Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - third...
 Postage due and the trilingual...
 Review of literature
 Letters from Europe to Finland...
 The journal fund
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The postal treaty between Russia...
 The postal rates for money...
 The CSRP at "PNSE '98"
 Some more notable ovals
 Russian field post in East Prussia...
 Postal fraud in Tsarist Russia
 More about the Khortitsa-Khortytsya...
 Some aspects of postal history...
 Postal-telegraphic state savings...
 Mail from the Russian WWI occupation...
 More foreign mail from the Ukraine...
 Riddles of Belotsarsk
 Philatelic shorts
 The collectors' corner
 Back Cover

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00043
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00043
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00043 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Zemstvo varieties - third installment
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Postage due and the trilingual essays of Mount Athos
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Review of literature
        Page 10
    Letters from Europe to Finland via Prussia and Russia 1819-1844
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The journal fund
        Page 16
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The postal treaty between Russia and Prussia 10/22 August 1865
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    The postal rates for money letters
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The CSRP at "PNSE '98"
        Page 38
    Some more notable ovals
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Russian field post in East Prussia during WWI
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Postal fraud in Tsarist Russia
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    More about the Khortitsa-Khortytsya bisect
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Some aspects of postal history in the Armenian Republic (1918-1920)
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Postal-telegraphic state savings offices
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Mail from the Russian WWI occupation of Rize and Trebizond
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    More foreign mail from the Ukraine in 1918
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Riddles of Belotsarsk
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    The collectors' corner
        Page 88
    Back Cover
        Page 89
        Page 90
Full Text

Printed in Canada


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2


November 1998.


2 Editorial
2 Special Notes; also on pp. 4, 34, 58, 70 and 88
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Zemstvo Varieties Third Installment
7 Postage Due and the Trilingual Essays of Mount Athos
10 Review of Literature
11 Letters from Europe to Finland via Prussia and Russia 1819-1844
16 Journal Fund
17 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
29 The Postal Treaty between Russia and Prussia 10/22 August 1865
35 The Postal Rates for Money Letters
38 The CSRP at "PNSE 98"
39 Some More Notable Ovals
42 Russian Field Post in East Prussia during WWI
51 Postal Fraud in Tsarist Russia
57 More about the Khortitsa-Khortytsya Bisect
59 Some Aspects of Postal History in the Armenian Republic (1918-1920)
64 Postal-Telegraphic State Savings Offices
71 Mail from the Russian WWI Occupation of Rize and Trebizond
75 More Foreign Mail from the Ukraine in 1918
77 Riddles of Belotsarsk
81 Philatelic Shorts
88 The Collectors' Corer

William Pawluk
George G. Werbizky
Andrew Cronin

Erling Berger

Alex Artuchov
Charles Leonard
Alexander Epstein
Andrew Cronin
Rabbi L.L. Tann
Alexander Epitein
Ing. Zbigniew S. Mikulski
Andrew Cronin & Robert Taylor
Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
Professor A.S. Ilyushin
Alexandros Galinos
Robert Taylor
F. Vanius

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher and Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.
( 1998. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of
this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.
Because of problems in forwarding messages, The Canadian Society of Russian Philately can no longer be
reached via Fax No. (905) 764-8968. The inconvenience is deeply regretted.

t-' L4

UiU Editorial

Our readers will note from scattered references throughout this issue that we are starting to publicise various
events and outlets that feature Russian culture. Quite apart from demonstrating the extent of the Russian
world, the knowledge thus gained should help in appreciating to the fullest extent the significance of the
philatelic and postal history material that we are collecting.

It is important to remember that Russia has always been noted for its powers of endurance. It has weathered
and will continue to overcome disasters that would have crushed many another nation. The recent exposure
to outside influences has in part been a positive factor, but it has also shown that, compared to the Russian
world, the "AIHKHi 3anan" ("Wild West") is in some respects a cultural and intellectual wasteland. We only
have to look at the stamps issued during the Soviet period to notice that the leading Western cultural and
scientific figures over the centuries have all been honoured at one time and another and, where required,
their works widely published in the languages of the USSR. The result is that the average Russian generally
has a broader universal outlook than his/her Western counterpart.

At the risk of being controversial, your editor feels that the fault mainly lies in the "dumbing down" brought
about by Western television and mass culture. He personally has never owned a T.V., nor does he regard that
as a deprivation. He also has the impression that CSRP members, as a whole, are philatelists who take their
hobby very, very seriously and treasure greatly the intellectual stimulation they derive from their various
fields of collecting. For that reason, we try in every issue of "The Post-Rider" to provide solid, diverse,
impartial and ground-breaking information and/or research for the benefit of our readership. We know from
the letters we receive that our efforts in that regard are deeply appreciated by CSRP members.

(a) Corrections to No. 42 of "The Post-Rider" for June 1998:-
p. 46: The cover in Fig. 2 from Khar'kov is dated 16.6.22, not 16.2.22.
p. 116: The money letter from the "Southern Bavaria" Brewery was charged 10 kopeks for the foreign
registration fee, not 7 kopeks, as can be verified from the calculations illustrated.

(b) Announcement from Ian Billings,13 Robert Key Drive,Matishall,Dereham,Norfolk NR20 3RW,UK:
As far as I know, I am the only BSRP member to have set up any New Republics on a website. Whether that
is true or not, I invite CSRP members to my site at http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Estates/3337

The main purpose of the site is to post details of the postal history and some stamps of the 15 countries
which emerged following the break-up of the USSR in 1991. So far, I have only posted extensive
information about BELARUS', but others will follow in time. E-mail: ian.billings@argonet.co.uk

November 1998

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.
by William Pawluk.

The cover shown here was sent by a German colonist, Michael Wolff, in the Shadrinsk district 23.3.17 O.S.,
via St. Petersburg where it was handled by Censor No. 641 on 16.4.17 O.S., on its way to his relative,
Friedrich Wolff, another German colonist in Mazenod, Saskatchewan. On arrival in Canada, it received a
MONTREAL JUL 4(?) 1917 N.S. machine cancel at front top centre and a 2 + Ic. Canadian War Tax stamp
(Scott MR 3) was added at top left the same day. The cover finally received on the back a machine cancel of
MOOSE JAW, JUL 6 1917 N.S., advertising a local Fair and Stock Show.
Editorial Comment: The above illustrations were shown to well-known Toronto dealer and auctioneer
William H.P. Maresch and it is his opinion that the War Tax stamp must have been applied by a postal clerk,
who assumed that the sender was a Canadian serviceman on duty in the Russian Empire. All Canadian WWI
military mail arriving from abroad had such War Tax stamps affixed, but no postage due was raised from the
addressees. The cost was absorbed by the Canadian P.M.G's. Department. Fascinating!
November 1998

by G.G. Werbizky.

This is a continuation of showing Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a given
Zemstvo is omitted, it means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not necessarily mean
that varieties do not exist; it is hoped that readers will send in their discoveries from that or other Zemstvos.
What is being shown is what I have in my collection. As KysbMa ipyTKOB (Kuz'ma Prutkov) once said:
"Henab3f o66brTb Heo6afTHoe" (One cannot put his hands around infinity).


B o3E ilR.EP. cBA Io I,~KKooS E
0 CR 811 iiUfl CeACEIlls CE lT
OA son. A3B3 Ronl. ..ABB oni
Chuchin No. 15, block of 12 (3 x 4) with the following
B03EPCMA I CA IM 3EPmKAIil varieties:-
3EMCKA I 3EMCEAfA, 3EMCKEA I (a) Stamp No. 1: the first "C" of "CenbcKAs" is set low.
ABc OIIn. AB'S IOI1 ABS ROIL (b) Stamp No. 5: the letter "3" of "B.JIO3EPCKAI"
'"03EPI=I=.I I Bt,--'J 3EPJ13 l3 is spelled with a numeral "3" (three).
A03EME .I :A3fMcEA m03EM c A (c) Stamp No. 11: The letter "A" in
:3EMCBaa o 3al MCAJI l3EMCRda "BBJIO3EPCKAI" is set lower.
Sa.' son. ^.AB son. Ans on.
AB~B RO' ABI X OI[t. IBi X O r.
I aEMCKA1 3EMCRAa 3EMCKA Chuchin Nos.51/67. The 2-kopek stamps
aBB on. IBS son. I JAB '~on; were surcharged "3 / TpR on." in two
lines. Three varieties are shown, left to
.,,L'',',,', f g ~right:-
i -- (a) Pair: stamp at left with normal
S. surcharge, while the stamp at right has no
S, i.. space between "Tpn" and "Kon."
(b) Surcharge shifted downwards.
Ti (c) Surcharge inverted.
(continued on next page) --

SPECIAL NOTES: Russian Cultural Events.
(a) The Rev. John Walsted, a retired Episcopalian rector, paints in the Russian Novgorod iconographic style
of the 14th. to 16th. centuries, using a palette of gold leaf and egg tempera. From Friday 10 July 1998 to
Sunday 3 January 1999, he has an exhibit of 23 of his icons at the Staten Island Institute of Arts and
Sciences, 75 Stuyvesant Place near Wall Street, with four Italian Renaissance paintings from the Samuel
H. Kress Foundation. The viewing hours:9am to 5pm Monday to Saturday and 1pm to 5pm on Sundays.

(b) The inaugural presentation of the First USA Riverfront Arts Centre at 800 South Madison Street,
Wilmington, Delaware, running from Saturday, 25 July to Thursday, 31 December 1998, consists of the
exhibit "Nicholas and Alexandra: The Last Imperial Family of Tsarist Russia". It features almost 700
objects from the State Archives of the Russian Federation, the State Palace Museum of Tsarskoe Selo in
Pushkin and the State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. The Coronation Egg by Faberge is also there
from the Forbes Magazine Collection in New York City. For the first time in 70 years, visitors can see the
letters, diaries and photograph of the family, as well as a bayonet used to kill them at the end of their exile in
Ekaterinburg. MIp npaxam ux !
November 1998

g; (34 49
o9.lg .Iq 49.^--<;g

.\ ,

4S. . %qf T V- le- 1

aSt3"'^ ^ ^r?^f? 5'. s*lk*!^s ^ *-i^.g'sg;

34l '^I S^^^^ M N ^ ie*
3e P

^ ^d-98. Its- :
Ift Irv y,


'-i- --.-



.- >, -

Belozersk. Here we have a sheet of Chuchin No. 31, showing that at least two operations of the printing
press were required for completion. Note the figure "2" with missing period on six stamps in the setting of
two vertical rows of six stamps; six tete-beche pairs, caused by turning around the sheet of paper and a most

unusual double impression in position No. 9 in the second horizontal row here, which appears to come
about by slippage during impression. Finally, the poor positioning in the fourth vertical column resulted in
the space at the bottom being left empty.

November 1998

.. P~:r~bd~~c~bd~Wdb~bi5'~,~


...... LLeft to right:
S (a) Chuchin No. 1: Significant shift of background to left.
(b) Chuchin No. la: Missing ball to numeral "5" at lower left.

Chuchin No. 10. Left to right:
(a) Horizontal strip of three, imperf. vertically
S(b) Narrow vertical misperforation.

SI Chuchin No. 12: Horizontal pair, imperforate vertically.
Editorial Comment: Note that the design was similar to that of current
stamps of Imperial Russia, which was against the postal regulations.


Ukrainian Philatelic Resources (UPR) proudly announces the release of its long-awaited
handbook for collectors of classical Ukrainian (1918-20) stamps. This 110+ page
publication is essential for anyone interested in trident overprints; it identifies and prices
all regional and local tridents.

This easy-to-use reference reproduces Dr. R. Seichter's Sonder-Katalog Ukraine with
new material and in a larger format for easy reading and reference. In addition, the work
has been updated and supplemented with five major trident articles, an extensive German-
English glossary of all the important philatelic terms used in the Katalog, and a biography
and bibliography of Dr. Seichter.

The Sonder-Katalog has long been out-of-print and copies are eagerly sought by
collectors. For this reason alone UPR has undertaken to reissue and expand this volume.
The five major trident studies are reprinted from out-of-print back issues of Ukrainian
Philatelist and are authored by several renowned philatelic researchers, including one
piece by Dr. Seichter himself. This new publication will provide much needed assistance
and background to all Ukrainian philatelists, particularly those who collect classical trident
overprints. It belongs on the reference shelf of every serious collector.

Order and enjoy a copy of Ukraine: Classic Trident Overprints directly from its editor
and major contributor:
Dr. I. Kuzych
PO Box 3
Springfield, VA 22150

The price is U.S. $18.00 postpaid to U.S., Canada, or overseas surface rate; for airmail
overseas, please send U.S. $24.00.
November 1998


by Andrew Cronin.

A. Postage Due procedures at the Russian post office on Mount Athos.
The Russian monasteries, monastic cells and hermit retreats at Mount Athos in the Chalcedice Peninsula of
Macedonia attracted a great deal of mail from devout Russian Orthodox believers. However, the
correspondents in the Russian Empire often did not realise that, while an Imperial Russian post office
functioned at Mount Athos until the end of 1914, it was in fact situated abroad on foreign territory.. In
short, the Russian foreign surface rate of 10 kopeks was indicated for mail addressed to the Holy Mount.
Your editor has three unusual examples insufficiently prepaid at the internal rate of 7 kopeks and were
consequently marked with an encircled "T" on the fronts. The details are as follows:-

(a, 3f Ore a 0

r,.:ad nojryeIo JIHHlH 1 5
-"^"VJ.apa --

e'- -o d ,

(a) Letter from Orenburg 18.9.1901, via Odessa
24.9.01 to Mt. Athos 29-30.9.01. Note on the
back an unframed two-line cachet handstamped in
violet on a strip of stamp selvedge, including the
line of perforation along the upper edge and
reading "FloJiyleHo JIWnHbIRI / geHbrHF 15 napa"
("Received in hard cash 15 paras").
The amount due was confirmed by affixing ROPiT

15 paras. [

~LL~ ~e~bn U1100
9,-.m--P ^e~iru 6 IXt

4 1'9-
^--<5\~~ ; : *


,~' .''*"j

I .9 .

b) Letter from Sleptsovskaya, Tersk prov. 23-24.1.03.
4ote the new cachet on the back, now reading:
TIonyjeHHO Ha JIHHHbIS / AeHbrH 6 Kon" ("Received
spelt incorrectly !] in hard cash 6 kop").

November 1998

i ~--rrrr I I ---


(c) This third example is similar to the preceding s/ \
item and was sent from Enotaevsk 18.3.03, via ,
Tsaritsyn 21.3.03, TPO/RPO No.121-22.3.03,
Novyi Afon 26.3.03 and Odessa 30.3.03 to f //
Mount Athos 18.4.03. The same postage due AL(7, J (f
cachet of 6 kop. was applied at top back.t r tg C/ t/

{/ yt, /

B. The Trilingual Essays for Mount Athos.
As a result of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, about half of Macedonia, including the Chalcedice Peninsula
became part of Greece. All foreign post offices in the Greek "New Territories" were closed at the end of
1914 and the Greek government eventually granted the monastic community on Mount Athos a certain
degree of autonomy. In his magazine "The Philatelist" of 1942, pp.54-56, the well-known professional
Robson Lowe wrote an article entitled "The Mystery of Mount Athos" and mentioned that the Allies had
under consideration during the winter of 1915-1916 the occupation of the Holy Mount, presumably to
forestall any suspected pro-Entente activities. The envisaged "Resident and Senior Naval Officer, Mount
Athos" (see Fig. 1 on the opposite page) Lieutenant-Commander Harold Pirie-Gordon, was never
appointed. However, as a philatelist, he conceived the idea of issuing stamps for the "Monastic Republic".
They were designed by Lieutenant-Commander Luke and printed in imperforate sheets of 12 by a
photographic process aboard H.M. Aircraft Carrier "Ark Royal", in black on surface-coloured papers.

The square designs were most unusual in that they were inscribed in three languages: English, Greek and
Russian, together with value equivalents in the corresponding currencies. The Greek drachma was at that
time in the French currency zone and equal to 10p. sterling or 20c. U.S. There is an interesting and
understandable mistake in the Russian inscription up the left side of the design: "CB. FOPA AGON'b".
The values and colours were as follows:-

1/2 p. 2 lepta 5 kopeks: deep greenish-blue. Size 22 1/2 mm. square.
1 p. 4 lepta 10 kopeks: carmine. Size 26 mm. square.
2 1/2 p. 10 lepta 25 kopeks: rose. Size 22 1/2 mm. square.
2 1/2 p. 10 lepta 25 kopeks: pale blue. Size 22 1/2 mm. square.
2 1/2 p. 10 lepta 25 kopeks: brownish-pink. Size 22 1/2 mm.
2 1/2 p. 10 lepta 25 kopeks: dull brown. Size 22 1/2 mm. square.
4 1/2 p. 18 lepta 45 kopeks: yellow. Size 28 mm. square.
4 1/2 p. 18 lepta 45 kopeks: pink. Size 28 mm. square.
November 1998

S 560a. ON HIS

I ------ --- -



if i i

.- n d
Senior .ci OCtr

l. ,K
n.M rArkj 51'("

M-! 0C!!UiT TH-O"
i ur4 cl-- :c -rn uacet ne to


C.Ui ~p a~Cn

s -o
urt unopened to:D
L M:.'L MOU TH*' ..

A-, -,.,:, r.~.ialt ;,". -.S, .;
'..rMia l] T '' ..Y,: -? l
ii:. : ,t>*. .f. .,.
.-* ... .- -. ,, ..,


.Vr B'. '" i-. ; ..-.A 1.
ft .; .U U' ., . .. '_
r .- ,,, . -

," ""

tr-.wwj. M.ta.EXrEIOUTH'-

--' ~. \L ~7~~I

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.
November 1998

Fig. 1;

ZS ~ii j

Fig. 2.


.._ I In-~z vy '. a --II'

6 p. 24 lepta 60 kopeks: lilac. Size 24 mm. square.
1 s. 48 lepta 120 kopeks: buff. Size 28 1/2 mm. square.
1 s. 48 lepta 120 kopeks: brownish-pink. Size 28 1/2 mm. square.

As it turned out, the stamps were not issued, but three covers are known with a mixture of values, all with a
violet two-line cancel in Greek, reading: "ATION OPOZ / 25.1.1916" ("HOLY MOUNT / 25 January
1916"), as follows:-

(1) The cover illustrated by Robson Lowe in 1942 and now in the collection of your editor (Fig. 1 on the
previous page). Starting from the bottom right, it bears the 1/2 p., 1 p., 2 1/2 p. rose, 2 1/2 p. pale blue, 4
1/2 p. yellow, 6 p. and 1 s. on buff. The very late arrival marking of FPO GX (at 76 Queen Olga Street in
Salonika) is dated 2 MR 16.
(2) A cover with the same days of despatch and arrival. It is addressed to Lieut.-Comdr Pine-Gordon
RNVR and bears the 1/2 p., 1 p., 2 colours of the 2 1/2 p., both colours of the 4 1/2 p., 6 p., and both
colours of the 1 s. (see Fig. 2 on the previous page).
(3) A cover with the same despatch date, but no arrival marking. It is franked with the 1 p., 2 colours of the
2 1/2 p., both colours of the 4 1/2 p., 6 p. and one colour of the 1 s., being addressed to the Government
Secretary, HMS EUROPA at Mudros (Lieut.-Comdr. Luke, designer of the stamps; see Fig. 3 on the
previous page).

To conclude the discussion, some of the unused values are also shown in Fig. 4 on the previous page. These
essays are highly regarded by Greek philatelists and are difficult to acquire, so they must have been
produced in very small quantities. Any further information about this unusual issue would be much
appreciated. '


MECTHhlE H HPOBH30PHblE BMInlYCKH CHF 1991-1995 (Local and Provisional Issues of
the C.I.S. 1991-1995), by E.A. Obukhov. A trim 60-page booklet in A5 format, Moscow 1998. All
enquiries to the author at: 143530, r. JEJ1OBCK MocKOBCKOi o606., CnopTHBHas 4-35.
The title of this well-illustrated work is self-explanatory and the author wisely avoids the blatantly
speculative and bogus issues. This is a very useful guide and recommended to students in the field.

96-page soft-cover ISJP Monograph No. 12 in 21 x 29 cm. format and available for US S 12.00 postpaid (a
real bargain !) from J.E. Jacobson, 815 S. Springinsguth Rd., Schaumburg, Illinois 60193-3329, U.S.A.

This unbelievably detailed study is the latest word on the subject by a foremost expert and is a real godsend
to Western postal historians in deciphering Japanese inscriptions. Very strongly recommended !

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area) No. 32 for June 1998. A 58-page soft-cover journal in A4
size, issued by the Dutch Society of the same name. All enquiries to the Secretary: A.C. de Bruin, Ten
Passeweg 10A, NL 8084 AN't Harde, Holland.

This issue contains Society Notes; a detailed study of the Estonian 10 mk. Plate II "blacksmith" stamp, by
P. Feustel & R. Feustel-Rothe; Stamps of Latvia Part 10, by the late J. Poulie and finishing with Latvia:
New Developments VIII & Book Reviews, both by R. van Wijnen. Solid work here, as always.
November 1998

by Erling Berger.

In 1990, Mr. Borge Lundh published, in cooperation with the Philatelic Federation of Finland, his book
"European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", where the letters that came in directly from Sweden were
described in a complete way. However, the letters arriving in Finland via Russia in the period from 1824 to
1844 could use a further examination, especially for the rates from St. Petersburg to the destinations in
Finland. In setting out here the conclusions reached as a result of my research, grateful thanks are due to
the Philatelic Federation of Finland for permission to show examples from the book by Mr. Lundh.

The rates from St. Petersburg to Finland were not taken from the 1816 tariff in force in Finland, but from
the Russian internal tariff. This tariff was changed in 1819, 1830 and 1840. That was logical, as the postal
rates for the stretch from St. Petersburg to Finland were noted in St. Petersburg. We will now compare the
steps of the Russian inland tariff with the rates that we find in "European Letters to Finland":-

1. 1819-1830. I have seen five letters (the "28" is from another source: G. Hughmark of the USA).
The Russian tariff proceeded as follows: 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 etc.(steps of 4 kopeks).
"European Letters to Finland" shows : 28 48 56

2. 1830-1840. I have seen sixteen letters.
The Russian tariff went like this: 20 30 40 50 60 etc. (steps of 10 kopeks).
"European Letters to Finland" : 30 50

3. 1840-1844. I have seen seven letters.
The Russian tariff went as follows: 5 10 15 20 25 etc. (steps of 5 kopeks).
"European Letters to Finland" : 10 15

I think that it is easy to see that it must have been the Russian tariffs that were actually applied for our
letters. Now, I must admit that it has not been possible for me to trace the tables used in St. Petersburg, but
I will reconstruct them here as far as possible by using letters shown in "European Letters to Finland".

The postage written in St.Petersburg on foreign letters sent towards Finland for the
stretch from St.Petersburg to the destination in Finland.

Office 1819-1830 1830-1841 1841-1844
Kopek Assignat Kopek Assignat Kop.silver
Brahestad 48
Christinestad 48 50 15
Helsingfors 28 30 10
Jacobstad 56 50 15
(53 Kop Ass.)

Several tariffs for Finland and Russia will be shown in Table 2 at the end of this article. Note that for the
periods 1819-1830 and 1830-1841, the rates were expressed in paper money (Assignation Kopeks). The
distances were given in versty: 1 vErsta was 1067 metres in Russia & 1068 metres in Finland=1 km.=5/8 mi.
November 1998

I will now explain how I found out about the 1816 tariff:-
1. By consulting Esa Mattila (1), I could see that the rates went as follows, if we put them in ascending
order: 14, 19, 23, 28, 33, 37,42, 46, 51....116 Assignation kopeks.
We can note 31 different amounts altogether.

2. By studying the Russian inland tariffs of 1783, 1807 and 1819, I could see that they had 31 steps
for the distances: 0-100, 100-200, 200-300....2900-3000 and 3000+ v6rsty.
We can thus see 31 levels for the distance.

If we combine distance and amounts, we obtain the results listed in the second column of Table 2 (valid
only in the direction towards Russia). In the book by Esa Mattila (1), we can see the distances between the
Finnish offices in 1810 and 1846. I have made several tests of my table and found it to be correct. A
difficulty arises in that the distance between two offices was measured along the actual route and thus not
in a straight line. As time went on, a distance could change, either because the mail went by a new route, or
because a new road was constructed. In other words, where the roads went, the post went

Now comes the moment where I shall test my theory with the help from "European Letters to Finland" by
Borge Lundh (2). That book shows letters to some towns in Finland and Table 1 on the previous page
features all the examples of relevant destinations given in that work. With help of Table 1, we are now
able to explain the postal rates written on foreign letters coming into Finland from St Petersburg in the
period from 1819 to 1840. I must first show how the postage was notated on the letter. For example, an
unfranked letter from Hamburg to Helsingfors in 1835 would show the following charges:-
Hamburg-St. Petersburg 315 Assig. kop. (Hamburg-Polangen 249 A.k.according to the Memel
TAKCA (Rate book) + Polangen-St. Petersburg 66 A.k.)
St. Petersburg-Helsingfors 30 A.k. (found in Table 1)
The receiver in Helsingfors paid 345 Assignation kopeks.

The 66 Assignation kopeks for Polangen-St. Petersburg arose in the following way. The 1819 tariff for
Polangen-St. Petersburg was 44 A.k. for 800-900 versts (Table 2).. After the Prussia-Russia Convention
was concluded in 1822, it was clear to the Russian side that the Russian Lot (12.794 grammes) was lighter
than the Prussian Loth (15 grammes). However, the Prussian Loth was accepted in Russia, but the Russian
correspondents had to pay an additional 50% on the Russian domestic tariff to compensate for the higher
weight limit. Later, when the Russian tariffs were changed in 1830, the 66 A.k. rate remained in force. The
Finns had it even harder. They had to pay 100% extra, but only for letters from Finland. That explains why
the famous Memel TAKCA for Tammerfors contains a double amount for the Tammerfors-Polangen

The Philatelic Federation of Finland, which holds the copyright for the book "European Letters to Finland
1819-1873" has allowed me to use up to ten examples from that work (per the permission of 3.2.1997 by
the President Pekka Taitto). Instead of copying examples from that book, I will now make seven drawings
for this article. As the main point is the notation of the rates, a drawing can show the results more clearly.

Up to Polangen kop. silver 78'/
Converted to paper kopek (x 6) 471
Polangen-St.Petersburg 66
Up to St.Petersburg 537
St.Petersburg Brahestad 48
Totally paid in Brahestad 585

Figure 1. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 15. Letter from Le Havre, France to

November 1998


Brahestad 48
Finland 585

Brahestad in 1824. From Table 1 we use the tariff of 1819 and find the postage of 48 Assignation kopeks
from St. Petersburg to Brahestad.

Up to Polangen kop. silver
Converted to paper kopek (x 6)
Up to St.Petersburg
St.Petersburg Jacobstad
Totally paid in Jacobstad


Figure 2. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 62. Letter from London to Jacobstad in
1828. From Table 1 we use the tariff of 1819 and find the postage of 56 Assignation kopeks from St.
Petersburg to Jacobstad.

Up to Polangen kop. silver
Converted to paper kopek (x 6)
Up to St.Petersburg
St.Petersburg Christinestad
Totally paid in Christinestad


Figure 3. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 117. Letter from Hamburg to
Christinestad in 1827. From Table 1 we use the tariff of 1819 and find the postage of 48 Assignation
kopeks from St. Petersburg to Christinestad.

Up to Polangen kop. silver
Converted to paper kopek (x 6)
Up to St.Petersburg
St.Petersburg -Helsingfors
Totally paid in Helsingfors


Figure 4. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 92. Letter from Toulon to Helsingfors
in 1833. From Table 1 we use the tariff of 1830 and find the postage of 30 Assignation kopeks from St.
Petersburg to Helsingfors.

Up to Polangen kop. silver
Converted to paper kopek (x 6)
Up to St.Petersburg
St.Petersburg Christinestad
Totally paid in Christinestad


Figure 5. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 106. Letter from Barmen to
Christinestad in 1833. From Table 1 we use the tariff of 1830 and find the postage of 50 Assignation
kopeks from St. Petersburg to Christinestad.
November 1998


Jacobstad 56
Finland 491


Christinestad 48
Finland 363


Helsingfors 30
Finland 615


Christinestad 50
Finland 413

Up to Polangen kop. silver
Converted to paper kopek (x 6)
Up to St.Petersburg
St.Petersburg Jacobstad
Totally paid in Jacobstad


Figure 6. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 105. Letter from Pillau (Prussia) to
Jacobstad in 1833. In Table 1 we use the tariff of 1830 and find the postage of 50 Assignation kopeks from
St. Petersburg to Jacobstad.

Up to Polangen kop. silver
Converted to paper kopek (x 6)
Up to St.Petersburg
St.Petersburg Jacobstad
Totally paid in Jacobstad


Figure 7. Taken from "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 70. Letter from Plymouth to Jacobstad
in 1840. From Table 1 we use the tariff of 1840 and find the postage of 15 silver kopeks or 3 1/2 x 15 = 53
Assignation kopeks from St. Petersburg to Jacobstad. It seems that the distance to Jacobstad had become a
little shorter around 1840.

Figure 8. Finally, a "real world" example to show how the postal system worked- Copied from "European
Letters to Finland 1819-1873", p. 106. Unfranked letter from Barmen/Wupperfeld in Prussia to
Christinestad in 1833, conveyed via Memel and St. Petersburg. The recipient in Finland had to pay for the
whole journey. There were four portions:-
1. Wuppertal-Memel; 2_ Memel-Polangen (Border Tax); Polangen-St. Petersburg, SPB- Christinestad.
Wuppertal-Memel: Postage of 16 Silbergroschen (see the Prussian Circular No. 31 of 1837).
16 Sgr. is 16 x 3 = 48 silver kopeks.
Border Tax 1 1/2 "
Postage to Polangen 49 1/2 silver kopeks. Note the amount "49 1/2" written upside down at bottom right
Reduced to Assignation kopeks: 49 1/2 x 6 = 297 Assignation kopeks.
Polangen-St. Petersburg 66 "
Postage up to St. Petersburg 363 (see the amount at bottom left).

November 1998


Jacobstad 50
Finland 209


Jacobstad 53
Finld 506


~%' 1:


L y


Finland Russia Russia Russia Russia
Distance tariff tariff tariff tariff tariff
vrste 1816 1807 1819 1830 1840
Kop.Ass. Kop.Ass. Kop.Ass. Kop.Ass. K.Silver

0-100 14 6 12
100-200 19 8 16 20 5
200-300 23 10 20
300-400 28 12 24
400-500 33 14 28 30
500-600 37 16 32 10
600-700 42 18 36 40

700-800 46 20 40
800-900 51 22 44
900-1000 56 24 48 50 15
1000-1100 60 26 52
1100-1200 65 28 56 60

1200-1300 70 30 60
1300-1400 74 32 64
1400-1500 79 34 68 70 20
1500-1600 81 35 70
1600-1700 84 36 72 80

1700-1800 86 37 74
1800-1900 88 38 76
1900-2000 91 39 78 90
2000-2100 93 40 80
2100-2200 95 41 82 94

2200-2300 98 42 84
2300-2400 100 43 86
2400-2500 102 44 88 96
2500-2600 105 45 90 25
2600-2700 107 46 92 98

2700-2800 109 47 94
2800-2900 111 48 96

2900-3000 114 49 98 100
3000- 116 50 100

November 1998

For the portion in Finland 50 Assignation kopeks (see the amount at bottom left; Figure 8).
Total amount paid in Christinestad 413 Assignation kopeks (see the amount at bottom left; Figure 8).

1. Esa Mattila : "Die Finnischen Postgeblihren ffir das Inland und fir das Kaiserreich 1810-1875 und
nach Ausland iiber Russland 1816-1852". Espoo, 1994.
2. Borge Lundh: "European Letters to Finland 1819-1873". Lahti/Gentofte, 1990.
The actual Russian tariffs were given to me by Mrs. Natalie Krasheninnikoff of Denmark.
Many thanks also to Dr. Gordon Hughmark of Baton Rouge, U.S.A.

Editorial Comment: We are most obliged to Mr. Berger for opening up a new field of investigation in pre-
philately. Much of the material in that period that we had hitherto been studying was of an internal official
character, hence postfree and devoid of rate markings.

An explanation of the Russian "Assignation" currency is now in order. That medium of exchange was in
the form of paper money and was first introduced in 1769 during the reign of the Empress Catherine the
Great. It was forged by Napoleon during the 1812 invasion of Russia to the tune of 25 million roubles, a
huge sum in those days, The result was a substantial depreciation in the value of paper money and the
assignations were finally abolished in the reign of the Emperor Nicholas I as of 1 January 1849, in favour
of a monetary system based solely on silver.

History repeated itself during the Fascist invasion of the USSR in WWII, when rouble banknotes were
extensively forged by the Nazis to try to wreck the Soviet economy. The situation was severely exacerbated
after WWII by some members of the diplomatic community in Moscow, who were buying up depreciated
and forged roubles in Eastern Europe, using them to acquire rare objets d'art in the Moscow commission
shops, among other activities. It all came to a screeching halt on 15 December 1947, when the government
carried out a severe and successful monetary reform, where 1 new rouble was exchangedfor 10 old roubles
in cash. Savings bank deposits were honoured on a one-for-one basis up to 3000 old roubles and at a
diminishing rate thereafter. Inflation and speculation were wiped out overnight.

The forgery by a government of the currency of another country is a particularly loathsome tactic, which
especially hits the poor. So far as Russians are concerned, it is one of the least desirable consequences of
contact with the West over the centuries.

All order should be made out to the CSRP, P.O. Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

B HOMOIHIb PYKOBOJIHTEJIIO HH3OBOI CBHI3H (To the Aid of the Director of Lesser
Communications), by M.B. Matlin, Moscow 1931. A 96-page reprint in A5 booklet form, serving as a
guide to the inner workings of the Soviet Postal Service. Interesting Price postpaid US S 6.00.

HOPE ABANDONED, by Nadezhda Mandelshtam. Candid reminiscences by the widow of the noted poet
Osip Mandelshtam and of their literary contemporaries in a paperback edition of 692 pages. Originally
published at US $ 14.00. Of great historic value. Price postpaid US S 10.00.

SOVIET DIARY 1927 & OTHER WRITINGS, by S.S. Prokofev. An absorbing book by this great
composer, with interesting illustrations & notes re growing terror. Limited supply! Price postpaid US S 9.50.

November 1998

by Alex Artuchov

(Ryazan Province)


Sapozhok located in the southeast portion of the province a few miles with its boundary
with Tambov. In 1910, the population was about 4,500.

Sapazhok was located in the best agricultural portion of the province with rye, oats and
barley being the principal crops.

Sapozhok issue stamps between stamps between 1870 and 1913.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Golden background with crossed silver swords and with a brown fur-lined
hat with a green top.
Bottom: Blue background with a white and silver dove.

First Stamp Issuing Period 1870 1872
23.66 x 31 mm lithographed in black on a yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, white
or brownish gum, sheet of 5 x 6, imperforate.

..E .X


November 1998

1. 5 kop. black

Some of the stamps show small circles which are traces of the fasteners holding the
blocks on the plate. These circles are found on the following stamps:

Stamp 1 on the top right on the thin outer frameline.
Stamp 7 on the top right between the stamp and the thin outer framline.
Stamp 29 on the top right and the bottom 2 circles on the sheet margin.

From September 24, 1872 until August 19, 1884 the mail was carried free of charge.

The Second Stamp Issuing Period 1884 1917
From August 19, 1884 the mail was no longer carried free of charge. Since the new
stamps were not ready on this date, the remainder of the 1870 issue was temporarily put
into use.

1884 (August 19)
Circular in shape and 25 mm in diameter, lithographed in black on a coloured background
on white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 10 x 10, the 4 corer stamps have
small guidelines in the outer covers which are printed in black, two 5 kop. stamps were
used when the value was altered into 10 kop. stamps by changing the numerals and
indications of value which in turn resulted in 2 types.

2. 5 kop. black and red
2. 5 kop. black and red

3. 10 kop. black and dark green
The 10 Kop. Sheet

1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1
11 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2
2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 1 2 1 11 1 1 2 2
2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1

1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2

2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
November 1998




The 2 Types of the 10 Kop. Value
Type 1 The words JECSITb KOH are close to each other.
Type 2 The words JECITb KOII have a larger space between them.

188? 1888
Similar to the previous issue, the numerals of value are slightly smaller, the stamp itself is
0.5 mm larger, the inscriptions are in thicker letters, 25.5 mm in diameter, lithographed
on a yellowish white paper with a coloured background white gum, perforated, 2

First Edition (188?)
With red guide angles in each corer of each stamp, yellowish white paper 0.07 mm
thick, perforated 12.5 to 12.75 .

4. 5 kop. black on a red background (unused) RRRR
(1 known)
(used) R
(17 known)

The number of unused stamps that are known is not quite clear. In one of his catalogues
Schmidt mentions that only one copy is known. In the other, he contends that only used
copies are known.

Second Edition (1888)
Without the corer guidemarks and sometime with only traces of them, corer stamps
have black angle guide marks in the outer corer only, on yellowish white paper 0.06 mm
thick, the 5 kop. value also exists on a smooth paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum, sheet of
10 x 10 the 10 kop. value has 2 types, perforated 12.5, some sheets of the 10 kop. value
have imperforate margins.

5. 5 kop. black on a red background (unused) 5.00
.." (used) 0.50

6. 10 kop. black on a green background 2.00

The 2 Types T. 1 T. 2
Type 1 A diagonal stroke on the 1 in the
10 is shorter and raised higher.
Type 2 A diagonal stroke on the 1 in the I
10 is not raised as high, the 0 in the
10 is wide.

November 1998

Constant Varieties:
a. There is a red star in front of the star (26th stamp)
b. There is a dot in front of the 5 (33rd stamp)
c. There is a red spot in the centre of the circle (40th stamp)
d. There is a red dent in the red background on the left (48th stamp)
e. There is a red spot on the right next to the 5 (54th stamp)
f. There is a red spot to the left of the opening in the 5 (55th stamp)
g. There is a red spot on the letter T of the word IIOHTbI and behind the 5
(64th stamp)
h. There is a red spot between the words 3EMCKOHI and IIOTbI and behind
the 5 (65th stamp)
I. There is a red hook shaped mark in the centre circle under the A of the word
MAPKA (82nd stamp)

19.75 x 24.66 mm lithographed on white and coloured paper
respectively, white gum, sheet of 10 x 5, there are 3 types of the
differences in the inscription of value, perforated 12.5 .

7. 5 kop. red on white paper

8. 10 kop. black on green paper

0.09 and 0.07 mm
10 kop. stamp with



The Sheet

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

November 1998

1891 (end)
Similar to the previous issue, the numerals of value at the sides of the coat of arms have
been removed and replaced by ornaments, lithographed on yellowish white paper 0.11
mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 10 x 5, 3 types with differences in the
ornaments and on the 10 kop. value also with differences in the inscription of value,
perforated 12.5.

9. 5 kop. red and yellow green 1.00

10. 10 kop. green and ochre yellow 1.50

The Sheet

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 7

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3

The 3 Types of the 5 Kop. Stamp
The types are identified by differences in the ornaments on each side of the shield, each
ornament consists of two C shaped parts placed above each other, the top portion has as
small curl on its back at the top and the bottom portion has a curl at the bottom.
In order to identify the types a comparison of the left ornament should be sufficient.

Type 1 The curl on its back is higher than the bottom of the C shaped ornament
Type 2 The curl is slightly lower
Type 3 The curl is quite a bit lower

The 3 Types of the 10 Kop. Stamp
The types can be identified by differences in the ornaments on each side of the shield.

Type 1 The C shaped ornaments open to the left on the left side of the shield and
to the right on the right side, the upper and lower parts of the ornaments
are connected, the top loop of the left ornament has a very small opening.
Type 2 Both C shaped ornaments open to the right, the ornament on the left side
of the shield is separated in the middle.

November 1998

Type 3 -

The C shaped ornaments open to the left on the left side of the shield and
to the right on the right side, the upper and lower part of the ornaments
are connected, the top loop of the left ornament has a wide opening.

1894 -1895
Similar to the previous issues, numerals of value are located on the sides of the shield,
lithographed on white paper, sheet of 10 x 5, 3 editions.

First Edition (1894)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated 12.5, no types, registry
marks at the sides of the sheet consist of crossed and dotted lines.


11. 5 kop. dark carmine red and light green

Variety: Green dot next to the right 5.

12. 10 kop. green and light yellow


Second Edition (1895)
White paper 0.11 mm thick, white gum, perforated 11.5 .

13. 5 kop. carmine red and green


Third Edition (1895, end of)
On white paper 0.10 mm thick, white gum perforated 11.5 which is poorly done or
incomplete, single registry dot on the side sheet margins of the 5 kop. stamp and 5 of
them on the side margin of the 10 kop. stamp, sheet of 10 x 5, the 10 kop. stamp hs 2
types placed side by side in a 2 x 1 configuration.


14. 5 kop. carmine red and green

Variety: Green dot next to the right 5.

15. 10 kop. light blue green and yellow


The 2 Types
Type 1 -

There is a green spot on the lower left corer of the shield, the letter A in
the word AECIlTb has legs with the right one being hook shaped, the
letters Tb in the same word are placed so that the T is over the space
between the O and I and b over the N in the word IIO ITbI.

November 1998

Type 2 -

Same comer of the shield is nearer to the word JECITb, the letter A is
without of with very short legs, both letters T and b are placed over the
letter TI of the word IIOHTbl.

Type 1

Type 2

1897 1899
17.33 x 22.66 mm lithographed on white paper, white gum, sheet of 10 x 5, perforated
11.5, 2 editions.

First Edition (1897, February)
On white paper 0.11 mm thick, the 5 kop. stamp exists double perforated horizontally and
the 10 kop.in the darker green value exists exists double perforated horizontally and
vertically, each value has 2 types.

16. 5 kop. red and green
17. 10 kop. green and yellow


18. 10 kop. light green and yellow on thinner paper

The 2 Types of the 5 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 The right 5 is in the centre
of the square.
Type 2 The right 5 is nearer to the
left side of the square.

Type 1


Type 2


The 2 Types of the 10 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 The 1 in the lower right circle is
shorter, the right frameline extends
above the the top line.
Type 2 Unlike type 1.
Type 1

November 1998



Constant Plate Flaws:

5 Kop. Stamp
a. Several white spots in front of the
left 5 (1st stamp)
b. Red spot on the left 5 (11th stamp)
c. A white spot above the right 5 (13th stamp)
d. White spot on the right 5 (14th stamp)
e. Red spot on the right 5 (25th stamp)
f. White spot to the left of the right 5 (40th stamp)
g. A white spot above the right lower circle
(41st stamp)

10 Kop. Stamp
a. White spot on the left 10
(2nd stamp)
b. Coloured spot behind the lower
left 10 (20th stamp)
c. Coloured spot under the upper
right 10 (35th stamp)
d. Coloured spot over the lower right
circle (47th stamp)

Second Edition
On thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, the numeral 5 is thicker, the square framelines are
thinner, the 5 kop. value has 2 types while the 10 kop. stamp has none, sheet of 10 x 5
with the 2 types of the 5 kop. value distributed evenly in a 2 x 1 configuration.

19. 5 kop. dark red and green



20 10 kop. green, light or dark and yellow

The 2 Types of the 5 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 The numeral 5 on the right leans forward.
Type 2 The numeral 5 on the right is straight.

1900 1901
A new design similar to Swiss stamps of 1862, 17.75 x 22 mm, white paper 0.08 mm
thick, sheet of 10 x 10 ? the 5 kop. stamp has 4 types.

21. 5 kop. red, black and green



22. 10 kop. moss green black and yellow

The 4 Types of the 5 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 The flag on the numerals 5 in the NE corer on type 2, 3 and 4 are of an even
thickness; on type 1 it tapers so that its end on the right is quite narrow, there is
a tiny red dot on the SE corer 5.

November 1998

Type 2 Damaged letter II of the word IIO'TA, there is a red spot on the bottom
outer frameline under the letters YIb.
Type 3 There is a white spot on the flag of the 5 in the NE corer.
Type 4 There is a tiny red dot on the 5 in the SW corer.

Type 1


Type 2

EI ,

Type 3


Type 4

1906 (February)
15 x 21.5 mm lithographed on white paper 0.09
sheet of 10 x 10, perforated 11.5.

23. 5 kop. blue, dark blue

mm thick, shiny yellowish white gum,


Similar to the issue of 1906, with larger comer numerals, the background lines are closer
together and coarser in appearance, lithographed on white paper 0.12 mm thick,
brownish yellow gum, sheet of 9 x 8 with a transfer block of 3 x 2 and 6 types, perforated
11.5 and also known imperforate.


24. 5 kop. light blue

The Sheet
1231 23123
4564 56456
12 323123
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6

1231 23123
45 64 564 56
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6

November 1998


The 6 Types
Type 1 -
Type 2 -

Type 3 -
Type 4 -

Type 5 -

Type 6 -

With no identifying features but unlike the other types.
Dent in the left outer frameline near the top and a similar dent in the
bottom frameline.
Broken numeral 5 in the NE corer circle.
There is a white spot to the right of the outer oval outline above the letter
K of the word 3EMCK.
Small break in the left outline of the shield near the top, a tiny and faint
blue dot is on the top left vertical stroke of the letter II of the word
Break in the top outline of the shield to the right of the crown, a tiny and
faint blue dot on the left vertical stroke is near the bottom of the letter II
of the word IIOITbI.

Type 3

Type 5

Type 6

Similar to the issue of 1900 1901, smaller head, the shield does not touch the oval which
has no point on the bottom as it does on the earlier issue, sheet unknown perforated 11.5.

25. 10 kop. green black and yellow


The issue of 1900 1901

The issue of 1909

22 x 27.75 mm ,lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet
of 14 x 7 with a transfer block of 2 x 2 and 4 types and an odd arrangement to the transfer
types in the bottom row, perforated 12.5 .

November 1998

2uii k Aiit

26. 5 kop. black and brown rose

The 4 Types
Type 1 -
Type 2 -
Type 3 -
Type 4 -

There is a dot on the back of the right 5.
There is a dot on the left side of the shield.
There is a dot in the margin over the NE corer.
Ther is a dot over the left 5.

Type 1


Type 2

Type 3


Type 4


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:



November 1998



The Zemstvo Postage Stamps
of Imperial Russia
Vol. 4
by Alex Artuchov

Vol. 4 Odessa Rzhev

The author and the CSRP are pleased to announce the pending publication of Volume 4.
The publication will deal with the zemstvo districts from Odessa to Rzhev and will
consist of slightly less than 200 pages. Publication and distribution is anticipated for
the late summer of 1998.

Pre-publication orders at a discounted price of $25.00 (US) are invited. The post
publication price of Vol. 4 will be $30.00 (US). The preceding 3 volumes are also $30.00
(US) each. Dealers purchasing in volume are requested to approach the author directly for
wholesale pricing.

To order your copy please fill in the bottom portion and return it to: Alex Artuchov, P.O.
Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2 with the remittance
payable to Alex Artuchov



No. of Copies:


Pre-publication orders @ $25.00 will be honoured up to the postmark date of 31 Dec. 1998

November 1998

3MtPM30 RUS^0

by Charles Leonard.

The treaty provided for the mutual exchange of letters, printed matter, postcards, trade samples and
patterns, newspapers and letters, parcels and money letters. It also allowed for the transit of these mails,
through Prussia, to other countries. In reality, Prussia negotiated on behalf of the German-Austrian Postal
Union, while the Russian Empire included the Grand Duchy of Finland and the Kingdom of Poland. For the
purposes of this treaty, the agreed exchange rates were set at: 2, 3, 4, 6 Silbergroschen.
= 7, 10, 14, 20 kopeks.
The basic letter rate between the two signatories was set at 4 Sgr./14 kopeks prepaid, or 6 Sgr./20 kopeks
unpaid per 15 grammes (= 1 1/4 Russian lot or 1 Prussian Loth) or part thereof. Postal charges were to be
divided equally and mutual accounting was to be reckoned in Silbergroschen.

The treaty came into effect onl/13 January 1866 but, within six months, Prussia was at war with Austria
and the German-Austrian Postal Union broke up. It took Prussia just seven weeks to defeat Austria and
those German States which had supported her. All the States north of the River Main were then forced to
join a North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, but this was only a stepping-stone to the
founding of the German Empire in 1871. During the whole of this period, the terms of the postal treaty
continued to be honoured by both signatories.

This 1865 Postal Treaty between Russia and Prussia is noteworthy for a variety of reasons. Historically, it
covered the traumatic period immediately prior to the birth of the German Empire while, from the postal
history viewpoint, it was the first treaty between these two countries to bring in a penalty charge on unpaid
mail. Russia also introduced a fixed registration fee, instead of the old "double rate" charge. The reduced
border area rates were not new and Austria had also negotiated similar rates in its treaty with Russia, but
very few collectors appear to know of them (long may it continue !). Some are very difficult to acquire.
Finally, many of the letters shown hereunder are on the blue paper popular at the time, making it difficult
to copy them well and it is hoped that the descriptions of the details will compensate.
A. Examples of the standard single letter rate 4 Sgr./14 kopeks:

A letter from Kreuach, 17.7.1867 with Prussia Sgr
-p.. 4 -:, r : f .d..

3 Sgr., but without indication of the amount credited to
Russia. Addressed in Russian: "sB KasaHb, H oTTrya no A letter from Gera 13.5.1867 to SPB
CH6HpcKOMy TpaKTy Ha cTraHilo KoponysaHb, xawn with Thurn & Taxis 2x2 Sgr. cancelled
HeMenjreHHrar OTipasB enix. Bb ceJno XOTHIO, Ero "291", showing "2/2" in red (equally
BbicoKOpoqibo HHKonaIo lleTp. fepuoBy, pr. Mr. shared postage) and "f2" in blue (credit
A. de Mytlenacre" ("to Kazan', and from there along the to Russia). The stamps of Thurn & Taxis
Siberian route to the Koroduvan' Station, for immediate ceased to be used on 30.6.1867, after
despatch to the village of Khotya, to the High Born the family had sold its postal network to
Nikolai Petr. Pertsov, for Mr. A. de Mytlenacre"). Prussia for the sum of three million Thalers.

November 1998

L '-li~


7 /

Ic ^^

Postage stamps for the new North German Confederation
were issued on 1 January 1868 with values in Groschen
for the Northern District and in Kreuzer for the South.
Letter from Leipzig 17.10.1868 to Moscow. Franked
at 4 Groschen, but credit to Russia not shown.

* c:&

SThe exchange rate between Northern District Groschen
and Southern District Kreuzer was 2 Gr. = 7 Kr., so
for the purposes of this Treaty, the Kreuzer and Kopek
were at par.Here we have a letter from Mainz Rlwy Stn.
27.12.1870 to SPB franked at 14 Kreuzer. Credit to
Russia not shown.

The German Empire came into being on 1 January 18721
and the new stamps were issued in both Groschen and
Kreuzer currencies. Letter of 31.1.1872 from Liibeck
Rlwy Stn. to Christinestad, Finland via SPB. Franked
at 4 Groschen, but credit to Russia not shown.


m~m~u-~: ll*1

Existing stocks of the old German States postal
stationery were used up by affixing a
Confederation stamp over the original indicia
which had a security overprint. Here we have a
Prussian 2 Sgr. envelope, uprated to 4 Sgr.
with 2x2 Sgr. Confed. stamps and sent from
Gotha Rlwy Stn. 31.8.1869 to SPB. Credit
to Russia not shown.

r' :' .-'?.
* ~'*'*
~- i.T~h -s
KY Tge .
-, 5/I

Letter from Reutlingen,Wiirttemberg 27.2.1869
to Moscow. Franked at 14 Kreuzer and with
"Wfr. 2 Sgr" in red crayon. The credit to Russia
correctly shown in Silbergroschen, in
compliance with the terms of the Treaty.

K.'~-.7 3_


1K _43

November 1998

----- ~


Letter from Warsaw 28 March 18
(at top right: nIqTo oTOTJneHie B
MapT 1872) to Berlin. Franked at
cancelled "BW" (Bromberg-Wars
showing "fco 7" (kop.) at bottom
Prussia, but should have been stat

apm 28
14 k. and
aw Rlwy) & Russian 10-k. stat. envelope uprated to 14 k. and
left; credit to cancelled Dinaburg Postal Stn. Ordl-Dinaburg Rlwy.
ed in Sgr. 17.6.1872 O.S., prepaid to Leipzig. Credit to the
North German Confederation hot shown.

Letterof 19.12.1869 N.S., frankedat 14 kop.
and cancelled "BW" at the Warsaw Stn. of the
Bromberg-Warsaw Rlwy. The 10-kopek stamp
has been used twice to defraud the postal
S. .. .service in the Kingdom of Poland.

B. Unpaid Mail.

: Letter of 15.4.1869 from Abo, Finland via SPB and
Eydtkuhnen to Cologne, with framed "HE
SMarked "10" (kop.) at top right (Russian claim) and
EPMPOBAHOI' "6" (Gr.)= total due from the addressee.

November 1998

-1 '


4! ..-

.. -. .1 .
L.`.~t~ I_:Il --1 iS I._~.A

:i- .i.7-:.. ,:.-: .,::.-- .: -. A letter from Libeck 18.8.1866 via SPB to Nikolaistad
S"" ": ((Vasa-Vaasa) in Finland. Initially charged at double rate
:.'T'tC1"- with blue crayon "2" & "6" Sgr., indicating the German
:.. ... claim, but then increased to treble rate, with the figures
SgoingI up to "3" & "9" Sgr. The total of 60 kop. was
added on the back at SPB and this was converted to
S- -"Los 240 p." (60k.x4) at front top centre in Finland.
cL_^ <^ FFrom 1840, the rouble system was the only legal
S... .. tender in Finland but, in Nov. 1865, it was allowed to
.issue its own currency: 100 pennii=l markka. The
official exchange rate was set at 4:1, i.e. 4 pennia
1 silver kopek "L6s" is short for "LUsen", which is
Swedish for a fee or surcharge.

C. The Border Territories.

For local correspondence between border post offices, the charge for a single letter was only 1 Sgr.=3 kop.,
paid or unpaid. Mail between the Prussian border areas (East & West Prussia, Posen & Silesia) and the
Russian border offices was charged at 2 Sgr.= 7 kop. paid and 3 Sgr.=10 kop. unpaid. Mail between the
Prussian border areas and all other parts of Russia was charged at 3 Sgr.=10 kop. paid and 4 Sr.=14 kop.
unpaid. All of these charges were shared equally between the two authorities.

Letter from Breslau in Silesia 23.Oct.
1868 to SPB and showing the 3 Sgr.
border rate. The red "3" indicates the
total paid, not the credit due to Russia

Letter of 5.11.1866 from Kattowitz via Sosnoice
/ --

to Warsaw. Border rate of 3 Sgr., with manuscript
"Kattowitz 5/11" (5 Nov.) in blue crayon.

Note: Both Kattowitz (Prussia) and Sosnowice
(Poland) were specified in the Treaty as
frontier exchange offices.

tter of 26.6.1871 from Schirwindt to St. Petersburg.
hirwindt was in East Prussia, on the Russian border.
,ample of the 3 Gr. border rate, but the credit to
issia shown as "5" kopeks, contrary to the terms
the Treaty.

November 1998

Y &F, ev


.-. ', Letter of 8.3.1870 from Warsaw via Eydtkuhnen
to Posen, showing the 10-kop. border area rate
but with no indication of the amount of credit due
S,' -to the North German Confederation.


D. Registered Mail.
With this Treaty, Russia now changed from the "double letter" charge to a specific registration fee of 7 kop.
i.e. the equivalent of the Prussian fee of 2 Sgr. The advice of receipt was also 7 kop. or 2 Sgr. Both the
postage and the fee had to be prepaid and the entire charge was retained by the originating authority. In the
event of loss, compensation was limited to 14 Thalers in Prussia and 13 roubles in Russia.

~.^' 4e ,LL~i Azi ^Cc .-. -- ..
S 4;'u.. .. .) ,..k-t- < ^.? .*.. __

*. t', '"'." 7 -\/ cf^ t -t- -

^, s-RiiNjn-TftQT

Letter of Feb. 1869 from Tiflis to Schorndorf in
Wirttemberg. Prepaid in cash with AUS RUSSLAND/
FRANCO-TOUT and boxed "Rekoffiandirt" struck
on entry at Eydtkuhnen. The red "2" (Sgr.) is the
credit to Prussia of half only of the postage.

'-- '^ :'- : .-". .. '- ..'f ,-^.i '.^' -.-

J. ." "
.- ,(/.45.// :-..: -;.;, ...
.. ,,,,.,,,.. 1.,.,
-_. '") "_ : :. : .. .. .
.' ,"' .
; ... ... .

--- ... L..

A registered letter from Leipzig, Saxony
12.12.1866 to Warsaw, franked at six
Neugroschen (4 Ngr. postage + 2 Ngr.
reg'n). The Neugroschen and Silber-
groschen were at par. Note at bottom
left "fr. 2" (Ngr.). There is on the reverse
in blue the credit to Russia of half the
postage only.

A reg'd letter from Posen 10.2.1866 to
Warsaw. As a double-rate letter from
the border areas, it is franked at 8 Sgr.
(2 x 3 Sgr. postage + 2 Sgr. reg'n). The
red "f3" Sgr. at bottom centre is the
credit to Russia of half the postage only.

November 1998

This 10-kop. envelope (1868 issue) was sent in May
1870 from Nizhnii Novgorod via SPB 18 May O.S.
and Eydtkuhnen to Berlin.. It bears the five wax seals i -~-
typical of a money or insured letter and is endorsed /
"CO BJox)eHieM'b Kpe InTHaro 6HJeTa WEb rSTb /.EYT
pyg6nef. OT Kynna OMHHHa" (enclosure of a t-
banknote of five roubles. From merchant Domnin).
Under the terms of the Treaty, this type of mail was : ./
classed as Parcel Post (Art.22) and could be sent ? '%
(a) Unpaid, (b) Paid to the appropriate frontier -- --
office or, (c) Paid to destination. This letter appears ,- -,
to have been paid to the frontier only and incurred a (-,,, < -V
charge of 9 Gr., payable by the addressee. /

E. Underpaid Mail.
If the stamps applied to a letter were of insufficient value to cover the cost of postage, then the letter was
charged as unpaid, but with the value of the stamps already affixed allowed for in the total due. Underpaid
amounts were, if necessary, rounded up to the nearest 1/2 Silbergroschen or 1 kopek.
A letter from Punitz, Silesia 11.9.1870 to
Warsaw and marked "Unzureichend /
frankirt" ("Insufficiently franked"; boxed l 1-- 7 -
cachet at bottom right). The letter was
charged at the unpaid border area rate of
4 Gr., less 1 Gr. already paid =3 Gr. due.
This equated to 11 kop., due from the
Editorial Comment: Addressed to Count
Auguste Zamoyski, a famous surname in --
Polish history, going back to Hetman Jan
Zamoyski (1542-1605).


A Card in German, referring to besieged Stalingrad.
The Nazi item shown here at right is noted by German dealer Hartmuth
Raith of Eichenring 6, D-35424 LANGGONS, Germany, as being the /
most sought-after propaganda card of the Third Reich. The slogan reads:
FUHRER ORDER, WE FOLLOW The rest, as they say, is history, but
there is a tendency in the West to ignore the vital significance of this epic
turning-point in World War I. Any details from members about this card
and its usage would be most appreciated.


November 1998

by Alexander EpStein.
In No. 42 of "The Post-Rider", Michael Ercolini asked about the scale of commissions for money letters in
Imperial Russia. 1 am readily setting out the appropriate information herewith. However, since money
letters in Russia have a long history, I am limiting myself to the period after 1 July 1904, when such letters
began to be franked with postage stamps. Before that date, they were paid for in cash and the
corresponding amount was written by the postal clerks on the cover (see Fig. 1 immediately below).

The inland money letter rates beginning from the very early period can be found in a very informative
series of articles by B. Kaminskii, published in Russian in "The Soviet Collector" Nos. 22-27 (although
these articles are somewhat difficult to read because of too great a number of quite unnecessary details).
However, the foreign rates, especially of the earliest period, still remain little explored (a very noteworthy
paper by Antoine Speeckaert was published in the recently issued BJRP No. 81).

First of all, the inland and foreign letters were handled by different rules. From 1 January 1903 to 31
December 1904, the Postal Service collected the following fees for inland money letters, when the
insurance fee was reduced to half what it was formerly:-
(1) For weight: 7 kop. up to 1 lot (=12.794 grammes or just under 1/2 oz.). The local letter rate for St.
Petersburg and Moscow was 5 kop. and for other localities: 3 kop.
(2) For registration: 7 kop.
(3) For insurance: From 1 r. up to 600 r.: .1/4 % of the amount, instead of the former 1/2 %.
Over 600 r. and up to 1600 r.: 1/8 % of the amount + 75 k., instead of 1/4 % and Ir. 50k.
Over 1600 r.: 1/16% of the amount+lr. 75k., instead of 1/8% & 3r. 50k.
(4) For sealing: 3 kop., instead of 5 kop. (5) For delivery (if required): 10 kop.
November 1998


From 1 January 1905, the fees for registration and sealing were abolished. The insurance fee was fixed as:-
Up to 10 r. -10 kop.; over 10 r. and up to 100 r. 25 kop.; each further 100 r. or part thereof- 15 kop.
Thus, the 10-kop. franking on the first of the covers shown by Mr. Ercolini on p. 116 of "The Post-Rider"
No. 42 is the insurance fee only (no registration and no weight regarded for an official letter).

It should also be mentioned that inland money letters could be handed in at the post office open or closed;
the rates were the same. In the first case, the letter was then sealed with wax seals by the post office (see
Figs. 2 & 3 hereunder). If handed in closed, the sender applied his/her own private seals. According to the
new postal regulations adopted in 1909, money letters became part of the more general class of mail, i.e.
letters of declared value.

q I." VF '

. ./ .. .- -
c L^r- .- ... ... ". .g-' "
.., ...... ., ,. t,

charges for weight became 15 kop. and 10 kop. respectively, while the insurance fees were fixed as:-
Up to 10 r. 15 kop.; over 10 r. and up to 100 r. 30 kop.; each further 100 r. or part thereof- 30 kop.

As for foreign letters, the 10-kop. charge for weight (or 20 kop. as of 1 September 1917), registration fee of
10 kop. (or 20 kop. respectively) and the insurance fee were collected. The latter varied, depending upon
the country of destination, but reckoned per every 112 r. 50 k. (=300 French francs) or part thereof. In
The above rate was valid up to 14 August 1917, but the fee for weight was altered from 7 to 10 kop. for
inland letters and to 5 kop. for local letters as of 15 September 1914. Finally, as of 15 August 1917, the
charges for weight became 15 kop. and 10 kop. respectively, while the insurance fees were fixed as:-
Up to 10 r. 15 kop.; over 10 r. and up to 100 r. 30 kop.; each further 100 r. or part thereof- 30 kop.

As for foreign letters, the 10-kop. charge for weight (or 20 kop. as of 1 September 1917), registration fee of
10 kop. (or 20 kop. respectively) and the insurance fee were collected. The latter varied, depending upon
the country of destination, but reckoned per every 112 r. 50 k. (=300 French francs) or part thereof. In-

November 1998

contrast to inland letters, foreign letters with declared value could only be handed in at the post office in a
closed condition.

The following insurance fees were introduced in October 1893 and remained valid until the beginning of
To Germany, Austro-Hungary & Romania 4 kop.; to other European countries 10 kop.;
to all other UPU countries 14 kop.
Thus, the franking on the second cover shown by Mr. Ercolini consists of the 20-kop. weight charge (above
15 and up to 30 grammes), 10-kop. registration fee & 4-kop. insurance fee, to total 34 k.See also Figs 4 & 5
../- .s .: V c- -. .-lS/SoSl' .. .

?24 -"/ -;- -

Fig. 4.:

all, of course, to the enemy countries and via them) was interruptered.. Inflation and changes in the

delivery routes were other reasons f or the alteration of the delivery fee. During 1915-1917, delivery of mail

To Sweden, Norway and Denmark 6 kop. (from January 1915).
To France 16 kop. (from November 1915).

To Italy 18 kop. (from November 1915).
o the etherands 1 o. from etemer .
To S Now and D enm 6o.(

To Hongkong 14 kop. (from January 1917).
November 1998
.ja :-.,-- -, .:. .g 5 f .

November 1998

To Switzerland 20 kop. (from March 1917).
To the Russian P.O. in Hankow 10 kop. (from April 1917).
All mail with declared value to the European countries was routed via Finland, while that to Honkong and
Hankow was sent via Kuangchentse in Manchuria. There is no information as to whether such mail was
delivered to other countries not mentioned above during WWI.
Fig. 1: Open money letter for 101 r. from Pemov/P'rnu 14.3.1902 to SPB. Payment: Ir. 12k. (7 x 7 k.
for weight + 7 k. registration + 51 k. insurance + 5 k. for sealing).
Fig. 2: Open money letter for 100 r. from Corps Field Post Office No. 1 (8.7.05) to Dvinsk/Daugavpils.
Franking: 46 k. (3 x 7 k. for weight + 25 k. insurance).
Fig. 3: Open money letter for 4r. 35k. from Vakskoe/Vao Rural Administration postal agency 7.5.14 to
Kertel'/KIirdla. Franking: 24 k. (2 x 7 k. for weight + 10 k. insurance).
Fig. 4: Closed money letter for 200 r. from El'va 2.10.13 to Charlottenburg, Germany.
Franking: 28 k. (10 k. for weight + 10 k. registration + 2 x 4 k. insurance).
Fig. 5: Closed money letter for 110 r. from EI'va to Charlottenburg, Germany.
Franking: 24 k. (10 k. for weight + 10k. registration + 4 k. insurance).
by Andrew Cronin.
The initials "PNSE" stand for "Philadelphia National Stamp Exhibition", the successor to the well-known
annual SEPAD shows. In a letter of 4 July 1997, the Secretary of PNSE and CSRP member, Alan Warren,
invited both the CSRP and the Rossica Society of Russian Philately to convene at the Valley Forge
Convention Centre on 2-4 October 1998. Alan turned out to be a real tower of strengh, driving your
editor from the airport to the hotel and show, providing projection equipment and other items, etc.
The Rossica Society was unable to accept the invitation, which was a great pity as the presence of two
Russian philatelic groups would have gone over extremely well. The PNSE is the most important national
show on the East Coast of the USA, with 300 frames and 75 dealers. The CSRP was thankfully provided
with a booth, where we were able to sign up members and provide visitors with a wide range of literature.

Your editor was honoured to serve on the Jury, chaired by Edward J. Siskin (expert on U.S. Classics and
early U.S. Postal History) and including Dr. Arthur H. Groten (Holy Land Specialist), Roger P. Quinby
(President of the Scandinavian Collectors' Club and holder of a Gold Medal at "MOSCOW '97" for his
Russian Stamps and PS used in Finland 1891-1918) and Michael Ruggiero (Gold Medalist for his Classic
Japan). Your editor had a ten-frame exhibit of Russian Civil War and Soviet Postal History (non-
competitive and featuring some Finnish items, which attracted Roger's attention) and he also gave an 85-
slide talk on the subject, similar to the presentation given at "PACIFIC '97" and "MOSCOW '97".
This was an extremely well-organised and friendly show, with an impressive array of knowledgeable
exhibits. Those pertaining to our fields of interest included "Forerunners of Latvia 1768-1916" (Vermeil)
and "Selected Flights of the Graf Zeppelin" (Gold), both by Arnold Engel and "Postal History of Livonia
1600-1902" (Gold), as well as "Latvia Traditional Philately 1918-1945" (Vermeil), held by Valentins T.
Dabols. Mr. Dabols had also exhibited at "MOSCOW '97" and flew in from Los Angeles especially for
the "PNSE '98" show. Extensive and informative talks were held with both gentlemen, particularly about
the likelihood of postal fraud in the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire and useful exchanges of
opinion also took place with Georgs Perkons, President of the Baltic States Study Group.

In conclusion, special thanks for their kindnesses and cooperation are due to the Officers, Directors and
Members of the Show Committee, including the President, Robert Lana; Vice-President Robert Heaton;
Secretary Alan Warren; Treasurer David Veit; Jury Selection and Liaison Chairman Irving Weinberg;
Directors Suzanne Haney, Janice Harvis, Stephen Washbume, Leon Gordon, Joseph D'Ascenzo, John
Hacker and Jim O'Hara, among many other kind people, whose names your editor does not recall for the
moment. An excellent catalogue was produced and it included a 1/3 page notice about our Society. Yea
verily, this was a most enjoyable and hospitable occasion !
November 1998

by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

The saga of railway postmarks continues. As more material comes to light, the gaps left in our studies are
gradually filled in.
.-I rN PT E EPSELLE BCE fPHbl oi- P fO'iTOBh C0103b. pnrri'
W 4 OTKP.ITOE TIICb.MO. Care po.. -

.. ( ,.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
Fig. 1 here shows a nice railway oval: KUSTANAI / VOKZAL 13.4.17. Kustanai was the terminal of a
short branch-line off the Trans-Siberian line at Chelyabinsk. In fact, the branch had been allocated the
TPO/RPO No. 305 and was operative by the end of 1912. It was later adapted from TROITSK-
CHELYABINSK to KUSTANAI-CHELYABINSK in 1914, as the branch was extended to the new
terminus. The "305" route was from the terminus up to the main line. The "down the branch" No. 306
oval has not yet been recorded. The post office at Kustanai Station was probably opened late in 1916 or
very early in 1917.
Fig. 2 shows a postmark that strictly should not exist Again, it is one of the types that demonstrates
blatant disregard for the standard regulations. It is an oval type reading: RABSHTYN' / PRIV. ZH.D.
9.4.11. Rabshtyn' was an ordinary post office operating at the railway station and, like others of its type, it
should have been circular and reading: ST(antsiya) RABSHTYN / PRIV(islansk) ZH.D. If it were really
a "main line terminus type station", which it clearly was not, it should have been oval, but reading
RABSHTYN' / VOKZAL. It is therefore a hybrid, not conforming to the rules There are one or two
others in that category. The item here is a nice Easter card, the two letters on the greeting side: "X.B."
being abbreviations for "Christ has risen".
Fig. 3 is an atomic bomb It should not
exist for several reasons, but it does. --/. l:
Indeed, let me express my sincere Toe n d Mi
thanks to my friend Philip Robinson,who ,T ,.TOe );4V I.
has subjected this postcard to rigorous '
examination and declared it fully genuine,
free from any retouching or fraudulent -. ,
interference. Transcaucasia has some of U, I
the scarcest railway ovals, mainly the .
unnumbered ovals of the little branch- .o -- ..
lines. But as most of the mail went up ..
into mainland Russia, the ovals of routes .,--
going southwards are much scarcer;
No. 229 being one in point. Route k .Has. o rer. ne'arI Bs Mocst. .
No. 229 went southwards from Tiflis via
Aleksandropol' to Dzhul'fa on the Persian Fig. 3.
border. At best, "229s" are scarce,

November 1998

ranking "F" in the Kiryushkin-Robinson Railway book. In the 1913 period, the TPO/RPO coaches were on
trains that ran the full route: Tiflis to Dzhul'fa. The known ovals were in standard type with the route
number at the top: the "12 o'clock position" and the termini names around the oval at left and right. Along
comes Fig. 3. The termini names are arranged along the length of the oval, with the route No. at the
sharp-curve end. It reads TIFLIS*229*ALEKSANDROPOL'-a 10.7.13. From the evidence of the
postmark, it would seem that this TPO/RPO mail van only ran from Tiflis as far as Aleksandropol', not on
to Dzul'fa and returned thence to Tiflis. The card itself is addressed to Taranovka in Khar'kov province.
Thus, it was posted on a mail van going "the wrong way", as the southward journey to Aleksandropol' was
away from Kharkov province. It is possible that either (a) the writer posted it at Tiflis Station on the first
mail van available, not realising that it was going southwards, or (b) it was missorted onto the Tiflis-
Aleksandropol' TPO/RPO. Actually, and we have many examples of the "wrong TPO/RPO" or "wrong
direction", it makes little difference as to the point of entry into the mail system, as it is usually directed
to the right way eventually.
Upon seeing a photocopy of this item, Alexander Epstein of Tallinn was surprised by the arrival date of
the Taranovka postmark: the next day of 11.7.13 and thought it was a very long way to travel within the
space of one day. Really, although it is possible that there is an error on the Taranovka date-stamp, as the
postmaster might have forgotten to change the "11" for a "12", that was not necessarily the case. In my
opinion, it was quite possible for the postcard to have been postmarked on the TPO/RPO before it
actually left and to have been transferred to a Khar'kov-bound train from Tiflis at the station.. If it were
early in the day of July 10th., then it could have arrived at Taranovka late on July llth., to have been
postmarked on arrival there. It is an odd postmark, both in the arrangement of names and route-number
and in being only part of the whole railway section, but it is genuine and again, it is slightly deviant from
the rules and style that we know. But a brilliant item !
The "VINDAVA ELEVATOR" postmark.

SFig. 4.

The Kiryushkin-Robinson Railway book lists this postmark as No. 208.1. Two examples are shown here
in Fig. 4. The marking reads: VINDAVA ELEV./ MOSK.-VIND. ZH.D. It is known used from 1905 until
at least the end of 1913, as is evident here at right (Vindava is now Ventspils in Latvia).

Figs. 5 & 6 at the top of the next page picture the "elevator" at Novorossiisk. That word was the
expression used for a granary warehouse or grain silo. On one side can be seen the railway lines and
sidings, through which the grain-waggons would be shunted and the other side shows the wharf-side of
the warehouse, where the barges would load the grain and ship it elsewhere. There is no doubt that the
Vindava grain silo operated similarly. It was a big business, employing many people, as well as having a
large mail-bag for the business. Like many of the "Zavody" (factories), it had its own post office to deal
with the business mail, as well as being used by the employees. Does anyone have (a) later usages of the
Vindava Elevator postmark, or (b) is there a Novorossiisk Elevator marking ?
November 1998
s^^ .'. ^^i' ^^^rTi1^^2^^
ea^ Kr4?-^*'^---% Atr ~ ~ s a.^

atL~ leas the end vof 93 si vdn eea ih Vnaai o etp nL i)
Fis 5&6 tth o of;UL~S th next p~ag p icture th eeao"a ooosik htwr a h
exresonusdfo aganr wreoseorgai i.Oon sidecabesnteilylnsad
sidiings trough whi+ch thegranwagn wol esutdadteohrsd hw h hr-ieo
th wrhos, hrete age wud od h gan n si~p~ iteswee hr i odutta

40rsso Tsdfragaaywr houEPO ga ST-DRaio n HKsd cnbes(43ralaylne n
sidins, troug whih thegrai-wagons Novem ber 1998 ndteohr iesow h var-ie

Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

As ever, my thanks to our editor for allowing me the space to show these postmarks to fellow collectors.



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November 1998

by Alexander Epstein.
East Prussia was the name of the land on the south-east shores of the Baltic Sea which was a province of
Germany up to the end of the Second World War. Its largest town was K'dnigsberg (the present-day
Kaliningrad); other significant towns were Allenstein (now Olsztyn), Osterode (now Ostroda) and Tilsit
(now Chernyakhovsk). In the XIIIth. century, this land was populated mainly by the Prusai, a tribe of
Lithuanian stock and was conquered by the German Prussian Order. The Prusai were partly exterminated,
partly forced out to Lithuania and East Prussia was occupied by people of German stock

In the centuries that followed, East Prussia was repeatedly a battlefield in conflicts with its neighbours.
Thus, on 15 July 1410, the united forces of the Polish-Lithuanian State utterly defeated the forces of the
Teutonic Order in the battle near the villages of Grlinwald and Tannenberg. In 1759, during the so-called
Seven-Years War, East Prussia, then already a part of the Kingdom of Prussia, was fully occupied by
Russian troops. It was even joined to the Russian Empire as one of its provinces. However, after the death
of the Empress Elisabeth II in 1762, the new emperor Peter III, a great admirer of the king of Prussia,
Frederick II, abruptly made peace and even entered into an alliance with Prussia, having returned its
eastern part. At the end of WWII in 1945, East Prussia was occupied by the Soviet army and, soon after
the end of the war, annexed from Germany in accordance with the Yalta and Potsdam Agreements
between the Allies. Its north-eastern part with Konigsberg and Tilsit became a province oblastt') of the
RSFSR and the rest of it, with Allenstein as the centre, became a province (wojew6dstwo) of Poland.

During the first phase of WWI, East Prussia was an area of fighting between the Russian and German
forces. All the plans developed by the Russian General Headquarters for the war with Germany provided
for an invasion of East Prussia, with the goal to occupy it before advancing on Berlin. Although the
shortest way to Berlin was from Russian Poland and via Poznan, such an advance would have been very
dangerous for the Russians, since the strong German military group in East Prussia could at any time have
cut off the advancing forces of Russians by a flanking attack. There were actually two invasions into East
Prussia by Russian forces during WWI.

First Invasion of August 1914: Historical Review.
According to the plans of the Russian High Command, two Russian armies, forming part of the North-
West Front under General Zhilinskii, were to invade East Prussia at the beginning of the war. The Ist
(Neman) Army under General Rennenkampf with its headquarters in Vil'na (now Vilnius, the capital of
Lithuania) included the 3rd. (25th. & 27th. Infantry Divisions); 4th. (30th. & 40th. Infantry Divisions) and
20th. Army Corps (28th. & 29th. Infantry Divisions); 5th. Rifle Brigade; 1st. & 2nd. Guards Cavalry
Divisions; 1st., 2nd. & 3rd. Cavalry Divisions and the 1st. Separate Cavalry Brigade.
The 2nd. (Narev) Army under General Samsonov, with its headquarters at Ostroleka in Russian Poland,
consisted of the 2nd. (26th. & 43rd. Infantry Divisions); 6th. (4th. & 16th. Infantry Divisions); 13th. (1st
& 36th. Infantry Divisions); 15th. (6th. & 8th. Infantry Divisions) and 23rd. (3rd. Guards & 2nd. Infantry
Divisions) Army Corps; 1st. Rifle Brigade; 4th., 6th. & 15th. Cavalry Divisions. Also, the 1st Army
Corps was temporarily included in the 2nd. Army, but it was not permitted to penetrate deeply into East
Prussia. As to the 23rd. Army Corps, only the 2nd. Infantry Division was to take part in the invasion; the
corps headquarters remained in Warsaw and the Guards Division was directed to the Grodno-Belostok
area. In the case of a successful operation, the German grouping in East Prussia (8th. Army) was to be cut
off from the other forces and surrounded.

The plans provided for starting the advance only after finishing the general mobilisation of the Russian
armies, which would take about three weeks after its declaration. The general mobilisation began on 18
July (all dates are given according to the Julian calendar used in Russia before 1918, i.e. the date of the
Gregorian calendar less 13 days) and on 19 July, Germany declared war on Russia. Because of a very
November 1998

severe situation which had arisen for the French armies defending Paris from the attacking German
troops, the Russian High Commander Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich gave the order to invade East
Prussia before the mobilisation of the Russian forces had been finished.

The corps of the 1st. Army started their advance to the frontiers on 1st. August and crossed the border
with Prussia on 4th. August, while the concentration of the 20th. Corps was not finished and the rear of
the army was not yet organised. This corps was situated on the right flank of the army. Further to the
south, the 3rd. & 4th. Corps were moving, with the 1st. Cavalry Division under General Gurko on the left
flank. The army was supported on the right flank by a composite corps of a few cavalry guards and
ordinary cavalry divisions under General Hussein, the Khan of Nakhichevan'.

The decisive battle with the forces of the German 8th. Army that defended East Prussia took place on 7
August near Gumbinnen. The battle as a whole was rather successful for the Russians and the German
forces retreated in haste to the west. The 8th. Army commander, General Prittwitz, having also learned
about the invasion from the south of the 2nd. Russian Army and fearing to be encircled, even decided to
withdraw his troops behind the river Vistula, thus abandoning East Prussia completely. That decision cost
him his position, notwithstanding the fact that, after having been reassured by the very slow advance of
the army of Russian General Rennenkampf, General Waldersee, the head of the German army staff,
cancelled the previous order. General Prittwitz was replaced by General Hindenburg, with General
Ludendorff as his chief of staff. Some German divisions were withdrawn from the Western Front and
diverted to East Prussia. That weakened the German forces in their advance on Paris and decided the final
result of the battle of the Marne River.

However, General Rennenkampf did not take advantage of his success. First of all, he stopped the
advance of his army for a day, then moved forward very slowly, concentrating his attention mainly on the
fortress of Kodnigsberg, to where he and the North-Western Front Command wrongly supposed that the
main German forces had retreated. The result was that he did not render the necessary assistance a little
later to the Russian 2nd. Army.

The 2nd. Army was even less prepared for the advance. After a few days' march on foot from its initial
positions, that army crossed the border on 10 August and invaded East Prussia from the south, except for
the 2nd. Corps, which had been reassigned to the 1st. Army, since it was separated from the rest of the
2nd. Army forces by the Mazurian Lakes. As a matter of fact, the corps advanced somewhat blindly, as
the location of the main German forces was not known to the army command. Such an advance would
have made sense if there had been a simultaneous following of the retreating Germans by the Russian 1st.
Army, an event that did not actually take place. Nevertheless, the High Commander of the North-Western
Front demanded from General Samsonov a further realisation of the plans developed before the war,
calling for an even faster advance to take the German 8th. Army in a pincers move. The 13th. & 15th.
corps in the centre moved forward, having captured the town of Allenstein, while both corps on the flank
lagged behind. All that ended tragically, although an order to retreat had been received; it was already too

The drive of the Germans directed against both the 1st. & 6th. flank corps of the Russians was prepared
by Ludendorff, who had decided to concentrate the whole of the 8th. Army forces to defeat the Russian
2nd. Army with its back to the 1st. Army (a very risky venture if Rennenkampf would follow the Germans
closely), leading to the utter defeat of these corps, which retreated in haste to Russian territory, leaving
exposed the advance central corps of Russians. That allowed the Germans to cut off the paths of retreat of
the 13th. & 15th. Corps on 16 August near the village of Tannenberg, with most of the troops together
with the corps staffs taken as prisoners. General Samsonov committed suicide after an unsuccessful
attempt to break out of the encirclement.The remnants of the 2nd.Army retreated again to Russian Poland.

November 1998

Now came the turn of Rennenkampfs 1st. Army, which did not render assistance in good time to the 2nd.
Army. The raid of its 1st. Cavalry Division turned out to be too late. Although the 1st. Army was
reinforced with the 22nd. Army Corps, which had arrived from Finland and also with the newly formed
26th. Army Corps, it could not withstand the onslaught of 16 German infantry divisions and associated
artillery concentrated against this 1st. Army. As of 25 August to the end of that month, it was forced to
retreat finally from East Prussia with considerable losses.

The Field Post.
At the very beginning of the war when this campaign took place, the Russian Field Post system was not
yet developed to its fullest extent. Thus, only two Headquarters Field Post Offices (FPO) and a few Corps
FPOs were functioning on the territory of East Prussia during August 1914. These FPOs are listed in
Table 1:
Des. Rank Attachment Location Dates in August 1914
A Hq 1st. Army Insterburg 2nd. half of August to 28 August
B (?) Hq 2nd. Army Neidenburg (?) 11 to 15 August
3 Crp 1st. Army Corps Soldau 10 to 14 August
4 Crp 2nd. Army Corps FHQ Johannisburg, etc. 10 to 30 August
5* Crp 3rd. Army Corps FHQ Stallup'dnen, 4 to 30 August
Gumbinnen, etc.
6* Crp 4th. Army Corps FHQ Goldap, etc. 4 to 30 August
8 Crp 6th. Army Corps FHQ brtelsburg, 10 to 14 August
Bischoffsburg, etc.
15* Crp 13th. Army Corps FHQ Schwedrich, 10 to 16 August
17 Crp 15th. Army Corps FHQ Neidenburg, 10 to 16 August
22* Crp 20th. Army Corps FHQ 4 to 30 August
24 Crp 22nd. Army Corps FHQ 2nd. half of August to 30 August

Abbreviations: Hq = Headquarters FPO; Crp = Corps FPO.
Note: Although already designated by numbers, the Corps FPOs still used the former date cancellers with
the name of the corps.

Since the corps with their headquarters and FPOs were moving almost continuously from one point to
another during most of the time of this invasion and making only short stays (a day or two) at some
localities, one can find only in a few cases from the literature the location of any corps headquarters at a
particular period of time. There is even less certainty about when the corresponding FPOs were making
their services available in particular places. Hence, the FHQ (following the headquarters) is found in most
cases only for the corresponding FPOs instead of its exact location, which remains unknown. The
question mark in brackets (?) as to FPO "B" and its location is connected with the fact that, while the 2nd.
Army headquarters was transferred to Neidenburg, part of the headquarters staff remained in Yanov
(Jan6w), a town in the Russian part of Poland and it is not known in what part of the headquarters the
FPO was located in those days. It is also unclear whether the 22nd. Corps Headquarters was actually
situated on Prussian territory in the second half of August. As to the newly formed 26th. Army Corps, it
did not yet have an FPO attached to it. Although the new "Regulations for Postal-Telegraphic
Establishments in the Theatre of War" approved by His Majesty on 13 August 1914, as well as the
Mobilisation Order of 1910 provided also for Reserve FPOs, only three such FPOs had arrived by that
time in the North-Western Front and, as a matter of fact, they did not function in East Prussia.

FPOs No. 15 (13th. Army Corps) and No. 17 (15th. Army Corps) were captured by the Germans
November 1998

together with the staffs of the corps headquarters in the course of defeat of the 2nd. Army. That is why
collectors can never find postmarks of FPOs with such numbers. While the 13th. and 15th. Corps were
later reconstituted, newly formed FPOs were assigned to them with new numbers.

It should also be mentioned that Corps FPOs received numerical designations by the Decree No. 3830 of
30 July 1914 by the Head of Staff of the Commander-in-Chief (the Headquarters FPOs had letter
designations according to the Mobilisation Order of 1910), but during the East Prussia campaign, they
were still using their former date cancellers with the corps designation for postmarking their mail, since
new cancellers with a numerical designation had not yet been manufactured. The types of postmarks
known used by the Russian FPOs in East Prussia during the First Invasion are depicted in Fig. 1. Postcards
sent from East Prussia in August 1914 are shown in Figs. 2 to 4. Such items of mail are found very rarely.
Those FPOs whose postmarks have been found on mail sent from East Prussia in this period are marked
with an asterisk in Table 1.

2nd. Invasion (September 1914-January 1915): Historical Review.
Notwithstanding the defeat in August, the Russian High Command did not abandon the idea to conquer
East Prussia. At the very end of August, a new 10th. Army under General Flug (replaced later by General
Sivers) was formed for this purpose with its headquarters in Grodno. It included some corps which had
arrived in the theatre of war from the reserve and, as of the beginning of October, most of the former
corps of the 11th. Army and the headquarters with the staff were transferred to Poland.

The new invasion started at the very end of September 1914, when the 1st. Turkestan Army Corps
captured Lyck and Biala for a short time. By this time, the 10th. Army consisted of the 20th. (28th. &
29th. Infantry Divisions); 22nd. (1st. & 2nd Finnish Rifle Divisions); 2nd. Caucasian Army Corps
(Caucasian Grenadiers and 51st. Infantry Division) and the 2nd. Cavalry Division, all of which were
united in a Group under General Smirov, as well as the 3rd. (27th., 56th. & 73rd. Infantry Divisions);
26th. (64th. & 84th. Infantry Divisions); 3rd. Siberian Army Corps (7th. & 8th. Siberian Infantry
Divisions) and a Cavalry Detachment (1st. & 3rd. Cavalry Divisions), with General Leontovich as the
commander. There were also separate 57th. & 59th. Infantry Divisions, the 6th. Siberian Rifle Division,
the 5th. Rifle Brigade, 4th. & 15th. Cavalry Divisions. Finally, there was the 2nd. Brigade of the 68th.
Infantry Division (Detachment under General Apukhtin), which acted in the direction of Tilsit; it was not
a part of the 10th. Army, but subordinate to the Dvinsk Military District. Not all of these forces invaded
East Prussia. Somewhat later, the 22nd. & 2nd. Caucasian Army Corps and the 6th. Siberian Rifle
Division were transferred to another army or front. The 1st. Turkestan Army Corps was transferred to the
1st. Army at the beginning of October.
Later, the Group under General Smirnov was disbanded, but the 3rd. Army Corps was united with the
Cavalry Detachment into the so-called Verzhbolovo Group under the command of the 3rd. Corps
commander, General Epanchin.

In contrast to August, by November the Germans had had time to build up strong defence lines in the lake
area, even if the forces of their 8th. Army, now under General Below, were neither too strong nor too
numerous and, by the beginning of November, the Russian advance was bogged down. A new attempt
was made in December 1914 to break through the German fortifications and then again in January 1915,
without waiting for the formation of another new 12th. Army in the area which had been occupied by the
2nd. Army in August 1914. Both attempts failed, with enormous losses on the Russian side. In the
meantime, the Germans increased their forces considerably in East Prussia, having formed in secret and
unknown to the Russian High Command one more army (also designated by the number 10, with General
Eichhorn as its commander), which was located to the left of the 8th. Army. A strong counter-attack by
German forces in the last ten days of January led again to the complete mopping up of the Russians in
East Prussia, with the destruction of the 20th. Corps in the forests of Avgustov (Augustbw).
November 1998

The Field Post.
When the 2nd. invasion of East Prussia started, the Russian field post system on the North-Western Front
was already considerably more developed than in August 1914. New Reserve FPOs were formed and
arrived at the area of military activities, as well as the so-called Line-of-Communications Field Postal-
Telegraphic Branches (FPTB). Also, a new kind of a field post establishment appeared, known as a
Control FPO. The field post establishments which were functioning on the territory of East Prussia during
the 2nd. invasion are listed hereunder in

Table 2.
Des. Rank
X Hq
K Cnt
5 Crp

22 Crp
24 Crp
29 Crp
31 (?) Crp
35 Crp
122 Rsv
123 Rsv
139 (?)Rsv
140 Rsv
142 Rsv
209 LC
211 (?)LC

10th. Army
(see Hq FPO ")K")
3rd. Army Corps
(Verzhbolovo Group)
20th. Army Corps
22nd. Army Corps
2nd. Caucasian Army Corps
1st. Turkestan Army Corps
3rd. Siberian Army Corps
Cavalry Detachment (?)
73rd. Infantry Division
67th. Infantry Division
26th. Army Corps
84th. Infantry Division
3rd. Siberian Army Corps
3rd. Siberian Army Corps



FHQ (?)
Johannisburg (?)
Marggrabowa (?)
Possessed (?)

November 1914 to January 1915

October 1914 to January 1915

October 1914 to January 1915
October 1914 to December 1914
October 1914 to December 1914
end of September 1914
October 1914 to January 1915
November 1914 to January 1915
November 1914 to January 1915
December 1914 to January 1915
December 1914 to January 1915
December 1914 to January 1915
December 1914 to January 1915
December 1914 to January 1915

Abbreviations: Hq = Headquarters FPO; Cnt = Control FPO; Crp = Corps FPO; Rsv = Reserve FPO;
LC = Line-of-Communications FPTB.
The FPOs whose location in East Prussia is still in doubt are marked with (?) after the FPO number.

It should also be mentioned that, besides the FPOs listed above, the Russian troops in East Prussia sent
their mail also through some other field or state post offices, located outside of Prussia. Thus, the mail of
the 56th. & 73rd. Infantry Divisions went partly through the Hq FPO "K" at the fortress of Kovno (now
Kaunas in Lithuania). It remains also unclear whether the Reserve FPO No. 139, through which the mail
of the 67th. Infantry Division passed, was located at this division headquarters in Johannisburg or at the
fortress of Osovets, i.e. outside of East Prussia. The mail from the detachment of General Apukhtin was
sent via the state post office at Tauroggen (now Taurag6 in Lithuania). Moreover, before the 26th. Army
Corps was supplied with its own field post establishments, its mail was sent through the state post office
at Suvalki.

During the period under consideration, almost all the FPOs used standard date cancellers with a number
or letter as an FPO designation. The only exception was FPO No. 35 (3rd. Siberian Army Corps), which
used devices of the old type with the corps name, at least until December 1914. The main types of these
postmarks are depicted in Fig. 5, while Figs 6 to 16 illustrate some items of mail posted in East Prussia
during the 2nd. Russian invasion.
Editorial Comment: Many thanks are due to Mr. Epstein for bringing to our attention very scarce
markings from a hitherto unexplored field. The reference at the beginning of this study to the "Prusai" is
noteworthy, as some of their place-names survived, even though Germanised. A good example is
Pilkallen; obviously derived from pilis (Lithuanian) or pils (Latvian), both meaning "castle"-also kalnas
(Lithuanian) or kalns (Latvian), both standing for "mountain". Hence, Castle Mountain. Fascinating !

November 1998

Type 2

FPO of 3rd Army Corps, ser.6
also FPO of 13th Army Corps, ser. 1
FPO of 20th Army Corps, ser. 5

Type 3

FPO of 4th Army Corps, ser. ?

Type 4

Type 5

Hq FPO let. 'X"K, no ser.

Type 6

FPO No 22, ser. v, g
also FPO No 24, ser. b, v

FPO of the 3rd Sib. Army Corps,
ser. a, e

Type 7

FPO No 29, ser. v

FPO No 5, no ser.(2var.),
ser. a
also FPO No 22, no ser.
FPO No 35, ser. d

.4 ig


Reserve FPO No 122, ser. v, e

Fig. 1: Types of FPO date-stamps known used during the 1st. invasion.

November 1998

Type I

Fig. 2: Postcard to Tashkent mailed at the FPO of
the 3rd. Army Corps 8.VIII. 14, at that time
in Gumbinnen and supposedly by the corps
commander, General N. Epanchin, to his son.

Fig. 3: Postcard to Riga mailed at the FPO of the 4th.
Army Corps. Only the year 1914 is seen on
the postmark, but the message was written
on 14.VIII.14.

Fig. 4: Postcard to Riga mailed at the FPO of the Fig. 6: Postcard to Moscow mailed 23.12.14 at the
20th. Army Corps on 3 or 7.VIIT. 14 by an FPO ")K", attached to the 10th. Army and
FPO official, located at that time in Marggrabowa; the
free frank cachet is that of the 1st. Finnish
Line-of-Communications Battalion Commander.

Type 9 Type 10 Type 11

Reserve FPO No 123, ser. v Reserve FPO No 140, ser. g LC FPTB No 209, ser. b

also Reserve FPONo 139, ser. b

Fig. 5: Types of FPO date-stamps known used during the 2nd. invasion.
November 1998

Fig. 7: Postcard to Khotynets, Orel prov., mailed at
FPO No.5, 5.11.14 attached to the 3rd. Army
Corps and then located in Stalluponen; the free
frank cachet is that of the 3rd. Artillery Brigade

Fig. 9: Postcard to Narva mailed at FPO 35 on
7.XI. 14, still using an old type date-
stamp indicating the 3rd. Siberian Army,
Corps and then located in Lyck.



*-' .^,", A, ,. Pe I;^ "'- C-/ .

p ,^ /, / .
I "*- 1 aw i-- c.i.J,' ;' ;^ ,- ,/:'. '-,.

Fig. 8: Postcard to Moscow mailed at FPO 22
16.11.14 attached to the 20th. Army
Corps and then located at Goldap.

Fig.10: Postcard to Revel' mailed at the Reserve
FPO 122 on 23.12.14 and then located
in Pilkallen.

Fig.11: Postcard to Zhiryatino, Orel prov. and
mailed at Reserve FPO 123 on 24.11.14,
then located in Stalluponen.

IMIIHK 43 49

J2 ^i z .-t/c "

/ '.< : '" l

W O....L W -;;. -
"C -

Fig.12 Letter to Goldingen, Kurland ro.(Kuldiga,

Latvia) and mailed at Reserve FPO 140 on
.' '.. '." .-

^- ,7-^ "^ ,,

Fig.12: Letter to Goldingen, Kurland prov.(Kuldiga,
Latvia) and mailed at Reserve FPO 140 on
27. 1.15; supposedly located at that time in

Fig.13: Postcard to Revel' mailed at LC FPTB
No. 209 on 10.1.15 then at Lyck; the
free frank cachet is that of the Head of the
Leading Evacuation centre.

Fig.14: Postcard to Veggeva, Estlyand prov. (V igeva, Fig.15: Letter-card to Yur'ev (Tartu) written in East
Estonia), written on 19.11.14 in East Prussia Prussia and mailed through the state post
and mailed through FPO "K" 22.11.14 at the office in Tauroggen; no despatching postmark
fortress ofKovno (Kaunas, Lithuania). in conformity with the regulations.

'%7, Fig.16: Postcard to Odessa written in November
1914 in East Prussia by a serviceman of the
64th. Artillery Park Brigade-2nd. Park (a
.I.., part of the 64th. Infantry Divn.) and mailed
1 : through the state post office in Suvalki.
," ,' ;*- Also no despatching postmark.

November 1998


r /~C-~'\e


by Ing. Zbigniew S. Mikulski.
(A lecture given on Friday afternoon, 24 October 1997 during "MOSCOW '97" at the Hotel "ROSSIYA").

The subject of today's discussion is FORGERIES, but not the kind that we should always be aware of and need
help from experts. We will focus this time on POSTAL FRAUD, where the victims are the postal authorities,
rather than the philatelists. In Tsarist Russia, postal fraud arrived with the introduction of the first postage
stamp on 1 January 1858. The postage stamp made it possible for the petty thief to manipulate or reuse this
form of prepayment for postal services. In our short report today, we are going to discuss:-

A. Fraudulent reuse of postage stamps.
B. Other kinds of fraud involving manipulation of franking.
C.Postal forgeries: actually creating and printing fake stamps, resembling those issued by the postal
authorities in 19th. century Russia.

While the issues I will cover today are of great interest to philatelic investigators, they also constitute an
integral part of Russian Postal History. However, little coverage exists in the literature, compelling me to
choose this subject for today's Colloquium ofRussian Philately during the "MOSCOW'97" Exhibition.

Fraudulent Reuse of Postage Stamps.
The official Postal Bulletin of 22.XII.1857, paragraph 6, required that postage stamps, once affixed, had to be
invalidated by a manuscript cancellation. In the event that such a pen cancellation were omitted upon
departure, paragraph 7 of the same Bulletin stipulated cancellation upon arrival. Paragraph 31 of this Bulletin
further announced that special cancelling devices would be made available to postal officials in a short time.

Clearly, pen cancellations were provisional measures. As early as 18 February 1858, Bulletin No. 138 ended
that practice by reintroducing the application of old and reliable cancelling devices, which had existed for
many years before postage stamps came into existence. This quick change of policy was no doubt the result of
numerous reports of a new sport: using the stamp more than once and without paying the price. The physical
process of removing ink from paper was well known to scribes and clerks employed by companies. After all,
everything was handwritten. If you made a mistake, you needed to erase it by using certain chemicals to make
your letter presentable. So, if you had a stamp with some ink or pen marks on it, it was not a big deal to
remove the offensive ink and make the little piece of paper good for postage again.

Correspondence was normally brought to the post office, where our friendly postal clerk collected the money
and affixed stamps to the letters. Very often, the clerks had previously used and cleaned stamps on hand,
which they simply reapplied to the new letters, pocketing the money paid. After all, who was going to check
up on them ?

Since the "pen cancel" provisional period lasted only six weeks, little evidence of reused stamps is still in
existence. It is difficult to prove that a pen-cancelled stamp was used twice, unless we detect a physical
change of colour, especially in the embossed centre and resulting from chemical cleaning. With present-day
technology, we can see under the microscope small rhomboids of missing colour in the background and, in the
case of the 10-kopek stamp, the blue centre becoming greyish-blue. Once treated chemically, the texture of
the paper also changes; under ultraviolet analysis it appears white, while in the untreated stamps, the paper
shows as dark brown. The same principles apply in the examination of the "unused" examples of early Russian

After February 1858, many post offices applied pen cancellations, the old reliable pre-philatelic cancellations,
or both. Here, we have a problem. If both pen and handstamp cancelled the stamp, how do we know it was not
November 1998

used twice ? After all, it could have started life as an ordinary pen-cancelled variety, with the marking cleverly
removed by our old friend the postal clerk and used again, this time invalidated by a pre-philatelic handstamp
and sent on its way.

If the pen cancellation ties the stamp to the cover, we have to assume that it and the pre-philatelic handstamp
are both genuine. However, on most covers only the stamps are marked with a pen cancel, making fraud
detection difficult, because we have to find out if the stamp was used for the first time with application of its
original gum, or if it was in fact reused.

The paper used to produce envelopes or letters in Russia during the first postage stamp period was normally
thin. Hence, once an adhesive was affixed, the papers of the envelope and the stamp fused, especially in the
area of the embossed eagle, something that you can normally see on the back of a letter or cover. If it is a
folded letter, you can open it up, hold it up to the light and you will understand what I mean.

Let us keep in mind that philatelically, early covers with both pen and town postmarks are not very popular. It
has been a common practice for many years to remove the pen cancellation, leaving only the more desirable
town postmark. This practice introduces yet another dilemma: who did it ? A misguided philatelist ? Or our
old friend, the postal forger trying to deprive the poor postal authorities of badly need revenue ?

Somewhere along the line, numeral dot cancellations were introduced. This new technique did little to stop
postal fraud. It was still the usually impoverished postal employee who affixed stamps to correspondence. He
could take a previously used stamp and cover its cancellation with a new one. After all, who would know ?

During investigations into postal fraud, the authorities discovered that postal clerks in various departments
actually cooperated with each other, especially in Poland where postal fraud was rampant from 1858 to 1860
and after 1865, utilising both Russian stamps and the first Polish stamp. That is why we often find stamps
used twice, applying the same numeral cancellation. In my collection, I have a cover with Russia No. 1 which
was used THRICE: it has a cancellation "104" (Bialystok), "214" (Dudushi postal station in Minsk province)
and finally the Polish numeral cancellation "47" (Ostroleka). How is that for persistence ?

Here are some examples of Russia No. 1 used twice:-
1. Pre-philatelic cancellation of Pskov over that of Kovno.
2. Numeral cancellation "153" of Shidro over that of "17" (Kaluga).
3. Numeral cancellation "1" (Warsaw) over the pre-philatelic postmark of Zhitomir.
4. Numeral cancellation "120" (Kielce) over numeral cancellation "44" (Di.naburg).
5. Letter from Warsaw 22.VI.1858 to Berdichev: the stamp with a red Russian postmark and manuscript date
5/6, used again with numeral "1" of Warsaw.
6. Letter from Warsaw 20.VII.1858 to Mitava: under the numeral "1" cancellation there is a pre-philatelic
postmark of Mitava.

The biggest nest of postal thieves defrauding both the Russian and Polish authorities was located in the Polish
town of Kibarty, near the Prussian border. Nearby, in the small town of Wierzbol6w (Verzhbolovo, Virbalis),
there were forwarding agents, handling correspondence and freight going from Prussia to the Russian Empire.
These firms included Feinberg & Rose, Gebriider Levy and others, all located in Wierzbol6w and mail
handled by them was widely utilised for the purpose of reusing postage stamps. Interestingly enough, Russian
stamps were frequently applied, although they were not valid in Poland from 1860 to February 1865. How is
that for double fraud: not only did they affix stamps without postal validity on Polish territory, they also
reused Russian stamps. Some 25 covers showing this type of criminal activity are presently in my collection.

Another den of thieves was located in Mitava (numeral cancellation "24"). The L.I. Salzmann Company had
November 1998

much correspondence with the firm of Wirckau in Libava, affixing exclusively previously used stamps.
Since the Salzmann Company numbered their letters, I have No. 364 of 21.6.1861, No. 373 of 4.8.1861,
No. 376 of 18.8.1861 and No. 550 of 17.11.1861, all of them having previously used stamps affixed. Just
try to imagine how much the thieves must have gotten away with. In addition, I also have Poland No. 1
cancelled "24" of Mitava, with a Polish cancellation "28" of Suwalki underneath. The postal clerk affixed a
Polish stamp in Mitava by mistake, since it had no validity on Russian territory.

Other firms that engaged in postal fraud
included "Zaktady Goriczo-Hutnicze
Wilhelm Hardliczka" in Zagorze. I have
several letters from this firm 1859 to
1866, including a cover of 24.4.1859,
franked with a 20-kop. stamp (Russia
No. 3) used twice. This practice did not
stop with the introduction of the first
Polish stamp in 1860. Here are some
additional examples:-
1. Letter from Warki cancelled "283"
on previous "1" of Warsaw.
2. Letter from Gombina 1.6.1861,
cancelled "234" on partly erased
"1" of Warsaw.
3. Letter from Myszk6w 29.1.1861,
cancelled "168" on previous "1"
of Warsaw.
4. Letter franked with 3 stamps from
Ciechocinek 31.5.1862; two of
the stamps previously used in
Warsaw and show under No. 240
of Ciechocinek the "1" of Warsaw.

The number of inicinerated stamps, found to be previously used
in the Kingdom of Poland from 3.IX.1864 till 16.1.1867
Date Number of destroyed Value
stamps of the stamps

Data spalonyeh Wartos nomlnalna
mzaczkdw spalonych znaczkdw
3 IX 1864 379
8 X 1864 509
7 XII 1864 388
4 I 1865 218
I III 1865 278
I IV 1865 262-
3 V 1865 491
5 VII 1865 371
12 VIII 185 34rs
2 IX 1885 103 10rs30kop.
4 XI 1865 12rs 5 ko3 .
3 II 1868 301
7 III 1866 181
11 IV 1886 69
2 V 1866 5 5 s s 40kop.
2 VI 1866 182
3 X 186 92 9 rs 20 kop.
4 XI 1866 119 15 rs 80 kop.
5 XII (886 29 2 rs 90 kop.
16 I i867 6 rs

The postal authorities in the Kingdom of Poland did not take these criminal activities lightly. Stamps found
to have been previously cancelled were confiscated and destroyed. The guilty parties were punished. The
table immediately above at right indicates the number of incinerated stamps found to have been used
previously during the period from 1864 to 1867.

Other infringements in the Kingdom of Poland included:
a. Theft of a stamp by a postal employee. Imagine that you pay him for a stamp, he pockets the money and
sends the letter unfranked; or you bring him a letter with a stamp on it and he takes the stamp off.
b. Bisecting the stamp, i.e. getting two for the price of one.

Let us take a look at three letters from Warsaw, mailed in February 1862, April 1863 and December 1863,
each having been originally franked with the first Polish stamp (No. 1). In each case, the clerk removed the
stamp and applied the handstamp "FRANCO" in its place, indicating that the postage had been paid. The
clerk could also cut a stamp in half and place a half on a cover in such a way, as to suggest that the stamp
was intact or was overlapping.

Postal Forgeries.
We now move to another aspect of defrauding the post: privately creating and printing stamps, which
resemble those officially issued. Philatelic catalogues list several of these postal forgeries, including:-

November 1998

1. 1889-1892: 5 kopeks (Reynolds); 7 kopeks and 3.50 roubles (Lobachevskii).
2. 1902: 70 kopeks, 3.50 roubles and 7 roubles (Lobachevskii).

This information is incorrect, as there are no known postal forgeries in 19th. century Russia. In fact,
forgeries of the 5-kopek and 7-rouble values never existed at all, while the 7-kopek, 70-kopek and 3.50-
rouble values listed by Lobachevskii were created in the 20th. century, imitating stamps issued in the 1902-
1904 period.

7-kopek postal forgery. The 7-kopek value was "issued" several times. Lobachevskii mentions 25 (!)
different types of forgeries, based on warning bulletins from various postal districts. I have an example of
such a warning bulletin, with a pair of the 7-kopek affixed as a specimen. This forgery was produced in
Belaya Tserkov' (Bila Tserkva) and apparently 5000 were made. I can show other examples of postal
forgeries. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to determine where they were used, which would enable
us to localise the source of where they originated. Based on postmarks, we see that they were used in Vil'na
(Wilno, Vilnius) and St. Petersburg. I have in fact a letter from St. Petersburg to Vienna, franked with a St
Petersburg postal forgery.

From a technical point of view, production varied from primitive lithography to typographic impressions
and even using vertically laid paper. They were printed in two stages, similar to those used to produce
genuine stamps: firstly the background of lines and dots and later the frame with Imperial Eagle and
inscriptions. Some forgeries were also imperforate and gummed. Only a few are known on letters and even
used singles off cover are considerable rarities.

70-kopek postal forgery. This value was similar to the stamps issued in 1904 and we know that they were
produced in LODZ in 1905 and BIALYSTOK in 1908. At the turn of the century, ,Lodi was the largest
textile centre in the Russian Empire, with huge postal traffic to the rest of the country. Forgers, taking
advantage of the considerable demand for postage, chose the 70-kopek value, as it was a frequently used
denomination. Two plates were prepared, one for the centre with its white coat of arms and the second for
the frame and inscriptions. The stamps were printed typographically on original paper obtained from sheet
margins of the genuine stamps. If the sheet margins were from top or bottom, the paper was vertically laid;
if it was from the sides of the sheet margins, it was usually horizontally laid. That was actually an
ingenious process. In fact, even one side of the perforation was original; the forgers only had to perforate
the other three sides.

We can distinguish two different printing plates, based on the differences in the inscriptions and the cross
on the crown. The usage was exclusively in Lodi, with postmarks in March-April 1905. Several parcel
cards franked with 70-kopek postal forgeries are known. Still another type of a 70-kopek fake is known on
a money order from Bialystok, used on 31.1.1908. It is similar to its cousin from L6di, but a different
printing forme was used. It is impossible to say if two stages were employed, but the paper used was also
from original sheet margins.

3.50-rouble postal forgery. This should be considered as the rarest of the postal forgeries. It was produced
in L6di (1904-1905), in Bialystok and in Warsaw (1907-1908).
A. The L6di forgery was done pretty much the same way as for the 70-kopek value, but of course the
crooks had to use margins from the 1-rouble denomination. In fact, I have a forgery which shows on the
left side the partial background of the 1-rouble stamp. The printing was in two stages, one in 1904
where the stamp is very dark and in 1905, where the stamp is in grey-black. Neither unused copies, nor
parcel forms are known to have survived.
B. The Warsaw and Bialystok forgeries are similar to those we have already discussed. The 1907 and
1908 printings differ slightly, with the former showing a greenish-grey background, while the latter

November 1998

is just gray. Again, only a few used off-cover examples exist. The fact that these and the 70-
kopek forgeries were used in Bialystok has to be attributed to the cooperation between postmasters
in Warsaw and Bialystok. In general, postal forgeries are rare; in fact, no more than 20 copies of
the 3.50 r. value are known to exist.

As an aside, please note that these postal forgeries are not to be compared with the famous Frangois
Fournier forgeries, which he produced to defraud collectors. His illicit contributions included the 1884
rouble values with posthorns, but without thunderbolts. Postal fraud was not unique to Tsarist Russia or the
Kingdom of Poland. We have postal forgeries from other European countries, most of them cherished as
philatelic gems and with volumes written about them, e.g. for Spain and other countries. The subject of
postal fraud and forgeries in Russia deserves more recognition and study. I would encourage those of you
who find this report interesting to continue research on your own, something I am sure you will find both
fascinating and rewarding.
Editorial Comment: Grateful thanks are due to Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski for letting us have once again the
results of his extensive research. To add to his work, a cover from the collection of your editor is shown
below. Endorsed "franco" at front upper left, it was sent from Tomasz6w (Lubelski ?) to Radzymin and the
10-kop. Oct. 1858 issue perf. 12 1/2 has been used twice, being originally cancelled with a rectangle of
dots "345" (Bratslav in Podolia) or "545" (Slavyansk in Khar'kov province). The adhesive was carefully
overstamped with a Polish four-ring cancel, presumably "100" for Tomasz6w Lubelski. Details of further
fraudulent usages would be much appreciated and please see additional data on the next page.

J ^ '* :


v -J
/ T ^ j ^
-' W ., ^ ^^^2^ .

November 1998

In order to prevent thievery of the affixed
stamps, either by their servants on the way
to the post office or by the postal clerks
themselves, merchants would "tie" the
postage with their commercial cachets. We
see here the cachet of merchant N.
Lyubavich of St. Petersburg, tying a 5-kop.
local stamp on a letter for local delivery on
19.8.1864. Such precautionary usages are
eminently collectable items.

Here we have a circular
No. 535 of 18 October
1907 by the Kiev Post
& Telegraph District
(originally in the M. V.
Liphschutz Collection)
about forgeries of 7-k.
stamps and banknotes
by I. Ratush of Belaya
Tserkov'(Bila Tserkva)
as noted by Ing. Z. S.
Mikulski on p. 54 of
his article herewith.

Sincere thanks are also
extended to Sig. Paolo
Vollmeier, President of
the FIP Commission
for Forgeries for
permission to reprint.
See also the review of
EXPERTS" No. 1 on
page 70 herewith.



18-eo ohlajqpR '1907 Woaa.
j\h 535.

r. Blesi.. -

0 IlOqrhblrXh OTpaRUOEiIn cM
4'uinnrauxi MipNaPiE.

-u L- C


HalmuzLND r==aro YE;a-ez

'Jfl.'qIa'lIIJlmlh IT0'1T8JLIXL MT UoIsTOB0oTeCcrpn4-.
num-b'II yticpat iri Rielienaro ftpyra.

1W.6011-1 1111OCT011 1131;11 I1!?(.C UCII.I c.I, IIIt,

111C111111axBb U It-heTe'lit- n0''1'011113c.L 31lkqilcou-, cwin Wnft--
4aTh noraay IupocThlXs~l liIccsm m, Ch !!;1!m1eennxima iu
d1a'inLunmrTu1il. maprahx i ceM1iixonee1iiaro :to mhicnma.
KRb c'naculo Haiambiiinh-b BtiStoueploncrft rofITopu
Haasno6onlrb eoeapesielmo a ymt.o name-cai: oirb Ilne..h,
npe1Bapifneabhno, capasRiu 0 cymec.TBiinamu nrioan-re-a I.
PaTymu ni, B-baon-g~cpxsIi, a =Ttir oGpanuzcq -b irt'cT-
H0MllY IInoIn encIzOauy arcHTy. npexb~sutLmi exty nnciva, 2o,-
3.LTJ, 4a:IbUnlIDOCTh Hn lilHxi, iapOIh it npocua.n ero o-rpa-
3IIThCS COflM~CTIn oc-b n111mb xhb Paryiny, il a Uaiea-ajO
I T0Tqac'b ax 8'O jionaffIic uino nponncadno. Haga-
IoCh antmo 0b Toro, 'iTO IKL-3noilnlrb,, i npiicycTrBrn areirra
nonisia, npenhnnwinm Pamyiny inic1ia c-b nar-.eenmarrni Ea
mix-I 4ma~irmuixinuitin 3lapizaBni II macLa.m ButCrt C-b Tblrb
Honpoon, OTI;yaa n HatzHirt pI-TeMr Otb, PaTynm-, Zofzz -i
aT1. -Aapsil it le 1IMtCTCSI an y Hero imi eEre i i Oufe.
PaTYnr1M cy 1H=lcs, CTPYCIU.TM i t c.Th ItanmIT!, CO!I3-
'IIIBIMI uora3atthl, a HOTOMY areE-rb no.aritit Ti-y :ir-, ueMe-
aI.I1, Hpon3Be.Tb y Hero o6hiCfm.

1P .1iThXb, 1Th 10IS'R b 'na~C Owiza yw-e coIepizeuteo o1=3a
1,7 ,IIuIYCay, a OCTaXlWaas1 TMOJI no0 Fie na Me n,,ncpc-opl-
RECTO ponana', lia ie isut.,ia nporolonb x.ui oMpliB8ist..
4po11-h Toro uiattcubi- OewII 4azyIotiBiwe rpe.:1TnLICu
6nnemi, npeccolamanwe Raxtuil, HicTpyMc0rb7, cneia.LL1s
NpacIcli, 4naae7oaw )uaC aa it apyni npuenoco~ieiuiH, aIxc
(}ta6putcaixin itaini 3maHOB'b noorroiofl oi:iaTu, Tartb it rocy-
:iapcTnenxiuxiL apejirrn~xub 611.lCTOB-b.

November 1998

~ _1 I I



by Andrew Cronin & Robert Taylor.
A. Andrew Cronin.
Further research has revealed that Khortitsa was in fact a German colony (originally Chortitz in
Ekaterinoslav province), founded in 1790 and with a population of 2105 in 1905. A statistical table of the
German colonies in South Russia and Bessarabia is given in the book "Die deutschen Kolonien in
SUdrussland" by P. Conrad Keller, Verlag von Stadelmeier in Odessa, 1905. This rare work was translated
by A. Becker into English as "The German Colonies in South Russia", The Western Producer Publishers,
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1970.

A :.I1L


- I-foroia o ....... r..oI I...fI

Fig. 1
,- :. CJII
ir Id
..~-'- I,-,i""""" 1"~ .E


rz2 .. ez /- ./Z /J '

r*' 2
Fig. 2.tr .2~ Q

The German character of Khortitsa in the 1930s is confirmed by two covers to the same address, held by
your editor and shown above in Figs. 1 & 2. The first example is a 20-kop. PSE sent on 2.10.35 by E.F.
Braun, 7 Industrial St. in Khortitsa, to a relative, Frank Brown in Ephrata, Pa., U.S.A. The postmark
reads: XOPTHIA YKP.*439-Y-16*. The second cover is addressed in another hand to the same person
on 7.1.36 and is franked with a 15-kop. definitive, again with the same cancel.
B. Robert ': ?
Taylor. O fI'" T 0 n rn UTA
I can add
(Fig.3) to
the bisect
story (see
"The Post- y-
Rider" No.
42, p. 63), .
4 2" 6 ) .. .. ...... ........... ......... .' "
but I can- -z.
not make ..
out the -
cancel; H O.uy ...... ............. .. ... .........
cancel; Ko../
perhaps .. ./, -
The cancel

1.8.3 1, I a .. .
with a 7 ..
:'t "" '' -" f' '

November 1998



Fig. 3.

BERDYANSK receiving mark of
3 August. The card is written in
German, entirely personal and
family-related, although underlined
at bottom "Please return this card"
(Fig. 4), so perhaps the sender
knew that it was different. The
sender identifies his village as
"Scht5newiese". Can that name
be connected to the area of
Khortitsa ? Anyway, perhaps
certain local post offices at the
time of the June 1st. rate increase
prepared for sale some 5-kop.
cards with bisects added to be
sold over the counter;
certainly possible.

.1Fig 4.
~:-- ;
r_ ~ ,~ ?f

-i.W.G ~aeA C.A11tt/1 ~z-I~g p-fl-s
*tC ~(~V?:~.: L~L;~ r-_~c -S:

A:w _~L:c- b6L"*-.~C ~ _~~~i~~
*'racu ~~-~~~~. iiiic t:~rr j&I Sk.

::1~~~ig 4 ~cU~~:.

Editorial Comment: This second example, reported by Robert Taylor and addressed to E.A. Klassen in
Berdyansk, is a key item, as it helps to reconstruct the picture. By a process of deduction, the partial
marking of despatch can be deciphered as ALEKSANDROVSK VOKZAL, cancel "e". Turning now to
the manual of Ukrainian postal codes issued in Khar'kov/Kharkiv, we see that Aleksandrovsk Vokzal was
a railway station post office on the Southern Railway Line in Zaporozh'e province. By 1932, it had been
assigned the postal code of 439-Y-1; i.e. it was the main post office in Postal District No. 439. A total of
98 post offices is listed consecutively, but not alphabetically, for that postal district, with postal code 439-
Y-15 for Khortitsa Railway Station and 439-Y-16 for Khortitsa Town post office (Figs. 1 & 2). Upon
consulting the work "Die deutschen Kolonien in Sidrussland", the existence of Schonewiese ("Beautiful
Meadow" in English) is confirmed as being in the Aleksandrovsk region. It was founded as a colony in
1797 and had 322 inhabitants in 1859; hence a small village, which probably never had a post office.

We can now make the following postulations :-
(a) The decision to bisect the 10-kop. 25th. Anniversary of the 1905 Revolution commemorative was
taken as a temporary measure specifically at the railway station post office in Aleksandrovsk,
Zaporozh'e province.
(b) That this same office instructed all the other outlets under its control in Postal District No. 439 to
follow suit, since no 5-kopek stamps were available for the make-up rate, applicable as of June 1st.
(c) The possibility cannot be excluded that similar usages will eventually come to light also from other
offices in Postal District No. 439 during that period of time. Keep looking, dear CSRP members and
note that the two postcards already recorded bear slogans printed exclusively in Ukrainian.
Quite a story!


Zemstvos at STAMPEX 98.

Hearty congratulations are in order to our member Terry Page in England, who was awarded the S.G. Cup
at STAMPEX 98 (held in London 30 September to 4 October) for his exhibit "Zemstvos of Russia and
Poltava". Terry has been conducting intensive research in Zemstvo stamps and postal history and was
kind enough to send us mouth-watering xeroxes of his Zemstvo covers. He recently published an
excellent article on the correspondence of an early Zemstvo enthusiast, A. Ya. Cherleniovskii of Odessa,
in the Rossica Journal Double Nos. 128-129, pp. 99-108. Keep up the good work, Terry !

November 1998


1920) by Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan.
I. Short Historical Report.
By not pursuing the aim of a detailed exposition and analysis of the historical events in the Transcaucasian
region in the period up to and after the formation in May 1918 of the three independent states of Armenia,
Azerbaijan and Georgia, the author is setting out those details that will help the reader to visualise more
fully the general picture of Armenian postal history in the period of activity of an independent postal
administration and of its own national postal emissions in the First Republic.

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Turkish intervention in Transcaucasia and the subsequent serious
disagreements within the government of the unified Transcaucasian Republic, which had broken away
from Russia, led to the dissolution on 26 May 1918 of the Transcaucasian Parliament and the formation of
three independent states: Georgia on 26 May, Azerbaijan on 27 May and Armenia on 28 May. Immediately
before the proclamation of independence of the Armenian Republic, the Armenian armed forces were able
to carry out a series of successful military operations in the regions of Lori and Pambak and to inflict a
defeat on the Turkish Army at Sardarabad.

From the first days of independence, the constant problem was the necessity of restoring postal operations.
Firstly, a structural reorganisation was undertaken. All postal and telegraphic facilities were made
subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the republic, within the framework of the Postal &
Telegraphic Department of the Engineering Administration.

It should be noted that the restoration of the Postal & Telegraphic Service took place under the conditions
of foreign intervention. Turkish forces occupied about 80% of the territory of the country: all of the Kars
province (the districts of Ardagan, Oltyn, Kargyzman and Kars), several regions of the Erivan' province
(Surmalin district, a part of the Aleksandropol' district including the towns of Aleksandropol' and Karaklis,
a series of localities in the Echmiadzin district, as well as the Nakhichevan district) and they also
controlled the Kars-Aleksandropol' and Aleksandropol'-Dzhul'fa railways. The cease-fire line with the
advance Turkish detachments was a mere 7 km. (4 1/2 miles) from the capital of Erivan'. The situation in
the republic was heightened by the influx into Armenia of about half a million refugees, living in the open
air. Just in Erivan' alone, there were 50,000 homeless people. As a consequence of the blockade of
communications and of the Turkish occupation, the stocks of foodstuffs ran out in October 1918. In the
period from October 1918 to March 1919, epidemics and starvation wiped out more than 180,000 people.

With the impending victory of the Allies in October, there arose tendencies for a change in the situation in
Armenia. On 5 October, Turkey was obliged to withdraw its forces from the Lori and Pambak regions in
the north-west. That same month was also clouded with dramatic events. An armed conflict broke out on
23 October between Georgia and Armenia in the border districts of Borchalin and Akhalkalak. At the
Armeno-Georgian talks in Tiflis, the Georgian leadership departed from their previously declared proposal
of delineating the state border between the two republics on the basis of the national identity of the
population in the frontier regions and unilaterally decided to establish a border encompassed by the Tiflis
province, in accordance with the administrative and territorial division of pre-revolutionary Russia. Two
months went by before military actions ceased on 31 December 1918, with the mediation of the British and
French Representatives in Tiflis.

After the signing of the Mudros Armistice on 30 October 1918, the British forces took over Batum on 14
November and entered Baku on 17 November. Turkey was compelled to withdraw its forces from the
occupied territories to the borders specified in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Armenian Army entered
Karaklis on 18 November 1918 and, after the withdrawal of Turkish units from Aleksandropol' on 22
November, the Armenians established their control also in that town. The liberated territories were in ruins.
November 1998

The railways had been torn up and the postal and telegraphic offices were ransacked. As a result, most of
the cancelling devices assigned before the Turkish occupation to Aleksandropol', Karaklis, Dzhelal-Ogly
and other inhabited points were irrevocably lost.

It is obvious that, in the complex situation after the declaration of independence, the volume of postal
sending throughout the whole of 1918 was absolutely insignificant. In the conditions of armed resistance
and as a consequence of the renewal of military activities, the Engineering Department of the Ministry of
Internal Affairs devoted its attention in the first place to the repair of telegraphic communications, as that
priority had military significance.

By the beginning of 1919, life in the republic gradually took a turn for the better. Diplomatic relations were
established with Georgia on 4 March and an agreement was signed for the restoration of postal and
telegraphic operations. In May 1919, the exchange of postal and telegraphic money orders was arranged
with Azerbaijan and the government of Armenia ratified in July a postal and telegraphic convention with
that republic.

In April and May 1919, the government of Armenia established control over all of the territory of the
republic within the boundaries of Tsarist Russia. Postal communications were gradually restored and the
volume of postal sending increased.

I. Postal sending franked with stamps of Tsarist Russia.
The postal administration of Armenia inherited from Russia not only all the material and technical bases,
but also the system of organising postal affairs. Postal clerks went about their daily work in the normal
way. The postal rates were paid for in stamps of Tsarist Russia at their nominal face values and the postal
markings of pre-revolutionary Russia were applied. It is clearly evident that the postal rates which were put
into force on 15 August 1917 by the Provisional Government of Russia and which were applicable in
Transcaucasia right up to 15 February 1918, served as the basis upon which to specify new charges for
postal sending in Armenia and in the period of its independence, after taking inflation into account.

Throughout 1918 and right up to the first national postal emission in July 1919, the postage stamps and
postcards of the 1908-1917 issue of Tsarist Russia remaining in the stocks of the postal administration
were put into circulation without any distinguishing markings of national origin to denote the postal
administration of the republic.

It is not surprising that, throughout the period of the existence of the First Republic (May 1918 to
November 1920), only just a few covers and postal stationery were preserved as a rule. Consequently, mail
sent in 1918 can be regarded as being very rare. Several postal sending in this category are shown in Figs.
1 to 7, including the despatch by mail of newspapers under wrapper in the period from the first months of
independence up to July 1919, when the issue of the first national postage stamps of Armenia took place.

I. Illustrations.
1. An ordinary domestic intercity triple weight newspaper wrapper sent
from Erivan'on 12.06.1918 to Echmiadzin, franked with two copies
of 10 kop. Arms at 20 kop. total rate.

2. An ordinary domestic intercity newspaper wrapper up to 15 grams sent from
Erivan'on 9.11.1918 to Novo-Bayazet, franked with 4 kop. and 2 kop. Arms
at 6 kop. total rate.

3. An ordinary domestic intercity double weight newspaper wrapper sent from Erivan'
on 15.11.1918 to Novo-Bayazet, franked with two copies. 5 kop. Arms at 10 kop. total rate.

November 1998

pi t p o 0 i I p

$7 ///1Jfr


z I/J

1 f. 3 -,f I& f. A/--1 ., ...,,

-rd. -(.t I. Jt... it-r, *7/..t,/^a-
./-., enP "- (., 4r.i, 1./,.r'rb e.
/ t". -. .., ...., ..,.-

Fig. 2..

- V

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$frfl _.f wJul,4ua 6 Z -
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fiulu u1

November 1998




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tbi *~




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Cc '^ "


4. An ordinary domestic intercity triple weight newspaper wrapper sent from Erivan'
on 25.11.1918 to Novo-Bayazet, franked with a copy of 20 kop. Arms at 20 kop. total rate.

5. A registered double weight local
with a copy of 20/14 kop. 10/7 kop.
an Ordinary local letter up to 15 gr.
Registry fee)

and 1
+ 30

sent and received in Erivan'on 28.02.1919 franked
Rouble at the total 1 Rouble 30 kop. rate (30 kop. for
kop. for the overweight up to 15 gr. + 70 kop. as a

November 1998



,,, .- '-. *"; ..,^' ,. ,,,*, ,' ""'^.. '. "

6. A registered domestic intercity letter of 1 lot weight sent from Alexandropol'on 6.05.1919
to Erivan, arriving on 10.05.1919, franked with 50 kop. and 70 kop. Arms at 1 Rouble 20 kop.
total rate.

... X C : .-., .' .-
,._ .,-' .. ;.,. .....: ;- :._ .. '. .f I .. ..

-P ... ,.

7. An ordinary foreign newspaper wrapper up to 15 grams sent from
to Tiflis, franked with a copy of 10 kop. Arms at 10 kop. total rate.
November 1998

,-. '.' r '. ,-. -,. -
w_ .-.
',$ L'. : "
-. .. ..*-7.i

ivan'on 12.07.1919



by Professor A.S. Iyushin.
Among the various aspects of the history of the Russian Posts, one of its most interesting services, namely
the activity of the Postal-Telegraphic Savings Offices, has not found its reflection either at philatelic
exhibitions or in Russian and foreign publications. An attempt will be made in this article to fill in that
blank to some extent.

The history of this subject began in 1882. At that time, the Ministry of Finances of the Russian Empire
tried to help the public to have free access to the savings offices of the State Bank by the means of ensuring
that post offices would accept savings deposits, after the example of several Western European states.
However, in the course of time, the various attempts to utilise the post offices as "the most widespread and
accessible points for the public" for carrying out savings operations did not meet with success, as the
savings offices of the State Bank, which had existed in Russia from 1841, were operating fully separately
and independently. As a result, the most suitable and practically the only possible method turned out to be
the consolidation of the post offices with the savings offices of the State Bank, in the capacity of
intermediaries between the public and the already functioning State savings offices, after the example of
what was being done in Belgium and France.

The first postal-telegraphic savings offices in Russia began functioning in 1889. Their opening did not
require any noticeable financial outlay from the Postal-Telegraphic Administration, as all the management
of savings operations in the small postal-telegraphic offices was carried out by the personnel already there.
In the larger post offices, special officials were added to the staff for these operations. With the imposition
on civil servants of new duties, a supplementary remuneration was designated for them from the profits of
the savings offices of the State Bank, both for the issue of each savings bank pass book and for carrying out
deposit operations.

In the first period of their operation, the postal-telelgraphic savings offices were incorporated into the
savings offices of the State Bank at the local district treasuries or branches of the Bank. However, these
latter were not always situated close by the locations of postal-telegraphic offices of a particular district In
connection with this problem, some years went by in accelerating the links of the postal-telegraphic offices
with the offices of the Bank, by relocating the latter on the nearest postal route.

The first postal-telegraphic savings offices were opened at the end of 1889 at 184 locations of the Moscow
and Tver' postal-telegraphic districts. In the first two months of their activity up to January 1890, savings
were deposited in the amount of 85,514 roubles. In the years that followed, both the number of postal-
telegraphic savings offices, as well as the total sum of deposits, rose very quickly. By 1900, such offices
were already functioning almost at every office of the Postal-Telegraphic Administration of the Russian
Empire. The dynamics of their development are illustrated by the data, presented in the table below-
Year 1889 1890 1895 1900

Number of postal- 184 1265 3039 3895
telegraphic savings

Total sum of 85,514 2,747,621 29,652,763 65,909,054
deposits in roubles.
From the very beginning of the activity of the postal-telegraphic savings offices, the following sequence of
accepting deposits was adopted, as well as a method of confirmation of receipt by each office. Each
depositor could receive only one savings office pass book in a fixed format (dIopMa n.-T. Toc. c6. K N 3)
and the total amount of the deposits in his account (with the indication of interest) could not exceed 1000 r.
November 1998

If the deposit came to more than 1000 roubles, then it was regarded as having been terminated in the
savings office, without any further treatment. The distribution of pass books and the realisation of all
operations for deposits were carried out free of charge and without any fiscal fees.

The acceptance of deposits by a savings office was confirmed by affixing in the pass book of the depositor
stamps especially designated for that purpose and corresponding to the sum of each deposit. Such a method
turned out to be the most reliable and convenient one for verification, since there always had to be in the
savings office either stamps or the money for them. In the first period of affixing stamps, deposits were
confirmed for sums up to 10 roubles and larger sums up to 100 roubles were accepted by a receipt, issued
to the depositor by the postal-telegraphic office. However, for the simplification of management and the
convenience of depositors, the confirmation of deposits with stamps was soon made available for any
amount of deposit. The minimum deposit was fixed at 25 kopeks and all subsequent deposits always had to
be in multiples of 25 kopeks. In connection with that stipulation, the stamps had the following face values:-
25 kop., 50 kop., 1 r., 3r., 5 r., 10 r., 25 r. and 100 r.

The official carrying out the corresponding operation for receiving the deposit, cancelled the stamps either
with a postal marking, or in ink with a date and signature. The sale of these stamps to the public was not
permitted. These stamps were originally called "savings bank issues", although they were utilised for the
purposes of control (checking) and not for accumulation.

That contradiction was rectified in 1900 when, to facilitate the deposit of small savings, special "savings
bank" stamps were issued in two values: 5 kop. & 10 kop., to be affixed by the self-same depositors on
special blanks, called "savings cards". Fifteen years later, there were even stamps issued in the value of 1
kopek. There were cards prepared for each category of these stamps, divided into the corresponding
number of spaces such that, upon filling all the spaces with stamps of one value or another, the total
amount of the affixed stamps would come up to one rouble.

The blanks for the savings cards were printed either at the State Printing Office (33FB) or at the printer
of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. They differ in form and external layout, but contain one and the same
text. The savings cards were handed out to the public free of charge and the stamps were sold not only by
all offices of the Postal-Telegraphic Administration, but also by agencies (in State wine shops, district
administrations, railway stations, etc.), including those managed by private persons. The cards filled up
with savings stamps were accepted by all savings banks as deposits in hard cash.

The stamps intended to be affixed in the pass books of depositors began to be designated as "control
stamps". They were issued in the following values:- 25 kop., 50 kop., 1 r., 3 r., 5 r., 10 r., 25 r. & 100 r.

The utilisation of savings stamps for small deposits in the savings banks was abolished by a decree of the
Minister of Finances of Russia on 2 December 1915. Ordinary postage stamps in the values of 1 kop., 5
kop. & 10 kop. began to be used in their place. At that same time, savings cards in a new form and in three
categories were printed at the State Printing Office (33FB), which were intended for the application of
postage stamps of a relevant face value and totalling 50 kopeks.

The first issues of the savings bank pass books were prepared in booklet form, measuring 160 x 215mm.
and containing 26 pages, enclosed by an outer cover of thick paper, light brown in colour. General
information about the conditions of operation of the postal-telegraphic savings offices was printed on the
inside front cover. The upper half of the first page contained the following text:-
"Pa3ps -...................(Category)
November 1998

.......................... ..................................................... (ry6epHiH (of the province)
........................ .................................................yt.3gXa N2 (of the district N o.)...................................
nu m b er........................ ...................... ............................ .......... ......... .. ................. ...................
MecTo mITeMnejni
(Space for cancel) HoAnncb Haqa.ibHHKa
(Surname, first name and patronymic of the depositor)".

The lower half was divided by four vertical lines into three columns of different dimensions. The month
and day the operation was carried was specified in the first column; the type of operation (acceptance or
withdrawal from a deposit, calculation of the rate per cent of the deposit) in the second column and the
designation of the amount in the third column. Pages 2 to 22 contain the same columns for carrying out
banking operations as on the first page of the booklet. The savings bank (later control) stamps were affixed
specifically in the space of the second column of these pages. The final four pages from 23 to 26 were
devoted to "Extracts from the Constitution and Rules", containing 26 paragraphs of rules for the
implementation of operations for deposits by the postal-telegraphic savings offices.

The savings bank pass books were printed centrally at the State Printing Office (33FB). In the period of
more than 25 years of activity of the postal-telegraphic savings offices, there were prepared several issues
of savings office pass books, differing from each other both by the external layout and volume, as well as
from the specific form of the texts, printed on the covers and within the booklets. On some occasions and
for the verification of the pages, the fields of the savings office pass books were sometimes punched with a
perforator at bottom and top and occasionally sideways with the initials "II..C.K.", which should stand
for "nIoqToBo-Tenerpaq)Ha C6eperaTenjbHaa Kacca" (Postal-Telegraphic Savings Bank). The
verification was sometimes carried out by stamping the internal fields of the pass books with the datestamp
of the relevant postal-telegraphic office where the savings office was functioning. The date on the
postmark corresponded to the date when the pass book was issued (see Fig. 8).

A listing of the types of savings office pass books known to the author is set out below.
215mm., 26 pages. There are printed on the last four pages "Extracts from the Constitution and Rules",
containing 26 points. The year in the receipt column is given in 3 figures as 189.... There is a six-line text
on the outside back cover.
Type 2: Headed as before, size 143 x 215mm., 16 pages, the year of receipt in three figures as 190....
There is a 21-line text on the outside back cover.
Type 3: Headed as before, size 143 x 215mm., 20 pages. There are printed on the last four pages
HsnBjieeHen H3"b YcTaBa Hn paBHJunb jAn rocynapcTBeHHbIX-b c6eperaTejbHbix-t Kacc-b(Extracts from
Constitution and Rules of the State Savings Banks), consisting of 41 points. The year in the column of
receipt is given in two figures as 19..... The figures numbering the pages are thin and 2mm. high.
Type 4: Same as Type 3, but the word "KHIDKKA" on the first page is printed in thicker type and the
figures numbering the pages are thicker and 2mm. in height.
KACCA" (Postal-Telegraphic State Savings Bank). Size 143 x 215mm. There is a two-line inscription in
the bottom part of the front cover, reading "33FB / 1911r."
Type 5a: Ditto, but dated 1912.
Type 6: As type 5, but with differences in the layout of the front cover. Dated 1914.
Type 6a: Dated 1915. Type 6b: Dated 1916.
Type 7: Same text as for Type 6. Size 110 x 175mm. Card covers. Dated 1917.
November 1998

Editorial Comment: (a) The types of the pass books described by Professor Ilyushin are illustrated below,
including a further example from our files, set out tentatively under Type 6 and cancelled at Warsaw.
Dated 21.IV.15 and with an outside diameter of 28mm., it is inscribed in Russian "BAPIIIABA / CB. K.
J2 5 (!)" (Warsaw, Savings Bank No. 5, 21 April 1915 and thus shortly before the German Army
conquered Russian Poland). The significance of this marking is that others must have existed for the postal-
telegraphic savings offices. Any further data would be much appreciated.
(b) As a final example from another jurisdiction, your editor is showing in the last illustration a somewhat
similar postal savings bank pass book, issued at Okirmezo"/ BoioBoe during the Hungarian administration
1939 to 1944 of Karpatalja (Carpatho-Ukraine, now the Transcarpathian province of the Ukraine).
Ok'6rmez5 means "Ox Field" and the Slav name also refers to oxen.

Linguistic policies in that area have often been changed over the past 150 years, but after the Hungarian
Army marched in on 15 March 1939, it was realized that the local population had to be granted an official
literary language. The Hungarians called it "ruszin" (PycHHCKiii sI3bIK'b or Ruthenian) and bilingual
Hungarian-Ruthenian savings bank pass books were also issued. To distance itself from the language
of the previous Ukrainian administration, the "Ruthenian" dialect sponsored by the Hungarians turned. out
to be a rather pure form of the Russian literary language, but written in the pre-1918 spelling and including
some Ukrainianisms, as can be seen from the excerpts given in Fig. 9 on p. 70.

There have been other interesting instances of the use of Russian as the literary language of Zakarpatsko
(Carpatho-Ukraine) and we will treat the subject more fully in future issues of"The Post-Rider".

Now to the illustrations of the various types of the postal-telegraphic savings bank pass books:

Pasnnmn, /* A.

' a -



V-;. $Jw.

Ty 1.u C rua

Type 1.



~',p.sn *~r. st.O6.S.~5
`; Q ,I~Ft

4,~.aM o> ,, /

.4 .H04TOBO-TERMIrEBnitIf''-~



Type 2'.

November 1998

4-,4 > "
U t

o '- -<
S = 3 i

os a

'- '-,

rt _
( -Ii9

L .r ~ '



ry6epulH I r

Type 5.
_yi%-^. l.." A -_- z. ..

S- ,.

ropoA'h -7
ryepHIR --Op

Tp 63.
Type 6.

Type 6.

November 1998

_ 1

J a-

Actual size with
an outer diameter
of 28mm. of the
BANK No. 5
cancel dated

Type 6 ?


-a -T- ... .... ..

: -. i .. ...

' .".. ..i ..- I.....I- -

llr. ,ltlg. CTM.. .

0S 9i


s 191

OhC~~l. *Et~n .lT~IAIOc. ann.W*


,- ; :.--'-" ^ : ...

--- .... .;
. -7

n n
d j _I


Fig. 8: Note the confirmatory postmarks of the original day of issue, applied down the middle of the pages.

November 1998

HH3 op ,.- o. ... 3


2 '.' j? jryoepHiii.
S...... '.. ...

- 4. 3 r. U.

Type 7.




----- ---
clp _-


..9P -CHAR jqopoi'~C1':t


6. YAAnEWTT-b.
VII 52 OkWrmez&

-- 1




Yr. xop. nOtITOBaR c~eperaTe'xbHaA xacca rpomee3ie qpe)-
AeHie, AtflcTByiaYIll noalO AepwaBHUj-rb YnpawreitieM_ i, no.Th nopy
qHTCjibCTBOM'b Aep)Kaabi Bb Byaneimiib [gtdf Klebeis!erg (pah-b=!
Hold)-utca 4. szdm] np1HHmaioflee c6eperaTelbHie BK-iazu C-b
gxtuio nnamTh npoueHroB-b. CoeperaTe.,Hbie Bsr(aau npi-HirviaeTB H
Bbinnha4rnBaeT (ynnaTmT-b o6paTmo) rnrannrna Kacca Bneyra3aHHo;-1
noq4TOBOR c6eperaTejrbHori Kaccbz it eHi OT;CR-IeHiA Kacc'b, ;xa.rte
Yr. xop. noq00TOne YpsRxr it norwoabui areHcTna KaKh nocpe;iH-
xecide YpqRau.
Bicia~tirnic- non),'raem npii &-romeHhs nep=oro e1ca0.a
BKJlasaHYIO KHWAf(KY, BbuaBae-myIo Ha ero 0 u'i. Ha iv:m
MO)kelh n3RT31H a B 23.aHYIo xHiImmY it apyroe mflo2, TZb Ha33u-
Baembil 3annarlaBaiotniri. B- 3T0m-b caYyat BFCKla.2Hjio 0 \mO*
pacnopsnlwaeTciI BHOCSHliri AO Ttxlb nrop-, noKa S1CXaX'11ThF Ft
3aRBJaHT notTOBOMY Yp5ISY o npOTI13o12M.b it He nonpoznmb e~eCeHis
ero nogriucH Bo BKiaAHY1O KCuIuHcY KaRb MaZarlra. Bu5opr..r
eKiadHoui KuHMCKU notab flet3oHumSom He pa3prozuaenc9.
RamCrl bl Kna at4Kcb Mo>KeTh RMtTH T02Th1(O OXIY BEimagHiiO
XHHK(KY. HaimheHbmtai cymma BKJnaqta I neRre, Ho Hnb CyM.WbLm-k
MeHte 2 neHre npoUCHTbz He rLaT5RTcR. ,T!R c6epe,-eHirl C-1.WM
MeHbmlnxm I neHre, cjry-zam7. coepera-re.ThHie Zrc'm, noai'aMu,
Bb noqtTOBb1x'b Yp5IIX'b H areHrcTBaxb, za.'te Mtcraxb ripo-,
tamoaxhIIX- npezmeTm nOtITOBUX-b IttHHOCTeri im gtun 200 mr-mepoEab
EcJT11 Ha c6eperaTenblHibfi IHnCc- HaKieuaaercR Hersnor.s 33aHii2a
fOtiToBan mapia unn niicem-b CTOlrmiOCTho 80 sivmeposi, c~epe-
raTenbHblgi 6aHlcb (nuicmh) npssH111aecsrm no ronori c6eperaseolbHoA
iKaccori Ht ero nocpeItH114ecCKuhm] YPRpa3sii, tahcb BT(-laa5 n5 I reHtre.
PpH BJno)seHiif nepooro nBcnaaa icnattflssc no.rmicbmae-m
riiaBHbfls jine-rb it 3a~sHietie, HaxoiquiiicAR so BKIa-HO;i -I{HFcymw-t.
3a HerpamoTHoro nscnaatqnsca pacnucbuaercus noqTon!1 vpPrnz.T
j1imHellm1 BK namimlKa.
Bnowhoenie c6eperaTenbubix-r ns'rmaaoim Bh noqrro91m Cc_5epe-
raTelibuifo KIaccy im-selh CcrIIYioluNiS o=66 npeui-tqerns ea:
1. Yropcstair Aep)Kana p%'lae-c51 oa Buurman, Ene;iiohi
CYMmli BmtcrB Cb npouelrramlt;;
2. Ha c6eperaTenbHbi5 cv,,tsir .ao 2.000 nenre cescnecrpbs
He ROnYCl~aeCTC, II Ha BmiucYKa3aHYHyI Cy.my npano 3aaora unnr
3a~epwaHiis HH npit Kamiscb oncTonrrenbcTaaxb He ;oroncK>caeCn;
3. Bc-b c~tjiKu it npocb6bi M-cy noqToaort cfeperaTern.HoiR
Kaccoll H BKmlmtLfKamHl5 Bb oTHomeHin c6eperamH-ar crrar
cBo6O;HXH 04ob sanora it nlO'TOBUX-b Mapo;

The "FFE-Journal" No. 1 of Oct. 1998, edited by Paolo Vollmeier, RDP, FRPSL
"FFE" means "Fakes, Forgeries, Experts" and is a combined effort of the FIP Commission for the Fight against Forgeries & the Association
International des Experts Philateliques. Printed in 5 colours, with 144 pages, 23 x 29.7 cm. Price by non-priority mail: CHF 40-- for
Switzerland; CHF 45.- for Europe and CHF 55.- for Overseas, i.e. USD 30.- in banknotes. Available from Paolo Vollmeier, C.P. 108. CH-
6976 CASTAGNOLA, Switzerland. The magnificent array of articles includes the following studies:-
Fakes, Forgeries, Experts (Australian Colonies): A. Ronald Butler, RDP, FRPSL.
Wondrous Transformation (of British Classics): A & K.A. Louis, both FRPSL.
Postal Fraud in Tsarist Russia: Z.S. Mikulski (similar to the article on pp. 51-56, but with colour illustrations added).
A rare stamp that should not be in existence (Swiss Pro Aero 1938): Emil Rellstab, FRPSL.
Mutton dressed as lamb (early Britsh postal stationery): Dr. Alan K. Huggins, RDP, FRPSL, MBE, MSC, PhD.
Forgeries of the second issue of Tibet: W.C. Hellrigl, RDP, FRPSL.
Recent Hong Kong Forgeries: A.M.T. Cheung.
I got caught more than once (Ottoman postal history): Otto Homung, RDP.
Forgeries and Literature in the Electronic Era: Charles Peterson, RDP, FRPSL.
New Zealand 1996 "Teddy Bear" health stamps: C.G. Capill.
We need postal history expertisers: Ernst M. Cohn.
Postage Due handstamps of Malta Fakes: A. Fenech.
Russian Varieties are not always what they seem: A. Cronin, FRPSL, TM.
Forged Cancellations on covers of Dutch East Indies: H.W. van der Vlist, FRPSL.
1st. May 1840 The story of an investigation: Patrick Pearson, VRD, RDP, FRPSL.
Belgique Falsification de marques postales: Leo De Clercq, FRPSL.
The only forgery I detected myself (Norwegian postal stationery): P.H. Jensen, RDP, FRPSL.
Gronchi rosa (rare Italian "Peru" variety): G. Colla Asinelli.
How the Philatelic Experts are organised: Paolo Vollmeier, RDP, FRPSL.
New methods to identify fakes: Paolo Vollmeier. RDP, FRPSL.
The Foumier Collection at the Museum of Communication in Berne: J-C Lavanchy.
FIAP Expert Teams working at Asian International Stamp Exhibitions 1996-1997: Tay Peng Hian.

November 1998

by Alexandros Galinos.
My "Te3Ka" (namesake) Alexander EpStein of Tallinn has set out in the Rossica Journal, Double No. 128-
129 for October 1997, pp. 160-191 a study of the Russian Field Post in the WWI Caucasian theatre of war.
I have additional material from the Russian occupation of Rize and Trebizond and the details are given
hereunder as supplementary information.

A. Rize.
(ftl1 ^S^^^i i^^f^,*'V^'V^^^^^-^ V~'V~'V~rVI?<^S -,. SOVFENiR -E TReOIZONOE 4-t. i- *^iZ;L/ i,,
ALE- L. qu d. 7'fo

Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 shows a card sent to Riga with the postmark HOJIEBA5I 3AFlACHAAI H.K. No 161-"? ",
(Reserve F.P.O. No. 161, serial "g") on 1.7.16 by engineer Janis Melders. The message is in Latvian and the
card was treated as civilian mail, to be paid for at the 3-kop. internal card rate. He also wrote a card in
Russian to Mrs. M. Melders in Moscow through the same Reserve F.P.O. exactly one month later (see p.
179 of the same Rossica Journal), again affixing three kopeks in postage.

B. Trebizond.
,. : ., ,, ,... _ap.o.i~ -i roiikrto9 JI-/ L .; \
t*a .>P'OM VC

,,< ^ < ._ 1 2 ...|. ............

3ae aoif crepeo orpameTpecKHMH pa60TamH" (Trebizond Military Region / TheI
,,,i ..- ... .i< ,,. ....< ..2_ ._-<. _ig 2.

c.ar <^,- civil' .

Manager of Stereophotogramme [!] Affairs) on a card beautifully addressed to Samara.
November 1998
f^^tie.^ A^. d a^r _________ _^__

3aBeubiBaiouii4 cTepeod)OorpaMMeTpw'IecKHMH pa6oTaMH" (Trebizond Military Region / The


Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. This is a civilian letter, franked with a 15-kop. Arms type and sent by N.P. Haldeopoulos through
Corps F.P.O. No. 45, serial "b" on 9.5.16 to Lyon, France. It was censored en route in St.Petersburg.

Fig. 4 shows another
free frank, lightly
struck at top right
in carmine and
reading "Bcepoc.
3eMcKifi H
Colo3bI H
KpacHbIfl KpecT
ApMiH / TPEThb
(All-Russian Zemstvo
& City Unions & Red
Cross in the Caucasian
Army/ 3rd. Caucasian
Engineering & Constr.
Militia) and the postmark
Corps F.P.O. 45 "e"
3.6.16 on a card to Moscow.

Fig. 5 features another free frank in carmine
at top right, reading "Pocc. 06.r. Kp. Kp.
rOgBImKHbIi JIa3apeT-r J 2 npn
KaBKascKOfi ApMiH" ("Russian Society of
Red Cross. Mobile Infirmary No.2 attached
to the Caucasian Army") on a card dated
10.8.16 to Astrakhan' 16?.8.16. Fig. 5.

1% hAt? 4 4,L, *_ _

qK 'h7A.A4/
cn~i~ I~WY~U lr-~eZg_
f- h PVA 6 -yAj~r-h
&M .;;i ;.U-C&-ttl ? 7

November 1998

; ~rY~rirI t VU)

4 6 AO
IZilS .LC~U*C rL5C151..

7 Editeur H-. rchnlakihn 'C'' IC-~A c

Fig. 4. f Ts7U

* i

'~~t~u~fti'!- 'acca c j



e c-cdti*

_~J.. -__ ---c-

'C* ..1.4~~,;.-:- -~%'
~Y;i r. ...:A~ 4 .'.

Wl~i6 4

-,r q'e* ..- ,.,

acon du jouale Miliaire pour Fig. 6. 12
t les rusesa.

in carmine diameterr of 34mm.), reading: "Tanorpapin TpanesonncKaro UlTa6a" (Printery of the
Trebizond [Army] Staff) and Imperial coat of arms in the centre. Postmarked Reserve Field P.O. No. 159
"a" 12.2.17 and censored en route at St.Petersburg.

"1^- / ," '" .. '. L,

Fig. 7 illustrates one of a series of view cards, including military scenes, sent at the incorrect 3-kop.
internal rate t proper 4-kop. foreign rate by a Trebizond civilian to A. Harand, Gargan, France in the
period between 3.5.17 & 28.6.17, with the "a" or "b" cancellers of Reserve F.P.O. No. 159. While usually
censored at St. Petersburg, this particular card was examined en route in Moscow.
S- 52654

Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 illustrates one of a series of view cards, including military scenes, sent at the incorrect 3-kop.
internal rate or the proper 4-kop. foreign rate by a Trebizond civilian to A. Harmand, Gargan, France in the
period between 3.5.17 & 28.6.17, with the "a" or "b" cancellers of Reserve F.P.O. No. 159. While usually
censored at St. Petersburg, this particular card was examined en route in Moscow.

1 ..*
Jr ftr~

_V P

'Ij IU.

$ 1 A .~ 1-
~4/3 ~ Y/- '

XY 4~~$lI

Editorial Comment: Apart from the foregoing items, your editor has a cover with correct foreign postage
of 10 kop. in Arms type stamps and clearly cancelled with three strikes of a postmark reading: Reserve
F.P.O. No. 158 "a" 24.8.16 (Fig. 9). Judging from the date of application, this example should also have
emanated from the Caucasian theatre of war, but we need to see further material to pinpoint the location
for this office. The cover is backstamped BATUM (!) 26.8.16 and St. Petersburg 4.9.16 & 19 Sept. 1916
during censorship. Judging from the handwritten address, the sender was possibly an American missionary,
who had been working in the Near East.

Fig. 10.

While we are still in that part of the world, our Toronto member Henry Blum (himself originally from
Tartu, Estonia) has a most interesting card from the Imperial Russian forces in Northern Iran (Fig. 10).
Note the circular free frank marking with a diameter of 35mm. and reading:" 3H3EJIIHCKIf4
DETACHMENT AT ENZELI SEAL FOR PACKETS). Addressed to the Novo-Nurzyi village via Verro
(VSru in Estonia), the card was struck en route by the well-known oval marking, reading: BAKU-ENZELI /
STEAMER "a?" 23?.12.15. The message is in Estonian and sends Christmas greetings. A very nice item !
November 1998

/? z



by Robert Taylor.
Further to the article on this subject by Alexander EpStein in "The Post-Rider" No. 42, pp. 102-106, I can
record the following items in the August-October 1918 period:-

k. 1I"zu

L .


A palely written card from Volochisk Rlwy Stn.
Volhynia prov., sent on 7.8.18 at the correct
10-kop. rate to Bohemia and with red censor
markings applied en route in Vienna.


Poltava 12.8.18 to New .S. As W ..

was still on, it must have been sent later.
; A A ^ L .. : .-. *. -. ...: -

. : W vb-,vA: .c. v4o._ -; .Ji^Uji- ./ : ..-- : '

A 5-kop. Kerenskii card with added 5-kop.
Savings Bank stamp for the correct rate from
Poltava 12.8.18 to Newark, USA. As WWI
was still on, it must have been sent later.


4, .. .. ........
-t ~-- -- -
... ......;,..
....... eo

0 ootf,
.... ...................

..- ...........

r' ." *' ; -,i ', .- "--"L,

A 3-kop. Kerenskii card with added postage for
the 10-kop. rate from Valki, Khar'kov province
1 0 18 R annarentlv tIn n camn for Rusian POWs


A 5-kop. Kerenskii card, surcharged with a Podolia
trident and new value of 10 kop., sent from Bershad,
Podolia province 16.9.18 to Berlin.

Rastatt, where a boxed "Gepriift" mark was applied.

A 7-kop. reg'd envelope with added postage to total '_
the correct 50 kop. rate (70 shahiv = 35 kop.) from
Kiev 4.9.18 to Moscow.

November 1998




'L (?(

rt1 ::. ,N .-

A cover addressed to Pavel Filippovich Shcherban, FPO 89 of the Russian troops in France (!) and posted
on TPO / RPO Lozovaya-254-Kiev 17.9.18, with the correct franking of 25 kop. made up with 5 x 3-kop.
Arms type and a 10-kop, Savings Bank stamp. Once again forwarded after WWI had ended-

ccf~rsajs .11Lter.
- Ii- _y Ipj iift

Finally, a cover from Khar'kov / Kharkiv 26.10.18 with the correct 50-shahiv = 25 kop. rate and sent to
Aachen, Germany. There is a tape on the back with a handstamped two-line cachet reading:
"Milittrischerzeits unter / Kriegsrecht ge'dffnet" (Opened by the Military Authories under Right of War)
and a boxed censor market bottom right, applied by Supervisory Office VI of the A.-K. Section. Does
anyone know what the initials "A.-K." stand for ?

Editorial Comment: It seems from the foregoing material that further investigation is required as to how
mail addressed to Allied destinations was handled during the occupation by the Entente Powers of
territories of the former Russian Empire, as a result of the Brest-Litovsk and other treaties. Comments from
other CSRP members holding such material would be greatly appreciated.

November 1998

L;.~~~*. -L---~--
Z- -~L... I ne~a-,' 7CEIU .-~1~
~-~P.iJH1MjbWAYI3Pb; W.~SCH~; LfDHA~R

e) 0U t z c h I a L' Ii

Deutsche Elektrlcit wi~ierkeEuAcpu ep.. Z;
Herren OarbefLatdpeyer & Co.

; bA -A.0 H E N.i~l

r e.v m a n i q
Sro~c'noAami rapde,.Ameieps m K-'). Sp
A A X E 17

1 3 26 AK8a6pR 1997 r 2 FIHeap 1998 r. No 47 (404)

B NCTOpoo n004Tbi TYBHHCKOA HoPOAHOA PecnyenHKH AomapoeHb4A nepMoA (epem'o A0 B1e-
AeHH40 B no4TO8O9 o6pBLL1eHwe nepwex uspoIO THP) ABO6BTCA c00300 MaeoH3yO40Hblu' Trak
KAK HN 43BKTM414CKHX O148TepmanOIB B umHHO4anIOHO AoOCTT04Hou K04ecrie, HN CKOJ1-HH6yA6
11OC1OBSPHbWIX AHHblX V13 RPXHOB Ubl He mme01. JIww. C.M. EnexUaRHY yganwcb Koe-'09 pas.
A06blTh B OPOOBs Kbi3bina. BeCl OTOT nepmnoA Lleieco6pa3Ho paa1WnHT6 Ha TPH orpe3KH:
1) Ao Ha4&nB lyHKUHOHHPOBaHHR n0o4TOBOR KOHTOPOI B Senoooapcxe (HOIHB r.Kbjawco), 2) OT
OTKPOOTure nocneAieA AO OKOHm4HH9 rpaOcw.AaO 0 BOAB b m1 3)C nocneaBOeHHoO BOCCTOHOB-
OeHmH noflTbi B TyBO Ao noRBeHN40 B nO4TO13OM OU pc(BUHHO nepmoex 1YBHHCKHX MaPOK.

Cnaeana o nepoum H3 HAX. B KOMue
npounoro n H aVane mHumeb ero crone-
Tn a YpAHxaclKH KxpaR (Kae Ha3blsanH
Toroa Tysy) BueusanM Am ero ocsoe-
HHR CeMbl npeAnpHHUM4MBbX CH6mpn-
KOS-pocc RH. OHH paccenanuCb oceAno
n. KaK npaanno, Maonb per, cO38asan 3a-
HMK (ceaeo6pa3Me xyropa). 3To mace-
neHne uHeno. ecrscTaeeHo, poAcrTse-
ube, a s nocneAyXoweu A ToproBo-xo-
3RacrBeHHbe conBR c Cn6Wpblo. CBoeAi
nour4 a xpae euee e 6uno. noiTroBan
CBa3b ocytleTennnacb 4epe3 nocn0b.
HUX MnI c oKa3wen Ao 6nmxaAiweg non-
TW B MnHycncKre, a B neTmee spuen,
KorAn Muoxo duno nnTmb no En ceo.,
- a KpacHOnpcKe. normrosbe ornpaene-
HHR 3Tor0 nepeoAa C MapxaMn Aopeeo-
noaHonHOH POCCHH acTpenaioTCf Lpe3-
sBba.iHO peAso. Bo-nepBIx, 310 o6aRc--
Hnercl HH4ToxHub o6teMOM nepecbl-
naesiwecn KoppecnoweeHlqul H, 0o-sTO-
pwx, TOe, v.T Traxe oTnpaaneHnR oenHb
TpyAHo pacno3HBOaeMbu. TaK Kax o6par-
HAiX apecoa o6mqHO He nIcanC AnnI
mcxOAiflnx ornpaoneoHR 3Aecb npHxo-
MH caM.X nceMs. nonana, HanpHuep.
MHe I pyXH caUMn npocran a BHA no3An-
paenMtOnbHn OTKpuI a (pAC. I). PRAo-
aR Mapxa Ha HeA noraUIHe HCXOAl-
uuM urTuMneneM MuHycMCKa. OAHaKO
oroa R non n0CbMOM yp.Aen noAnOcb
A. eArKOBs. Tm HacTopoxmnc. Beob
3Ta (aumnHe 4~HrypopyeT cpeAlH Ha3ca-
HHMH yponHXacCKX a33MOKI nolnpocHn
3aHKOMUX HaenCTo cnpaeBK s MHHyCHH-
cKe. Tau lape B Hoewe peMn nocronHHo
npoxEaaIOInX neIM C Taoi ptaMcanHen
He o6Hapyxonon... BmeoA OARH: Heoea
A. 6oaa op npceMna no lpaewTenb-
HyIO OTKpbolTy n KpaCHORpcx 13 YpnH-
xan co c oe 3eHMKM. t .a m noaToeum
ornpasneoR a YpnHxacxHincK pai Mox-
HO HaeT. noxany9, n eub no anpecy.
nfclnM, K npeMepy, T8K: T8KOMy-To a r.
MHHyCmHCc. Ha 3HMKYY. cKaXeM. CalbR-
soca (Hcn, TM. )KyKosa. ... A 3aHMK.aT
Haxoomnacb I YpRHxae. TyAa A Henpae-
rnnH noAo6Hoe nHCbMO (HAn OTXpbncY).
ratuoeHe KoppecnoHAweleHM a TO cpe-
M0 npOH3BOnAHOCb o6b0 HblMM pyCCKM-
Mmu Treunennum MfeycmHcKa (pnc. 2) H
peae, nmwb neTOM mHa n eHHOa H 3an 3-
woR KoppecnouleOHqHHc wreUnenRMH
camoro KpeCnoepoa (pMc. 3). 8 1914 ro-
Wy Hm 0. C OTpuTHMm euie OnOCo 6On-
xaoueir K YpAHxaca nor4Tb A o6ancR
AloaonbH peAcKMi wrTanenb rpnropPb-
eaKx C m anTpoR c.a (pTc. 4).
Tenepb o Bropou oTrp. e pememop 1
rneaBmo o ape38ul4alHO peAKOu
wunrenene nenonapcae. B 1one 1936
roan B opr6xopo BOK 6On c 3rotsneO
pae3onax n3 IOCKB0U napmH4epRMAHI
oprHe33LAuHRM O6ujeCTCa MaaUWHOnHC-
cHbmR op HHK MacepHan no Bonpo-
cau Konnen4KOHHposawHR, TelpaAlb No
8e. aB ci 8.-. rOflOBKwH noMecrn eepas
0o ceoero orpYAa KaTanoro3anB no 4-
TOBcX 3Haxon TyscHcxoR AprcTcoA Pec-
nyc6nom. B TOA peaore OH, roeopRl
npeuanecTBeHHNoax uapOK Tyep, Bnep-
Bse ynoMnHyn o uTnenenox 6enoqap-
cca 6yKBanbHo cneAlyyowee: .1913.
MapeH napCKOM POCCmH rae eHbl nHeRn-
HUM maTeMneneM 6eno4Lapec n-T.K.-
H TraxM we KpymuM weuTae nene. C
1913-1917P. BoT w ace o 6enoa4pcnxx
wueMnennx. Cyqu no HerToHocTRM I oc-
eewnoLHm ApyrHx sonpocos, 0a w cyute-
CTseHHOR HsTO4HOCTM .1913.. oBaXc-
Amb nOBaopewo B CaMOr 3TOnl 4pa3e
(0eeb 3aoMu roAl eute He 6bino He
TonK0o noTUo, o. H caMoro 6enoLap-
CKa), OH npocro He Muen AocroBepHux
arepHanooe. a nomnb3oancn npeo-
cTanonHHbiMH CMy HenposepeHHUMH
CenAeHHRMH. C.M. SnexMaH nlOnlTanca
Ha 6a3e 3TVX CKyrmHUlX aHcmX. npeHn
HX 3a AOCTOBepHbe, pecTaBeppoBlTb
pCcyHOn pa3Ao6bToro 1M (yparMeHTa
Kpyrnoro luTeonena benoqapcKa. Pe-
3ynbTaTM 3mTO pa6oTM 6binAH M ony6-
no4Tu A 3HaKm n004TO80A o0nnaTU Tyaw-
(1976 r.). OAHaKO HanpacHo nrnmobiec
KonneKoxOMepW pa3bfCKHBanH oTTrCKH
wureunen no ero pHCyHKy. Tax KaX CaM
pHCyHOK. XaIK TonoaaHHe buawenp-.
8eAeHHoo 4paslu ronoBKoHa. Oblna
OWUH604HbcM. OU16KH4 H08O HCnpe-.
nRTb, nocTapeocb TO m AenaTb.
CyuieTooanc n0 yeK83aHHUR ronoaKM-
HuM CTrp04H UR WTenenb BenoLaapcma
(TroIHee --TrpocHaR neO8Tb, H8 KOTpOR

He 6bno AaTu)? no-BanAuoMy, cyutecr-
Boaan. noAo6Horo poAa neqan n3ro-
Toenanr paHee H B apyrMx pyCCKHX 3a-
rpaHKnaux norTOeBX ypexAenHHRx
A3NHH 0 a. a OCHCT, na TeppHTOpHH
MoHronan. Tau, sK n3seeTHo M3 ny6nHu
Ka0uA MHe3o MeHyxapub H Enexuaca,
6bin eute a xow4e npounoro sexa Ta-
xKH cTrpo'ule nearTM, KOK wYPFrA. .Bb
KAllrAHbo A Apyrne. Mx ocuosHoe
npeAH83Ha4eHMe tMHaopMaIIMOHHo-
aApecHoe, A ecnH OHM npHMeHRnncb
AnR raweHHR M0apo. TraK TO 6u He
npasrnou, a CucionmenHeM (3-3a or-
cyrcTBHr no taxHM-To npM4wHaM 0ane-.
9apHoro urrn nenal). Tax, HuAMO. 6buno
x en o no ocapc. onby o peMn )aKc.
TM4ecxoro CyF 0TeSOBaHR KxouTOpbi a
na ecTBe TonbKO no0roeo0 (c i4eBpan
no mionb 1917 roAa) OIHb Manno n KOH-
te 1916 roae yre 66no M38aeTHO. NTO
O0a scope cTaerT noTroeO-Tenerpaq1-
OiR, To BnonHs eepoATHO, .To TaKan
crpoqHan ner8Tb 6bna cAenaeH c TBKC-
TOM bEtrnotapemr. n--T.K yxe M3Ha-
4anbHO. OHa Mora 6bITb mcnonb3o0aH8

colAaHnn UTeMreneleA Ann
Benotapcra Ale Cncoan
4Hpynnap raHeoroo ynpaa-
nenHR norT 0 Tonerpaose
No 9 or 3 (beepann 1903 ro-
wa. CornacHo 3TOMy AOKy-
MeNTy KanermapH4 w sWreM-
nenb Aonxe0 6ucn cocTOlT
H3 AlyX oxpyxHocTer, Mex-
Ay KoTOpbMw caepxy Ha-
3sanHe HaceneHHoro nyHK-
Te, a BHH3y nTTepa pyc-
CKoro an(taerTa. nocpeAm-
mB ero a o0 y crpOKy none-
peK Ha Aopoxxe Me1XAy
aByMu rOpH30HTanbHwMH
o603Hsn anacb, A npH 3TO
apa6crKuM n ipanM. Hea6op
apHaRp A Ta; ro0 yKra3uan1
AsByM nocneanHHMu qWpau
0HH KpynHorO HacenenHoro n
na ry6epHcxoro aHn ye3AHor
ro) IenTpa Aaeanocb nonHoc
KOaxx-nH60 npocraaon. noc
HHo Men1oro HaceneHMorn
Aonxmo 6bno 6urb yKa30H8 C

eRa KaneH-
A. Ha3ea-
O (xpaeao-
blo A 6e3
na H83aa-


Han Mapox, a 1pyro0. noM.nHbue, -
Ann KBMHwraqHA). 3TO T8pe60sae bt-
nonHRnocb. npasAla. NO cema, olaxoK
mapyweHe ero An coaepuae0n o HOso-
ro ropoAa. Aa eule n 3 npeAenaMu Poc-
CmH. ManoepORTHO. Ann KpynHux Ha-
ceneHbix nyHnTOa (MocKBM, CaHKT-ne-
Tep6ypra, HpKyrcaI...) BH3y unw ((oo
ecrpe4aerce o0eHb peAKro) crpoxy c
e38saHHeM MOf 6b4rb o6o03HaeH Houep
no4Tsoro ometenanH. Ann nonTOBix

3araAkN 5enolapcKa

0 LLTeMnenRx Tyab, i oapovloro nepwoAa

SAnn rewmenu MapO K KAK l40O BseAem
o40H4HanbHoro Kpyrnoro ureMnenR, Tax
u no3xe. No IuMb0 no 0 eepanb 1918 ro-
A8, Koraa M3-3a OTcyrcrBRn noMeuteoal
caMa no4Ta B BenotapcKe 6bOsa 3axpy-
Ta n( K TOMy Me M3-3a nocnel0Ao9aumx
BoewHHbx co6ublTMHr aKOMa bM lTenb-
HOe opeMn).
MTo xacaeTrc yxal3aHHA ronosKHa o
xpyrnoM ureMnene n noneuMHecKMX
paccyxaneHMe BnexuaHa, TO 3lecb sO-
npoc 6onee cnoxnua. nocKonbKy
npeanonaranocb oIKpuTb .OBeyo no0 .
TOBsy mO14TOpy 3a abnKTMHecKHuH npe-
Aenaum PoccHM TOO, crecTreHHO. x 30T-
My BaTy no0TOBie pa60THHKH roToBM-
nMCb 3apanee M B npoqecce TaKOA noA-
rorosn urTeMnenn 6inH 3aroToonebu
UeHTpanns30nHHo. no onTy OTKrpbTfl
noAo6mix y9p9xAeuiR Mlyry-Koe,
KynbAxae Kaourape M3roTOBnRncn He
OAHH. 8 MHMHMyM As4 WTCMnenn. Tax,
8u46Mo, 6bno cAenano m Ann Beno-
Lapcxa, 0O He noTOMy, 1TO, K1K noA00ep
KHBan 6nexMan., xoHTpa cHalana 6Obna
TonbKO 1noqTOooi., a noTOM cTana
anoqToBo-Tenerps Hoei (3To 601no nc-

HO e010 AO OTKpUbra no0Tb, Tax KlK
yxe TorAa or rporopbeexc He Geno-
4apcx TnHynn Tenerpa0pyio nAHHm
CcR3n), a norouy, qTO Ha norTe no Ale-
CTaossaeuM TorAa npaswnaM Aonxex
6b0n 6biTb H BTpor WTenemnb.
Tenepb o 0 TeCT H0 3TMX 0UTeMnennx.
Ha yxKa3aHOA BlWe CTpo9HO0 ne4aT1
Morna 6bTb 1 a66peemarypa an-T.K..
a CTpony C Has3sHHeM HacenemHoro
nyuna. Tau H1a MecrT Uorn co4nmHTb
ace 4TO yroAnH. Ha oLHMfanbHOM xe
KpyrnoM uJ Mnene 06o 6blnO HeB03-
aeaumn Tor0a q1xpynapoM. 8 nepmoA

Hoe H8MuMeHOBeaHn TO ry6epHHn
(Kpal, oxpyra), I cocTaB KoTOporo 3TOT
nyHKrT xoAnn. HMKacKnx fK. An nH 1n-
T. K.I a crpoKy C aHMeHOaaHmeM Hace-
neuHoro nyunKa CTrasnT He nonara-

nocbh. Tax 4TO ynOMRHyTrA r0ono1K.
HwM TeKCT He KpyrnOM wturenene 6bn
npH9HnmannbHO Heo003MoxeH. BHAMMO,
ronOBKHH, He HMnl OTTcxa A He BeAan
06 3TOM 0 prlynnpe, MauHlanbHO pac-
npocTpaHHn TBKCT CpT04HOA nBeaTM He
Kpyrnmbl tTeMnenb. TaM o e qHpynn-
poM 6uno npeAnncaHo co3Aa3He He
oAoro, I Alyx ureToMnenot ln Ana KWao-
ro nyHTca (loA,. 6onbaou. Ann rame-
*)n# Wh naoct pf*orDoUi*I. CCPNH APU4M
1x ronoma. ye no otoauy nocr oe .M no an810-
-OA n-4-TK. PItnM --AI--'n n nKatla
066parypo n.-1TK.X, nK t erpoy c n -a.
mo0aseu mIcenM*oro nyfl.

yipexAecn 3sa npeAenaMu nMnep0 n
nocne Ha3a3Hun nyrHTa yya3laenacb
crpaH8, Fre OH HmaxoDnnC (Hanpmnep,
nEPCHAl. BiAB.4). 3TO AnononneHm
AonKxH 6bno OTrae4Tb ma sonpoc:
grAe?., He 1 40TO 310 38 y4pex)aeHnHe?
xo onpeAeneHo. L1pqynnAp Aeicoosaen
I4TKO Ao CaMOR peaonlo0HH 1917 roAl
(H Alaxe none Nee, yxe np CoseTCKOo
enacwm). Bo3bMsTe KHHry n. Po6KHcoka
aCH6Hpbn. BbT148M He HBaAiTB HNH 01 O-
ro uTeMnann, H3roToBneaHoro noceie
1903 roA c a66peBnarypoi .11-T. K..
B CTpoKy c yK83aHmeM HacenemHoro
nymKa. Aa M 4 A0pyrof nTepa0ype TOXs e
TaK1 X HTr. Ecn xce A Tpe6o0anocb alBTb
Ha uwronene nrTK., 0T 3r1 AeMlenanoc
TOnbKO BHM3y KaK., HanpuHMp. Ha urTeM-
nennx 1IoA3).
YpnRxaRC ex KpaA 6bn a TOT nepHoA
OTHeC0 H K EHeoICKxoMy no04oeoNy OK-
pyry (noA4epKHy, He K ry6ep.HH, a
MMeHHO K Oxpyry). Ann Hacene01bix
nyHKToB 3TOR ry6epHHH a Ta eCTe H
tuTeMnnen yKa3blan1 nnM4 *EHHC..,
MnH .EHHC. r.,. Hnn .EHMCEACK. E.
(Kia no3sonnno Mecro). HO rpaBHpoeaT
6yKay era Ann BenouapcKa, HeO xoAMB*-
mero oprHAmuecK e 3Ty ry6epHmo, He
HMen0 npasa. no3aoy rTaxr Ha u1reM-
nneI 6b nn MM TonbO 6b6n0O11APCKb"
(nOCxonibW pyroro Ha KapT C TarsKM
Ha3BllHMS He 6cno), 0nu Gbr.5 0-
UAPCKb EHMC... Taxoe nocTpoeNue
TOKTra, K cnosy, rnpe9uno a nocneAyio-
u Ha WTunenb 0 r. Kpacmoro (6bluwe-
ro BenoqapcKa). TpeTaero 3AlCb He Aa-
HO. M H3MUWnnHM l Ko HKoOpRx mCCneAO-
lBrenei o TOM. MO 6cin. x npHMepy,
excr .BnOI IOlAPCK YPRHX.,. Ha abl.

Tearc He MOr 6brTb npMnr no nonAMTwe-
CKHM MOTmra8UM (s Ta oro rocyAapcrsa
.YpaHxagcaic ropaR Me 6uno).
Ha peKOHncpyrL H EnexuaHa nan
TexcT: ,61OL(APCK ln-T.K.-. Ecn a
cnose .6bnrOLIAPCK HOT sI oHAe
TBepAoro 3HKaa, TO TOrAS TaM n oflon
66bTb TOK8a, i O0O0, neAOlaTanbHO, AB-
ncWTCR CoK P1auHHbuM CoUe OM eoU 0-
UAPCKAR. (Mnn ...OE.). Tonebro 3TOM
cnyas a crpoKy c HuM IcornacHO tlp-
nynnpy) so3MOXHO nocTaBHTh .nK. Mun
fn.-T.K.- (M4N "n.-T.O..). Ecm x1e
nponyuw I TrepAWb 3HrK, TO .enK. nN
.n.-T.I( B cTpo0 K non0BTbC4 H0 MO-
caeT. B cBoe BpeMAl n con0poean c cex-
peTKXo nexUaHa uMel ina4 TaM Opar-
MerT oTTrMCK, n3wyan ceKpeTly 8 op -
r1Hane, He pa3 Aepxan ee nepeA rna3a-
MH, HO pacwHO8pooe OHa He nooAaea-
nacb. b0no nHUJb RCaO, n4o van ln-
TK.a TaM ocra0anocb mepecyp M1oro
MecTa. OAHaK Tenoepb Ha 6a3e mbouen3-
noxewHoro c AOCTrTOamHO AOCTOBepHo-
CTbaO p1CyOK w emsne0nn uox10 T 6mbT
ioccO30aH C TeKCTOM: 6blnOLaAPCK'b
EHHCJ *a. (pc. 5).
4TO WaoeTCn 0 Toporo wuTenenAn e-
nouapcsa. TO ero mccneAoeaHHe eige He
3aKoqeHxo. HMeOTCa ji0wb HcmTopbe

TeAcre -EHHC., He 6buo. a AHAeC 6bn
*6O (pHc. 61. nflowplHy. 4rT 3rTOT pmcy-
H0o nHWb npeABapnTeAnnbH Hen6o-
nee BepOflTHm C 2HpHaHT.
C 1apTa 1918 rowa4 c 4Nvrmecw" no
1925 roAa peryn0RpHa noT a Tyce He
pa6oTana, HaKKMnx oao01 no TyriaKH
CKrX wTeMneneA npHmCmnoanbNo
6bb me morno. 8 s3To nep0oA H9eHmO-
ro4Hcnen01 noso m. 0a8 Al An 1917 ro-
aa, 0una 4epe3 rpmropbeKoy. MHwy-
CHHCK. A6aKaeH m KpacHonpcx. a Tane
no04TOBlMH BarOHaMH Yxyp-A'4KHCI
N. 201/202 0 no3xe MnHycwncI-
AqHCKe C TOcam 1 o uOepaM, rAe no-
Tocue oTpaBneaHHl H nonymank mcxo-
ARutue OTTmCKHn uTeMnene. 0

laeMoro apeMeHm, c 1925 mara, HalpHo-
iOT paourab mcnonb3yn uapaH CCCP.
noT0on0-TenerpiaoHmue y9pex9H34N a4
Kpa ou au TypaHe. ripa ITOM I ncenl-

MapKH racmnx e n 4epeo aHnHemu. I
KpaHoM 6bO n TOnbKO OAH0 n3aCTnlHrl
uoemunenb KPACHbIo EHHC.n MHAAeln-
COM -a0 (pc. 7). B pon4 lroporo
suTremnenrn mHocrAa blcrynana cpry8-
man neuarT (pHc. 8). OnCIC Un wTeunen
KpacHoro caIecTu c AnaaMu or 3.12.25
no 20.12.26. B n oHe 1926 roa OH 6cun
3 He nepeenepe epeui Tyur -a
CKMiH0 WeM0enb r. K3buna (pec. 9).
anepaue onn.BHMbi roonoOKHHUM 14
nocneCocu eM AeTranbHo T ccneAOBeH-
HUM A. KpOHmHUM. MmCHHO Kpomua Aon
K3an. TO OH pe3ynbTrT neperpsaHpo-
0 uWTemnenn .KPACH6IR EHHCs.. Or. -
H ero Ad TYMHCmKX Mapuax InepBue
nonalnnMb 8.2.27. 3mTO AaTO 44A 0"ne-
CKH W 3aKaH4HaeTCn0 paccuOTpeMWUA
Ha0M AOMapO4Hbt nepMHoA fcnOnb30-
n1H4m no4TOlblx 0 mTe0u nea I Tyse.

Cogeu HelAalHo nocne 0anncaH4R
a3HHoA craTbm. MHe yAa1iocb ynl0e10 b 4
H3YmT TOpok. TaXe menonmbl OTTCIK
wujTenenn Beno lpcxa. Ha HeM e0TKo
npoMaTpm4BaeTCm nocn l 6 YKIU KIs HH3
TeepAoro 31ala. a 0o te TexcTa -
Bepx nocneAlHe0 6y0Ku. iooopuRi co-
4e01H0m4 C 0H30M 3no0 6y0au. mnueo
u14mMC Ha nep0oM orr9c11e. o6pa3yer
6yxey *C- (a He -KW). TauM 06pa301.
M3noxeHHn e 0 cTaTbe p93y9bT0T01u 0
cneAo0H0mA noATBollpxlaoTC HI
lUTemnene Taxrc: 6bnlOUAPCKlb



November 1998

W~00 WU00rZC.0 __ A~~0~dP14kd~;
'reO ,,'4 1400

1 _~4~L ~ ol

P -, 10

by F. Vanius.
This article about the postmarks of Tuva before it issued stamps is being published for the first time,
courtesy of the Collector Section of"PRAVDA-5", Issue No.47 for 26 December 1997-2 January 1998.

The postal history of the Tuvan National Republic in the pre-stamp period, i.e. before the introduction into
postal circulation of the first stamps of the TNR, turns out to be the least studied area, as we do not have
either factual material in even minimally sufficient quantities or at least a small amount of trustworthy data
in the archives. Only the late S.M. Blekhman was able to obtain some details in the archive at Kyzyl. This
entire period may be suitably divided into three sections: (1) Until the post office at Belotsarsk (now Kyzyl)
began to function, (2) From the opening of that office until the end of the Civil War, and (3) From the post-
Civil War resumption of the mail service in Tuva until the appearance in postal circulation of the first
Tuvan stamps.

Let us start with the first of these points. At the end of the last and the beginning of the present century, the
families of enterprising Siberians and Russians entered into the Uryankhai Territory (as Tuva was then
called) to take up land. They spread out into settlements and as a rule along the rivers, founding new farms
or individual concessions.

This population naturally had relatives and subsequently also trade and economic ties with Siberia. There
was still no mail service in the territory. Postal links were performed by the medium of messengers, or by
occasional trips to the nearest post office at Minusinsk. One could also travel to Krasnoyarsk in the summer
season, when it was possible to sail on the Enisei (Yenisei) River. Postal sending from this period with
stamps of pre-revolutionary Russia are very rarely found. In the first place, that can be explained by the
insignificant volume of the mail being sent and secondly, because such sending can be identified only with
great difficulty, as the addressees normally did not write back. To recognize the outgoing mail, one must be
guided by the messages in such letters. For example, there came into my hands what was at first glance a
most ordinary greeting card (Fig. 1 on p. 77). The definitive stamp on it is cancelled by the transit postmark
of Minusinsk. However, when I saw below the text the signature "A. Byakova", I stood to attention. Indeed,
that surame is present among the names of settlements in the Uryankhai Territory I asked friends to
conduct enquiries in Minusinsk. By now, there were no persons to be found with such a surname, who had
lived there regularly. There was only one deduction: a certain A. Byakova had sent a greeting card to
Krasnoyarsk from her settlement in Uryankhai.

Postal sending to Uryankhai can be determined just by the address. For example, one would write to such
and such a person in Minusinsk, let us say to the settlement of Safyanov or Zhukov. And the settlement
would be situated in Uryankhai; a letter or card would be sent there along those lines. At that time, the
postmarking of mail would have been carried out with the ordinary Russian cancellers of Minusinsk (Fig.
2) and, more rarely, for valuable and registered mail even with the cancellers of Krasnoyarsk (Fig. 3) in the
summer time. To these markings can be added the quite rare postmark of Grigor'evka, a post office nearer
to Uryankhai and which was opened in 1914 with the serial letter "a" (Fig. 4).

Now to the second period of time and especially about the extremely rare postmark of Belotsarsk. In July
1936, there was prepared in the Organising Office of the All-Russian Society of Collectors and sent from
Moscow to the peripheral branches of the Society a typewritten manual entitled "Materials about the
questions of collecting: Manual No. 8". In it, V.K. Golovkin published the beginning of his work
"Catalogue of the postage stamps of the Tuvan Arat (= Herdsmen) Republic". Writing about the
forerunners of the stamps of Tuva, he referred for the first time specifically in this work about the
postmarks of Belotsarsk in the following way: "1913. Stamps of Russia cancelled with a single-line
marking, reading: BIJIOIJAPCK'b I.-T. K., as well as a similar circular postmark. From 1913 to 1917.
November 1998

That was all there was about the postmarks of Belotsarsk.

Judging from the inaccuracies in the examination of other questions, as well as the presence of the mistake
"1913", which was repeated twice in this same sentence (since in that year, there was no post office, nor
did Belotsarsk itself yet exist), he frankly did not have credible material, but had utilised unverified
information, which had been presented to him. S.M. Blekhman attempted on the basis of these scanty data,
which he had accepted as trustworthy, to reconstitute in full the design of the fragment he had obtained of
the circular postmark of Belotsarsk. The results of this work were published by him in the monograph "The
Postal History and Postage Stamps of Tuva" in 1976. However, investigative collectors searched in vain for
strikes in accordance with his drawing. That very design, as well as the comment in the sentence by
Golovkin quoted above, were erroneous. It is necessary to correct these mistakes and I will try to do so.

Did the single-line marking of Belotsarsk specified by Golovkin actually exist or, more exactly, the single-
line cachet, in which there was no date? Apparently it did. A similar type of marking was also prepared
earlier for Russian post offices abroad in Asia and particularly in the territory of Mongolia. As is known
from the publications of Meiso Mizuhara and S.M. Blekhman, there were already by the end of the last
century single-line markings, such as "YPFA", "B'b KAJIFAHb" and others. Their basic designation
was for information and addresses. If they were utilised for the cancellation of stamps, then that was not in
accordance with the regulations, but an exception to the rules and because of the absence of a date-stamp
for one reason or another. That apparently was also the case at Belotsarsk.

Since the period of the actual existence of the office in the category of a postal establishment (from
February to July 1917) was very short and as it was already known by the end of 1916 that it would become
a postal-telegraphic office, then it is most likely that such a single-line cachet had been prepared right from
the beginning with the inscription: BfJnoiuapcK-b. lT.-T.K. It could have been used both until the
introduction of the official circular date-stamp, as well as later, but only after February 1918, when the post
office at Belotsarsk was closed, because of a lack of premises. Also on account of subsequent military
activities, which went on for quite a long time.

Regarding the circular postmark referred to by Golovkin and the controversial comments by Blekhman,
then here the question becomes more complex. Since it was proposed to open a new post office in an area
which was actually beyond the boundaries of Russia, then by that very act it was normal that the postal
workers were assigned in advance and, in the process of such preparations, the cancellers would have been
made at a central point. According to the experience in similar offices at Chuguchak, Kul'dzha and
Kashgar, not one but a minimum of two cancellers would have been prepared. That apparently was also
done for Belotsarsk, but not because the office was only "postal", as Blekhman has emphasised. Belotsarsk
subsequently became a postal-telegraphic office. That was clear already by the time the post office was
opened, as by then a telegraphic line had been laid from Grigor'evka to Belotsarsk Also, according to the
regulations then in force, there had to be a second canceller.

Now about the inscriptions on these cancellers. On the single-line cachet referred to above, there could be
the initials "I.-T.K." in the line, as well as the name of the inhabited point. Everything that was necessary
could be included there on the spot. To do that on an official circular canceller was impossible and was
frankly excluded by the postal circular then in force. At the time when the cancellers for Belotsarsk were
prepared, the Circular No. 9 of FYIHT (Main Administration of Posts and Telegraphs) of 3 February 1903
was in force. According to that document, the date-stamps had to consist of two circles, within which the
name of the inhabited point had to be at top and a serial letter of the Russian alphabet at the bottom. In the
middle and straight across between two horizontal lines, the engraved calendar date was to be designated,
but only in Arabic numerals. The year was to be specified only by the last two figures. The name of a large
inhabited point of the type of a provincial or district (territorial) centre was to be given in full and without
November 1998

any additions at all. After the name of a small inhabited point, there had to be specified the abbreviated
name of the province (territory, region), within which the point was located. No initials, such as "n.K." or
"I.-T.K." were intended to be placed in the inscription with the name of the inhabited point. (Only after
the Revolution did the initials "nI.-T.K." or "n.K." appear in the mid-1920s on the cancellers together with
the inscription with the name of the inhabited point, in accordance with a new order of the Postal
Administration). Hence, the text recorded by Golovkin was impossible in principle. It is evident that
Golovkin, who did not have a strike and not knowing about this Circular, mechanically transferred the
inscription on the single-line marking to the circular canceller.

That same Circular specified the manufacture of not one, but two cancellers for each point (a large one for
the cancellation of stamps and a smaller one for receipts). It is true that this requirement was not always
fulfilled. However, any infringement for a completely new town was unlikely, even for beyond the borders
of Russia. For large inhabited points (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk, etc.), the designated number of the
postal station could be placed at the bottom, or very rarely in the inscription which contained the place-
name. For post offices beyond the borders of the Empire, there was a place after the name of the point,
where the country of location was specified, e.g. KAIIrAP'b KHT. BJIAg., YPFA B'b MOHrOJIIH.
FYMBET'b-KABY3'b nEPCHI3 BJIA). etc. That addition answered the question: "Where ?" and not
"What kind of an office is this ?". As we can see, all this was laid down by the Circular right up to the very
onset of the 1917 Revolution and even after it under the Soviet regime. Take the book "Siberia" by P.
Robinson. One will not find there any canceller prepared after 1903 with the initials "n.-T.K'' in the
inscription denoting the inhabited point. Such examples are not noted in other literature references either.
If there were a requirement to state the initials "I.T.K." on a canceller, then it would have been done at the
bottom as, for example, on the cancellers of L6d.

The Uryankhai Territory was subordinate to the Enisei Postal District (I emphasise, not to the province, but
rather to the district). For the inhabited points of the Enisei Province, the abbreviations "EHI4C.",
"EHHIC. F." or "EHHCEfCK. F." were specified in the cancellers, according to the available space.
However, there was no right to engrave the letter "F" (meaning province) for Belotsarsk, as it was not
legally part of the Enisei Province. Therefore, the inscription on the canceller had to be either only
B'BJIOIAPCK'b (as there was no other place on the map with such a name), or BBJIO APCK'
EHHC. That version of the inscription was carried over to the succeeding canceller for the town of
Krasnyi (formerly Belotsarsk). A third possibility is not considered here, where the postulation has been
advanced by several investigators that the inscription could, for example, have been "BBJIlOUAPCK'b
YPIHX. (BELOTSARSK, URYANKHAI). That version does not stand up to criticism, as such an
inscription was unacceptable for political reasons, since there was no state called "Uryankhai Territory".

In the reconstruction by Blekhman, the inscription is given as "BBJIOIUAPCK n-T.K.". If the hard sign
('b) is not at the end of the word "B'BJIOLJAPCK", then there should be a dot there and that would
consequently stand for an abbreviation of the word "B-BJI1OIAPCKAI" or "BI-BIOIAPCKOE". Only
in such a case would it have been possible to insert the initials "n.K.", "n.-T.K." or "F.-T.O.". If the hard
sign is missing, neither "n.K." nor "FI.-T.K." could appear in the inscription. At that particular time, I
copied from the letter-card in the possession of Blekhman and which bore a part strike. I held it several
times before my eyes and I was unsuccessful in deciphering the inscription. It was quite clear that there was
too much space available there for the initials "TI.-T.K.". However, on the basis of the reasons
demonstrated above, the make-up of the canceller can be reconstituted with sufficient credibility for the
inscription to read "B'BJIOHAPCKT EHHIC. a (Fig. 5).

Regarding the second canceller for Belotsarsk, its investigation is still not complete. There are even reasons
to suggest that the abbreviation "EHHC." was not in the inscription and that the serial was "s" ("b"); see
Fig. 6. I emphasise that this preliminary drawing is only the most likely version.
November 1998

From March 1918 and in fact up to 1925, no regular mail service functioned in Tuva and no strikes of
Tuvan cancellers could exist in principle. During that period, the few pieces of mail went via Grigor'evka,
Minusinsk, Abakan and Krasnoyarsk, as well as by TPO / RPO Nos. 201-202 Azhur-Achinsk. They were
followed later by the Minusinsk-Achinsk route with the same TPO / RPO numbers and where the postal
sending also received transit markings.

Only in the third period surveyed by us from 1925 onwards did postal-telegraphic offices begin to function
at Kyzyl and Turan. At that time, there were no cancellers at the latter office and the stamps were cancelled
by writing across them. At Kyzyl, there was only one known canceller, inscribed "KPACHbII EHHC."
and with serial letter "a" (Fig. 7). A seal for impressions on wax was sometimes utilised in the role of a
second "marking" (Fig. 8). Strikes of the Krasnyi canceller are known from 3.12.25 to 20.12.26. At the end
of 1926, it was altered to serve as the first Tuvan canceller for Kyzyl (Fig. 9), being originally described by
Golovkin and subsequently investigated in detail by A. Cronin. He actually demonstrated that this last
canceller was the result of reengraving the "KPACHbIII EHHC." postmarker. Strikes from it first
appeared on Tuvan stamps on 8.2.27. In fact, that date terminates the examination by us of the pre-stamp
period of applying postal cancellations in Tuva.

Quite recently and after writing the present article, I had the opportunity to see and examine a second and
incomplete strike of a canceller for Belotsarsk. There was clearly noticed on it after the letter "K" the lower
part of the hard sign "b" and, at the end of the inscription, the upper part of the last letter which, in
combination with the bottom part of this letter found on the first strike forms the letter "C" and not "K".
Thus the results expounded by investigation in the article are confirmed and the inscription on the canceller
reads "B-BJIOI.APCK'b EHIC."


Is there a question or point that you would like to put across to the
readers ? Is there an interesting stamp cancellation or cover that
you would like to describe ? Is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information or might there be some gems /
of wisdom that you could impart on some newly acquired item ? f. ....

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom in the confines of a
couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !
Philip E. Robinson, Yorkshire, England. : .
(a) An unusual "sekretka" (letter-card). o ,

:I ... H MO ."U

S .. ........ ,

"eu..(iutcL^- v^.....Jwn ...... -| [o ^..

I was most impressed by the details given about the Semenov-Tyan-Shanskii family in "The Post-Rider"
No. 42, p. 115. I have pleasure in advising two items which do not really belong in my collection, being of
oblique reference to Siberia. The letter-card is a sort of religious chain-letter, addressed to the wife or
daughter-in-law of Ptr Petrovich.
November 1998

The message translates as follows:-
O Lord, I beseech Thee Bless all mankind and
save us from evil and let them come unto Thee.
Copying the prayer and sending out to 9
acquaintances, you will receive great happiness ,.
on the 4th. day.
Sent 13 Feb. 1913".

(b) A multicoloured card showing Petr
Petrovich Seminov-Tyan-Shanski.

This card and the scarce 1-rouble stamp issued
on 1 February 1952 on the 125th. anniversary
of his birth both honour a great Russian explorer
and geographer. Biographical details are given
on the address side of the card.

Andrew Cronin, Ontario, Canada.
(a) The Horrors of War.
Mention was made on p. 115 of "The Post-Rider", No. 42 that Andrei Petrovich Sem'nov-Tyan-Shanskii, a
son of P&tr Petrovich noted above, had translated the verses of the noted Roman poet Horace. Well, Horace
has popped up again in philately, as can be seen from the excerpt just below and taken from a recent
auction catalogue, which shall remain nameless:-
5485 0 546-50 "Horace of War" cplt.,used. VF. Michel Net $45.20. 28.03 11.CO
5486 551-4 Moscow subways cplt. F-VF. Michel Net $158.00. 76.00 28.CO
Of course, the reference is to the graphic Soviet "Horrors of War" set, issued on 1 January 1935 and
referring to the 20th. anniversary of World War I. The mistake would be funny, were it not for the fact that
the stamps were grimly prophetic. The design of the 15-kop. value is particularly poignant, as a former
Canadian ambassador to the USSR, Peter Roberts, has reminisced in the press that, just in Moscow alone in
the 1950s, the streets were full of men with missing arms and legs, pushing themselves along on little
home-made go-carts. Your editor was a child in the Depression-ridden 1930s and even then viewed with
growing anger and horror the unbelievably criminal stupidity of British and French politicians in appeasing
Fascism and Nazism. Guilty men, indeed Hitler could have been stopped from starting WWII, instead of
which roughly 60 million people went to their premature deaths.
(b) A visiting card sent by a Latvian.

..........*k ^A' ..a ,I. Z.^ VC;

^< ,-H .s 7^" "^"'/0 ,r^^-
/:* ^ '-.^r' ,.- V^K^-'" %r-rA N-- t^^^ ^-r-^/^

*^'*v1^~ 't ^ ,3 '2.4^ AX ,-^ *y : ,y '.^ ~ t '* l^ i ^ ^r ^ ^ '

November 1998

The illustrations at the bottom of the previous page of a visiting card and envelope are of actual size. On 28
February 1909, Arturs Ramans of St. Petersburg sent a visiting card to a fellow-countryman, P. Lapips in
Moscow and franked the sealed envelope on the back with a strip of 3 x 1-kop. Arms type stamps. That
would have been the correct intercity rate if the envelope has been mailed unsealed and without a message.
Instead, it was opened by the postal authorities in St. Petersburg and a text found written in Latvian. It was
thus treated properly as a domestic letter and the recipient was charged double the deficiency = 8 kopeks,
per the oval marking at front top right, struck in red.
(c) A tough-minded Latvian in the Kuban province.

UlocTb pyO. 70 Eoni. B3bUCEaHHne M1HO10 Cb IIerpa :Kaj-
HxHa corjacHO OTHOmeHia BoJocTHoro IIpaBJaHi0S OT'b
7 coHTa6pa coro roAa 3a 1i. 1000 06niecTBeHHhL.b
ccoposB' npw ccML npenpoBoxAaa npomy o nojy0HiHin
.BbiCJaTb KBMTaHi1o npMip 3TOMCs coo6r aM, -ITO geLbri
a no. acTaMb.

IlouMO. .,ncapa
,^ ^^i~~f ^ D

Both sides are given here of the coupon cut off from a
money-order card, sending the sum of 6 r. 70 k. from
the Novominskaya Stanitsa, Kuban province 16.12.12
to Zerben, Livonia province 24.12.12 (now Dzerbene
in the Cesis [Wenden] district of Latvia). The side
with the space for written communications has the
following typewritten message:-

"Six roubles 70 kop. have been exacted by me from
Peteris Kalnigs, in accordance with the reference
No. 1000 of 7th. Sept. of the District Administration
for public fees and forwarded herewith. Please send
an advice of receipt. With this, I am informing (you)
that the money was not exacted in a timely fashion,
in view of the fact that the amount was not received
from KalniiS at one time, but in installments.
The Ataman of the Novominskaya Stanitsa:
Assistant Scribe: Radv....."

One senses an element of drama in this incident,
but it is too late now to get to the bottom of the
story !

November 1998

......... ... H .....I.. .... .................. .
A..................C .T .A..I. I.H .I ..l..............-..-.......
........ -T.A i ... .............

RfncbUeHBfloarIo aol, o'Iyr.t l HynoHa.
1IoiToBoe. OTraMieni.


Michael Ercolini, California, U.S.A.
A cover with a revolutionary overprint.
I do wish to make some comments on my Romanov cover, shown on p. 108 of "The Post-Rider" No. 42
and repeated above at left. The editor says that it is overpaid 5 kop. I do not believe so. Firstly, I should say
that one sees all kinds of rates paid during the last few months of 1917 and early in 1918. Confusion was
such that postal rates had to be of minor importance. Nevertheless, according to the rate tables of V.
Karlinskii, the correct rate for a foreign destination cover was 20 kop. for the period 15 August 1917 to 28
February 1918. That is the amount shown on this cover, postmarked in St. Petersburg on 25 September
1917. It is true that one often finds covers franked with inland rates, even when addressed to foreign
destinations and the inland rates were higher at times. None the less, there were foreign rates published. I
make the point because I have seen much mail franked with 20 kop. during this period.
Editorial Comment: This is an interesting problem and we invite further comments about this question.

Rabbi L.L. Tann, Birmingham, England.
Another Riga Railway Station Registered Automat Cover.
This cover at top right is to Stomerzee (now Stameriene in Latvia), registered at the Riga Rlwy Stn Postal
Desk and shows the red registration cachet struck by an automatic machine. Please note that the date on the
oval postmarks is clearly 11.8.13. The date on the automat reads OKT 11 13 near No. 759. Any ideas?

Harry von Hofmann, Hamburg, Germany.
More Notes on Registration Automatic Machines.
Our editor has advised the existence of Pyatigorsk and this means that theoretically speaking, the number
of registration machines has risen to 16. But I will come back to this figure later, because I think that there
are still a good many questions open. Meanwhile, CSRP members are asked to insert the following new
find from Rostov/Don in the entries after Riga and before St. Petersburg (p. 12, "The Post-Rider" No. 42):

Rostov / Don

1914 14.01. # 375 addressed to Voronesh

A letter used by this registration machine was shown for the first time in the magazine "HJITATEJIH4I"
No. 11 for 1995. There is no other example known to me.

Editorial Comment: We agree with Herr von Hofmann that a lot of work still remains to be done in this
field and that new discoveries are likely, especially in the early Soviet period. Access to any files still
existing in the archives about the introduction, assignments and lengths of service for these automatic
machines would also be a great help.
November 1998

Ludger Hovest, Wesel, Germany.
Paste-ups on Soviet Stamps.

.r r ..t r.j r 1 1 C .

Paste-ups may be found on the stamps of all countries and are a phenomenon brought about during the
production of paper. They can occur in two ways: (a) during the process of manufacture, when a break
occurs in the roll of paper ("Papierbahn" in German) and the broken ends are pasted together ("geklebte
Papierbahn" in German) and (b) when the same type of accident occurs during the process of preparing to
print stamps and where the break caused by the tension in the paper roll has been repaired beforehand.

In both cases, the stamp impressions are printed over the break and look normal. When such stamps are
touched with the fingers, a slight thickening is felt because of the glue and the same effect is noticeable on
the gummed side also. A typical example on Soviet stamps is shown above on the 6-kop. value of the
Agricultural Achievements set issued February-July 1961 (Michel No. 2496; SG No. 2555; Scott No. 2437)
and other examples must certainly exist. They are interesting, but inconsistent varieties.

The important thing to remember is not to wash such examples off when they have been affixed and
cancelled on mail, as otherwise the stamps will separate into two pieces and show only partial printing I
would be pleased to hear from Soviet specialists about these varieties and other Soviet items, in English or
German. My address is Wilhelm-Leuschner-Str. 45, D-46485 WESEL, Germany.

Michael Kuhn, Bamberg, Germany.
(a) A post-WWII cover from a German factory worker in Tashkent.


possible censoring device) appears to read: "Received in Tashkent in a damaged state. Administration

"> 4U. C ..CZpT 1.a-* .".

The cover shown above was mailed in Tashkent on 30.11.49 by Walter Weinrich at the Maksim Gor' Factory to a priest in Oberlungwitz, Saxony, in the Soviet zone of Germany. As we can see from the
monitoring markings on the back, the cover was still in Tashkent on 31.12.49 The boxed cachet (a
possible censoring device) appears to read: "Received in Tashkent in a damaged state. Administration (?)
of International (?) sorting of the city of Tashkent". Any other suggestions for the initials "Y. M." ?
November 1998

(b) Two huge offerings of Soviet remainders.

Fa. Gerd Ladewig GmbH Briefmarken
79108 Freiburg im Breisgau Zahringer StraBe 349
Telefon: 07 61 / 5510 09 Telefax: 07 61 / 5 44 54

81. BRIEFMARKEN-AUKTION am 22. und 23. Mai 1998
F 14601 SOWJETUNION: gigantischer Bestand postfrischer Marken der
Sowjetunion aus den Jahren 1960-1990, mit Blocks und kpl. SAtzen.
Idealer Bestand zur Kapitalanlage, da die Auflagezahlen tellweise nur 2
Millionen betrigt. Im Verhiltnis zu der Gesamtbev6lkerung eine extreme
niedrige Auflagezahl, wie z.B. der ersten Bund-Jahrgingen ( diese stehen
weit fiber 100.- DM, die Sowjetunion-Marken teilweise nur ein paar
Mark ). Bei einer wirtschaftlichen Expansion des Landes ist hier noch
ein riesiger Wertzuwachs m6glich! Auch zur Detaillierung ideal, da das
Gewicht ca. 100 Tonnen betrigt, Katalogwert ca. 300 MIllionen und ca.
300 Millionen Stfck. Fir postfrische Ware extreme giinstig I ( Lagerung
auSerhalb der Geschiftsraume, Besichtigung und Aufstellung der Partie
nach Absprache und Referenznachweis ) 2.000.000,-
14602 SOWJETUNION, gigantischer Bestand nur gestempelter Bogenware aus
den 70er und 80er Jahren, fast alles in Originalpaketen(so gut wie keine
Dauerserien!). grob geschitzt sind es ca. 20 Millionen Stuick, mit einem
Gewicht von ca. 3,5 Tonnen, tells auch kpl. Sftze. Ideal fir Paketmacher
zu einem sagenhaft ginstigen Preis. Transportkosten extra. Besichtigung
nach Absprache (Lagerung augerhalb der Geschaftsraume). 0 50.000.-

The above excerpt from the auction catalogue for 22-23 May 1998 of the German firm Gerd Ladewig
GmbH features two lots of Soviet material. The first lot, containing mint Soviet issues of the 1960 to 1990
period and with around 300 million stamps with a total weight of about 100 tons, was estimated at two
million German marks. The second lot, with used sheet material of the 1970s-1980s (20 million stamps and
weighing about 3 1/2 tons) had an estimate of 50,000 German marks. Neither lot sold.
Editorial Comment: With regard to the 300 million mint stamps, it would seem to your editor that the
Postal Administration of the Russian Federation would have been further ahead if they had applied suitable
overprints to these mint remainders, to serve the current postal needs of Russia. Printing varieties would
have inevitably resulted and thus provided a happy hunting ground for domestic and foreign specialists.
After all, the precedent had already been set in 1927, when the postage due remainders were furnished with
appropriate surcharges to prepay mail, not to mention inverted overprints How is that for free advice ?

(a) Another "WITHDRAWN" cachet usage.


-- P\I1'*V 4

7 -, K /

Re the information given about these cachets by Michael Carson in "The Post-Rider" No. 42, pp.45-47, I
have the same "CHSITO" mark as on his Khar3kov cover, as can be seen from the postcard just above at
left. It had been mailed from Orel Railway Station 9.6.22 and assessed there for postage due, although the
November 1998

Robert Taylor, California, U.S.A.

rate was fully paid for an intercity card to Moscow if one ignores the 10-kop. Trident surcharge on the
stamp die: 10,000r. + 7500r. + 2 control stamps at 250r. each + the 200r. definitive revalued at 10 times
face, to total 20,000r. Upon arrival in Moscow, that was verified and the "to pay" charge withdrawn.
Editorial Comment: In comparing the cover from Khar'kov and the card described above, the "CHSITO"
marking is one and the same in both cases and must have been applied in Moscow. Furthermore, at bottom
right on the previous page, we see another example of a philatelic cover overfranked with the four
undenominated charity stamps and addressed on the same day 26.11.22 from Volokolamsk to the same
person as Michael Carson's example, shown in Fig. 3, p. 47 of "The Post-Rider" No. 42. It is in the same
handwriting, with the same "CHAITA" marking and has been taken from p. 60 of the R.S.F.S.R Catalogue
published by Standard Kollektsiya, St. Petersburg, 1997. We can now assume that both "Withdrawn"
cachets were applied in Moscow during the period of inflation.

(b) Another Rosenberg cover with Scott C68.

Par Avion -

l n lt ^ Dr. JOZEFTISO
i ----- v^. ,
I have the exact flown card with reg'n No. 362 that is pictured in Fig. 5, p. 72 of "The Post-Rider" No. 42
and the editor is correct in saying that it is Type I. I also have a Rosenberg cover, reg'n No. 170 as shown
just above at left, which certainly appears to be Type I, Position 1 with the partially filled-in Russian "II".
This cover is postmarked 28.8.35, with a 29 August Berlin arrival. It has never been opened and contains
only a filler card with no message and the address of the Soviet Philatelic Association on the flap. The
cancel is of a different type, with "MOCKBA 9" at the top and a manuscript capital "A "at the bottom
between two ornaments. I believe that I have seen this cancel on other covers.

JUDr. Vladimir Priputen, Bratislava, Slovakia.
More about Ida Tisovi in Moscow.
Re the note on p. 115 of "The Post-Rider" No. 41 about the presence of Ida Tisova at the Slovak Mission in
Moscow, she could not have been the wife or daughter of the Slovak President JozefTiso. He was a Roman
Catholic clergyman and therefore celibate. It is known that his brother was the Mission Head in Moscow
until 22 June 1941 and Ida Tisova must have been related to both men in some way.
Editorial Comment: A Slovak card is shown here with the portrait of Jozef Tiso. After WWII, his foreign
minister and he were convicted of high treason against the Czechoslovak Republic (Slovakia was an ally of
Nazi Germany, including on the Eastern Front) and both were hanged.

November 1998

Are you still missing that elusive item from your collection or
philatelic library? Do you have some duplicate material that
you would like to trade or sell? We can publicise your want-list
or duplicates for the extremely low rate of USD 1.00 per insertion.
Please note that the Society disclaims any responsibility for any
misunderstandings between exchanging parties. / _
FOR a biography of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, I would appreciate hearing from anyone with information
about his life and work.
RICHARD LOURIE, 533 Canal Street, New York, N.Y. 10013, U.S.A.

FOR SALE / TRADE: Stampless commercial letters mostly in German, from St. Petersburg to Bordeaux par
Givet 1820-1860; also Rostock to London 1819-1825 with various transit markings.
IGOR JASCOLT, 3 Highmont Crt, Kanata, Ont., Canada K2T 1B3.

WANTED: 1919 Roumanian Occupation of Pokutia (C.M.T. overprints on Austria); better stamps, errors,
varieties and especially covers & cards. Also interested in better items of Western Ukraine, especially sheets,
blocks and postally used covers.
CHRIS CEREMUGA, P.O. Box A2313, Sydney South, N.S.W., 1235, Australia.

WANTED: Information and material pertaining to the 1st. Ukrainian Division. I am keen to purchase Rimini
Camp Post: stamps, postcards and mail.
J. W. BODNAR, 81 Euston Terrace, West Croydon, S.A., 5008, Australia.

WANTED: Romanov stamps on cover and all stationery items used in 1913. Looking for more unusual items.
Also covers, stamps, stationery with "posthorns" in the cancel from all cities EXCEPT Moscow. Please send
xerox with price request. Also,
FOR SALE: Stamped covers and stationery from the Imperial period, mostly used, although I have a few mint
pieces. Material is mostly last quarter of 19th. and early 20th. centuries. Mostly moderate and inexpensive
items. What do you need ?
MICHAEL ERCOLINI, Box 778, Daly City, California 94017-0778, U.S.A. or E-mail: misha@logx.com

RUSSIAN REVENUES; Advanced Russian collector will trade or purchase needed revenue stamps, revenue
paper and better Cinderella (label) materials of early Soviet, Imperial & Civil War States / Armies.
MARTIN CERINI, 21 West 12th. St., Huntington Station, N.Y. 11746, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers, Imperial dotted numerals, Used Abroads and Baltic Forerunners. Buy or trade. Send photo
or description and price to:
M. R. RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.

(a) An additional illustration of a bogus surcharge for Odessa.
Re the bogus Odessa overprints featured on pp. 109-110 of "The Post-Rider" No. 42,
a clearer illustration of the "- 50 -" surcharge on the 60-kop.is shown here at right.
(b) More about the CSRP Replica Card for "MOSCOW 97".
The Replica of the 1932 Moscow Philatelic Exhibition Presentation Sheet, upgraded by
the CSRP for the "MOSCOW 97" International Philatelic Exhibition, is now mentioned
in the Scott Catalogue, Vol. 5, p. 420. As we believe we said before: we Canadians do it best!

November 1998

GELOS Antique Auctioneers & Dealers

GELOS is the largest antique auctioneer & dealer in Russia and CIS. Founded in
1988, since that time it has established itself as the most reliable enterprise in the Russian
antiques market. Different kinds of antiques are sold and auctioned at GELOS'
showrooms and galleries, as well as various services offered to buyers and vendors are
equal to the ones offered in Europe and the USA.
The main departments of GELOS are:
GELOS Auction house Coins & banknotes
Russian art of XVIII XX centuries Stamps, documents, autographs, etc.
West European art XVI XX centuries Books
Russian Icons Specialized shops in Moscow
Jewellery Authentication
Musical instruments Representatives throughout Russia & CIS
Archaeological artifacts Club & Restaurant.

In 1998, GELOS Auction house has the following sales: May 23, Sept. 19, Oct. 24,
Dec. 12 (general sales), Sept. 26, Dec. 19 (coins), May 30, Oct. 31 (books). Every Friday
Regular Dealers'sales take place (different kinds of antiques and collectables up to 1960-
Catalogues are issued for every sale (except Dealers'). Annual subscription or to
selected issues is avail able at Rub. 80 per copy throughout Russia, Rub. 100 (USS 15)
per copy throughout CIS or Rub. 135 (US$ 20) per copy overseas. Catalogues of past
sales with sale results also avail able at reduced prices. Please inquire for details.
Estimates printed in our catalogues are in denominated Russian roubles. Prices in
US dollars are printed for reference use only. Please mind your local currency exchange
We are seeking items (preferably of Russian origin) to be sold by auction in
Moscow. Prices for such items here are now often higher than in West Europe, as well as
our commission rates, buyer's premium and taxes to be paid provide better conditions
for mutual profitable business.
We are also seeking professionals for long-term cooperation in the field of antique
trade and auctioning.
Our premises are located in the central area of Moscow.
Important addresses & phone numbers:
GELOS Antique Trade Centre: 216, 1st Botkinsky Drive
("Dinamo" or "Begovaya" metro stations). Free parking avail able.
Tel. (007*095) 946 0983 Tel. & fax (007*095) 946 0932
Postal address: P.O. box 12, Moscow 125284, Russia
Internet: www.gelos.ru. E-mail: gelosl@dol.ru
Representative in the United Kingdom:
Mr. Sergei A. Reviakin
42 Wrentham Avenue, London NW10 3HA, UK
Tel. (0468) 965 867 Fax (0181) 969 6563

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