHK N 45 7
November, 1999










^r
'<
* i


5-rouble value: left half of the printer's sheet-,




it

'' 5 i5 M AE
f i jj................... .i
4j 10 14, 0, 80!




A I, In, 5 TSAE : 5 11
.. .. I ----- -. ..... .
..... .. .. .. .. ...- -- --- -
I'bt ~ lnai
!Lg m~l gi~i; nln~~! Intlr ,san i! j ~nlrl ImNO

IN 2 ,151111 5 TIAE
4' 4'j d ------
r .. ........ ... .. .. ......... ~ f;J J~i


/I i r ii I t

CI1P 41 4' 4 41
;:I::.l::~ _:::........... ..........lii _~l' I .... ... .......... ....
........... ........ ...... .... -- ---- ........
... .. F- .- ..... --- -- -- -- I
V4i

5 FI SE 5M R C
-Y 4t1 cio C, Iid~~il) m'~i

it i
]In~rT I~d 5
MIRPi i


j! P
............... ...... ............. ... ........ ....... ...




it 5~ i
PIIEA AA 5mr
.... ........ I ............. .. ............... i
e:: Ib di i j 1b 4,:`b Ib b cT!:b




P, cii Joii ,i
..... ...... ... ...~....... ~"
40 NO ei:40 '10 l



t i jJ:I Pii I





-I-'ib r~C 415 Pi PiiA CiS


............. ... .. ........ ..... ............... -- --- ------- Ir----- -- -



IrNovember, 1999






- -- 5-rouble value: right half of the printer's sheet.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK ?q 45 9
November, 1999






30-rouble value: Multiples and sheet layout.


two stamps
missing Mi! 'n ia

I. .. .. ..


SI



; c *

10 THE POST-RIDER/5IMlHK N2 45
November, 1999









POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov


SHATSK
IIIAUK
(Tambov Province)


Shatsk is located in the north central portion of the province. In 1870, the population was
less than 5,000.

Shatsk is in an area with rich agricultural land. Wheat and hemp were the main
agricultural products and the area was also noted for its sheep herds. A small distillery
was also located in the town.

Shatsk issued stamps between 1871 and 1879 and again between 1884 and 1916.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Blue background with green grass and golden behive and bees.
Bottom: Silver background with crossed wheat sheaths in yellow brown.


First Stamp Issuing Period
1871
19.5 x 30.66 mm lithographed in black on yellowish white paper 0.09 0.10 mm thick,
imperforate.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIUIK Nq 45
November, 1999









1. 3 kop. black


RR
(13 known)


1873 (end)
Similar to preceding issue except that the numeral 3 has a round head and there is a
double wavy line under 3 k. 19 x 29.75 mm lithographed in black on grayish white
paper 0.11 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 9 x 5, imperforate.


2. 3 kop. black, black gray


10.00


1874
At the end of 1874 the postal rates were increased from 3 to 5 kop. The remaining stock
of the first issue was reevaluated by changing the 3 into a 5 in pen and ink. According to
Schmidt only 1 copy of this stamp exists which he found in 1917.


3. 5 by hand in No. 1


RRRR
(1 known)


1874
Similar to the issue of 1873, the shield is narrower and taller, the letters of the inscription
are smaller, there is no wavy line under UITbHA 5K. lithographed in black on grayish
white paper 0.13 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 53 in a 8 x 6 + 5 at the bottom,
imperforate.


4. 5 kop. black, black gray


2.00


Variety:
Without a period after YIIPABbI.


The Sheet


ii jiljj


* Top of Stamp


12 THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIHMK N 45
November, 1999








Proof or Forgery?
Similar to the stamps of this issue but with smaller letters and numrals of value,
lithographed on white paper 0.16 mm thick.

- 5 kop. brown

Plate Flaw


The 46th stamp on the sheet which is se-tenant contains a Y in the
word YlIPABbI with a black line that cuts across the Y the line
also appears on the stamp next to it.


After this issue the mail was delivered free of charge until January 1, 1884.


Second Stamp Issuing Period 1884 1917
1884 (January 1)
31.5 x 21.5 mm, lithographed in black on white paper 0.15 mm thick, streaky brown gum
which is unevenly applied, the indication of value is in the centre of the stamp and is
abbreviated with the word after the 3 as Konl-iK., sheet of 2 x 2 in 2 groups with 2 types
each placed horizontally side by side with the top group inverted, imperforate.


5. 3 kop. black


2.00


The Sheet


wwO


The Two Types
Type 1 The third curved line from the top is a single thick line.
Type 2 The third curved line has an additional thin line parallel to it for about 2/3
of the way.


THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK Na 45
November, 1999


-Z41








1884
Similar to the previous issue, the word KOHITBIKHI in the centre of the stamp is not
abbreviated, 31.5 x 21 21.66 mm lithographed in black on yellowish white paper 0.13
mm thick, brownish gray gum, imperforate 2 editions.

First Edition (1884)
Sheet of 4 x 1 in 2 groups next to each other with the first group inverted, two types in
each group.


6. 3 kop. black


2.00


The Sheet


The 2 Types
Type 1 -

Type 2 -


wwww


The second curved line (from the top) has a break, the thick bottom
curved line is damaged.
The third curved line has a break in it.


Second Edition (August, 1884)
Sheet of 4 x 4 in 2 groups of 2 x 4 with the left half inverted.

7. 3 kop. black


The Sheet


THE POST-RIDER/I1MIlHK N 45
November, 1999


2.00


t^ E 1 1 21
~~1F 1 F2iIZ


nn T 3 4

ww w w4


I









The 4 Types
Type 1-

Type 2 -
Type 3 -

Type 4 -


As type 2 of the first edition, the thin line is retouched, thick lines without
breaks.
Similar to type 1 of the first edition.
Similar to type 2 of the first edition, a break in the thick curved bottom
line.
As type 1, the retouched thin line over the second thick line is uneven.


1886-1887
Similar to the issue of 1884, a period after the word KOII'BHKH in the centre of the
stamp, lithographed on various papers, imperforate, 2 types, 31.5 x 21.66 mm for type 1
and 31.75 x 21 mm for type 2, 2 editions.


First Edition (1886)
White or yellowish white paper 0.17 0.2 mm thick, brownish unevenly applied gum,
sheet of 4 x 2 in 2 groups of 2 x 2 with the left group inverted, the distance between the
groups varies, 2 types.

8. 3 kop. black 3.00


The Sheet


The 2 Types
Type 1 -

Type 2 -


The inner top curved framelines are cut short on the left, the iner bottom
frameline has a kink in the centre.
The inner top curved framelines at the left side form a single thick line
with a kink and touch the bottom outer frameline.


Second Edition (1887)
Soft brownish white paper 0.1 mm thick, brownish gum unevenly applied, sheet of 20 in
2 groups of 2 x 4 with the left half inverted with an additional 2 stamps attached to each
group.


9. 3 kop. black


5.00


THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIHK N2 45
November, 1999


I T 1 2
T 1 2









1888
Typographed in black on grayish white paper 0.12 mm thick, 23.5 at bottom and 24 at
top x 42 mm imperforate.










10. 3 kop. black RRRR

(1 known)

This was either a very limited issue that was used for a very limited time or the stamps
may have been withdrawn from use as a result of their large and impractical size.


1888 (April)
Typeset, similar to the previous issue with the coat of arms in the centre but in a smaller
size of 21.5 x 31 mm typographed on coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, rouletted 7.75 with
imperforate sheet margins, sheet of 8 x 3, with the first vertical row inverted and with
only the 2nd and 3rd stamps on the first row inverted on some sheets, the first row is
printed at a different height and different distance between stamps on every sheet.


U ,;
IB '1




11. 3 kop. black on rose paper 5.00


1888 (June 10)
Similar to the previous issue, the coat of arms in the centre and the inscriptions are
smaller, 18.5 18.75 x 26 mm lithographed in black on coloured paper 0.08 mm thick,
dark brown gum which often caused the colour of the paper to appear as being brown
gray or ash gray, sheet of 4 x 5 with 4 types in each horizontal row, rouletted 8, with
sheet margins, imperforate.

12. 3 kop. black on blue gray paper 1.00


16 THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK 45
November, 1999








The Sheet


The 4 Types:
Type 1 -
Type 2 -
Type 3 -
Type 4 -

Type 1


/jas~


2 13


4
4


Break on the left over the letter III and on the right over the letter bI.
Break on the left over the letter O and on the right over the letter n.
Break on the left over the letter O and on the right over the letter O.
Break on the left over the letter 1 and on the right over the letter O.


Type 2


i0
I


Type 3


So0.
I KI


Type 4


0 1 .


1889
17 x 22.33 mm, lithographed in black or colour on various paper, separated by thin lines,
2 editions.


r; w7..;- 7& '


First Edition (Jan. 12, 1889)
White paper 0.11 mm thick, brownish gum, sheet of 8 x 8, perforated 11.5, sewing
machine perforated 11 12.5 and imperforate.

13. 3 kop. rose, imperforate 1.00

14. 3 kop. rose, sewing machine perforated 11 12.5 1.00


15. 3 kop. rose, perforated 11.5

Variety: Broken circle in upper left corer.


5.00


THE POST-RIDER/ISMIIIIK N 45
November, 1999


0 oo-









Second Edition (March, 1889)
Shiny coloured paper 0.11 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 8 x 8, imperforate or
sewing machine perforated 11.


16. 3 kop. black on carmine paper, imperforate


1.00

2.00


17. 3 kop. black on carmine paper, sewing machine perforated 11


Variety: Broken circle in upper left corer.


The Sheet


56785678
12341234
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
56785678
12341234
56785678
S2 3 L 2 567856783 4
5 65 17 1 El ,


1889 (September)
Similar to the issue of June 1888, the inscriptions are smaller, 19.5 x 27 mm,
typographed on coloured paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 8 x 5 with the right
half inverted and 4 types in each horizontal row, each row was printed separately under
each other, double impressions are known, imperforate.


18. 3 kop. black on rose paper


The Sheet


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N2 45
November, 1999


1.00








The 4 Types:
Type 1 Without a period after the letter K, the crown is damaged.
Type 2 The cross on the crown is broken.



Type 3 A large period after the letter K.
Type 4 A very small period after the letter K.


1889 (end)
Similar to the issues of January and March of 1889, the 2 rosettes in the oval have been
replaced by a star shaped ornament, 17 x 22.5 mm lithographed in colour on various
papers, sheet of 8 x 8, the first stamp on the sheet is with the date of 1889 in the upper
corners with 18 on the left side and 89 on the right.

On white paper 0.11 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, perforated 11.5 and imperforate.

19. 3 kop. red 1.00
with 1889 in the upper corners 50.00
imperforate 20.00

On gray paper 0.15 mm thick brownish yellow gum, perforated 11.5.

20. 3 kop. red 2.00
with 1889 in the upper corners 50.00


1891
Similar to the previous issue, the crown is wider and not as tall, there are small crosses in
the oval instead of the stars, same size as the previous issue, lithographed in black on
coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, shiny brownish yellow gum, sheet of 8 x 10, perforated
11.5.

21.3 kop. black on rose paper 1.00

Proofs:
A considerable amount of proofs or perhaps printer's waste have been reported. The
small crosses at the sides of the oval have 4 small white dots added to them. These dots
and the crosses often appear as formless white spots. The sheet was 9 x 8 with the
bottom half inverted. There were no separating lines between the stamps. Several
varieties are found on the sheet.

A. Without a numeral in the NE corner, 8th stamp in the 1st and 6th horizontal rows.



THE POST-RIDER/IMII(K i 45 19
November, 1999









B. Without rosettes on the sides of the oval, the 1st stamp in the 6th horizontal row.

C. Cross with dots in 4 comers, 2nd stamp in the 6th horizontal row, 1st stamp in the 7th
horizontal row and the Ist and 2nd stamps in the last horizontal row.

On white or coloured paper 0.12 mm thick, brownish gum, imperforate

- 3 kop. black
- 3 kop. black on rose paper
- 3 kop. black on shiny rose paper

On coloured paper 0.08 mm thick, no gum, imperforate

- 3 kop. gold on white paper
- 3 kop. gold on rose paper
- 3 kop. gold on violet paper

On stiff white paper 0.09 mm thick, no gum, imperforate

- 3 kop. dark blue
- 3 kop. blue on yellowish paper

On white paper 0.1 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, perforated and imperforate

- 3 kop. rose
- 3 kop. rose perf. 11.5 (also perforated double vertically or horizontally through the
stamp)


1893 (Beginning)
Similar to the issue of Sept. 1889, typeset, the top inscription is flatter, the letters with
the inscription are on the right side are closer together, 19.5 x 27.25 mm typographed in
water soluable ink on coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum, sheet unknown,
rouletted 10.5 with imperforate sheet margins, 3 types are known.

22. 3 kop. black on rose paper RR
(12 known)


The 3 Types:
Type 1 -
Type 2 -
Type 3 -


The crown is damaged.
The last letter of the top inscription is almost vertical.
The top inscription is not centred and is nearer to the right frameline.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIIK N 45
November, 1999


I








1893 (April)
Similar to the last issue of 1889, there is a swarm of bees on the hive instead of only 3
bees, same size, lithographed in black on coloured paper 0.1 mm thick, shiny brownish
yellow gum, sheet of 8 x 10, perforated 11.5 and also known imperforate vertically.

23. 3 kop. black on rose paper 0.50

Variety: KCn instead of KOH.


1895
Similar to the first issue of 1893, the upper and lower inscriptions are spread out further,
19.5 x 27.5 mm typographed in black on coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum,
sheet of 3 x 5 with 3 types, rouletted 6.5, imperforate sheet margins.

24. 3 kop. black on rose paper 0.75

The Sheet

1 2 3

1 2 3
1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3



The 3 Types:
Type 1 The top of the letter C of the word 3EMCKOPI has a round dot instead
of a serif, there is a vertical scratch across both sheaths of wheat above the
letters PK of the word MAPKA, there is a white spot on the left bottom
corner of the shield outline. /




Type 2 The crown is slightly damaged on the right side, there is a break in the left
leg of the letter A of the word IIIAIKOdI.




/
THE POST-RIDER/JMIIHK Nq 45 21
November, 1999









Type3 -


There is a break in the right vertical stroke of the letter f1 of the word
IIIALUKOII, the pearl on top of the cross is broken and has the
appearance of 2 small horns, there is a break in the letter 3, there are
black spots inside the letters M and K of the word 3EMCKOH.

3?Hl


1895
Similar to the previous issue of 1895, the upper inscription is in a straight line, 19.5 x 27
mm typographed in black on coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, brownish yellow gum,
sheet of 4 x 5 with 4 types in each horizontal row, each row is printed separately with the
distance between rows 3.5 5 mm (it varies on every sheet), pin perforated 17.5 with the
sheet margins being mostly imperforate.





MAPI,%.3 0I


25. 3 kop. black on blue green paper


0.50


The 4 Types:
Type 1-

Type 2 -

Type 3 -

Type 4 -


Bent frameline on the right, the first a in the word MAPKA is in the lower
case.
There is a break in the frameline at the top, the word MAPKA contains
upper case letters only.
The head of the letter C of the word 3EMCKOAi is in the shape of a ball,
the p and the second a are in the lower case of the word MAPKA.
The corner and side of the shield and the cross on the crown are damaged,
the word MAPKA is all in upper case letters.


Type 3


.-_


Type 4





-a


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK Nh 45
November, 1999


I









1896 -1897
Similar to previous issue, letters in the top inscription are closer together, the same types
as for the previous issue but with some differences and rearranged 3+4+2+1, the print,
the paper and the perforations remain the same, 2 editions.


First Edition (November, 1896)
Sheet of 4 x 6, length of the printing block is 87.75 mm 4 types placed horizontally.

26. 3 kop. black on a yellow green paper 0.50

The Sheet

1 2 3 4
12 34
1 2 34
12 34
12 34
1 2 3 4
1234


The 4 Types:
Type 1 Similar to the previous type 4, coat of arms as for type 1.
Type 2 Similar to the previous type 3, coat of arms as for type 4.
Type 3 Similar to the previous type 2 but without a break in the top frameline.
Type 4 Similar to the previous type 1 but with a wide numeral 3.


Second Edition (May, 1897)
Wider space between stamps, length of the printing block is 91.5 mm, sheet of 4 x 5 with
the same 4 types as for the 1st edition.

27. 3 kop. black on a bright yellow green paper 2.00



1898-1904
Similar to the previous issue, typographed in black on coloured paper 0.08 mm thick,
white gum, new set up using some of the previous material used for previous issues,
printing block with 4 types placed horizontally, pin perforated, 6 editions.




THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK N 45 23
November, 1999










First Edition (July, 1898)
Sheet of 4 x 5, length of printing block 92.5 mm space between stamps is 3.75 4.0
mm, pin perforated 16, sheet margins are mostly imperforate.


28. 3 kop. black on blue green paper


The Sheet


12 34
12 34
12 34

12 34
12 34


0.50


T.1


The 4 Types:
Type 1 -
Type 2 -
Type 3 -

Type 4 -


The left leg of the letter M of the word MAPKA is damaged.
Bent wide framelines on the right, wide numeral 3.
The shield and the cross on the crown are damaged identically to the 1895
issue in green, wide numeral 3. T.4
The crown is damaged on the right, there is a break in the top frameline.


Second Edition (1899)
Sheet of 4 x 5, length of printing block is 85.25 mm the place between stamps is 2.25 -
2.5 mm, the same types as on the first edition but rearranged 2+3+4+1, pin perforated 16
and also known imperforate vertically and on the sheet margins.

29. 3 kop. black, black-gray on blue green paper 0.50

The Sheet


2 3 411


2 3 4 1
2 3 4 1
2 3 4 1
2341


THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIN K M! 45
November, 1999


I









Third Edition (August,1899)
Similar to the 2nd edition except that it is rouletted 6.5 7.5, the sheet margins are
partly imperforate.

30. 3 kop. black, black gray on blue green paper 5.00

Fourth Edition (June, 1901)
Sheet of 4 x 6, the length of the printing block is 90.0 mm the space between stamps is
4 mm, rouletted in lines 6.5 7.5, the sheet margins are partly imperforate.

31.3 kop. black on a blue green paper 1.50


The Sheet and the 4 Types:

Stamp 1 Type 2 with the coat of arms of type 3 and with deformed K and O of the
word IIIALKOH.
Stamp 2 Type 3 with the coat of arms of type 2 with a deformed I of the word
3EMCKOH.
Stamps 3 and 4 are unchanged the arrangement of the types on the sheet is
(2+3)+(3+2)+4+1.


The Sheet


2 3
+ + 4 1
3 2
2 3
+ + 4 1
3 2
2 3
+ + 4 1
3 2
2 3
S+ 4 1
3 2
2 3
+ + 4 1
3 2
2 3
+ + 4 1
3 2





THE POST-RIDER/IMImIK KN 45 25
November, 1999









Fifth Edition (April, 1902)
Sheet of 4 x 6, length of printing block is 90.5 mm, rouletted 6.5 7.5, perforated sheet
margins, the colour of the paper is slightly lighter, the letter O of the word IIIAIJKO4 is
undamaged.

31. 3 kop. black on green paper 1.50


Sixth Edition (1904)
Sheet of 4 x 5, differs from the 5th edition by the size of the sheet while single copies are
of the same size.

32. 3 kop. black on green paper 0.75


1904- 1908
22 x 28 28.25 mm, typographed in black on coloured paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum,
similar to previous issue with the same coat of arms but with inscriptions in a different
type, perforated 11.5, some of the sheets have imperforate sheet margins, 3 editions.

First Edition, ((September, 1904)
Sheet of 10 x 5 with 5 types in each vertical row, this stamp is very similar to the stamps
of the earlier issues except that the letters of the inscription are in a different type, the
same coat of arms and crown were again used and some of the flaws found on earlier
issues are again apparent.

33. 3 kop. black on a gray green paper 0.75


The 5 Types:
Type 1 The crown above the shield is not centred and is nearer to the top right
corer of the shield, there is a dent in the outline of the shield on the left
next to the sheaths of wheat.
Type 2 None of the flaws of the other types.
Type 3 A dent in the crown on the right which is the same flaw that is on the
stamps of the earlier issues.
Type 4 Damaged shield and broken cross on crown and with some flaws as on the
stamps of earlier issues.
Type 5 A vertical white scratch across the sheath of wheat, some flaws are the
same as on the stamps of previous issues.

Second Edition (January 1, 1907)
Sheet of 10 x 5, with 5 types in each vertical row, the types differ from the types of the
1st edition, while the shields and the crown remain the same the the framelines consist of
single solid lines. -to be continued-


26
THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIHK N2 45
November, 1999






BESSARABIA: A GUBERNIYA POSTAL HISTORY PROJECT
by Andrew Cronin.

The Canadian Society of Russian Philately has decided to initiate the mapping of the postal history of a
specific guberniya or province of the Russian Empire, with the emphasis on Marcophily, i.e. the
classification, evaluation and recording of the various postmark types. Bessarabia has been selected as the
most worthy candidate to start the project, for the following reasons:-
(a) Bessarabian postal history constitutes a compact area of study, which basically ended with the dissolution
of the Russian Empire, including eight months under the Provisional Government and a bare three
months under Soviet rule.
(b) The ethnic composition of the province was very mixed: Bulgarians, Gagauzlar (Turkish-speaking
Christians), German colonists,Gypsies, Jews, Moldavians, Russians and Ukrainians.
(c) An international precedent has already been set, as your editor displayed five frames of
Bessarabian postal history at the HAFNIA '87 Exhibition in Copenhagen, Denmark.

It is proposed that CSRP members send in details of the Bessarabian postmarks in their possession and a
start will then be made to classify and evaluate them in a series of articles. Professor A.S. Ilyushin of
Moscow has already come through with an array of markings and there is no doubt that we will eventually
be able to identify some rare and even very rare strikes. The project has already been discussed with Philip
Robinson of England and he very kindly forwarded a print-out of Bessarabian ; offices in the Imperial
period. It is given here in the pages that follow, with explanations and in the old spelling then in use. There
is always the possibility of spotting some surprising items and two examples are featured here to start the
ball rolling:-


-Ca rte postale.-
u:nion po eiselle:-- Weltpostverein. Unione postal universal.


Q4'- U "e ..resse. ', .-.-.-0

-7)

.: -ro.h. .
V: Uhren-Groshandl

U.- Oq : -'9-0

o' *----*-- *--, ---- -.*...,....-.. _.. --- --.


(a) A Swiss postcard above at left, sent from Biel (Bienne) 25.VI.1901 N.S.and addressed to Belgrade,
Serbia. The Swiss sorter assumed that "BELGRAD" must be somewhere in the Russian Empire and it was
handled by the border office ofBrest-Litovsk Moscow-Brest Railway Station on 18.6.01 O.S. It was decided
there to forward the card to Belgorod, Kursk province on 24.6 O.S. Belgorod said: "MInsbli Boxe, 3TO He
gnia Hac!" and it was carried by two TPOs/RPOs on 25 & 26 O.S. to Bolgrad, the capital of the Bulgarian
settlements in South Bessarabia, which it reached on 29.6 O.S. Being of Balkan origin, the staff at Bolgrad
was able to recognize the destination as the Serbian capital and it arrived on 4.7 O.S. Absolutely incredible!
THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHK Ns 45 27
November, 1999






(b) Please refer to the 50-kopek and 1-rouble Imperial Arms stamps shown on the previous page, both of
them cancelled IVANOVKA-BOLGARSKAYA "a" on 20.12.06 and 17.8.06 respectively. This was another
Bulgarian settlement in the Budzhak steppe of Southern Bessarabia. CSRP members will note from the
listing hereunder that there was also an IVANOVKA-RUSSKAYA in Bessarabia, a marking from which
office your editor has yet to find. It would make a nice pair.

Now to the listing, the columns of which are as follows. The first has a reference number assigned by
Messrs A. Kiryushkin & P. Robinson; the second gives the place-name; the third the abbreviated guberniya
name "bess"; the fourth the uezd or county, namely:-
akk = Akkerman, bel = Bel'tsy, ben = Bendery, khot = Khotin, izm = Izmail, kish = Kishinedv, org = Orgeev
and sor = Soroki;
the fifth the year-month date (please prefix with a "1" for the full year); the sixth the data column about
opening, closing, renaming, moving etc. and finally, the seventh column denoting the status of an office,
including for "BojocTHis npaBJneHi" (district administrations of various types and abbreviated "vp")'

Prov. Uezd Year/ Office
No. Place- Name Name (County) month Info. status
58 ABAOPMA bes ben 878.06.. o ps
59 ABAOPMA bes ben 891.01 s ps-po
60 ABAOPMA bes ben 916.02. s su-po
61 ABAOPMCKOE bes ben 905.10.. o su
71 ABPAMEHbl(BPAHEUWTbl) bes bel 911.08.. o p1o
159 AKKEPMAHb bes akk 885.02.. s pu-p'u
160 AKKEPMAHb bes akk 885.12.. s pu-p'li
224 AJBOTA bes izm 91203.. o p
900 APIM3"b bes akk 887.02. s pu-ptu
901 APQM31b bes akk 887.07 s pu-pto
963 ATAKM bes sor 830.01 = po
964 ATAKM bes sor 878.06 s pk-po
965 ATAKM bes sor 900.09.. s po-p
966 ATAKM bes sor 916..... = p
1099 BAAMIAHCKOE bes sor 901.01.. vp
1100 BAAMMAHbl bes sor 916.02. s vp-p
1150 BAMMAKJlIF bes izm 890.08. o po
1151 BAMMAKnlIF bes izn 905.06.. s po-po
1152 BAMMAKlKjI bes izm 915.072 s pto-pi
1153 EBAI;PAMA bes akk 887.02.. s pu-ptu
1154 BAIPAMqA bes akk 887.07 s pu-pto
1288 BAHEUWTbl bes ? 859.10.. o ps
1544 EEHAEPbl bes ben 830.01 =pk
1545 BEHAEPbl bes ben 885.09. s pu-ptu
1546 BEHAEPbl bes ben 885.12. s pu-ptk
1547 BEHAEPbl bes ben 916..... jdpo
1927 BIIlbibi bes bel 830.01 = pk
1928 BtIbLNbi bes bel 885.02. s pu-ptu
1929 -blIlbi4bl bes bel 885.12. s pu-pk
2304 BOJlFPAAb bes Izm 8410.. o po
2305 BOJPI1-AA bes izn 885.02. s pu-ptu
2306 BO6IPAA'b bes izm 885.12. s pu-pt
2311 BOJIAYPEUTCKOE bes kish 905.09. o vp
2312 BOJAYPEUTbl bes kish 916.02. s p-po
2322 BOJ1OTMHO bes bel 916.04.. o po
2698 BOPOAMHCKAF bes akk 875.10.. o ps
2715 BOPOCEHCKAFI bes xss 878.09.. o ps
2777 BPABMWA bes org 910.08.. o po
2778 BPABMIA bes org 913.10.. s po-pto
28 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK N 45
November, 1999







2779
2838
2839
2840
2841
2914
2915
2920
2921
2926
2927
2978
3037
3159
3160
3162
3163
3206
3254
3324
3325
3326
3347
3573
3879
3880
3959
3960
4161
4194
4195
4243
4280
4281
4656
4698
4754
4755
4899
4914
4915
5313
5563
5564
5665
5773
5929
5930
6170
6171
6194
6200
6275
6276
6567
6568
6569


BPABMqEHCKOE
BPHMAHbl
BPMqAHbl
BPMqEBO
BPMqEBO
B5YAKM
BYVAKM (1905- 1909)
BYAEUITCKOE
BYAEUJTbl
BY)KOPCKOE
BY)KOPbl
BYnJbBOKM
BYTAKM
BAAY-JIYO-BOblI
BAY-JYiY-BOACKOE
BAAb-PAUKOBb
BAA'b-PAUIKOBb
BAnJI-JlYO-BJlAAhb
BAPHMLKOE
BACIEHCKOE
BACIEHbI
BACKAYqbI
BBEAEHCKOE
BEPTIO)KAHbl
BMtJKOBO
BMiKOBO
BMUWHEBKA
BMUIHEBKA
BOJ1HOTMPOBKA
BO0OHTMPOBKA
BOJIOHTHPOBCKAC
BOflqMHELb
BOPHMqEHCKOE
BOPHMIEHbl
FABAHOCCKOE
FATlBAHOCbI
rAHMEUWTbl
rAHqEUTbl
FmMHHAAI
mOpr0 Hbl
fmOflRHb
FOTEUTbI
FYPA-rAnBMHA
rYPA-rAnBMHA
AAHKOYtIKOE
AEHEBEQKAAR
AMBM310CKOE
AMBSI31
ROMBPOBEHbl
AOMBPOBEHbl
AOHRIOUIAHbl
AOHKOYibl
APOKIR
fPOKIA
EAMHLIbl
EIWMHL bl
EAMHIibl


bes org
bes khot
bes khot
bes sor
bes sor
bes akk
bes akk
bes kish
bes kish
bes kish
bes kish
bes ben
bes akk
bes kish
bes kish
bes sor
bes sor
bes bel
bes ben
bes kish
bes kish
bes sor
bes akk
bes sor
bes izm
bes izm
bes izm
bes izm
bes ?
bes akk
bes akk
bes ?
bes kish
bes kish
bes izm
bes izm
bes kish
bes kish
bes ?
bes bel
bes be1
bes izm
bes ben
bes ben
bes khot
bes ?
bes akk
bes akk
bes sor
bes sor
bes sor
bes khot
bes sor
bes sor
bes khot
bes khot
bes khot
THE POST-RIDER/AMIIMHK N2 45
November, 1999


901.01..
885.04..
885.12..
906.02.
915.072
914.11..
907.....
913.11..
916.02..
905.09..
916.02..
916.03..
903.06..
916.08..
916.....
888.12..
916.....
906.12..
898.01..
901.01..
916.02..
916.09..
911.03..
911.05..
889.07..
910.05
892.07..
913.12..
891.01
905.05..
875.08..
916.07..
905.09..
916.02..
913.01..
916.02.
893.05..
910.05
891.01
886.12..
911.10..
913.05..
908.01..
91212..
901.01..
871.06..
901.01..
914.04..
905.09..
912.11..
903.07..
916.02..
905.08..
910.09..
874.02..
885.01..
885.12.


vp
pu-ptu
pu-ptk
po
pto-ptk
vpo-po
vpo
vp
vp-po
vp
vp-po
po
po

kt*
pto
ptk
pto
vp
vp
vp-po
po
po
po
po
pto-ptk
po
po-pto
ps-po
po-pto
ps
po
vp
vp-po
ku
po
pto
pto-ptk
ps-po
po
po-pto
po
po
po-pto

ps
vp
vp-po
po
po-pto
po
po
po

PS
ps
pu-ptu
pu-ptk
29







7135 3ASPMMAHbl bes bel 916.07. o po
7399 3fYPMWQA bes sor 887.05. o po
7400 3rYPM4A bes sor 887.09.. s po-pto
7502 3MPbKOBb bes ? 909.05 s pto-ptk
7695 MBAHOBKA-B50JrAPCKA, bes akk 905.01.. s vppo
7696 MBAHOBKA-BOJ0rAPCKAI bes akk 914.10. s po-pto
7700 MBAHOBKA-PYCCKAA bes akk 913.07- o po
7717 MBAHOBCKO-BOJIrAPCKOE bes akk 901.01.. o vp
7872 M3MAMJTb bes izm 830.01 = pk
7873 M3MAMIlb bes izm 885.12. s pu-pvc
8266 KAIYJTb bes izm 885.02. s pu-p'u
8267 KAfYITb bes izm 885.12 s pu-ptk
8307 KA3AHEUITCKOE bes org 916.06.. o kt*
8420 KAIHAPBEKM bes sor 883.12 o ps
8421 KARHAPBEKM bes sor 885.12 s pu-pto
8422 KAIHAPbl bes ben 910.05. o Do
8443 KAJlAPAUTb bes org 877.03.. o ps
8444 KANAPAUIb bes org 886.12.. s pu-pto
8445 KAJIAPAUb bes org 891.03 s pto-p'k
8464 KANAUWb bes ? 887.07 s pu-p!o
8664 KAMPATb bes ? 885.04.. s pu-ptu
8665 KAMPATb bes ? 885.12.. s pu-pk
8754 KAnPEUTbl bes' sor 912.01.. o p!o
8929 KAPnMHEHbl bes kish 908.10.. o pto
8957 KAPTAnbl bes izm 916.12.. s vo-po
8958 KAPTAJnbl (1905- ?) bes izm 916..... = vpo
8959 KAPTAnbl (1905 ?) bes izm 916..... = vpo
9027 KAYUIAHbl bes ben 891.01 s ps-po
9028 KAYlUAHbl bes ben 909.10.. s po-pto
9109 KEJIbMEHLbl bes khot 905.05.. s po-pto
9233 KMVFl bes izm 830.01 = pk
9234 KWIIFI bes izm 885.02.. s pk-ptk
9325 KMCnflMIA bes izm 916.02.. s ku-po
9326 KMCJlM14KOE bes izm 913.03.. o ku
9379 K1MUWHEBb bes kish 830.01 = pk
9380 KM WIAHEBb bes kish 887.07 s pu-p
9381 KMUIKAPEHbl bes bel 916.09.. o po
9403 KIlFI bes ? 885.12. s pu-ptk
9482 KIhUIKOBIbl bes khot 897.11.. o po
9483 KIMUJKOBIbl bes kiot 912.11.. s po-pto
9534 KflCTMUIA bes akk 914.12. s po-pto
9536 KnICTMI4bl bes akk 891.01 s ps-po
9587 KOBbUIKA bes org 916.02.. s vp-po
9588 KOBbIUKCKOE bes org 913.07.. o vp
9590 KOBbmlbHAFI=KOTIOKAHbl(MAPE) bes sor 911.05.. m po
9594 KOBbUlbHt bes sor 906.04.. o po
9929 KOMPATb (KAMPATb) bes ben 916..... = pt
9932 KOHrA3b bes izm 912.08.. o pO
10130 KOPHEUTCKAF bes bel 875.08.. o ps
10131 KOPHEUTbl bes bel 880.10.. o ps
10132 KOPHEUTbl bes bel 888.01.. s pu-ptu
10133 KOPrEUITbl bes bel 916..... = pto
10272 KOCTEUTCKOE bes kish 905.09.. o vp
10273 KOCTEUWbl bes kish 916.02. s vppo
10359 KOTIO)KAHbl-MAPE bes sor 911.05.. o po
10360 KOTIOKKAHbl-MAPE bes sor 911.07.. s po-pto
10784 KPIJyIHbl bes org 899.08.. o pto

30 THE POST-RIDER/5MIMIK N 45
November, 1999







10917 KYBEE
10933 KYBOJITA
10934 KYSOJnTA
11054 KYJlEBqEBCKOE
11055 KYJIEBMA
11151 KYnYMHCKAFI
11494 JlAPrA
11629 J1EOBO
11765 Jim1KAHbi
11766 JflwKAHbl
11804 JnIn4EHbl(06-07)
11980 JlonyUMHO
11983 JiOnYWHHFHCKOE
12366 MAKAPEUTbl
12667 MAH3blPb
12674 MAH3blPb
12774 MAPKYIfEUTbi
12775 MAPKYJfEUTbl
12914 MAUKAYibl
13038 MEHb)KMPCKOE
13047 MEHbKMP'b
13223 MMPEHCKOE
13224 MMPEHbl
13907 HAAEKAA
13953 HAflAAOBO
14130 HEnEHbl
14199 HtML EHblb
14200 HBML(EHbl
14392 HMKOJIAEBKA
14393 HMKOJ1AEBKA
14440 HMKOflAEBCKOE(OJIMUKAHbl)
14612 HMCnOPEHbl
14613 HMCnOPEHbl
14619 HOBA4HOE
14865 HOBOPYCCEUTCKOE
15056 HOBOCEJnMbl
15057 HOBOCEJIIMbl
15058 HOBOCEJIM1ibl
15059 HOBOCEJIMHbl 103.
15326 OBPt)KCKAFI
15455 OKHMI4A
15456 OKHMLA 103.
15517 OJIOHEUTbl
15693 OPFrtEBb
15694 OPFtrEB'b
16153 TAPM)IKb
16243 nEfEHbl
16252 nEPEBIRKOBL bl
16254 nEPEBAnbCKA$1
16318 nEPKOJ1TEHbl
16439 nETPOBKA
16724 flJ1AXTbEBEKA
16869 nOrPEEEHbl
17377 nOCTEJIbHMKM (B nOCTAnb)
17653 nyKAPbl
17675 nYPKAPbl
17740 nblP)KOflTEHCKOE
17741 nbIPJ1nuA


bes akk
bes, sor
bes- sor
bes akk
bes akk
bes ?
bes khot
bes izm
bes khot
bes khot
bes org
bes kish
bes kish
bes kish
bes ben
bes ben
bes sor
bes sor
bes org
bes izm
bes izm
bes kish
bes kish
bes akk
bes sor
bes sor
bes kish
bes kish
bes izm
bes izm
bes org
bes kish
bes kish
bes kish
bes kish
bes khot
bes khot
bes khot
bes khot
bes ?
bes sor
bes sor
bes akk
bes org
bes org
bes akk
bes sor
bes khot
bes xss
bes kish
bes ben
bes akk
bes org
bes akk
bes ?
bes akk
bes kish
bes bel
THE POST-RIDER/SMIIUHK N2 45
November, 1999


905.06..
884.08..
891.01
913.01..
916.02..
878.09..
916.04..
885.12.
885.01..
885.12.
916.....
916.02..
905.09..
916.09..
891.01
914.09..
903.10..
910.09..
917.02..
913.01..
916.06..
9Ub.09..
916.02..
912.09..
892.07..
914.04..
897.01..
916 .....
904.12..
910.12..
916.....
889.01..
905.05..
916.....
913.06..
830.01
885.02..
885.12..
916.....
871.07..
916.07..
916.....
916.07..
885.03..
885.12..
916.02..
916.....
916.08..
877.10..
916.02..
912.07..
913.06
89205.,
916,06..
916.07..
895.11..
905.09..
888.01..


po-pto
ps
ps-po
vp
vp-po
ps
PO
po
pu-ptk
pu-ptu
pu-ptk
vpo
vp-po
VP
vp
po
ps-po
po-pto
po
po-pto
po
ku
po
vp
vp-po
po
pto
po
po
pto


sst*
po
po-pto
vp
su
pk
pu-ptu
pu-ptk
jdpo
ps:
po-pto
jdpo
po
pu-ptu
pu-ptk
po
po
po
po
vp-po
po
po
pto
po
po-pto
po
vp
pu-ptu
31








17742 nblPnrL4A
17915 PAKOBELIKOE
18024 PE3MHA
18025 PE3MHA
18026 PE3MHA
18048 PEHM
18049 PEHM
18050 PEHM
18051. PEHM 103.
18285 POMAHKOYLbl
18288 POMAHOBKA
18289 POMAHOBKA
18290 POMAHOBKA
18632 PblUWKAHOBKA
18633 PblUKAHOBKA
18634 PblUJKAHOBKA
18941 CAPATA
18942 CAPATA
19165 CEKYPFlHbl
19166 CEKYPFIHbl
19167 CEKYPFIHbl
19631 CMPEQKOE
19632 CMPELb.
19720 CKPHMnM1blHO(B PO3EHbl)
19727 CKYJnIHbl
19728 CKYJnIHbl
19729 CKYJI1Hbl
20092 COPOKMI
20093 COPOKM
20361 CTAJ1MHEUTCKOE
20362 CTAnMHEUITbl
20363 CTAnHHEUITbl
20537 CTAPOKA3AqbE
20538 CTAPOKA3AqbE
20723 CTPAIEHbl
20920 CYCJlEHbl
21105 TAnMA3bl
21106 TAJ1MA3bl
21190 TAPAKl1IR
21191 TAPAKnfll
21228 TAPYTMHO
21231 TAPYTrHO
21244 TATAPBYHAPbl
21245 TATAPBYHAPbl
21295 TAUJlblKb
21300 TBAPfAMlA
21334 TEJlEHEUTCKAFI
21335 TEJIEHEUTbl
21336 TEJ1EHEUTbI
21341 TEJlMHLA
21951 TY3Jlbl
22315 YHFEHM
22316 YHfEHM
22317 YHrEHbl
22318 YHrEHbl 103.
22713 PAnEUTbl
22714 AnflEUTCKAM!
22715 AnEUlETbl

32


s bel
s sor
s org
s org
s org
y izm
s izm
s izm
s izm
s khot
s ben
s ben
s ben
s bel
s bel
s bel
s akk
s akk
s khot
s khot
s khot
s kish
3 kish
5 kish
s .bel
s bel
s bel
s sor
s sor
s khot
s ) hot
s khot
s akk
s akk
s ?
s org
s akk
s akk
s ben
s ben
s akk
s akk
s akk
s akk
5 akk
5 ben
3 org
3 org
s org
s ben
s izm
s bel
s bei
s bel
s bel
s bel
s bel
s bel
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIHIHK N 45
November, 1999


915.072
916-
88208..
887.10..
916....
830.01
885.01..
885.12.
916....
909.08..
890.09.
894.10..
915.072
886.08..
887.02..
887.07
891.01
891.08..
891.01
895.10..
916.....
905.09..
916.02.
916.08..
830.01
885.03..
885.12.
885.03..
885.12..
913.01..
891.01
916.02..
899.03..
910.09..
916.07..
916.08..
908.06..
914.11..
894.04..
914.09..
885.12..
885.02..
885.12..
909.05
909.09..
916.07..
859.10..
901.11..
916....
916.....
907.03..
875.08..
885.01.
885.12.
916.....
875.01..
844.08..
885.01..


pto-pt
kt*
ps
po-pto

pk
pu-ptu
pu-pk
jdpo
po
po
po-p!o
pto-pt
ps
pu-ptu


po-pto
ps-po
po-pto
pt'k
vp

po
pk
pu-ptu
pu-p'o
pu-Pu
pu-ptk
P5-PO
ps-po
po
po
po-pto
po
po
po
po-pto
po
po-pto
pu-ptk
pu-ptu
pu-pto
pto-ptk
po
po
ps
pto
-P0




po
po
ppk
pu-pFh
pu-ptk
jdpo
ps
ps
pu-ptu








22716 QAnEUWTbl bes bel 885.12.. s pu-ptk
22719 (Anlb'M bes izm 911.05.. o po
22720 QAllbqM bes izm 913.08.. s po-pto
22840 )JnOPEUTbl bes sor 899.12.. o po
22841 (10OPEWTbl bes sor 916..... = ptk
23194 XOTMHib bes khot 830:01 pk
23195 XOTMHb bes. khot 885.05.. s pu-ptu
23196 XOTMHb bes khot 885.12. s pu-ptk
23418 MAblPb JIYHrA bes ben 893.07.. o po
23419 4MAblPb-JIyHrA bes ben 907.08.. s po-pto
23420 'MAblPb-JiYHrA bes ben 915.072 s pto-ptk
23520 qEIlKOTEHbl bes org 916.09.. o po
23884 qMMMMUWfI bes ben 883.06.. o ps
23885 qlMMMUIAnI bes ben 890.11.. s pu-pto
23896 qMHMUEBCKOE bes org 901.01.. o vp
23897 qMHMWEYIbl bes org 905.12. s vp-pto
23936 q4MMA bes izm 883.09.. o ps
23937 qWqMA bes izm 891.01 s ps-po
23938 4WqMA bes izm 91210.. s po-pto
23946 qlMUWIMCKOE bes akk 912.11.. o vp
23947 lMUWIR bes akk 916.02.. s vp-p
23950 qoKb-MEVjAH-b bes ben 916.07.. o po
23951 qYOJAKOBCKOE bes bel 916..... = kt*
24062 4YYYJ1EHCKOE bes kish 913.02.. o vp
24063 qYqYflEHbl bes kish 916.02.. s vp-po
24064 YnYflR b bebel 902.11... o pto
24075 IA5BO bes akk 896.09.. o p
24076 WAO0 bes akk 898.06.. s po-pto
24086 WArAHbl bes izn 916.02.. o po
24121 UAflJAHEUTbl bes org 910.01.. o po
24267 WEAPFHbl bes khot 898.05.. o po
24321 WEHAPFIHbl bes khot 914.05.. s po-pto
24387 WMKMPJIMKKTA1 bes izm 911.03.. o po
24521 WO11AAHE WTbl bes org 916..... = po
24529 WOITb-TAPAKnMIA (B TAPAKJ1nM) bes akk 916.02.. o po
24763 IO)KHO-TPOMHKOE (B TPOM4LKOE) bes ben 916.02.. o po
24988 FrlOBEHCKOE bes kish 905.09.. o vp
24989 FJIOBEHbl bes kish 916.02.. s vp-po
25067 FHOYLbl bes khot 898.10.. o po
25068 RHOYi4b bes khot 915.11.. s po-pto

The designations in the last column of this listing.
jdpo = zheleznodorozhnoe pochtovoe otdelenie = 2nd. class railway post office.
kt= kreditnoe tovarishchestvo = credit association.
ku = kommunal'naya uprava = communal administration.
pk = pochtovaya kontora = 1st. class post office.
po = pochtovoe otdelenie = 2nd. class post office.
ps = pochtovaya stantsiya = postal station.
ptk= pochtovo-telegrafnaya kontora = 1st. class post & telegraphic office.
pto = pochtovo-telegrafnoe otdelenie = 2nd. class post & telegraphic office.
ptu = pochtovo-telegrafnoe uchrezhdenie = postal & telegraphic establishment.
pu = pochtovoe uchrezhdenie = postal establishment.
sst = ssudno-sberegatel'noe tovarishchestvo = credit loan association.
su= sel'skaya uprava = village administration.
vp = volostnoe pravlenie = district administration.
vpo = vremennoe pochtovoe otdelenie = 2nd. class temporary office.
*
THE POST-RIDER/5IMJIHK No 45 33
November, 1999






THE "LATVIJAS PSR" ISSUE AND RELATED MATTERS
by various authors.
(Editorial Comment: The most gratifying thing about the task of editing "The Post-Rider" is the whole-
hearted response we receive from the CSRP membership, whenever new ground is broken in the absorbing
areas that we collect. That has particularly been the case with the subject under examination here and special
thanks are due to Robert Taylor of California, who sent his entire collection of around 200 items for our
inspection (!); to Herberts Dreimanis of Michigan, who supplied valuable information on the rates from
"Philatelia Baltica"; to Laimons Botka and Rudolfs Dedzis of Latvia for historical, linguistic and material
data; to Harry von Hofmann and Helmut Weikard of Hamburg for explanations and the latter for xeroxes of
lovely items, as well as a copy of a definitive article "fIoHTOBbie MapKH COBeTCKOfi JIaTBIn" on the
stamps and rates by Augusts Birznieks, writing in the magazine "iHJIATEJIHI CCCP" No.8/1974,
pp.38-39 and finally, to Ruud W. van Wijnen of Holland for much supplementary information. Your editor
also has close to 200 items in this area and we are now in a position to conduct a thorough survey by
amalgamating the various contributions submitted by our readers. To each and every one of you, we can only
say: "liels paldies !" (very many thanks). As specific material falls into several categories, some of the
illustrations are being repeated to avoid the bother of flipping back to previous references. Here we go.).

The Postal Rates.
Based on the data set out by Augusts Birznieks, there were five stages, as follows:-
(a) First Stage: 17 June to 31 August 1940.
The stamps and postal rates of the independent Latvian Republic remained valid and the latter are repeated
here for convenience:
Internal greeting card (maximum of five words) 3 santimi
Local postcard 5 santimi
Internal postcard 10 santimu
Foreign postcard 20 santimu
Local letter (up to 20 grammes) 5 santimi
Internal letter (up to 20 grammes) 20 santimu
Foreign surface letter (up to 20 grammes) 35 santimi
Internal registration fee 20 santimu
Foreign registration fee 40 santimu.
Strictly speaking, it does not appear that all the stamps of the Latvian Republic were still valid, as we have
not seen any mail in this stage franked with stamps showing the former President, Karlis Ulmanis. As a
result of the incorporation of Latvia into the USSR, he had been immediately arrested and deported by the
NKVD. During this period, two further values in the Latvian Arms type 30s. and 35s. appeared on 17
August; they can therefore be regarded as the first stamps of Soviet Latvia.

S" -AKCIJU T" RIGA-LATVUA
S "ABIEDRIBA I KA





ANovember, 199


E olzsarktstrasse ftS.W




34 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIHMMK JN! 45
November, 1999






The two items shown at the bottom of the previous page are from the Robert Taylor collection and show at
left a registered foreign surface cover to Denmark, sent during this First Stage from Riga 22.7.40 and
correctly franked at 75s. The item at bottom right shows the 35s. Arms value, which appeared during this
same First Stage for the foreign surface but was, in this case, sent later from Riga 2.11.40 to Berlin.

(b) Second Stage: 1 September to 14 December 1940 .
The rates remained unchanged, but the application of .n
independent Latvia stamps was now restricted to the .
Arms type issues of 1923-1939 and 1940. The first '
two values, 20 and 40 santimu, of the LATVIJAS PSR .
issue appeared on 21 October 1940 and were designed '
by Artuirs Apinis. As shown here, Robert Taylor has a = Eer. ..
First Day Cover sent to the U.S. by a well-known Latvian :.-. .
collector of the period, Karlis Mikelsons. The rest of the S
values in that set appeared at intervals up to 4 December.

(c) Third Stage: 15 December 1940 to 19 January 1941.
Stamps of the USSR were introduced and the Soviet rates were applied when writing to other Union
republics. The contemporary Soviet rates are repeated here for convenience.
Local postcard 10 kopeks Local letter 15 kopeks
Internal postcard 20 kopeks Domestic letter 30 kopeks
Foreign postcard 30 kopeks Foreign letter 50 kopeks
Internal reg'n fee 30 kopeks Foreign reg'n fee 80 kopeks
Airmail surtax 1 rouble

The old Latvian Republic rates still applied for destinations within Latvia and, again regarding the stamps of
Latvia, only the Latvian Republic Arms and Latvijas PSR issues were valid for postage. Once more, Mr.
Birznieks was not entirely correct in saying that the Soviet rates applied only when writing to other Union
republics. Both Robert Taylor and your editor have items going abroad andpaid at the Soviet foreign rates,
regardless of the postage stamps affixed, as shown below:-




.' --. >..,. _... '.. i .0645 S .R. ...




I -l I
__ ___ / ,

Above: 50-santimu Soviet surface rate Valka 6.1.41
to USA (Robert Taylor collection).
At right: 11. 30 s. Soviet registered surface rate
Riga 6.1.41 to Hradec Kralove, Bohemia-Moravia
(A. Cronin collection).
A postcard, sent underpaid by 10s. in this period from Sloka 13.1.41 to Tallinn, Estonia is shown overleaf
from the collection of the editor and has an indistinct Estonian single-line cachet in red, apparently referring
to the deficiency of 1Os./1Ok., as the legible Estonian word "mairkusega" means "entered" or "recorded".

THE POST-RIDER/IIIIMK N' 45 35
November, 1999





























(d) Fourth Stage: 20 January to 20 April 1941.
The Soviet postal rates were now applicable for all destinations: domestic, foreign and to other Union
republics. We now have quite a mixture of stamps available for franking: Latvian Republic Arms issues of
1923-1939 and 1940, the Latvijas PSR issue and all Soviet emissions.

(e) Fifth Stage: 21 April to 30 June 1941.
The Latvian Republic Arms issues of 1923-1939 and 1940 were now rendered invalid, but the Latvijas PSR
issue still remained current, together with Soviet postage. Mr. Birznieks was also not correct in stating that
the period of validity ended on 30 June 1941, eight days after the German invasion. We will see below that
Latvian Republic and Soviet postage remained valid at the Soviet rates at least until the end of September
1941. According to Herberts Dreimanis, the only issues demonetised during that post-Soviet period were the
Latvijas PSR set and its associated postcard.

The foregoing information gives us just a bare outline of the postal state of affairs during this short-lived
First Latvian SSR. We will now consider specific aspects of the period.

The Greeting Card Rate 3 santimi / 3 kopeks.
It appears that the rate remained stable right throughout the five stages and was paid with Latvian Arms
issues or the 3-santimi Latvijas PSR value, as there were no Soviet 3-kopek stamps available.
.-,_ _-..-......... i ---- -- i


r; >1
'L7
S ei


Ce 0 15
.. .


The 3s. Presidential Palace stamp was invalid
after First Stage, so double deficiency was
charged by RIga 1.10.40.
36 THE POST-RIDERIIMINIIHK, 1 45
November, 1999


Lobergi 31.12.40 to RTga.
(both these items from the
collection of the editor).














LI;4/eS





p I-~d"r h,jd


-S B
__<


y.









Kraslava,
20.1.41.


Riga,
10.12.40.


INVERTED FRANKINGS:

The first three covers from the
Robert Taylor collection and
the final (airmail) item held by
your editor. Details overleaf.


.. .. : .. .
- -.. .: .



L ." ...I-- .



ljyili;l^\^

?V il f
^^ *?'< ^.^ ;<-;,*-, ',^^^-, Q s^! n *A 'E *r;^s I; '


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIUHK M 45
November, 1999


This is a particularly poignant card
sent from Krustpils Station 31.12.40,
as the Latvian greeting reads:
"LaimIgu 1941 gadu !" (Happy [New]
Year 1941 !). What a horrible
mockery that subsequently turned
out to be (A.Cronin collection).


IERAKST'TS.

-96S8
rregadIj umnru ppdro inllanae.ipa2rvaldei.
'I..




__ FY Ig I.



Ballinava, L LTi c a
22.11.40.


'v






. .. iep "ja
..... "-16.12.40


____________________________________ ~ S ~ ~ L- -


IM$


/9


-/0


_ I


_ ~


- --- -I


:. .. -. '=..- -.-

~ %~i~e: I'~t \eec .
i.






Inverted Frankings of the Latvijas PSR issue.
It is significant that all four examples shown on the previous page involve those stamps specifically, either
accidentally or deliberately. In the latter case, such an application in the language of stamp positions is such
that, in Northern Europe, it means: "Kiss my backside". In short, the usages noted here may possibly have
been a form of passive resistance to the Soviet administration.

Further Usages of the Latvijas PSR 10-santimu card.


Herr Helmut Weikard of Hamburg has the earliest usage so far on 7.12.40 from Riga to Solingen Wald in
Germany, as noted above and the message on the back is most revealing:-
"Dear Mr. Lechtenfeld, 8.XII.40.
I received your letter. Very many thanks for the franking. I will naturally fulfill your requests. For about 6
months there has been no tea in Riga. However, as stated in the newspaper, a shipment will arrive soon from
Russia. I will immediately send you 250 grammes (a little over half a pound). Do you need coffee? It is made
here with 35% beans and 65% liquorice (?). What else do you need? Butter or what else that I would send
you? I also collect postal stationery and I would be very pleased to obtain a selection from you. H. Milkiis".


This example from the Robert Taylor
collection is from the Fourth Stage, when
the Soviet rates became fully applicable.
A 10s. stamp of the Latvijas PSR issue
was therefore added to meet the internal
postcard rate of 20 santimu / 20 kopeks
on this item from Liepaja 20.2.41 to
Riga the next day.


C.' v PASTKr o

KUR __.., -_____._h_'.
S ailS i a nosankams e asrersr, adk od, .a fo r- e .

a. aopdd- Pc C omnapas, mF?




- -HaiLMH o eaH a u dp ec o m np-sa mejm f \ \ P --------- ----
__. __ __..._......^ __ ^ ^ ___ T ^ ^ ^^J ^ ^ ^ ,..,


Mr. Ruud W. van Wijnen of Holland was able to come up with five further usages of this card and they are
shown in chronological order on the next page. They are all correctly franked at the rates prevailing at the
time of posting and also feature two different enquiry labels. The first is in Latvian and was affixed by Riga
G.P.O. on 26.3.41, while the second with obscured date is a bilingual Latvian-Russian issue, also apparently
applied in Riga. More work needs to be done on these labels, pasted on the left fronts of pieces of mail.

38
38 THE POST-RIDER/fMIMHK Ns 45
November, 1999











PAST
OIOYTOBA
0 U


KYIA (pasltoiadds. ao vi novada maja. inmo oi saddos noaanumr. beta
.d ae41anod. t ae -ra do um a Aa pan apoo. a
._ ........ ..... ... ... ..

........... .. .... ..... .... .. ... .
ramonaa, apdzrrotis vietas vai milas noauu-ms paoo, Cto aeu depres*l


(iedla nosa~ums. mdjas an d:lrokas numurs y.,ruqt N dAos ua xrapmupa)

KOMY (pins adrestau nrosaukam. nudpioe oauMrnramsose adpuerama)

Saitfdja nosaukums un adrese
HfaumeMosanue u adpec omnpaeume.Lt


Riga Rlwy P.O. 15.1.41 to Jelgava 16.1.41.


Rigar galv. pasta izzira.

Adresats '. PAS TKA R TE
S....OBA5I KAPTOOYKA
nedzfr-a v-zinams--
pargajis uz nezinamu vietu *
..d ... irmu ...di o und amsu be 4.
a a> ner ide Pastnieki: ../ rma.uu .u. a o uona une -. d




u d;rSok~la tnumurs yua.u o.. i do. ". -. 2 i

KOMY (puns adr- es no. a m no/pa "oe o. ..a r.o e aspr.am.

Soildija nosaukums un adrese C -fe., /.-
q.- .. .. ....


Local Riga 25.3.41 with G.P.O. enquiry label.


MU.







m .. I


R TE-
Y 170AA PT7QA-







(raiona, apdzhotd tas ai maja no.uaukum pwuou. ru.uo u.m rpeMx


(idas unosakuuuu. uu d:uuck'la nummt.u }u.uunu S. to owa u~. napmou

KAM .... 1
KOMY 'L uilns ai/ saoan. nfwonu, nr-owiiuu u afnor na,

Salitaja nosaukumts un adrese
Hau.enowsanue u adpec omnpaeume.iX


Local Riga 18.6.41.


IZZ IA PABKA P^- .20.
.. ............. .. .. ...... r ecirknl
(letffS natuleon nH ua .oouie npe ,lpoM)3 no yqactrcy
(p.... -"!74 -.'.:... ..... .4.. .

nr9-Z.ane AOu n" Re nponmHaer
Pargijsn dzivot ..... ............................ .......... ........ apr -I ntimo.
BkbIun no afpecy

P astn ieks ..... a... .. rbau dija .... ...a .. .. ...... .. .S.pa. a
Horaanbon a n poeepaa
.-" "'u... Izzigl mintos apstik s apstprinn. ... ..... .....
S Yasaahne a cnpauKe caeatennm nonraepxaalo. eper)s
S M iiJas pirvald leks............................................
S. Ynpa.nnou .
Cnp xp7m. n r pB HI odopore (non ) Pm
FBas t. oa (us u adow. 16L I1N. C. OLP B6o
S.... ............. ... ... ....
OM pilotss adresdia nosakaus nokpooe uaosnae adPeram
Sfiiaja nosaukums un adrese
Hau oesauue u adpec omnpasumeAs



Local Riga, obscured date with bilingual enquiry label.

Mixed Frankings.
Because of the variety of stamps that could be used for franking mail at one stage or another, namely those
of the independent Latvian Republic, the Latvijas PSR issue and the large variety of Soviet emissions which

were theoretically valid for postage, an extensive array of mixed frankings was therefore possible. That facet
is probably the most interesting area to collect and examples from the holdings of Robert Taylor, Helmut

Weikard and your editor are illustrated in the pages that follow.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK X 45 39
November, 1999


I


w


- i _I


=


PASTKARTE
H4 OVTOBAR KAPTO:



KYA 0d,_ -a 6sa



(eajona. aopuh:iods virao tt mn.a anouadum. paion. ro ra usuep


(ielas nooukumsr n 'da. i, n di;r,-fa n. mur, -- ,u, a. .\ a oha u souai

KAM J. C.'
KOMY (ip adresdla non.uu i.u t- r niuiu u or maHtru.utdadr an.ma,

StBiitdja nosaukums u an drese
Hatt.uenosanue u adpec omnpaaume.,o



Pasiene 19.3.41 to Rezekne.






Mixed Frankings: Robert Taylor collection.


30-santimu Latvian Republic letter multiple
rate paid from Mersrags 11.11.40 to Riga.


60 k. Soviet internal reg'd letter 01 -ENEwv'
rate from Abrene 8.2.41 to Moscow. 1i _


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK M 45
November, 1999







Mixed Frankings: Robert


40 k Commercial Papers rate
-i ~ksne 10 4 41 to ga


.-m


- ijj' '.ic*:


Four airmail covers to Dr. S. Feitelberg and
J. Koplowitz with correct 1 r. 50 k. Soviet
rate from Riga 17.2.41 to 26.5.41.


Air Printed Matter rate
Riga 21.10.41 to the U.S.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK N2 45
November, 1999






















S i1 Mixed Frankings: Robert Taylor collection.
S' To registered airmail covers to the U.S. from RTga 4.2.41 &
S" '24.3.41 with correct Soviet rate of 2 r. 30 k.




Mixed Frankings:
Helmut
..Sohweiz-'uisee Weikard .
collection.
An e r
die Kantonalbank vzi Bern At left: Correct reg'd
foreign surface rate
24.3.41 to Berne.
Ber n At right: Reg'd
OA,0v foreign air letter.
00oosaG M prepaid 2 r. 40 k. ,.
(overpaid by 10 k.) *
.f.. rom Riga 15.3,41.
to Germany.









SPLINT,-Limited
LIEPAJA. L\ATVIJA
i.O




h0 a


~4 "/1? ^ /"_~
Ct 7~~~t~~,~'~;~~ w./^


z4'tuG^t/fc^*

20 s. Latvian Republic internal letter
rate from Liepaja 24.12.40 to Riga.


Mixed Frankings: A. Cronin collection.

Dienesta satijums.


P. un


pasta krajkases parvaldei.


RIGA


Iemaksas kartes


75 k. multiple weight letter rate
from Vilani 29.3.41 to Riga.


S"-" .- ''. .: -- .-. .T .:W.IN.. ; -.'t-- ...


I ? : .--- --..



2 ,.



-. .-.:.. ,2 .. ..,


'" ""*70 k. wrapper rate from
Mazsalaca 8.4.41 to Riga.


ard rate
to Riga.


20 k. Soviet internal card rate
from MErszags 9.5.41 to Riga.


THE POST-RIDERISIMIlHK N_ 45 43
November, 1999


. M A&






Money Orders.


Your editor has only two examples, the one shown above sending the sum of 108 lati 3 santimi from Sita
28.1.40, via Gulbene 29.1 to Rezekne 30.1. The commission of 2 r. 20 k. was paid with Soviet definitive.

SUiititjs un Va adrese: t Par parveduma
Sd iasytia ........tfre..... .. ... 1

1.


about the relevant regulations, would be most appreciated.











The North Atlantic Air Service.
Following upon the outbreak of World War II, this service, equipped by American Clipper aircraft, started
flying at the beginning of 1940 between New York, the Azores and Lisbon, Portugal. Your editor knows of
I _________Uzr________di___ja ____ 7
Dienesta atzimes.-U
This second item transmitted d 15 roubles from rFrgji to JEkabpils 27.3.41. The commission paid was
apparently 60 kopeks, with a further fee of20 kopeks in Soviet postage being charged on arrival in Jkabpils
for delivery to a street address.
Data from CSRP members about the Latvian Republic and Soviet money-order commission rates, as well as
about the relevant regulations, would be most appreciated.

The North Atlantic Air Service.
Following upon the outbreak of World War II, this service, equipped by American Clipper aircraft, started
flying at the beginning of 1940 between New York, the Azores and Lisbon, Portugal. Your editor knows of
usages to the United States from Finland (rare), Latvia and Lithuania, so mail from Estonia should also exist.

Robert Taylor has the earliest known usage from Riga, Latvia 11.4.40, the total rate being 1 lats 10 santimu
(please refer to the next page). Note the unframed single-line cachet in violet, measuring 63 x 3.5 mm. and
reading "North Atlantic Mail Service". The total fee was possibly composed of 35 s. foreign surface letter
and 75 s. Clipper airmail surtax. His next example is a First Day Cover of the first two Latvijas PSR values
(20 s. & 40 s.), sent at the airmail printed matter rate from Riga 21.10.40 by a well-known philatelist, Karlis
Mikelsons. If 75 s. were indeed the air fee, then the printed matter rate must have been 7 santimi.
44 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHKM N 45
November, 1999







The North Atlantic Air
(Clipper) Service.


4,.<:,x., -wJ,. Riga 11.4.40 to New Orleans.
Rate: 1 lats 10 santimu.

,[y#. fl A ,,



-~~~~~ ~~ .." : ": : ": .


Riga 8.11.40 to --
Reading, Pa. Rate: .,- .
1 lats 10 santimu. .r -'
o- -- irt Atlantic 1Air Service .
-F-Ira t D Co .I







.I. :;:. .-i'g a 2 1 1 0 4 0 t o
7] -Ik Mat te
...*. X" T-"' .' ;,- "*" .... .. "" "



-~0
S -. \ .... ., -
S~ Riga 31.10.400to:












Newor ty. Rate: a
Rate l82 s. (Air
THE POST-RIDER/MIHK printed Matter).45

S-November, 1999





Ri ga 31.10.40Oto
New York City. Rate:
1 lats 10 santimu.





THE POST-RIDERISMJIK Ne 45 45
SNovember, 1999 "
t... ,-,:,..,> .. .::.,, q .. -... : .' ,.-w ',.
.... :. ,: ,t !' ; ,
"~ ~ ~ ~ e "'::/' ';%C ."",;v- i /" ,'


ON
14
























S-, ---.- ^ ..- RTga 28.10.40 reg'd airmail to New
|- Orleans. Paid at Clipper rate I lats
I. 07 -T ., 10 santimu + reg'n fee of 40 santimu.

.. .. .. -.-: --A"- '* .--r ..
*? .- _: -. ^* "a/ '-* :-'. _.


















Riga 17.2.41 to Pittsburg, Pa. i
1 trouble 50 kopeks12to Shao
S,...Novemb er, 1999te:

Riga 16.12.40 to :NewOreans::
Rate: 1 lats 25 santimu (!). :: ": .
^^ w^^ ^..- .. -. f



Riga 17.2.41 to Pittsburg, Pa. g 1.o,_ W^ e '_
See the "Clipper" notation at top.
Paid at the Soviet foreign air rate: ,, ..... ."'
1 trouble 50 kopeks. i




November, 1999






His third item is a registered airmail cover from Riga 28.10.40 to New Orleans, with a mixture of Latvian
Republic arms and Latvijas PSR stamps, totalling 1 lats 50 santimu (presumably 35 s. foreign surface letter,
40 s. foreign registration fee and 75 s. Clipper air surtax; see p. 45). Example No. 4 is also from Riga
31.10.40, this time to New York City and paid at the normal 1 lats 10 santimu rate. By now, the single-line
cachet is in carmine. The final items held byRob Taylor are also from Riga 8.11.40, now to Reading, Pa., at
the normal 1 lats 10 santimu rate and again with the cachet in carmine, as well as on 16.12.40 to New Orleans
with 1 lats 25 santimi postage (!)
Your editor also has a late usage so far noted of the single-line cachet, from Riga 10.12.40 to Shamokin, Pa.
and with the cachet in carmine. Note also the inversion of both stamps in the franking. Was it deliberate ?

We go back to Robert Taylor for the last example of the Transatlantic Clipper service, as shown on p. 46
with an appropriate handwritten indication at top front. By now, the single-line cachet was no longer being
struck and the franking applied reflects the normal Soviet rates: 50 kopeks foreign surface letter and 1 rouble
airmail surtax (see p. 46).


Robert Taylor has two registered airmail covers from Riga 8 & 10 June 1940 to Copenhagen, each with 1
lats postage, i.e. possibly 35 s. foreign surface letter, 40 s. foreign reg'n fee and 25 s. air surtax to Denmark.
An example is shown above. He also has an airmail postcard from RTga 22.7.40 to Berlin (20 s. foreign
surface card + 15 s. air surtax to Germany ?). See above, also over for details of the Express reg'd item below.


THE POST-RIDER/MIMIIHK CM 45
November, 1999


S V1







The registered express cover at the bottom of the
previous page was sent from Jelgava 22.11.40
to Gotenhafen (formerly Gdynia, now incorporated
in the Reich) 30.11.40, with a total rate paid of
1 lats 55 santimi. The separate components of this
charge appear to have been 35 s. foreign surface
letter, 40 s. foreign registration fee and 80 s.
express delivery surtax. Any corrections would be
much appreciated.

Finally, we have an airmail postcard in the Helmut
Weikard collection, sent at 45 s. from Riga
30.12.40 to Adlersherst (?) near Gotenhafen /
Gdynia (see above at right). The fee components
may have been 30 s. Soviet foreign surface card,
plus 15 s. old Latvian air surtax to Germany.


Official Cachets of the Soviet Latvian Postal Administration.




i f l L atvljas Sakaru parvaldet
A. rs A JIaTBHACKoe ynrpaBJieHie CE-sa
Note that the second "A" of"PARVALDE" is missing !


Two bilingual markings from the Robert Taylor collection are shown here in actual size of "The Latvian
Administration of Communications", within the framework of the People's Commissariat of
Communications of the USSR.


Notable Postage Due Usages. (from the collection of the editor).


The card at left from Pure 8.9.40 was underpaid by 5 santimi in accordance with the Latvian Republic rate
for an internal postcard and it was assessed at the point of posting at double the deficiency = 10 santimu, as
indicated.
The item at right is another card, addressed locally in Riga without any postage at all and rated on 31.5.41 at
double the deficiency for a Soviet local card = 20 santimu / kopeks, per the oval marking struck at top. The
word PIEMAKSAT in that cachet means "to pay in addition".


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK N 45
November, 1999


_, -----;*-----



7-
............ ..KI......





" S/I7 s tfv*ne adr se:






Postage Meter Applications.
Riga has been a busy port for centuries, going back to Hanseatic times. Many important firms were
functioning there and in other large Latvian towns between the two World Wars and they generated a large
amount of correspondence. Postage meters were therefore in order and five types of machines were imported
from Germany (Francotyp), Great Britain (Neopost and Universal Postal Franker) and Switzerland (Hasler
and Safag), each postage meter being provided by the Latvian Postal Administration with a specific number.
With incorporation into the Soviet Union, there was outright nationalisation and all the machines were
recalled. They were reissued with new numbers, originally inscribed LATVIJA at top and SANT. at bottom,
being subsequently changed to LATVIJAS PSR and KAP. or KO.I respectively. Bilingual Russo-Latvian
inscriptions were also often added. The examples shown here are from the collection of the editor.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIRmHK No 45
November, 1999






During the German occupation, the machines were recalled again and renumbered for the second time The
indications LATVIJAS PSR, KAP., KOI. and all other Russian inscriptions were excised. Sometimes,
LATVIJA was retained at top and/or "Rpf' inserted at bottom, with new "Postalia" meters also sent from
Germany. The latter naturally gave- the rates only in Reichsmark. It would be an interesting project to try
and follow the fate of a specific machine in all three periods: Latvian Republic, Latvian SSR and the German
Occupation. Herr Harry von Hofmann has done excellent research in this field, which is set out in his work
"Lettland Handbuch und Postgeschichte: Die Stempel", pp. 283-318, Hamburg 1988. Please apply to him at
Postfach 56 01 56, D-22551 HAMBURG, Germany for availability and price.

A pertinent question now arises. What happened to these machines when the Soviets came roaring back into
Latvia in August 1944 ? Your editor has not seen any immediate post-WWII usages; it seems likely that the
postage meters were removed from Riga and other towns and subsequently modified for operation in
Leningrad and/or Moscow. Whatever the case, much work remains to be done in recording and classifying
Latvian postage meter markings.

Printed Matter Rates.
No information has been unearthed yet about the rates for this class of mail and the examples found so far
are therefore listed in chronological order for the record.


Li L. .
FcL

F H-}Y-Is


E3~e,

.~Aa~;P-~


bVI


A~i7


16-santimu foreign printed matter surface rate to the U.S. paid at Sloka 25.6.40 (R. Taylor collection).


THE POST-RIDER/ IMII K N2 45
November, 1999


3-santimi local printed matter rate paid at Riga 15 August 1940 (A. Cronin collection).


__g


i
--I !--!-.- ---:----t- ~-; -t .-:-








S. EODF9l^
, .-r q P


-. r Eervce'- -2.


I F-.. U '... r. ..un. \ '

If the surtax of 75 santimi was correct for the North Atlantic Air service, then we can say that the foreign
printed matter rate for the First Day Cover from Riga 21.10.40 (see above at left) was 7 santimi.
The final item in this section is the cover at right, franked at 40 santimu from Daugavpils 23.1.41 and
marked "Printed matter" at top right. Both these items are from the Robert Taylor collection.


Covers addressed to A.V. Sokolov in Tallinn, Estonia.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N2 45
November, 1999


,,
r r
~s;7;~~





~d~."






Anatolii Vasil'evich Sokolov of Sakala No. 48, Apt. 1 of Tallinn was an Honoured Member of the pre-WWII
Rossica Society, its Representative in Estonia and Head of the Rossica Group there from February 1932.
Robert Taylor has three philatelic covers dated 19.12.40, 31.12.40 and 16.5.41 addressed to him from Latvia
(see the illustrations on the previous page), the first and last examples being overpaid by 5 santimilkopeks.
The 1-sent Estonian stamp showing the former President Konstantin Pits on the cover dated 31.12.40 has
been left uncancelled; he was also arrested and deported by the NKVD and, according to Soviet sources, he
died in captivity in 1956.

TPO /RPO usages.
The Latvian Travelling Post system continued functioning with the oval markings introduced during the
Independent Latvia period. Examples are shown below in chronological order and usages are scarce.


RITUPE-RIGA b 23.6.41. P.V. No. 7. R. Taylor collection.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK ]N 45
November, 1999


^ e*&. i e ...~t ......



ti. I. ......,..- ..... .. ......... ........ .. ..
Z E b.. N4ec ronn.ollcton






ZILUPE-RIGA b 22.6.40. P.V. No. 4. A. Cronin collection.







rnOtTOBAFI KAPTOqIKA
CARTE POSTAL .*i

f. H t J. 1"
.... .. .. ...... .. .............. ... .. ....... .............
..... .. ... .. ......... ... "... .................. ............ .................. .. .


HA KAWIUOM IIOWTOBOM OTIPABJIEHHH IIHIUHTE CBOH OEPATHMLH AAPEC J i -

de exp d eurJ .. .......................................................... .......... .. .......... r

The final example is a very fine item in the Robert Taylor collection, from the first few weeks of the post-
Soviet period, when Latvian initiatives were still tolerated. The overprinted card shown above at left was
written in Ogre and posted to Riga on the TPO/RPO RIGA-ZEMGALE b 3.8.41 P.V. No. 9. Further postal
operations in the immediate post-Soviet period will be examined below in this survey.

A Late Soviet Usage on the Eve of the German Invasion.
The card above at right was sent from Riga on 2 June 1941, NOT in 1940 as noted by the recipient. He was
a Latvian, Karlis Kozlovskis, who had immigrated to the U.S. before World War I and had kept up a steady
correspondence with his homeland. He was for many years a stamp dealer in Detroit, Michigan.

Applications of the Latvijas PSR 5-lati stamp.
That was the top value in the set and _
represented a major outlay of money. It could
have paid for the transmission of heavy parcels Rn .d
or of large sums sent by money order. We
have not yet seen such examples and they
must have been few and far between. The
printing order was for 21,400 copies only, so
it is a scarce stamp. Your editor has four used e
copies, but they are all cancelled to order with -
the PIIA-RIGA 'NQ0 postmark, dated
20.12.40. Your editor and Robert Taylor both -" "
have the entire set of 13 values used on
registered covers sent from Riga 29.1.41 by, :
J. Roost, presumably a Swiss citizen, to his i : :-: i
Geschwister (= siblings) in Beringen, "
Switzerland. Your editor has Reg'n No. 373, < e I -t rtogasse :a.
as shown here and Robert Taylor has :J. ROOST: e r. :. -- .)
.:Rga Latva Berngen-(Shafh.
No. 375, sent on the same day. Herr Roost Pat.... r.,.iI.. SveeiseutseSohrsei.zI.
must therefore have spent at least 24 lati
9 santimi, which was an appreciable amount of money Herr Helmut Weikard has the same set up to 1 lats
on a reg'd cover from RIGA-2, 8.2.41 to a collector at 37 Rudolf Hess (!) Street in Leslau on the Vistula.

Wrapper (Bandrole) Sendings.
Once again, we do not have any specific data, but illustrations will be found overleaf of usages in
chronological order of the sending we have found so far. This class of mail was nonnally sent unsealed and
we would appreciate data on the rates from members.

THE POST-RIDER/RIMII(HK N2 45 53
November, 1999






30-santimu rTapper rate Valka ;
4.2.41 to Riga R. Ta lor colln.





4 ..,
,

.. ,

r,.

.h Ii .L't, r', ,. '"


/' \~


~a~e~ ft'~zrc


... .. .,.t e ^ '*.-

'. -," ,-..:.l :.^ f^ S:]' "
-*' '. "V", '.-',' ^ '-





I" '' "- #-> o ., _' .'.
'..,I "
v .'i'". :;*^ "'
:.\^^^: .


...


,,,:, ^^ ^2 ,--
50-kopek wrapper rate
Cesis (Wenden) 31.3.41
-to Riga. A. Cronin colln.




WRAPPER
(BANDROLE)
SENDING.


70-kopek mixed franking wrapper rate
Mezsalaca 8.4.41 to Riga. A. Cronin colln.


i; i III


4U-kopek wrapper rate
Cesis (Wenden) 12.4.41
to Riga. A. Cronin colln.


m _o ,m.
ii~lriJ~i c~Lx


P. un' t.: departamenta .
pasta kraikases pgrvaldel


,Pas RIGA.

Aeriiy M 104
40-kopek wrapper rate Madona
9.4.41 to RTga. A. Cronin colln.


Y /{-^. ^ rf7^/ /s.* *. '*.
.;L.;yw^- ^^^ e
p9~7c/72< -
1 '
P~c~S-~auc- C- L

/: -.% .


*. .; I
,






4 t. ., .'




. ..;'"'. i -


_I _I _


___


I -- '='


V 7f .. t


.//. .....:-: .






&?^^ 37 / '"Q '/.t '






The immediate post-Soviet period until the end of September 1941.
On the night of 14/15 June 1941, a bare seven days before the Nazi invasion, NKVD Special Forces carried
out massive deportations of people in all three Baltic republics. The German attack on the USSR began at 4
am. on 22 June and, during the advance of the Wehrmacht, there were last-minute executions performed by
retreating NKVD squads, particularly in Riga. The result was that the surviving civilian population was in a
state of traumatic shock, as can be confirmed by the pieces of Latvian mail despatched in the ensuing three
months. Many of these items are addressed as: "Latvijas Sarkanam Krustam" (= To the Latvian Red Cross)
and doubtless contained frantic enquiries about the fate of deported, missing and/or executed relatives.

Strictly speaking, all Reichspost issues and postal rates, as well as those of the General-Government (2 zAoty
= 1 Reichsmark) were valid from the first day of the invasion in the occupied territories, including Latvia.
However, it appears that German postal supplies were not available until the beginning of October 1941 and
the overprints for the Ostland territory, which included Latvia, did not go on sale until 4 November.
Meanwhile, the Wehrmacht permitted the continued application of Soviet postal rates and stamps, as well as
of Latvian issues at those same rates until the end of September. According to our member, Herberts
Dreimanis, the only items rendered invalid were the Latvijas PSR issue and its associated 10-santimu
postcard; that was why the card from Majori 17.9.41 in Fig. 7, pp.71-72 of "The Post-Rider" No. 44 was
treated as a "blank" and the sum of double the deficiency was noted.

The "LATVIJA / 1941 /1. VII."overprints on Soviet definitive.
In addition to the Soviet issues on hand, these
overprints appeared on 19 July 1941, as ;
shown here on an FDC in the Robert Taylor .
collection and addressed to Pavils Kalnozols,
a well-known local collector. Hence, further
mixed frankings were again possible and the
date on the overprints refers to the German
entry into Riga. The following quantities f -
were overprinted:- th .9
5 kopeks miner 1,190,000 P. Kainozols
10 kopeks factory girl 1,030,000 A pasta kaste 184
15 kopeks Red Army man 96,000
20 kopeks farm girl 990,000 Pta ite Nr. ..... ierakstitu S
30 kopeks pilot 3,130,000
50 kopeks farm girl 193,000 ,itj s. *.
Due to the small numbers issued, the 15 &
50-kopek values would be scarce on mail
and we have not seen any examples so far. OtTOBAH KAPTO-IA g
', ,CARTE POSTAL
Note also that the 20-kopek Soviet cards
were overprinted, the arms at top left now
being covered over by 20 horizontal bars to W.. .. ..... .............;-.. .... .. ..
in parallel. Robert Taylor has two used .. ................. .
cards from the same sender and addressed .. ....................... .........
to Riga; the first mailed on the TPO RIGA- .K. ........ .
ZEMGALE b 3.8.41 P.V. No. 9 and the
second from Ogre 7.8.41, as shown here. HA HAOMN Io TOTWoM OThPABJIEHHH nilfWHTE CBO OEPATHbI t AiPEC
Further examples of the overprints, as well ..... 1 i
as of Soviet issues and enquiries to the f ', -.
Latvian Red Cross are featured overleaf. /

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK M N 45 55
November, 1999






Usages of the "LATVIJA /1941. /1. VII." overprints in the Robert Taylor collection.



--; 19 J .7 -
.' tc*' '^ "? > Qije.~
S- / ce-,zzg_.; QJ


~~~I -' .a ?-z-'c, ~j~Z~-

: -cL,.k~~: ~-w


Greeting card from Araji 2.8.41 to Boki
and overpaid by 27 kopeks !


Letter from Araji 21.7.41 to Riga
and underpaid by 10 kopeks.

I


R i ga/O s tl and
Kalkstrasse 18
Letter from Jelgava 30.8.41 to Riga and correctly
paid at the 30-kopek internal letter rate.


A letter from Valmiera 26.8.41 to Riga and correctly
paid at the 30-kopek internal letter rate.


Two letters sent within RTga 8.9 & 20.9.41 and
properly paid at the 15-kopek local letter rate.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK JN 45
November, 1999


- /35.


J

C.~3GWrm






Further usages of the "LATVIJA / 1941. / 1. VII." overprints in the Robert Taylor collection.


1 GATES PAPIRA FA'RI KA
LT.IJA. ., LIGATNC


S' Atespapirfab'rika".
I',. "Ald iu ieli'1N 12

A ,


. jInraTCe rdi Gyiarafbi .iano1a
a n. Tarhc -. ,rare


* ~.


/3. "0 G L E,".


R iel 16.
Ja ba iel5 16.


**2,~


Local Riga letter 26.9.41 paid at proper 15-kopek rate.


L -.. i( .









/ 1; ,jL/ ,*


/4 -t~~P


Local Riga letter 6.8.41, paid at 30
kopeks and thus overpaid by 15 k.


SLocal Riga letter 30.9.41 and overpaid by 5 kopeks.


Continued Application of Soviet
postage in the post-Soviet period.
(Robert Taylor collection).


J44 r, r e /z4

Letter from Jelgava 7.8.41 to Smilteni
and prepaid at correct 30-kopek rate.


--.i-W1- Registered letter paid at 1 rouble from Jelgava
Card from Liepija 8.8.41 to Riga, paid 19.8.41 to Riga and overpaid by 40 kopeks.
at 30 k. and thus overpaid by 10 kopeks.
THE POST-RIDER/~MIIIK M 45 57
November, 1999


NIU. OSKARA MIELENCA
Rigi. Aub ekla iel Jir 16


CTn:TA TrRDIJ AFGD32i 0 L v "


Jekabd i~fS I1r.16.

g5Ea


)
















Oj


Letter from Vecogre 1.9.41 with mixed .-T
franking at proper 30-kopek rate. -:: :-



; rk "_~~i /3~ R La "


1523


_\Z ALY \


Marked "Registered" but sent at ordinary
30-kopek rate from Madona 4.9.41.


Multiple (?)rate leer rom Csis 5.9.41.

Mutitple (?) rate letter from C~sis 5.9.41.


~ .zC24Ji-~


J/~U6 ;~t


:I


Registered letter from Koknese 5.9.41
prepaid at proper 60-kopek rate.
58


Registered letter from Lizums 10.9.41 at proper rate.


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK N2 45
November, 1999


- ix. J4-
4h CIYk/A


_ Y ~_ __ ___


a/c"2~


------~


U~ i~ ~ O~L ~ = I~,cyt,

Cl~a~l, ~~i


^r^^.^, UL/C- AI.


YUCWCC
I ICIVL~:~6








Further letters addressed to the Latvian Red Cross in Riga (Robert Taylor collection).


Sark


Vi TV J,
'(' I Skolas aelfi Nr.l
I ----------------


1Au&


JL|L ? o- r Tf


Registered letter properly paid at
60 kopeks from Klintene 12.9.41.


Registered letter from Kirsava 11.9.41
properly prepaid, with 30-kopek Soviet
commemorative on the back.


L) ct


Internal letter properly paid at
30 kopeks from Berzpils 11.9.41.


A __j





Registered letter properly paid at
60 kopeks from Kuldiga 12.9.41.


Letter from Liepaja Rhvy Stn.
15.9.41 & properly paid at 30 k.


THE POST-RIDERSIMIIIHK N2 45
November, 1999


i I -i


CLS
f^.* "


~~lzfi~C~d


& v tLoVL.-L


39. -0
/LT,-


-t~-


~5~~L~Bd~


59


WWO ~...~.







Three final letters addressed to the Latvian Red Cross in Riga (Robert Taylor collection).
I


Iatvijas Sar1canF KIrata


Sicolas ielli r.l.

H i g a.


Local registered letter from Riga
15.9.41 properly paid at 45 kopeks.


(a uenosane uecna re axora n ora, am. oansa spaa, a t. aufi


"- -- B- P.
(" os p..-. ... .. ......ap e
"' --.. uam os.e .a...o opor.) ".
,I -,
.. ... ..... .: :






If ........ .......- ... -


Registered letter properly paid at
60 kopeks from Rundani 19.9.41.


64 f
; 2~ -^^^ k ,


Greeting card from Jelgava 24.7.41 to Liepaja and
paid at internal card rate (A. Cronin collection).


Ccf
";C -


Mixed franking local
" 'o.- cover Riga 16.9.41,
properly paid at 15 k.


DASTK(ARTE


. -. : ;.- "


..... .......... .............
:^:;;^ ^' ^U^ ^^Z -p^- ^^ ^^___


Sftit js un vipa adree-
A ac^c.cC L.,
.... .^?^y'LL-3 C .::

-' C14.rC.
Cau motor'.,


Properly prepaid internal card from Cesis
11.7.41 to Reas (A. Cronin collection).


nOHTOBAHF KAPTO'KA ;
CARTE POSTAL





A KK IIOTOBO OTIIPBJIEHHH IHITCO 0PT C
K a..... ... .... ..,....:. a-....Z .6.. .,s a
..............................-.-..





.resse -
---------w I ----- 7 -------------------------n--
-- Aresse q:v-
de. it ..'..i.r ------ ::_.--___- _, _

Card from Je-kabpils 4.8.41 to RTga and paid at the
correct internal rate (A. Cronin collection).


~~iv


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK Nq 45
November, 1999


AP7/JI


6#'
VV//^ d.i


r-


I -


*reknie' la.I
2riek~niet-ba1.


~









S DASTKARTE



.Velecten&
SSlena Berticka" MajkovA

.vdiny Povotnzch

( ^^ / iv Pezinku


Finally, a Latvian Republic 10-santimu
card from Bolderaja 18.9.41 sent by Slovak (!)
serviceman Jan to a girl friend in Pezinok,
Slovakia. It may be philatelic, despite the
Wehrmacht cachet (A. Cronin collection).





a .iDeknp- zdrav Velmi sa na
--T PO nu asi o mesiac.


jS tvojS j~7i.


This is a late Soviet-style postmarker,
which was Latvianised and then backdated
to 19.04.41 (A. Cronin collection: 7-kopek
Latvijas PSR stamp); 20.07.41 and 24.09.41
for the "LATVIJA / 1941. / 1. VII."
overprints (Robert Taylor collection). Such
worthless "usages" pop up at stamp shows !


Conclusion.
The survey set out above is an excellent example of what may be accomplished when specific issues and/or
periods are studied with the help of our combined forces. In this case, the political and social backgrounds
were shocking and they have obviously affected the availability of the material.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N 45 61
November, 1999


Fraudulent applications of the "RIGA 22" canceller.






THE BEGINNINGS OF THE ROMANIAN POSTS IN BESSARABIA IN 1918
by Dr. Dan Grecu.

For more than 100 years, Bessarabia belonged to Tsarist Russia. On 15 December 1917, the Council of the
Land (Sfatul TPrii) in Chisiniu (Kishinev) proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic of Bessarabia.
On 6 January 1918, the Governor of that republic requested military aid from Romania to facilitate the
withdrawal of the remnants of the Bolshevised Russian Army that were terrorising the region. As a
consequence, four Romanian divisions crossed the Prut river in Moldavia on 23 January 1918 in the
following order from north to south:-
- The 1st. Cavalry Division in the BAili-Soroca-Hotin zone.
- The 11th. Infantry Division in the Leova-Chisinau zone.
- The 2nd. Cavalry Division & 13th. Infantry Division in the Cahul-Bolgrad-Chilia Nou zone.

The principal towns of Bessarabia were thus occupied on the following dates-
24 January: Cahul; 25 Jan.: Bolgrad; 26 Jan.: Chiinau; 27 Jan.: Reni.
3 February: Ismail; 5 Feb.: Bendery (lost temporarily and regained 20 Feb.); 7 Feb.: Chilia Nouai;
15 Feb.: Valcov.
8 March: Cetatea Alba.
Meanwhile, the independence of the Moldavian Republic of Bessarabia was proclaimed on 6 February 1918
and the union of Bessarabia with Romania on 9 April 1918.

The Romanian Postal Service was subsequently established in Bessarabia on 1 July 1918 (that date
according to Calin Marinescu in the Romanian magazine "Filatelia", No. 3 for 1993, the information being
taken from the official "Journal of the P.T.T." No. 1 for January 1927). However, it is not clear if that date
was given in the New Style (Gregorian Calendar) or the Old Style (Julian Calendar, which was 13 days
behind). In the latter case, the date should be stated correctly as 1/14 July 1918.

In accordance with the Decree promulgating Law No. 3370 and published in the Official Gazette No. 190 for
13 November 1918, the Romanian postal regulations were extended to Bessarabia. That date was in fact
when the region was integrated completely in the Kingdom of Romania from the postal point of view.
Taking that date into account, some postal stages may now be specified:-

(1) The Preliminary Stage of the establishment of the Romanian Postal Service.
Period I: From the entry into Bessarabia until the unification with Romania (Jan./Feb. to April 1918).
Period H: From unification until the establishment of the Romanian Postal Service (April to June 1918).
(2) The Transitional Stage of the Romanian Posts in Bessarabia, from the establishment of the Postal
Service up to the extension of Romanian postal regulations.
As the exact date when the Decree covering Law No. 3370 is still not known, we will tentatively consider
the day of 13 November 1918 as marking the preliminary stage of transition in Bessarabia. Let us now look
in turn at some characteristics of each stage regarding (a) the Military Posts and (b) the Civilian Mails in
Bessarabia.

Period I (Jan./Feb. to April 1918).
(a) The military mail was sent through the Fieldpost Service by the Romanian units participating in the
liberation of Bessarabia.
(b) The civilian population theoretically patronised the former Russian post offices, which eventually
continued to function.

Unfortunately, the present author has still not come across pieces of mail in categories (a) or (b) which
would have circulated during this period. However, in the Romanian Postal History Bulletin (RPHB)No.2 for
62 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIK N' 45
November, 1999






1990, Dr. Robert Bell records a somewhat dubious envelope sent by a civilian from lasi (Jassy) to Chiinau
and receiving on arrival a Russian marking reading KHIIIHHEB'b BECC. 28.3.18.

Period II (April-June 1918).
(a) Military mail begins to appear more frequently in this period. All the mail coming from Romanian
military personnel in Bessarabia (they indicated in the address either the military unit in which they were
serving or the various civilian addresses of the localities in which they were quartered; they were mostly
officers) was collected at the level of the Divisional Headquarters stationed in a specific zone. It was
transported from there by the Fieldpost Service to Iasi, where it entered into the Romanian mail stream.
Hence, the stages should be as follows:-

1. The sender himself. In almost all cases, the point of despatch may be deduced from the address of the
sender or the text of the correspondence, as that was practically the only proof of the Bessarabian origin of
the mail. Due to the fact that the Romanian Postal Service was still not organised, there did not exist at all in
Bessarabia any means of postal designation that would permit localisation of the postal routes for mail. For
that reason, only direct references in the sender's address or text would indicate the location. An
approximation of the area of despatch may also be made indirectly by a knowledge of the military zones
where military units were concentrated.
2. From the sender, with the mail arriving at the Divisional Headquarters. That function was probably
carried out by military postmen or by couriers, but the details are still not known.

The places where the divisions were stationed may be found on military postcards, as well as the location of
the respective Headquarters. Thus, within this period at least, the Headquarters of the 1st Cavalry Division
was situated in Balti. There functioned at the Divisional Headquarters military postal and telegraphic offices
(OPTM = Oficiu Postal-Telegrafic Militar), which also utilised specific cancellers of the Military Postal
Service. In addition, the transitional stage carried out by the Divisional Headquarters was however rarely
documented by the appearance of some relevant markings (OPTM postmarks as shown in Fig. 2 below) or
by military censorship cachets (see Fig. 1).

Cr.TE .'POSTAl.A III.iT I:- 'O -Nr
n ... ,




,. .- y
'i,"iLCCctI1Q~-; --if



Fig. 1: Military postcard sent on 29 April 1918 Fig. 2: Postcard from the 1st. Rosiori Regt. within the
from the 1st. Cavalry Division HQ in Bilfi, 1st. Cavalry Division (the Rosiori were an elite cavalry
where it received at the same level the marking regiment in the Romanian Army), being mailed at
"CENZURAT / Div. 1 Cavalerie". It arrived in Cerepcau, Soroca county on 21 June 1918 to arrive
Iasi on 2nd. May and was censored there the at the 1st. Cavalry Division HQ three days later per
next day with a datestamp reading the marking "OFIC. TEL. POSTAL MILITAR DIVIZIA
"CENZURAT 5". The destination was 1 CAVALERIE 24.6.918". It then passed through Iasi,
Dorohoi in Moldavia. where it was censored with the cachets "CENZURA
MILITARY POTALA 27.6.918" and "CENZURAT 1".
Addressed to Bucharest in occupied territory, it was
censored again by the Germans (rectangular cachet).

THE POST-RIDER/3IMIHIK N2 45 63
November, 1999






3. From the Divisional Headquarters.
The mail was transported by the Military Postal Service to lasi. It was censored there by the Romanian
authorities and the mail sorted before being placed in the postal stream. It appears that lasi was the only transit
and forwarding centre for the entire mail from and to Bessarabia.

In comparing the dates of despatch written in the texts with the dates of arrival in lasi (confirmed by the
postmarks or censorship cachets), one may determine the transit times between the points of posting in
Bessarabia and of arrivals in Iasi, in passing through the Divisional Headquarters. Here are some examples;-

- Sendings from Bilti (1st. Cavalry Division) in the period from 29 April to 29 June 1918, arriving in lasi
3 to 9 days later (see Fig. 1 again on the previous page).
- Sendings from Cerepciu / Soroca (all from units of the 1st. Cavalry Division) in the period from 21 June to
9 July 1918, arriving in lasi 3 to 6 days later (Fig. 2 on the previous page).
- A sending from Ismail 24 May 1918 and arriving in Iai 7 days later (see Fig. 3 immediately below).



4- rom ROMAl-
gj -_.- .". -..,:?-.i- .-^ ^ ^" ^
.-,. ,.,, .'



,e pia., -C I. C -/
.',ec, ,,, 7,' --- .... -
*. -, -*' ___________. -, _________,___



Fig. 3: An illustrated postcard, sent from Ismail on 11/24 May Fig. 4: A late utilisation of the Russian canceller
1918 and arriving in Iaoi on 31 May, where it was censored on "KHl4IHHEB' BECC. im 2.10.18" on a postcard
1 st. June. Destined for Ploesti in occupied territory, it was sent from Iasi on 26 September (lasi censorship
censored again by the Germans in Bucharest on 4 June 1918. mark "J 11").
4. From Iai.
(a) the mail was routed to the destinations by the Romanian Postal Service. If the destinations were in
occupied Romania (territory of the MViR = Militir-Verwaltung in Ruminien), the mail was censored again
by the German authorities in Bucharest.
(b) The local civilian population could turn to the Russian post offices, which would theoretically continue to
function, or to the Romanian Military Postal Service. Unfortunately, nothing in this category of transmitted
mail has been seen so far by the author.

Transitional Stage (Period III): 1(14?) July to 13 (?) November 1918.
The beginning of this stage is marked by the resumption (or the reopening ?) of post offices under the
direction of the Romanian Postal Administration. From that time onwards, the entire correspondence,
including the great majority of military mail, would have been sent through these offices, being cancelled and
forwarded on an equal basis. As a temporary measure, the post offices initially applied the old Russian
cancellers and these latter were subsequently replaced by new Romanian postmarkers.

The Introduction of New Romanian Cancellers.
We have here some of the most significant examples known so far of the utilisation of Romanian cancellers in
Bessarabia, the dates for which may be modified by new finds:-
BALTI: 8 August 1918, with diameters of 31 and 19 mm.
SOROCA: 3 September 1918, with diameters of 19.5 and 17.5 mm.

64 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHIK N 45
November, 1999






BRICEVO (Tahrova district, Soroca county): 6
..- September 1918, with diameters of 29.5 & 17
mm. (see Fig. 5 herewith).
': All these postmarks are of the double-circle type.
.a' ', With regard to Chisinau, the situation appears to
Shave been paradoxical. Although it would have
been expected that, in the provincial capital, the
S_ old markings would have been among the first to
S. 1" be replaced, the situation was in fact completely
_i4, -,.-_ -different. Thus, the Russian canceller
KHIIIIHEBb BECC. is most frequently
-, encountered on mail, struck temporarily as an
Fig. 5: Card sent from 40th. Infantry Regt. in Mandic arrival marking, as late as 2 October 1918 (see
4.9.1918, postmarked Bricevo 6.9, Blti 8.9, to Fig. 4 on p. 64), during the time when there were
arrive in Iasi 10.9, where it was censored ("J 7"). very few cancellers in the post offices. The
Romanian cancellers started appearing in August 1918, according to the material seen by the author.
However, the double-circle Romanian marking CHISINAU POSTA has been encountered by the author with
the date of 22 November 1918 and an earlier date of 16 November is illustrated in an issue of the RPHB
mentioned previously. A mention appears in the same source of the Russian arrival marking of
KHIIlHHEBTb BECC. 25.11.18 (see RPHB No. 2 for 1990, p. 2), being the same as that for March 1918
and referred to beforehand, but struck on a very dubious piece. This means that, either it was applied for a
specific period with at least two different cancellers in parallel (one Romanian, the other Russian) at different
post offices in Chisinau: possibly CHISINAU-PO$TA and CHIINAU-1, or that the mentioned piece is a
forgery made with a canceller which had been taken out of use. Both versions appear to be plausible and, as a
consequence, until new findings prove otherwise, we can consider that the canceller at the Chiinau post
office was changed only at some date between 3 October and 15 November 1918.
SBUCURETI Another example of the application of a Russian marking
K o. 16 in Chiginiu may be seen in the article "Matters Moldavian'
-c by Andrew Cronin (published in "The Post-Rider" No. 25,
and reprinted in the RPHB No. 1, Vol. 2 of 1991, p. 19.
/ i Fig. 1), being a framed rectangular cachet
S' "KI4IIHEB'b" of the Chisinau railway station. It was
.- applied on a Romanian military postcard, sent from there
Si by a unit of the 11th. Infantry Division to Tulcea and
-'., /'/ passing through the Austro-Hungarian FPO No. 299,
.;- I which was located in Braila in September 1918.

( -a- ~Concerning the item in Fig. 6, registered and sent from
Bucharest in February 1919, censored at the Bucharest-
Fig. 6 is Mesagerii office and proceeding towards its destination
/ described along the route Bucharest-Ungheni-Noui Sulita-Dorohoi-
in the text.
S" in the 'text. Iasi-Hotin-lst. Cavalry Division (situated at that date in
the Lipcani-Dorohoi area and with each stage documented
,i by a marking), we can record another three early
~ .. i^ .A,,, / Romanian cancellers applied in Bessarabian localities:-

-', v UNGHENI-BALTI TPO/RPO: 26 Feb.919 with a
S* -. -diameter of 29 mm.
NOUA SULITA: 4 Mar.919, double-circle with
.7 ..7 diameters 29/18 mm. and struck in blue.

65
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK Ns 45
November, 1999






- LIPCANI: 16 Mar. 919, with a diameter of 29.5 mm.


The Special Situation in the Hotin Zone.
Referring further to the cover in Fig. 6, we can affirm the surprising appearance (at a date which can now be
specified as being very late, bearing in mind the dates recorded earlier) of the Russian postmark: XOTHIH'b
BECC. 11.3.19. This same marking was also applied even later on 28.8.19, as can be seen on a cover,
reproduced in the Romanian SRFTM Bulletin No. 3-4/1992, p. 14. The explanation is as follows. The north-
western area of Bessarabia (Hotin zone) was occupied in March 1918 by the Austro-Hungarian forces,
utilising this district as a transit corridor for the 2nd. Austro-Hungarian Army (especially the Kosak Group)
from Bukovina towards Odessa, in the course of the campaign to occupy the Ukraine. The Austro-Hungarian
forces remained in that region until November 1918. The Austro-Hungarian FPO No. 416 was also located
there (see a cover that went through that office in Fig. 2 of the article "Matters Moldavian" by Andrew Cronin,
referred to above).

Romania also occupied the H otin zone in Bessarabia after the Austro-Hungarian withdrawal from the
Ukraine at the end of November 1918. In addition, there was heavy fighting in this zone with Soviet troops in
January 1919, the town of Hotin being also occupied by the latter for a week from 24 January to 1 February
1919. That was the reason why the Hotin zone came so late under Romanian administration and also why the
manufacture of new Romanian cancellers was delayed so much, at least for the Hotin office. It is probable that
the most important factor in the delay in introducing new Romanian cancellers was the prevailing situation
there of hostilities, in which conditions Romanian postmarkers either could not be made or because they had
disappeared during the short period of Soviet occupation. In this regard, it may be noted that, in the localities
occupied by the Austro-Hungarians but where no fighting was going on, as would have been the case at Noua
Sulita and later at Lipcani, there nevertheless existed Romanian cancellers in March 1919.

Two factors are therefore of interest to specialists:-
- Did there still exist a Romanian canceller for Hotin in the period from December 1918 to January 1919 ?
- Did there also exist other cases of late usage of the old Russian cancellers and, if so, what were the reasons
that led to that situation ?

Conclusion.
The process of introducing Romanian cancellers in Bessarabia began much more rapidly that had been
thought so far and, in practice, much faster than in all the other territories unified in 1918; in fact, four months
after unification and about one month after the establishment of the Romanian Postal Service in Bessarabia.
The hypothesis can be advanced that this introduction of new cancellers came about quite simultaneously in
August-September 1918 for all post offices. There exist exceptions, some of which have been discussed
above.

No parallel comparison can automatically be made with the situation in Transylvania regarding modifications
by stages of the postmarkers and the later introduction of Romanian cancellers in 1920-1921 and beyond.

The gray area that needs to be elucidated is to what extent did Russian civilian post offices exist and function
from January to June 1918.

Editorial Comment.
Dr. Grecu has raised some interesting points in the above study, particularly about the continued provisional
applications of the old Russian cancellers during 1918-1919. The problem is compounded by the fact that civil
war was raging in Russia during that period and the volume of mail generated in Bessarabia in that early
Romanian stage of transition must have been very low. In short, we are up against the situation where the
surviving material must be very rare. Comments and further data would be appreciated.

66
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK MN 45
November, 1999







A CLASSIC DANISH LETTER SENT TO THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
by Erling Berger.


-/ .. .-. < 0


Explanation to the taxes on the letter 1861 Denmark-Russia.

This letter is a franked double letter Frederikshavn (Denmark)-Cronstadt (Russia)
The franking is done by 4 x 16 + 1 x 4 Skilling adhesive stamps
1 Silver Groschen equals 4 4/15 Danish Skilling

Postages Single letter Double Letter
0 1 Danish Loth 1 2 Danish Loth
Danish share for more than 47 miles from 2 S.Gr = 4 S.Gr =
Hamburg 9 Skilling "17" Skilling

Prussian share for more than 94 miles from
Hamburg to Russia............................ 3 S.Gr. 6 S.Gr.

Russian share outside the border region....... 3.S.Gr. "6" S.Gr.
Foreign share ................................. 6 S.Gr. "12" S.Gr.
= 26 Skilling = "51" Skilling
35 Killing 68 Skilling



Written on the front:
Danish share 17 Skilling
Foreign share 52 Skilling (should have been 51 Skilling)
Foreign share 12 S.Gr.
Russian share 6 S.Gr.

It is peculiar that the foreign share is written as 52 Skilling,
because it should have been 51 Skilling.
When we consider the total franking by adhesive stamps (68 Skilling = 17+51) we can
see that 51 must be the correct amount.
THE POST-RIDERaMIIIHK Na 45 67
November, 1999







Foreign Letters to the Baltic Area Around 1820


by Erling Berger

This study began when I wanted to explain the postage for unfranked letters Amsterdam-
Narva (1817-1830). In the book "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873" by Borge
Lundh I saw the system for building the postage due for letters to Finland via Prussia and
St.Petersburg 1822-44. See "THE POST-RIDER" No 43. This system is repeated here:

The postage due was composed of three shares:
1. An amount up to Polangen
2. An amount for Polangen-St. Petersburg
3. An amount for St. Petersburg-The destination in Finland.

The conclusion from my study is that the postage due for destinations in the Baltics-
north of Riga was composed in a similar way:

1. An amount up to Polangen
2. An amount for Polangen-Riga
3. An amount for Riga-The Baltic destination.Further,this last amount could be taken
directly from the internal Russian tariff. (Printed in "THE POST-RIDER" No 43 p. 15)

Here are my raw data, found on the rear side of my letters Amsterdam-Narva:
March 1817- Example 1 July 1819 Example 2 1828 Example 3
602 60% 602
5552 5552 500
569/2 28 542
583/2


A. In general the first amount "60/2" silver kopek covers the postage Amsterdam-
Polangen.
B. The second amount "555/" or "500" paper kopek is the postage up to Riga
(including the previous 602 silver kopek)
C. The rest of the amounts will be treated individually

Example 1:
The difference 569/2 -5552 is 14 Kop.Ass. which conforms with the internal Russian
tariff of 1807 for distances 400-500 v5rst.

Example 2:
The difference 583 -5552 is (as indicated) 28 Kop.Ass. which conforms with the
internal Russian tariff of 1819 for distances 400-500 verst





68 THE POST-RIDER/IMImIK NX 45
November, 1999








Example 3:
The difference 542-500 is 42 Kop.Ass. This needs a closer explanation.

In 1822 with the introduction of the postal convention Russia/ Prussia a : higher
weight limit was allowed in Russia for foreign letters transit Prussia to or from Russia.
Because of this the Russian Postal Service took the opportunity to add 50 % to the
Russian share.

As 42 is the same as 28 plus 50% I mean to have proven that this letter had a postage
which conforms with the internal Russian tariff of 1819 for distances 400-500 verst, yet
with an addition of 50% since 1822.

After 1830

From 1830-40 I have seen ten examples where the local share (still, since Riga) can be


found in the internal Russian Tariff of 1830.

Example 1






-' 00.0 : 2:.4


Example 2


Example 3

*. --- ', : =. -:-r 1/ .i 4

* "'*;":.. -*" .*^y, ;^ t ,.


S -..-. *.- '-'. -. V: *1.- .' *'
':' --- ', '.,. ',"



-. .


4- .. .; '. ,
.............


THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIIIK N 45
November, 1999


,1L

.4wu


:Z)




.1'-


---- -


I






MOSCOW POSTAGE DUE MARKS
by N.C. Warr.

(Author's note: The original version of this article, in much shorter form about half a page, appeared in
"The N.S.W. Philatelist" [no date] and in the BJRP No. 59 without illustrations. This present effort is a very
different animal).

"To pay" marks were introduced by Circular No. 11 of 1871, for use from 1 January 1872. The marks were to
be oval, double-line at the top, to contain the word ",OFIJIATHTb" (= to pay) and single-line at the bottom;
as far as can be told, this mark was standard throughout the Empire. The amount due was to be handwritten in
the centre; this became standard practice, the amount due being charged at double the amount underpaid. The
due mark was usually applied at the office of posting. Due marks were used on both internal and external
mail; items going abroad received in addition to the due mark a large T = Taxe, either by itself or in a circle.
This was an international symbol, indicating that insufficient postage had been paid.

Distinctive, i.e. named marks were introduced by Circular No. 12 of 14 February 1892. Circular No. 43 of 18
August 1911 stated that due marks were to be applied in red ink on the address side of the item. The earliest
mark in red seen for Moscow is Type D4 (see below) of 20.10.09; Types D3b 29.1.09 and D5 of 17.4.10 are
both in purple ink. Although this article focuses on the due marks of Moscow, many of them are types similar
to those used in other places. As one might expect with Moscow, the rules were not followed very closely, as
with the change from black to red or purple ink. Unfortunately, even in black ink, many of these marks are not
clearly struck, although there is usually sufficient detail for the mark to be identified.

From the year 1910 (see "The Post-Rider" No. 44, p. 42), due items received in Moscow, whether arriving
from outside the the city, including from abroad, or being internal Moscow mail, obtained in addition a c.d.s.
full-bridge mark in black of the 5th. Ekspeditsiya (Despatch Office), inscribed "HE BHOJI. OHJIOH:'=
NOT FULLY PAID. This mark (Type D11) is usually seen in conjunction with other due marks. It is not
particularly scarce, as one might think from "The Post-Rider" No. 44, but the mark given in that article is the
earliest seen so far. Now to a classification of the various marks:-











.. ...... ....r x j. .





Type D1: Letter with dates 13 June 1890 & 16 July 1894. Type D2: Card with dates 22.XII.1900 & 31.VII 1902,
Struck in black ink. both struck in black. Oval size: 17 x 24 mm.
A local Moscow letter, forwarded to Perlovka Station Moscow to Ryazan' 22.XII. 1900.
on 16.7.1894. Franked with 5 kopeks on the reverse, Unfranked, therefore due 6 kopeks.
therefore due 4 kopeks.

70 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK N 45
November, 1999






S .- CAMOThKALIAR TOProBEU1n OCMb MECHANISCHE .'
S. r .'" t.- EPU~A UBK. BAC.10CCEJ 8COB 0 R -
\)7" IUIEST i aBhltbrlb FittSil OI MOCKEA.
\ d 44 "p 4 ,2) t 5 9 2 nb 0. 7'.4l n.T. pEH Hj lr DB.een 4.9 A c0I7 S[[DESBin.pUrple ..'
HI *;h^fej .I-EHTIIA HCaT DSEIDEIBIFiBRI.





rIe. Ovl siz: 21 x 3t o s Ov iz : 22.5 x 27 Se n c. 1 t
T a: Eie'se .- .o -







3 .6.1903 to Moscow 25.5.1903 .. Due 12 kopeks. Helsingfors. Franked at 7 kopeks, due 14 kopeks.





7 OTKPblTOE 1' '
_^.<^,-:.:...." .I6.
Type D3a: Earliest noted 18.12.1900 (see "The Post "'" "" '" "
Rider" No. 44, p. 42) to 5.9.12 in black and 10.7.14 in Type D3b: Seen 4.9.07 in black and 29.1.09 in purple.
red. Oval size: 21 x 30 mm. Sent Llandrindod Wels Oval size: 22.5 x 27.5 mm. Sent Moscow 29.1.09 to
3.6.1903 to Moscow 25.5.1903 O.S. Due 12 kopeks. Helsingfors. Franked at 7 kopeks, due 14 kopeks.





ae... 7 ;, ,4 -... .....

I .......... ........ .. .. ,.. ...L/ .^ ^ t
.................. i. .-. .


........-- .
Type D4: Struck on 9.11.08 in black and oval size: 22 x 27 mm. Struck 24.7.09 in black & 20.10.09 in red. Oval Size: 25 x 31 mm.
(a) Moscow 9.11.08 to Pinner. Franked at 4 kopeks, (b) Moscow 24.7.09 to Celle. Internal 3-kopek card,
.. due 8 kopeks. therefore due 2 kopeks. Rated 5 Pfg. due in Germany.


Type D5: Seen in black 1.11.10 & 27.12.10; Purple on
17.4.10 and red on 8.1.16. Oval size: 21.5 x 28.5 mm.
Recorded at Office Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 & 55.


(a) 1st. Otd. 3.11.12 to SPB. Franked at 7 kopeks, 191
due 14 kopeks, as it weighed 1 1/3 lots. 'Is~
(b) 5th. Otd. 18.11.10. Franked at 10 kopeks
(but obviously weighed more than 15 grammes).
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIiHK N 45
November, 1999
























(c) 10th. Otd. 17.4.10 to Tula and unfranked.


(e) 55th. Otd. 9.3.10 to Davos Dorf. Unfranked.


Type D7: Struck in red on 27.12.13. Oval size
Moscow 67, 27.12.13-g; jOHJIATHTb M(
OTAS'JIEHIE; 5th. Desp. Office HE BnOJ
28.12.13; receipt Moscow-B 21st.P.T.Otd.28.
Franked at 2 kopeks, therefore due 2 kopeks.


- /,,-,.7 _.- .. ......-. ^ '.,
."o< ^," i i -.." ._a-'--


----'-- -----

,4 A..z..,'- j -.,_ ':"i
-,r ,, :. ,t_ -_ -.
.l,-/.,,," ,.c, -- '-z-.'. ---- -.-. .------------
55(d) Wyd th. td. 11.4.15 to Petrograd. Uan ad due 6 kop

(d) 11th. Otd. 11.4.15 to Petrograd. Unfranked and due 6 kopeks.


Type D6: Seen in black 21.12.08 and in red 1.XI.12. Oval size:
20.5 x 28 mm. Recorded Offices 17 & XIX; Kiryushkin &
Robinson have XXI in their "Russian Postmarks".
XIX Gor. P.O. 1.11.12 to SPB. Franked 7 kop., due 14 kopeks
(1 1/3 lots).


: 25 x 31.5 mm. Type DS: 56th. Branch Office in red. Oval: 28.5 x 31.5 mm-K & B
)CKBA 67 have 54 GPO. N.B.: NO postal markings apart from the due mark
I. OnHIOH. Doplatit' 56 Gor. Pocht. Otd. Unfranked, due 30 kopeks. This
12.13. looks stylistically like a Moscow mark and, taken with the
K & R mark, it is attributed to Moscow.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIK N2 45
November, 1999


~~/;


..;,-~",~


'I I

Pan"IE5 11n fA-cS
























Type D9: Struck at 66 Branch Office 8.12.14 in red. Type D10: )OHJIATHTh No 1 in red. Oval size 21 x 27.5 mm.
Oval size: 25.5. x 31 mm. Moscow 66 serial "e" to TPO 141 Chernigov Dnepr. Krasnoe 8.6.14 to Moscow 9 "d"
Geneva. Unfranked, but nothing due; letters to 10.6.14; 5th. Desp. HE BIOJI. OHJIOq. 10.6.14 and
the Red Cross Enquiry Bureau went free. JOnIJIATHTb N 1. Franked 3 kopeks, due 8 kopeks.


S~---R.... 1 ,'I ^. Type D11 refers to the "HE BIIOJI. OHJIO'1
/t.7J ,)a,,,.^.^ v (NOT FULLY PAID) marking shown above in
Types D7 & D10. Earliest date 3.11.10 (see "The
"3 ..s* 7Post-Rider" No. 44, p. 42) to 26.5.15. Struck in
--o.co .. black, with a outer circle of 32 mm. and inner of
21.5 mm. The "V"-date-"3" shown in the date
-, bridge refers to the 5th. Despatch Office.


Vor- lill nt N3.3 5 "
mp. .
Type 10: JOHOJIATHTb N 2 struck in red 3.4.14
to July 1917. Oval size: 21 x 28 mm. Moscow 5th.
Desp. 3.4.14; 5th. Desp. HE BHOJI. OHJIOI. 3.4.14;
)OOnJIATHTb MOCKBA M 2 and Moscow 3
"b" 3.4.14. Franked at 2 kopeks, due 2 kopeks.
We have not seen any due marks for Moscow stations but K&R in their Russian Railway Postmarks list
(1045.D1) St Petersburg Nik(olaevski Vok)z serial a, 18.2.14, so it would be safe to assume that there would be
a similar mark for the Nicholas Station in Moscow.

K&R Railways p150 on (& Addendum) list dues for various TPOs inc:

TPO 1 (R1.D1) 8.9.07
(R1.D2) Petrograd 4.7.16
(R2.D1) 2 Post Vagon 2 27.8.01 see D TPO 1, 8 3 1905
(R2.D2) 2 Otd Post Vag 2 -. 3.09
TPO 11/12 (R11/12.D1) 3.9.13 see D TPO 2, 12 8 1910

TPO 15 Tann, Yamschik 39 p50 reports Moscow 15 Kharkov Otd 5 9 1914 with Doplatit'15 Otdelen.
Post. Vagona 15 in cherry red

TPO [17] Moscow Kiev (R17.Dx) 8.6.11
TPO 41 serial (R41.DI) 8.4.11 see D TPO 3,2 8 1912
TPO 210 (R210.D1) 25.8.16 presumably TPO 209 exists also
as no doubt do marks for other Moscow TPOs which none of us has seen to date.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIK 2( 45 73
November, 1999























Type D.TPO1: Oval size 21.5 x 30 mm. Inscribed "2 _' T" -
Pocht. Vagon 2" in black. TPO No.2, 8.3.05 O.S. to Type D.TPO2: Oval size: 20.5 x 28. Inscribed
Tammerfors 29.3.05 N.S. "11 Pocht. V(agon 11)" in black. TPO No. 11
Moscow-N.Novgorod 12.8.10 to Gavrilov Posad
<3-^ C7- ^ E~f .13.8.10.





SrType D.TPO3: Oval size: 22 x 29 mm. Inscribed: 41 Pocht. Vagon
S. 41 "B" in violet. TPO No. 41 Moscow-Minsk 2.8.12 "b" and
7 }addressed to the Moscow-Brest Railway Line at the 34-VZ'rsty
Platform, to the Platform Attendant Gusev.



t1IIy *


THE JOURNAL FUND

All orders should be made out to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.
Previously advised titles are all regretfully sold out.

P.C.4Q.C.P. Cnequani3supoBanMnai KaTaJior noITOBhlX Mapox 1918-1923 (RSFSR Specialised
Catalogue of Postage Stamps 1918-1923). A 140-page soft-cover study on high quality paper with many
details including in colour, postal history and extensive foreword in English. Price postpaid US 540.00.

THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY ON EARLY POSTCARDS, by P.E. Robinson. A beautiful 50-
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OJ(ECCKAH nO'ITA (The Odessa Post), by V. Kofman & R. Kalin. A detailed 58-page study in
Russian and English of all aspects of Odessa postal history from 1803 onwards, including occupations,
markings in Ukrainian, postal code data etc. Fascinating! Limited supply! Price postpaid US S10.00.

POST OFFICES OF THE UKRAINE WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE POSTAL CODES. Special
CSRP reprint of this 1932 Kharkiv work on the world's first postal code system. Thousands of postal codes
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KOJIJIEKIlMOHEP NS 33 ("The Collector" No. 33). A 320-page manual in Russian with authoritative
articles on philately, incl. Tridents, postcards, numismatics and paper money. Price postpaid US S12.50.

B HOMOnIIb PYKOBOjIHTEJIIO HH30BOII CB313H (To the aid of the Director of Lesser
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the inner workings of the Soviet Postal Service. Interesting! Price postpaid US S 6.00.

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SOVIET DIARY 1927 & OTHER WRITINGS, by S.S. Prokofev. An absorbing book by this great
composer with interesting photos and notes re growing terror. Limited supply! Price postpaid US S 9.50.

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gives you all the basics of the language, to help you appreciate your material. Price postpaid US S 3.00.
74 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIH4K N2 45
November, 1999











October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia
by Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan.
Framed monograms on Imperial Arms
Overprinted by single rubber handstamps with small, medium and large-sixe surcharges
in black or violet ink and sold at face value. They were in circulation up to December 1920.


Small
in black


Small
in black


Medium
in black


Medium
in black


Large
in black


Large
in black


SEEME21R=


Large
in violet


Large
in violet


as~---~-~lc--~--L~- de~~~i~&A~~~


A scarce usage of medium-size monograms in their worn state on the 2-kop. & 3-kop. Arms on an ordinary
foreign postcard from Erivan' 27.3.20 to Tiflis. Total franking of 54 kopeks; therefore overpaid by 4 kopeks.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK JY 45
November, 1999


Inc


" (', o
r'^-y
v.,ww_
-AV Il


r --'' It''
r'


. -.l ,-' \


... .
' V ... 53
SI

.u
"* ^ '*''

^wn-a- .


'
Lr.,:: ,~;
I
r
-








October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia


SFramed monograms on Imperial Arms..


Small
in black


Medium
in black


"K" missing at left


Large in black
inverted


Large
in black










Large
in black


Large
in violet


"K" missing at right


The differences in the strikes are due to the human factor.


A single 1-kopek stamp revalued at 60 kopeks. Type 2 overprint bearing a large-size inverted framed monogram,
to make up the required fee for an ordinary local letter up to 1 lot in weight and received in Erivan' on 5.2.1920.


THE POST-RIDER/aMIIIHK N 45
November, 1999


~i-.~T 39
i~ &\


Pe~~-P---~II~C--- L_ -- ill --








October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia

Framed Monograms on Imperial Arms


Large in worn
state in violet


Small in mid-
state in violet


Small in early
state in violet


Large in worn
state in violet


Note the variations in the overprintt, due to the degree of inking and wear of the rubber handstamp. '




/ ,^ ,, ; : .; B.: + .. : .



,- -OA B lr --'

,* ." C A : .-t'1/


-f 0 -- .- ..


7"I


A scarce usage on cover of the 1-kop. Arms perforated, revalued to 60 kop. Type 2 and bearing a
large-size monogram (one monogram inverted in the block of four), to make up the required 4 r. 70 k.
rate for a registered foreign overweight letter sent from Erivan' on 16.3.20 to Tiflis, arriving on 23.3.20.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIII(K N 45
November, 1999









October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia


:Framed monograms on Imperial Armsi


Small Medium
in black in black


. L








Large in black
worn state


Large
in black


A late usage of the large-size monogram (inverted & non-philatelic) in the mid-state on 1 r. Arms perforated,
on an ordinary foreign letter from Elenovka 19.6.20 to Marseilles, France. Franked at the correct 5 r. total rate.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N2 45
November, 1999


/
N. X


- b II -q ~- I -- ---c-








October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia


'Framed monograms on Imperial Arms


A single 3 r. 50 k. value with a small-size monogram from the earliest overprinted stock with a careful emplacement
of the Armenian overprint, so as not to obliterate the Russian Imperial Arms on a local registered letter, sent and
received in Erivan' on 27.2.20. The cover bears a manuscript notation "15 gr. 3 rub. 50 k".


A pair of the 3 r. 50 k. value with a medium-size monogram, affixed in a mixed franking with a copy of the 3 r. Fourth
Issue surcharge, to make up the correct 10 r. total rate for a registered intercity letter, sent from Aleksandropol'
28.5.20 to Erivan' 5.5.20. The latter date should obviously read 5.6. 20 and must have been a postmark error.

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIImIK N 45 79
November, 1999


~~-~E -f /

/ /1p"7 j i







October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia


V~:t I -I-



* i(*.. f A
--









~.J >- K


Opened and sealed by
the Georgian censor
with a paper label and
also stamped in violet
with a boxed censorship
cachet in Georgian.


Large size in violet
in the mid-state


Large size in violet
in the late worn state








A late use of a large-
size framed monogram
on 3 r. 50 k., used on a
cover from
Keshishkend 12.6.20 to
Tiflis 23.6.20. Franked
at the correct 10 r. total
rate for a registered
foreign letter. This is
the only recorded cover
franked with 1919-
1920 stamps cancelled
Keshishkend "a".


80 THE POST-RIDER/aMIIRIK N 45
November, 1999


I


: hL-- C CI
.I ;( ..
.r ~ -
I
L.:
~
'' '?:
i.
i2. :. 'ZZY .~-
.-'.
ir., :'
;
~


" i










October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia


.Framed monograms on Imperial Arms



A The differences in pressure in strike to strike
are due to the human factor. The frame line
? I ~at right deteriorated due to the tilting of the
S rubber handstamp to the right.


Large Large
in violet in violet


. !


a OPUlS fluFlnEPn

----------/


'K
N'----; --


B B L I 'ki
11 IJa r-h
ff~~~
ls~3? X xr L

Yf; I*l;i:7bk

~ f1-
21.
'' ''
~if~~



r. 1. 4~i~~.P1ICf~q



C~-:' .,-.
..I
JiL~rr.
-- i.F ~ii~L& ~
4C'
:: r I
1- r; r.
;r .. Y

c c-i '4.. I~
~
LI .
I ..~ L.l .'-`-
;r
t~ .~
'"
i. rL.
1. .. -~ 1
'~-k.- r ::-
I i:: rll
LC


$ $/f -

2



A TN


IN t '41 14


A rare usage of the 5 r. value with a large-size framed monogram in violet to make up the required
fee for an ordinary intercity wrapper up to 30 grammes, sent from Aleksandropol' 1.4.20 to
Erivan'. The address is in Armenian script.


THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHK N2 45 81
November, 1999


Small
in violet


-, ;:


- ~ I~Y-~Cd~ ~ -- s C ----- I


- .-,_~MZ~.~CT~T~T~T~T~T~T~T~T~T~~e~tr1;I i;








October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia

Framed monograms on Imperial Arms


Medium in black
in the worn state


Large in black
in the mid-state


Large in violet
in the mid-state


Large in violet
inverted, mid-state


Note the variations of the overprint, due to the degree of inking and wear of the rubber handstamp


A scarce usage of the 7 r. Arms with inverted large-size monogram in black on a cover from Erivan'
20.4.20 to Tiflis 24.4.20, in a mixed franking with the Third Issue 1 r. Arms, overprinted with an
unframed monogram, to make up the total 8 r. fee for a registered foreign letter up to 15 grammes.


THE POST-RIDER/HMII(HK N2 45
November, 1999


.-. .. ..' .. .. *. ".. .- -. -_- .-.- 9-;.i- .; ,?_ :. -: 2 -. ..
.... '- .- -i '.'.:x.-- ,- '. --- _
I' -








'A



II
;. : .: :
.5 "... ', -t ; -
; .. ., '.. ., .. .. ,
.. : '' -


.y- _. ', ; .
"~~~ ~~~ i

-r .. : .. ,. .

r ,
: .': : ll~~~c~; 2L..a.. .""Z -- "2
-.. : .. ". .: .. .,. ... .... ,'= .., : '.,. =,. ,
-- ., .' : I' -. '.s './,'. ....; ., .. ... .- ." :
", 7." .._ .% ...- .. ,- ,.; .- ,,> .-- t "' ..: -.. .: .,,; .,_ .. .? ,.,
--. .. % ,. ,J ,, ,' i_ ,. -" r.
,, ,,. i. _- .. -.-, = .. ,
..- ..:- ,,- .,v,.. .. -. .r,- .
,; .. -. .'F -* ', .- 2 -
-"r; : :_ -2 .),- .
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ .i -. .- .,.
..." .. .-'-. "" :.-"-, ".~~- F 2 '. -. .
~~~ ". _. ,', ." "" -" 2 ..









October-November, 1919. Second issue. Republic of Armenia


Framed Monograms on Imperial Arms


Small in black
in the mid-state,.
diluted gray-black ink


Small in violet
in the early state,
dense ink


Large in violet
in the early state,
diluted ink


Large in violet:
Double strike
in the mid state


Note the variations of the overprint,, due to the degree and quality of the inking and wear of the handstamp.


..- '.r K -.


I..
-I .j *-u I1'








)2.. ..,


*2,~.I / 1

-r :L~-'y~Y
tc '


I-
/ -1."".





I-~
.'f ,.\ ,. *-








2 '.- .J -- .
.* ..- .
.. ,
,. .. -
:.'.. ,... ..; ~ .. ..

/ .~. ..


-,-,

i ..: ,,


o. ,
? i .


A single 10 r. Arms with a medium-size monogram in black to make up the required 10 r. fee for a
registered intercity letter up to 15 grammes, sent from Aleksandropol' 25.5.20 to Allaverdy 4.6.20.
One copy of the 10 r. Arms with a framed monogram genuinely used on cover is recorded.



THE POST-RIDER/5IMIHK N2 45
November, 1999


i I II ill II LC


mRiEin;






REGARDING THE DOUBLE LETTER-CARD OF RUSSIA
by Professor A.S. Ilyushin.

Under the heading "Letter Cards (Sekretki)" in the catalogues describing the postal stationery of the Russian
Empire, there is listed a Double Letter-Card with Paid Reply (3AKPbITOE IH4CbMO Cb
OIIJIAqEHHbIM'b OTB-BTOMTb) in enlarged size: 174 x 106 mm., with an imprinted stamp die in the
the value of 10 kopeks. The compilers of the catalogues have fixed the date of issue as 1915-1916.

However, the external appearance of this issue allows us to determine that it was prepared appreciably earlier.
The following factors support this assertion:-

(1) The Arms of the Russian Empire are of an earlier type, having been printed previously on letter-cards and
postcards of the 1890 issue.

(2) Also, the term "3AKPbITOE IHHCbMO" was not utilised on letter-cards after 1890, but was changed
to the much shorter "nHHCbMO" (= LETTER).

In an article by V.A. Pantyukhin in the magazine "4 AaTenjia" No. 4/1997, pp. 52-54, he notes the discovery
by him of a stipulation concerning postal affairs and dated 23 September 1906, issued by the Minister of
Internal Affairs of Russia and in which there was an announcement about the issue of letter-cards with paid
reply. However, the text of the stipulation only speaks of the issue of unstamped blanks, to which stamps had
to be affixed.

In the "Rossica Journal" No. 64, p. 22, the well-known philatelist O.A. Faberg6 noted that he had in his
collection a double letter-card, overprinted in red on both sections with the word "IPOEKTb" (=
PROJECT) and also bearing a pencilled inscription, reading "Viktor Viktorovich Bilibin, 1896/IlI". O.A.
Faberg6 was of the opinion that this item was an essay. He suggested that there could also exist letter-cards
without the overprint "HPOEKTTb" in red, but that he had not seen such examples. He also showed in his
article a partial illustration of his letter-card.

Much later, the present author was able to find these letter-cards in both states: with and without the
overprinted word "IPOEKTb" (see Figs. 1 & 2 on the next page). A careful examination of the
characteristics of the settings for these letter-cards allows us to distinguish the differences existing between
them, being deduced by comparing the positions of the letters in the two-line text: "Cb
OnJIAIEHHbIMTb OTBI-TOMlb" and "HJI' OTB-ITA" in the French and Russian languages (see the
illustrations of Types I & II in Fig. 1).

Thus, in summing up the facts set out above, it can be suggested that this issue, although prepared for use in
1896, did not actually go into circulation. One of the possible reasons could have been the inconvenience of
putting on sale such large and heavy letter-cards. With any careless movement, the perforated margins could
have been torn off, due mainly to the weight of the other part, especially upon sealing. It is also apparent that
even the later attempts to issue letter-cards blanks with paid reply also did not lead to their utilisation,
specifically for that reason.

Judging from the evidently small quantity produced, they were nevertheless printed and an amount of them
fell into the hands of collectors.

The author knows of the existence of at least six copies of these letter-cards.


84
84 THE POST-RIDER/AMIIHK N2 45
November, 1999







ABOIHOE 3AKPbITOE HHCbMO C OIIIAMEHHbIM OTBETOM
BbinycK B o6pau~ene ne nocrynan.

S'Varieties of printing. Pa3HOBHAHOCTH no KJ HUue

Type I AVEC RPONSE PAYE. R X4HoE.
rype OnJIAxEHHLIM' OTBSTOM'. Ind t OTB3TA-.I
Type AVEC iIPOXSE'PAYAE. I pONS E. Tim IP
CTyp On.TA9 n EHlbI31' OTBHTOMIl,. .Ia T T A.


T...-. I ^ --


. HIn I


Iype I


SVarieties of printing.



* Type 1 -RU 8 IE. --'POCCI .'

-T 'y -I -,CARTE- ILETTRE -1

3AKPbITOE nHCbMO
Sn" d'.:. PON E. '
... aJ OTBlSTA.

S.......... .... ......... ... .................. ............ ............ .


"i 'I. 'O. .
X ,..,.. ... I ......





.. .. .... ..... -........ .

"Dftaeho. la bordurx lo Ionee do poIUlHU.- .tg uolpeTIa oTpunaT& Kpaa no npoKoay.


..














SRUSSIE. POCCIg.

CARTE-LETTRE
3AHPblTOE MHCbMO
Rn A PON I s E.
AnI aOT3B-TA.


Fig. 2.


RUSSIE. --POCCI .

CARTE-LETTRE
3AKPbITOE nHCbMO
AVEC RBPONSE PAYEE.
0C' OAA'qEHEHIM'b OTBSTOM'b.

..................... .................... ......










" Ddtaohbe la bordare to long do polntliu. a. iopurTI oTpunto peu l nopo.orY.


*


STH II __Type II
rn-.~~~~yp 11, ---- -


...............................................................
BRUS SIE. POCCI a.

CARTE -LETTRE
3AKPbITOE r1MCbMO
AVEC ULP6NSE'PAYPE
C'r0 OTIZATIEHIM~MIe OTBTTOM'I..











..............
:Fig. 1. O6ttahex I bordure I long do PelOInU1d. A.ix vcpximTitoTp...n ,oux no UPnoRMy.


00
tA


C C

C 0


... . .. ..
... .





Dktmoeh Im borduro Is long do pol,1116. -AIX SoM CeUTIR OTPC.CCOC I15 no ,poXOay.


n


I






PHILATELIC SHORTS
Is there a question that you would like to put across to the
readers ? Is there an interesting stamp cancellation or cover that
you would like to describe ? Is there an item in your collection that '
could use some clarifying information, or might there be some gems
of wisdom that you could impart on some newly acquired item ?
This is our most popular section and you should participate.
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom in the confines of a :',
couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !
Professor A.S. Ilyushin, Moscow, Russia.
(a) The "ypaBaeHie" error on the Imperial postcard P4.
Much has been written lately about the rarity of the 4-kopek postcard without the phrase "n 3a rpamiuy" (P3).
However, the missing "n" in "ynpaBjeHie" at the bottom back of postcard P4 is also quite rare. I only know of
four copies, as well as another two examples advised by Dr. A.H. Wortman in the BJRP (see the illustrations
on p. 87). Do any other readers hold copies of this unusual error, mint and/or used ?
Editorial Comment: Professor Ilyushin has made an important point in postal stationery varieties. It should
be noted that, in this case, the sentence at bottom back translates as "The Postal Administration is not
responsible for the text of the message", i.e. so as to avoid legal action if something libellous were written !


(b) The Essentuki
registration machine
used in the early Soviet
period.
In "The Post-Rider" No. 42,
Herr Harry von Hofmann
published an article about
the automats for the receipt
of registered mail, with the
relevant details of the offices
known to him, where these
automats were in use.

As a supplement to that
foregoing work, I should
like to give details of a
registered cover I have, sent
on 9 May 1925 from
Essentuki, Tersk province to
Brzegc n/B. (Brest-Litovsk),
then located in Poland.
There is on the front an
impression of the registration
automat in two languages,
together with a number and
the date of despatch. There
is in addition a strike of the
circular date stamp. The
letter is franked on the front
with a total of 14 kopeks by
two 7-kopek definitive.

86


0I


0 i.


L1.U




-' .
rr_







JI/
*5't'' 7 9/



v4
Q1




c.' ~--*,~
22 J71i;tF<


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHHK N 45
November, 1999














Mint







No poo'

T OTPhTOE RWCtFbMQO ^

k HHOrOPOAHOE.
^ '>oro'iro?








1. -,e *uCeio o.er dIurL oqu(oe I unoI.o I 5ut ll0 i. ovrpa0ebm0 00 set .W .l...
scLr Ihlnephl s as rpasueay










| T l ol o o ? I T* 7
2. H. II ol TO pont, upiOnt uapc *e AoUo.I.rcTi cantco Ape rro p larnt.. (
Us~ed as L rnct ohrd mott (4kop r-tc)






Maororop. 41









.5Cm I....pla a.. r.. .... .
.. U. nol .. opo.. r.. l p.. .. ... .. .r... ... .....p.r.ro ......


urr o)
(uscd)


D;e Ia.


t we-I j 0401.Cj5, .t j o
ml~lng Y 1,Ofp~ t


MIOCO AnO nAg-Ylra


--- --













otrono mnunollliOu como~lonchlo nsl.r 0 O ltA Ar --.
\_ '* *


(a) The "ypaBneHie" error on the Imperial postcard P4 (Professor A.S. Ilyushin).


Error
(MitnT)


0d

I'


Odessa
25,V.l876

Schoeet,
b>erg
Sa or ,'
JTO o^'






According to the current postal rates, which went into force on 16 October 1923, the fee for an ordinary
international sealed letter was 20 kopeks and, for the same registered, a total of 40 kopeks. In short, this letter
was not fully paid and the deficiency came to 26 kopeks The rate established on 1 September 1924 for
internal intercity mail was 7 kopeks for an ordinary sealed letter and a total of 14 kopeks for such an item
registered; i.e. the international registered letter was franked at the fee for internal mail.

The letter arrived to the Moscow G.P.O., where the deficiency was noticed. That is confirmed by a rectangular
marking in violet ink, measuring 50 x 65 mm. and containing the following text:-
fIonyqeHo B MOCKOBCKOM Received at the Moscow
IloaTaMTe C HenoJiHOf orna- Post Office with incomplete
TOi nrOTOBbIM c6opOM, o payment of the postal rate, about
qeM cocraBjeH aKT... which a declaration has been drawn up..
..................... 12/V 1925r. ..................................... 12.5. 1925.
3aB. OTgeJIOM Director of the Office.
n.-T. pa6oTHHK. Postal-telegraphic worker.
In view of the fact that the address of the sender was not given on the envelope, the letter was not returned and
was sent to Poland. Judging from the two markings of the Polish Postal Service, namely of Warsaw No. 1 with
the date of 16.5.25 and the Brzes6 n/B. arrival of the next day, it nevertheless reached the addressee. However,
there are no indications on the cover that the deficiency was levied on the recipient.

The data set out here show that the postal automats for the acceptance of registered mail, which had originally
been put into use in the Russian Empire were also being utilised in the USSR, even in 1925 !

Alexander EpStein, Tallinn, Estonia.
The Postal Rates for Money Letters (Addenda and Corrigenda)
Some shortcomings have turned up in my original article (see"The Post-Rider", No. 43, pp. 35-38). First of all,
there is a slip concerning the date of introducing the insurance fees for foreign mail (p. 37): it should be
October 1898, instead of 1893. It should also be stressed that the 10- and 14-kopek fee applied only to the
countries with which Russia had signed postal conventions for the delivery of declared-value letters.

However, more important is the fact that these rates were still changed a few years before WWI. The new
postal regulations published in 1909 provided for a wide range of different fees from 4 kopeks to 22 kopeks,
with 2-kopek steps, for countries of different destinations, depending also on the country of transit. The lowest
fee, i.e. 4 kopeks, apart from Austria-Hungary, Germany and Romania, also applied to Turkey (if delivered by
the ROPiT ships through the Russian post offices in the Ottoman Empire; the fee was 10 kopeks if delivered
through Austria-Hungary), as well as to the Japanese post offices in Manchuria, through the Russian post
offices in that part of China.

The fee was 6 kopeks to most other European countries (Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Denmark,
France, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Serbia, Sweden and Switzerland). However, there were also higher
fees: 8 kopeks to Great Britain, Japan, Norway and Spain and 10 kopeks to Montenegro and Portugal. The 10-
kopek fee also applied to some African and South American countries. There were also 12-, 14-, 16-, 18-, 20-
and 22-kopek fees for different lands of Africa, Asia and America, including the British, French, German and
Portuguese colonies therein. The highest fees were for Bermuda and British Honduras (20 kopeks) and
Somaliland (22 kopeks).

It is interesting to note that there were three different fees for China (except for Manchuria): 10, 12 & 16
kopeks, depending on the province, i.e. on which foreign country (Germany, Great Britain or Japan) had post
offices operating in a particular province. Later on, between 1905 and 1914, some countries were added to the
list and alterations made to the fees, in particular the highest fee of 24 kopeks was fixed for Portuguese India-

88 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHK Nh 45
November, 1999






It is also interesting to note that declared-value letters were not delivered to such countries as Australia,
Canada, the U.S.A. etc. In fact, that class of mail was not delivered to the countries of the American continent,
except for Argentina, Brazil and Chile.
I express my deep gratitude to Antoine Speeckaert of Belgium, who kindly directed my attention to these
omissions.

Horst Taitl, Dornbirn, Austria.
The location of Ragusa.
Referring to "The Post-Rider" No. 44 and specifically at the bottom of p. 62 for Item No. 5, that particular
piece is described as being addressed to Ragusa on the island of Sicily. The destination was in fact the
Dalmatian port of Ragusa on the Adriatic Sea and that marking is in the Muller catalogue, p. 333, No. 2304.
Editorial Comment: Herr Taitl is right with his correction since, although there is a town called Ragusa in
Sicily, this letter is addressed to a Mr. Petkovitch, which is an obvious Slav surname. The destination should
therefore be the Dalmatian port of Ragusa, then part of the Austrian Empire and now better known by the Slav
name of Dubrovnik. In short, our readers are vigilant and respond promptly to the data set out in this section
of our journal.

Laimons Bocka, Madona, Latvia.
More about the Soviet Latvian cover of 1944.
Re that envelope described by P.J. Campbell in "The Post-Rider" No. 44, p. 87, the word "Ienfcis" means
something that has come in, i.e. arrived or received and this type of office cachet was used for incoming mail.
I think that the post office at Valmiera had lost its Soviet postmarkers during the war and applied the boxed
IENACIS cachet as an arrival marking.
Concerning the point that the last third of 1944 may have been too early a period for the resumption of the
Soviet postal service, it is known that the Soviet Latvian government was back in Daugavpils at the end of
August 1944 and the Soviet post office in Riga opened on 16 October of that same year.
Editorial Comment: In other words, Mr. Campbell has an interesting and very early example of the
reestablishment of the Soviet posts in Latvia in WWII. As we believe we said before, our readers are vigilant!
Herr Harry von Hofmann was also able to confirm the meaning of the word "Ientcis", for which many thanks.

Ruud W. van Wijnen, Arnhem, Holland.
Another Diplomatic Pouch item from pre-war Latvia.


5ertiTEETOTCM 0 C0ERCE m PAR
OF- I 9 23 LEGATIO OF THE UNITED STATES
0 rOF AMERICA
W3 William L. Hurley, Esquire,
*h.estock & Coipany FEB 28 1938
I Wall Street,
S" New York, N.Y.,
i. sU S* s A .
R4.Z, RIGA



With regard to the note by A. Cronin on such a usage in "The Post-Rider", No. 44, p. 96, I am showing above a
much later example, sent by a member of the U.S. Legation in Riga on 28 February 1938 and confirmed by the
rectangular cachet on the back of the cover. The correct foreign surface rate of 35 santimi was applied and the
letter was received in Washington on 8 March, which was very fast steamer service from Riga !
Editorial Comment: Such a method of posting was much more justified in 1938, a year of great tension in
Europe and small nations such as Latvia were understandably very nervous
THE POST-RIDER/5MUIMHK N2 45 89
November, 1999






Dr. Ivo Steijn, California, U.S.A.
The utilisation of the 1922 Rostov-on-Don Charity Issue.
















The above registered cover was sent from Rostov-on-Don 5.5.22 to Los Angeles 9.6.22 and was incorrectly
franked at the previous set of postal rates, which was increased on 30 April 1922. In short, the rate paid was
30,000 r. for a foreign surface letter and another 30,000 r. for the registration fee, with the 2- and 4-kopek
stamps revalued at 10,000 times in roubles. Delays in implementing new rates have often been observed
during the inflation period of the early 1920s.

There was a 2000 r. Rostov-on-Don charity label affixed to the back of the cover, but it wras not cancelled at
the point ofdespatch However, it was effectively tied to the cover by three U.S. transit and arrival markings
and so it was certainly affixed at Rostov-on-Don. The irony is that, although all four values of that issue were
inscribed "IOMTA", they had no postal validity. It was probably for that reason that the Rostov-on-Don
post office did not bother to cancel the label on the back. That supposition is strengthened by the fact that a
somewhat similar usage is shown on p. 81 of the Standart-Kollektsiya Catalogue issued in St. Petersburg in
1997. In that case, a registered letter with the same franking (60,000 r.) was sent from Rostov-on-Don 25.4.22
to Berlin and the selfsame charity label applied to the back was left uncancelled.
Editorial Comment: The item described above is quite a conversation piece and Dr. Steijn is to be
congratulated on being able to acquire such an interesting and rare cover.
Don Heller, Iowa, U.S.A.












Comments on a Romanian card sent to Odessa.
Referring to "The Post-Rider" No. 44, pp. 90-91 about the Romanian card to Odessa, Covurlui county (capital
Galati) is in Old Romania, not Bessarabia. The written return address (Voinegti ?) is in Briaila county, %vhich
-I- .. .- .. .-V ,,

.. / ... .. *- -,-


















The adjacbove registered cover was sent from Rostov-on-Don 5.5.22 to Los Angeles 9.6.22 and was incorrectly) JUD.
COVURLUfranked at the previous set of postal rates, which was increased on 30 April 1922. In short, the rate paid as
30,000 r. for a foreign surface letter and anotherding to3 the book by Cin Marinesc, the 2- and 4-kopek
stamps revalued at 10,000 times in roubles. Delays in implementing new rates have often been observed










during the inflation period often early 1920s.Total
There was a 2000 r. Rostov-on-Don charity label affixed to the back of the cover, but it was not cancelled atrnal ei 20 lei 30 lei










To Transnistria 12 lei 36 lei 48 lei
External 12 lei 20 lei 32 lei
So, the point of despite is either oHowever, it was effectively tied to the cover by three U.S. transit and arrival marunderpaid.
and so it was certainly affixed at Rostov-on-Don. The irony is that, although all four values of that issue were











inscribed to w OTA, they had no postal validity. t was probably for that reason that the Rostov-on-Don
post office did not bother to cancel the label on the back. That supposition is strengthened by the fact that aes the recipient read ?
somewhat does the censosimilar usage is shown on p. 81 of the Standat-Kollektsiya Catalogue issued in St. Petesbug in











90 THE POST-RIDER/MH(HK Ne 45
1997. In that case, a registered letter with the same franking (60,000 r.) was sent from Rostov-on-Don 25199.22
to Berlin and the selfsame charity label applied to the back was left uncancelled.
Editorial Comment: The item described above is quite a conversation piece and Dr. Steijn is to be
congratulated on being able to acquire such an interesting and rare cover.

Don Heller, Iowa, U.S.A.
Comments on a Romanian card sent to Odessa.
Referring to "The Post-Rider" No. 44, pp. 90-91 about the Romanian card to Odessa, Covurlui county (capital
Galati) is in Old Romania, not Bessarabia. The written return address (Voineti ?) is in Braila county, which
was adjacent. The postmark is probably AG. SPEC. INDEPENDEN47A (Independenta Special Agency) JUD.
COVURLUI (Covurlui county). I cannot decipher the other postmark.
The rate does not make much sense either. According to the book by Calin Marinescu, the fees were:-
Postcard Registration fee Total
Internal 10 lei 20 lei 30 lei
To Transnistria 12 lei 36 lei 48 lei
External 12 lei 20 lei 32 lei
So, the 31-lei rate is either overpaid or underpaid.

As to why the card was written in Romanian, that comes down to two questions:-
What does the recipient read ?
What does the censor read ?
90 THE POST-RIDER/aIMII]IHK JS 45
November, 1999






In periods without censorship, cards were written in a variety of languages. For a time in Romania, perhaps
also in 1943, you could only speak to the postal clerks in Romanian (officially, anyway).


Rex A. Dixon, Maidenhead, England.
(a) An unlisted Soviet Estonian postmark.


Only five bilingual Russo-Estonian handstamps
are recorded in the Estonian Handbook -
Catalogue by V. Hurt & E. Ojaste, all in the
pattern of the receiving mark of 6.10.40, shown
at the bottom of the card herewith. The
Handbook does not record any handstamps
in the pattern of the upper mark of 5.10.40.
Editorial Comment: Mr. Dixon has raised
a very pertinent question and this is a very
surprising usage, distinguished by the letters
"g-k" transliteratingg as "d-k") below the date
bridge. The two letters are the Russian
abbreviation for "nji KOJIJIeKAHH",
meaning "for collecting purposes". In other


words, this was a special marking originally intended as a cancellation-to-order, but used here as a despatch
mark! The postcard was sent locally and the correct 10-kopek postage has been added on the back. Both
markings are of the Tallinn Port post office and the postmark with serial "D" reads at top in Russian:
TALLINN PORT USSR and at bottom in Estonian: TALLINN PORT ESSR.


(b) Two cards from Occupied France to Kishin6v (Chiginau) in Bessarabia.


I was unable to obtain the above two items in a recent Werner Schmidt auction in Berlin, but they are worthy
of note. The first card with 1 f. 25 c. postage was sent from Paris 29.11.40 via the Moscow 8th. Despatch
Office in December 1940 (which we now know was a monitoring office for foreign mail) and received an
arrival marking in Russian reading KISHINEV MSSR 25.10.40 serial "k" and with a diameter of 30 mm.

The second card to the same address followed from Paris 25.1.41, by which time the foreign surface card rate
had gone up to 1 f. 50 c. It passed through the Moscow 8th. Despatch Office on 13.2.41 and received a
Russian arrival marking, reading KISHINEV MSSR 17.2.41 serial "f' and also with a diameter of 30 mm. The
card was forwarded from there to the addressee at the House of Specialists at Khar'kov-22 in the Ukraine,
where it was received on 21.2.41.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK Ne 45 91
November, 1999


DOTBA A T A .

-".*... .. .. ." '
) 1 *, -ir. ._ _-' *
.XCYCC8- A-


H. lo^6epr. Yn. rs. J B38148.
o 9676. T3p. 10M(.. 0--- n
*no'1. M~ocK. 3... J6 66. 193 r.


B ObiEHHIill frEP"ThlB f
Xi H. KOPUTROK3A

-- 4_4


S9i41.


r






(c) Two Soviet post offices in Western Belorussia and Western Ukraine.


The item above at left is in the James Hamlin collection here in England and is a registered postal stationery
envelope with a extra 70 kopeks added to cover the total registered foreign surface rate of 1 r. 30 k., from
MIORY VILENSK. OBL. 24.4.41 "a", via the MENSK BSSR 4 MINSK monitoring office on 30.4.41 to Metz
in German-occupied Lorraine, where it was received on 10.5.41 and with German censorship en route. This
was an unusual destination and, judging by the well formed handwriting, the sender was an educated person.

The 20-kopek reply card at right is another piece that I missed out on and was sent from SVOICHEV
VOLYNSK. OBL. "a" 26.12.40 to a Polish POW at Stalag XA in Germany. I have not been able to pinpoint
Svoichev in subsequent post office listings and it may have been renamed.


Andrew Cronin, Ontario, Canada.
(a) A Russian China cover resurfaces.
A rare stamp of the Russian Posts in China
is the 10-kopek Arms with KHTAI
overprint on vertically laid paper (SG 14a, Note the partial HAb
Scott 11). Dr. A.H. Wortman wrote up and centering to the i
this stamp in the BJRP No. 2, p. 19 of
April 1948, noting that all the known
copies were centered to the right and the
used copies had a HANKOW POSTE
RUSSE ,,, HEALTH DEPARTMENT of the
RUSSE postmark, dated May-June 1910. HE DEPARTMENT t
Later on, Kurt Adler wrote in the Rossica
Journal Nos. 76-77, pp. 71-72 that he
bought at PHILATEC-64 in Paris a cover
with this and other stamps, all cancelled
SHANGHAI POSTE RUSSE 7.4.10 "6". A Dieroking
It seemed that the rarity had been added chief C1
later and that the cancel was back-dated,' pu
as it had a more worn appearance on the
10-kopek stamp. Despite the philatelic
character of the cover, this was still the
only copy of the rarity recorded in such
a state.


TKOW cancel
eight.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK NM 45
November, 1999


P ......
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A,"


K o v .... .. ..... ..... .......... ... w C U E
r noMS6Re.




Aapec omnpatsumeA$?:aA{11z15.1Iet 1
K a,


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Anyway, it is now years since the Kurt Adler collection has been dispersed, but your editor recently noticed in
a European auction a envelope that looked familiar. Checking the article by Kurt Adler in Rossica Journal
Nos.76-77, there was an illustration of that very cover! The auction described it as an ordinary item and your
editor secured it for US $200.00. Not bad, considering that Scott No. 11 used off cover is listed at $1200.00.
Quite apart from the fact that it pays to have a good memory, the moral of the story is that it behooves all of
us to draw up comprehensive arrangements for the disposal of our collections before and/or after we leave this
vale of tears, so that our executors and relatives get the full benefit of such dispersal. You have been warned.

(b)The 6th. Proletarian Esperanto Congress in Leningrad.

~.rrOtrTOqTOBAq KAPT
CARTXE-POST

: c--Z- V1 A V.



A865 m eA4 L-d.2)



C.
Un*arad Vt pouviant... ,w 4 (



This special cancellation has been ignored in the more recent Soviet philatelic publications, possibly for
political reasons and it appears to be rare, as it took a lot of searching to find it. Struck in the Esperanto colour
of green, it reads LENINGRADO VI PROLETARIA ESPERANTO-KONGRESO, with the initials SAT
below the date bridge. The overall diameter is 29 mm. and dates have been seen from 7 (as above) to 11.8.26,
so the Congress must have lasted at least 5 days. There is on the back of the card a further two-line unframed
cachet in Esperanto, reading "Salute from Leningrad! / 6th. Congress of the SAT". The initials stand for
Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (= Universal Without-Nation Association) and that organisation still exists, with
its headquarters in Paris. It is now mainly concerned in coining new words and updating Esperanto
dictionaries. A local registered cover with the same two markings is shown in the Russian magazine
cHnaraTeJaI No.6/1999, p.46, dated 11.8.26 and addressed to Agathon Karlovich Faberge at Moika 31, ap. 12 !

Matthew Kahane, Warsaw, Poland.
An Unusual Sosnowiec Arrival Marking.
I was intrigued on looking through "The Post-Rider" No. 44 to find the above postmark referred to and
illustrated in "More Items of Postal and Historical Interest" by Professor A.S. Ilyushin. At a weekly Warsaw
philatelic fair recently, I found a postcard with another postmark of the same kind, as shown at the top of the
next page.

It was posted from BAPIIABA-A (Warsaw-A) 17.1.08 to Juljana Pogoda in Sosnowiec. The card, written in
Polish, explains that the writer was going to have to remain in Warsaw a few days more until she had news
from St. Petersburg and knew whether she would have to go there herself to try to sort out a financial problem.

The arrival mark is identical to the one illustrated by Professor Ilyushin, except that it is No. I rather than No.
2 and evening instead of morning: COCHOBHIbI / n.T.K. / 18.1.08 BEHEP / No 1 / IETPOK. FYB.
Note that the letters of "SN_ 1" are shaped differently from those of Professor Ilyushin's No. 2 and indeed
resemble the normal Latin script abbreviation for "number" used in Russia. The mark is from the same year:
1908; incidentally, I imagine that the reference to Professor Ilyushin's mark being dated 17.8.03 rather than
"08" is a typing mistake, possibly inspired by a weak strike of the postmark.

THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIIK JN 45 93
November, 1999



























Rabbi L.L. Tann, County of the West Midlands, England.
(a) A TPO/RPO card with a "To pay" riddle.
The item at top right on the next page has a 3-kop. stamp franking a card with the oval KONSTANTINOVKA
134 DOLGINTSEVO 21.12.16 "b" marking. Almost centre of the card is a circular postmark ODESSA
/POCHTOV. KONT./ 38 with cross-date 23.XII. 19-16. There is at right an oval ODESSA 2 postage due
marking. The ODESSA 38 and ODESSA 2 postage due markings are both in the same shade of red. The
amount to be collected was assessed at 14 kopeks (!), even though 3 kopeks had already been paid- For some
reason, the postage was disregarded and the card treated as an unpaid letter, due to the long text. The internal
letter rate was 7 kopeks, making double the deficiency equal to 14 kopeks.

(b) A nice "Platform" postmark
The card at top left on the next page is franked with a 3-kop. War Charity issue on tinted paper and addressed
to Petrograd. It bears a circular postmark reading nYTKOBCKA5I HJIAT'D. / CIbB. )K. A.
(Puchkovskaya Platform / Northern Railway), with thanks to Philip Robinson for the clear drawing alongside
the postmark. Puchkovskaya is on the railway going northwards from Yaroslavl' to Vologda in the Yaroslavl'
province. Platform postmarks are uncommon and this one has not been recorded before. It is nice to be able to
present it here for the first time to readers of "The Post-Rider".

(c) A scarce ODESSA VOKZ. postmark.
I believe that I have the only examples so far of the ODESSA / VOKZ. M.K.V. ZH. D. 27.3.17 serial "a"
marking for the station at Odessa of the Moscow-Kiev-Voronezh Railway and as shown at bottom right on the
next page. My original notes on the subject are to be found in BJRP 77 of December 1994.

(d) A TPO/RPO cancel dated the last day of the Russian Monarchy.
The card at bottom left on the next page has an oval postmark KIEV*192*PETROGRAD serial "i"
(unrecorded) and dated 3.3.17, the last day of the Russian monarchy. It was on 3rd. March that Grand Duke
Mikhail abdicated at the urging of Kerenskii, thus ushering in the Provisional Government. The card was
written on 1.3.17, but does not appear to make any reference to the momentous political events taking place
during that historic period. It is probably true to say that, at that particular time, people in the provinces had
little inkling of the seriousness of what was going on in the capital.
94 THE POST-RIDER/aIMI~HK N 45
November, 1999













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Postcard with cachet of military hospital train sent to Petrograd with despatch pink
'ODESSA / VOKZ MKV Zh D. 27-3-17' ODESSA / STATION OF THE MOSCOW
-KIEV-VORONEZH RAILWAY'. Serial 'a' cancel.


4







THE COLLECTORS' CORNER


Are you still missing that elusive item from your collection or
philatelic library? Do you have some duplicate material that
you would like to trade or sell? We can publicise your want-list
or duplicates for the extremely low rate of USD 1.00 per insertion.
Please note that the Society disclaims any responsibility for any
misunderstandings between exchanging parties.

WANTED: Non-postal souvenir sheets, collections, accumulations, wl
correspond with other collectors of these fascinating items. Contact:
PAT EPPEL, 108 Pinewood Circle, Apple Valley MN 55124, U.S.A. E


-mail: peppel@agribank.com


WANTED: Stamped postcards and stamped envelopes of Lithuania (1924-1841), Central Lithuania (1920),
Memel (1920), Ober. Ost (1916-1918), International Reply Coupons of Lithuania (1922-1940).
RI1ARDAS VAINORA, P.D. No. 750, LT-3036 KAUNAS, Lithuania.

WANTED: Information and material pertaining to the 1st. Ukrainian Division. I am keen to purchase Rimini
Camp Post: stamps, postcards and mail.
J.W. BODNAR, 81 Euston Terrace, West Croydon, S.A. 5008, Australia.

WANTED: 1919 Roumanian Occupation of Pokutia (C.M.T. overprints on Austria); better stamps, errors,
varieties and especially cards and covers. Also interested in better items of Western Ukraine, especially
sheets, blocks and postally used covers.
CHRIS CEREMUGA, P.O. Box A2313, Sydney South, N.S.W. 1235, Australia.

WANTED: Romanov stamps on cover and all stationery items used in 1913. Looking for more unusual items.
Also, covers, stamps and stationery with "posthorns" in the cancels from all cities, EXCEPT Moscow. Please
send xeroxes with prices requested.
M. ERCOLINI, P.O. Box 778, Daly City CA 94017-0778, U.S.A. E-mail: misha@logx.com


3EMCKA5I HOITA HOJITABCKArO YB3JIA
The Zemstvo Post of the Poltava District
by P.P. Ganko

The CSRP is pleased to announce that a limited amount of copies of
this very rare publication have been reprinted and are available for
sale to our readers. This publication of approximately 100 pages is
the notorious postmaster's own catalogue which even to this day
remains as the most detailed accounting of the issues of the Poltava
Zemstvo Post. In Russian.

Send $25.00 (US) payable to the Canadian Society of Russian
Philately to the Society address for your postpaid copy.

96 THE POST-RIDER/HMIImIK N 45
November, 1999


whatever you have. I would also like to








Introducing...


This book will appeal to anyone with an interest in the early years of the
Trans-Siberian Railway. The construction of the line, around the turn of
the century, coincided with the "Golden Age" of the picture postcard, and
many different views of the Trans-Siberian Railway were published
between about 1900 and 1918. Publishers in Russia and abroad produced
cards to satisfy the demand from travellers on the railway (many of them
going to and from the Far East) and also for sale to the many postcard
collectors of that time.

The purpose of the book is to show a selection of fine cards, mostly from
the author's collection, which were published in the early years of the
line's operation. The views reproduced (stations, bridges, tunnels,
locomotives etc.) give a fascinating insight into the operation of the
world's longest railway in the early years of the 20t' century.

The book comprises 50 pages of A4 size (11 x 8V"). Most pages have
two full-size illustrations of early postcards, with supporting text.
Altogether 92 postcards are illustrated, of which 18 are reproduced in
FULL COLOUR. There is also an introduction with some details of the
railway, and a short Appendix listing publishers of railway-related views.


The Amur Railway

The Amur Railway was not completed until 1916, and Tsarist-period postcards showing the line are
very rarely found. The only ones so far seen by the author are the two illustrated here, depicting
ceremonial occasions.




S ... .. ..7
-.,. -. r-,: -.. .


Blagoveshchensk, on the Amur River, was joined to the main Amur
Railway by a branch line. This postcard, published locally, shows
the inauguration of the branch line on 6 December 1913. The two
pillars arc labelled "St Petersburg" and "Blagoveshchensk'. Between
them is a banner with the words "God preserve the Tsar", and the
Imperial eagle is above this.


Available at the

author's price of

US $20.00 postpaid
from The Canadian

Society of Russian

Philately, Box 5722

Station-A, Toronto

Ont., Canada
M5W 1P2.


The bridge over the Amur River, completed in 1916, is still in use
today. At over 1/ miles in length, it is by far the longest bridge on
the Trans-Siberian Railway. This card shows the official opening.


LIST OF POST OFFICES

IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

A.V. Kiryushkin and P.E. Robinson

The authors are pleased to announce the availability, in book form, of this list, which provides a unique
reference source for the collector. It is printed from the main database that we used to produce individual lists
of post offices for our books. The list includes all types of postal establishments, arranged in Russian
alphabetical order, and has been compiled during the past 15 years from official post office lists, the "Post-
Telegraph Journal" and other sources in Russia. We believe it to be by far the most detailed list of Imperial
Russian post offices that has ever been made available to the postal historian

Users of Siberia: Postmarks and Postal History of the Russian Empire Period and Russian Railway Postmarks
will be familiar with the way in which we record details of post offices in these two cases Siberian offices and
station post offices. Data is presented in columns, with each line of data devoted to an individual office. The
main list which we are now offering is slightly different, mainly in the sense that the information given is more
complete. Briefly, the various columns are as follows:

"No." Column
Reference numbers are given such at th t same office has the same number.
"Name" Column
Names of postal establishments, printed in pre-1918 Cyrillic. Railway stations and railway post offices also
give the name of the railway that they belonged to, abbreviated using the same system as in our book Russian
RailwayPortmarks.
"Gab." Column
The names ofgubernii and oblasti are abbreviated.
"Uezd" Column
Names of Uezds or Okrugs
"Date" Column
The dates relate to the information in the next column, called the "Note" column.
"Note" Column
Information is given in an abbreviated form indicating when an office opened, closed, changed its status, was
renamed or moved to another location retaining its original name.
"Status" Column
Abbreviations are used here to indicate an office's status. Whilst the majority of offices were of perhaps half
dozen types, there were a great many other types of office, in particular the various sub-types of volostnoe
pravlenie office, and these subtypes are all catered for. Information is also given as to whether an office
handled all types of mail, or only ordinary + registered mail.
"Closed" Column
If an office was closed before 1918, the date of closure is given here.
Detailed, clearly written introductory notes explain the system used for recording data. The book is A4 size
(like all our other books) and is presented as a comb-bound volume.
With over 350 pages the book is quite bulky, and therefore printing and postage costs are high, nevertheless we
have managed to keep the cost down to 18 or US$30 per copy, post free. Collectors who are computer-users
may prefer to purchase the list on a compact disc; it is available in this form, on a CD which includes both MS
Word 97 and Adobe Acrobat versions of the list, also the necessary Cyrillic font Please enquire for details.

Overleaf is a sample of data taken from the book, also an order form.


No. Name
21912 TPOCHA
21912 TPOCHA
21912 TPOCHA remmed EOPATOBO
21914 TPOCHO
21914 TPOcHO
21917 TPOCTA.IEIIUCAA
21917 TPOCTIHEIKAR
21917 TPOCTAHEIIb
21917 TPOCTrIHEIt
21917 "TPOCTAIHEIh-AXTIMPCK
21920 TPOCTSIIHElI
21920 TPOCTJHtEif
21922 TPocrTm Hr I03.
21924 TPOCTJHCKOE
21924 TPOCTRHfCA
21926 TPOCTr3I
21926 TPOCTAHLI
21928 TPOOHMOBO
21929 TPOi~ MOBCKOE
21929 TPOIHMOBUltIHA
21932 TPOIUIHO see HBAHOBCKOE
21933 TPOIHOBO
21934 TPOSHOBO
21935 TPYBETqWHO
21936 TPYEIIIOE flmerly HKOJIAEBKA IA
21937 TPYSqEBCKIC
21937 TPYEbIEBCKI
21939 TPYMOJIEBO
21940 TPYOAHOFOPCKOE
21943 TYAICE AT.
21944 TYAnCE
21944 TYAnCE
21945 TYAIICE-BOI2AJ,


Oub Und
OREL Kromy
OREL Kromy
OREL Kromy
PTGR Gdo
PTGR Odov
MIAR AkhrshS
KHAR Akhtyrka
KHAR Akhlyrk
KHAR Akthya
KHAR Akinyrka
KHAR Athlyt
POD Bratslav
POD Bratlav
POD 7
VOR Ostrogoask
VOR Osaogozhsk
GROD\ Belost
GOROD Belotok
VLG Tonna
PENZ Sarask
PENZ Sranmk
NOVG Cherepovet
SMOL Roslavl
VLN Zitomir
TAMB Lebedyia
KHAR Volchank
OREL Tnibcevsk
OREL Trubchevsk
PSK Ostrov
ARKH Pinega
CHRM TTuapse
CHRM Tuapse
CHRM Tuap
cHRM Tapws


Dae
189201.
1910.09.
1911.01.
18982.0.
1990.1001
1874.06.
1887-
1887.03.
19090501
1917.142
1885.12.
1887.0701
1900.07.
1916
1916.01.
1896.12.
1898.07.
1917.02.
1914.05.
1916.02.
1916.06.
1917.02.
1916.02.
1901.07.
191504.
1830.010
1886.01.
1917.02.
1913.01.
1915.05.
1871.05.
1888.04.
1916


Note Satse osed
o po
a popto
r pto
o Pa
a ppo "1914.07.
o ps
a ps-po
a papto
rptk
s pa
o ps
d. it 1900.07.
vp
a po
o po



a ppto
a p-pn
a po
Sp
a vpm
P"




o pr
s po
Spto
pk
Spk-pa
o Po
po


LIST OF POST OFFICES IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

The price of the book is 18 or US$30 post free (surface). For airmail please add $8. Payment may be made
in cash (sterling, USS or equivalent), by sterling check or in mint British stamps. Personal checks in US
dollars are acceptable, but please add $6 toward bank charges. Cash remittances are immediately
acknowledged by airmail or e-mail if the book is to be sent by surface mail. Orders should be sent to the
author:
P.E. Robinson, 2 Rydalhurst Avenue, Sheffield, S6 4BG, England
Please supply .... copies of the List of Post Offices in the Russian Empire, to be sent by surface/airmail

Amount enclosed .......... Same price for the CD-ROM version.
To be sent to: E-mail address ..............


Address ..... ............... ...................................

......... .. .............. ... ............ ...............


SAMPLE OF POST OFFICE DATA, AS GIVENIN THE BOOK:









THE LEGENDARY FABERGE COLLECTION


DABEP)KE


Originally formed by Agathon Karlovich Faberg6, the famous jeweller to the court of the Imperial Russian family, and
expanded by his late son, Oleg, this collection has been highlighted in the latter's publication of 1993,"Imperial
Russia, Zemstvo Post". For the first time in philatelic annals, a collection of this magnitude will now make its
appearance on the market. It is replete with unique proofs, largest known multiples, and combination covers,
including Japan and USA, both of which are the only such recorded usages.
Handbook catalogue: CHF 50/US$ 35 for European clients / CHF 70/US$ 50 for Overseas clients (by Airmail).
CORINPHILA AUCTIONS Ltd.
Zollikerstrasse 226 CH-8034 Zurich/Switzerland Phone +41-1-389 91 91 Fax +41-1-389 91 95
TRADITION AND EXPERIENCE IN CLASSIC PHILATELY SINCE 1925




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