• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Zemstvo varieties - second...
 Some new considerations on registration...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Soviet "withdrawn" cachets
 Special note
 The transfer of money by mail in...
 More data on the Russian revenues...
 The Khortitsa-Khortytsya bisec...
 A first-class rarity or a product...
 Some further notes on the "Levanevskii...
 Mission to "Moscow '97"
 The journal fund
 The "Romanov Castle"
 More about Soviet monitoring post...
 The Erivan' court of exchequer...
 The Soviet posts in Western Belorussia...
 Further usages of the Soviet posts...
 The Zangezur provisionals...
 Foreign postal mail from the Ukraine...
 Romanovs with revolutionary...
 The activities of the Stolow brothers...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The collectors' corner






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00042
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Advertising
        Advertising
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Zemstvo varieties - second installment
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Some new considerations on registration machines for registered letters in Imperial Russia
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Soviet "withdrawn" cachets
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Special note
        Page 47
    The transfer of money by mail in the Russian Empire
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    More data on the Russian revenues for Crete 1898-1899
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The Khortitsa-Khortytsya bisect
        Page 63
        Page 64
    A first-class rarity or a product of greedy philatelic operators?
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Some further notes on the "Levanevskii with overprint"
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Mission to "Moscow '97"
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    The journal fund
        Page 86
    The "Romanov Castle"
        Page 87
        Page 88
    More about Soviet monitoring post offices
        Page 89
        Page 90
    The Erivan' court of exchequer & the 1st issue of Armenian fiscal stamps
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    The Soviet posts in Western Belorussia 1939-1941: Addenda
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Further usages of the Soviet posts in former Polish lands 1939-1941
        Page 98
        Page 99
    The Zangezur provisionals of Armenia
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Foreign postal mail from the Ukraine in 1918
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Romanovs with revolutionary overprints
        Page 107
    The activities of the Stolow brothers in the Russian sphere
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Review of literature
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The collectors' corner
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
Full Text




5HMMIIHK


ThE POST-RIDER


No. 42
June 1998


ThE CANAdiAN SociETy oF RUSSiAN PhilATEly


Printd in Canda







Are you thinking of selling your zemstvo
collection, some covers or R items?


Please let me know!

Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station"A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2


Postmarks of the Russian Empire
(pre-adhesive period)
by Manfred Dobin

copies for sale $50.00 US postpaid

Alex Artuchov, R? O. Box 5722. Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2



The Zemstvo Postage Stamps of
Imperial Russia
Vols. I -
$0.00oo VS each postpaid
Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Statio'"A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canaba, M5W IP2







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, MSW 1P2
Canada
FAX: (905) 764-8968.
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 42. June 1998.

Contents:
2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada Robert Taylor & George G. Werbizky
5 Zemstvo Varieties Second Installment George G. Werbizky
7 Some New Considerations on Registration Machines Harry von Hofmann
for Registered Letters in Imperial Russia
25 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
45 Soviet "Withdrawn" Cachets Michael J. Carson
47 Special Note
48 The Transfer of Money by Mail in the Russian Empire Professor A.S. Ilyushin
56 More Data on the Russian Revenues for Crete 1898-1899 Andreas Mitakis
63 The Khortitsa-Khortytsya Bisect Andrew Cronin
64 A First-Class Rarity or a Product of Greedy Philatelic Operators? F. Vanius
68 Some Further Notes on the "Levanevskii with overprint" Andrew Cronin
78 Mission to "MOSCOW '97" Andrew Cronin
86 Journal Fund
87 The "Romanov Castle" Alex Artuchov
89 More about Soviet Monitoring Post Offices Andrew Cronin
91 The Erivan' Court of Exchequer & the 1st. Issue of Armenian Fiscal Stamps Khristofor Zakiyan
95 The Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia 1939-1941:Addenda Rex A. Dixon, Ivo Steyn & Robert Taylor
98 Further Usages of the Soviet Posts in Former Polish Lands 1939-1941 Robert Taylor
100 The Zangezur Provisionals of Armenia Dr. Arkadii M. Sargsyan
102 Foreign Postal Mail from the Ukraine in 1918 Alexander EpStein
107 Romanovs with Revolutionary Overprints Michael Ercolini
108 The Activities of the Stolow Brothers in the Russian Sphere Andrew Cronin
110 Philatelic Shorts
117 Review of Literature
120 The Collectors' Corer

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher and Treasurer
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.

1998. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of
this issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.






"1 am always suspicious of the eternally gloomy

C or his mind or stomach must be upset".
Aleksandr Ivanovich Gertsen (Herzen),
,___ f ~ -Russian philosopher and writer (1812-1870.




Editorial
A FRIEND IN NEED IS A FRIEND INDEED

One finds out who are one's true friends only when in deep trouble. The Russian equivalent of the editorial
title could probably be given as: ",pyr Korga Hy>KeH, 3TO BepHbIli Qpyr". There is a traditional Russian
saying on somewhat similar lines: "Crapbli apyr jnyqme HOBblX AByx" (An old friend is better than two new
ones). The other side of the coin is that one does not kick a man when he is down. Not in Canada, anyway.

The above comments are especially relevant, now that the Cold War has been over since 1991. Unfortunately,
there are still circles, mainly in Western countries, which are CWV-positive (Cold War Virus-positive) and
they all sound like a broken gramophone record. Sad to say, such negative attitudes have also spilled over into
some Russian philatelic groups abroad. The mystifying thing about this whole business is that there are
collectors who hate everything Russian: the culture, the people, the language and its literature, the often tragic
but also heroic history and the valiant current attempts to change over from a command to a free-market
economy. If those collectors have no appreciation of things Russian, then what on earth are they doing in
Russian philately?

These Russophobic sentiments have resulted in part in what might appear to have been an orchestrated
campaign to prevent the implementation of the "MOSCOW '97" International Philatelic Exhibition and
specifically to scare off participation by international exhibitors and dealers. Actually, negative publicity is
better than no publicity and it can often backfire. There will always be independent-minded souls who would
want to see for themselves and they came gladly with their exhibits from as far away as Paraguay!

It is a fundamental fact of life that no international philatelic exhibition can be fully successful without
massive American participation. Even little Greece had more entries (17) at the show than the United States
(14). That was most regrettable, as American exhibitors in general are very approachable, very knowledgeable
and possess an unbeatable variety of top-notch collections. Their presence at the exhibition would have raised
the regard and esteem for the United States to hitherto unbelievable and most gratifying heights in Russian
eyes. Could not the nay-sayers have thought through their position at least that far?

Nevertheless, the exhibition was successful and well-organised, despite some financial problems. In a positive
gesture, your editor voluntarily dipped into his pocket to give the Organising Comittee a very substantial cash
donation towards their expenses. Although a member of the International Jury, he also paid his own air fare
and did not take up the entitled per-diem allowance of USD 50.00. Those two items came to USD 1500.00 in
all, exclusive ofthe cash donation. It was a case of putting one's money where one's mouth is.

And so, dear children, remember as you lie trembling in the middle of the night: that is no Communist hiding
under the bed it's a creep who has tested CWV-positive. WATCH OUT!!!!

Our readers are now cordially invited to turn to the article MISSION TO "MOSCOW '97" on pp. 78-86 of this
issue for further interesting details about this wonderful show and related events.
2 *
THE POST-RIDER/MIIIHK .N 42
June, 1998







CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, together with some explanatory text.

A CARD FROM BELEAGUERED LENINGRAD
by Robert Taylor. F


The blockade of Leningrad by the Nazi invaders A' i
was not finally lifted until 27 January 1944, but w
mail was getting through in both directions. The
item shown here is to the Empire Stamp Co. in
Canada (still in existence!), asking for the "Stamp /
Encyclopaedia "referred to in "Popular Science"
No. 4 of 1943. The card is cancelled in Leningrad,
with a Leningrad external transit of 27 November 1943 and
then triple-censored; really secret stuff! It was first censored
in Moscow ("12/M"), then by U.S. Censor No. 6080. We see
finally that the marking "Examined by D. B/ 99" in red was
applied in Montr6al and possibly also the large figure "5". The
formula card in black is in the same printing style as the then
current postal stationery and is franked with a 12-year-old
50-kop. Dirigible Construction stamp, mistakenly applied
for the foreign surface letter rate.


THE POST-RIDER/RMIMIIHK N 42
June, 1998


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..... .... .......... ................ .........
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"* ** L ff V L ^~.4 ..- .. < ri -afiJ I cej.ol-5l ..ep .c..a. ...


de I'ex f ur ........ .............. .... ..............................................







A PHILATELIC REQUEST IN FRENCH SENT TO TORONTO


George G. Werbizky.


z- -f.


IL~
/


~4[.4i j;$ -, f /

4 ,$1~~~({ f4i(Ae


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4


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t4 ->flra'


Here we have a 3-kopek card from
Moscow 8/20 August 1886 to
Toronto 9 September (i.e. 20 days
in transit), sent by A. Shevelev, Armand
House, Vozdvizhenka Street and with a
request in good French for a specimen
copy of the "Toronto Philatelic Journal".


Editorial Comment: This is a second example of mail to Canada, given here as it can be linked with the
example shown in "The Post-Rider" No. 41, p. 4. Both cards bear a marking of the Moscow City Postal
Service: F f = FopoJacKa HIoqTa. It had been mistakenly assumed in No. 41 that the separate numeral "4"
below the date referred to a specific city post office. However, Gary Combs, our doughty expert on Muscovite
postal history has rightly pointed out that it is merely an indication of the hour. The same applies to the card
featured here, sent on 8/20 August 1886 at 2 pm.

Our members, Gary Combs and N.C. Warr, are hard at work producing a comprehensive study of Muscovite
postal history and the preliminary draft seen by your editor at "PACIFIC '97" looks very impressive. Further
details about this important endeavour will be announced in "The Post-Rider" as they become available.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHlIK JN 42
June, 1998


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UNIOIN I PISTAI.I, lHiVU- I .1-- IlSi1t.. .-I ,
SOTHPJITOE 111ICbM310. C.1tTE POSTAb


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ZEMSTVO VARIETIES SECOND INSTALLMENT
by George G. Werbizky


This is a continuation of showing Zemstvo varieties, started in "The Post-Rider" No. 40. When a
given Zemstvo is omitted, this means that I do not have varieties from that Zemstvo. It does not
necessarily mean that varieties do not exist and it is hoped that readers will send in their own
discoveries.
I also do not imply that all varieties from a Zemstvo shown here, are illustrated. What is being
shown is that that this author has. As Kuzma Prutkov Ky3bMa FIpyTKOB used
to say: "Henb3a o6aTb Heo6aTHoe" Infinity can not be embraced.

BALASHOV




SI: Chuchin No. 2a, vertical pair,
I[l s ir imperforate between.


BELEBEY


Chuchin No. 5, horizontal pair,
imperforate between.


Chuchin No 12, horizontal strip of 3 with two
stamps at right imperforate between.


THE POST-RIDER/fIMIlHK N2 42
June, 1998















Chuchin No. 15a, block of 4, imperforate, with
significant shift between blue oval and brown
frame and inscription. Next to the block is im-
perforate single, also Chuchin No. 15a, brown
color only.


Chuchin No. 16b "ground inverted" is the description given in the catalogue. Here we see
"ground" not only inverted, but shifted downward and to the left. This shift resulted in the top
row lacking "ground" two top stamps in the block of 6, and bottom selvage with "ground" only.



If you can read Russian, you should subscribe to the monthly philatelic magazine:
"OBO3PEHHE"
Issued by "CTaHaapT-KonnjeKInHa", 191186, CaHKT-IeTep6ypr, a/a J2 103, it contains illustrations
in colour and authoritative articles by leading philatelists: M.A. Dobin, Dr. R. Casey, A.D. Gdalin,
L.G. Ratner, etc. Edited by V.B. Zagorskii, a sample copy is US $6.00 (by air: US S7.00). Try us;
you will be pleasantly surprised!


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK 42
June, 1998







Some new Considerations on Registration Machines for Registered Letters in
Imperial Russia by Harry von Hofmann.

In dealing with the Postal History in Russia you will always make some unexpected discoveries. In
the sixties, in fact, we thought that in the Russian Empire there was only one registration machine for
registered letters in St.Petersburg and one in Moscow. Heinrich Imhof.however, proved in his book
about the different types of postmarks in St.Petersburg, published in 1976 [1], that there were at
least four registration machines in St.Petersburg: at the main post office, at the Warsaw railway
station, at the Nicholai railway station and at the Tsarskoe Selo railway station.
In the eighties I discovered for the first time a letter which had been posted in a registration machine
in Riga. This meant that the theory saying that there were registration machines only in Moscow and
St.Petersburg was no longer true. It was then that I started to develop a special interest in these early
examples of the employment of automation in the field of the postal services.
In my book "3AKA3HOE Recommandirt" [2], published in 1993, about the different types of
registered letters in Russia, I was able to prove that there were registration machines in six different
cities, that is to say in MogilEv, Moscow, Riga, St.Petersburg, Saratov, and Vilna. In St.Petersburg I
was able to find seven different places where registration machines were in use.
In the meantime I detected that there were other places where registration machines were used:
Essentuki, Kislovodsk and Minsk. This means, theoretically speaking, that the number of
registration machines we know of, has risen to 15. But I will come back to this figure later, because I
think that there are still a good many questions open.

Let us have a look at the different places and at the number of letters found up to now:






MOGILEV


Mogilev with "3"

1914 30.10. # 077 addressed to Genive / Switzerland
1915 08.06. # 522 addressed to New York / USA
1915 18.06. # 088 addressed to New York / USA
1915 20.07. # 301 addressed to Melitopol'
1915 06.10. # 924 addressed to Petrograd
1915 09.10. # 680 local letter
1916 02.08. # 781 addressed to Petrograd
1917 11.04. # 051 addressed to Fribourg / Switzerland


There are eight letters dated between October 30th 1914 and April 1lth 1917. For a place like
Mogilev this is a high figure and shows us that the registration machine was quite intensively used.
The registration number "924" was used on 6th October 1915; three days later, on the 9th October
we find the registration number "680". This means, that within four days at least 756 letters went
through the registration machine, that is to say at least 189 letters a day. This is quite a big figure.
THE POST-RIDER/HMUIIHK Ng 42 7
June, 1998








Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines
Mogiliv: Registration automat cachet Type I ("3") of 18.6.15.


1915 18.6.

Mogilew

Automatenstempel Typ I
Obwohl der Brief in das
Ausland gerichtet ist, gab es
keine zusatzliche Kennzeich-
nung mit dem punktierten R-
Stempel
Das Porto von 20 Kopeken
setzt sich zusammen aus je 10
Kopeken fUr das Gewichtsgeld
und fur das Einschreiben.


On the back a boxed rectangular cachet:
(ACCEPTED BY THE AUTOMAT).


Copie der Ruckseite:
Neben zahlreichen US-
amerikanischen Stempeln der
russische Rahmenstempel:


nPHHRTO-ABTOMATOMb.


= Durch Automaten behandelt.


HPHHfHTO-ABTOMATOM'b


THE POST-RIDER/5IMIMIUK jN 42
June,1998


~ki~i
B~h;-~






MOSCOW

Moscow with "3"

1912 23.01. # 788 addressed to Hyvinkaa / Finland
1913 11.05. # 382 addressed to Leipzig and Dresden / Germany
1913 21.06. # 156 addressed to Ziurich / Switzerland


Moscow with "3 / R"

1913 27.09. # 462 addressed to Stockholm / Sweden
1913 13.11. # 731 addressed to Prague / Austria
1915 10.08. # 869 addressed to Kopenhagen / Danmark

Here I know of five letters and one postcard that were delivered between May Ilth 1913 and
November 13th in the same year. Since in this case too much time has passed between the two dates,
we cannot say anything about the frequency of use. One thing however is sure: the change from the
Russian "3" to the bilingual Russian/French "3/R" in Moscow must have taken place between June
22nd and September 27th 1913.


RIGA Railway Station

Riga 1. Railway Station with "3"

1912 12.12. #606 local letter
1913 13.04. # 070 addressed to Wurzen / Germany
1913 06.05. # 704 addressed to Domitz / Germany
1913 30.07. # 800 addressed to Bern / Switzerland
1913 08.11. # 989 addressed to Berlin / Germany
1913 26.12. # 718 local letter


Riga Gare with "3 / R"

1914 19.06. # 728 addressed to Schwabach / Germany
1915 10.02. # 587 addressed to Copenhagen / Denmark
1915 04.04. # 106 addressed to Taganrog

Between December 12th 1912 and April 4th 1915, I have recorded eight letters and one postcard. A
drawing of a registration machine mark dated June 9th 1914, with the registration number "720",
which is shown in the book "Postal History of Imperial Russia in Pre-Independent Latvia" [3] by N.
Jakimovs and V. Marcilger, is a falsification of the postmark of 19th June 1914 with the registration
number "729" and shall not be considered here. Riga is one of the places where registration machines
came into early use. On 16th of August 1912 we can read in the local newspaper "Rigasche
Rundschau" that the registration machine at the Railway Post Office of the Dinaburg Railway
Station later the Main Station came into use on 15th August 1912. (text continues on p. 12).

THE POST-RIDER/HIMIUHK ._ 42 9
June, 1998







Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines



.G D.A V.ER..- O-, F-.I.
TAOSCO.*-
lP-r R






.' VE .
I -...-


S1:1.1- 21.6.
^5a?-ji~ I \ 11913 21.6.


Moskau
1. Expedition

SAutomatenstempel
ITyp I


$.


Z(.RI


Moscow 1st. Despatch: T


SDazu der Stempel
nP4pg', _H %ATO !.-ASOATb
= l Durch Automaten
behandelt.

Obwohl der Brief in
C das Ausland gerichtet
S ist, erfolgte keine
weitere Kennzeich-
S-nung.

SDie Frankatur von 20
.Kopeken setzt sich
Szusammen aus je 10
C t, I Kopeken fOr das
Gewichtsgeld und fOr
Sdas Einschreiben.
ype I ("3") 21.6.13. i


THMO-JIHTOrPA5I H H nHCqHEYMA)KHblI MAA3SHH'b

He. A. YPYCOBA
MOCKBA, MarnHHiua yj.nua, AOMN1 M 1 IJyXOBH. KOHCHCT. TEJIEQOH'b N2 2-32-51.
J


P

....... .. ............j.... ..... .


C) 0
cL L.P


Moscow: Type II ("3 / R") 27.9.13.
1st. Despatch Office.


1913 27.9.

Moskau
1. Expedition

Automatenstempel
Typ II

Der Austausch des
Klischees muss dem-
nach zwischen dem
21.6. und 27.9.1913
erfolgt sein.

Dazu der Stempel

nPpHRTO-ASTOMATO~br I

= Durch Automaten
behandelt.

Die Frankatur von 20
Kopeken setzt sich
zusammen aus je 10
Kopeken fOr das
Gewichtsgeld und far
das Einschreiben.


THE POST-RIDER/flMI11HK X.M 42
June, 1998


!


Ir
-


C~CeaT~J~-~LL*-~


,.. .. r .n. v...


..............................










Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines


1913 30.7. Riga Bahnhof (RTga dz. stacija)

Automatenstempel Typ I auf Auslandsbrief, weshalb der R-Zettel init gleicher Registriemummer
zugeklebt wurde, diese Praxis ist typisch for Riga Bahnhof.

Das Porto von 20 Kopeken setzt sich zusammen aus je 10 Kopeken fur das Gewichtsgeld und fur das
Einschreiben.

Riga Railway Station: Type I ("3") of 30.7.13.

Note that a registration label was subsequently added with the same registration number as for
the automat. That practice was typical for the Riga Railway Station post office.





THE POST-RIDER/SIMIlHK .a 42 11
June, 1998






Moreover the registration numbers show that as least 634 letters were delivered between 13th April
and 6th May, which in 24 days means an average of 27 letters a day. If we compare this figure with
the period between 8th November and 26th December, we have at least 730 letters in 49 days, which
would mean a daily average of 15 letters but if in this period the numerator had run through once
completely then we would have had 1730 letters in 49 days, with a daily average of 35 letters,
which seems to me to be more likely.


ST.PETERSBURG (Main Post Office)

St.Petersburg with "3"

1912 01.09. # 426 addressed to Grafenwohr / Germany
1913 10.06. # 196 addressed to Frankfurt/Main / Germany
1913 19.06. # 331 on receipt
1913 19.06. # 379 addressed to Berlin / Germany
1913 05.08. # 379 addressed to Zittau / Germany

I have recorded six letters for the period between September 1st 1912 and August 5th 1913. All of
them bear the Russian "3"-clich6; I have not come across the bilingual Russian/French version. I
think that we can assume that this was the first registration machine in Russia. Between the 10th and
the 19th of June at least 184 letters were handled by the machine; this means an average of 20 letters
a day. On 19th June, at least 49 letters were sent, as shown by the registration numbers of that day.


ST.PETERSBURG 2 / PETROGRAD 2


St.Petersburg 2 with "3"

1912 29.12. # 248 addressed to Neuhaus / Germany
1915 12.05. # 214 addressed to Jalta

Only two letters of 20th December 1912 and 12th May 1915 are known to me. Both have the
bilingual form with "3/R". I have not seen any version with the name Petrograd.


ST.PETERSBURG 3 / PETROGRAD 3


St.Petersburg 3 with "3 / R"

1913 23.04. # 321 addressed to Heidelberg / Germany


Petrograd 3 with "3 / R"

1916 13.04. #416 addressed to Oss/Netherlands
1916 01.09. # 146 addressed to London / Great Britain

(text continues on p. 16).
12 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIH4K JN 42
June, 1998










Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines


St. Petersburg: Type I ("3") of 1.9.12.
This is the earliest date known to me for a registration automat machine in Russia.


1912 1.9. St.Petersburg

Automatenstempel Typ I

Dies ist das mir bisher fr0heste bekannt gewordene Datum for einen Einschreib-Automaten in
Russland.

Da der Brief in das Ausland gerichtet ist, musste zusAtzlich der Stempel "R" abgeschlagen
werden.

Die Frankatur von 20 Kopeken setzt sich zusammen aus je 10 Kopeken fur das Gewichtsgeld
und fOr das Einschreiben.





THE POST-RIDER/5 MUIIK MN 42 13
June, 1998







Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines



1913 23.04
St.Petersburg 3
Automatenstempel Typ II "1
Das Porto von 20 Kope- \. .
ken setzt sich zusammen
aus je 10 Kopeken fOr
das Gewichtsgeld und for
das Einschreiben. -..




1915 -12.05. ; *' r/
Petrograd 3 St. Petersburg 3: Type II ("3 /R") of 23.4.13.
Automatenstempel Typ Ila
Die Ortsbezeichnung ist jetzt von St.Petersburg 3
auf Petrograd 3 geAndert worden.
Die rickseitig verklebte Frankatur von 40 Kopeken
setzt sich zusammen aus 3 x 10 Kopeken fOr das
Gewichtsgeld bis 3 Loth und weiteren 10 Kopeken
fir das Einschreiben.

-. :.Petrograd- 3: Type- Ia of 12.5.15 (name changed to Petrograd).
:v ^ . ... .




ETRTiPRADH"'' i

". .n : -e1- i9







It, s, A I
".N- ^ S.. .--.. -, ..






?''-, <.s-.->-7.* '.'.. ^ *: :^ ^ ::,: .. *.... A, : '- "."


14 -' ^iii -. imiTHE POST-RIDER/5fMIM1lK2o42 _______________
SJune,1998



--~CV~IPJ~Pd~g~g~P~B~June, 1998











Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines


Petrograd 4: Type IIa of 31.7.16 (name changed to Petrograd).


1916 31.7. Petrograd 4

Automatenstempel Typ Ila die Ortsbezeichnung ist jetzt in Petrograd geAndert worden.

Das Porto von 20 Kopeken setzt sich zusammen aus je 10 Kopeken fOr das Gewichtsgeld und
fir das Einschreiben.


THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIHK .M 42
June, 1998







Only one letter in the bilingual version and two with the new name of "Petrograd" are known to me
from St.Petersburg 3. The dates are between 23rd April 1913 and 1st September 1916.




ST.PETERSBURG 4 / PETROGRAD 4


St.Petersburg 4 with "3 / R"

1913 02.11. # 494 addressed to G6ttingen / Germany


Petrograd 4 with "3 / R"

1916 29.01. #842 ?
1916 31.07. # 042 addressed to Copenhagen / Denmark


Regarding St.Petersburg 4, I know of only one letter in the bilingual version and two with the new
name of "Petrograd". The dates are between 2nd November 1913 and 31st July 1916.





ST.PETERSBURG / PETROGRAD Nicholas Railway Station


St.Petersburg G.N. with "3 / R"


1912-09.12.
1912-26.12.
1913-07.01.
1913- 22.01.
1913- 08.03.
1913- 11.04.
1913- 25.04.
1913- 05.05.
1913- 25.06.
1913 30.08.
1913- 07.12.
1914- 25.02.


# 150
# 656
# 645
# 104
#010
#687
# 344
# 473
#981
#338
# 920
# 749


addressed to Frankfurt/Main / Germany
local letter
on receipt
addressed to Frankfurt/Main / Germany
addressed to Konigsberg / Germany
addressed to Berlin / Germany
?
addressed to Glasgow / Great Britain
addressed to Bad Flinsberg / Germany
local letter
local letter
addressed to Biala


From this registration machine nine letters are known to me, all dated from the period between
December 9th 1912 and February 25th 1914. All are in the bilingual version of St.Petersburg.
Between the 11th and 25th of April 1913 at least 659 letters in 15 days were sent off, which is an
average of 44 letters a day. Between April 25th and May 5th at least 130 letters in 10 days, an
average of 13 letters a day. (text continues on p. 18).

16 THE POST-RI DER/ISMIIIHK N 42
June, 1998











jtomaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines

St. Petersburg Nikolai Railway Station: Type II ("3 /R") of 8.3.13.


pa


YilpaHi{ ll /IUo,iae6C M


Cip. 06uI. X II1
ilt N2 AI;1^73; 1 .912 r. 2, pT 7i .l -'|ia.
.~~tUi"'" U*.*.MeI e..


913 8.3.


utomatenstempel Typ II

azu rickseitig der Stempel

IPMHFTO-ABTOMATOMb


Durch Automaten behandelt.


St.Petersburg Nikolai-Bahnhof

/'


* ..


)ie Frankatur von 20 Kopeken setzt sich zusammen aus je 10 Kopeken fOr das Gewichtsgeld und fur das Einschreiben.


Note the single-line marking on the back: npmHnro aBTOMaTOMT,.= accepted by the automat.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIlUlK N2 42
June, 1998


.i'


(P~i;i~7






ST.PETERSBURG / PETROGRAD Warsaw Railway Station


St.Petersburg G.V. with "3 / R"

1913 19.05. # 871 local letter
1913 03.12. #884 ?
1913 13.12. #096 addressed to Ludsen
1914 18.01. # 041 local letter
1914 04.09. # 455 addressed to Riga

In this case too, I only know of letters with the designation St.Petersburg and in the bilingual
version. They are dated between May 19th 1913 and up to September 4th 1914. Between the 3rd
and the 13th December 1913 at least 213 letters were sent in ten days; this is a daily average of 21
letters.


ST.PETERSBURG / PETROGRAD Tsarskoe Selo Railway Station


St.Petersburg G.Tz. with "3 / R"

1913 29.07. # 559 addressed to Berlin / Germany
1913 07.08. # 180 addressed to Kazan'
1913- 17.10. #213 ?

Only letters with the designation St.Petersburg, and in the bilingual version are known to me in this
case as well. They are dated between July 29th 1913 and October 17th in the same year. Between
the 29th July and the 7th August at least 622 letters in ten days were registered, that is to say 62
letters a day on the average.


SARATOV


Saratov 1 with "3 / R"

1914 03.02. # 642 addressed to Amsterdam / Netherlands
1917 17.02. # 722 addressed to Rotterdam / Netherlands

Here I could find out only one letter and one postcard. They are dated February 3rd 1914 and
February 17th 1917. Both bear a registration mark in the bilingual version.


VIINA (Railway Station)


Vil'na Railway Station. with "3 / R"

1913 04.11. # 257 addressed to Moscow
1913 15.11. # 914 addressed to St.Petersburg


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK V. 42
June, 1998


(text continues on p. 20).















B*. 1 7,1



...... .............. .. .

.. .

... ................ ....... .. .....-..
: .. ..... ... .. ..'... .





Saratov 1: Type II ("3 / R") of 17.2.17.


1917 -17.2.

Saratow I

Automatenstempel Typ II

Von diesem Stempel sind
bisher nur zwei Belege
bekannt; die sich beide in
dieser.Sammlung befinden.

Diese Karte belegt die
bisher' Sptest bekannte
Verwendung von einem
Einschreib-Automaten in
Russland.',


This is the latest known usage of a registration automat machine in the Russian Empire.


Vil'na G.P.O.:

Type II("3 / R")
of 23.7.14.

(Gerhard Hahne
,Collection).


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK N 42
June, 1998


: : i







I know of only two covers from this office, both dated 1913 and both bilingual Russian and French.
This machine was not situated in the railway post office at the station, but at the non-railway post
office situated near the station, and so the stamps are not cancelled by an oval postmark, but by a
circular one of the General Post. To avoid confusion with the railway post, the text was therefore
altered in 1914.




VIINA (Main Post Office)

Vilha Zentr. with "3 / R"

1914 23.07. # 593 addressed to Shchuchin
1914 12.10. #545 local letter


Only two letters of 1914 are known to me with the altered cachet, in which the word center. "
replaces garee", also bilingually Russian and French.


Let us now have a look at the very special cases:




ESSENTUKI

Essentuki with "3 / R"

1916 26.11. # 642 addressed to Petrograd


Here I was able to record only one letter from the year 1916, addressed to Petrograd. You may find
this letter in my display at this exhibition.




KISLOVODSK

Kislovodsk with"3 / R"

1917 07.04. # 364 addressed to Doncaster / Great Britain


This letter from the year 1917 is the latest discovery and I would like very much to thank George
Henderson for giving me a copy of this nice item.

20 THE POST-RIDER/AIMlIHK No 42
June, 1998











Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines


1916 26.11. Jessentuki

Automatenstempel Typ II

Es geh6rt zu den grossen Oberraschungen bei der Postgeschichte Russlands, dass ausgerechnet bei der relative kleinen
Bahnstation Jessentuki an der Bahnlinie 139-140 der Wladikawkasker Eisenbahn ein Automat fOr eingeschriebene Briefe
aufgestellt worden ist.

Jessentuki, im Mineralquellengebiet des Kaukasus gelegen, war ein beliebter Erholungsort fOr russische Offiziere. Dies
mag der Grund dafir sein, dass der Wunsch bestand, auch ausserhalb der vielleicht knapp bemessenen Post-
Schalterstunden eingeschriebene Sendungen aufliefern zu k6nnen, die dann mit dem nichsten Zug nach St.Petersburg
oder zu anderen Plitzen bef6rdet werden konnten.

Von diesem Automaten sind mir bisher zwei Briefe bekannt geworden.
So far, only two covers are known to me from this automat.



THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHK o 42 21
June, 1998







MINSK


Minsk with "3"

1915 18.03. # 693 addressed to Copenhagen / Denmark


Up to now, only one letter dated 1915 can be found. You may see the original in my display at this
exhibition [4].

A look at the map of Russia shows that the registration machines which have become known to us
were located in the western part of the country. However we do not know anything about important
places such as Warsaw, Kiev, Odessa or Reval.
As I showed in my book "3AKA3HOE Recomandirt" [2], Warsaw, the Polish capital, need not to
be taken into consideration, since as a rule and we do not know the reasons the introduction of
technical improvements in the Post Offices in Poland was rather neglected.
Kiev, Odessa, and Reval would have been important places for the use of registration machines.
However up to now we have not found any trace there, but we can prove the existence of
registration machines in Essentuki, Kislovodsk, and Minsk. Why?
If the existence of such a machine makes sense in Minsk, we must ask the question: Why in
Essentuki and Kislovodsk? Both towns are situated in the region of mineral springs but is this
reason enough for installing registration machines there?
But, if we have a closer look at the dates and the history, it seems that we can solve the puzzle. In
Essentuki the existence of a machine can be proved in 1916, in Kislovodsk in 1917, but in Minsk as
early as in 1915. In fact these were the years of the First World War. Russia and Germany were
enemies. The machines, however, were produced in Spandau near Berlin, and we can hardly expect
that during the war, machines could be sold to Russia.
Minsk was captured towards the end of World War I, in 1918, first by the Poles and then by the
Germans. Yet fighting had been going on near the town for a long time and it is probable that the
inhabitants were mostly evacuated, which would explain that after 1916 very few letters were sent.
Vilna was captured by German troops on September 19th 1915. Before leaving the town, the
Russians had dismantled all the equipment and evacuated the employees of the post office. Since the
registration machine at the main post office in Vilna was not there any more when the German
troops marched in, it must have been taken away. Where it was taken to, I could not find out,
perhaps to Essentuki? In fact, we can prove the existence of a registration machine there in 1916.
In Riga the Russians started already in 1915 to dismantle machines and other valuable equipment and
to bring it into central Russia. Unfortunately I have not been able to find out whether the registration
machine at the Dinaburg Railway Station was taken away too. Was it taken into the region of the
mineral springs and installed at Kislovodsk? In fact we can prove the existence of a registration
machine there in 1917.
How many registration machines were there really in Russia? I cannot answer this question today
definitely. Since the registration machine at the St.Petersburg Main Post Office turned up only in
1912 and 1913, and always only with the Russian text, we may ask two questions: was this machine
taken away to be set up in another place? Or was it just a test machine that was taken back by the
manufacturer?


22
22 THE POST-RIDER/SINIIMHK N 42
June, 1998










Automaten-R-Briefe Registration Machines


1917 18.3.

Minsk

Automatenstempel Typ II

Da der Brief in das Ausland
gerichtet ist, wurde zusAtzlich
der R-Zettel geklebt, auf den
die Registriernummer des
Automaten handschriftlich
Obertragen wurde.

Diest ist der bisher einzige aus
Minsk bekannte Automaten-R-
Brief.

Das Porto von 20 Kopeken
setzt sich zusammen aus je 10
Kopeken fOr das Gewichtsgeld
und fir das Einschreiben.


14


Copie der ROckseite:


Neben dem Siegel der Post-
Oberwachungsstelle Petrograd
fallt der rote Rahmenstempel:


I PHHRTO-ABTOMATOM'b.


= Durch Automaten behandelt.

besonders auf.


. .7
^ 8Zi'C V\


Note the boxed "nPHHSITO-ABTOMATOM'b" cachet in red.



THE POST-RIDER/tMIIMHK JN 42 23
June, 1998






And why are these letters so rare? We have seen that partly, a great many of them must have been
delivered. 13 to 189 (proved) letters a day are quite a lot. The answer could be that the machines
were used mostly by firms and lawyers, who wanted or had to post their letters out of office
hours. The envelopes were then destroyed. This might be an answer.
So there are still a good many questions open. There is still a lot to be discovered in the field of the
Postal History of Russia, and there will certainly be surprises. This makes the research so fascinating.
Who is now going to surprise me with new dates and discoveries of letters or postcards that were
handled by registration machines in Russia? I am very grateful for any clue!
Harry v. Hofmann
Postfach 56 01 56
D-22551 Hamburg
Sources:
[1] Imhof, Heinrich: Die Poststempelformen in St.Petersburg von 1766-1914, Bad Berleburg
1976
[2] v. Hofmann, Harry: 3AKA3HOE Recommandirt. Die eingeschriebenen Postsendungen im
Kaiserreich Russland vom Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ende des ersten Weltkrieges
1918", Hamburg, 1993
[3] Jakimovs, N.; Marcilger, V.: Postal History of Imperial Russia in Pre-Independent Latvia,
Johannesburg 1995
[4] Philatelic World Exhibition MOCKBA 97


Editorial Comment: The foregoing study -.-.
is based on an outstanding talk given by ..'
Herr von Hofmann at the Symposium on
Russian Philately held on 24 October 1997
during "MOSCOW'97". Grateful thanks ,; -
are due to him for allowing us to publish r r -
that ground-breaking information here. ,
ATIGOR 7
We are returning the compliment by giving ..-
him the surprise he has asked for just above. 36 MA D
Your editor has found another location -
where such machines could have operated,
namely in the resort town of Pyatigorsk.
Even more striking, the registered item
here at right was processed well into the
Soviet period, specifically on 8 March 1929
and with the hard sign ""b" in the name &4 Qt-
"fITHFOPCK'b" now possibly erased!
The black impression is of the "3 / R" type 0 V
and bears a high registration number: 636. %

And so, an interesting question now arises: o
did any other recorded registration machines
keep functioning into the Soviet era? Keep
looking, dear members! -


24 THE POST-RIDER/5fMIUWlK N 42
June, 1998









POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
By Alex Artuchov


PSKOV
HCKOB
(Pskov Province)


Pskov is the provincial capital and is located in the northwest corer of the province. Its
population declined from about 60,000 in the 15th century to 30,424 in 1897.

Pskov exported timber, flax, corn, tar and tallow and imported woollens,silks and manufactured
goods. Pskov is one of the most ancient to Russian cities founded in 992 and dating back to the
time of Rurik.

Pskov issued stamps between 1871 and 1910.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Blue background with hand reaching down from a dark cloud towards a golden animal.

1871 (January 1)
Diamond shaped, 20.25 x 29 mm printed by M. Chare in St. Petersburg; the numeral 5 at the top
does not touch the oval, the letter 3 in the word Y-B3,HArO is exactly under the numeral 5,
embossed in colour on white paper 0.09 mm thick, each stamp was printed individually then
pasted on a small sheet and delivered as such to the Zemstvo, brown gum, imperforate.


1. 5 kop. lilac


RR
(13 known)



25


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIlHK N2 42
June, 1998










Variety: Schmidt notes that a brown coloured stamp exists as the result of it either being a proof
or the result of a chemical colour change.

1871 -1875
Similar to the previous issue, the coat of arms in the double oval is narrower, the numerals are
larger and the 5 at the top touches the oval, the letter A of the word YB3IHAFO is under the
numeral 5, 19.75 x 29.5 mm imperforate, 2 editions.


First Edition (middle of 1871)
Embossed with or without vertically narrow white margins, on white paper 0.13 mm thick,
brownish or red brown gum; for about 20 years this was thought to be the first issue of Pskov.

2. 5 kop. black violet 25.00
dark violet 15.00
violet 10.00
gray violet 25.00


Second Edition (1875)
Similar to the first edition, with white margins around each stamp, quality of the embossing from
from good to almost invisible, on white paper 0.07 mm thick, at first with brown but later with
white gum.

3. 5 kop. violet 15.00
red violet 25.00
lilac 10.00


1877 1880
19.75 x 29 mm, lithographed on white paper, similar to the previous issues; the 5 at the top does
not touch the oval, the numerals 5 at the sides are smaller, the shield is longer and narrower, the
back of the heraldic animal is more arched, 2 editions.



NI.




First Edition (January ?, 1877)
On grayish paper 0.08 mm thick, white or light brownish gum; sheet of 71 stamps, the distance
between stamps is 3.25 mm horizontally and 6.25 mm diagonally, the 5th stamp in the 2nd
horizontal row and the 4th stamp in the last horizontal row are inverted, imperforate, in 1878
they were also perforated 10.5 and are also known with double perforation.


26 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIlIHK J 42
June, 1998









4. 5 kop. mauve (imperforate)

5. 5 kop. mauve (pin perforated 10.5)


The First Edition Sheet


The Second Edition Sheet


Top of stamp.


Inverted stamps.
Second Edition (1880)
Grayish white or yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, very streaky and very thickly and
unevenly applied gum; sheet of 71 stamps in a 9 x 8 configuration and only 8 stamps in the last
row, the 26th and 27th stamps on the sheet are inverted, the space between stamps in both
directions is 10.5 mm, imperforate and also pin perforated 10.5 .


2.00


6. 5 kop. violet, light or dark (imperforate)

7. 5 kop. violet (pin perforated 10.5)


1881 (July 1)
The rate was changed from 5 to 3 kop., lithographed on thin (0.06 mm) and thick (0.11 mm)
grayish white paper, similar to previous issue; gum varies from thick shiny br ownish yellow to
thin white, sheet of 61 stamps with the 29th 34th 35th 39th 57th and 59th stamps inverted, 19.25
x 28.5 mm, imperforate.


8. 3 kop. black on thick paper

9. 3 kop. black on thin paper


5.00

2.00


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIUlK N2 42
June, 1998


2.00

5.00







The Sheet


1886
Similar to previous issue, lithographed on smooth white paper 0.15 mm thick-, thick and streaky;
brownish yellow gum, the shield has no point on the bottom, there is a white spot at the bottom
of the shield, the inscriptions are larger, thin outer frameline around each stamp, sheet of 138
stamps with 15 inverted stamps on the sheet, transfer block of 5 x 2 with 10 types, perforated
12.5.
10. 3 kop. black, gray black 0.75


The Sheet








7




W Top of stamp

Inverted stamps

28 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIUIHK 42
June, 1998


7////7
I///,/./1

I ~r
' I I /Tr









The Ten Types:

1 2 3 4 5










6 7 8 9 10

1891 (January 1)
New values for new postal rates, 1 kop. was for the delivery of an ordinary newspaper while 10
kop. was for the delivery by a subscriber quarterly or semi-annually; the charge for this service
was collected when stamps were affixed in a special register that contained 4 spaces and each
space represented a quarter and supported a maximum of 1 year of delivery; these stamps were
cancelled once affixed on the register, 18.33 x 22.25 mm lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm
thick, white gum, sheet of 8 x 10 with 8 types, perforated 11.5 .






11. 1 kop. green 0.50

12. 10 kop. 1.50


The Eight Types:
Type 1 Short line at tip of SE corer triangle extending to outer frameline.
Type 2 Dot of colour in NE corer just inside the outer frameline.
Type 3 Red dot over 0 in 10 in NW corer.
Type 4 Red dot inside SW triangle near diagonal line about 2/3 of the way up.
Type 5 Red not inside NW triangle near diagonal frameline to the right of 0 of 10.
Type 6 Red dot in NW corer between triangle and left outer frameline.
Type 7 Red dot in NW corer a short distance under the 0 in 10.
Type 8 Red dot in NW triangle near the right corer of the triangle.







Type 1. Type 2. Type 3. Type 4. Type 5. Type 6. Type 7. Type 8.
THE POST-RIDER/51MIIlHK .N 42 29
June, 1998










1892 1895
17.75 x 23.33 mm, lithographed in several colours on white paper, perforated 11.5 x 11.75, 3
editions.









First Edition (April 27, 1892)
Lithographed in 3 colours on white paper 0.09 mm thick, brittle white gum, sheet of 10 x 10.

13. 5 kop. black, brown and blue 1.00


Constant Plate Flaws:
There are 2 constant plate flaws. On the 34th stamp there is a white spot on the paw of the
animal and on the 84th stamp there are broken framelines to the left of the letter 3 .


Proofs:
Printed side by side in pairs with a 3 mm space between them on small sheets of paper, all
covers run into thin lines, there are also thin guidelines in the centre and above the top and under
the bottom of the stamps, on smooth white paper 0.08 mm thick, imperforate and without gum.

- 5 kop. black, br ownish yellow and blue



Second Edition (November, 1892)
Lithographed in 4 and 5 colours on thin white paper 0.06 mm thick, sheet of 10 x 10 in 4 panes
of 5 x 5; the 3 low values are printed on the same sheet, the 3 kop. stamps on the 2 upper panes,
the 1 kop. stamp on the bottom left pane and the 10 kop. on the bottom right, the 40 kop.
stamp was printed on a sheet of 10 x 5 in 2 panes of 5 x 5 .

14. 1 kop. black, brown, blue and light green 0.35

15. 3 kop. black, brown, blue and grey blue 0.75

16. 10 kop. black, brown blue and lilac 2.50

17. 40 kop. black, brown, blue and red 6.00



30 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK 42
June, 1998









The Sheets


LUIIIIII


1 kop.


3 kop.


10 kop.


I40 kop.


--- -- 7-
.



:J .




| x V V V ^ .: ; *_'.'''*


The First Provsional Issue (November, 1894)
The 10 kop. value was surcharged with a new 3 kop. value, the original value was obliterated by
a round handstamp, the surcharges were applied in panes of 25; there are 3 types of the
surcharge.


18. 3 in black on 10 kop. black, brown, blue and lilac

The Three Types of the Overprint:
' *-.-' 1 T'i -- .- tt^ ., r^ r _.- ^,t -, -


lype i Ine oj
Type 2 The o
Type 3 The si


Type 1


Type 2


opening in the iront o01 me 3 is -3 mm
opening in the front of the 3 is 2 mm
ircharge is in a diagonal position
3 mm. 2 mm.
The Arrangement of the Surcharge Types on a 25 Stamp Pane


25.00

Type 3


(2


1 1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1 2
2 2 2 1 1
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3

The Second Provisional Issue
The same 3 surcharge on the same 10 kop stamp as on the first provisional issue but only types 1
and 2 of the surcharge were used, the original value is obliterated by a square formed by 6 short
vertical bars, a whole horizontal row of 5 stamps were overprinted at a time; in the event that the
original value was missed by the surcharge it was overprinted correctly a second time, in some
cases the round obliteration was applied the second time, some of the surcharges with excessive
ink appears either a solid square or 3 instead of 6 vertical bars.

19. 3 in black on 10 kop. black, brown, blue and lilac 25.00


THE POST-RIDER/AMIIMHK .N 42 31
June, 1998









Varieties:
a. Double impression of the square obliteration
b. Both square and round obliterations on the same stamp

The Layout ot the 2 Types on a Pane of 25 Stamps

1 1 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1
11211
22211
1 1 2 2 2

11211
22211

Reprints:
The demand for the overprint was so great from collectors that the Zemstvo reprinted them and
when the supply of the 10 kop. stamp was exhausted,the remainder of the 1 and 5 kop. stamps
were also overprinted. The round spot used to obliterate the original value of the stamp was
typographed on the reprint but handstamped on the originals.

- 3 in black on 1 kop. black, brown, blue and light green
- 3 in black on 5 kop. black, brown and blue
- 3 in black on 10 kop. black, brown, blue and lilac

Inverted surcharges exist on all of the reprints. Type 3 is also known in a reversed position.
Schmidt notes that a 5 in black exists on the 40 kop. stamp. The surcharge is handstamped and is
known in various positions. Used copies on cover are not known. Schmidt also reports a 3 in
black on 10kop. with a cross-shaped obliteration over the original numerals of value and
considers this item to be a fantasy.


Third Edition (July 1, 1895)
The 1 and 3 kop. stamps in different colours, the 1 kop. value has a background of thin horizontal
lines, the numerals of value are smaller, both stamps are printed on the same sheet with the 1
kop. value on the left side and the 3 kop. value on the right, perforated 11.5 and imperforate; the
1 kop. stamps also known imperforate vertically and the 3 kop. stamp perforated horizontally
through the middle.

20. 1 kop. black, brown, green and yellow 1.00

21. 3 kop. black, brown, carmine red and blue 1.00


Proof:
3 kop. black on a white chalky paper 0.11 mm thick, imperforate and without gum.



32
32 THE POST-RIDER/HMnDIHK 2 42
June, 1998









1896 (June)
Lithographed in 3 and 4 colours on yellowish white paper 0.09 mm thick, the 1 kop. stamp is
17.25 x 21.5 mm in size and on a sheet of 17 x 4, the 3 kop. value is 22 x 18.33 mm in size and
on a sheet of 8 x 10, the 5 kop. value is 18.75 x 22.5 mm in size and on a sheet ofl0 x 4 while the
40 kop. value is 18.5 x 22.5 mm in size and on a sheet of 4 x 4, perforated 11.5 and imperforate.








22.1 kop. black, olive yellow and brown 0.35

23. 3 kop. black, green and red brown 0.50

24. 5 kop. blue, light blue, black and red brown 1.00

25. 10 kop. carmine red, light rose, black and brown 2.00

26. 40 kop. dark lilac, light lilac, black and red brown 5.00



1902 Provisional Issue (July 3 August 1)
The 10 and 40 kop. values of the 1896 issue hand overprinted in black with new values; the
overprinting was done by 3 separate operations, original values were firstly obliterated with a
round black spot, the next operation involved the handstamping of the numerals of value, the
final operation put the letter K into place following the numeral of value; there is as a result quite
a variety of positions of the components of the overprint exist, when the regular 1 and 3 kop.
issues became available the remainders of the surcharged stamps were sold to collectors, there
were 99 and 40 of the 1 kop. and 3 kop. overprints respectively.

27. 1 K black on 40 kop. 50.00
(500 stamps surcharged)

28. 3 K black on 10 kop. 85.00
(200 stamps surcharged)



1898 (January 1)
17.33 x 22.75 mm, lithographed in 2 and 3 colours on white paper 0.07 mm thick, sheet of 10 x
10, perforated 11.25 and imperforate; the 1 kop. is also known imperforate vertically, the stamps
occur with either rough or clean cut perforations.



THE POST-RIDER/alMIllHK .N 42 33
June, 1998














29. 1 kop. lilac and red brown 0.35

30. 3 kop. black, yellow and light brown 0.50

Trial Proofs:
Trial proofs exist in the colours of the originals, printed in small sheets of 2 x 2 with cross
shaped guide marks at the top and bottom and bo th sides; there are also angle guidemarks in all
4 covers, imp erforate and without gum.

- 1 kop. lilac, light lilac and brown
- 3 kop. black, yellow and brown

Proofs:
Printed in black on thin coloured paper 0.06 mm thick,.

- 1 kop. black on carmine rose paper
- 1 kop. black on green paper
- 3 kop. black on gray-blue paper or on thicker paper 0.14
- 3 kop. black on gray granite paper

1902 (August 1)
Lithographed in 5 colours on white paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated 11.5
and imperforate; imperforate stamps are without gum and were not placed in use, the 1 kop. and
the 40 kop. values were printed on the same sheet of 9 x 7 with the 40 kop. stamp on the last row
and the 1 kop. on the balance, the 3 kop. sheet is 13 x 10 with 2 types, the 5 and 10 kop. stamps
are printed on the same sheet of 9 x 7 with the top 4 rows taken up by 5 kop. stamps and the 3
bottom rows made up of the 10 kop. value.






, 7I .... ..


31. 1 kop. black, red, yellow, blue, green and brown 1.00

32. 3 kop. black, red, yellow, blue, green and brown 1.50

33. 5 kop. black, red, yellow, blue, green and brown 2.00

34. 10 kop. black, red, yellow, blue, green and brown 3.00


34 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK MN 42
June, 1998










5.00


35. 40 kop. black, red, yellow, blue, green and brown


The Sheets


The 1 and 40 kop. Sheet
1 Kop.

40 Kop.


5 Kop.
10 Kop.



The Black Plate of the 3 Kop. Stamp


212 12 121 2 1212
1 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
11 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
21212121 212 12

2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

1 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 21 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
11 1 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 2 2


The Red Plate of the 3 Kop. Stamp



1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 112
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
21 2 12 1 2 1 2 12 12

1 1 2 1 2 .1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

11 2 12 1 2 1 2 12 12i
t1ftl 2 11 21 .12.1


Type 1






Type 2












Type 2


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK .N 42 35
June, 1998


The 5 and 10 kop. Sheet

I -- --










Proofs:
The 1, 3, 5, 10 and 40 kop. issues were all printed in black on white chalky paper 0.18 mm thick,
imperforate and without gum. Schmidt also reports that all of thevalueswere printed in the same
colours and on the same paper as the originals; they were printed on sheets of 2 x 5 with each
value in each horizontal row, imperforate and without gum. Evidence of horizontal se-tenant
pairs of proofs indicate thatSchmidt may have been wrong and that the composition of the sheet
was 5 x 2 with like values in each vertical column.


1907 (August 1)
21.75 x 25 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.05 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated
11.5 and imperforate; all of the values were printed on sheets of 10 x 10 and each one has 3
types.


36. 1 kop. red orange with coat of arms in yellow, blue, green and black

37. 3 kop. yellow green with coat of arms in yellow, blue, green and black

38. 5 kop. dark carmine with coat of arms in yellow, blue, green and black

39. 10 kop. lilac with coat of arms in yellow, blue green and black

40. 40 kop. blue with coat of arms in yellow, blue, green and black


1.00

1.50

2.00

3.00

5.00


The 1 Kop. Sheet


1231231233
1 2 3 1 13 1 2 3 3

1 1 23 3 2 1 22 3
12 2321321 3
12 313 21 21 3
1 2 3213 2 1 3 3
11 32 3 21 21 3
1 2 312 3212 3
1 1 31 3 1 2 22 3
3 2 2 3 1 2 13 3


The 3 Kop. Sheet

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 3- 1 2
1231231312
32 1 3 2 132 1 3
212 3213211
1 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 3
1 3 22321321
3323121 331
32 22 113 3 21
32 13 211 2 32
13 21321 2 1 3
33 2 1 2 1 32 3 1


36 THE POST-RIDER/IMIUIIK NJ 42
June, 1998


~-~---~-








The 10 Kop. Sheet


1 2 3 1 3 2 1 3 3 2

3 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 1 1
2 1 3 2 3 13 2 1132
3 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3
313 2 1 2311 3
3 1 13 2 2 3 1 1 2 31

32132131223
1 1 3 1 32 2 2 3 1
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 2 3
1 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 2


1 2 3 1 3 1 1 3 3 2
1 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 3
2 1 2 1 3 2 3 3 2 1-
2 1 1 2 3 1 3 3 2 1
3 3 2 1 3 2 2 3

2 3 1 3 3 2 1 3 1 2
3 1 2 2 3 21223
1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 1

2 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 1
1 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 2


The 40 Kop. Sheet


1 1 3 1 1 3 3 1 3 3
1 3 3 2 1 3.1 3 2 1




1 3 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 3
2 313 23 1 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 1 1 22 1 3
2 2 1 3 2 1 3 3 1 2
1 3 1 2 3 1 3 3 2 1


The 3 Types of the 1 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 3 dots in the ornament at the top right; the other types show 2 dots only.
Type 2 2 dots next to the ornament in the left bottom corner.
Type 3 A tiny dot next to the ornament on the right, the 2 spirals in the left bottom
ornament touch and there is a small projecting line between them.

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3


o o(5^ ^
014' ^
fo "^ (Q 7


THE POST-RIDER/RIMIIIK No 42
June, 1998


The 5 Kop. Sheet








The 3 Types of the 3 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 A spot of colour on the left leg of the letter )1 of the word YTb3jIHOE.
Type 2 2 spots of colour on the right outer framelines at the top.
Type 3 Short line across the stem of the ornament on the left over the letters KO of the
word IICKOBCKOE


Type 1


Type 2


Type 3


The 3 Types of the 5 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 A spot of colour on the left leg of the letter K of the word IICKOBCKOE.
Type 2 A line inside the spiral in the left bottom corner.
Type 3 A dot between the ornamentson the top left over the letter O of the word
ICKOBCKOE.


Type 1


Type 2


Type 3


0-"


The 3 Types of the 10 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 Round dot in the ornament at the top.
Type 2 Double dot in the same place.
Type 3 Odd shaped dot in the same place.


Type 1


Type 2


Type 3



o 00


The 3 Types of the 40 Kop. Stamp:
Type 1 Differences in the numeral 4 and a tiny dot in the ornament at the bottom left.
Type 2 Differences in the numeral 4and a short blue line which connects the blue circle
in the centre to the blue band with the inscription on the right under the letter E of
the word 3EMCTBO.
Type 3 A nick in the circle with the numeral 40 in order to make room for the upper
stroke of the 4; the upper blue spot in the letter B of the word ICKOBCKOE
is incomplete.

38
38 THE POST-RIDER/MIMIIIIK ._ 42
June, 1998


Ua









Type 2


Proofs:
Proofs were submitted to the Zemstvo by the printer. The stamps were printed on a small sheet
of 3 stamps in a horizontal row. When the order for the stamp was placed with the printer,one
stamp from each sheet was cut out from the sheet and returned. The balance of the stamps were
supposed to be kept in the zemstvo archives but, in some interesting way they found their way
into collectors' hands. A thin wavy line that surrounds each stamp similar to that of the issue of
1902 distinguishes the proof from the issued stamps. Similar in colour to the issued stamps, on
white paper 0.07 mm thick, no gum, perforated 11.5; the stamps are also known double
perforated at the top.
- 1 kop. orange brown
- 3 kop. yellow green
- 5 kop. carmine rose
- 10 kop. lilac
- 40 kop. blue


Other Proofs:
1. Black on coloured paper, without the coat of arms and crown, no gum, imperforate, cross
shaped guidemarks on all sides, the 1 kop. stamp has additional corner guidemarks.
1, 3, 5, 10 and 40 kop. stamps

- on gray paper 0.09 mm thick
- on blue paper 0.08 mm thick
- on dark blue paper 0.1 mm thick
- on yellow paper 0.07 mm thick
- on rose paper 0.1 mm thick
- on bright green paper 0.11 mm thick
- on green paper 0.07 mm thick

2. Black with carmine centre, light yellow gum, imperforate, cross shaped guidemarks on all 4
corners; the 1 kop. stamp has additional corner guidemarks.
1, 3, 5, 10 and 40 kop. stamps

- normal coat of arms
- coat of arms inverted and shifted
- coat of arms double, normal and inverted
- without coat of arms and crown, with heraldic animal,ground and cloud only



THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHUK eS 42 39
June, 1998


Type I


Type 3









3. Carmine and red with black centre.
1, 3, 5, 10 and 40 kop. stamps

- coat of arms normal
- coat of arms inverted and shifted
- coat of arms both normal and inverted, overprinted with carmine-red heraldic animal, ground
and cloud.

The Printing Process:
Due to the difficulties involved in printing 5 different stamps on the same sheet in a variety of
different colours, a complex process that is worthy of some elaboration was used to print the
stamps of this issue. The work was performed through 4 stagestransfers and retransfers.

Stage 1:
A. Original design drawn on transfer without crown and herald with no numerals of value
that were to be inserted at a later stage.
B. A is transferredwith a partial design to a stone.

Result of Stage 1: A printing stone with a partial design and no value.

Stage 2:
C. 5 single impressions are made from the the printing stone.
D. The figures of denomination are added.
E. The 5 impressions now differing from one another by their value are assembled into
horizontal or ver tical strips as illustrated.
F. The strip istransferredto a stone.

Result of Stage 2: An interim stone containing a strip of 5 different values has been assembled.

Stage 3:
G. 3 impressions are made from the transfer strip of 5.
H. The new transfer strips are trimmed and mounted together vertically or horizontally as
illustrated below. The composition of the actual sheets however suggests that the
horizontal arrangement of the strips was the preferred manner of assembly.
I. The block of 15 is now transferred to stone.

Result of Stage 3: A transfer block of 15 with each one of the 5 value repeated 3 times has now
been assembled on a printing stone.

Stage 4:
J. At least 34 impressions are made of the 3 x 5 transfer stone which are then cut into
horizontal strips to sort the 5 different values.
K. Each value is trimmed and remounted on 5 separate sheets.
L. The 5 sheets are finally transferred to the same number of stones.

Result of Stage 4: There are now 5 separate printing stones of 10 x 10, one for each value.

40 THE POST-RIDER/51MIlIHK .V 42
June, 1998









In the process, great care was taken in order to achieve the correct spacing between stamps. The
colour plates were the same for all the values as is evidenced by the constant dots found on the
yellow background of the shield on stamps 13, 32, 49, 86, 92 and others on all of the values. The
adjustment of the spacing did not allow for the unrestricted use of the 3 x 1 strips for the
composition of the sheets. Adjustments were made by the closer trimming or wider spacing of
singles and pairs. This was responsible for the partially odd arrangement of the transfer types.

1910 (May ?)
20.5 x 27.25 27.75 mm lithographed on yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, shiny gum,
sheet of 13 x 6 with all 4 values on the same sheet as shown below, perforated 11.25 and
imperforate vertically.
r'r-s-.-- .*> "'*"*






41. 1 kop. yellow 0.50

42. 3 kop. light blue 0.75

43. 5 kop. rose 2.00

44. 10 kop. light green 5.00

The coat of arms on all of these values is multi- coloured.

The Sheet


- -~- -

- 11~~zdzzz -


Constant Plate Flaws:
There is an abundance of plate flaws of all of the values except for the 1 kop. stamp due to the
colour in which it was printed.

3 Kop:
Stamp 6 Break in the thin top frameline in the NE corner.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIUIHK 42 41
June, 1998









Stamp 7-
Stamp 9 -
Stamp 10-
Stamp 11 -
Stamp 17 -

Stamp 18 -
Stamp 22 -

Stamp 26 -
Stamp 30 -

Stamp 32 -
Stamp 33 -

Stamp 34 -

Stamp 35 -


Stamp 36 -


5 Kop:
Stamp 1 -

Stamp 2-
Stamp 3-

Stamp 4-
Stamp 5-
Stamp 7-

Stamp 8-
Stamp 11 -
Stamp 12-


10 Kop:
Stamp 1 -

Stamp 2 -
Stamp 3 -


The last 0 in HCKOBCKAFO appears to be a solid white square.
Breaks in the thin outer framelines on the left.
White spot on top of the A of the word Yrb3JA.
White dot between the 3 and the A of the word YIb3JJA.
White spot under the second C of the word FICKOBCKAFO, in the same word
the first O is broken and appears to be a C.
There are 2 white dots on the 3 in the NW corer.
A curved white line on the thick frameline at the top under the numeral 3 in the
NW corer.
Break in the thin blue frameline under the letters 3J of the word YTb3JIA.
The letter E of the word 3EMCKAI has a long upper horizontal stroke which
curves upwards.
There is a blue dot on top of the second O of the word ICKOBCKArO.
Damaged outer white frameline to the left of the 3 in the NW comer, a b reak in
the centre thin outer frameline on the right.
The left leg of the letter A of the word fICKOBCKAFO is long and touches the
white frameline.
The letter K of the word nCKOBCKAFO is deformed, there is a triangular
white spot under the O of the word IIOITA and a white spot over the letter T of
the word 3EMCKAH.
There is a diagonal white line on the thick top frameline over the numeral 3 in the
NE corer.


A thin white line connects the letter 3 of the word 3EMCKAI to the white line
beneath it and it continues across the thin rose frameline.
Damaged numeral 5 in the NE corer.
The letters CK of the word 3EMCKAI connected at the top by an irregularly
shaped white spot.
The letter 3 of the word 3EMCKAS has a narrow opening in the front.
There is a break in the vertical stroke of the letter k in the SW corer.
The letter M of the word 3EMCKA5I has a curved white spot over its top centre,
white spots are attached to the foot of the letter T of the word IIOITA.
A white vertical line runs down from the letter O of the word FIOHTA.
The second letter C of the word ICKOBCKAFO is damaged.
The top horizontal stroke on the numeral 5 in the SE corer is in the form of a
hook.


There is a white spot attached to the right side of the vertical stroke of the letter H
of the word IIOHTA.
There is a break in the thin green line under the letter A of the word 'IOITA.
The top half of the vertical stroke of the letter k in the NW corer is missing.


THE POST-RIDER/ffMIHI(K .J' 42
June. 1998









Stamp 4 The letters MC of the word 3EMCKAI is connected at the bottom by a white


Stamp 5 -
Stamp 6 -


spot.
The lower half of the vertical stroke of the letter k in the SW corer is missing.
The left leg of the letter A of the word IIOTTA is damaged.


1917
22.5 x 29.5 mm lithographed in dark blue on coloured paper 0.11 mm thick, white gum,
perforated 11.5 the stamps are inscribed "Zemstvo Hospital of Pskov Government"; the purpose
or details relating to usage of these stamps is not quite clear.


- 20 kop. on rose paper
- 50 kop. on bright lilac paper
- 1 rub. blue on yellow paper
- 3 rub. blue on bright green paper
- 5 rub. blue on blue paper


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:


Sch
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17


Sch
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29


Sch
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44


THE POST-RIDER/IMIUIIK .N 42
June,1998









The Zemstvo Postage Stamps
of Imperial Russia
Vol. 4
by Alex Artuchov


The author and the CSRP are pleased to announce the pending publication
of Volume 4. The publication will deal with the zemstvo districts from
Odessa to Rzhev and will consist of slightly less than 200 pages.
Publication and distribution is anticipated for the late summer of 1998.

Pre-publication orders at a discounted price of $25.00 (US) are invited. The
post publication price of Vol. 4 will be $30.00 (US). The preceding 3
volumes are also $30.00 (US) each. Dealers purchasing in volume are
requested to approach the author directly for wholesale pricing.

To order your copy please fill in the bottom portion and return it to: Alex
Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W
1P2 with the remittance payable to Alex Artuchov .


44 THE POST-RIDER/ISMIUllK .N 42
June, 1998


by ALEX ARTUCHOV
Vol. 4 Odessa Rzhev


3JAPe(NM M66301







SOVIET "WITHDRAWN" CACHETS
by Michael J. Carson.


A few years ago, the editor of The British Journal of Russian Philately noted in his editorial space several
of the areas of Russian philately which have rarely. if ever, been the subject of articles in the journals.
One of the noted subjects is that of postal cachets. Registration markings have been widely covered, the
Soviet airmail cachets have received a fair amount of attention and there have been a few notes on the
"Taken from a postal box" markings, but that is about all. A few trees have been examined, but there is a
whole forest out there that deserves some attention.

This is not an attempt at exhaustive research to produce a definitive article. It is rather an introduction to
one type of postal cachet, written with the hope that it will prompt readers to examine their holdings for
similar cachets(or another category of cachet) and write up the results of their researches. Eventually,
these cachets could be sorted and classified, our knowledge of them systematised and our understanding
of postal operations increased.

The subject of these notes is a category of cachet reading either "CH5ITA" (snyata) or "CHFITO"
(snyato), the feminine or neuter forms of the word respectively. In the context of postal use, the word
means "removed" or "withdrawn". On the items illustrated with this article, the cachet is used to
"withdraw" or invalidate postage-due markings erroneously applied to pieces of mail. All the illustrated
cachets are handstamped in black ink on top of the marking being invalidated.
,- -- |


Fig. I.
- t


Fig. illustrates a local letter from Moscow, dated 17.8. (21?). The year is illegible but would seem to be
1921. The letter is franked with a 10-kopek Savings Bank stamp, which had just been revalued to 250
roubles on 15 August. Thus, the letter was overfranked, as a local letter then cost only 100 roubles. But a
postal clerk was unaware of, or had forgotten the recent revaluation of the Savings Bank stamps and
THE POST-RIDER/RMIHUK N2 42 45
June,1998


#"":N44vy ~d7


,~-.c9ce


S ~
j,. .-" .... I

e


I|1 7


c
a.- /%


pe.~


.4







applied an oval "IOnJ1IATHTb" (postage due) marking on the left side of the cover. The due marking
was then withdrawn by means of a rather large cachet consisting of the word CH5ITA. sandwiched
between two bands of diamond-shaped dots. The overall dimensions of the cachet are 23mm. x 40mm.
The individual letters measure 7mm. tall.

C h arkow e r Po-lyg raphvereinigung
Ukraina, Charkow.K.. Libknechtstr.; 64.-




FMg. 2. -
-; .t : '-B~<.
/~


The cover in fig. 2 originated in Khar'kov (note the Ukrainian-language cancel, reading "XAPbKIB") on
16.2.22, destined for Germany. It is franked with four copies of the imperforate 1-rouble Arms-type
stamps, which paid in fact 4 roubles postage in the 1922 currency. An oval due marking was applied at
top centre, then withdrawn by a small CHAITO cachet, measuring 6mm. x 20mm. In this case. the postal
clerk evidently assumed that this was an ordinary letter to Germany, which cost at that time 20 roubles
(1922 currency). After applying the due marking, he noticed that the envelope in fact contained printed
matter; see the manuscript notation at the upper left. Four roubles was apparently sufficient postage and
the due marking was withdrawn.

Fig. 3 at the top of the next page illustrates a very philatelic cover sent from Volokolamsk, Moscow
province 26.11.22 to Moscow, where it arrived the following day. It is franked with a set of the
undenominated charity stamps, issued 18.11.22. A Volokolamsk due marking was applied near the centre,
then withdrawn with a CHITA cachet, measuring 7.5mm. x 35mm. It would seem that the postal clerk
did not recognize the newly-issued undenominated stamps as valid postage and applied the due marking.
In fact, the letter was overfranked by a factor of four, as each stamp paid 20 roubles postage in the 1922
currency and that was the rate for an intercity letter in November 1922.

The "withdrawn" cachets seem to be relatively uncommon. The three illustrated with this article are the
only examples that I have seen. It would seem that relatively few offices had "withdrawn" handstamps.
More typically, markings applied in error were withdrawn by a simple scribble of the pen or pencil. The
paucity of data precludes the drawing of any conclusions, but it does raise a number of points which could
46 THE POST-RIDERI/IUI[HK No 42
June, 1998
















Fig. 3.









be illustrated by further examples of these markings:-

(1) The examples cited here cover a very short time-span in 1921 and 1922. Can readers extend the
known period of use, perhaps back into Imperial times, or forward into the post-inflationary Soviet
Union?

(2) One of the examples is from Khar'kov, the other two are from Moscow and a nearby town. Can the
known area of use be expanded to other towns and to other regions of the country?

(3) All my examples were used to invalidate postage-due markings. Were these cachets also used to
"withdraw" other types of erroneously applied postal markings?

(4) For the true linguists among us, what is the significance, if any, of the use of the feminine form
CHRITA versus the neuter form CH5ITO? I would tentatively suggest that the feminine form was used
to agree with FIEqATb (pechat'= imprint) or with ),OFIJIATA (doplata = postage due), both feminine
nouns. Any suggestions for the neuter form?

And the cover in Fig. 2 raises yet another, unrelated point. Has anyone seen a rate table for printed matter
during the inflation era? The few items of printed matter in my collection allow some educated guesses to
be made regarding printed matter rates, but a comprehensive rate table would be most helpful.

In conclusion, I would encourage readers to share via this journal further information about these
"withdrawn" cachets. And if you have a reasonable sample of some other type of postal cachet, please
write an introductory article about it. Let us begin the exploration of the forest!

SPECIAL NOTE:

There are references about the CSRP Reprint of the 1932 Philatelic Exhibition Presentation Sheet also by
the well-known philatelic journalist, Lester Winick, in his column "The Insider", published in the
January 12 and May 11, 1998 issues of "Linn's Stamp News".



THE POST-RIDER/AIMImIK YJ 42 47
June, 1998


_ ___






THE TRANSFER OF MONEY BY -MAL IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
by Professor A.S. Ilyushin.

The transmission of money by means of postal and telegraphic orders (on a par with the despatch of
money packets and bundles) came into force in the Russian Empire as of I January 1897 (in Siberia from
1 March 1897). The sender took the money to the post office and the order was sent through official
channels to the postal point of destination, which paid out the money to the addressee. The total amount
that could be sent in a money order was limited to 100 roubles and the postal rate for despatching such a
transfer was fixed at 15 kopeks, regardless of the amount.

For the implementation of postal operations in the transfer of money, the Department of Posts and
Telegraphs of the Russian Empire brought into being in 1896 the issue of special money-order forms,
with and without an impressed stamp die. A stamp die of original design and with a face value of 15
kopeks was imprinted on the forms (see Fig. 1 on the next page).

In accordance with a circular dated 1897, the implementation of money orders sent by telegraph was
performed in the following way: the postal official specified in the address portion of the transmitted
telegram the place of destination and the words "noqTOBbIit nepeBo0b" ("postal order"), as well as in the
text the necessary instructions to the post office at the destination. The words "noITOBbin nepeBo!b"
denoted the official character of the telegram, which was returned to the postal or postal-telegraphic
point. Upon processing the transmitted telegram, a notation reading "no Tenerpacpy" ("by telegraph")
was indicated diagonally across the form of the telegraphic order by hand in red pencil, or by a cachet
(see Fig. 2 on the next page). The money-order form was sent immediately after the transmitted telegram
by the first mail to the destination and it confirmed the accuracy of the specified amount, which was to be
reported to the Control Chamber. The coupon at left was torn off the transmitted form and retained. There
was a charge in cash for telegraphic money orders, equal to the fee for a telegram of 20 words.

This new type of postal service was well received at one stroke by the patrons of the postal
administration. The Postal Department sold 22,821,043 forms in 1897 for a total of 166,809 roubles and
1,780,206 money orders were sent for a total amount of 79,465,087 roubles.

However, the introduction of this new postal operation led to a sharp decline in the income of the Postal
Administration, because of the decrease in the insurance fees, which dropped down to 1,349,000 roubles
in 1897. The charge for transmitting money proved to be quite low and that situation obliged the TYrlnT
(General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs) to look again at the rate for this type of service. By
order of the Minister of Internal Affairs, a new scale of insurance fees (commissions) was set up as of I
March 1899 for the transmission of money by post: 15 kopeks were charged for money orders up to 25
roubles and 25 kopeks for sums above 25 roubles and up to 100 roubles. The maximum amount for a
money order remained fixed at 100 roubles. The fee for transmission by telegraph remained as before.
Upon the request of addressees, money orders were delivered to domiciles in many cities and an
additional charge of 10 kopeks per order was levied for delivery.

Originally, money orders were accepted only for 716 towns, where there were offices of the Ministry of
Finances. However, as of 1 March 1899 (in Siberia as of 1 May), the acceptance of money orders was also
arranged in those places where there were no revenue offices or bureau of the Ministry of Finances. In
that same year, permission was also granted for the use of privately prepared forms, with the rate to be
paid in postage stamps. It was not allowed to print any representation of the State coat of arms or of
postage stamps on private forms.

In connection with the differing postal rates of 1899, a second issue of impressed forms came into being,
48 THE POST-RIDER/1SMIIIK .2 42
June, 1998















































OTP-3HOr KynObk-




.. ........ pyu6. ...... "- 1on "
|CTU*U*rWM


S. EPEBOA'b.

Hla cy... t .. ... ........ ..... .. ...... ..

Ha 7"1.. py...... ion.
c W!: Q


..... .......... .. .- ... ... ...
........ .. .. ....... . ... ................ ..t. .................. ........................................


.-... ... .


artmlk nlu n Cm rwcdnuw OfuLMt&Ku.


R'Deunam |. *|i m. 4*.


Fig. 4.


r
a
pi
O
v2



on
\o


^|


NP


C






consisting of two cards printed in blue and red. A stamp design with a value of 15 kopeks was printed on
the blue form and a die for 25 kopeks on the red form (see Figs. 3 & 4 on the previous page).

A third issue of stamped postal orders was prepared in 1901 and also consisted of two forms with
impressed designs in the values of 15 and 25 kopeks. The forms of this third issue may be distinguished
from those of the second issue by the presence of a note in the lower part of the front side, reading:
"HuKIKIix-b noM.apoK-, u nonpatOK7, me1icmn, He (onycKaenmcR" (No erasures or corrections are
allowed in the text); see Figs 5 & 6 on the next page. This issue had a second printing in 1903.

As of 1 January 1903, the maximum amount for a money order was increased to 200 roubles, with the
following insurance rates (commissions) coming into force:-
Up to 25 roubles 15 kopeks
Above 25 roubles and up to 100 roubles 25 kopeks
Above 100 roubles and up to 125 roubles 40 kopeks
Above 125 roubles and up to 200 roubles 50 kopeks
In addition to the above, a sender could transmit on one and the same day to the same name and address
not more than 5 money orders, i.e. not more than 1000 roubles. If such money orders were to be sent bv
telegraph, then the additional fee in cash was levied only as for one telegram consisting of 25 words.

As of 1 March 1903, several changes were introduced in the regulations for transfer operations, with a
view to ensuring more security in the transmission of money. For all money orders, submitted for
acceptance on one and the same day by a person in the name of one addressee (from 2 to 5 forms) for a
sum above 200 roubles, the change mainly consisted in the requirement to apply an impression of a
special control marking in the form of an equal-sided octagon, enclosing a reproduction of the State coat
of arms of the Russian Empire and specifying the name of the postal and telegraphic point (see Fig. 7 on
the next page). The word "HEPEBOR'b" (transfer) was placed in the bottom part of the marking. Single
money orders with amounts up to 200 roubles were transmitted and cashed without any impression of the
control marking. Upon payment of the money, the postal official had to apply on the front side of the
money-order card a cachet in red with the word "On1JIAHEH'b" (paid). The usage of the control
marking was abolished as of I November 1904, but the "OIJIAHEH'b" cachet was applied up to
October 1917.

As of 1 January 1904, the maximum amount for money orders was raised to 500 roubles. The
transmission of money orders up to 200 roubles was charged on the basis of the 1899 rates and those
above 200 roubles were sent according to the following fees:-
Above 200 roubles and up to 225 roubles 65 kopeks
Above 225 roubles and up to 300 roubles 75 kopeks
Above 300 roubles and up to 325 roubles 90 kopeks
Above 325 roubles and up to 400 roubles I rouble
Above 400 roubles and up to 425 roubles 1 r. 15 k.
Above 425 roubles and up to 500 roubles I r. 25 k.

In view of the fact that money orders for large amounts had to be franked additionally with postage
stamps and also because the preparation of forms with imprinted stamps and their despatch to the issuing
offices had become very expensive, regional postal administrations were permitted to issue locally printed
money-order forms without imprinted stamps. The FYrInT advised the postal points of Russia about the
introduction in 1904 of stamps with the values of 15 and 25 kopeks, intended especially to pay for money
orders when using forms without imprinted stamps. The latter were sold at the post offices for 1/2 kopek
per blank form. It was permitted to keep on selling at the postal points the forms with imprinted stamp
designs until the stocks were completely used up.
50 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK N 42
June, 1998





















OTPF-3H01 HK


.on ..
l E P E B O)Lb.
H ot .............. *'"**'* ......... .. ........

1. cy. n y ...... ....... ...... ..... o.. n.






~ /i .... .............



*0aIon manlflls a tjjm *ejru n


C. ctyic .rst oiJtn-,tIl.


IluIa.u.- noMapof u non paeon' as memri na Oo ny aem..


.........n e .. S. i


I I *un elpo al fon m*ii ynn e I


OTPb1


qanon Iy. o b.. h EPE B O b.



g I[(t ry.t(.ity 1 4. NO'n .



.. .. .. ...... .'. ...








ee r lr 8 susp* *y Gat at /{K ,
.an m e Ifinel t *.l ljp( l *lplm ,*l.,ty"J





Sr


l ,MI Ka ifU r a ni u no n p o f ln f ni n rc l+ mn o n y aceorm -
~~U* ~ ~ Ba~~ ~ ~l


Fig. 6.


Onme


Fig. 7.


I.-.---"

.j.j


Rlll




4r~A


Fig. 8.






To simplify the consecutive registration of the forms, the offices in St. Petersburg began in 1903 to affix
on the postal orders special labels with a blue frame and a printed number, as an experiment. That
experiment proved successful and, as of 1 August 1904, FYrfIT introduced in all postal and telegraphic
points in the Empire similar labels with the name of the relevant office and the numbering according to
the recording book. The labels were affixed to the forms for postal and telegraphic orders. Impressions
from rubber stamps were later applied in place of the labels.

At the end of 1906, the maximum amount for internal money orders was increased to 5000 roubles and
the acceptance of money packets and of open declared value letters with money enclosed was temporarily
suspended. That led to a sharp rise in postal operations by means of money orders. To save time in
processing the postal documentation, it was decided to print forms in blue for postal orders and in red for
telegraphic orders. This procedure was introduced as of 14 March 1907 and the utilisation of old forms
with designation of colour was allowed right up to 1 January 1908. However, by 16 April 1907, it had
already been permitted to use old 15 & 25-kopek imprinted forms until they were completely exhausted.
To achieve this, it was suggested to apply the impression of a cachet, or to make a notation reading "no
noqTrt" (by post) on the forms of 15-kopek value and "no Tenerpacpy" (by telegraph) on the 25-k. forms.

The insurance fee (commission) for the transmission of money by post and the telegraphic fee remained
unchanged. The fees calculated for the transfer of money by post were collected in full upon issuing the
order. As of 1 January 1907, the postal charge and special telegraphic fee were paid in stamps for the
relevant amount. The stamps were affixed by the sender on the front of the form and also on the back if
necessary. Telegrams which included the despatch of money were processed by the officials of the postal-
telegraphic point without any participation by the senders of the orders.

Orders up to 500 roubles were sent according to the rates noted above and at the following fees for larger
amounts:-
More than 500 roubles and up to 525 roubles I r. 40 k..
More than 525 roubles and up to 600 roubles I r. 50 k.
More than 600 roubles and up to 625 roubles I r. 65 k.
More than 625 roubles and up to 700 roubles I r. 75 k.
More than 700 roubles and up to 725 roubles 1 r. 90 k.
More than 725 roubles and up to 800 roubles 2 r.
More than 800 roubles and up to 825 roubles 2 r. 15 k.
More than 825 roubles and up to 900 roubles 2 r. 25 k.
More than 900 roubles and up to 925 roubles 2 r. 40 k.
More than 925 roubles and up to 1000 roubles 2 r. 50 k.
More than 1000 roubles and up to 1025 roubles 2 r. 65 k.
More than 1025 roubles and up to 1100 roubles 2 r. 75 k. etc.
More than 4925 roubles and up to 5000 roubles 12 r. 50 k.
As of I May 1909, FYiinT put into effect new "Regulations for the Postal Sector", being sanctioned by
the Minister of Internal Affairs on 9 January 1909. In accordance with these specifications, the insurance
fee (commission) for the transfer of money by post remained as before. For the transfer of money by
telegraph, an additional and special telegraphic fee was levied in the following amounts, over and above
the postal charge:-
Transfer of money up to 500 roubles above 500 roubles
(a) Within European Russia, including 1 r. 15 k. 1 r. 40 k.
Transcaucasia and within Asiatic Russia
(b) From European Russia, including Transcaucasia, 2 r. 15 k. 2 r. 65 k.
to Asiatic Russia and return
(c) Between localities to which city tariff is extended 35 k. 40 k.
52 THE POST-RIDER/IfMIrHK .- 42
June, 1998







The rate structure for postal money orders actually did not undergo any changes from 1899 to 1 January
1917, while during that period the special fee for transmitting money by telegraph was changed
repeatedly. Thus, for example, the rates for the transfer of money by telegraph between the European and
Asiatic parts of the Russian Empire, were changed in the following way:-
up to 500 roubles above 500 roubles
From 1.1.1910 1 r. 75 k. 2r. 15 k.
From 1.1.1911 1 r. 35 k. 1 r. 65 k.
From 1.1.1912 1 r. 15 k. 1 r. 40 k.

The special fee for the transfer of money by telegraph was increased in 1914, as follows:-

(a) Within the entire boundaries of Russia 1 r. 70 k. 2 r. 5 k.
(b) Between localities to which city telegraph was extended 70 k. 80 k.

New fees for money orders were introduced as of 1 January 1917:-
Up to 25 roubles 10 kopeks
Above 25 roubles and up to 100 roubles 20 kopeks
Above 100 roubles, for every full 100 roubles 20 kopeks
(a) Extra 25 roubles 10 kopeks
(b) Above 25 roubles 20 kopeks

A new change in the rates for postal money orders came about on 15 August 1917:-
Up to 25 roubles inclusively 15 kopeks
Above 25 roubles and up to 100 roubles inclusively 50 kopeks
Each successive 100 roubles or part thereof 50 kopeks
A fee of 20 kopeks was charged for the delivery to the addressee of money orders up to 500 roubles. In
addition to the postal rate, a further fee of 3 roubles was levied for the transmission of money by
telegraph for amounts up to 500 roubles, and 4 roubles for a money order above 500 roubles. These rates
were in effect until 15 February 1918.

Thus, the story of the transfer of money by post and telegraph in the Russian Empire comprises a
comparatively short period of time 21 years in all. However, the data cited above about this interesting
sphere of activity in the Russian postal service permit the preparation of a philatelic exhibit about this
subject in the class either of Postal Stationery or of Postal History. In the first case, where the exhibit is
worked up for the subject "Stamped forms for money orders of Russia and their utilisation 1897-1917",
the aim of the collection should be to present the forms of postal and telegraphic orders with imprinted
stamps, in mint condition and having gone through the post. In the second case, the exhibit could be
called "Postal and Telgraphic Money Orders of Russia 1897-1917" and would be based on forms having
gone through the mails, with or without imprinted stamps, as well as detachable coupons, postal receipts,
acknowledgements of receipt and similar material.

A summary and catalogue are set out below of money-order forms with imprinted stamps, issued by the
Postal Department of the Russian Empire 1896-1903. All the forms were printed on thin card stock in
bright shades of white to yellow-grey. The sizes varied within a range of + 2mm., measuring 130 x
180mm. for forms of the first issue and 140 x 205mm. for the remaining issues. The imprinted design, all
the inscriptions, ornaments and lines for the address were printed either in blue for the 15-kopek value or
in red for the 25-kopek fee. A dotted background of varying intensity was applied under the imprinted
stamp and is barely visible on some examples. The forms of the 1901-1903 issues differ from the previous
printings by the presence in the bottom right part of the form of the note: "No erasures or corrections to
the text are allowed". Moreover, the dotted address line in the 1901 issue consists of 24 dots per 2 cms.
THE POST-RIDER/IlMIIHK .2 42 53
June, 1998






and in the 1903 issue of 31 dots per 2 centimetres.
1896.
1. 15 kop. Blue imprinted design on red background.
1899.
2. 15 kop. Blue imprinted design on red background.
3. 25 kop. Red imprinted design on red background.
1901-1903.
4-I 15 kop. Blue imprinted design on blue background (24 dots) 1901.
4-Ia 15 kop. Blue imprinted design on red background (24 dots) 1901.
4-IIA 15 kop. Blue imprinted design on blue background (31 dots) 1903.
Distance from the right side of the vertical line of the ornament to the left side of the
imprinted design = 96mm. (see Fig. 8 on p. 51).
4-IIB 15 kop. Blue imprinted design on blue background (31 dots) 1903. Distance = 97mm.
(see Fig. 8 on p. 50).
5-1 25 kop. Red imprinted design on red background (24 dots) 1901.
5-11 25 kop. Red imprinted design on red background (31 dots) 1903.
Notes.
1. The 1901 issue is easily distinguished from the 1903 issue by the distance between the bottom side of
the imprinted design and the lower continuous address line, measuring 66mm. in 1901 and 62mm. in
1903 respectively (see Fig. 9 on the next page).
2. There is not agreement among the various authors about classifying the money-order forms. In the
catalogue of the Soviet Philatelic Association edited by F.G. Chuchin, he assigns a basic No. 4, but does
not price mint or used examples! In the world-wide catalogue of postal stationery compiled by Dr. Ascher
in Germany in 1924, this issue is also listed under a basic number and again remains unpriced, but there is
stated in a note that it must be regarded as an "error of printing". These data are reprinted in the manual
by S.V. Prigara, published in New York in 1941. This issue is not listed in the current catalogues: "Postal
Stationery of Europe" (Michel) and "Postal Stationery of the World" (Higgins and Gage). In my opinion.
it should be regarded as a variety and should not be assigned a specific number in the catalogues.
Alexander EpStein agrees with that position (see the magazine "YKpaIiHcKa ii PoccIIIcCKag
QrnjaTejr~", MN 1, 1991, p. 18).
Some final notes on the illustrations:-
Fig. 1. Imprinted postal money-order form No. 1.
Fig. 2. Form No. 1, used for a transfer by telegraph of the sum of 40 roubles from Vladivostok 16 April
1899 to Tsarskoe Selo. The total franking of 25 kopeks covered the rate for a postal money-order, while
the additional fee for a transfer by telegraph was charged in cash.
Figs. 3, 4, 5 & 6. Imprinted postal money-order forms Nos. 2, 3, 4 & 5.
Fig. 7. Form No. 5-1, used for the transfer by telegraph of the sum of 200 roubles from Ismail 6 October
1903 to Kishin'e'v. The total franking covered the postal money-order fee, while the additional fee for a
transfer by telegraph was levied in cash.
Fig. 8. Varieties of the setting for the form No. 4-II, A & B.
Fig. 9. Characteristic differences of the forms with impressed stamps Nos. 4-I and 4-11.

Editorial Comment: Professor Ilyushin has done Russian collectors in general and postal stationery
collectors in particular a great favour by presenting the above information and classification in such a
comprehensive form. As another example of the possibilities in this field, please refer to Fig. 10 on the
next page for an example of form No. 5-I (24 dots) from the collection of your editor, where an Estonian,
Georg Tatht, is sending 30 roubles by telegraph (diagonal notation in red ink: "no Te.nerpaby") from
Chuguchak, Sinkiang province in China 10 & 11 September 1903 (two different Russian Used Abroad
cancels) to Yur'ev (Tartu in Estonia). Perhaps we can find out from his descendents in Tartu what Georg
T'aht was doing in the wilds of Western China back in 1903! Also, who has other Used Abroad usages?
54 THE POST-RIDER/RMIRHK .X2 42
June, 1998













rI 71 2


f nFTREBOA'Bb.


." H c l"y. .. ..... .. .. ._..
*- Ka cyuty ... ........ ..pyO.-. ..- '-.aco+


<:2. .* .


( -..ore u ,.E- w B elp dt J .- u irT u .).


* dU... t ......... ......






U q ,


SCfye67bL.Ot om Jmnttm. ,





ifu aicua nomapos .nqnpaeootsm ecr m... n 9



Fig. 9.


Fig. 10.


THE POST-RIDER/fIMIIIHK 42
June, 1998


OTP b3HOH KYnOH'b.


o10




(Oma. urY.


()uta 'hk ~~Lv~


jI~tk~rallai* AnloM~uIr *Aktcr 9IfClj..M~it~)


01O.alt)OKha Itu lOllJpUdOa o6 )LIeC)ILL b Ile OUVUIyKU~e)IICJI.


i.~n~plb~~t rpn~uy.

r
ii
i
-'-"-"'~"""'~"--"~-'
~;~"
i
_..--l;in`-i~-------


?I; i-
I






MORE DATA ON THE RUSSIAN REVENUES FOR CREATE 1898-1899
by Andreas Mitakis.
I have acquired further material since my article "The Fiscal Stamps of the Russian Zone on Crete" was published in
"The Post-Rider" No. 34, pp.39-42 and the revised findings are set out hereunder.
RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATION (1898-1899) FIRST ISSUE OF RUSSIAN REVENUE STAMPS
DISTRICT OF RETHYMNO Revenue handstamp (double-headed eagle)












A 'OTPSIA HA// /7 OCTP.-. KP HT
4.. ,LA' "



S % / A > .^.._



( Sel /of he ,xeditionar-/

handstamp dated 17.11.1898,l :



< .
SC ft<, ./y y..







The Russian cachet reads
<< 2 H' rnEHATb 3KCnE,,IH I1OH.
< 2 OTP5ILA HA OCTP. KPHT-B
---B (Seal of the Expeditionarn-
S Detachment on the island of Crete)
-li f and was probably intended as a
Marking for official mail and/or for
impression on wax for the backs of
declared value (money) letters.
Notarial document from Rethvmno (3.11.1898) with 2 Piastres in violet color handstamp
dated 3.111898.
56 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIIIK 42
June, 1998






RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATION (1898-1899)
DISTRICT OF RETHYMNO


SECOND ISSUE OF RUSSIAN REVENUE STAMPS ,?'/ -. ;. 7. \
Revenue handstamp (double headed eagle) ;,
In preparing this second manuscript issue, another control marking was applied, as ".'- 'y
shown here at right and reading: "Expeditionary Detachment on the Island of Crete". ,
It was also used as a control marking for the locally produced postage stamps. __

.,. *. : .y : ) ll"







S '2 /'



tI -


Notarial document from Reth-mno (8.1.1899) with four copies of 20 Parades.
Notarial document from Rcthvmno (8.1.1899) with four copies of 20 Parades.


Notarial document with 1 PiastreTurkish revenue stamp from Rethvmno dated
9.7.1887 and registered on 24.3.1899 bearing a 20 Paras Russian revenue stamp.
THE POST-RIDER/AMIIIMK .N 42
June, 1998








RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATION (1898-1899)
DISTRICT OF RETHYMNO


SECOND ISSUE OF RUSSIAN REVENUE STAMPS
Revenue handstamp (double-headed eagle)


Public Notary document from Rethymno (4-3-1899) bearing circular handstamps a pair of i
Piastre (diameter 33 mm) in blue color. Value in manuscript in black color (black ink)
... 7T *I-. -c-- '*


,,'\ .

17--




A'2,A a


Public Notary document from Rethymno (2-2-1899) bearing circular handstamps a pair of 1
Piastre (diameter 33 mm) in blue color. Value in manuscript in red color (redink).


58 THE POST-RIDER/AMIUHK .NV 42
June, 1998


^^ .^^/ ^i y
-- c // -tr; ab~ /*7
^ ^ ?-'? ^^- 7^ **-^


' L/ i, 0 _~=~


0-40 L^JL W. -A 4" ~ 1L-
<^ I- > ^

^^^^ffT- '^^-^'r^^-';


^^, r1 -
N~e t~o~, I'eec~ L6


-'r







RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATION (1898-1899) SECOND ISSUE OF RUSSIAN REVENUE STAMPS
DISTRICT OF RETHYMNO Revenue handstamp (double-headed eagle)


Public Notary document from Rethymno (26-2-1899) bearing circular handstamp of 2
Piastres (diameter 33 mm) in blue color. Value in manuscript.








AY0C -- ---6-".
-





Pi i bu color. Vaue 7 i cp / re"o / /
-,r '" Po? I
lK r //



4,,u/ / .^<,, j/ ^ "> ^, #-,,




Public Notary document from Rethvmno (1L4.1899) bearing circular handstamp of 2
Piastres (diameter 33 mm) in blue color. Value in manuscript in red color (red ink).


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK ,N42
June, 1998






RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATION (1898-1899)
DISTRICT OF RETHYMNO
THIRD ISSUE OF RUSSIAN REVENUE STAMPS
Revenue handstamp (double-headed eagle)
/ 77 .- 4 .' /C


S/ -


Public Notary document from Rethymno (20.6.1899) bearing circular handstamps
a pair of 1 Piastre in rectangular frame imperforated and printed value.


Public Notary document from Rethymno (31-5-1899) bearing circular handstamp of
2 Piastres in rectangular frame imperforated and printed value.
Please note that these fiscal are enclosed in basic type-set frames with interchangeable face values. Each position in
the setting can therefore be plated, as indicated here, but the sheet format is unknown. See the broken upper frame and
thin frame lines at left for the 1 and 2-piastre stamps affixed above. These are distinctive and constant varieties.
60 THE POST-RIDER/SlMIUllK 2 42
June, 1998


ci


/~~ ~


/C
y.'^^'1 ^^^^
^^^w.^(~Sp


c/7Y- /01~cc~y


" ~-p'~--


,. ..

;









4i CDc~! 1:U


-^f^ ^


^

/V/P O


Here we have another position in the setting,
where all the frame lines are thin.


RUSSIAN ADMINISTRATION (1898-1899)
DISTRICT OF RETHYMNO


THIRD ISSUE OF RUSSIAN REVENUE STAMPS
Revenue handstamp (double-headed eagle)


Editorial Comment: The holdings of this material by Mr. Mitakis give some idea of the work still
remaining to be done in the field. Unfortunately, these are the rarest of all the zonal revenues and are
greatly treasured by Greek philatelists. A beautiful "coffee table" book entitled "The Revenue Stamps of
Crete 1875-1913" by Prof. Dr. A. Ch. Papaioannou and Rienk Feenstra was published in Greek and
English with all illustrations in colour by Cretabank, Athens, 1996 in an edition of 1500 copies.

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIMHK N 42 61
June, 1998


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6


Conversely, this is another position in the setting, where all the frame lines are thick.
Conversely, this is another position in the setting, where all the frame lines are thick. /


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However, it is not for sale and is being presented by the Bank to preferred clients. The interest in the book
is so great that there are indications it will be reprinted for retail sale and we will then give ordering data.


While on the subject of the Russians on Crete 1898-1899, your editor has often wondered why we have
not yet seen mail sent by the Russian Expeditionary Detachment. Some light has partly been shed on the
matter by a locally produced postcard of the period with five illustrations, held by a noted Greek
philatelist, Neocles Zapheirakopoulos of Athens. Issued by M.B. of La Canee (Chania), it has at top and
right two photographs of groups of Russian soldiers, views of La Can6e ("la Cernme" is a mistake) and
Rettimo (Rethymnon in the Russian Zone) and of a band of Montenegrin soldiers in the centre. Finally, at
bottom centre, there is a double-circle cachet with a diameter of 32mm., reading in Russian: "1 POTA /
58ro T-IXOTHArO FIPAFCKAFO TIOJIKA" (First Company of the 58th. Prague [?] Regiment).

The presence of the "UIpHoropum" (Montenegrin Slavs) is noteworthy and they were apparently stationed
in the Russian Zone on Crete during 1898-1899. That leads to the interesting supposition that thev must
have utilised the Russian Fieldpost Service for their mail and examples sent by the Montenegrin
Detachment would certainly be of great rarity. Until they were absorbed into Yugoslavia at the end of
WWI, the Montenegrins did not number more than 250,000 souls. However, they were never conquered
by the Turks in their mountain fastnesses (hence the name of the country: ULpHa Fopa = Black
Mountain), but were the guardians of the Serbian language during the long years of Ottoman occupation
in the Balkans. The most famous national epic in the Serbian language "TopcKH BHjeHau" ("The Wreath
of the Mountains") was written by a Montenegrin prince, Petar Njegos, in 1847; see Yugoslavia, Scott
Nos. 215-217and 342.

In the last century and up to 1918, the Montenegrins were the perfect example of the mouse that roared
and their outrageous antics on the international political scene kept the chancelleries of Europe, including
that of their fellow Slavs in St. Petersburg, in a constant state of convulsion.
*






62 THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIIK .NV 42
June, 1998







THE KHORTITSA-KHORTYTSYA BISECT
by Andrew Cronin.

On 1 June 1931, Soviet domestic postal rates were .
increased and, among other categories, that applied to .nGCB "HOKO n
7# nIooKfDAIlomr ll n
interurban postcards (from 5 kop. to 10 kop.) and to Oa.mf,.f, o -..,
interurban letters (from 10 kop. to 15 kop.). As a --
result, there was a shortage in some areas of 5-kopek
stamps as make-up values. .." -.-.-

The first intimation of a solution came from the well- ;
known German fortnightly philatelic magazine
"Illustriertes Briefmarken-Journal" No. 16 (1264) of 7
22 August 1931, p. 254, where the following report
was given:-
"A 5-kopek card has come to us from Khortitsa in the Ukraine, which also bore a bisected 10-kopek
stamp (Senf No. 403, Scott No. 440 the 10-kopek perforated 25th. Anniversary of the 1905 Revolution)
as a supplementary franking. This measure was temporarily ordered because of the lack of 5-kopek
values. The card was cancelled in Khortitsa on 17 July 1931".

The rate then for a card going abroad was also 10 kopeks, hence the addition of the bisect to a 5-kopek
card, addressed to the Senf Co. in Leipzig. In other words, the charges for an interurban card and for one
sent abroad were now equal. Anyway, your editor has an example of the bisect on a card to Kiev, as
shown above. The revealing message reads as follows:-
"Dear Vasilii Vasil'evich! 27.1.32.
I received your card a long time ago. I much regret that you did not come over to
me. However, I have not lost the hope of seeing you here.
What is new with you? Is there anything at the post office? If there are available the 7-kopek 14mm. high
or airmails, let me know. Knowing your love for all kinds of freaks in philately, I am sending this card
and a letter separately with a postal bisect, which I obtained specifically. I hope that you will receive them
in good condition. If they fine you, do not be upset.
Greetings to Vera Ivanovna, Ira Vladimirovna and Aleksandr Nikolaevich. Yours, (signature)".

In short, a philatelic sending, leaving Khortitsa in the Zaporozh'e province on 3.2.32 and with the
diagonal bisect also tied with the bilingual KMIfB KMEB machine arrival marking of 5th. February. No
postage due was raised, although the shortage of 5-kopek stamps must surely have been eliminated in the
interim. Also, as stated in the report quoted above, this measure was supposed to be only of a temporary
nature. Postal authorities generally do not tolerate bisects, as they are obviously open to abuse. Whatever
the case, the card described here is still an interesting conversation piece, which went through the post
without comment.

As for Khortitsa itself, it was assigned in 1932 two of the postal codes specifically drawn up for offices in
the Ukraine: 439-Y-15 for the one at the railway station and 439-Y-16 for that in the town. Khortitsa-
Khortytsya appears to have been renamed since, as it is not in the "Nomenclature des bureaux de poste",
issued by the UPU, Berne, 1977.

A couple of questions remain. Is the card of 17.7.31 addressed to the Senf Co. in Leipzig still in existence
and, if so, who has it now? Can anyone advise of other usages of this unusual and apparently rare bisect?
There is no doubt that such items are worthy of consideration by Ukrainian specialists.

THE POST-RIDER/51MIMHK .Y2 42 63
June, 1998




























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Mononelgn. noennIa He JIMCCT 06
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it noTom s Homage.
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nnouleoe 1(8CH Jeaaaeacncoro 0 ne-
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nonmocTnio:
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sa3m11Hn nepeaepsxaaui Tor-a xe

Hbi rmcsma c repesepmauxa noKa.
3aTel11HO TaXXC H TO. cr0 11 oC=
nepCaeVeTa 3 1o0i )'10 CeT6 Fe
nOcTYnI11a. pa2.Cca3alnC --10 CB0-

TaxEm c6paaom, cn'!eaRe ai e
nepe"pMyo8 maZO'aTxo2 He
cny'aatHocTU. a IrpexzJ13MepemNif
Aonoina u.i.a a oyca, vepnme-
fleHNM8. 1 HaM xp)ToM HCvizTo-
n11armtx paonaaoa COA Hdcr-o-
Rt1rivm e ncze1io aacax~s. A pK
CToHT rix 3a TarZo Tjin. p~apirrr
snouAta7 Baih 6ezoeWue _-Hb1r -
penakTe Cam11
0.BAWAIC.






A FIRST-CLASS RARITY OR A PRODUCT OF GREEDY PHILATELIC OPERATORS?
by F. Vanius.

In 1994, there surfaced in the Moscow philatelic market by a specific path the No. 1 rarity in Soviet
stamps, called "The Levanevskii with inverted overprint" and it sold for the fabulously high price of
1,800,000 roubles. It is now priced in the Michel catalogue at DM 12,500.-, corresponding namely to the
current market rate of 15 to 25,000,000 roubles. The seller and buyer of this variety wanted to remain
anonymous. And quite recently, another such stamp appeared again. The asking price was USD 5500.00.
These commercial incidents have impelled the author of this article to think about speaking to people
regarding this particular person Levanevskii. The results of such conversations turned out to be striking.

Young people do not have any inkling about this man. Those of the older generation remember something
about him, but often confuse Levanevskii with Lyapidevskii. Some of the old-timers repeated rumours
and idle tales, which circulated feverishly about Levanevskii at the end of the 1930s. On the other hand,
this surname is well known to philatelists, including young collectors.

Already in January 1935 there appeared in the long Chelyuskin set the I 0-kopek stamp in brown with the
portrait of S.A. Levanevskii. That was the only value in the set where, apart from the branch of laurel
leaves, there was shown something which was taken by collectors to be myrtle (a symbol of mourning)
after the events of 1937 (see Fig. 1 on p. 64). The artist, Vasilii Vasil'evich Zav'yalov, who designed this
set, was overwhelmed with the question: "What were you doing, foretelling the ruination of Levanevskii,
when working on the original design?". He replied as follows: "I wanted to present the palm of
championship to Levanevskii and now they have taken the palm to be myrtle". And in August 1935, the
famous overprint "Flight/Moscow-/San Francisco/via Nth. Pole/1935" and r." was applied on this stamp.

The "Levanevskii with overprint" is a favourite dream for many people. Experienced collectors can even
relate that such a stamp with inverted overprint, taken out of the collection of M.M. Litvinov, the People's
Commissar of Foreign Affairs, was presented to President Roosevelt. However, the data about this are
fragmentary. Many people do not even known the name of the pilot. When you ask "Who was he?", do
not expect to get coherent answers.

Having collected the material available about Sigismund Aleksandrovich Levanevskii, I have tried to
answer this question. He was born in St. Petersburg in 1902. By 1917, he was already by conviction in the
Red Army. In 1918, he was in a supply detachment in the Vyatka province. From 1918 onwards in the
Red Army, first as the commander of a company, then of a battalion on the Eastern Front. After the Civil
War, an assistant leader of a brigade staff and then appointed Assistant Commander of a regiment in
Sevastopol'. He then began his life as a pilot. In 1925, he entered and successfully completed the course at
the Sevastopol' School for Navy Pilots. From 1925 onwards, he was a senior instructor, then director of
the Flying School of Osoaviakhim (Society for the Promotion of Aviation and Chemical Defence of the
USSR) at Nikolaev and then at Poltava.

As of 1933, he devoted his entire life to Polar aviation. Levanevskii completed in that period a series of
record long-distance flights and he was included in the work to rescue the Chelyuskinites in 1934. In
February, he urgently flew to America, together with the Representative of the State Commission G.A.
Ushakov and the pilot M.T. Slepnev to buy "Consolidated Fleistor" salvaging aircraft. The trio hastened
from Fairbanks, Alaska to the aid of the Chelyuskinites in two purchased aircraft. Slepnev successfully
completed that flight, but Levanevskii, with Ushakov on board, crashed in a snowstorm and sustained
injuries. Having barely recovered from his wounds and in very difficult flying conditions, he urgently
delivered in a U-2 aircraft a surgeon from Uelen to Lavrentii Bay to treat A.N. Bobrov, the assistant of
Otto Schmidt, for a case of acute appendicitis. Levanevskii was one of the first to honoured with the title
THE POST-RIDERSIMImIIK 42 65
June, 1998






of "Hero of the Soviet Union" on 20 April 1934 for the Chelyuskin exploit.


During that same year. Sigismund Aleksandrovich came up with the idea of flying to America via the
North Pole. He demonstrated to the authorities the possibility and scientific usefulness of such a flight.
Preparations were begun for this project and, together with the vitally important measures, there was also
a purely philatelic one. Upon the suggestion of the CIA (Soviet Philatelic Association), a typographic
overprint in red was placed on the stamp already referred to in the Chelyuskin set (see Fig. 2 on p. 64).

Much has already been written about this stamp. The quantity issued with the overprint was very small:
only 11,000 copies in all (quite a strange amount). This rarity went on sale on 2 August 1935, the eve of
the flight. Mail to the U.S.A. prepaid with such stamps had to be put on the Levanevskii aircraft going to
America. Moreover, according to the testimony of several collectors who had handed in letters and cards
with an additional message and prepaid with the overprinted stamp, there was no word then about the
invert. So where did this remarkable inverted overprint spring from (see Fig. 3 on p. 64) and when did it
appear?

The ANT-25 aircraft with a crew of three men (S.A. Levanevskii, G.B. Baidukov and V.I. Levchenko)
took off on 3 August 1935 from a Moscow airfield, but it was soon obliged to return because of a
discovery during flight regarding irregularities in oil flow. The flight was postponed to 13th. August.
Sigismund Aleksandrovich was still hoping on 12th. August that he would be able to take off, but at the
very last moment someone postponed the date of the flight for a year to the summer of 1936. The mail
which had been accepted for despatch on 3rd. August was forwarded to the U.S.A. by the surface route.
However, the wonders and riddles about this event did not end.

On 13 February 1936, S.A. Levanevskii, M.M. Gromov and 0. Yu. Schmidt and others were received by
Stalin. A decision was taken there to adopt the idea of opening a scientific drifting station at the North
Pole, as well as of making overflights across the North Pole. This decision put aside the implementation
of the Levanevskii idea of a flight to the U.S.A. for yet another year. The daring quartet headed by I.D.
Papanin was finally landed at the North Pole during 20-22 May 1937. Overflights across the North Pole
also commenced.

The first persons to implement the Levanevskii idea in one way or another were the V.P. Chkalov crew
during 18-20 June 1937. A second overflight was then carried out on 12-14 July by the M.M. Gromov
crew and only after that did Levanevskii start the third overflight on 12th. August, together with N.
Kastanaev, V. Levchenko, N. Galkovskii, S. Godovikov and A. Pobezhimov in the N-209 heavy aircraft,
by now already without mail on board. The Levanevskii aircraft took off on that day and, on the 13th., his
friend E.T. Krenkel' at the North Pole station received from the aircraft a radiogram in which it was stated
that Levanevskii had passed over the Pole and that weather conditions were very complex. In a further
radiogram received at one of the winter quarters, Levanevskii reported that the far right motor had gone
out of commission at 1432 hours, because of damage to the oil pipe. Nothing more was heard from the
Levanevskii aircraft by anyone. What a strange coincidence! Both in 1935 and in 1937, the irregularity
was one and the same: in the oil pipe, although the aeroplanes were different.

The aircraft crashed in the Arctic. S.A. Levanevskii also perished; one of the best fliers in the country, a
handsome and dignified man, the second (after Lyapidevskii) Hero of the Soviet Union, a bearer of the
Orders of Lenin, Red Banner of Labour and of the Red Star. Rumours circulated that he was alive and had
flown off to Germany. That he could not fly to the Nazis is eloquently corroborated, not only by his friend
E.T. Krenkel', but also by the same Sigismund Aleksandrovich in the text of his unpublished article,
preserved by chance on a wall-newspaper asnd written by him back in 1935. This article is so extensive
and will obviously be interesting, not only for philatelists, so I will quote its text in full:-
66 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK .X 42
June, 1998






"Everyone of us is a fighter for strength, for independence and for the prosperity of our beautiful
Motherland. Our flight across the North Pole should yield much valuable scientific data in the field of
opening up the Arctic. We are setting out, but not because of personal vanity; that would be foreign to
people of the Soviet land. No, we are flying for the glory and power of our Fatherland and for new
contributions to the annals of science and culture.

We are far from being record-seekers, far from unneeded heroism. A proof of that is our return after the
discovery of a defect in the oil pipe. We do not doubt that the second start to the U.S.A. will be carried
out by us and all of us will be witnesses of a new victory of our great Union in the international arena.

I was very touched by the attention devoted to our flight by the Soviet Philatelic Association and the
People's Commissariat of Communications in the issue of a special stamp. I was pleasantly surprised by
the especially short period of time which has elapsed between the decision to issue the stamp and the
transfer to me of the mail, both governmental and of foreign embassies, as well as from private persons,
all franked with this stamp.

I greet the Collective of the Soviet Philatelic Association and hope that they will also be able in the future
to carry out such legible, rapid and exact work.
First Pilot of the aircraft USSR No. 025. Hero of the USSR: Levanevskii".

This article, as well as his entire lifestyle, demonstrate conclusively that he was a genuine patriot, a fine
hard-working person and, at the same time, a modest man. There was a curious postscript in his
handwriting below the text of the article, reading: "To the Press, upon taking off after 2pm. S.
Levanevskii, 12/VIII-35". Even on 12th. August, he was still hoping to implement his idea and was
fearing at the same time that the flight would not take place.

Now about the "No. 1 Rarity". The striking thing above all is the unusual character of the invert. Why is
the inverted overprint to be found in the same place, namely at the bottom? If one had turned around the
sheet of stamps before applying the overprint, then, as a result of that action, the impression of the
inverted surcharge would have been found at the top of the design. Some collectors claim that it was the
result of turning around all the cliches. Everything looks normal. The unusual location of the overprint
was the result of ignorance, combined with haste. They inserted the turned-around sheet or part of it,
resulting in a shift down to that half of the design where the invert would be found with a pale
background. That was a blatant artificiality. Why was it that, after completing this action, there were no
inverted overprints when the normal issue went on sale on 2 August 1935?

It follows from the Levanevskii article that the mail accepted on board the aircraft on 3rd. August
remained in Moscow in the expectation of a second take-off, i.e. within ten days at least. It was only upon
the postponement of the flight to the next year that the mail was forwarded to the U.S.A. by the surface
route. Moreover, several letters franked with the invert also appeared in this mailing, postmarked by a
canceller with the same date, i.e. -3.8.35. One inference begs to be posed. The additional quantity of the
overprints was "processed" by the greedy operators of the Soviet Philatelic Association in the period from
4 to 11 August, namely in a quantity of 1000 copies, thus explaining the unusual total printing (11,000
copies). A portion of the supplementary printing also included the fabricated inverts and they were then
affixed to prepared covers, in addition to the original quantity of sending. It is also significant that not
one copy of the invert went on sale in the internal retail network, being distributed "by favour".

Hence, the "Levanevskii with inverted overprint" did not come about by chance and the premeditated
additional issue was produced by a narrow circle of unscrupulous workers of the S. Ph. Association,
exclusively for gain. It is up to the reader to decide whether to pay a crazy price for such a hollow rarity.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIUllK X2 42 67
June, 1998






SOME FURTHER NOTES ON THE "LEVANEVSKII WITH OVERPRINT"
by Andrew Cronin.

Mr. Vanius has raised some important points in the previous article, which require additional
examination. There is no doubt that, in the years between the two world wars, the Soviet Philatelic
Association made sure that it obtained the maximum amount of badly needed foreign exchange for the
material it sold abroad. That valuable income, combined with the sales of selected objects of art
(paintings by Old Masters, etc.) to influential buyers, such as Dr. Armand Hammer and the American
millionaire Andrew Mellon, helped the USSR to buy vitally needed machinery and capital goods, so as to
carry out the first three Five-Year Plans. That policy, together with the iron discipline imposed by a
totally committed authoritarian government, saved the country in the darkest days of WWII.

Be that as it may, it still does not excuse the machinations of the Soviet Philatelic Association and it
would be advantageous to find out if some former employees of that period were still alive in Russia
today. They would certainly have some astounding revelations to make about their experiences in that
organisation! Your editor had a fruitful discussion at "MOSCOW '97" about the problem in general with
Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski, the noted expert in Russian philately. He pointed out that there was supposed to
have been a total of 1000 imperforate sets of the 1930 Zeppelin issue (Scott Nos. C12b-13b), yet he alone
had expertise 1500 different pairs, distinguishing at least five different printings in the process!

A somewhat similar analogy may be applied to the Levanevskii stamp with the normal overprint. It does
not seem to be rare in the Western world and it turns up fairly frequently at auction in singles and
multiples. The present writer has the sinking feeling that 11,000 copies do not constitute the total quantity
so overprinted and that further supplies may have been produced to meet the demand, especially from
airmail collectors. Whatever happened, it is ironic to note that the issues and varieties inspired by the
Soviet Philatelic Association have gained a patina of respectability over the years and are now eagerly
sought by collectors in our area. There is a moral there, somewhere.

So far as is known, there is no complete sheet of 25 of the "Levanevskii with overprint" in existence. One
may therefore assume that the Soviet Philatelic Association would have set a very stiff price on such an
item, thus dissuading any potential buyers. However, Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski has done us all a great
service by managing to plate the setting of 25 overprints and we are greatly indebted to him for the
relevant details. The first step was to set up a vertical composing stick of five overprints with the
following distinctive characteristics, starting from the top of the stick and as shown in Fig. 1 on p. 69:-
Type I: After the abbreviation "CeB", the dot is set higher.
Type II: After the abbreviation "Ces", the dot is set higher. Also, there is an error in the overprint:
lower case "4" in the word "(PpaHUHcKO". This is easy to spot if one remembers that in the
lower case, the shoulders of the letter "cp" are on a level with the next letter "p". Note the
difference in the normal upper case: "Op".
Type III: The dot after the abbreviation "CeB" is set at the same level. Also, short letter "p" in "dOp".
Type IV: The dot after the abbreviation "CeB" is set at the same level.
Type V: Bevelled bottom to the left leg of the letter "M" in "MocKBa" and, after the abbreviation
"CeB", the dot is set higher.
Five vertical impressions, one after the other and presumably proceeding from left to right, were then
taken by applying the composing stick to a bed of paper mach6. That latter consists of paper pulp, to
which some fillers have been added for firmness and consistency. A quantity of metallic alloy would then
have been poured over the treated bed of paper mach6 and, upon cooling, backed with metal to form a
stereo overprinting plate of 25 overprints. This repetition of the vertical composing stick on the bed of
paper mache resulted in the creation of two striking secondary varieties, which both occur on/v once in
the setting of 25 overprints. They are shown in Fig. I and the details are as follows:-
68 THE POST-RIDER/51MIUlHK MYN 42
June, 1998










THE PLATING BY ING. ZBIGNIEW MIKULSKI OF THE SETTING OF 25 OVERPRINTS.


Position No. 1:
Filled in "1T.

Type I IM
1 10 t10:
fit





kleines-f
I Kti!:Mac i
10i to0
0!_to to:
Q, w-. ~.Odn Y'y'll;CC?*-YY ~ 1:


Type 11


topOCK 10 0:u1 10 0 31


he Nei set

F-------------.,,. ~ ..



$Qo- I i -1 1,Zli -Ma


UKOCK
*WL~


PB
Bi


position No. 15:
broken loop of "5".
5


Ma~.'~I'~' i l USiK
Mocks. go esioi
C CANA~f~


Fig. 1.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIK N 42 69
June, 1998


MV
/ jy


i





























Positions 1 (filled-in "H"), 2,
6 & 7 (small "c").


6 (small "4)"). (broken "5").


Type II (small "cq")


Type II(small "'") Type II (small "q")


Type III
(broken "5").


All ten stamps are separate items and may constitute 20% of the entire issue if only 50 copies were overprinted!
70 THE POST-RIDER/HMIu4K Mn 42
June, 1998


Fig. 2:


VARIETIES OF THE
LEVANEVSKII STAMP
WITH OVERPRINT.


INVERTS:


Type V.


Type I.


Type III.







Variety No. 1: Interior filled in within the upper half of the letter "n" in "nepeneT" (Position No. 1 in
the setting of 25 units; see Figs. 1 & 2 on pp. 69-70).
Variety No. 2: Broken loop to the figure "5" in "1935" (Position No. 15 in the setting, i.e. the last stamp
in the third row; see Figs. 1 & 2 on pp. 69-70).

We can now make some interesting conjectures about how these two varieties came about. If we assume
that the vertical composing stick was applied five times across the bed of paper mach6 in a left-to-right
direction, it would seem that, after the first emplacement, it was noticed that the "n" in the uppermost
overprint was partly clogged by some paper mache. That impediment must have been cleaned out, as the
four succeeding impressions in the first row of the setting are normal. With regard to the third row, the
broken "5" variety did not appear until the fifth impression was completed and by then it was too late to
make a correction. The point of the whole exercise is to stress that none of the type or variety
characteristics was inspired by the Soviet Philatelic Association, but rather occurred as consequences
during the process of composing the overprints.

Let us now look at the scale of rarity of such characteristics. If we accept that the total printing was
11,000 pieces, then there should theoretically exist 2200 copies of the "small qb" variety (20% of the total)
and 440 copies each of the "filled-in I" and "broken 5" varieties (4% of the total). Your editor did see a
statement somewhere that only two sheets of 25 were produced of the inverted overprint (a total of 50
copies). If such were the case and by applying the same theory, then only ten copies can exist of the invert
with the "small cq" variety and a mere two copies each of the "filled-in I" and "broken 5" varieties! We
are speaking here of great rarities, created unintentionally as a by-product of the machinations of the
Soviet Philatelic Association. We will now look at some further facets of this project.

(a) The sale on 2 August 1935 of the "Levanevskii with overprint" and related developments.
According to the German magazine "Illustriertes Briefmarken-Joumal", No. 16 for 17 August 1935, pp.
251-252, roughly 5000 copies of the normal overprint had been sold at the Moscow G.P.O. on 2 August
and the aircraft "USSR 025" took off in driving rain at 6:05 am. the next morning from Shchelkovo
airport, 30 km. (19 miles) south of Moscow. In a later issue No. 22 of 16 November, p. 350, the magazine
announced that the Polar flight had been postponed to the summer of 1936 because of damage to the oil
pipe and, as a result, the Moscow G.P.O. gave submitters of cards and covers a choice of three options:-
(1) Pick up the undelivered mail. fBo3symmaI peec
(2) Leave the mail at the G.P.O. to be sent in the summer of 1936. MOCKBA-CAH -'DPAHIIHCKO
(3) Allow the tendered mail to proceed by the surface route, Special Air-Flight
in which case all the items submitted would receive a MOSCOW-SA .-FRANCISCO
special rectangular cachet, struck in violet and reading throu-h the No "h Pole
in five lines: 'Resumption of the flight / "MOSCOW- Bo3o6HosneHme noieTa
SAN FRANCISCO" / postponed to the summer of MOCSo-m Co PP: 193o-.
1936 / THE CORRESPONDENCE IS BEING j
1(OPPECnOnMErtqus HP.nPAsfrrETc
FORWARDED / BY THE ORDINARY ROUTE'. os 'Ss now- .iO
Most of the senders chose the third option, after the additional cachet was applied as shown here. It would
be useful to reconstruct the mailing list and look specifically at some examples, as the way they were
handled was sometimes unusual. Here we go.
Reg. No. Addressee Transit and/or arrival markings Notes
? Charlotte H. Bolton ? ? Partial illustration only available, but
Madison Ave, N.Y.C. with the "small 4b" variety. See Fig. 3.

206 Dr. B. Korona (?) None Remarkable 15-k. envelope usage with
26 Gertsen St., Apt. 53, "small 4)" (?), but no rectangular flight
Moscow. postponement cachet. See Fig. 4.
THE POST-RIDER/IlMIIHK J 42 71
June, 1998




















.. -CN


(1s th tw


T.


Fig. 4.


MOSCO U."- .'.:.-T-" A CICO
R .tta :I ,*:* ?:-L -': rc- =



-Ra- .B
-8A--- U 8 -S-


.4);4;s
:6;' LIL$VJ 1 Ih&-


Bo3:v-s.It pete


S30o6'a --t-.rt
ca- .-
Boso6toEr..--e Ir.-a
OCKMA-CA1 C".. -..:
Maonco ro Lcra ire;


MOSCcL i
s Bureau de Pons te
X. :i69 i

B03AYWPL-
_no


Boa0ymnift pefc
MOCKBA-CAH -IPAHIIHCKO
Social Ar-F!ght ..
MOSCOW-S.'.: -F- ANCISC
through '.ht No:;h Pole
-i





Soscou | i
%10 S C 0 Ll 'Z--4

rreau de Poste
1- ~ ^ -


Fig. 7.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK N 42
June, 1998


~{,e t 'It Qh~


tRW r~
(


fv.


v 1h a ^




















Fig. 10.


Reg. No. Addressee
362 Mr. Galcovich
San Francisco, Cal.


369 Mr. Galcovich
San Francisco, Cal.

373 Mr. Troyanovsky
Washington, D.C.

374 Mr. Troyanovsky
Washington, D.C.

383 Mr. Arens
New York City.

? Mr. Arens
New York City

409 M. M. Yankov,
Moscow Postal Dir.

411 Ismail Hakki Tevfik


Transit and/or arrival


NYC Reg'y Divn 1
San Francisco 21.9


NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35
San Francisco 21.9.35.

NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35.
Washington, D.C. 17.9.35.

NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35.
Washington, D.C. 17.9.35.

NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35.


NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35.


NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35.
Moscow -55, 8.10.35.

NYC Reg'y Divn 17.9.35


Philippople (Plovdiv) Plovdiv 29.9.35.


Bos3ymnanU peflc
MOCKBA-CAH -4PAHUHCKO .,--, ..-
Special Air-Flght \ -.
MOSCOW-SAN -FRANCISCOC.-, ". \'\
''- rouS he N h. e i ; "



Fig 11.
-- 'Q 777--


R UUrC.,.1 (I. l'.ld 1"I -"'
S* B 3i 06 ao ... .

J y ./ MOCKS,--CM P Ft HtviKO. -
Payavo c noh. .p E
--Fig. 11.
markings Notes
7.9.35 See Fig. 5. Type I overprint.
'.35.


See Fig. 6. "Small ct" (Type II) overprint.
Were Nos. 363-368 also sent to Galcovich?

Rossica No. 128-129, p. 124. Type I overprint.
Dr. G. Adolph Ackerman Collection.

See Fig. 7. Type I overprint.
Did he receive other registered cards?

See Fig. 8. Type III overprint.
Auction estimation USD 7500.00.

See Fig. 9. Type V overprint. Partly shown.
Sold Kohler 246th. Auction for DM 6600.-.

See Fig. 10. Type II overprint. Sent by the
Sov. Phil. Assn. to Moscow Postal Director.

See Fig. 11. Type IV overprint. The card
should have been returned direct to Bulgaria!


Details of other sending would be appreciated, as they could demonstrate unusual usages or routings, etc.
From the samples given above, we can already deduce that quantities of these cards were addressed to the
Soviet Consuls General in New York City and San Francisco, as well as to the Soviet Ambassador in
Washington, A.A. Troyanovskii, doubtless with preliminary instructions that all the cards received were
to be sent back to the Soviet Philatelic Association. So far as Soviet private sending were concerned, it
was a simple matter of returning such mail to the senders when the flight was postponed until the summer
of 1936 and, for that reason, it did not require the application of the rectangular cachet about "forwarding
by the ordinary route". Fig. 4 on p. 72 is a good example of such a procedure, but it is contradicted by the
card addressed to the Moscow Postal Director, M.M. Yankov. That card was struck with the unnecessary
rectangular cachet and was eventually received by him in a roundabout way via New York City! The
Soviet postal workers apparently assumed that the best way was to send everything to the U.S.A.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIMUHK N' 42 73
June, 1998








PHILATELISTISCHE, SOW JET ASSOZIAT-ION

USSR Moskau 50, Nastasjinskij per. 3.TeLATL OSKAU







... Mrs .HMO ER
-. -.;.636.Market Street -




-.---- '.-- --*
., .' ..._;.- f j_:.,., a,.,, oa '
U .. ....-, ..:,-n;-...-. -, *... .. *-... ..." -, .- .* *... '
Bo ufl pelc As an afterthought, a cover is shown here in Fig. 12 from the

MOCKBA-CAH -(IPAHUHCKO Soviet Philatelic Association, to the bottom left comer of
Which someone has added a crude forgery of the special
Special Air-Flight cachet in black referring to the Moscow-San Francisco flight.
MOSCO W-SAN FRAN CISCO A strike of the genuine cachet is shown here for comparison
through the h Pole and it will be seen that the last line "through the North Pole"
is missing. Also, it bears the 20-kop. Doronin stamp from the Chelyuskin airmail set and the 5-kop.
Express value, plus a 10-kop. "Small Head" definitive to make up the registered surface rate for a letter
going abroad, all cancelled 25.1.35. That was thus almost eight months too early!

(b) Cancellations to order on the "Levanevskii with overprint".
These appear to be quite scarce and the Soviet Philatelic Association probably preferred to sell mint
copies at as high a price as the market would bear, rather than c.t.o's at a discount! Two types were
-- applied, dated 3.8.35 for the day of the take-off:-
(1) Double-circle type inscribed at top "MOCKBA
50", "e" at left and "H" (abbreviation for the hour),
Sedate 3.8.35.10 (10am.) in the centre and
"OKTAIBPbCKHIfI" at bottom ( Fig. 13).
MOCK MOSCOW-50 was the post office used by the Soviet
t 0 Philatelic Association for its mailings and this c.t.o.
i postmark is hard to find. The three examples here
S-- bear overprint types III, IV & V respectively.
Fig. 13.
(2) Another double-circle type, but with a smaller diameter of 25mm. and also applied extensively on
other stamps as a c.t.o. in 1934-1935. It reads "MOCKBA" at top, with an asterisk at left and a script "
at right, as well as the abbreviation "3KCFI." at bottom. It must have originally been assigned to a
Moscow despatch office, but the designating numeral was obviously taken out before application for
philatelic purposes. Six strikes are on the next page as types I, I, II ("small b"), III, IV & IV? (see Fig.14).
74 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHK .o2 42
June, 1998
















Filled-in "i" Type I Type II Type II Type IV Type IV?
Posn. 1. "small c" Fig. 14.
(c) The bogus "MOCKBA 50 IIOlT. CTAHI. A" postmark dated 3.8.35.
As can be seen from the sample given below in Fig. 15, this marking of the Moscow 50th. Postal Station,
which is unknown either as a c.t.o. or as a postal cancellation, turns up relatively frequently, especially on
piece. It is a mystery why anyone would take valuable mint copies and diminish their saleability by
adding a "postmark"! It is best to ignore the marking and collect by types. We have here in the first row
two copies of Type I with filled-in "n" posn. 1, normal Type I & Type I posn. 5 (margin copy), then Type
II "small cd". All five copies in the second row are Type I1. Finally, there are shown in the third row:
Type IV, Type V and three unidentified copies.

--.3 ~ 4le,


June, 1998






(d) The "J. Rosenberg" sending.
We already know about Mr. J. Rosenberg of Augsburgerstr. 61, Berlin W 50 from the covers he had sent
to him through the Moscow-9 post office on Gor'kii Street (now Tverskava St.) in December 1935 and
June 1936, franked with the 1930 Zeppelin imperforates; see "The Post-Rider" No. 31, pp. 21-22. He
apparently missed out on the original submission of mail for the proposed North Pole Flight of 3.8.35 but.
after hearing about its postponement presumably in the German philatelic press, he immediately swung
into action. It seems that he arranged to have a series of registered airmail or airmail express covers sent
to him from the Moscow-9 post office, franked solely by the Levanevskii stamp with overprint (face value
one rouble) and starting as early as 27 August 1935. The postal rates at that time were as followvs:-
Foreign surface letter rate 15 kop. Airmail surtax 1935 season for Germany 40 kop.
Foreign registration fee 20 kop. Air express internal letter fee 80 kop.

In the case where registered airmail letters were sent to Germany, the total fee came to 75 kop., so that
such items were overpaid by 25 kop. There was one item sent registered air express and it might be
argued that the rate was made up by the 80-kop. internal air express charge, plus 20 kop. for the foreign
registration fee, to total one rouble. Your editor has records of at least eight sending, as shown hereunder
in Fig. 16 by dates and types and they all brought high prices at auction. Once again, two questions arise:
who was J. Rosenberg and what was his subsequent fate?
27.8.35. 31.8.35.
"small d" 31.835 Type IV?
Reg.No.227. .. Type IV? ..












Fig. 16.




21.9.35.












23.9.35. 22.9.35. Type I? Reg.No.962. 23.9.35. 23.9.35.
TypeIl Type. Tpe ?






76 Type THE POST-RIDERM K 42 Type IV Type
June, 1998







(e) A final later usage.

..T'" Pa:- Ai As of 1 May 1936, the
.Par i o.n international rates were
increased and were valid
for 14 years, despite the
Y4 horrifying devastation
S7caused by WWII. The
0. new charges were as
'. follows:-
ou1en .: eSurface postcard -30 kop.
i Surface letter 50 kop.
.n ing.0tton 3oeschi Foreign reg'n fee 80kop.
lexocnosaH. Airmail surtax 1 rouble,
-,~-,`'cL ,..iol. ~ 0 (regardless of country).
Fig. 17.
Hence, the total fee for a registered foreign airmail was 2r. 30k. but, during that rate period, postal clerks
often erroneously calculated the surface letter portion as 30k., which was the domestic intercity rate. That
is what has happened to the registered airmail letter in Fig. 17, sent to Prague, Czechoslovakia and
underpaid by 20 kop. The total franking is thus only 2r. 10k. and the two Levanevskii stamps have a Type
V overprint. This item sold for DM 16,000,- at the 246th. K'dhler Sale May-June 1985. In short, a
"Levanevskii with overprint" on a posted item is always desirable property!

(f) Some concluding notes.
When it was determined after 12 August 1937
scvier S ACI CT:c: F first no. stop fleht Akla ik Edmonton that contact had been lost with the six Soviet
SVIA AIR MAIL : flyers, American and Canadian personnel based
S'at Aklavik (Northern Canada) joined in the
,unsuccessful search to find them. The
Canadian cover in Fig. 18 is signed, among
others, by the Arctic explorer Sir Hubert
Il L Wilkins and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-
K- ., Kenyon, being flown from Edmonton 16.2.38
,... '4 to Aklavik 18 February.

Fig. 18 According to the newspaper "Sovetskaya
Rossiya", rumours surfaced in 1985 that the
ANT-6 aircraft started veering off course after take-off and had crash-landed at Lake Sebyan-Kyuel, some
370km. (230 miles) north of Yakutsk, but no confirmation and/or evidence have since been reported.

In bringing these notes to a close, it should be remembered that long-distance flights in the 1920s and
1930s were just as hazardous in that period as space travel is today. Both aviation technology and
equipment were far less reliable then and tribute must be paid to the bravery of pre-WWII aviation
pioneers, many of whom were Soviet flyers. They performed amazing feats in an under-developed country,
which was striving mightily to make up for lost time in becoming industrialized. By the way, although
born in SPB, Sigismund Aleksandrovich was Polish and his original name was Zygmunt Leweniowski.
Our airmail collectors are doubtless breathing very heavily by now and we would welcome any further
information from them about the material examined in the foregoing notes.

THE POST-RIDER/ISMIIHK 42
June, 1998











lir97f :l -
L9:~
i..-~..* ,-
tI'.) `2CG-


MISSION TO "MOSCOW '97"
by Andrew Cronin.

A. Preliminary arrangements.
The Organising Committee
invited prominent philatelists and
high personages, in particular H.M.
Queen Elizabeth II, to exhibit
portions of their fabulous
collections at "MOSCOW '97".


To finalise the details for showing parts of the British Royal Collection, a --- .- .-
Russian deputation went to London early in 1997. While there, they also had "-IMWmK" MaHOe (c.9)
the chance to view some of the collections at The British Library, as can be seen from the photograph and
text here, taken from "The British Library Philatelic Collections Newsletter", No. 2 for Autumn, 1997:-

"DISTINGUISHED VISITORS FROM RUSSIA
In February, we were pleased to receive three Russian visitors and to show them the Library and the Philatelic Collections.


From left to right: Professor Aleksandr S. Ilyushin, Chairman, Union of Philatelists of Russia: Viktor V.
Sinegubov, Vice-Chairman of the Union; Natal'ya N. Kuritsyna, Directress of the A.S. Popov Central
Museum of Communications; Rod M.V. Vousden, Curator of the Philatelic Collections and David Beech.
Head of the Philatelic Collections".

CJIOBOM, yBa>xeHHe a He CHHCXO>KneHHe (In a word, respect and not condescension). By contrast, at a
public meeting in San Francisco at "PACIFIC '97", when it was pointed out that H.M. the Queen would be
exhibiting at "MOSCOW '97", one nay-sayer remarked: "Well, she can afford to lose her collection!".
78 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIlHK .No 42
June, 1998






Could not the person concerned have thought the position through to the point that, if such a mishap were
to have happened, it would have caused a major diplomatic incident and that the Russian authorities
would therefore certainly take the greatest possible precautions to prevent such a disaster?

B. The CSRP Reissue of the 1932 Philatelic Exhibition Presentation Sheet.
By the beginning of September 1997, your editor realized that steps would have to be taken to counter the
effect of the "pre-show negative publicity", as one philatelic commentator so aptly put it. There was in our
files a colour photograph of the original 1932 Presentation Sheet with the rare two-line inscription at top
right: "JIytmueMy YAapHHKy / BcepoccHAcKoro OG6uecTBa overprinted and one of them sold last year (1997) in Switzerland for USD 14,425.00. Your editor changed
the second line of the overprint to: "Como3a IjniaTenj4CTOB PocccH" and added a three-line Russian
inscription below the block of four to update the sheet for "MOSCOW '97". He then faxed the new design
to the Organising Committee, asking for their permission to proceed and saying that we would present
them with 25 numbered copies, as well as donating 10,000 normal sheets without the "shock-worker"
overprint, which they could sell in aid of the exhibition. An acknowledgement and acceptance of our
proposals were promptly received by fax from the Organising Committee.

When your editor embarked on this project, he had no idea where it would lead him. He also bore the entire
printing costs, as the CSRP was in no financial position to do so. Our printer, Andrei Aleksandrovich
("Henry") Borodenko now entered the scene. He had been producing our journal from No. 11 onwards and
had been constantly upgrading his printing capabilities, especially for colour and computerised
applications. Anyway, upon taking delivery of the 25 "shock-worker" sheets, your editor was dismayed to
find that he had made elementary spelling mistakes in the first line of the Russian inscription under the
block of four, as shown in Fig. 1 on the next page. They were set aside by us.

The errors were corrected and the batch of amended and numbered copies immediately sent off to the
Organising Committee (see the corrected sheet in Fig. 2 on the next page). It was then discovered there was
a printer's over-run of 24 corrected sheets; they were numbered 1 to 24 and our CSRP address cachet
placed in black over the backs of the four stamp impressions (Fig. 3). We held on to these 24 sheets.

The next step was to remove the "shock-worker" inscription at top right and a trial printing of 1000 sheets
was then made, with the printer's imprint in black over the backs of the four stamp impressions (Fig. 4). On
checking, it was noticed that, in removing the upper inscription at top right, Henry had also centered the
rest of the design, so that there was now a wide margin at bottom (Fig. 6). Except for ten copies left mint,
these sheets were cancelled with the 11 special postmarks of the show (Fig. 5 & 6). Henry was instructed to
shift the design down to its original position and print 10,000 sheets with narrow margin at bottom. That
entire last printing was presented free of charge to the Organising Committee and placed on sale at the
exhibition for 60,000 roubles (USD 10.00) per sheet. A quantity was cancelled in sets of ten cards (with 11
different show cancels, including an unannounced Olympics marking for 21 October 1997 see Fig. 5) by
the Organising Committee. We believe that they were marketed through a consortium in Germany to help
in reducing the deficit, which was due in major part to the "pre-show negative publicity".

No doubt about it; when it comes to positive thinking, we Canadians do it best!

As a result of the items detailed above, Alex Artuchov and your editor were able at the exhibition to
present to Natal'ya Nikolaevna Kuritsyna, Directress of the A.S. Popov Central Museum of
Communications,a set of the following proofs and varieties for their records:-
(a) A proof sheet of the maquette, with inscription "JIyymueMy yaapHHKy" and two spelling errors.
(b) A finished and numbered sheet with inscription "JIyMlueMy YAapHHKy" and two spelling errors.
(c) A finished and numbered sheet with inscription "IlylmeMy ynapHMKy" and corrected spelling.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMlllIK .M 42 79
June, 1998














.Ay~ueMy yapuuKy
Cooa3a 01u.ame.iucnoe Poccuu







e0p V *sncnMA -





CyBeHHpHPHI 6noK 1932 roaa. nepeniaHnHNt KaHa2ccv
O6mecrsom PvccKOfi Hv.iaTe.uHH 9 qecTh Me(flyHapo.HCA
HmnaTreh crH'eicKO BbicraBuI MOCKBA 97 (17-26 oKT 199


Commnnll Pupl u :- --
D..flntCM*U pbUlrl ; l.c'0 c-t


* ~~ ~ ~ ~ _---------


Fig. 1: Sheet with two spelling errors, as indicated.


?'AN LATELY


"JlySuieMy yaapHHKy" sheets:

only twenty-five pairs exist!


Ay'weMy yzapKPy
Coro0a anwner.onos Poccr










CytwpOaD 6oSu. 1932 I reo, incpewsucna K.XrI.En
O6meree. PRycno 44nC tem oarn wC y pcee
uOai3TMcrNmecnoA suacam.M MOCKBA 7n ( e-a, 1TW r).


K.a. .-.n>w C-. CCn


Fig. 2: Spelling errors corrected.

PartMo aMu CUUO
Tht Cuosu SoCST on R=s-snu PATrur,
M.u f.m Co. Irc.
Rcuoo HuL. OtuRIo
cIX.-I


Fig. 3.


Fig. 5.


The unannounced
special cancel of
21 October 1997
with an Olympics
theme.


Fig. 6.


nleqaTiiK:
Alrapcf AAeKecaziplapoq pone O Ico

Fig. 4.

.c, .occ&




0C

no c T no,-


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK 42
June, 1998


Il4p.nltun Xo..c..pAll Cn.", CCCP'


C. .. M -p o3:
uC C t 9
,orCM Ir. +








OOutecmrO PyccKol utKiaTejnHH sB ecmn MexayHapoaHof
c4)naTenJrICTHecKo0 BbicraBKH MOCKBA 97 (17-26 OKT. 1997 r.).


' a pu g:c.io03 po UIcs o d t le ecrqum


1


-~LLn-
----l--~ILm


c~Fit~ ~il'?







(d) A proof sheet on parchment paper, without the inscription "JlyuweMy ygapHMKy" and comprising one
complete impression, one impression entirely missing and two partial impressions, one of them with a
laser-printed warning: ERROR.
(e) A printer's sheet on thin cream-coloured card stock, with four complete impressions prior to separation
and with the imprint of the printer placed over the backs of each block of four stamp impressions. Our
CSRP stamp was placed on the back in the centre of the four sheet impressions.
(f) A mint presentation sheet as issued, with a wide margin at bottom and printer's imprint on the back.
(g) The presentation sheet as issued, but with the two special cancels for 21 October 1997, including with
the Olympics theme.
There is only one other set of the proof material, which has been retained for our records. As we believe we
said before: when it comes to positive thinking, we Canadians do it best. We have on hand some remnants
of the issued items, as well as special cancels and interested buyers should use the order form included
with this number of "The Post-Rider". Early application with remittance is advised and we have reserved a
proportionate amount for members abroad. There is no chance of anything being reprinted, as Henry has
now taken all the artwork out of his hard drive.

C. Highlights of the Exhibition.
First and foremost, it was a wonderful opportunity to meet personally all our correspondents, as well as old
and new philatelic friends from around the world. There were so many that your editor apologises in
advance if he has omitted anyone. For a start, all his colleagues in the International Jury, including FIP
President D.N. Jatia, Dr. Alan Huggins (who did a superb job as Jury Secretary) and fellow editor Dr. A.
Ross Marshall of The Australia and New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. It was a distinctive honour
to have two editors of Russian philately in the International Jury! Great praise is due to the FIP Coordinator
Michael Adler,whose strenuous efforts against the nay-sayers guided the show to a successful conclusion !

For ease of identification, our Russian friends are now listed alphabetically: V.M. Aloits, A.A. Borodin,
A.N. Devyatin, popular singer Gennadii Dibrova, M.A. Dobin, Professor P.V. Florenskii, O.V. Forafontov,
V.V. Gorbatko, Professor A.S. Ilyushin, V.A. Kalmykov, Yu.M. Klimov & son, V.A. Klochko, N. N.
Kuritsyna, N.F. Mandrovskii, P.P. Melikaev, L.Ya. Mel'nikov, A.N. Oreshkin, V.A. Pantyukhin, A.Ya. &
N.M. Pevzner, S.N. Poznakhirko, V.V. Pritula, V.S. Rozov, Dr. A. Ryss, M.I. Ryzhov, Dr. A.M. Sargsyan,
Ye.P. Sashenkov, V.V. Serebryakov, V.V. Sinegubov, A.V. Strygin, F. Vanius and G.N. Vinogradova.

Among CSRP subscribers and other philatelist friends present were Sig. P. Bianchi (who was not in the
least bothered by having a couple of million dollars worth of Russian Imperials on display), E.O. Buttini,
Dr. R. Casey, our learned contributor Alexander EpStein (what a pleasure to meet him personally!), P-A.
Erixon, V.N. Furman, Harry von Hofmann, O. Hornung, A.I. Ivakhno, A. Ketchian, N. Krasheninnikova, A.
Kurczyfiski, Dr. L. Malendowicz, Ing. Z. Mikulski, W. Nachcifiski, Dr. E.R. Otero, J. Ozolips, Dr. V.
Priputen & his charming wife, L. Pascanu, Dr. W. Rauch, M. Stranz, M. Tsironis & wife Maria, R.
Vainora, G.G. Werbizky and Kh. Zakiyan.Please see also the photos on the next page.

Another memorable highlight was a most interesting excursion on Thursday, 23 October, to the monastery
complex at Sergiev Posad (Zagorsk), where Alex Artuchov and your editor were waylaid by a giggle of
absolutely charming young schoolgirls, asking us questions about our origins in their soft and melodious
voices.

We were lodged at the giant "ROSSIA" Hotel, overlooking Red Square and with a picture-book view of the
back of St. Basil's Cathedral and the Kremlin (see p. 82). It was a mere ten-minutes walk across Red
Square and up Manezh Square to the wonderful Manezh Hall, where the exhibition was held. Red Square is
the heart and centre of the Russian nation and many historic events have occurred there over the last 850
years. There is no other square in the world quite like it in terms of a national heritage.
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIIK N' 42 81
June, 1998































| VI.A. Dobin at hi GPN exhihi
of St Petersburt nosral histon.


S- .' .- r
3 0 1 1,l,lrn v b \ \V V S-rn-hr-r knv & Mlrs e1r li\l:., nf


hristo Nikolchcv (Bulianan luror). U .\ ifnourac3o a.., m. revzner -.
mnd Applentice Juror A Ya. Pezner at a "OSCOW' '97" :eceptol..
View of Krenmin an3 St BsiJ's CnaC-h2r;
r taken from tne ROSSIA Ho:el


THE POST-RIDER/flMIUHK M 42
June.1998


Alex Artu
82






Comment by our Madrid member, Sr. Salvador Bofarull, on the Manezh (Manage) Hall:


The word is of French origin, meaning a "riding school" and the Hall was built in 1817 by a Spanish
engineer, Augustfn de Betancourt (1758-1824). He studied in England and France and was the first Director
of the School of Ports and Roads in Madrid. In 1808, he entered into the service of Tsar Aleksandr I of
Russia, who appointed him Director-General of Ports and Roads. He constructed the machinery for the
Russian Mint, the Suspension Bridge over the Vistula at Warsaw and the famous Cathedral of St. Isaac
(Co6op CBaIToro 4caaKM janJIMaTCKoro, i.e. the Cathedral of St. Isaac the Dalmatian) in St. Petersburg,
where he died.

Another highlight was the Symposium on Russian Philately, held at the "ROSSIA" Hotel on Friday
afternoon, 24 October 1997. Your editor was one of the invited speakers, showing 85 coloured slides about
Russian and Soviet philately and postal history, with a spoken commentary in Russian. The slides and
handwritten notes in Russian were then presented to the Union of Philatelists of Russia for their archives;
just another example of what might be termed "positive thinking". The speakers who followed were Dr.
Raymond Casey of England, with new and delectable discoveries in the Russian Posts of the Far East, his
talk being translated into Russian by Professor A.S. Ilyushin; then Herr Harry von Hofmann on the
Automatic Registration Machines in the Russian Empire, also in excellent English and Prof. Ilyushin
translating (this wonderful study is reprinted herewith on pp.7-24). He was followed by Ing. Z. Mikulski
with a learned paper in Russian on "Postal Fraud in Russia", with xeroxed copies of the paper available in
English and, last but by no means least, fellow-editor Dr. A. Ross Marshall gave a talk in English about the
Australia and New Zealand Society of Russian Philately, including publication on CD-ROM for computers
and with Prof. Ilyushin again quickly translating into Russian. All these presentations went over extremely
well with the mainly Russian-speaking audience and your editor was also most gratified to be appointed
an Honoured Member of the Union of Philatelists of Russia. All in all, a most instructive Symposium!

D. Results in the Competitive Classes in our fields of collecting:


GRAND PRIX NATIONAL
M.A. Dobin (97 + SP)
LARGE GOLD:
P. Bianchi (97 + SP)
Dr. R. Casey (95)
M.A. Dobin (97 + SP)
N.F. Mandrovskii (96 + SP)
GOLD:
N.R. Banfield (90)
M.A. Dobin (92)
P-A. Erixon (90)
H. von Hofmann (94)
H. von Hofmann (91)
R.P. Quinby (90)
Angela Ruiz Vega (90)
LARGE VERMEIL:
Yu.V. Belyuga (85)
A. Bogdanovskii (85)
V.T. Dabols (88)
L. Eisold (85)
A. Eptein (87 + F)
G. Hahne (87)
H. von Hofmann (88)
W. Leupold (85)


From St. Petersburg postal history (very thorough study).

Imperial Russia (absolutely gorgeous material!).
Russian Ship Mail 1683-1920(some gems shown in "06o3peHne"10/1997).
From St. Petersburg postal history.
Airmail of the USSR (magnificent Consular material, etc.).

Russian Censor Markings 1914-1920 (very solid research here).
Postmarks of the Russian Empire (Literature).
Zemstvo Rural Post 1865-1917 (very comprehensive).
Latvia Forerunners (probably the finest existing collection).
Registered Mail of Russian Empire (one can judge from his article herein)
Russian Stamps & PS used in Finland 1891-1918 (lovely material).
Russian Levant (a very fine exhibit with rare material).

Olympic Games Postal Services 1896-1924 (choice items).
Soviet Fieldpost in WWII (very strong showing).
Postal History of Latvia (very knowledgeable exhibit).
Russian Postal Stationery 1848-1881 (extensive array).
Soldiers' Mail & Russian Fieldpost WWI (beautiful material!).
Mail from the city of Vil'na (fine items from a historic city).
Registered Sendings in the Russian Empire (Literature).
From October Revolution to the Great Collapse.


THE POST-RIDER/IMUIIHIK M.V 42
June, 1998


:






V. Levandovskii (85)
Marina Mandrovskaya (87)
I. Mazur (85)
Dr. A. Ryss (88 + SP)
B-E. Saarinen ((88)
Dr. A.M. Sargsyan (88+F)
Shl. Shtern (86)
A. Speeckaert (85)
R.D. Wruck (86)
VERMEIL:
T.H.T. Arvelin (81)
T. Bergholm (80)
V. Bobrikov (80)
E.M. de Bustamante (81)
V.T. Dabols (81)
P-A. Erixon (83)
V. Grinfelds (80)
H. von Hofmann (80)
D. Johnson (80)
V.A. Kalmykov (81)
Ants Linard (80)
H-J. Meyer (82)
A. Mramornov (81)
L. Ratnev (80)
P. Salokoski (84)
LARGE SILVER:
F. Blazek (76)
V. Boiko (72)
A. Cimmermanis (77)
A. Drozdovskii (75)
M. Dvoskin (75)
V. Eklund (75)
Int. Estonian Phil. Soc.(76)
J. Jensen (75)
J. Kozlowski (75)
K.V. Laas (75)
MARKA Publishers (78)
Yu. Myakota (77)
J. Ozolinp (78)
V.A. Pantyukhin (78)
I. Rodin (77)
Russian Soc. in Czechia (78)
P. Salokoski (77)
Ye.P. Sashenkov (75)
A. Simonowicz (77)
Tsentrpoligraf Inc. (75)
Union of Phil.of Russia (75)
V. Voishko (75)
RNDr. M. Zika (75)

84


Railway Posts of Russia and USSR (very fine survey).
Stamps of Russia (fine classic material)
Armenia: Overprints on First Stamps of Soviet Russia (unusual material).
Advertising Postal Stationery of Russia (beautiful treatment).
Russian Revenues and Tax Stamps 1860-1930 (rarely seen items).
Armenia 1919-1923 (Rare usages; see his article in this issue).
RSFSR Postal Rates (comprehensive surgery).
Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918 (Literature).
Mail of the "Grande Armne" on the way to Russia (historic pieces).

Soviet Advertising Cards 1927-1934.
Different Types of Russian Railway Postmarks.
RSFSR postal history.
Russian Inflation 1917-1923.
Latvia 1918-1940.
Russia 1812-1875.
Latvian TPOs/RPOs.
"Baltische Postorte 1632-1918" (Literature).
Tsarist Arms Issues of Russia 1857-1923.
Russian Cancellations 1858-1905.
Postal History of Revel' 17th.-20th. centuries.
History of Aviation in the USSR.
The Russians in the Arctic and Antarctic.
Russian registered postal items.
Advertising and Promotional Envelopes 1929-1935.

Rail Traffic in Russia and the USSR.
GULAG Mail.
Postal Service in Latvia 1914-1920.
Odessa postal history.
Basketball theme.
Numeral Cancellations of St. Petersburg & Moscow 1858-1905.
"The Estonian Philatelist" No. 36 (Literature).
Petrograd Censor and Control Marks 1914-1918.
Warsaw Postal History 1778-1915.
Estonians using the Russian Fieldpost in WWI.
Monthly magazine "(QnaTenjM" Nos. 1-12 /1996.
Russian Postal Stationery 1872-1917.
The Blockade of Leningrad.
Advertising labels, related postmarks and postal stationery.
From "Salyut" to "Mir".
Set of Handbooks on Russian and Soviet Philately.
Soviet postal stationery envelopes 1926-1935.
Moscow Patriarchate Mail.
Postal History of Wilno 19th.-20th. centuries.
Catalogue of Russian Postage Stamps 1857-1995.
"Kollektsioner" Handbooks, Nos. 30-32 (Literature).
Chess Topic.
Carpatho-Ukraine to 1945.

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIl(HK .N2 42
June, 1998







SILVER:
T.H.T. Arvelin (72)
M. Bonnet (72)
A.N. Devyatin (70)
H. Giesen (71)
K.O. Hellman (70)
N. Krasheninnikova (72)
I. Pechanek (73)
A. Raid (73)
V. Sadovnikov (70)
V. Shcherbakov (70)
D. Slomka (74)
Z. Steponavicius (73)
S. Sablatura (70)
Yu. Tondrik (73)
G.G. Werbizky (74)
V. Zhokhov (72)
SILVER-BRONZE:
V. Knyazev (69)
K. Trunov (68)
R. Vainora (68)
K. Vinogradova (66)
BRONZE:
B. Bazunov (60)
V. Bekhtir (60)
N. Drapkina (60)
H. Guzy (61)
E. PlUme (63)
A. Poghossian (60)
K. Shapovalov (60)
A.V. Strygin (64)
A.V. Strygin (60)


Armenian Union
D. Ustinov (63)
V. Yakobs (63)


of Phil. (60)


Lenin Topic.
The Trans-Siberian Railway and the mails.
Postal Services in Russia and the USSR.
The First Soviet Definitives of 1921.
Postal Rates of Russia 1917-1923.
Postal Censorship in Russia during WWI.
Soviet Space Flights.
Mail of the Russian Motorised Units in WWI.
Varieties on Soviet Sport Stamps.
The USSR in WWII.
Estonian Airmails.
"PaStas ir Filatelija Lietuvoje" magazine (Literature).
USSR 1923-1941.
S.P. Koroliv Space theme.
"Ostarbeiter Mail in WWII" (Literature).
Olympic Traditions.

Soviet Definitives.
"Friends and Enemies" theme.
Articles in philatelic journals.
Wondrous Fairy Tales.

Olympic Traditions.
Bulletin of the Association of Philatelists of the Ukraine.
Health theme.
Russian Empire (in the class of Traditional Philately).
Latvian Stamp Catalogue (Literature).
Armenian Subjects in Maximaphily
Dog theme.
"History of the Stamps of Russia" (Literature).
Magazine "MHp MapoK" 1996-1997 (Literature).
"Philately of Armenia" (Literature).
Automobile theme.
Magazine "BecTHiIK Ko.,n.neKuHoHepa" 1995-1997 (Literature).


In addition to the above material, special mention must be made of the Invited Collections in the Court of
Honour, the astounding treasures in which were enough to make one give up philately! Here they are:-
Dr. R. Casey: The Russian Posts in the Far East (an absolutely staggering array of rarities).
V.V. Gorbatko: Space Mail, with many unique items and the exhibitor also a famous cosmonaut.
H. von Hofmann: Estonian Forerunners (many rarities of Estonian and Baltic interest).
E. Kossoy: Postmarks of the SPB-Moscow (Nikolai) Railway (the finest exhibit in this field).
E. Kossoy: Postmarks of the SPB-Warsaw Railway, also with very rare usages.
L.Ya. Mel'nikov: Airmail of the USSR (magnificent exhibit of FIP Championship Class status).
Ing. Z. Mikuiski: Russian Empire Postal History & Rarities (2 of 3 known Tiflis City Post, etc.: phew!)
Ing. Z. Mikulski: Postal History of the Polish Kingdom (undoubtedly the finest collection in existence)
E. Conclusions:
Looking back over the massive participation with world-class material, can it still be said that this
international show, with 70,000 visitors, was not a magnificent success? We will also leave it up to CSRP
readers to compare our initiatives with those of the nay-sayers and draw the necessary lessons.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIHlK .N2 42 85
June, 1998






The Philatelic Community in Russia will doubtless remember the two Canadian counterparts of
Bobchinskii and Dobchinskii for a long time to come. Canadians in general have a wonderful reputation
abroad as a basically tolerant, modest and humane people, who do not feel compelled to show the rest of
the world that they are the toughest kids on the block. The "qe>KypHble" ladies in charge of the keys on our
floor at the "ROSSIA" knew we were Canadians and mothered us accordingly. What more could one ask?

On a final note, another good 4 _-- 4 4-v
example of "positive thinking" < VUELO POSTAL
was given by our esteemed BUENOS AIRES MOSCU .-
SExposicion Mundial
colleagues from far-away "MOCKBA'97"
Argentina. The Argentinian ---- I
0l s VUBSENCS'AlRES AIR -'.CU;^:
Society of Aerophilately c MOCK ,
sponsored a cacheted K .
cover, as shown here, for E ,*
a special BUENOS AIRES- g XPOSICIN FRLTEUCA I.TER AC' O
MOSCOW Flight 17-18 r 74--
October 1997 by Aeroflot s .AE"no
Russian International
Airlines and a great time AEROFLOT
was had by all. That is what u Russian International Airlines
philately is all about!-


JOURNAL FUND

All orders should be made out to the CSRP, P.O. Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

KOJIJIEKIUHOHEP NJ 33 ("The Collector" No. 33). A 320-page manual in Russian, with authoritative
articles on philately, postcards, numismatics and paper money. Limited supply. Price postpaid US S 12.50.

n03JIPABHTEJIbHAfI OTKPMTKA B POCCHM (KOHen XIX seKa Haqa.1o XX BeKa) ["The
Greeting Card in Russia: End of the 19th. Century Beginning of the 20th. Century]. Beautiful coffee-table
hardback book with perfect bilingual Russian-English text, listing 300 different cards in natural colours on
coated paper. Limited supply. Price postpaid US S 25.00.

HOPE ABANDONED, by Nadezhda Mandelstam. Candid reminiscences by the widow of the noted poet
Osip Mandelstam and of their literary contemporaries, in a paperback edition of 692 pages. Originally
published at US S 14.00. Of great historical value. Price postpaid US S 10.00.

POST OFFICES OF THE UKRAINE WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE POSTAL CODES. Special
CSRP reprint of this rare 1932 Kharkiv work of the world's first postal code system. Thousands of POs,
arranged alphabetically and numerically. Ideal for Ukrainian postal historians. Price postpaid US S 20.00.

ARMENIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPAEDIA: Vol. 12, 1986 with an entry about philately and two pages
in colour of Armenian and foreign-related stamps. Entirely in Armenian and a great conversation piece.
Price postpaid US S 16.00.

RUSSIA ZEMSTVOS, by F.G. Chuchin. English edition, reissued by John Barefoot in 1988, with clear
illustrations of all issues in the right places and with Cerlox binding. Price postpaid US S 18.00.
86 THE POST-RIDER/51MIIHIK o 42
June, 1998










The "Romanov Castle"
by
Alex Artuchov

For many years, this writer wondered where the building depicted on the 3 ruble value of the
Romanov Tri-Centenary set, described by the Scott catalogue as the "Romanov Castle" and
illustrated below as Fig. 1 was actually located and if in fact it even still existed.

During the course of "Moscow 97" this writer was
fortunate to meet O. V. Forafontov. Oleg ,"OTTml IOTIAf
Vladimirovich describes philately as his first and
primary passion and the history of Moscow as his
second love. En route together with O. V. from the
exhibition hall to the Hotel Rossiya through Red
Square and a number of streets behind the Gum
Department Store, the author was favoured with a *
rich and intriguing description of the surroundings.
As we neared the Hotel Rossiya, Oleg
Vladimirovich began to describe the churches and
other buildings surrounding the hotel. Just as we
were about to part for the evening, 0. V. causally
remarked that the building with all of the museum signs Fig. I
was actually the home of the boyars (nobles) Romanov.

The "Romanov Castle" as
illustrated in an October 1997
photograph shown as Fig. 2 to '
the right was beside our hotel
and no more than a hundred A 5 i
meters away from Red Square.-
It is located on Varvarka which I I I
was known as Rasin street ...
during Soviet times. The .
building as noted above, was
and has been a museum since
1859.

The actual date the building was
built is not quite clear. But, it
does appear that an earlier
building dating back to the 16th
century that was destroyed by an Fig. 2




THE POST-RIDER/IMImIHK MN 42 87
June, 1998









all too frequent fire stood on the same foundation and that the basement was the only portion of
the original building to remain intact. The current structure was erected at some time in the 17th
century and was one of the first residential structures to be built out of stone in Moscow.

The interior of the building is very much the same as it was during the time when the ancient
Romanovs made this building their home. The rooms are in their original state with furniture
and many other fascinating artifacts including an 1642 globe, depict life as it was in its original
state in the 17th century.

The building is illustrated from a different angle along Varvarka is shown beside one of the
several adjoining churches in Fig. 3.


Fig. 3


Unlike the 1 and 2 ruble issues of the Romanov Tri-Centenary issue which illustrate very familiar
scenes in Moscow and St. Petersburg, the 3 ruble value depicts a much less known view
particularly for collectors of Russian stamps living abroad. We are accordingly very grateful to
Oleg Vladimirovich Forafontov for sharing his knowledge and opening this unknown page of
history to those like this author, who was always interested in the whereabouts of the "Romanov
Castle".
*


THE POST-RIDER/51MIIIHK 42
June, 1998


* -







MORE ABOUT SOVIET MONITORING POST OFFICES


by Andrew Cronin.


Further to the article "Post-WWII Surveillance of International Mail in the Stalin Era" in "The Post-Rider",
No. 38, pp. 37-41 and specifically about the "LVOV BUREAU DE POSTE -M" marking ibidd, p. 38), three
more usages can be recorded, as shown below in Fig. 1, 2 & 3. They may be summarised as follows:-
Origin "LVOV M" date Notes
Zbarazh 26.3.47 Registered surface letter to U.S.A., correctly paid at 1 r. 30k. Note the
6.3.47 20-day delay within the Western Ukraine


27.7.48


L'vov-1
22.7.48


Sambir / Sambor 22.10.48
18.10.48


Registered surface card to Poland, correctly paid at Ir. 10k. Now
down to a 5-day delay within the Western Ukraine.

Correctly paid reg'd surface letter, addressed in Polish to Praha-II
(Terry Page Collection). A 4-day delay in Western Ukraine. Nice item.


Any such usages are rare, as very little mail went abroad from the Western Ukraine until after the death of
the U.P.A. (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) Commandant Taras Chuprynka (Roman Shukhevych) on 5.3.50 in a
shoot-out with MVD Special Forces near L'vov / L'viv. An amnesty was subsequently declared for UPA
fighters, who were offered jobs in the Western Ukraine.

Turning now to the "ME)KA~YHAPOHOE" cachets, our Secretary P.J. Campbell has written a
comprehensive analysis labelled "ME)KTYHAPOHOE Revisited" in the Rossica Journal Nos. 128-
129, pp. 134-154. His basic contention, with which David Skipton apparently agrees, is that the deliberately
introduced breaks in the frames and the height of the first letter "E" constitute a coding system in the mail


C., ..f~/ p I

,-. e, ,


'K />lx


a-.,
Li_

F -i


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No 42
June, 1998


Fig. 2.


b






surveillance operation. Your editor respectfully suggests that both gentlemen are reading much more into
such characteristics than was actually intended. It seems safe to say the the "ME)KYHAPOjHOE"
cachets were utilised and applied only at the post offices designated for monitoring international mail, both
outgoing and incoming, that they were made locally at the discretion of each postal district and that the
nicks in the frames were inserted by individual postal clerks to identify their
own specific cachets. That also happened in identifying other cachets, as can
air a 8 V 0 be seen with the "Par avion" example, shown here in Fig. 4 and applied in
Fig. 4. Odessa!

Mr. Campbell also expressed surprise in his article that Soviet surveillance of international mail was
continued after WWII. Suffice it to say that persistent and numerous violations of Soviet air space by
British and U.S. aircraft, not to mention the publicised U-2 incident in 1960, are all well documented in the
literature.






Illustration for the article .
that follows: "The Erivan'
Court of Exchequer and
the 1st Issue of Armenian
Fiscal Stamps", by
Khristofor Zakiyan.

Fig. 1.
This is the back of a
document containing a
court decision, dated 1 st.
March 1920. The stamps
affixed actually paid for
two fees: 80 kop. for a
court charge and one
rouble as the fiscal tax.
Moreover, the only valid
Armenian fiscal was the
perforated 40-kop. at
bottom right. The six
Russian fiscal were
really invalid after the
first week of February
1920. Very unusual as
we have both mixed
frankings and two
separate charges.




90 THE POST-RIDER/ISMUIIIUK 42
June, 1998







THE ERIVAN' COURT OF EXCHEQUER & THE 1ST. ISSUE OF ARMENIAN FISCAL STAMPS
by Khristofor Zakiyan.

There has existed for more than 75 years the mistaken opinion that the configuration of two diagonal lines
and the initials ":3,K.II." on the fiscal stamps of Imperial Russia should be read as ".3PIBAHCKAAI
KOHTPOJIbHAI HIAJIATA" (The Erivan' Control Chamber). Such an interpretation was embodied in
the typewritten catalogues of the most well-known specialists in the area of fiscal stamps and was repeated
mechanically in the book "The Post and the Postage Stamps of Armenia" by Kh. Zakiyan and S. Saltykov.

The work carried out recently by the present author, after studying various sources, has brought to light the
inaccuracy of such an interpretation and has given rise to the possibility of establishing with complete
authority the correct definition of these initials, which stand for 3PHBAHCKAAI KA3EHHA5
nAJIATA" (The Erivan' Court of Exchequer).

The activity of the Court of Exchequer in the Caucasus began in 1848, when the Imperial Order of 3rd.
August was issued about the establishment of a Unified Court of Exchequer for the entire Transcaucasian
region. Its opening followed in Tiflis on 1 July 1849. In 1872, the Transcaucasian Court of Exchequer was
transformed into the Tiflis Court of Exchequer and, by the same Imperial ukase, a Court of Exchequer was
approved for the city of Baku. The following District Treasuries referring to Armenia formed part of the
Tiflis Court of Exchequer: Aleksandropol', Ardagan, Erivan', Igdyr, Nakhichevan and Novo-Bayazet. The
activities of these treasuries were in direct dependence of the orders emanating from the Court of
Exchequer, of which they were the executive organs. Among other duties, the Treasurers had to ensure that
they always had on hand revenue stamped paper of all kinds, fiscal stamps, licences and permits to carry
out trade and industry, as well as for the issue of passports, etc.

The Erivan' Court of Exchequer was approved on 1 May 1898 for the Erivan' and Elisavetpol' provinces, as
well as for the Kars region.. The Court Councillor (HageopHbii COBeTHMK = Rank No. 7 in the Imperial
Civil Service) F.G. Mikhailov was appointed its Director.

The Court of Exchequer enjoyed a high and independent position among governmental institutions. It was
a financial organ and was subordinate only to the Government Senate and the Ministry of Finances. The
Director of the Court of Exchequer was appointed or dismissed by Imperial ukase, upon the
recommendation of the Minister of Finances. There entered into the sphere of activity of the Court of
Exchequer the guidance of receipt and disbursement of Court incomes, the calculation of taxes, imposts
and arrears, subsequent reviews (auditings), matters relating to the production of goods, taking a census of
the population, etc.

Until it became an independent republic, the revenue stamps of the Russian Empire were in use in
Armenia. They were cancelled by ordinary means: with special circular markings, by piercing in the centre
with a punch or by handwritten crossed lines in ink (sometimes by indelible pencil) and also by inscribing
the first lines of the text placed on the document, proceeding from the left side of the affixed fiscal stamp,
as well as including the signature of a person, who was not the possessor of the document.

Editorial Comment: With regard to this last stipulation regarding the cancellation of Imperial fiscal
stamps by hand, the rule actually was that one started on the document to the left of the affixed stamp(s),
proceeded across the stamp(s) and terminated again on the document to the right of the stamp(s).

The Erivan' Court of Exchequer had from the first day of its activity a special marking, with which
cancellations were often carried out. It included an inscription indicating its origin (the Erivan' Court of
Exchequer), as well as the date with the day, month and year. Three further modified markings came into
use.
THE POST-RIDER/flMiIHK .N 42 91
June, 1998






Judging from the documents on hand, the Erivan' Court of Exchequer received in 1904 for its disposition a
perforator, which it began to apply in the interval from 1st. to 20th. June. This device resulted in a figurative
perforation, consisting of two diagonal lines and the initials "3.K.II.". It should be especially noted that the
stamps, together with the document, were punctured right through. Any philatelist collecting the revenue
stamps of Armenia should bear in mind that the piercing perforation "3. K.II.", applied within the walls of
the Erivan' Court of Exchequer and beginning in June 1904 right through to September 1919,does not have
any connection with the official State issue of revenue stamps of the Republic.

However, documents of that specific period, perforated together with the stamps, are doubtless of great
interest and quite rare. Because of these items, it is possible to determine which stamps received the
puncture of the Court of Exchequer up to the First Issue of the Republic and, by means of them, prevent
any misunderstandings linked by lack of knowledge with the findings of "rarities" of the 15-kop. type
(Russia, 1901 issue), or of the 2 r. value of 1917, bearing the "3J.II." perfin. It would be well to note that
the puncture was normally applied horizontally and such an application can serve in some measure as a
distinguishing feature, if there is no indication of the date of cancellation on a stamp taken from a
document. In this regard, special attention should be devoted to stamps with the values of 60 kop. (Russia,
1887-1900 issue) and of 20 kop. (1915-1917 issue), which are really very rare on documents processed at
the end of September 1919 and later.

The listing below shows what stamps went through the Erivan' Court of Exchequer, receiving with the
documents the relevant puncture:-
5 kop. (Russia, 1887-1900) 60 kop. (Russia, 1887-1900) Russia, 1905-1917 issue:-
10 kop. (Russia, 1887-1900) 80 kop. (Russia, 1887-1900) 5 kop., 10 kop., 15 kop.,
15 kop. (Russia 1888, 1901) 1 r. (Russia, 1887-1900) 20 kop., 50 kop., 75 kop.,
40 kop. (Russia 1888) 1 r., 1 r. 25k., 2 r.

The preparatory period allotted for the conclusion of the stage for the preliminary emission of the first
fiscal stamps of the Republic took place in the beginning of the second half of September 1919. Directive
No. 1516 of 22 September was proclaimed in the Gazette of the Budget & Treasury Department of the
Ministry of Finances and was sent to the Erivan' Treasury. It included the requirement "to report whether
fiscal stamps had been perforated and sent off to the competent authorities of the Intercity Treasuries and
namely when".

The first set, consisting of stamps in ten values, went into circulation in the last days of September. The 60-
kopek had been unknown up to now and was not listed in the handwritten catalogues. That is not
surprising, as it is a great rarity on documents. That also applies to mint copies. However, when taken off
documents, its attribution to the official issue remains unproven, especially if the date is not specified in
ink or by any other means, as the stamp could conceivably belong to the period preceding its emplacement
in circulation in the category of an official government issue of the Republic in September 1919. It could
have received a puncture much earlier, during the period of previous years, beginning in 1904, when the
Erivan' Court of Exchequer had a perforator placed at its disposal. As was pointed out earlier, another
stamp in the set is also found rarely, namely the value of 20 kopeks.

Since the punching of the figurative perforation was a laborious operation and took up much time, the
sheets of stamps began to be inserted in twos during the perforating process. As a result, the productivity of
work was doubled and philatelists thus had the possibility of including in their collections stamps which
had a mirror image of the initials"'3K.II.", which could be distinguished by the inverted letter "II.". If more
than two sheets of stamps were placed together during the process of being punched in the perforator, the
pictures on the lower sheets came out less clearly and resulted in a more shallow impression; not all the
holes could be seen as having been completely punctured.
92 THE POST-RIDER/MIMIIHK o2 42
June, 1998







The Erivan' Court of Exchequer was abolished in June 1919. Its functions were transferred to the Budget &
Treasury Department of the Ministry of Finances. As there was a need for re-allocation, that did not
prevent the utilisation of the perforator, the punctures of which we see on the stamps of the first and second
issues of fiscal stamps of the Republic of Armenia.

Thus, in September 1919, the preparation and emplacement in circulation were realized of the stamps
comprising the First Issue. There were within that number the 40-kop. value of the 1888 issue, the 60-kop.
value of the 1887-1900 issue and eight stamps emitted in 1905-1917. They all had as a control perforation
the initials "3,K.II." and two crossed diagonal lines:-
No. 1. 5 kop. : reddish-lilac, with yellow background.
2. 10 kop. olive-grey, with blue background.
3. 15 kop. :blue, with rose background.
4. 20 kop. yellow-brown, with yellow background.
5. 40 kop. black and rose-red.
6. 50 kop. orange-red, with with brownish-gray background
7. 60 kop. blue-black and bright blue.
8. 75 kop. : yellowish-green, with yellow background.
9. 1 r. : dark red, with blue background.
10. 1 r. 25 k. : black, with bright brown background.

Notes:
(1) The control perforation "3.K.II." designated the territorial attribution of the stamps and served at the
same time as a defence of the financial interests of the Treasury against the influx of fiscal stamps from a
without.
(2) The perforation of the control marking was carried out inaccurately. The principle of a single
emplacement was sometimes violated, as a result of which the puncture came out not vertically, but
horizontally.
(3) There is information about the existence of a false perforator, unknown in Armenia, with the help of
which a puncture with the forged perforation'"3.K.I1." has been done on Russian fiscal stamps.
(4) Fiscal stamps of Russia are sometimes found on documents, which do not have the initials "3K.II.", or
are also affixed with stamps of the First Republican issue (see Fig. 1 on p. 90). Such frankings were
violations,to which an end was put in February 1920. This was referred to in the newspaper "Arach" of 23
January 1920, which published an official announcement of the Ministry of Finances. It stated that, after a
period of two. weeks, stamps without a control perforation should not be put into circulation under any
circumstances. This measure was explained by the necessity to cut off the flow of fiscal stamps from
outside the borders of Armenia and the speculation linked with the same.

Editorial Comment: In addition to the interesting mixed franking shown by Mr. Zakiyan in Fig. 1 on p. 90,
three further usages from his collection with perforated fiscal of the First Issue of the Republic of Armenia
are given on the next page in Figs 2, 3 & 4, being dated 10 March, 29 March and 3 April 1920 respectively.
The details are as follows:-

Fig. 2 shows a document drawn up in Armenian and the affixed fiscal consist of I x 60 kop. and 2 x 75
kop., for a total fee of 2 roubles 10 kopeks.

Fig. 3 has a petition drawn up in Russian and the affixed fiscal consist of 1 x 5 kop., 2 x 15 kop., 2 x 20
kop., and 3 x 75 kop., for a total fee of 3 roubles.

Fig. 4 is a petition also drawn up in Russian and the affixed fiscal consist of 1 x 10 kop., 1 x 40 kop.
and 2 x 75 kop., for a total fee of 2 roubles.
THE POST-RIDER/HIM1UHK .N 42 93
June, 1998







"The Erivan' Court of Exchequer and the 1st. Issue of Armenian Fiscal Stamps", by Kh. Zakivan.


(Further illustrations).


/ A //L /,| /A !




_J J t.-i /i'/1





,,O ^ ^"4S*7^"*


*N ^/* y '^ .c y -.

' /^/ '
v> ^ 7/^ ^


Y~~ ` C~di~h;' C__~' '4I~r--
J -, -8
.6'UB"~"~("?




~ -~~-~

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Fig. 2.


j I


-rI.

-.
'c-


I .Y


$-' 'D~V
n 'A ('p
t -

7B' .


lie 4e '// ^^^/ /^
7y.k IfC 16
V>

/ ";/^ ^/


Fig. 3.
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIUIK J 42
June, 1998


7
ll/n c~oN c'yT r,~~







THE SOVIET POSTS IN WESTERN BELORUSSIA 1939-1941: ADDENDA
by Rex A. Dixon, Ivo Steyn and Robert Taylor.


(a) Rex A. Dixon.


(b) Ivo Steyn.


Here we have a 20-kop. card from DASHKEVICHI
Brest province (Moscow-type canceller with 25-mm.
diameter and illegible date) to SVISLOCH-a 11.2.41
(Minsk-type canceller with 29-mm. diameter).


This card, written in Polish on 29.9.40, was mailed at
CHIZHEV-b (Czyiew) 4.10.40 and monitored at Belostok-p
on 8.10.40, before proceeding to the Lublin province in the
Nazi-occupied General Government. Czyiew was returned to
Poland on 16 August 1945 and this is a hitherto unrecorded
marking in the Minsk type with a diameter of 29 mm.
The card was also censored en route in Berlin.


S zrj S 3AHA3HOE



S.y ....l.'. ...... ... ... .
.'m ... .. --



Adpe o.mnpaCUeARx r
("./ -


Above is a registered postal stationery envelope for the
internal rate of 60 kop., sent on the eve of the Nazi
invasion from NYAN'KOVO BARANOV. OBL.-a
21.6.41 (Minsk type), to Cherkassy, Kiev province.


A series is now shown below of registered internal letters from District Representatives of the People's
Commissariat of Registration to the provincial office of the same at Baranovichi. They are all from late
1940 to 1941, prior to the Nazi invasion and with Minsk-type cancellers of 29mm.


Ky a ... ...,,,,;.......... ......, .. '.t' ..+.:. 'J


As~.,.^ ^^^^*^^/^^-t'A *


GO.ISHCHE BARAN,.; .... O L..-. 3... 1.

GORODISHCHE BARN. OBL.-b 3.3.41.


.. -




hr4EC.~ 'bi... *" /,..
-~4 "f



BE-trme I EEP~rAEAbI""4 RC
'r........ - -'
KOLCH BAREW.A N JfrBO L.v 282.1


KORELICHI BARANOV. OBL -V 28.2.41.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIUlHK .N 42
June, 1998


IV, L -_1- L Iq




A .. ........ ............









.. .. ..-... ,. ..:;: --. ,,
S3AA3HOE .. -.-- (








Adpec ompaameso: 'naHapaMsar COCP -"- /
e, lJnxaBei.aMy pa., 7 .



LYAKHOVICHI BARAN. OBL.-b 27.5.41. LYUBCHA BARANOV. OBL.-a 18.3.41.
.. .' .... .. I

rAHA HOE

K(oy Cao "Io'"


A ec o pan .... ....... .. .... .. *
A "p a eatM n. .-p: -".a.Mapllam3ar CCCP_ *'
.. .... /-" .""" <'














OVSTY BARANOV. OBL.-b 27.5.41. LHNESVZH BARANOV. OBL.-aBSSR-b 201.3.41.


,.
N.VAN O L ? B-(

BARAOV A. RAN.-. OBL9.4110.41. AT~ESiIK IJ, 20. )A
** .__











., ..... ............... .. .. ......
*~" ""~ ""Lt"' ~~ ^Isfo~' '"'" i, T,.~ ;p




















""... ^ '..: -,,', June, 1998
^June, 199










June, 1998







(c) Robert Taylor.
The localities which went back to Poland will be dealt with first. Some of the strikes of the Minsk-type
postmarks are poor, but then the material is rarely found and we cannot be choosey!
fI u^T^CA~wa~o/wt~re Rf&i .r S


Cover with the postmark BELOSTOK ZHD.P.O.-a
16.7.40, censored in transit through Germany to the
International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva.
Overpaid by 10 kop.












Another example from SOKOLKA BSSR-a
'7. o ? .






Another example from SOKOLKA BSSR-a
11.2.41 (Sok6lka), but from a military doctor
to another doctor in Ashkhabad 22.2.41.


Aj... ... ..... i. .
--^--T'---r ----,. .AI""

W. J--r. -

Properly prepaid card from KROSHEVO BSSR
28.3.41 (Kroszewo), via BARGLOV BSSR 28.3.41
(Bargtbw) & Minsk-4 monitor 6.4.41 to Sandomierz.


Registered surface foreign letter, overpaid by
5 kop. and sent from ZAMBROV BSSR-v :
26.6.40 (Zambr6w) via Siberia and across the
Pacific to San Pedro 30.7.40 & Detroit 2.8.40.,


.. Q ."...... .. ... .....-.............
^ ^. J n ^
:;:.,%: .. w

.'~.-.. i ,......... 1............... .
*^ >e ^ 9-...... ............. ptr^**? -^


Properly paid surface foreign card from ZAREMBY KOST. BSSR 24.?.41 (Zargby Koscielne) via
BELOSTOK-p monitor 26.?.41 to Philadelphia. The Yiddish message from Leah Lipska is possibly historic.
THE POST-RIDER/1MIHUIK N_ 42 97
June, 1998






I also have two cards with Minsk-type cancels from places remaining in Western Belorussia after WWII, i.e.

:^70 -6AR KAPTOI WHA ,
A POSTAL :.. E .,,, r


*Jb .-- :" -SKIDEL BSSR-a 14.2.40 via a'.i
Minsk-4 monitor 2.3.40 and r, t'
:- Berlin-Charlottenburg 15.3.40
.... ............... L ub lin
?, : .. v ... .. .. .. .... .-, -



Reply half of a U.S. 3c. postal: .-:'.W 7^^^
card from VOLKOVYSK ..-."""""
BSSR -a? 10.1.41 via Minsk-4 ta,.- a- <^ .^^^ ^
monitor 11.1.41 to U.S.A. The .
Yiddish text is reproduced, as ..., ,:
it could be a historic item. -" ,'


Editorial Comment: More data on this subject will be published in the future as they come to hand.

FURTHER USAGES OF THE SOVIET POSTS IN FORMER POLISH LANDS 1939-1941
by Robert Taylor.

The following items are shown hereunder, so as to encourage discussion and further finds in this field:-
S- .. -,




V .. .'.*, '-- .__s '" ,- i,-/: t. <





Fully prepaid reg'd card from KLUSZCZANY '-. .... e f
(old Polish canceller) 19.V.1940 and sent to a..,
Weiterseben, Upper Austria 31.5.40. .. -
Comments would be appreciated.
"-- -,










Editorial Comment: This office was in the former Swiqcany Wile skie district (Central Lithuania Litwa
Srodkowa / Vidurin, Lietuva) and the sender, Lukas Temech, was obviously well-educated. He wrote a
surprisingly frank German message, deliberately in the Suderlin (old Gothic) script and presumably thus, so
as to get past the Soviet monitors. The text appears to transliterate as follows:-
"Lieber Neffe Hansi! 1 5 1940.
Comments would be appreciated.




"Lieber Neffe Hansi! 15.V. 1940.

GrUsse und kiisse Dich herzlichst und danke fir die Karte vom 19/III. Bin sammt Meinen gesund. Befinde
mich bei meiner Tochter Irene, Lehrerin im Dorfe Troszczany, Post Kluszczany, Bezirk Swiecany, weil ich
98 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIII1HK ._ 42
June, 1998




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