• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 More on censorship of Soviet POW...
 Eight Soviet towns in honour of...
 Poltava priorities in philatel...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The postage stamps of "Autonomous...
 Armenian revenue stamps and their...
 The separate components of Russian...
 Soviet 50-Kopek Frankings
 The great dot and numeral hunt
 More items of postal and historical...
 The Russian posts in Northern Bukovina...
 More "state chancellery" postm...
 Alatyr No. 1 (Supplement)
 The Austro-Hungarian army in the...
 The Soviet occupation of the Bialystok...
 More about the Soviet posts in...
 Reports on exhibitions
 Some "Spartakiada" usages
 Mail from Russia and the Ukraine...
 Mail from Khiva in Soviet Central...
 Philatelic shorts
 The collectors' corner
 The journal fund
 Advertising






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00041
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Advertising
        Advertising
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 4
    More on censorship of Soviet POW mail
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Eight Soviet towns in honour of Kaganovich
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Poltava priorities in philately
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The postage stamps of "Autonomous Siberia"
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Armenian revenue stamps and their usages
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The separate components of Russian and Soviet postal rates
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Soviet 50-Kopek Frankings
        Page 56
        Page 57
    The great dot and numeral hunt
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    More items of postal and historical interest
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    The Russian posts in Northern Bukovina during WWI
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    More "state chancellery" postmarks
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Alatyr No. 1 (Supplement)
        Page 72
    The Austro-Hungarian army in the Ukraine: March-November 1918
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    The Soviet occupation of the Bialystok district, Podlasie & Eastern Mazowsze 1939-41
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    More about the Soviet posts in Western Belorussia 1939-1941
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Reports on exhibitions
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Some "Spartakiada" usages
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Mail from Russia and the Ukraine after Brest-Litovsk
        Page 106
    Mail from Khiva in Soviet Central Asia
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The collectors' corner
        Page 120
    The journal fund
        Page 120
    Advertising
        Page 121
        Page 122
Full Text



















































































Primed in Canada







Are you thinking of selling your zemstvo
collection, some covers or R items?

Please let me know!

Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station"A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2


Postmarks of the Russian Empire
(pre-adhesive period)
by Manfred Dobin

copies for sale $50.00 US postpaid

Alex Artuchov, R 0. Box 5722. Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2


The Zemstvo Postage Stamps of
Imperial Russia
Vols. 3
$3o.oo VS each postpaid
Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station"A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canaba, M5W iP2






THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada
FAX: (905) 764-8968.
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 41. November 1997.

Contents:
2 Editorial
4 Correspondence with Canada Andrew Cronin
5 More on Censorship of Soviet POW Mail Dr. Peter A. Michalove
8 Eight Soviet Towns in Honour of Kaganovich David S. Canter
12 Poltava Priorities in Philately F. Vanius
17 Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
37 The Postage Stamps of "Autonomous Siberia" F. Vanius
40 Armenian Revenue Stamps and Their Usages Joseph Ross
49 The Separate Components of Russian and Soviet Postal Rates Andrew Cronin
56 Soviet 50-Kopek Frankings Dr. Ivo Steyn
58 The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt Alex Artuchov
63 More Items of Postal and Historical Interest Professor A.S. Ilyushin
67 The Russian Posts in Northern Bukovina during WWI Alexander Epstein
70 More "State Chancellery" Postmarks Rabbi L.L. Tann
72 Alatyr No. 1 (Supplement) Alex Artuchov
73 The Austro-Hungarian Army in the Ukraine: March-November 1918 Dan Grecu
83 The Soviet Occupation of the Bialystok District, Podlasie & Eastern Mazowsze 1939-41 J.W. Zurawski
93 More about the Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia 1939-1941 Rex A. Dixon & Andrew Cronin
99 Reports on Exhibitions Andrew Cronin
103 Some "Spartakiada" Usages Michalis Tsironis
106 Mail from Russia and the Ukraine after Brest-Litovsk Alfred Kugel
107 Mail from Khiva in Soviet Central Asia Robert Taylor
111 Philatelic Shorts Various Valued Contributors
120 The Collectors' Corner
120 Journal Fund

Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher and Treasurer.
Patrick J. Campbell, Secretary.
Andrew Cronin, Editor.
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.

1997. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this
issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.

The opinions expressed in the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not
necessarily those of The Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators.


1 j

















"Mr. President (Benes) at the graves of Russian
heroes, who have fallen for our country".
EDITORIAL
RUSSOPHOBIA IS A BLATANT FORM OF RACISM

Your editor recently viewed the Czech movie "Kolya", which has won high praise internationally both for its
direction and the high standards of acting. It is also very witty and anyone with a knowledge of Russian will
notice how much of the Czech dialogue can be understood. It contains deserved criticisms of Communism,
which is understandable, but also racist slurs against Russians as a people, which is unpardonable. While
patriotic Czechs have wholly legitimate grievances about Soviet actions against their sovereignty in the past,
they also need to be reminded that it was the Western Powers who betrayed them to Hitler at Munich in
1938, that the record of the Czech Resistance during the Nazi occupation was somewhat less than brilliant,
that more than 50,000 Soviet soldiers died to liberate their country in 1944-1945 and that, during the horrible
drought years of 1946-1947, thousands of Russians and Ukrainians starved to death when Stalin rushed ill-
spared grain to Czechoslovakia to stop it bolting into the Western Camp. The bright side of the picture is that,
despite the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the interest in Russian and Soviet philately has not decreased
in either the Czech Republic or Slovakia and we in the CSRP maintain warm relations with our colleagues in
both countries. Please refer to the congratulatory letter from the Czech Section on the next page.

The same absorbing study of Russian and Soviet philately and postal history has been promoted by the noted
international philatelic expert Ing. Zbigniew S. Mikulski of Switzerland. His two articles published in "The
Post-Rider" No. 40 are ample proof of that policy and he has also written extensively in the Polish philatelic
press about the Russian Posts in the Kingdom of Poland during the 19th. century. Rightly so, as such valuable
and often classic material is part of the glorious philatelic heritage of Poland.

Sad to say, there are circles in the Western Diaspora who let their Russophobia get in the way of their
philatelic judgement. Anyone who uses the media to denigrate another people or nation deserves nothing but
the greatest of contempt. Fortunately, such groups constitute only a small minority even in their home
countries. Another point is that their prejudices limit the competition for philatelic and postal history material,
which is all to the good, so far as open-minded collectors are concerned.

A noted Russian writer Il'ya Ehrenburg put it well in his memoirs: "To speak of Western European culture as
being separate from Russian, or of Russian culture as being separate from Western European is, to put it
mildly, a mark of ignorance. When we speak of the role that Russia has played in the intellectual life of
Europe, it is by no means intended to belittle other nations. Only dwarfs use stilts and the people who yell
about their national superiority are those who are not really sure of themselves".

Our readers will have noticed that we have never cast slurs against any national group in the philatelic studies
that we have published. We intend to maintain that policy in the future, no matter what the provocation.
*
2 THE POST-RIDER/I1MIRHK No. 41
November, 1997







V Praze dne 21. Servna 1997.


VdZenf pfdtel4,


jmenem viech 6lena na5f SEKCE ZNAMKOVICH ZEMI RUSKA pMi
Svazu deskych filatelisti Vam upfimni blahoprejeme k 20.
vyrodf zaloienf VaSf THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHI-
LATELY a jeji bohat4 Einnosti.

Peejeme Vam a VaSemu obdivuhodn6 bohat~mu a filatelisticky
hodnotndmu dasopisu JAMSIK /' POST-RIDER mnroho dal1ich
desetiletf dsp6sn6 dinnosti.


Vladimfr u 1 c
Svaz 6eskfch filatelisto pledseda sekce
SPOLEiOOST TERITORIALNI Fit ATELIE
sekcs znimkovich zrml RUSKA /
-5- /
Josef S va
tajemnik sekce


P.S.: Nase sekce oslavf 30. vyrofi sv4e innosti v Pfjnu 1997.
Translation: "Prague, 21 June 1997.
Dear Friends,
In the name of all members of our SECTION FOR THE RUSSIAN STAMP-
ISSUING LANDS in the Union of Czech Philatelists, we sincerely congratulate you upon the
occasion of the 20th. anniversary of the foundation of THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY and on its rich activity.

We wish you and your admirably rich and philatelically valuable journal
"51MIIHK / THE POST-RIDER" many more further decades of successful activity.
Vladimir Sulc, President of the Section;
Josef Suiva, Secretary of the Section.
P.S. Our Section will celebrate the 30th. anniversary of its activity in October 1997".
To:

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O.Box 5722,, Station "A"
TORONTO, Ontario, M59 1P2

CANADA
3
THE POST-RIDER/RMIIUHK No. 41
November, 1997







CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.


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A RUSSIAN REQUEST TO PRACTICE PHARMACY IN ONTARIO
by Andrew Cronin.

Pharmacy has always been regulated on a provincial basis in Canada and the illustrations above show the usage
of a 4-kop. reply paid double card by a Russian pharmacy student asking about the requirements for practicing
that profession in the Province of Ontario. The understandable message in English reads as follows:-
"Moscow, Mch 15 1892.
Sir,
I dare to ask You for advertising me what general and professional education is required for the persons, who
should practice pharmacy in the province of Ontario.
Requesting forgive my importunity, I have the honour to remain, Sir, Your most obedient servant
J. Sochoiovsky, Stud. Pharm.
My fully address is as follows: Europe Russie, a Moscou, Mr. J. Socholovsky. Poste Restante".

Poste Restante = General Delivery = "Ao BocTpeGo0aHas". The card was mailed at Moscow City Post No. 4 on
3/15 March 1892 and reached Toronto 18 days later on 2nd. April. The reply half of the card was not used and
it thus appears that the Secretary of the College of Pharmacy preferred to send a response by official letter. At
the very least, it seems certain that Mr. Socholovsky would have been told to obtain landed immigrant status
before any further action could be taken on his request. His surname should probably have originally been spelt
Sokolovskii or Sok6lowski, both of which are common Russian and Polish family names and there are quite a
few persons currently living in the Toronto Metropolitan area with either surname, or variations thereof. In any
case, the example shown here is yet another uncommon example of an unsevered double reply card.

4 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997






MORE ON CENSORSHIP OF SOVIET POW MAIL
by Dr. Peter A. Michalove.

Sometimes in philatelic research, a source tells you something that just is not right. And sometimes the
incorrect statement is then quoted and requoted until there is a whole series of sources that are absolutely
consistent .....and wrong!

When I first wrote about the mail of Axis POWs in the USSR (Michalove 1991), I cited Rist (1978), who in
turn quoted a Suchdienst-Zeitung of 1971, which I have not actually seen. The result was that a statement that
was not quite true has now been repeated too often and Andrew Cronin's (1996) article in a recent issue of The
Post-Rider (No. 39) proves that it is wrong.

But first, let us go back to the beginning. POW mail from Axis prisoners on the USSR after World War II
typically bears a diamond-shaped censor mark with a serial number in the centre. Now Rist (1978:62) quotes a
Suchdienst-Zeitung from 1971 to the effect that the numbers on the various censor marks were assigned in
blocks to the various republics of the USSR. Specifically, the quote says:-

Die Nummern 31 bis 232 wurden an die Lager in der RSFSR
verteilt, die dann folgenden bis zur Nummer 282 tauchten
in der Ukraine auf, 283 bis 292 wurden in WeSruSland
[sic] verwendet, alle hbheren Nummern dann in den
fibrigen 13 Sowjet-Republiken, naturlich nur soweit es
dort selbstandige Lagerbereiche gab.

(The numbers 31 to 232 were assigned to the camps in the RSFSR, the following numbers up to 282 appeared
in the Ukraine, 283 to 292 were used in Belorussia and all the higher numbers were then used in the remaining
13 Soviet republics, naturally only to the extent that there were independent camp regions there).

The quote goes on to say that censor numbers up to 848 had been reported to date. Rist does not question this
information and I accepted it from Rist when writing it in the BJRP.

The POW camp complexes themselves were also identified by number and the number is typically given in
the address of the POW card. Our source of information on the locations of the numbered POW camp
complexes is B'dhme (1966). Since writing the 1991 article, I have been recording the censor-mark numbers
associated with the camp numbers for the POW cards I have seen, either in the flesh or in publications and
tallying those with the locations given in B'dhme.

To take a simple example, I have a POW card (illustrated as Fig. 4 in Michalove, 1991) from P.O. Box
323/18. This indicates Camp No. 18 in Camp Complex 323., which B6ihme identifies as Tula. The card has a
cachet of Censor No. 198, which is in the range that the Suchdienst-Zeitung tells us should be in the Russian
Federation. Thus, I have recorded that Camp Complex 323 in Tula used Censor No. 198 and everything looks
fine. Since many of the complexes included a number of camps, it is not surprising that there are some for
which I have seen several different censor numbers.

But there are some pitfalls in trying to track these censor numbers. For one thing, B5hme is not a complete
listing of the camps. It was compiled from the reports of those POWs who returned home, which is a very
selective sample. A few POW cards have been found from camp numbers that are not in B'dhme's listing.
Secondly, as Cronin (1996) notes, the censor marks are often poorly struck and many of the numbers are
unreadable. Now, postmark collectors are used to this situation but, with this particular material, the situation
seems considerably worse than that for many other kinds of postal markings. Therefore, I have seen many
cards that could not be entered in my tally.
THE POST-RIDER/flMIIIHK No. 41 5
November, 1997






For the most part, the censor numbers that I have tied to camp locations agree with the ranges assigned to the
three republics that the Suchdienst-Zeitung reported. However, I have seen a number of censor marks above
No. 232 that were from camps that B'dhme lists in the Russian Federation.

But even if there were occasional exceptions to the pattern, Cronin (1996) completely demolishes the thesis.
His article reports on a large number of cards from Hungarian POWs in Soviet camps and it includes several
cases with censor numbers from the "wrong" republic. There are censor numbers from camps in the RSFSR
and Ukraine going as high as the 400s. There are cases of the same censor number used at two different camps
and of some numbers (414, 415,419 and 435) used in two different republics: Ukraine and Russia.

On the basis of Cronin's article, I have updated my listing of camp/censor-number correlations and it turns out
that the Suchdienst-Zeitung was probably half-right after all. Examples from the Russian Republic form
predictably the bulk of the material seen and they include the lowest numbers. I have recorded censor numbers
from 70 (Oranki) to as high as 459 (Georgievsk per Cronin's material) in the Russian Federation. Apparently
camps in the RSFSR were the first to open and new censor numbers were introduced throughout the period.

For the Ukraine, I have seen censor numbers from 234 (Kiev) up to 435 (Berezan'), with both extremes
represented in Cronin's material. Since the Suchdienst-Zeitung gave the range of Nos. 233-282 for the
Ukraine, it appears that 233 was the correct initial number for the republic, while the next republic,
Belorussia, began after 282, as the Suchdienst-Zeitung reports. But contrary to the Suchdienst-Zeitung, the
Russian Republic and the Ukraine continued assigning higher numbers even after new camps began to be
established in the other republics.

For Belorussia, the range 283-292 was originally reported and the lowest number I have seen is within that
range: No. 287 (Vitebsk). But again, the numbers continued to be assigned after 292 and the highest that I
have seen is No. 452 (Borisov).

Thus, for the three Slavic republics, the Suchdienst-Zeitung is a reliable source for the lowest censor numbers,
but not for the highest number in each republic. After camps were opened in a new republic and censor
numbers were assigned to those camps, new (and higher-numbered) censor numbers continued to be assigned
in republics that had already received their original blocks of numbers.

After the three Slavic republics, the next camps were apparently opened in Transcaucasia and then elsewhere
in the Soviet Union. The lowest number I have seen for a non-Slavic republic is 295, i.e. for Mingechaur in
Azerbaijan. The only other censor number I have seen from Azerbaijan is 385, also from Mingechaur.

For the remaining republics, the lowest and highest numbers I have recorded are the following. Note that these
are censor numbers, not camp numbers.

Georgia: Only Censor No. 300 seen. This is from Ochamchiri (Camp 7146) and the two cards illustrated on
the next page show mail to and from this camp complex. Fig. 1 shows a card dated 27 April 1948 from Camp
7146 to Osterholz-Scharmbeck near Bremen, with an unused reply card attached. The sender has addressed
the reply card to himself. Fig. 2 is a card of 25 February 1948 to a different prisoner in the same camp.

Martin Schr'dter, who was himself a POW in a Soviet camp, writes (Schrdter 1986:18) that, when POWs were
released, they were ordered not to bring back any mail with them to Germany; departing POWs were searched
for mail and other forbidden items. Since most POWs, who had waited many years for their release, did not
want to jeopardise their impending freedom, the order was usually obeyed and mail addressed to POWs in the
USSR is considerably rarer then that going in the opposite direction. Schriter writes that he smuggled out
some 14 cards on his release and that explains why many of the surviving cards addressed to POWs are folded
in half.
THE POST-RIDER/I1MIlIIK No. 41
6 November, 1997




















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THE POST-RIDER/SIMIMIHK No. 41
November, 1997


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Uzbekistan: Censor numbers 309 (Begovat) to 310 (Tashkent).


Lithuania: Censor numbers 332 (Silute) to 377 (Kaunas).

Latvia: Censor numbers 340 and 343 (both Riga).

In addition, B'hme lists camp complexes in the following republics, from which I have not seen examples:-

Armenian Republic Karelo-Finnish Republic Kazakhstan
Estonia Moldavia Kirghiz Republic

This accounts for all the Union republics, except Tadzhikistan and Turkmenistan for whom Bi'hme does not
list any POW camps.

From the examples we have seen, it appears that the Suchdienst-Zeitung was correct about the lowest censor
numbers used in the three Slavic republics. But it is not the case that the numbers initially assigned for each
republic included the highest numbers used in that republic. As we have seen here, higher numbers continued
to be assigned to the Russian Federation and the Ukraine (and probably to the other republics) even after new
camps and censor markings were assigned to the other republics.

The moral is, don't trust everything you see in print!
References
Cronin, Andrew. 1996. "The Mail of Hungarian POWs in the USSR". The Post-Rider, 39: 64-76, Nov. 1996.

Bb'hme, Kurt W. 1966. Die deutschen Kriegsgefangenen in sowjelischer Hand: eine Bilan-. Munich:
Ernst und Werner Gieseking.

Michalove, Peter A. 1991. "Mail from German POWs in Soviet Captivity 1945-1956". The British Journal of
Russian Philately, 71: 30-36, Autumn 1991.

Rist, Karl. 1978. Kriegsgefangenenpost der UdSSR. Mitteilungsblatt der BAG Russland'UdSSR 19: 57-62.

Schriter, Martin. 1986. "Red Cross Cards of German POWs in the USSR 1945-56". Postal History Journal
72: 6-40


EIGHT SOVIET TOWNS IN HONOUR OF KAGANOVICH
by David S. Canter

First of all, some words about my background. I am U.S. born, having been a collector of Russian and Soviet
stamps since I was eight. I lived in the USSR from 1931 to 1937 and, since my return, have kept up the
language, culture and philately. I am a member of the APS (116423), CSRP and the Rossica Society, as well
as semi-active in its Midwest Chapter.

Secondly, the occasion for these notes and specifically with reference to "The Post-Rider" No. 40 of June
1997, p. 38, Figure 1, showing the 40-kop. envelope from Kaganovich, Moscow Province 12.4.56 (collection
of Professor A.S. Ilyushin). There is a further reference to Stuart Kahan's book "The Wolf of the Kremlin"
saying, seriatim, that he (quoting) "states that eight towns were named after L.M. Kaganovich, but he does not
say where they were located. Any further information on that point would most appreciated" (end of
quotation). My contribution to that research is given hereunder.

8 THE POST-RIDER/lMIIIK No. 41
November, 1997






A. Sources of information: Two atlases with gazeteers issued by the USSR. (1) "Atlas SSSR", issued by the
MVD (Ministry of Internal Affairs predecessor of the KGB), 400,000 copies, 72 x 102cm., 194 pp., 17
December 1955. (2) "Atlas Avtomobil'nykh Dorog SSSR", issued by the State Agency of Geodesy and
Cartography of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, 72 x 112 cm., 4th. printing, 163 pp., 1 February 1974.
No circulation figures.

B. Political background: Published reports abound about the distorted maps produced by the KGB.
Apparently, every map that I have purchased and the above two atlases also in retail stores on my visits to
Moscow in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s have been published by the KGB and its predecessors or, to my
knowledge, censored by them. The 1955 atlas lists seven Kaganovich towns, not including the one in the
Moscow region. The envelope of 1956 shown by Professor Ilyushin in "The Post-Rider" No. 40 may have
featured an additional eighth town, the one in the Moscow region. In any case, the 1974 Atlas confirms the
observation about the expulsion of Kaganovich from the Central Committee, inasmuch as every one of the
seven towns in the 1955 Atlas is not mentioned in the 1974 Atlas. Not only have Kaganovich towns
disappeared from the Atlas, but also quite a lot of towns named after old Soviet leaders (Molotov, Frunze,
Kirov, Kalinin, Voroshilov and, especially, Stalin).

C. A side comment: The name Kagan is really "Cohen", a name famous in Judaica circles.

D. I am willing to lend these two atlases for further research of any type, provided they are returned.

The Seven Kaganovich Towns (from the index of "Atlas SSSR", p. 146).
1. KAGANOVICH (Tula Region, RSFSR). The 1955 Atlas shows on maps pp.28-29, B3 a small town near the
Don river, 75 km.(47 miles) south-east of Tula. The neighboring town is Kazanovka. I have also circled the
town of Gorbachevo further west, located on the railway between Tula and Kharkov. I mention this because I
spent the summer there with my parents. Every family living there was named Gorbachev (!), each with
different first and second names. When M.S. Gorbachev surfaced in 1984-1985, I thought that he might have
come from there, but I learned later that he did not. Or maybe his parents did. The 1974 Atlas (map on pp.71-
72, G5) shows Kazanovka, but no Kaganovich.

2. KAGANOVICH (Frunze Region, Kirghiz SSR). The 1955 Atlas shows on the map at p. 108, B2 a town on
the main railway, 62 km. (37 miles) west of Frunze (which is now called Bishkek). On the same railway are
the towns of Stalinskoe and Kalininskoe. North of Frunze is Voroshilovskoe. Near the border between
Kirghizia and Kazakhstan is Leninskoe. Southwards, there is a town called "Karla Marksa". All clearly
Russian-named towns in a republic with its own language. The 1974 Atlas (maps on pp. 131-132, B3) shows
every one of the above towns removed.

3. IM. KAGANOVICHA ("Named after Kaganovich", Kustanai Region, Kazakh SSR). The 1955 Atlas shows
on map 100-101, B2 a town 460 km. (288 miles) south-east of Kustanai. It is located on a branch of the Turgai
river, in the midst of the Turgai steppe. South of this is the famous Baikonur, the Soviet "Cape Canaveral".
The 1974 Atlas (map on p. 120, V3) shows nothing like that town, except perhaps a renaming.

4. IM. KAGANOVICHA ("Named after Kaganovich", Chita Region, Siberia, RSFSR). The 1955 Atlas (maps
on pp. 58-59, B4) fixes it at 50 km. (32 miles) north of Nerchinsk and 250 km. (155 miles) west of Chita, in
the heart of Eastern Siberia, along the main railway. From Chita we go on to the old Chinese Eastern Railway,
which stretched across Manchuria to Port Arthur (South Manchurian Branch of the C.E.R.). This was sold to
the Japanese in the 1930s. The 1974 Atlas (map on p. 115, B3) shows Nerchinsk and no other towns nearby.

5. KAGANOVICHABAD (Tadzhik SSR). The 1955 Atlas (maps on pp. 112-113, V2) shows the town at 100
km. (63 miles) south of Stalinabad (now Dushanbe), in the heart of the mountains near the Afghan border.
THE POST-RIDER/HIMIlHK No. 41 9
November, 1997






There is a slew of towns nearby (Kirov, Kalininabad, Mikoyanabad, Voroshilovabad, Molotovabad,
Kuibyshevskii,Kuibyshevsk, Ordzhonikidzeabad and Leninabad). The 1974 Atlas shows only Kuibyshevskii,
Kalininabad, Ordzhonikidzeabad and Leninabad.

6. KAGANOVICHESK (Turkmenian SSR). The 1955 Atlas (maps on pp. 115-116, B3) shows Kaganovichesk
as a suburb of Chardzhou, apparently on the Amu-Darya river at the edge of the Amu-Darya Desert. On the
other side of both the Amu-Darya and Kara Kum Deserts is Ashkhabad, the capital city. The 1974 Atlas (maps
on pp. 133-134, B5) shows Chardzhou and a neighboring town "Komsomolsk" (named after the Organisation
of Young Communists), which is so close to Kaganovichesk (on the 1955 map) as to lead a preponderence of
supposition that the town has been renamed.

7. KAGANOVICHI PERVYE (Ukrainian SSR; note that this place-name is in the plural). The 1955 Atlas
(maps on pp. 82-83, Al) has the town located in the capital region of Kiev, which may have had a terrible
fate. It is situated 60 km. (38 miles) west of Chernobyl! If I remember correctly, the fallout went north and
west. The 1976 Atlas (maps on pp.45-46, B2) shows the town in that location renamed Polesskoe.

For the orientation of CSRP readers, excerpts are now given below from the 1955 Atlas for all the Kaganovich
place-names described above.

Karanonq (Tyn. O.) Tyna T7 "--a -
28-29, 6-3 a ---
KaraHoBnt ('Ppynia. 0.) 64a fooro (- nC4oP
108, B-2 qhaH o j ao be-'-
jM. KaraHoBHqna ew y ~ Kopa6Au C
(KycT. 0.) 100-101, B-2 A BS \a CKonHHH o
HM. KaranonnHa 10o 0
(q1T. 0.) 58-59, B-4 beo OrPOAJo K BK-_ _!I o
KaraHoBHqa6aa aIacK K ata .,a [op HS S-A
112-113, B-2 % o fu .
K(aranonlqeK KcHR
115-116, 3-3 KU0 ea- -H J H/ I
KaraHoBHqH 1-a e "go p .
82-83, A-I Pr \ rli a aHK anhur
Kaganovich, Tula province.



Hzbmaxma














Kaganovich, Frunze province, Kirghizstan. im. Kaganovicha, Kustanai province,
10 Kaakstn













1 0 THE POST-RIDER/5IMlllHK No.41 Kazakhstan.
3 November, 1997



p a Kazakhstan.
I7THE POST-RIDER/6MmHK No. 41
November, 1997








y 1/ C .Lca a -



1i cy, e '
ly y C C F 8 a3 CKab V
Si 'Kr a3 P ra
aCKoe 6 ea Ce c o8 rapIrH CaO HOKrau ype
-aiHr 0(841H? *H f a
___y cI Ceay Itza -Ku x
a uHV.9 Karap _apor C / 3
RD H bueC r




~yi acH e Kyprau- K po

K ..pu fi K

la .. .opaXb 7 a cT ao 3a Ca p

1i1 M o 6a aza omoea6a u

im. Kaganovicha, Chita province, RSFSR. Kaganovichabad, Tadzhikistan.




~, HA 3aa Y CK3 -ee, lA.~aH? :-


Ba aHKO
acy3MCH: ,k, eMm '
Oo :-.:*:AKr: ...":pu nb- :H": m- .OB














mXABA~ euHId o
713 cTO Cap 1 a 0 MH


c- ....... ... -. ..-.-- K, p |---~-.p
-C' I.., 0 a6a ji























valuable info::...:ation given above. .His point about the "MacKHpO::BKa" (disinformation) on Soviet maps is





most important as the Nazi invaders also found out to their great cost in 1941. All that remains now is the


indeed limitless.
a: : *1 R A *

ITHE POST-RI DERSIMIK No. 41



m Kaganovichesk, Turkenistan. Kaganovic hikisove,
Kiev province, Ukrainian SSR.




indeed limitless.eepd

Ka6aNovember, 1997
Kaaovcek-Trkeita.KaaoiciPeve
Kivpoine kaiinSR
EdtrilComnt r.Cntrdeevs u hatfl taksfr i ntrstn rmnicncsan h
valabe nfrmtin gve aov. ispoit bot he"mCKPOBa"(dsifomaion o Svit ap i
mot mprtnt a teNai nvdes ls fud uttothirgra cstin19 1 Al ht emin nw s h









November, 1997








nlPBflAaf


6- 13 MoHR1 1997 r. N 21 (266)


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12 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIRHK No.41

November, 1997


nysnMKYETCFI BnEPabIL






POLTAVA PRIORITIES IN PHILATELY
by F. Vanius.

Zemstvo stamps started appearing at the end of the 1860s. In that context, such collectors were known as
"zemshchiki" and, under that designation, there were those who tried, and not unsuccessfully, to enrich
themselves in this new field.

In addition to a varied Zemstvo philatelic following, the legion of crooks and their hangers-on were also
numerous. Among them were outright speculators and masters of counterfeiting. On this Zemstvo soil there
also grew a new type of lovers of a quick profit. Zemstvo managers of various ranks flourished for no reason
other than self-enrichment, which did not correspond to the designations of stamps of their zemstvos. Let us
remember just Bogorodsk; for over 25 years from 1871 to 1896 they slyly issued there 150 odd adhesives just
as straight stamps, let alone varieties, in a uniform design. Another extreme case: in the Krasnyi District, they
issued just two commemorative stamps for the centenary in 1912 of the Napoleonic Invasion (The First Great
Patriotic War). However, one of them came in 25 varieties and the other in 17, according to paper, colour,
perforation and even by deliberate changes in the printing plates: without figures of value in some covers,
with different styles of figures, etc. etc. And what do we see when we look at the stamps for the Zemstvo
Posts of Gryazovets and Pskov? Such a variety of designs, all of them copying one stamp or another from
abroad during those times, such as from Egypt, Sweden and Switzerland.

However, Poltava has a special place in this category, although its stamps started appearing only from 1903.
This small, especially pretty, quiet and snug little town surprised the world, not only by the destruction of the
army of the Swedish King Charles XII by Peter the Great, but also by the genial works of Gogol' and
Kotlyarevskii, by its popular clay pottery and the Fair at Sorochintsy and also by the issue of the first
commemorative stamps in Russia: the set of 1909 for the 200th. anniversary of the Battle of Poltava.

But, to our shame, this town gave rise above all to the Zemstvo "leaders" the brothers E.P. and P.P. Gan'ko.
And, indeed, Pavel Petrovich Gan'ko was an especially "famous" personality. There were harmoniously
combined in him all kinds of philatelic chicanery and greed, as well as cynical insolence and really
unexplainable gall. The Poltava Zemstvo, in common with many others, initially issued only stamps that were
required to serve the needs of the Zemstvo postal service. Thus, in 1903, there appeared just four catalogue
numbers in a single design (see Fig. 1 on p. 12), differing only by face value and colour, perforated and
imperforate. Two more stamps were added to them in 1904, representing the older values of the previous issue
and reprinting the most needed value of 3 kopeks. From 1904 onwards, the issue of stamps for the Poltava
Zemstvo was begun by the EZGB (Imperial State Printing Office in St. Petersburg). That went on for 12 years
(1904-1916) and it comprised only 12 catalogue numbers, not counting the existing varieties.

However, from 1910 when P.P. Gan'ko, the Director of the Zemstvo Administration, savoured the taste of
philately and sniffed the possibility of enriching himself. After the issue by his predecessor and brother E.P.
Gan'ko in 1909 of the commemorative set of seven stamps previously mentioned, both perforated and as many
again imperforate (see Fig. 2 on p. 12), there came about a two-year period of philatelic lawlessness. During
that short interval, there appeared 62 (!) basic stamps and a huge quantity of their varieties (inverted, doubled
and blatantly slanted surcharges, etc. etc.). The unveiled and so-called "commercial" activity of the Gan'ko
brothers forced the formation of a Commission of Inpection to review their philatelic operations. This
Commission of Inpection presented in 1912 its relevant 48th. Report to the Poltava Alternative District
Zemstvo Assembly. I will now take the liberty of quoting several excerpts from this historical document of
many pages. They bear witness to the priorities in Poltava and commentary is superfluous.

'The stamps were originally prepared according to actual requirements.... Subsequently, collectors became
interested in them....An entire industry was founded on this basis, the ownership of which was carried out as a
THE POST-RIDERI/HMI[HK No. 41 13
November, 1997






monopoly by P.P. Gan'ko, the brother of the administrative director. This activity did not cease when P.P.
Gan'ko was himself chosen as the Administrative Director. In order to endow the Zemstvo postage stamps
with special value, they were prepared in relatively small quantities, such that the stock of them would
become rarities. As a result, their value....rose to fabulous heights: 100 roubles were paid for a 3-kopek stamp.

The Administrative Director, P.P. Gan'ko, sometimes also put into practice another decisive initiative to
further these aims. He would order issues of stamps with all kinds of exclusive varieties, apart from the rest of
the requisition (inverted figures, other colours, without perforations, etc.) and specifically in restricted
quantities. He would obtain these issues of stamps wholly at face value as his property, thus establishing a
monopoly of them as Administrative Director....

In 1909, the former Administrative Director, E.P. Gan'ko, ordered 70,000 commemorative stamps showing
monuments of Poltava and made sure that one tenth part of them was prepared without perforations.

Not being satisfied with the possibility of having stamps prepared at the printeries, the Administration
changed the order of circulation of the stamps from one face value to another, by the means of applying new
values on them as surcharges. Such changes on the stamps did not always reflect requirements....

The application on the stamps of changed values was carried out both at the printer, as well as by
handstamps, the latter being held up to then by Mr. Shafer, the manager of the Zemstvo postal service. At the
beginning of the current year, the Administrative Director took these handstamps home and has already
carried out there revaluations of the stamps.

The Administrative Director sometimes kept for his own purposes half of the revalued stamps. For example,
out of a quantity of 200 stamps issued as 3-kopek and 5-kopek values, the Administrative Director would
keep 100 for himself, paying three roubles for them.

At the beginning of this year, the trade in Zemstvo stamps by the Administrative Director was also extended to
the issues for official correspondence.... The dealings in stamps were carried out by the Administrative
Director, P.P. Gan'ko, on a large scale. He issued....a catalogue of stamps, in which some copies with a face
value of 1 kopek were priced at 40 roubles each. The complete collection of various types of Zemstvo stamps,
prepared with all possible artificial combinations, the inversion of handstamps, leaving them without
perforations, changing the colours and utilising other means, is being sold by him....for 476 r. 10 k., while the
same Director obtained these stamps by himself at the Administration for 5 r. 75 k.".

Other lamentable facts are also set out later on in this report about the unprecedented enrichment of the
Director, P.P. Gan'ko, his "undertakings" with foreigners, etc. A Mr. P. Shchapov expressed his
"dissatisfaction about the Poltava Zemstvo". The well-known philatelist Agathon Faberge also suffered
particularly from the activities of Gan'ko.

In order to put a stop to these infractions, the Commission of Inpection formulated at the end of the report a
series of suggestions to the Zemstvo Assembly, one of them being of a personal character, as follows:-

"The activities of the Administrative Director, P.P. Gan'ko, in the exploitation of stamps for his own personal
gain, should be acknowledged as not corresponding to the trustworthiness of the Administrative Director".

As it turned out, the blatant profitability of the Poltava stamps decreased somewhat. But what happened to the
director brothers? Did they land in jail as the result of a court sentence with everything "confiscated" or, at
least, did they repay the losses? In no way. They remained in charge and apparently, but without excessive
advertising, they still kept on trading at exorbitant prices in the "rarities" of the Poltava Zemstvo which they
14 THE POST-RIDER/HMIlIHK No. 41
November, 1997






produced at home after a cup of tea in the kitchen (see Figs. 3 & 4 on p. 12).


P.P. Gantko continued to live freely and flourish for quite a while yet after the Revolution. His brother lived in
his own home in the selfsame Poltava, as proved by the cover accidentally found by me and shown in Fig. 5
on p. 12. The products of the activities of Gan'ko entered into the catalogue edited by Chuchin and the well-
known Schmidt catalogue, as well as apparently in the catalogue now being issued by Poltorak in the
magazine "Filateliya". The prices for all these cooked-up rarities of the Poltava Zemstvo will be just as high as
before (and perhaps even higher?). As is known, the undiscriminating lovers of rarities cannot be deterred.

With regard to the Poltava priority in chicanery, P.P. Gan'ko had quite a few successors. Here we can cite the
Melik-Pashaev brothers who, in the affair about the stamps of young Soviet Armenia, were held accountable
in a court, not to mention the greedy officials of the Soviet Philatelic Association, who gave birth to the 1935
Moscow-San Francisco Flight with inverted overprint (Scott C68b) and for which they suffered no
punishment. Apparently, there are those in this coterie who now produce nothing but for gain, such as the
unexplainable sheetlets of all kinds with flowers, ducks and cats and other similar printer's waste. Let us be
well and prodigal. History teaches us badly.
Editorial Comment:
(a) The first Zemstvo postage stamp to be issued was that for Shlisselburg in September 1865 and the post was
suppressed in the following year. It is so far not known used on mail. In allowing the Zemstvos to have their
own stamps, the Imperial Government stipulated that the designs should be different from those of the
Empire. It was for that reason that foreign stamps were sometimes copied by the Zemstvo Posts.

(b) While the two Krasnyi designs of 1912 were certainly philatelic and blatantly manipulated, these patriotic
stamps were beautifully printed in Moscow and are rarities used on mail.

(c) Please refer to Fig. 6 on p. 12 and the text on the back as shown below of a very interesting registered
postcard in the Cronin collection, with Ukrainian postage totalling 70 kop. (30 shahiv = 15 kop.). It was sent
in the middle of the Civil War by P.P. Gan'ko at Novo-Kremenchugskaya 4 in Poltava to a well-known
Moscow collector, Aleksandr Germanovich Gol'shtege. It arrived in six days and appears to read as follows:-
i nojFITaBa, 3.2.1919.
F. A. r. FrobulTere, MOCKBa.
M.F. ,%- .. /- '
Bame nuCbMO HaMa-reHHoe 13 Mas 1918 a nonywmn-b .,.. ...*- -
TOJnbKO Bqepa H He 3Has )enaeTe nI1 Bbl H Tenepb
nonyM1Tb MOil otepK-b "3eMcKal noqTa HoJITaBCK. ,_...._ /- .'
y.", coo6uiaio HTO TaKOBOii y MeHA HMImteTC2, IbHa ... .. .. .
B BHgy naaeHlia Kypca 3 p. c-b nepecbmnKori, ---. .-- .
HaJIo)KeHHblM'b nHaTe>KOM'b B BIa4y pa3cTpofiCTBa ,
noqToBoro coo6i eHiSi He Mory BblCHJliTb. MHOKO J.. ,.. '-. /_ L-- -.
eiue np1roTOBJseH'b oxepKIb JIOXBHU. 3eM. 1no. HO r- ----- -- ---- ..-
eige He oTneqaTaH-b. eiMeio aiAns npoaxKM MapKH '- )' "
nJITaBCK. H JIOXB. 3eMCTB-b. VT..^ f .--.,.,
C'b nouTeHieM-b, n.n. FaHbKO". J-' --

("Poltava, 3 February 1919. Mr. A.G. Gol'shtege, Moscow. Dear Sir: Your letter dated as of 13 May 1918 I
received only yesterday and not knowing if you now also want to receive my study "The Zemstvo Post of the
Poltava District", I inform (you) that I have available such a work; the price in view of the fall in the value of
money is 3 r. postpaid by C.O.D. I cannot send in view of the disruption of postal communications. I have also
prepared a study of the Lokhvitsa Zemstvo Post, but not yet printed. I have for sale stamps of the Poltava and
Lokhvitsa Zemstvos. Yours faithfully, P.P. Gan'ko.").
THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIMHK No. 41 15
November, 1997






Some historical background is now required here. With the defeat of the Central Powers on 11.11.1918, the
occupation government of Hetman P. Skoropadskii was replaced in Kiev by a Ukrainian Directory, headed
by V. Vynnychenko. By the beginning of December 1918, a rival Soviet Ukrainian administration had been
formed in Khar'kov and its forces fought their way into Kiev by February 1919. That resulted in the
resumption of postal communications with Soviet Russia, hence Gan'ko's card from Poltava. The Soviet
Russian postal rates were apparently not yet in force, i.e. ordinary cards and letters postfree, plus a 50-kop.
registration fee. Soviet power continued in the Ukraine until September 1919, when Kiev was taken, first by
Petlyura and then by Denikin. The Red Army was back in Kiev by that December.

Let us now consider the astounding information in the text written by P.P. Gan'ko. The implication is that he
was also involved in the stamp-issuing policies of the Lokhvitsa Zemstvo. When we compare the Chuchin
listings of the Lokhvitsa and Poltava Zemstvos, we see some striking parallels in the deliberate creation of
unnecessary varieties. Until the beginning of 1910, Lokhvitsa had issued only 9 different adhesives. Between
then and 1916, a further 66 (!) stamps appeared, particularly in the 1910-1912 period, when P.P. Gan'ko was
at the height of his activities in the Poltava Zemstvo. There were even provisional rubber-stamped
surcharges in 1910, applied at top or bottom, inverted or sideways, as well as stamps in pairs, one without
surcharge. Needless to say, imperforates galore also followed. One wonders whether P.P. Gan'ko had also
got his hands on those rubber handstamps and was busy surcharging supplies of the Lokhvitsa issues, while
sipping tea from the samovar in his kitchen! The evidence is circumstantial, but Lokhvitsa was situated in
the same Poltava guberniya (province), 127 km. (80 miles) north-west of Poltava and thus not too far way to
cook up some mutually beneficial transactions. Do we have a "Zemstvogate" before us here?

There remains the question of the manuscript that P.P. Gan'ko wrote about the stamps of the Lokhvitsa
Zemstvo. Did he manage to have it printed, or did the Civil War and subsequent events prevent its
appearance? By the way, his first study on the stamps and postal markings of the Poltava Zemstvo is now a
bibliographic rarity and our member, Leon Finik, has a copy. Whatever the circumstances, P.P. Gan'ko
showed that he was a great survivor in the Soviet period, as we can see from the registered letter featured in
Fig. 5 on p. 12, which was sent to him in Krasnoyarsk during 1932 (?) by his brother in Poltava, E.P. Gan'ko.
That change in residence was a smart move and may have saved him from being deported, as the general
internal situation worsened in the USSR during the tragic 1930s (see also the bottom of p. 114 herein).

(d) Mr. Vanius regrets that the officials of the Soviet Philatelic Association were not punished for producing
the inverted overprint for the Moscow-San Francisco Flight of 1935. All the evidence, including the
erroneous emplacement of the inversion at the bottom of the Levanevskii stamp when it should have been at
the top, points to the fact that this was an officially sanctioned variety, deliberately created to appeal to
foreign philatelists at a time when issues of airmail stamps were at the height of their popularity. We will
examine in a forthcoming issue of "The Post-Rider" all the discernible activities during the lifetime of the
Soviet Philatelic Association and it must be admitted that the SPhA displayed considerable ingenuity in
sponsoring philatelic products that could be sold abroad profitably for badly-needed foreign currency. Over
the years, such items has since acquired a patina of respectability and are now sought after by philatelists.

(e) With regard to the current production of sheetlets of stamps, aimed primarily at thematic collectors,
many other countries around the world are indulging in such practices, not just the Russian Federation. The
fact of the matter is that all postal administrations are under great pressure to remain solvent and products
aimed at the philatelic market help to solve the problem.

(f) Finally, please refer now to the article that follows by Alex Artuchov, in which he examines all the
stamps issued by the Poltava Zemstvo. It is a great pity that we are not able to bring back P.P. Gan'ko from
the after-life, as there is no doubt that he would have been able to give us some startling revelations about his
philatelic activities.
16 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIK No. 41
November. 1997









Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos


by Alex Artuchov


POLTAVA
HOJITABA
(Poltava Province)













Poltava was the capital of its province and located some 88miles northwest of Kharkov.
In 1910, its population was 53,060.

The main industries in Poltava were flour, tobacco, tanneries and hemp. The city dates
back to 1174. Through time, it was controlled by Lithuanians, Tartars and Cossacks. In
1708, Poltava was the scene of the great victory over Charles XII of Sweden by Peter
the Great.

Poltava was one of the most prolific stamp producing districts issuing its stamps between
1903 and 1918.


Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Red background with crossed silver swords.
Right: Silver background with palm tree on green grass.
Bottom: Blue background with a silver pyramid and a black snake.
Left: Silver background with ochre coloured banner and black doubleheaded
eagle on green grass.


1903 (March 1)
25 x 31.75 mm lithographed from plates prepared by Podsemsky in Poltava and printed
by Podsemsky in Minsk on white paper 0.13 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 4


THE POST-RIDER/I5MIUHIK No. 41
November, 1997









x 5, perforated 11.5 printer's waste originating from sources other than he zemstvo is
known, printed in the following quantities:


1 kop.
3 kop.
6 kop.
10 kop.


1. 1 kop. orange

2. 3 kop. blue

3. 6 kop. violet

4. 10 kop. lilac rose


2,060
4,160
2,160
2,140


15.00

8.00

35.00

20.00


A rejected essay submitted in February of 1903 is known. It has an elaborate Ukrainian
design and no indication of value.


1904 1909
Remaining stock of the 6 and 10 kop. stamps of the proceeding issue were surcharged
with a new value and used as provisional issues on September 4 of 1904 and January 9 of
1909, the handstamp is 5 x 16 mm and is in violet or blue violet and exists inverted.


R
(? known)


5. 3 kop. violet on 1 kop. orange
(100 stamps surcharged)

6. 3 kop. violet on 6 kop. violet
(1,335 stamps surcharged)


7. 3 kop. violet or blue violet on 10 kop. lilac rose
(400 stamps surcharged)


35.00


100.00


1905 1915
The "Ardatov Arms type", printed by the Government Printing Office in St. Petersburg,
typographed on various papers, sheet of 5 x 5, perforated 13.25, several editions.


THE POST-RIDER/ISIMllHK No. 41
November, 1997









First Edition (1905, 1907, 1915)
White paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish white gum, printed in the following quantities:
1 kop. : 3,000 in March of 1905 and 5,700 on March 26 of 1907 and an unknown
quantity in 1915.
3 kop.: 5,875 in March of 1905.
6 kop. : 5,500 on May 7 of 1905 and 5,800 in May of 1907.
10 kop. : 5,000 on May 7 of 1905.
15 kop.: 3,000 on May 7 of 1905.

8. 1 kop. orange yellow 0.35

9. 3 kop. dark blue 0.50

10. 6 kop. dark lilac 4.00

11. 10 kop. carmine red 1.00

12. 15 kop. green 2.00

Variety: The last letter of the word KOIrb'BEK'b appears to be a 5 due to a spot of
colour.

Second Edition (July 19, 1906)
The 3 kop. stamp in a changed colour, 10,000 issued.

13. 3 kop. brown 0.50

First Provisional Issue (1908 1909)
1, 6, 10 and 15 kop. stamps of the first edition overprinted by hand with a 3 in violet in
all possible positions including double, side by side and cross-wise.








14. 3 on 1 kop. orange 0.75
(4,000 surcharged on Jan. 9 of 1908 and 300 on Feb. 17 of 1909)

15.3 on 6 kop. lilac 1.00
(4,000 surcharged on March 3, 1909)

16. 3 on 10 kop. carmine red 1.00
(2,800 surcharged on December 12 of 1908)


THE POST-RIDER/ItUMlIK No. 41 1\
November, 1997









17. 3 on 15 kop. green 2.00
(2,000 surcharged on on Nov. 7, 1908 and 100 on Feb. 17 of 1909)

Third Edition (March 4, 1909)
The first and second editions in changed colours.

18. 1 kop. carmine red 0.35
(4,700 printed)

19. 3 kop. light green 0.50
(6,875 printed)

20. 6 kop. light lilac 1.00
(5,800 printed)

Second Provisional Issue (Feb. 16, 1911)
The 6 kop. stamp of the third edition overprinted diagonally "IBHA 1 KOH." by
hand with 2 solid colour circles at the top.

21. 1 kop. surcharged in violet on 6 kop. light lilac 2.00
(700 surcharged)

Third Provisional Issue (March 15 & 28, 1911)
Typographed overprint "LTBHA 1 KOII." in red or black on all remainders of stamps
printed in St. Petersburg, the overprinted 6 kop. stamps are of the 1st and 3rd editions
and the 3rd edition has 2 types, there is an inverted overprint on the 3 kop. stamp of the
2nd edition (100 printed) and on the 6 kop. stamp of the 3rd edition (72 printed), the 3 is
inverted on the "3/15" stamp of the 1st provisional issue.







22. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. dark blue R
(175 surcharged) (?)

23. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. brown RR
(25 surcharged) (?)

24. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. light green 5.00
(3,850 surcharged)

25. 1 kop. red on 3 kop. light green R
(250 surcharged) (?)

20 THE POST-RIDER/5MI1UHK No. 41
November, 1997









26. 1 kop. black on 6 kop. dark blue RR
(25 surcharged) (?)

27. 1 kop. black on 6 kop. light lilac 3.00
(3,450 surcharged)


28. 1 kop. red on 6 kop. light lilac R
(125 surcharged) (?)

29. 1 kop. black on 10 kop. carmine red RR
(25 surcharged) (?)

30. 1 kop. black on 15 kop. green RR
(75 surcharged) (?)

31. 1 kop. black on 3/1 kop. orange R
(200 surcharged) (?)


32. 1 kop. black on 3/6 kop. lilac R
(250 surcharged) (?)

33. 1 kop. black on 3/10 kop. carmine red RR
(25 surcharged) (?)

34. 1 kop. black on 3/15 kop. green RR
(25 surcharged) (?)

Fourth Edition (Dec. 20, 1912)
Colour change and additional 30 kop. value, white paper 0.06 mm thick, sheet of 5 x 5,
the 1 kop. value is also known double perforated at the sheet margins, the 1 and 3 and 6
kop. values were printed in a quantity of 15,000 each while the 10 and 30 kop. values
were printed in a quantity of 5,000 each.

35. 1 kop. yellow green 0.35

36. 3 kop. carmine red 0.50

37. 6 kop. dark blue 0.75

38. 10 kop. lilac 2.50

39. 30 kop. ochre yellow 5.00


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIUHK No. 41 21
November, 1997









Fifth Edition (1915)
9,625 stamps printed.

39a. 3 kop. dark blue 1.00

Sixth Edition (1916)
The 3 kop. stamp of the 4th edition on a yellowish paper 0.12 mm thick, yellowish white
gum, sheet of 5 x 5.
40. 3 kop. carmine red 1.00

Fourth Provisional Issue (1918)
Due to an increase in postal rates the stamps of the fourth edition were overprinted by
hand with the new value.

41. 5 in carmine on 1 kop. yellow green ---

42. 20 in carmine on 6 kop. dark blue -

43. 20 in lilac on 6 kop. dark blue -

Fifth Provisional Issue (1919)
Increases in postal rates occurred due to inflation, the 1 kop. stamp of the 1912 edition in
green with new value handstamped in various colours.

44. 5 in carmine on 1 kop. yellow green -

45. IJ. 60 K. in lilac on 1 kop. yellow green -

46. IU. 60 K. in carmine on 1 kop. yellow green -


1909 (June 6 to October 30)
The 3, 6, 10 and 15 kop. value were issued on June 6th while the 1, 2 and 5 kop. values
were issued on October 30th, 24.5 x 28.66 mm typografphed by Wilbergand Golike in
St. Petersburg on smooth white paper 0.09 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated
11.5 and imperforate, the 2 kop. stamp exists double perforated vertically and the 5 kop.
value horizontally, the 5 and 6 kop. stamps with the sheet margins imperforate, vertically
imperforate stamps were used by the printers to seal packages of stamps, the 1, 2 and 5
kop. stamps were on sheets of 3 x 10 and 2 x 10 for the other values, each of the values
were printed in a quantity of 10,000 including 1,000 imperforate stamps.


THE POST-RIDER/HMII[HK No. 41
November, 1997









47. 1 kop. orange and blue 0.75

48. 2 kop. blue and sepia brown 0.75

49. 3 kop. indigo blue and sepia brown 1.00

50. 5 kop. carmine rose and olive green 1.00

51.6 kop. gray green 1.00

52. 10 kop. red brown and gray green 3.00

53. 15 kop. lilac and gray 4.00

Normal and Damaged Inscription on No. 47

Normal 2 Damaged 2







Proofs:
The following proofs without gum and perforated 11.5 have been reported by Schmidt:

- 3 kop. red brown and gray green
- 3 kop. gray green and lilac
- 6 kop. olive green and lilac
- 10 kop. olive gray and lilac
- 10 kop. sepia brown
- 15 kop. blue and sepia brown
- 15'kop. lilac and gray green
- 15 kop. red brown and gray green
- 15 kop. olive gray and lilac


The First Provisional Issue(Oct. 10, 1910 April 26, 1912)
Stamps of the 1909 commemorative issue hand overprinted diagonally "UIBHA 1
KOHI." or "I'BHA 3 KOII." with two round dots at the top obliterating the original
value, the 1 kop. on 10 kop. the 3 kop. on 6 kop. and the 3 kop. on 10 kop. occur with
inverted overprint and the 1 and 10 kop. occur with a double overprint with one in violet
and one in rose, the 1 kop. on 15 kop. is known with a horizontal overprint in rose or
violet.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK No. 41 23
November, 1997


















Quantities Printed:
No.
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65


Perforated
1,400
1,560
160
3,060
160
540
540
500
1,900
500
840
400


54. 1 kop. violet on 6 kop.
(Feb. 16, 1911 and Feb.


Imperforate
100
140
140
140
140
60
60

100
20
20
20


1, 1912)


55. 1 kop. violet on 10 kop.
(Nov. 8 and 27 and Dec. 1, 1910)

56. 1 kop. rose on 10 kop.
(Nov. 8 and 27 and Dec. 1, 1910)

57. 1 kop. rose on 15 kop.
(Oct. 12 and Nov. 8 and 27, 1910)

58. 1 kop. violet on 15 kop.
(Oct. 12 and Nov. 8 and 27, 1910)

59. 3 kop. black on 5 kop.
(Feb. 1 and March 1, 1912)

60. 3 kop. violet on 5 kop.
(Feb. 1 and March 1, 1912)

61. 3 kop. violet on 6 kop.
(April 26, 1912)


THE POST-RIDER/IIMII(HK No. 41
November, 1997


Inverted








20


3.00


3.00


5.00


10.00


10.00


10.00









62. 3 kop. violet on 10 kop. 3.00
(Oct. 12, 1910 and Oct. 10, 1911)

63. 3 kop. rose on 10 kop. 10.00
(Oct. 12, 1910 and Oct. 10, 1911)


64. 3 kop. rose on 15 kop. 4.00
(Oct. 10, 1911)

65. 3 kop. violet on 15 kop. 6.00
(Oct. 10, 1911)

Second Provisional Issue (Oct. 10, 1911)
Horizontal rubber stamp "LJ'BHA 3 KOII." without the circular dots at the top,
handstamped on the 15 kop. stamp of the commemorative issue of 1909.

66. 3 kop. violet on 15 kop. R
(60 issued) (?)

67. 3 kop. rose on 15 kop. 10.00
(400 issued)

Third Provsional Issue (March 28 and October 24, 1911)
Stamps of the 1909 commemorative issue overprinted by typography "I1,BHA 3
KOI." with 2 small horizontal bars in the top corners of the stamp obliterating the
original value, 3 types on the 2 and 5 kop. values and 2 types for the others, the black
overprint is known inverted on all values.








68. 3 kop. black on 2 kop. 3.00
(March 28, 1911)

69. 3 kop. carmine on 2 kop. 15.00
(March 28, 1911)

70. 3 kop. black on 5 kop. 1.00
(March 28, 1911)


THE POST-RIDER/AMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997









71. 3 kop. carmine on 5 kop.
(March 28, 1911)

72. 3 kop. black on 6 kop.
(Oct. 24, 1911)

73. 3 kop. carmine on 6 kop.
(Oct. 24, 1911)

74. 3 kop. black on 10 kop.
(Oct. 24, 1911)

75. 3 kop. carmine on 10 kop.
(Oct. 24, 1911)

76. 3 kop. black on 15 kop.
(Oct. 24, 1911)

77. 3 kop. carmine on 15 kop.
(Oct. 24, 1911)


Quantities Issued:
No. Perforated
68 1,050
69 210
70 4,280
71 300
72 700
73 200
74 2,200
75 200
76 2,320
77 200


Imperforate
150
90
300
120
60
40
40
20
40
40


The 3 Types of Overprint on the 2 and 5 Kop. Stamps
Type 1 Normal
Type 2 The first letter of the overprint is shorter in the 6th and 9th rows.
Type 3 Both of the first letters of the overprint are shorter on the 3rd stamp of the
10th row.


The 2 Types of the Overprint on the Balance of the Issues
Type 1 Normal
Type 2 The second letter is shorter on the first stamp on the sheet.


26 THE POST-RIDER/IAMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


10.00


5.00


12.00


1.00


10.00


1.00


10.00


Inverted
60

90

60

80

60









Fourth Provisional Issue (Feb. 1, 1912)
Typographed overprints in 2 or 3 lines, the higher values were used for the payment of
yearly subscription to newspapers and were pasted in a special record book.

78. 20 kop. on 6 kop. overprintt A) 50.00
(84 perf. and 16 imperf. issued)

79. 30 kop. on 5 kop. overprintt B) 50.00
(82 perf. and 16 imperf. issued)

80. 40 kop. on 10 kop. overprintt C) 50.00
(82 perf. and 16 imperf. issued)

81. 50 kop. on 15 kop. overprintt D) 50.00
(82 perf. and 16 imperf. issued)

The Overprints:

A. B. C. D.

UIJHa LUh'Ha UI'Ha l-iHa
20 Kon. 20 TpHjLaTab copoK'b IIrTAecHT-b
30 KOn. 30 40 Kon. 40 50 Kon. 50

The various provisional issues were printed in limited quantities and of a speculative
nature notwithstanding the fact that the zemstvo issued special directives explaining the
need for these issues. Following numerous complaints, orders to the effect that all issues
were to be printed in sufficient quantities at least 3 years of normal use were issued.


1912 (February)
Official Stamps
Stamps of a similar design were issued for each one of the 10 districts in the zemstvo and
were numbered 1 10 accordingly, an llth medical district was later added to the
original 10 and was created by writing 11 over stamp number 7, 42 x 32.5 mm ,
lithographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish gum, perforated 11.5 and
imperforate, sheet of 5 x 5 with 25 types which differ in the position of the inscription at
the bottom.


I3.MCKAA ncO4f TA flImABCt Ar







THE POST-RIDER/lMIIAHK No. 41 2
November, 1997









10 Medical Districts
Blue Stamps

82. 3 kop. # 1 3.00
(500 issued including 125 overprinted and 50 imp.)

83. 3 kop. #2 3.00
(525 printed including 225 overprinted and 50 imp.)

84. 3 kop. #3 3.00
(525 printed including 150 overprinted and 50 imp.)
85. 3 kop. #4 3.00
(525 printed including 50 overprinted and 50 imp.)

86. 3 kop. # 5 3.00
(500 printed including 200 overprinted and 50 imp.)

87. 3 kop. #6 3.00
(450 printed including 150 overprinted and 50 imp.)

88. 3 kop. #7 3.00
(525 printed including 50(?) overprinted and 25 imp.)

89. 3 kop. #8 3.00
(500 printed including 175 overprinted and 75 imp.)

90. 3 kop. #9 3.00
(500 printed including 125 overprinted and 50 imp.)

91.3 kop. #10 3.00
(500 printed including 175 overprinted and 50 imp.)



10 School Districts
Dull or Bright Orange, Brown Orange Stamps

92. 3 kop. #1 3.00
(500 printed including 50 overprinted and 50 imp.)

93. 3 kop. #2 3.00
(525 printed including 100 overprinted and 50 imp.)

94. 3 kop. #3 3.00
(475 printed including 50 overprinted and 50 imp.)


28 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997









95. 3 kop. #4 3.00
(500 printed including 75 overprinted and 50 imp.)

96. 3 kop. #5 3.00
(525 printed including 25 overprinted and 50 imp.)

97. 3 kop. #6 3.00
(525 printed including 50 imp.)

98. 3 kop. #7 3.00
(525 printed including 25 overprinted and 50 imp.)

99. 3 kop. #8 3.00
(475 printed including 50 overprinted, 100 imp. and 25 overprinted and imp.)

100. 3 kop.#9 3.00
(500 printed including 100 overprinted and 50 imp.)

101. 3 kop. #10 3.00
(525 printed including 50 imp.)



6 Agricultural Districts
Emerald Green Stamps

102. 3 kop. District #1 3.00
(500 printed including 150 overprinted and 50 imp.)

103. 3 kop. District #2 10.00
(500 printed including 300 overprinted and imp.)

104. 3 kop. District #3 10.00
(500 including 250 overprinted and 50 imp.)

105. 3 kop. District #4 5.00
(475 printed including 150 overprinted and 50 imp.)

106. 3 kop. District #5 10.00
(525 printed including 300 overprinted and 50 imp.)

107. 3 kop. District #6 10.00
(500 printed including 250 overprinted and 50 imp.)




THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997








2 Veterinary Districts
Brown Stamps

108. 3 kop. District #1 3.00
(500 perf. and 50 imp.printed)

109. 3 kop. District #2 3.00
(500 perf. and 50 imp. printed)

Matchekh Welfare District
Lilac Stamps

110. 3 kop. lilac 3.00
(450 perf. and 50 imp. printed)

111. 3 kop. lilac without overprint 50.00
(5,600 printed including 5,500 overprinted and 25 imp.)


First Provisional Issue (September 17, 1912)
On Agricultural District Stamps
The stamps used for the agricultural districts were used as ordinary postage by
overprinting them 1 K. and qACTHOIH in 2 separate line and 0 over No and also with
a thick line obliterating the bottom inscription.


3tucK0 noqTrrAlTAcnyArg

TIb9AA f,

-a




112. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. #1 20.00
(150 stamps overprinted)

113. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. #2 10.00
(300 stamps overprinted)

114. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. #3 15.00
(250 stamps overprinted)

115. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. #4 20.00
(150 stamps overprinted)



30 THE POST-RIDER/5MIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997









116. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. #5 10.00
(150 stamps overprinted)

117. 1 kop. black on 3 kop. #6 15.00
(250 stamps overprinted)

Variety: No. 117 with the word IACTHOI4 missing from the overprint.


The 6 Types of the Overprint
Type 1 Normal
Type 2 Break in the bar on the right on the 5th stamp.
Type 3 Break in the bar on the left on the10th stamp.
Type 4 The last letter is shorter on the 8th stamp.
Type 5 The 1 is without a serif on the top on the 19th and 20th stamps.
Type 6 Rolunded letter on top on the 23rd and 25th stamps.

On Matchekh Welfare District Stamps
The 3 kop. stamp for the Matchekh Welfare District without the overprint surcharged 0
and HACTHOH, the overprint has 3 types.

118. 3 kop. lilac 2.00
(3,000 issued)

The 3 Types of the Overprint
Type 1 Normal
Type 2 The last letter is shortened on the 8th stamp on the sheet.
Type 3 The last letter 14 is without the stroke above the letter on the 25th stamp
on the sheet and also the 16th stamp on some sheets.


Second Provisional Issue (October 6, 1912)
On Medical District and Matchekh Welfare District Stamps
The Medical District and Matchekh Welfare District stamps are converted to ordinary
stamps by overprinting them 1 HACTHOFI and 0, the horizontal bar is omitted on the
Matchekh stamp as on the 1st provisional issue, 3 types of the overprint.

119. 1 on 3 kop. #1 20.00
(125 stamps issued)

120. 1 on 3 kop. #2 10.00
(225 stamps issued)

121.1 on 3 kop. #3 20.00
(150 stamps issued)


THE POST-RIDER/IMIHIHK No. 41 3
November, 1997









122. 1 on 3 kop. #4 R
(50 stamps issued) (?)

123. 1 on 3 kop. #5 10.00
(200 stamps issued)

124. 1 on 3 kop. #6 20.00
(150 perforated and 25 imperforate stamps issued)

125. 1 on 3 kop. #7 R
(50 stamps issued) (?)

126. 1 on 3 kop. #8 20.00
(125 stamps issued)

127. 1,on 3 kop. #9 20.00
(125 stamps issued)

128. 1 on 3 kop. #10 25.00
(175 stamps issued)

On Matchekh Welfare District Stamps

129. 1 on 3 kop. lilac 2.00


The 3 Types of the Overprint
Type 1 Normal
Type 2 The last letter is shorter on the 10th stamp on the sheet.
Type 3 The 1 is without the top serif on the 23rd and 25th stamps on the sheet.

On Agricultural District Stamps (Oct. 6, 1912)

130. 5 on 3 kop. #1 R
(50 stamps issued) (?)

131. 5 on 3 kop. #2 R
(100 stamps issued) (?)

132. 5 on 3 kop. #3 R
(50 stamps issued) (?)

133. 5 on 3 kop. #4 R
(75 stamps issued) (?)




32 THE POST-RIDER/SIMI HK No. 41
November, 1997









134. 5 on 3 kop. #5 RR
(25 stamps issued) (?)

135. 5 on 3 kop. #7 RR
(25 stamps issued) (?)

136. 5 on 3 kop. #8 R
(50 perforate and 25 imperforate stamps issued) (?)


137. 5 on 3 kop. #9 R
(100 stamps issued) (?)


The 2 Types of the Overprint
Type 1 The height of the numeral 5 is 8 mm on 1st to 3rd, 7th, 8th, 12th, 17th
and 18th stamps on the sheet.
Type 2 The height of the numeral 5 is 7 mm on the balance of the stamps.


1912 (April 20, 1912)
The proofs of an overprint were used as provisional stamps, typographed in black and
typographed in colour on white paper 0.1 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, perforated
11.5 and imperforate, 2 types of the 1 kop. value and 3 types of the 3 kop. stamp.
ir -o --, ,





Slea 1 ROD.

138. 1 kop. black and light blue 20.00
(150 perforated and 25 imperforate stamps issued)

139. 3 kop. black and rose 10.00
(250 perforated and 30 imperforate stamps issued)

140. 3 kop. red and violet 10.00
(210 perforated and 30 imperforated stamps issued)


Proofs:
- 3 kop. red and light blue
- 3 kop. red and rose



THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997









1912 (July 13, 1912)
32 x 23 mm ,the central landscape photograph produced by collotype in reduced format
from postcard produced by Kulshenko in Kiev and balance of the stamp was produced by
coloured typography by Podzemsky of Poltava, the numerals of value were further
handstamped by the zemstvo on the 10 50 kop. values, on white paper 0.14 mm thick
and blue paper 0.1 mm thick, shiny brownish yellow gum, sheet of 2 x 5, perforated 11.5
and mostly incomplete and also imperforate, the 3 kop. stamp on white paper is also
known perforated vertically through the middle, the 1 and 3 kop. stamps have 2 types
with differences in the numerals which were printed typographically, the italic numeral
type is the last stamp on the sheet of 10.

:1I'M(I;Alll 110'M



3.10 IIO.ITA 3

141. 1 kop. black and green on white paper 1.00
(2,700 perforated and 250 imperforated stamps issued)

142. 1 kop. black and green on blue paper R
(50 stamps issued) (?)

143. 3 kop. black and carmine red on white paper 1.00
(2,700 perforated and 250 imperforate stamps issued)

144. 3 kop. black and dark carmine red on blue paper R
(50 stamps issued) (?)

145. 10 kop. black, violet and black on white paper 25.00
(180 perforated and 20 imperforate stamps issued)

146. 20 kop. black, violet and aniline red on white paper 25.00
(170 perforated and 30 imperforated stamps issued)

147. 30 kop. black, violet and greenish blue on white paper 25.00
(180 perforated and 20 imperforated stamps issued)

148. 40 kop. black, violet and aniline red on blue paper 25.00
(170 perforated and 30 imperforated stamps issued)

149. 50 kop. black and violet on white paper 25.00
(170 perforated and 30 imperforate stamps)

Varieties:
- Rounded JI or rounded T in IIOJITABA.

34 THE POST-RIDER/IMIH1IK No. 41
November, 1997








Proofs:
1. Landscape only, without inscriptions.
2. With black inscriptions and numeral 3, without gum, vertically perforated on 1 side
only.
3. 1 and 3 kop., white paper, with handstamped numerals of value, perforated vertically,
without gum.
4. 10 kop. with violet, aniline red and greenish blue numerals
20 kop. with violet, black and greenish blue numerals
30 kop. with violet, black and aniline red numerals
40 kop. with violet, black and greenish blue numerals
50 kop. with aniline red, black and greenish blue numerals


1912 (Dec. 13, 1912)
In October of 1912 it was determined that future issues were to be printed in sufficient
quantities to satisfy demand for at least 3 years of normal use and to order the stamps
from the State Printing Office in St. Petersburg. In the meantime however, as stocks of 1
and 3 kop. stamps were being exhausted these stamps were instead ordered from the
Government Printing Office in Poltava. Since time was of the essence, plates used for
the printing of stamps of Kobelaky were utilized with a changed name and coat of arms.
20.66 x 24.5 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.08 mm thick with the embossed imprint
"Da6pHKa rIacKHq", shiny yellowish gum, sheet of 6 x 7 with 2 types of each value,
perforated 11.5, 1,050 printed of each value.


-sI



150. 1 kop. blue green 5.00

151. 3 kop. dirty carmine red 5.00

The 2 Types
1 kop. 3 kop.
Type 1 Type 2 Typel Type 2



L A XILJ Li






THE POST-RIDER/1MIIHHK No. 41 35
November, 1997









Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:


Sch Ch
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8
9 9
10 10
11 11
12 12
13 13
14 21
15 22
16 23
17 24
18 14
19 15
20 ---
21 32
22 33
23 34
24 35
25 35a
26 36a


Sch Ch Sch Ch
27 36a 52 30
28 36 53 31
29 37 54 43
30 38 55 45
31 39 56 44
32 40 57 46
33 41 58 47
34 42 59 49
35 16 60 48
36 17 61 50
37 18 62 52
38 19 63 51
39 20 64 53
39a --- 65 54
40 -- 66 66
41 --- 67 65
42 --- 68 56
43 --- 69 55
44 --- 70 58
45 --- 71 57
46 --- 72 60
47 25 73 59
48 26 74 62
49 27 75 61
50 28 76 64
51 29 77 63


Sch Ch
78 67
79 68
80 69
81 70
82 84
83 84
84 84
85 84
86 84
87 84
88 84
89 84
90 84
91 84
92 83
93 83
94 83
95 83
96 83
97 83
98 83
99 83
100 83
101 83
102 85
103 85


* *
THE POST-RIDERISIMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


Sch Ch Sch Ch
103 85 129 91
104 85 130 93a
105 85 131 93a
106 85 132 93a
107 85 133 93a
108 86 134 93b
109 86 135 93b
110 87 136 93a
111 88 137 93a
112 89 138 71
113 89 139 72
114 89 140 73
115 89 141 74
116 89 142 75
117 89 143 76
118 90 144 77
119 92b 145 78
120 92b 146 79
121 92b 147 80
122 92b 148 81
123 92b 149 82
124 92b 150 94
125 92b 151 95
126 92b
127 92b
128 92b












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cyHKco: MejKHe HOMMHaAI 1, 2,3.4, 5,7
H 10 KOn. 30nOTOM OaHOUBCTHlMH
(puc. 1), HOMHanbi 14. 15,20,25.35.50
H 70 KOn. 3onOTOM inByXIsBeTHlIMH C
osanoM a uemrpe (puc. 2) H KpynHbie HO-
MHanbl 1, 2. 3. 3 p. 50 K.. 5, 7 H 10 py6.
30JIOTOM aSBYXUB HbIMH C ueHTpoM B
BHne yceqeHmoro poMoa (puc. 3). Bcx ce-
pHa cocTrorr H3 21 MapKH H BblnOJiHeHa
Ha o6bKxuoBseHHof 6enoft 6yMare a pa3-
nXIlHLIX IBOTaX. pa3Mepbl pHCYHKOB Bcex
MapOK no paMce 20x25 MM (nonHoe onH-
carlHe MapoK CM. B )KypHanJe OtJHITi-
mnia, ,6 4, 1995).


Kax yrnepIianH Ha cy~e rnaBable
o6BHHleMbie H HX aJABOKaT, MapKH 6binl
6e3 Knea, qIBInsHcb o6pa3UaMH H He
npeAHB3Ha'IKIHcb anA aPOX)KH H Ha-
KneHBaHHA Ha nHCbma (onnaKo HMeIO-
wxecA y MeHA maPKH ace HMeto' Kneik it
AItHallHYIO. 8CbMa ipHmHTHBIHyto nep-
quopaUrno 12 Y,2). Pa6oTHHt )Kwe Tmno-
rpa4lHH roBOpHJlH, 'TO 3TH MapKH 6uini
npegHHl3HliaHtlibi An[ npo)axKH H npona-
BanHcb. CKnaJLiBaeTCAa BneqaTrneHHe,
ITO sca 3Ta 3aTeH c MaprKMH KPOMC
arsTaHoHHok npecnenoaana H cnexy-
nXI'RBliO uenH H AOJI)KHa 6bula nonpa-
BHTIh 43HHaHCOBble Aeqa camog 3MHrpa-
LIHH. OalaKo. 6yYXNP cnyrHyrbIMH, aas-
TOHOMHCThI)) BCe OTne'aTaHHoe H KIH-
wie yYHHtiTwOiii H UenH 3TOH He Io-
cTHrJIH. OHH 6bwH ocy~cneLIOi no npH-
ronOpy cylIa 'HCTO CRMBOJI'IeCCKH Ha
HecKOnbJKO HOOent, Hnit MeCnileD, oAHa-
KO KO BCeM 6bina npHMeHeHa aMHHcTHA,
II OHH 6nlM OCBo6O)KJIHwL;
14, HaKoHeII, o vcne~e>> Tmx mapoK B
CILIA. HenaBHo. a Haqane nCBsmocTbLx
roltoB. A.A.fleB3Hep nepenan Mile JTHC-
TOK uweTHOrk KcepOKoi7HH c 13o6pa)Ke-
HHeM MaPOK 'ABTOHOMHO CH6HpH)o.
nonymeHHfib HM OT CaJAOBHHKOBa H3
CaH-$paHawicKO, c aonpOcoM: (JITo
7ro TaKoe?'. OTBeTHTL 6L1nO HeTpyA-
HO. A BOT CaM JIHCTOK Aan MHe Ty HH-
cpopMaalio, KoTopyio a nojiro HCKan.
ga. ll, CTBHTeulbHO, 3TH MaPKH 61b,1H
iianpaaneHbl Ha EbicTaBKY B 4FHflnleJlb-
(pilo. OHBaKo OHH 6uWH ewee Henpo-
nep,4opHpoBaHbi (a, mo)KeT, OHH 6bUrn
H 6e3 xneA?). Kopoqe. TOPOnACh B
AMepuKy. HeH3BecTHbir BOxKep vBBTo-
HOMHCTOB) orBe3 ryna eWe He3aKoH-
4eHHYIO npoIIyicueio waHxaACKO( TnnO-
rpa4HH, Aa6bi. rOJlb3yACb BICMaKOR,
yCneTL 3a3BHTn BceMy MIIpy 0 cynleCT-
BoBaHHH B Kwrae 6opuoB npomaB 6amb-
IIeB3HKoB. TaKHM o6pa3oM. cnenyeT
npH3HaTh, 'IO cpeAH 3THX ltiaHTacTHie-
cKo-cneKynJI BHbLIX penKocreR Ma-
POK HeCOCTORBUIeAcA "ABTOHOMHOk
CH6HpH* coxpaHHincR H 6e33y61to-
B11 fapHaHT.
B aarKJO4CHHOTe amey, 'ITO naa.ce
)HJnaTeAiHcmlecxasl o66weCTseHHOCTh
o6 3THx mapiax HH4ero He 3Hae-r. A
seBh TO TOAC Hawa HCTOpHR.
0). BAHHYC.
r. MocKwa.


0

C,,




ii













-I
W


I -






THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF "AUTONOMOUS SIBERIA"
by F. Vanius.

The first time that I had the occasion to hear about these unusual stamps was from P'tr Mikhailovich
Shitukhin during the 1950s in Kharbin, where he was the owner of a small shop, dealing in stamps and
antiquities. He told me a story about a noisy philatelic trial in the mid-1920s in Shanghai of a certain
Sazonov, the leader of a non-existent government for a non-existent "Autonomous Siberia" and of his
associates, who were indicted in the issue for gain of postage stamps for this same "Autonomous Siberia".

Sazonov and his gang had allegedly issued a long set of bicoloured stamps with the arms of Siberia. These
stamps were supposed to have been destroyed after the trial, but it was rumoured that some sets remained in
China and had even popped up in the U.S.A. However, Shitukhin could not show me even one stamp, as he
not only had none, but had not even seen them, although he knew of people who had them in their
possession. Later, by now in Moscow, the well-known philatelist Vladimir II'ich Kaufman, informed me that
in 1926 a Russian from Shanghai, whose name he had forgotten, had brought the stamps of "Autonomous
Siberia" either to Kharbin or to Tientsin. They looked quite imposing. He was surprised to see that the face
values on these stamps were designated in gold currency, as with the first stamps of the USSR. V.I. Kaufman
could not get hold of these new stamps. He learned later from the press about the great commotion made by
the affair in Shanghai.

Being interested in the 1960s in the stamps of China, I chatted at the House of Scientists with one of the
members of our circle of collectors, Professor A.G. Eberzin. Anatolii Georgievich told me that he had some
material from the collection of the late D.M. Mel'nikov, who had been working in our trade representation
system in China for quite some time and he invited me to his home to look at the material.

Leafing through the albums, I suddenly saw a long set of stamps unknown to me. The coat of arms of Siberia
with sables and a bear on both sides were shown on each stamp. The face values were in gold kopeks and
roubles. The text, reading "I'IOLTA" (POSTAGE) and "ABTOHOMHA5I CHBHPb" (AUTONOMOUS
SIBERIA), was above the arms. "What kind of stamps are these?", I asked the owner. "That is a very rare
Kolchak issue, which it was not possible to put into circulation" was what I heard in reply. "Mel'nikov
obtained these stamps in China".

I thought to myself: what had Kolchak to do with these stamps? Did he think about stamps, when he was
fleeing to the East? Was there not a link here with the stamps of "Autonomous Siberia", about which they
had been telling me about? There arose a desire to investigate. There began enquiries, the examination of
collections, encyclopaedias and various books, but all without result. By the way, A.G. Eberzin later offered
me this "Kolchak" set and I took it.

It was only during the 1970s that I was able to find and read a reprint of a report from the newspaper
"IIHaHxaiicKas 3apa" ("The Shanghai Dawn") for December 1926 and January 1927 about this same trial in
Shanghai. Practically everything then fell into place. Here is the essence of the trial.

A semilegal anti-Bolshevik emigrant organisation was established in the area of the French Concession in
Shanghai, hoping to set up on the territory of the USSR a so-called "Province of Autonomous Siberia", with
the aim of dismembering the Soviet Union. There was a "Union of Delegates" (or rather a government) at the
head of this Socialist Revolutionary organisation of "Autonomous Siberia", under the leadership of A.V.
Sazonov, who had been in the Omsk government of Admiral Kolchak during the Civil War. One of the
measures taken by the "Autonomists" was the preparation of postage stamps for a projected future
"Autonomous Siberia". Finding out about this initiative, the embassy of the USSR sent a note protesting
against the activities of this emigrant organisation. With the agreement of the Chinese, the French were

38 THE POST-RIDER/IlMINHK No. 41
November, 1997






obliged to react to this protest and to take corresponding measures.


On the night of 17 December 1926, the French police arrested A.V. Sazonov, the Minister of Internal Affairs
of his "government" V.I. Moravskii, the nominal owner of the Russian printer S.I. Zenkevich, the engraver
E.V. Tsukra and two assistants of the latter. Searches were carried out at the apartments of Sazonov and
Moravskii and at the printer. The judicial proceedings subsequently began on 20 December. It was
explained during the trial that, as the Russian emigration had no resources, French bankers undertook to
finance the emigrants to achieve their aims. Upon receiving the money, a small printer was acquired and
workers were hired. The Polish engraver Tsukra (his name was really Cukrowski) prepared 21 dies for the
stamps and started printing them. As the French did not pay the wages of both his assistants at that time, they
were discharged. Tsukra, who was also not paid all that was owing to him, stated in his testimony that he had
printed 42,000 stamps, corresponding to 2000 sets and that he was also dismissed. According to the
testimony of Sazonov and Moravskii, only 30 to 40 stamps in all were prepared as specimens and the cliches
were then destroyed. The stamps were apparently printed for propaganda purposes. Tsukra had specified a
much greater amount, so as to get more money. The court thus did not establish the truth and apparently did
not even attempt to do so. In spite of searches, no great quantities were found anywhere of the printed
stamps, not even of sheets of 5 x 8 = 40, about which Tsukra spoke. It became known that Tsukra had given
them away in complete sets, that Moravskii distributed them at will as he claimed and that, finally, they were
sent at one stroke for collecting purposes to an international philatelic exhibition in Philadelphia (U.S.A.).
Whatever the case, the stamps of the so-called "Autonomous Siberia" were already then very rare, as both
Shitukhin and Kaufman claimed.

The stamps were prepared by the typographic process in three basic designs: the lowest values of 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 7 & 10 gold kopeks in monocolour (see Fig. 1 on p. 37), the middle values of 14, 15, 20, 25, 35, 50 & 70
gold kopeks were bicoloured and with a oval in the centre (Fig. 2 on p. 37) and the high values of 1, 2, 3, 3 r.
50 k., 5, 7 & 10 roubles were also bicoloured, with a truncated rhombus in the centre (Fig. 3 on p. 37). The
complete set consisted of 21 stamps on ordinary white paper, printed in various colours and with the design
measuring 20 x 25 mm. (for a complete description of the stamps, see the magazine "Filateliya" No. 4/1995).

As the main defendants and their lawyer asserted in the court, the stamps were without gum and thus
specimens, not intended for sale or to be affixed to letters. However, the stamps that I possess all have gum
and a quite primitive line perforation gauging 12 1/2. The workers at that same printer said that the stamps
were intended for sale and had in fact been put on sale. The impression was formed that this whole
enterprise with the stamps had been undertaken not only for propaganda, but also for speculative purposes,
in order to improve the financial affairs of the emigrant organisation. However, as the "autonomists" became
frightened, these aims were not achieved and the entire issue was destroyed, together with the cliches. The
defendants were sentenced quite symbolically by the court to several weeks or months in jail. However, they
were all amnestied and allowed to go free.

Now, finally, about the "trail" of these stamps in the U.S.A. Recently, at the beginning of the 1990s, A. Ya.
Pevzner handed me a xeroxed sheet showing the stamps of "Autonomous Siberia" in colour. He had received
them from A. Sadovnikov in San Francisco. Mr. Pevzner asked: "What are these?" and it was not difficult to
reply. This very xerox gave me the information that I had been seeking for a long time. Yes, these stamps
had really been sent to the exhibition in Philadelphia. However, they were all imperforate (and perhaps also
without gum?) In short, when hastening to America, the unknown courier of the "Autonomists" took there
the illegal production of the Shanghai printer in order to utilise the exhibition to succeed in proclaiming to
the whole world that there existed in China fighters against the Bolsheviks. It therefore follows that there
were imperforate varieties of the stamps for a non-existent "Autonomous Siberia" among the rarities of
bogus and speculative issues. I will note in conclusion that even the philatelic community knows nothing
about these stamps. And that is the reason for our story.
*
THE POST-RIDER/$MIIIHK No. 41 39
November, 1997







ARMENIAN REVENUE STAMPS AND THEIR USAGES
by Joseph Ross.

Here are some highlights from my collection of these issues for the benefit of CSRP readers.

ARMENIA "Dashnak Government"---------------------
1919 REVENUE STAMPS


1888 RUSSIAN REVENUE
PERFORATED
KKHn


normal
image
perforation


. rror
..."...


.. .













mirror
image
perforation


1907 RUSSIAN REVENUE
PERFORATED
9KII







1919. 3K 1 = 3P4BAHbCKAM KOHTPOJIbHAA IAAJIATA = Revenue Control Chamber at Yerevan-
During the newly independent Dashnak Republic, the available Russian revenue stamps were perforated for
revenue purposes "3 K TI", with an additional cross through the three initials.


40 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997







ARMENIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1921 ARMENIAN COAT OF ARMS






v~c~Lr-/0"


V../ 4 tr a <=c--


/1


-~-'-T,
ac: +..&


THIS DOCUMENT ORIGINATED
IN YEREVAN DECEMBER 16 1922.
THE FEE WAS PAID BY A 1907
IMPERIAL RUSSIAN REVENUE
PERFORATEDEKP. UNDER ANEW
GOVERNMENT IT WAS FURTHER
OVERPRINTED WITH THE
ARMENIAN COAT OF ARMS.
IT WAS ALSO REVALUED
20 KOPECK IN ARMENIAN.
CURRENCY....................


~U1~~L CLc~ ~Z 9A eA~
~iraJz~ir a'aap~ c


IMPERIAL RUSSIAN REVENUE OF
1907 WITHOUT PERFORATIONS
OVERPRINTED ARMENIAN COAT
OF ARMS WITH THE 20 KOPECK
REVALUATION IN ARMENLAN
CURRENCY.......................


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


Q-'


2-bp~--


/6 ^


d








ARMENIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1921 ARMENIAN COAT OF ARMS


/i /~rZ~


This document has a 75-kop. Imperial Russian revenue
overprinted with the Soviet Armenian coat of arms and
surcharged 1 rouble in Armenian currency. The stamp
has been further revalued "75,000" roubles in
Transcaucasian currency, as inflation was raging. The
document is dated 13 July 1923 and is a group
petition, signed on the back by a committee of 37.



THE POST-RIDER/gMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


Revalued
"40,000"
on 20 kop.
on 5 kop.
A. Cronin
Collection.











ARMENIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1921 ARMENIAN COAT OF ARMS


i-f"-A ~--k


.... .'Jf1 M-jl i ~.__ ---.- ,




This document has a 60-kop. Imperial Russian revenue of 1888, overprinted with the Soviet Armenian coat of
arms and a new value of 20 kopeks Armenian currency. The document is dated 18 September 1923 and
involved an amount of 625 roubles. It is cancelled "EPEBAH. COBET" = The Yerevan Council.


THE POST-RIDER/IfMIOIHK No. 41
November, 1997






ARMENIA SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1921 REVENUE STAMPS
VALID FOR REVENUE USE. "DASHNAK GOVERNMENT' UNISSUED POSTAGE STAMPS,
OVERPRINTED WITH THE ARMENIAN COAT OF ARMS. THIS OVERPRINT VALIDATED THE
ISSUE TO BE USED FOR REVENUE PURPOSES














-_', .r .t ... -_._ 40. .. -









VALID FOR REVENUE USE. "DASHNAK GOVERNMENT' UNISSUED POSTAGE STAMPS,
OVERPRINTED WITH THE ARMENIAN COAT OF ARMS. THIS OVERPRINT VALIDATED THE
ISSUE TO BE USED FOR REVENUE PURPOSES. REVALUED IN ARMENLAN RUBLES = 3 r.






11November,
n I

















44 THE POST-RIDER/ MIMIIIIK No. 41
j!~_UP
















ISSE T E USD FR EVEUEPTJPOSS.REVNovember, 1997 RBLS= r







ARMENIA SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1921 REVENUE STAMPS







S.L .. OTV





















November, 1997
ci^r 1\U/3LTHE PO ST RIRl i I;EM No. 414

"Ic-r A -v-- 7Novembe-r 1997

l-^ ocmn ~t hw crc usg f h H /1rH suchre.Te ocmntws u (ndt-^ fi 4u^ decsio wa renere two 1^y la

Th^ <^.^IERSMIL No 4vs^ \ k
v^^^^ ^^^eber 0^ ^^ 97^y-








ARMENIA SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1924 REVENUE STAMPS


4Q I~I~


~ Lf~/4%


2~+


/ ~


4w~4
^-Y-tfZV ^^----;^S"-
/T-t-frI2"-ir/yt^


~y--C42


The use of fiscal stamps of the USSR became mandatory in Armenia in 1924. However, although the
inscriptions on the Soviet revenues were multilingual, they did not include Armenian. They were
therefore overprinted locally "CCPA", being the Russian initials for the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Armenia. In this case, the overprint reads upwards on the 1 r. 25 k. value and the document is dated 3
October 1924.

46 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMIK No.41
November, 1997


I


~L~L~POtt!"
)Z-A^^ ^~'~














ARMENIA SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1924 REVENUE STAMPS


November- 19/./







The overprints on this 1925 document appear to have been handstamped in red ink. The initials "CCPA"
are struck at varying heights and red ink is seen on the left side of each stamp, continuing up into the
document.




THE POST-RIDER/MMflMHK No. 41 i 47
November, 1997










ARMENIA SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
1924 REVENUE STAMPS


i-i


i'*z4*--


dVa f


/tA-


-1t'r


The "CCPA" overprint reads upwards on the block of four and downwards on the pair on this document,
which is dated 27 March 1925.
Editorial Comment: Further data from our esteemed Armenian specialists about these interesting issues
and usages would be much appreciated.

48 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


CU
4"~;l~i;/P-rp~Z~ -


/-Z k
1^C


CJr~L~jkWfd~


1






THE SEPARATE COMPONENTS OF RUSSIAN AND SOVIET POSTAL RATES
by Andrew Cronin.

The object of this exercise is to record pieces of mail, where each .a"
component that goes to make up a total rate has been paid for,
either by a single stamp or by an absolute minimum of issued
stamps for that particular component. The application of that
definition means that we are excluding ordinary letters and cards
and will consider only items of mail, where additional services have
been paid for: acknowledgements of receipt, airmail surcharges,
C.O.D. sending, express delivery, registration fees and registration -
receipt charges are all good cases. To make clear what is meant by '
the restrictions governing such classes of mail, an example is now .
given of what would not be acceptable under the definition outlined
above.

Please refer to Fig. i at right for the cut-down portion of a large
7th.weight-step letter addressed to Italy. The postage of 8 x 10-k.
stamps affixed on 17 May 1898 at the Moscow 14th. Telegraph
Office would have covered a total weight of 7 x 15 grammes (3.68
ounces), plus the registration fee of 10 kopeks. However, a 70-kop.
value had already been available as of 14 December 1883 O.S.,
per Circular No. 21.660 of the Postal Department (see Prigara,
Russian edition, p. 27) and thus this piece does not satisfy our
requirements. Fig. 1.

Let us now consider some pertinent examples in three tentative time-frames: (a) the Imperial period, (b) the
Civil War and its aftermath and (c) the Soviet era.

(a) The Imperial period.
The most interesting cases should be found when the domestic and international rates were the same, i.e.
from 19 June 1875 to 12 February 1879: postcards 4 kop.; first weight-step for letters 8 kop.; printed
matter up to 4 lots or 50 grammes 2 kop.; registration fee 10 kop.; registration receipt charge 5 kop.
and A.R. fee 10 kop. The prime example would be a registered letter with acknowledgement of receipt
and having all the components paid by a separate stamp: 8 kop. (letter) + 10 kop. (registration fee) + 5 kop.
(registration receipt charge) + 10 kop. (acknowledgement of receipt), or 33 kop. in all. Any letter bearing
such a combination would undoubtedly be a rarity.

Examples from the rate-period 13 February
1879 to 7 March 1889 are easier to find. / .
AUN 1 1888
Fig. 2 shows a registered letter from Odessa J'N. 1 1888
3 May 1888 O.S. to Galveston, Texas, 1st.
June 1888 N.S., with each component
(international letter = 7 kop., plus a further A
7 kop. for the registration fee) paid with a
separate stamp. Quite apart from the
unusual destination, which would gladden 8868
the heart of any red-blooded Texan postal --
historian, the present author is indebted to .
Shelly Henley Kelly, Assistant Archivist at Fig. 2.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMIHK No. 41 49
November, 1997







the Rosenberg Library in Galveston for some biographic details about the addressee, Vincent Gurdji. He
was an employee of Knoop, Frerichs & Co., cotton buyers of New York City, who had an office in
Galveston, where Mr. Gurdji lived and worked from about 1884 to 1892. One wonders if he were related to
the noted mystic, Georgii Ivanovich Gurdzhiev, who was born in Aleksandropol', Armenia in the late 1860s
and was a contemporary of Grigorii Rasputin.












s Fig. 3.



We now turn to an unusual registered letter from Vladivostok 15.9.05 O.S. to Eliot, Maine, U.S.A. (see Fig
3 just above) and passing through New York City on 2 November N.S. Peace had recently been signed on
28 August 1905 N.S. to end the Russo-Japanese War. Contrary to the regulations, the envelope bears a
domestic "3" rather than an international "R" registration label. It is franked with a pair of 10-kopek stamps
to cover the foreign letter and registration fees of 10 kopeks each, while there is on the back what may be
an unrecorded censorship marking in violet, reading: "BJIA)JHBOCTOKCKAMI BOEHHO-
UIEH3YPHA5I KOMMHCCIAI" (Vladivostok Military Censorship Commission) and with an overall
diameter of 34 mm.
( Lc ~ Lt v ~F~t 345qP~/ s


Tow. Akc. Wyd. I Ksiqgarsko-Handlowe ,LEKTOR"
ZaU4d OI6we'w WILNLE F ILIW-. RM. Ld blPt..bII M,.k-..KJ]6w. Od...
Cha.k6.. Smtd-.. Ss-oI-h-k. RYp. K-... 0,i..o i Mlft.


Biblloteka Htsloryczna
I 101 m6w Opr.
Zawlear: SZ. ASKENAZY, Dwa stu-
lecla 1 A. BIALKOWSKI, Pamltnalkl
starego totlerza t. M. DUBIECKI, Ob-
rzy I studJa historyczne 2 L L KUBA-
LA, Szkice hlstorycne 2 L H. MO$-
CICKI, Wilno I Warszawa 1L FR. PAPsE,
Studja I szkfce 1 t WL SMOLE1SKI
Ostatnl rok sejmu wielklego 1 W. SO-
BIESII, Trybun ludu szlachecklego I L
AD. SZELAOOWSKI, 0 uljcle Wisly I L
JANA WEYSSENHOFFA, OENERALA,
Pamlitnlkl 1 t.
Cena rb. 3.85.
Splata milsilczna rb. 2.
KATAO I as 5 udI. d..ltr~. IEZPATNIEL


Z. AP.
Suma zaptacona za niniejsze za-
liczenie, po odtrqceniu 15 kop. ia
przesylkq, ktire ponosi klijent, zapi-
sana be~die jako rata wniesiona na
pocket dlugu W. Pana.
Z polwaaniem
Tow. Rkc. .,Cektor".


Fig. 4.


The next item on the agenda raises the question
of the rates applicable to C.O.D. sending. The
author has two privately printed C.O.D. cards,
utilised by booksellers in St. Petersburg and
Wilno for sending titles at the total declared
amounts of 2 r. 19 k. & 3 r. 15 k. respectively.
Both cards bear 19 kop. in postage and a
numbered "3" label, printed with the frame in
green, possibly to denote a C.O.D. recording
The break-down in the postage is given in
Polish on the Wilno card, as shown in Fig. 4
and it translates as follows:-


"The sum paid for the present C.O.D. article, after deducting 15 kop. for despatch, which is borne by the
client, will be entered as the payment placed to the debited account of the esteemed Sir".
We can now deduce from the above statement that the C.O.D. commission was 15 kopeks, with a further 4
kopeks for the printed matter rate at that time. The C.O.D. card from SPB 15.1.13 O.S. to Helsinki 30.1.13
N.S. is shown in Figure 5 at the top of the next page, with a single stamp affixed for each of the two
components of the rate and the total of 19 kopeks has been included in the sum to be collected (2 r. 19 k.).
Note also the red label with black inscription "HAJIOKEHHbIH FIJIATEAK b" (C.O.D.) affixed at top
left. These C.O.D. sending are surprisingly scarce (a few were offered in a recent Rurik Auction) and we
need to see further examples, as well as the relevant regulations issued by FYTInT (FJIABHOE

50 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997





















YFPABJIEHIE HOHTb H TEJIEFPAQOB'b = Main Administration of Posts and Telegraphs). It
would seem that the registration fee must also have been factored into the total sum to be collected on
delivery. The noted Russian postal historian, Boris Kaminskii, shows several examples of C.O.D. sending
in his article on Imperial postal rates (see "COBeTCKHiI KonneKUHAOHep" No. 27 for 1989, pp. 26-47), but
quotes only the total amount of postage paid in each case. However, he does confirm that there were three
components in the rate: weight of the article, C.O.D. commission and registration fee. The C.O.D. services
were carried out by postcard, letter or parcel card and CSRP readers are earnestly requested to send in
details of any examples that they hold; we could be investigating a fascinating new field.


To round off this section, Fig. 6 shows a large registered envelope from the Nobel Bros. in Warsaw
24.12.14 to their head office in SPB two days later, with the destination now corrected by hand to
"Petrograd". Handstamped "-~rJsOBbis 6yMarH" = "Commercial papers", the multiple weight was covered
by a single 3-rouble Romanov, with a further 10-kop. Romanov affixed for the registration fee. To top it all
off, the stamps have been cancelled with a Warsaw WWI mute, which was nullified by the Warsaw 1st.
THE POST-RIDER/ILMIIHK No.41 51
November, 1997


Die Nachnahme II. dies"r Poslkarlr excrlus. t1 Kop
Porwic i,rd nack Empfang als Zahl/u,, fir dire von, ,,r Ge-
sellschaft ,,Kultur" erhalleiten Wcrke Ihreim r/ Knint kredifirr-.


z-te c>-*j<>.*< __ ~ .... .... ....... ........, -
I-JcMA. (1r

,,^ H^ v l


TOBfP ECTBo-IUE 'TO:E OTP.onOEBTOT- -p-O -,P-STBA

BPATibEBb HOBEJlb, BAPLUABA.






P AEB1, 1 .)
ToBap HLueibTBua.H,eITHoro fl p 6 M 3Bq13: ,'


BPMTbEB b HOBEJib


~~4fl


Fig. 6.







Despatch Office cds and registration label! It can safely be said that this cover has everything going for it
(will someone please slide a chair under Leonard, before he collapses on the floor?).

(b) The Civil War and its aftermath.


Fig. 7.

With the Civil War basically over by 1920, the victorious Reds were now using the postal issues of their
vanquished opponents as "trophy" stamps. Fig. 7 above features a registered letter from PYATKI, Volyn'
province 23.6.21, via Moscow 4 July and 6 July (Moscow oval "three triangles" censorship) to Philadelphia
26 August and 27 September. The addressee could not be found and it finally landed on 30 September in
the New York Foreign Reg'd Unclaimed Section, as it could not be sent back. The foreign letter and
registration fees were equal in the rate period from 10 March 1920 to 15 August 1921 and it appears that
each 20-shahiv stamp (originally equivalent to 10 kopeks each) of the former Ukrainian National Republic
was now revalued by the Bolsheviks at 100 times face = 10 roubles. Hence, 10 roubles for a foreign letter
and a further 10 roubles foreign registration fee. The town of origin is now called PYATKA in Zhytomir
province, postal code 261605.

(c) The Soviet era.
A very fruitful period for our purposes and some selected items are given as follows:-


Fig. 8. Fig. 9.
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


- PO'T (FFIC. -NE~k NOR. h %
Rtumed to sender lor the h
Ru red s u suscedid.
NOT b L ii nd c ns e g-
5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -~ 5. ua ,cdnr nelsee


"43F L Q'_;;p~"FesP~[ ~ 1

rr



I...- 5 -
T *
x% r
I
7:






Rate period from 16 October 1923 to 30 September 1925.


A typical registered surface letter going to Berlin to the well-known engineer S. Ghelman of the Jewish
Emigration Committee has each of the two components covered by an imperforate 20-kopek Lenin
Mourning stamp, used at Balta in Podolia 25.2.24 (see Fig. 8 at the bottom of the previous page).

Rate period from 1 October 1925 to 30 June 1930.
Here we have a similar usage from Leningrad 19.4.29 to Cannes, France 25.4.29, with a pair of imperforate
14-kop. 1905 Revolution commems. paying for each of the two components (Fig 9 on the previous page).

Rate period from 1 July 1930 to 30 April 1936.
-I


"- I

S'l.enin -r ..l 795 .
BCECO13HR n
.. ......- .- .
aKAFDLEMMR HAYW *: .I


".. "' .*... :---"

Fig. 10.
Secondly, another international %
registered item, using a 15-kopek -'
postal stationery envelope for the _
surface component and a 20-kop.
Mendeleev commem. for the
registration fee from Chita 18.4.35
to Trzcianne, Poland 30.4.35
(Fig. 11).


Rate period from 1 May


Fig. 12.


Firstly, an Academy of Sciences
free frank cover so beloved by
Robert Taylor and Ivo Steyn, but
invalid in this case, as it was
going abroad. Hence, 15 kop.
surface letter rate, plus 20 kop.
registration fee from Leningrad
7.12.30 to Ottawa 24.12 (Fig.101


1936 to 9 June 1950.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997






Firstly, a new 50-kop. envelope for the 50-kop. international surface component and an added 80-kop.
definitive for the foreign registration fee, used from Abakan, Krasnoyarsk Region 25.4.37 to Paris 5.5.37
(see Fig. 12 on the previous page.
Next, an envelope with the foreign surface component paid with the 50-kop. Dirigible airmail stamp and
the registration fee by the 80-kop. Dzerzhinskii commem., sent from Leningrad 24.11.38 to Camden,
U.S.A. 10.12.38 (Fig. 13 on the previous page).
f-~Ec.sC-o e 00,'COMHenre. ,- r *' A ~-*--?(
OV_ tE, y i K..'. .sO



B`RO0 I S T RL= r T Iai' .
7ayne and Roberts Avenues. ~ 't Thirdly, a somewhat similar item from an
Official agency in Moscow 29.7.38 to
ps:urI: LiA. e. Philadelphia 9.8.38, using appropriate Paris
/, .-.-. I Exhibition and Pushkin commems (Fig. 14).


Fig. 15.
We see in Fig. 15 these rates as applied on a registered postcard (30 k. + 80 k.) and a registered letter (50 k.
+ 80 k.), sent from L'viv in the Western Ukraine on 10.8.40 and 29.4.40 respectively. Note that, while the
Western Ukrainian authorities created JIbBIB-MICTO (the City of L'viv) as a separate postal district with
distinctive Russo-Ukrainian cancellers, the old Polish "LW6W" registration handstamps still remained in
use until the Nazi invasion.

With the onset of the Cold War, one can observe the mail of U.S. Embassy personnel being sent home by
diplomatic pouch for security reasons. The regulations for pouch usage stipulated that such correspondence
had to be franked with stamps of the country of origin and at the appropriate foreign rates. Two examples
are given in Fig. 16 on the next page, with the 50-kopek surface component and the airmail surcharge of 1
rouble. The postage was cancelled on arrival in Washington on 20 August 1946 and 17 November 1948.
54 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997









Moscow. U.S.S.R. _8-PM" R .
'W- M RECElVYED
FOR VICE MAIL ROOM
VIA AIR MAIL
Mrs. Anna Bulik
517 East 147 Street \
Bronx 55 .
New York, N.Y. DE PAR R E TiEi trT O 'STATE
--.... \ ,-
S lw (actual size of the cachet).



Tis atle c
in county mie in c y i d b
VIA AIR MAIL iic ct i' d


6%E,~257 i6 ;(actual size of the cachet).
Fig. 16.

Note the arrival markings applied, on the back of the first letter by the U.S. Department of State in violet
and the two-line unframed cachet on the front of the second envelope, reading in lilac: "This article
originally mailed / in country indicated by postage".


Rate period as of 1 September 1957.


IzVA7t- T Yiw is.




yi A C.SASE tv 1v y4 A;&-


Fig. 17. U'A.


.-**-*.. .. ..p' .

..... ....... .
. ........ .
snull~~llu X1Lllll (1IIi) IY


A.)'eOmfpnlh~ea: ~fI$( ~*~j-tta')


Fig. 18.


V.A. Karlinskii, a noted Soviet expert on postal rates, stated that, as of that date, the international rates for
surface cards and letters went to 40 k. & 60 k. respectively. However, the airmail letter shown here in Fig.
17 is dated Riga 27.4.56, with the surface component then at 60 k. and the airmail component remaining at
1 rouble. We need to see further examples to pin down the rate changes. Fig. 18 really bears the same
components, but is an interesting mixed franking as a new currency had been introduced on 1.1.1961, with

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK No. 41 55
November, 1997






ten old roubles being exchanged for one new rouble. As a result, all prices were reduced to 1/10 of the
former rates. An example of such a usage is shown as the last illustration on the previous page, having a
new 6-kop. stamp added to an old 1-rouble envelope for airmail transmission, sent from TRYSKIAI
G.ST. (= Geledinkio Stotis, or Railway Station) post office in Lithuania as late as 12.2.63 to Putnam,
Connecticut, USA. The envelope bears at top centre an additional three-line unframed overprint in black,
reading: "From 1 January 1961, the price / of two stamped / envelopes is 21 kopeks".

Conclusions.
We are far from having exhausted the subject, since categories such as declared value letters and parcels,
express delivery mail etc. have not been noted. Moreover, because of the restrictions that have been
applied in this article to the various components of the rates, CSRP readers will have difficulty in finding
further suitable examples. So much the better, as it all contributes to the fun of the chase. Good hunting!


SOVIET 50-KOPEK FRANKINGS
by Dr. Ivo Steyn.




Pieces of mail franked with Soviet 50-kopek stamps have normally been prepaid in accordance th the



























Moscow to Saint-Jacinthe, Canada, which took place 12-14 July 1937. The stamp itself was affixed at
Leningrad 19.6.38 to a commercial letter, addressed to the Dixie Culvert and Metal Co. in Atlanta, USA.
-56 THE PO DER K 4
November, 1997



A t#AfXi Q 'e sr -S
-'e Jitie -alvert l~La1 Co.



Fig. 2. -, -



Pieces of mail franked with Soviet 50-kopek stamps have normally been prepaid in accordance with the
foreign surface rates in force from 1 July 1930 to 30 April 1936, or from 1 May 1936 to 31 August 1957.
Fig. 1 above is an unusual example of a double-weight foreign surface letter (15 k. + 15 k. per the first set
of rates), with a further 20 kop. for the registration fee and sent from Moscow-69 (Hamovniki) on
19.11.32 to Vienna, Austria. The total amount of 50 kopeks was paid by the relevant 50-kop. "MOIIP"
commemorative, which is not an easy stamp to find mint, used or especially on cover.

The second set of rates included an increased fee of 50 kopeks for a foreign surface letter. The item in
Fig. 2 shows such a usage, prepaid with the appropriate stamp from the 2nd- Trans-Polar Flight Non-Stop
Moscow to Saint-Jacinthe, Canada, which took place 12-14 July 1937. The stamp itself was affixed at
Leningrad 19.6.38 to a commercial letter, addressed to the Dixie Culvert and Metal Co. in Atlanta, USA.

Editorial Comment: The second set of rates is an especially fertile field for such frankings, as it was in
force for some 21 years. Examples are shown on the next page and others just as striking must exist
56 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997





Soviet 50-k. foreign surface frankings.










Rostov/Don 14.8.37 with 50-k. Chelyuskin Air!


Leningrad 10.9.38 with RKKA stamp.









Rostov/Don 7th. P.O. 21.6.39: New Moscow.


C .UA- J. /;3i~~;;;;;;~~~~~
i-t '- 3



261 5zreA^^L
/2-A^-^oJ^.C~


' ~' '*



I


Moscow- 110: 2.10.39-Agric. Exhib. stamp.


Moscow-8: 20.3.41, using Meter No.4526. Vilnius-C 6.4.41 on 50-k. definitive.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIDHIK No. 41
November, 1997


UA. S.A.


J Ba-~e j~
C~J2ay*_$_3~y~L~
~----~---------T--~--,

duC ~k~ul~


Rostov/Don 22.9.37: Red Army Central Theatre.


c3/9. aj r-
C19^"c~t ^


45; 2S


AJ~









The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt


by Alex Artuchov

This author is particularly pleased and gratified that this serialized article continues to
attract new information. We are grateful to Mike Renfro of San Jose California and
Aleksander Sergeevich Ilyushin of Moscow for sharing a couple of quality items from
their collections.

Mr. Renfro, whom this author finally had the pleasure of meeting at "Pacific 97" in June of
this year, offers a letter mailed from Tuapse in the province of Kuban to Odessa on
January 26 of 1873 which is identified as Fig. 1 Our listings mentioned 1225 as being
known but the location not being identified. Through Mr. Renfro's contribution the very
clear strike on the reverse side of the cover matches 1225 with Taupse.

Fig. 1


ii



. :. .. ..;. l
^%~~ ~~~~~ ;Mc^^^yw'-^*


:1


1.


* ..^
VV

V~


i .
i.
...-
i .
5~-..1 __ .


THE POST-RIDER/3IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


~- -~-~;`i;~-----7
11
:i










The contribution from Professor Ilyushin is a cover matching 1334, which was again
known to exist but was not previously identified as Mozheiki in Kovno province. Both
sides of Fig. 2 are particularly worthy of illustration because this item truly has it all. The
location is identified by a straight line cachet on the far left side of the reverse side. The
next strike is a very clear railroad cancellation of station No. 6 of the Riga-Mosheiksk
Railway Line, dated September 22, 1875 via which it proceeded to Mitava. It arrived in
Mitava the very same day as indicated by the two strikes on the right side and reached its
destination in Tukkum on the following day as confirmed the receipt marking on the front
of the cover.

We are not only grateful to Aleksander Sergeevich for sharing this cover with us but are
particularly pleased for the flow of quality information from our Russian colleagues.


Fig. 2


-I & *0 J S











As a result of numerous items that have been added to our previously published list we are
providing a consolidated update below.
-.. .. .-- ..- .. -*- ,,. .-.'^ *.^ -a.,Jo. -: .,










THE POST-RIDER/S MI(HK No. 41 59


NoAs a result of numerous items that have been adde1997d to our previously published list we are
providing a consolidated update below.




THE POST-RIDER/aMIHHK No. 41 59
November, 1997


___ _T_


5
,
"
,I;


~+- ~.








Known Location


849
852
854
856
857
858
860
869
870
874
879
880
883
884
886
887
889
895
896
899
900
904
908
909
911
912
913
915
916
918
922
924
925
926
929
932
936
937
940
943
944
951
957


Krasnoyarskoi, Samara


St. Khimenki (Fimenki), Vladimir

Bryn, Kaluga
Tabriz, Persia (?)





Klein Pungern, Estland
Runnapungem, Estland

Chutovo, Poltava


Novoselitsy, Bessarabia













Raya, Estland

Kliuchischi, Simbirsk


962
964
968
970
979
981
985
986
987
988
989
993
997
998
1000
1004
1005
1010
1011
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1019
1020
1021
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1034
1036
1037
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


Parisi, Minsk
Dzulek, Syrdar










Brzesc Kujawski,Warsaw



Osieciny, Warsaw


Sanniki, Warsaw



Ciechocinek, Warsaw
Jablon, Warsaw
Baldrikow, Kalisz (?)
Blaszki, Kalisz
Warta, Kalisz

Dabie, Kalisz
Zdunska Woda, Kalisz


Kleczanow, Kalisz
Klodawa, Kalisz
Ozorkow, Kalisz


Turek, Piotrkow

Sompolno, Kalisz
Turek, Kalisz
Uniejow, Kalisz
Tserkow, Kalisz


Known


Location








Known Location


1045
1046
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1057
1058
1059
1060
1062
1063
1064
1065
1067
1070
1071

1075
1078
1080
1081
1082
1089
1090
1091
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1103
1105
1106
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1115
1116
1117


Shadek, Kalisz
Aleksandrow, Piotrkow
Zawierce, Piotrkow
Gorszkowice, Piotrkow *
Zarki, Piotrkow
Ozorkow, Kalisz
Zielen, Piotrkow

Klomnice, Czenstochowa

Konstantinow, Piotrkow




Rokiciny, Piotrkow

Tomaszow (Rawski),
Piotrkow
Orlovo,
Zlotoria, Lomza
Zwolen, Radom


Klimontow, Radom

Przysuchi, Radom
Szydlowiec, Radom



Wolbrom, Kielce
Dzialoszyce, Lodz

Koszyce, Kielce
Pilitsa, Kielce




Chmielnik, Kielce
Tomascow (Zamojski), Zamose


1121
1122
1124
1127
1128
1130
1133
1135
1136
1140
1142
1143
1144
1154
1162
1173
1178
1180
1185
1187
1193
1195
1196
1199
1201
1202
1203
1204
1208
1219
1221
1225
1227
1228
1229
1231
1234
1244
1248
1250
1255
1256
1260


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


Opole, Lublin


Frampol, Lublin

Szebrezeszin, Lublin




Malkin, Warsaw







Seini, Suwalki (?)
Sereye, Suwalki (?)
Spotskin, Suwalki (?)
Suwalki, Suwalki
Wysokie Mazowieckie, Lomza


Taupse, Kuban

Narmanskaya, Kazan


Palekh, Vladimir



Gorodeya, Minsk
Dunaevtsi, Podolsk
Turki, Saratov


Known


Location








Known Location


Novocherkutino, (Tambov)?


1265
1267
1268
1270
1272
1273
1277
1280
1284
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1296
1300

1305
1306
1307
1308
1314
1324
1325
1329
1330
1334
1335
1342
1345
1347
1351
1352
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1368
1382
1385
1390
1393


Known Location

1396
1400
1402
1406
1409
1410
1413 Teikovo, Vladimir
1415
1434
1444 Glubokoe, Vilna
1445
1451
1467
1481
1507
1663


Edintsi, Bessarabia
Landvorovo, Vilna
Mozheiki, Kovno


Ekaterininshtat, Samara

Glowno, Piotrkow
St. Borokhudzhirsk, (?)


Faleshti, Bessarabia
Lemzal, Lifland
Schlok, Livonia


THE POST-RIDER/HMIUHK No. 41
November, 1997


Myagushev, Novgorod

Gonczyce, Siedlce

Bogorodsk, Nizhnii
Novgorod






MORE ITEMS OF POSTAL AND HISTORICAL INTEREST
by Professor A.S. Ilyushin.

Before proceeding with these additional pieces, the following comments are in order:-

(a) Re the cover advised by me and recorded in the immedaitely preceding article by Alex Artuchov, the
dots and numeral "1334" postmark in the truncated triangular form has been clearly identified as assigned
to Moseiki in Kovno province (now MaZeikiai in Lithuania). The envelope is addressed in German "To
the high and well-born Baron Eduard Stempel in Irmelau via Tuckum", i.e. to the estate of HPMJIAB,
now Irlava and via the post office at TYKKYM, now Tukums; both places are currently in Latvia. Irmlav
itself did not offer postal services until 1916.

(b) The cover addressed completely in Armenian to I.V. Stalin in the Kremlin, as shown in "The Post-
Rider" No. 40, p.40, fig. 6, was sent from Leninakan on 10 December 1939. Now to the present items:-

/\ -18 Fig. I shows an unpaid
MI1II'III., o',rAIToniu,'i coioS1.nV. rocC'(ll. T/' 4 illustrated postcard,
UNIoN nSALE uMVsir LI. i<.s:. .- F sent from Zlatoust
OTKPbITOE IlHiUbMO. E POSTAL, 0 ,',. 25.7.05 to SPB 28 July,
S~. where the postage due
S.was not collected. This
c i.?),f 7 5. card was recently
h101.757 "improved" by drawing
S in the black circular
C 'A .. .... ...... RPO/TPO No. 64
.- 7- marking (Samara-
V'r .', Ryazhsk) with a ball
S,, pen (!) and the oval
4' "AOIlJIATITb"
Y ,-^ *,/P. Fig. 1. marking in red, also
S1:1, 310 C ',,i 1-t P!.g,. r ret h i'drp.. w ith a ball pen.















Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 features two different markings, namely of 1.7.14 with serial "a" and 26.10.17 with serial "?" for
VOLOSATAYA, a small station on the Moscow-Kursk-Nizhnii Novgorod railway line. Station markings
are well worth collecting on pieces of mail.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIK No. 41 63
November, 1997


















I 7 7 7 7-77
mzm 14 iWCa4ro. -XY.. rwu/P1Ej.38


In Fig. 3, we see at left a postcard from Novyi Petergof 11.7.26 to Kronshtadt the next day. It was sent by
"Jensi" (Elena Dmitrievna Stasova, a noted revolutionary) to her nephew, P.B. Stasov, stationed on the
historic cruiser "Aurora". She lived to the ripe old age of 93, as we can see from the 4-kop. postal
stationery envelope at right.

Editorial Comment: The surname "Stasov" is famous in Russian history and some members of that
family have figured on Soviet stamps, as follows:-
Variety: "T"
nomaCCCP 401 noo.ma CCCP fin CTACOBA.



,



Vasilii Petrovich Stasov (24.7/4.8. 1769 in Moscow to 24.8/5.9. 1848 in SPB), a noted architect in the
Neo-Classic and Doric styles. Among his works are the Church of the Transfiguration at Radishchev
Square No. 1 and the Barracks of Paul's Regiment, both in SPB (see Scott 1304-1305 issued 27.11.1948,
as shown above at left).

Vladimir Vasil'evich Stasov (2/14.1. 1824 in SPB to 10/23.10. 1906 in SPB), a son of V.P. Stasov and a
well-known archeologist, historian and critic of music and the arts. A great supporter of the "KyqKa", the
famous 19th. century group of Russian national composers, he is featured on Scott 1988-1989 from a
portrait done by I.E. Repin in 1883 and issued 23.9.1957 (see the two stamps at centre above).

Dmitrii Vasil'evich Stasov (20.1/1.2. 1828 in SPB to 28.4.1918 in SPB). Another son of the architect V.P.
Stasov, he was a noted lawyer and music critic. He sheltered V.I. Lenin in his apartment during June-July
1917. The father of Elena Dmitrievna Stasova, he has not appeared on any Soviet stamp, but possibly on a
postal stationery envelope.

Elena Dmitrievna Stasova (3.15.10 1873 in SPB to 31.12.1966 in Moscow). The daughter of D.V. Stasov
and a close associate of Nadezhda Krupskaya (the wife of Lenin), she was involved in revolutionary
causes from 1898 onwards, being awarded the Order of Lenin four times, as well as many medals. She is
buried in the Kremlin wall on Red Square. See the last 4-k. stamp above, issued 5.10.1973 (Scott 4128).
64 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK No. 41
November, 1997






Nadezhda Vasil'evna Stasova (12/24.6. 1822 in Tsarskoe Selo to 27.9/9.10. 1895 in SPB). A daughter of
the architect V.P. Stasov, she was prominent in women's causes and the establishment of day-care centres.
The sister of D.V. and V.V. Stasov, she has not appeared on any stamps, but possibly on an envelope


-C,-


HKCCCnP TAn cpopaa 4
-r OT i64(fl~I;~ LLLI~P ~
Aei TCi~fa, ,B TCon'OE3 30 AnEi, HRa
e a ra ranpx

Hacn Ahsoaub a'Uny 3 zosvp aa3orcn
awray. .3. T e -30 aueii. --CPOKa
AeicTDRR Taiaona n- 30 Jais no 1 HCTiqCBi cpaa ACiC'T'Hs
Taxozaio-a As nepena'Iq saxas'a n auaaiTe .Me-AyropoAZY16",
I IAm 107". rIPsaxase 0623 aT bAbN6.aR&3as41 a arep ,TaAOHA.
\ ~1944-m4530


U(CuCCP TARIOH ~ ;l(r~pr
OT 'ii i~rii.l


-AeACHR octoi eec-
Bid NJ~o~aH~MHN~~mae alzorcu abo-
y';.m releqlen 3 SO icpoi ~n aa raona ~i
n'ueR'.rio Hcre'IetliH epoxa 'AnltBere$ TaJIorfl. XA'sr
'asR3a'~ 02a3a abIlbleafre ;AMehiClyropon yt nzi ne.07'
saxaae OlacJarnb~o 6i3]Ia:T. HouCR Ta6 Oa.
19~44-1736


flonyseimo 3a Ilepel'o~op



?211
C .- ,121


loJoyqeHo sa neperouop





Kaccup f


Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 has two vouchers for telephone calls from Perm' to Moscow, Nos. 962 and 218, in separate
printings and settings (1944-530 and 1944-1736). The inscription in both cases reads as follows:-
"People's Commissariat of Communications of the USSR.
Valid for a period of 30 days for one conversation. The money paid for an unused voucher and for the
remaining unused minutes is returnable to the subscriber within a 30-day period of the validity of the
voucher and for a further 30 days after the period of validity of the voucher has expired. To place a call,
dial 'International' or '07'. When placing a call, it is necessary to quote the number of the voucher".

THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK No. 41 65
November, 1997


~Z~uC~


A-'.//





.,7
/ 'LJ.a4~


~---
J


I


Fig. 4.


Fig. 4 has a letter from a female worker at the
"First of May factory named after Comrade
Stalin", sent through the Moscow-
Sokol'nicheskii post office on 1.4.37 4pm to
I.V. Stalin.






Note the standard postal marking on both vouchers, reading: MEKJI. TEJIE4. CTAHL. FIEPMb "a"
(International Telephone Station Perm'), with a diameter of 25 mm.


Fig. 6 illustrates two cards, the first with a
bilingual marking KAGANOVICHI-
KAHANOVYCHI 4.11.54 with a 30-mm.
diameter and the second dated 31.12.56 and
inscribed KAGANOVICHA, the abbreviation
"IM." = "in the name off being understood,
with a diameter of 25 mm. Both are from
KAGANOVICHI PERVYE, near Chernobyl
in the Kiev province, as determined by David
Canter on pp. 10-11 of this journal. The
town was renamed POLESSKOE after his
fall from grace, as shown here in Fig. 7 with
date 31.12.58, serial "A" & 30 mm. diameter.


36,6
*tCtn. CTe" 5CC

M pa mj h, e c, r
.tow... .ooou 1



C9CapaH lawfXein JC.


r ei-ZCdHctUt ,enr


f/ -s-f- -A-
^,jp.& u,' /w'.it''irO
j .r t L
t.JfjI-'.^~~ f
v~ *-^ *n fs.W 9 ,,c r c /:


Fig. 7.


kJ.(tCzC A /L.4K

/ ./ 6e4prc.Zf2~


C K.BA



Fig. 8.


~pec onnatt l .. .


Fig. 8. We see here two markings from the Cement Factory at Krichev in Belorussia, the first reading:
TSEM.-ZAVOD MOGILEV. OBL. 23.2.51 "a" and the second: TSEMENTNYI ZAV. MOGILEV. OBL.
27.4.61, with an unreadable serial letter.
Fig. 9 at the top of the next page has another cement factory postmark, inscribed this time: ZDOLBUNIV
TSEMZAVOD UKR RSR. ROVEN. OBL. 17.4.60 "a".
66 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIIK No. 41
November, 1997


I


__


-- -- ---- '-I *>--1*Mi.- .------


,'
I,

~












d _._ A O _,_- -'-,. 0S .-
FA. 10. .... J.


-- t ----- .. .... ..e ... ............ .......... .g i .I


t Aspec omnpasUMeR Rr-usnera adg: BRoS TK-eLl Iobl.l


--Fig. 9.; ...."............ .......... Fig. 10.
Fig. 10 proves that there are factory post offices operating even in these modem times, as witnessed by
this postmark of the Russian Federation reading: "BEREZICHSKII STEKLOZAVOD Kaluzh. obl.
16.6.1995", from a glass factory in Kaluga province.
Comments and additional data about any of the markings covered above would be welcome from readers.


THE RUSSIAN POSTS IN NORTHERN BUKOVINA DURING WWI
by Alexander EpStein.

A brief review of the postal history of Northern Bukovina from the mid-19th. century up to the beginning
of the 1970s of our century was presented by Dr. Robert Bell and Andrew Cronin (see "The Post-Rider"
No. 10). Unfortunately, the WWI period was omitted when Northern Bukovina had become an area of
military activities and various Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German fieldpost establishments were
operating on its territory from 1915 to 1918. This article deals with the activities of the Russian Posts in
Northern Bukovina. With a sole exception, it was the fieldpost that was functioning here.

As a matter of fact, there were two distinct periods of the Russian military occupation of Northern
Bukovina. The first period began soon after the fighting had started on the Russian South-Westem Front.
During the initial period of the war, Bukovina was on the very brink of the theatre of military activities; it
was considered an unimportant area from the military point of view and very small forces defended it.
Thus, Northern Bukovina was occupied during August 1914 (hereinafter O.S.) by the Cossack Terek
Division and a part of the Dniester Detachment (later expanded into the 30th. Army Corps), that made up
the extreme left flank of the Russian armies invading Eastern Galicia (now the Western Ukraine).

Such a state of affairs obtained until the end of 1914, when the Austro-Hungarian and German High
Commands began to devote much more attention to this area and collected considerable forces there. The
Russian forces were also strengthened, but they could still not withstand the pressure of the enemy. After
a gradual retreat, the detachment under General Arutyunov, comprising a part of the 30th. Army Corps
holding Northern Bukovina, abandoned on 31 January 1915 Chernovtsy (Cherivtsi, Czernowitz,
Cernmiui), the largest town in Northern Bukovina and, soon afterwards, the whole of Bukovina.

Almost no Russian field post offices are known to have functioned in Northern Bukovina during this
period, due to the very small numerical strength of the Russian forces there. It seems that the only
exception was the Line-of-Communications FPO No. 228, which was operating in Chernovtsy during Jan.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMHIHK No. 41 67
November, 1997






1915 and perhaps a part of December 1914. This FPO was established there only in November 1914 for
operation on a sedentary basis (i.e. without attachment to any particular military formation), but it was
functioning for some time as an aid to the Field Telegraph Branch No. 114 in L'vov ((L'viv, Lember,
Lw6w). A postcard from Chernovtsy with a postmark of FPO No. 228 and dated 28.1.15 is known to the
present writer. The Reserve FPO No. 156 was also destined for Chernovtsy, but it arrived too late, when
Bukovina had already been abandoned by the Russians.

The second period of Russian occupation is connected with the famous offensive of the South-Western
Front under General Brusilov in May-June 1916. Northern Bukovina was now completely occupied by the
Russian 9th. Army during the end of May and the first half of June 1916. Chernovtsy was taken on 5 June.
This period of occupation lasted until mid-July 1917, when Bukovina was abandoned again and this time
for good after a complete defeat on the South-Western Front below Tarnopol' (Ternopil') by the combined
German and Austro-Hungarian forces.

During the Russian advance, the following formations at least of the Russian Army, having fieldpost
establishments attached to them, crossed into Northern Bukovina: the 11th., 12th. and 41st Army Corps,
the 3rd. Cavalry Corps, as well as the 103rd. Infantry Division (forming a Composite Corps with the
82nd. Infantry Division), the 1st. Don Cossack Division and the Terek Cossack Division, both of the latter
forming part of the 3rd. Cavalry Corps. Thus, the following field post offices were functioning in
Northern Bukovina during this interval oftime:-

FPO No. Entity attached to Period in 1916 Location of HQ
13 11th. Army Corps 4-8 June Chernavka (Czernawka, Cernauca)
9-11 June Chernovtsy (Chernivtsi, Czernowitz, Cern'uti)
12th. to mid-June Seletin (Selyatin)
14 12th. Army Corps 30 May 3 June Zastavna (Zastawna)
4-8 June Stavchan (Stawczan, Stavcean)
50 41st. Army Corps 4-6 June Zastavna (Zastawna)
148 3rd. Cavalry Corps 31 May-3 June Yurkouts (Yurkivtsi, Jurkoutz, Iurc~uti)
150 103rd. Infantry Division 31 May Boyan (Boyani, Bojan, Boian)

The FPOs serving both Cossack Divisions have not been ascertained yet with full confidence and they
were probably either two of the following:- 212, 216, 217.
By mid-June, all these formations with their FPOs had abandoned Northern Bukovina for a further
advance into Pokutia or Southern Bukovina.

A postcard sent from Northern Bukovina during this period is shown in Fig. 1 on the next page. A
postmark of FPO No. 14, dated 8.6.16, is applied on the picture side of the card, showing a view of
Chernovtsy, although this town had actually been taken by the 11th. Army Corps. Probably, but not
necessarily, the 12th. Army Corps HQ and FPO No. 14 were still located on that day at Stavchan.

During the second period of occupation, Northern Bukovina was also an area where some Russian corps
and divisions were quartered in reserve. For instance, the 1st Army Corps, served by FPO No. 3, was
quartered there from September 1916 to March 1917. A card posted on 7.3.17 at this FPO is illustrated in
Fig. 2. Although this postcard seems to be a blank of a timber merchant from Vizhnitsa (Wyzhnytsya,
Wiinitz, Vijnila), that town was not necessarily the true location of the FPO. Another FPO known to have
functioned in Northern Bukovina is the Reserve FPO No. 147, located at Shypot (Kameral Szypot, Sipote
pe Ceremus) or nearby, at least during June 1917. Fig. 9 in my article in "The Post-Rider" No. 34,
depicting a postcard sent through that FPO, was wrongly attributed to Southern Bukovina and it should
actually be placed here.
68 THE POST-RIDER/IMIUI4K No. 41
November, 1997


































































THE POST-RIDER/5AMIHK No. 41 69
November, 1997






During the retreat of the Russian armies in the summer of 1917 and particularly in mid-June, Northern
Bukovina was crossed in the reverse direction by the 16th. and 33rd. Army Corps of the 8th. Army, with
their FPOs No. 18 and Code Letter "JI" respectively. However, their whereabouts during this very short
period remains unknown too.

Chernovtsy was for a long time the location of the Russian Army Headquarters. Initially, it was the 9th.
Army, whose HQ was served by the Headquarters FPO and Control FPO, both designated by Code Letter
"E" and which were situated in Chernovtsy during August-September 1916.

In October, the 9th. Army HQ was transferred southwards to Roumania and its place was taken by the
8th. Army HQ, with both the Headquarters FPO and Control FPO No. 106, which were functioning there
until this town was abandoned by the Russians on 21 July 1917. Fig. 3 on the previous page shows a
postcard from Chernovtsy, postmarked on 1.11.16 at the Headquarters FPO No. 106. A letter-card is
depicted in Fig. 4 on the previous page, sent on 5.1.17 from the Line-of-Communications FPO No. 230
(its exact location at that time has not been ascertained yet) via the Control FPO No. 106, where the
sending was redirected to the addressee on 8.1.17.

Finally, from June 1916 up to the time of abandoning Chernovtsy, Reserve FPO No. 53, which had no
particular assignment, was functioning and serving various military and civil administration institutions,
as well as civilians. Fig. 5 on the previous page illustrates a postcard franked with a 3-kop. stamp, in
accordance with the prevailing postal rate for civilians and cancelled at FPO No. 53 on 3.4.17. A special
circular of the Imperial Postal Administration issued in September 1916 required that all mail to Russian
military and civilian institutions in Bukovina be addressed to FPO No. 53. A postcard addressed in such a
manner is shown in Fig.6 on the previous page.

One more post office which functioned in Chernovtsy during this period of Russian occupation was
located at the railway station. It was not a field post office, but a post office subordinate to the Imperial
Railway Postal Administration and was transferred on 5 October 1916 from the railway station of
Novoselitsa, where it had been reopened earlier as of 11 June. No postmark with the text
CHERNOVTSY-VOKZAL or anything similar has been recorded up to now, but there is a strong feeling
that such a post office would have used the same semi-mute date canceller as the office at Novoselitsa
(see my article in "The Post-Rider" No. 31). Still earlier, the route of the postal van Nos. 147/148
Zhmerinka-Novoselitsa was extended to Chernovtsy in September 1916.


MORE "STATE CHANCELLERY" POSTMARKS
by Rabbi LL Tann.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997





















Fig. 1 at the bottom of the previous page shows a cover sent
from Tver 29.1.17 with a pair of 5-kop. Arms and addressed
to the Minister of the Imperial Court, His Excellency Mr.
Frederiks, for transmission to His Imperial Majesty the Lord
Emperor Nikolai Aleksandrovich. Note at top left the word
"Tsarskoe" (=Imperial) crossed out and the destination of
Petrograd written in. It arrived there on 2.2.17 and also
received on the back the marking of the Office for Delivery
of Imperial Correspondence on the same day, i.e. not long
before the outbreak of the February 1917 Revolution.


Fig. 2.


In "The Post-Rider" No. 40, p.50, I followed the seminal work by David Skipton about the State
Chancellery postmarks usually applied on mail addressed to the Russian Imperial Court. After the
abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the advent of the Russian Republic, mail addressed to the Head of
Government or to high officers of state still arrived at the Winter Palace. The postmark was altered to
read: HETPOFPAJ'b / OTJ). JOCT. IPABHT. Hn ARHJIOM. KOP. (= Office for the Delivery of
Governmental and Diplomatic Mail Skipton Type 7). In his notes (Rossica Journal 113/114, p. 51),
David suggests that the functions of the Mail Office were the same as before, "but with a considerably
expanded clientele". That may well have been so, but as it was in use for only the few months of the
existence of the Russian Republic from March to October 1917, examples are far fewer and much
scarcer. I am delighted to show here in Fig. 2 above a Red Cross card used by Sub-Lieutenant Ivan
Sergeevich Kazarinov, a POW of the Austrians at Deutsch-Gabel in Bohemia and addressed to "Mr. Prime
Minister and Military Dictator of Russia Kerenskii in Petrograd"! The front of the card has a superb strike
of the new Chancellery marking dated 13.9.17 and the message on the back of the card reads as follows:-
"Mr. Prime Minister! Please pardon that a prisoner has decided to turn to you with such a request. I as a
soldier know that, if I fell into a difficult situation, I must be patient. But extreme need has forced me to
change this principle and turn to you. I am a complete orphan and do not have a relative who could help
me, so I also of course have no connections to bring about an exchange. I have sisters, but they
themselves need help. I am 21. I absolutely do not want to die at such an age, not in honest battle, but as a
prisoner of the enemy, while still recognizing that I can serve my country. All my comrades receive
something {parcels or letters} and I get nothing. It is impossible to live on what they give me here, so that
my health deteriorates daily and to realise that while still so young is very difficult. Please excuse such an
application to you and if you find it worthwhile, please help. I cannot ask more of someone. Sub-
Lieutenant I.S. Kazarinov of the 140th. Zaraisk Infantry Regiment".
By 13 September, the Kerenskii Government had only some 5 weeks left before the Bolsheviks staged
their coup. One wonders if Ivan Sergeevich ever got back to Russia and what was his fate thereafter.
*
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIK No. 41 71
November, 1997









Alatyr No. 1 (Supplement)


By Alex Artuchov

The stamp illustrated as Fig. 1 was part of a larger zemstvo collection that was being
auctioned earlier this summer. The collection was available for viewing at the booth of the
auctioneer at "Pacific 97" and this author had the opportunity to examine the collection.
It contained a copy of Alatyr No. 1 that immediately caught the attention of this author.
The word forgery followed by a question mark was written below the stamp in the
handwriting of what must have been the owner of the collection. The author immediately
noticed that there was a nick missing from the upper left corer of the ornament in the
upper left corer. This was very similar to the stamp illustrated as Fig. 3, that was the
subject of an article with a similar title and featured in No. 39 of this journal.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

2 1 2 2 2 1 2 112
1 ", i. 1
SA.WT~ir 2 1 BAaTIPiica

,t 1 2
S2 1
S1 2
22 1 1 1 21222



Through the courtesy of the auction house, the author was able to obtain a photocopy of
the stamp and to subsequently upon return home, examine the item closely. The item was
indeed very similar to the "Moens" copy of Alatyr No. 1. The type, being 3 or 4 as
illustrated in Fig. 2, is the same as the "Moens" copy and the stamp illustrated as Fig. 1 is
in fact only a slightly fainter impression of the "Moens" stamp. This was of course because
Fig. 1 was a copy of the "Moens" stamp and that the degree of quality decreased slightly
from one generation of reproduction to the next.

The significance of Fig. 1 does not lie in the fact that it sheds any direct light into the
question of whether the "Moens" copy is genuine or a forgery. It lies in the fact that
someone went to the trouble of making a forgery from a stamp that they were convinced
was genuine. The "Moens" copy was and due to the obscurity of the other supposedly
existing copies of Alatyr No. 1, remains to be the standard copy and the widely accepted
illustration of the genuine version of this extremely rare postal issue.

It would seem that the onus does not rest on the question of whether the stamp is genuine
but more on the question of specifically why it is not.

72 THE POST-RIDER/RIMIIIK No. 41
November, 1997






THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN ARMY IN THE UKRAINE: MARCH-NOVEMBER 1918
by Dan Grecu.

After the Austro-Hungarian offensive in July-August 1917, the Eastern Front achieved relative stability,
being situated approximately along the border between Russia and Austria-Hungary. By the end of 1917,
Russian troops were stationed on Austrian territory only in a strip to the west of Tarnopol/Ternopil'. A
formal armistice was concluded on 29 September 1917 at 4pm between General Litzmann and the
Commander of the Russian 11th. Army Corps. On 20 November 1917, the Ukraine itself proclaimed
autonomy and it became independent on 3rd. December.

Armistice talks were conducted on 4 December 1917 between Prinz Joseph and Generals Mackensen and
Shcherbachev (*), with an initial stabilisation of 10 days of armistice between 7th. & 17th. December
along the entire Russian front. The Armistice of Brest-Litovsk was signed on 15 December 1917 and
extended to 14 January 1918. During all this time, the 2nd., 4th. & 7th. Austro-Hungarian Armies were
located along the border with Russia.

On 9 February 1918, the Central Powers recognized the independence of the Ukraine and signed a
separate peace treaty with it. Moreover, on 10 February, L.D. Trotskii, as Head of the Russian Delegation,
declared "the cessation of a state of war" between Russia and the Central Powers (**). Subsequently, on
13 February 1918, the German General Staff decided to renew the attack against Russia, going on the
offensive in the Baltic provinces. Thus, the Germans occupied Dvinsk/Daugavpils on the 24th.,
Reval/Tallinn and Pskov on the 25th., heading towards Petrograd. Under the pressure of these events,
there followed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 28 February 1918 and a separate peace was concluded with
Russia on 3rd. March. Russia gave up Poland, the Baltic provinces, the Ukraine and some Asiatic
territories. At the same time, the Bolsheviks occupied most of the Ukraine, including Kiev and, as a
result, the Head of the Ukrainian Rada fled from there and asked for Austro-Hungarian help. During this
period, the Germans had already prepared an attack on the territories comprising Lutsk-Rovno/Rivne-
Laminiec-Siniawka-Diinaburg/Daugavpils and Livonia. It was in these conditions that Austro-Hungarian
intervention was decided against the Bolsheviks in the Ukraine.

The Austro-Hungarian Actions in the Ukraine.
Only a portion of the Austro-Hungarian troops along the Russian front participated in moving into the
Ukraine, namely:-
- The Kosak Group of the 7th. Army, leaving from Bukovina.
- The remainder of the troops belonging to the 2nd. Army, stationed in Galicia in the 17th. & 25th. Corps
as well as the 12th. Army.

All the other units were transferred to other fronts or reorganised after the signing of peace with Russia,i.e.
- The 18th., 22nd. & 23rd. Corps of the 7th. Army in Bukovina were transferred to Italy.
- The 5th. Corps and 9th. Army were dissolved in March-April 1918.

* Editorial Comment: Dmitrii Grigor'evich Shcherbachev (1857-1932) became a general in 1914 and took
L'vov/L'viv. He was appointed C.I.C. of the Russian armies on the Romanian Front in April 1917. In
December 1917, the Romanian & South-West Fronts were united into the Ukrainian Front under
Shcherbach'v. He was opposed to the Bolsheviks and placed himself under the Ukrainian Directory up to
January 1918. He concluded an armistice with Germany at Focsani in Romania in February 1918 and
agreed to the entry of Romanian troops into Bessarabia. By April 1918, he was already in Paris, trying to
set up a White Organisation. He was unsuccessful in attracting recruits and he played no further political
role after the end of the Civil War, finally dying in Nice, France.
** Editorial Comment: He actually declared "a state neither of peace nor of war" with the Central Powers.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 41 73
November, 1997






The Commands of the 4th. & 7th. Austro-Hungarian Armies were merged with the 10th. Corps & 1 ith.
Army, to form the General Commands No. 4 at Lw6w (Lemberg, L'vov, L'viv) and No. 7 at Cernuti
(Czernowitz, Chernovtsy, Chernivtsi) respectively.

By 18 February 1918, the Russians had evacuated the last zone occupied by them in Eastern Galicia
(Western Ukraine), which was immediately reoccupied by the Austrians. There began on the same day a
rapid movement by the Germans eastward along the railway lines. The southern wing at Lisingen went via
Rovno/Rivne and Zhitomir, such that, by the end of February, it was before Kiev, which was occupied on
3rd. March. The Germans then occupied Odessa on the 13th., Nikolaev/Mykolaiv on the 17th. and
Khar'kov/Kharkiv on 8 April 1918.

On 27 February 1918, the 2nd. Austro-Hungarian Army received an order to capture the railway line that
went eastward via Podwoloczyska and Husiatyn. On the second day, the 2nd. Army began moving
forward to the north of the Dniester, along the following railway lines:-
- On the first line, the 11th., 30th. & 59th. Infantry Divisions and the 2nd. Cavalry Division joined battle
in the first half of the month of March at Slobodka, Birzula and Odessa with sailors of the Black Sea
Fleet.
- On the second line, the 54th. & 155th. Infantry Divisions fought against irregular bands of the
population. The 17th. & 145th. Infantry Brigades had a special organising mission and were also involved
in battles with the Bolsheviks, suffering losses.
- The 34th. Infantry Division and the 5th. Honved (Hungarian) Cavalry Divisions ensured the safety of the
railway lines and found themselves involved in several battles.
- The 15th. Infantry Division, as well as the 4th. & 7th. Cavalry Divisions, also had the role of ensuring
the safety of the railway lines.
Other details about each division are given in the following section.

Apart from these units which had participated in the advance into the Ukraine, troops were also brought
in during the months of April to June to occupy the Ukraine, as well as other units from other fronts. The
Ukraine was divided between Germany and Austria-Hungary into zones of military occupation. The
Austro-Hungarians had zones of occupation in the following provinces:-
- Podolia province: In the zone of Zhmerinka (54th. & 155th. Infantry Divisions = 17th. Army Corps).
- Kherson province: In the zone of Voznesensk (11th. Infantry Division = 17th. Army Corps).
- Ekaterinoslav province: In the area of Ekaterinoslav/Katerynoslav (34th. Infantry Division, 5th. Cavalry
Division & 145th. Infantry Brigade = 12th. Army Corps).
- In Odessa: The Command of the 2nd. Army was set up there and then named "Ostarmee" = Eastern
Army; also the 30th. Infantry Division.
By the beginning of October 1918, the units in the Ukraine were gradually being transferred to the Italian
Front.

Large Austro-Hungarian Units in the Ukraine.
2nd. Army: It advanced into the Ukraine at the beginning of March 1918, with the 12th. Corps & 25th.
Army, as well as the Kosak Group, which was detached from the 7th. Army. The Command was set up in
Odessa. It was transformed into the "Ober-Kommando Ost" = Eastern High Command. That latter entity
changed its name to "Ostarmee", apparently already by 1918. The evacuation of the Ukraine began on 30
October 1918, with the Command being moved from Odessa to Vinnitsa. On 2nd. November, many units
of the lower ranks revolted under the influence of Bolshevik ideas and were arrested by their leaders.

4th. Army: It was dissolved on 15 March 1918 and its Command, together with the 10th. Army Corps,
formed the 4th. General Command in Lw6w (Lemberg, L'vov, L'viv). However, it used as a name the
unofficial title of the Command of the Kirchbach Army Group (also called the Kherson Army Group) and
74 THE POST-RIDER/lMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997






it subsequently became the "4th. Army Group at Odessa" as of 31 March 1918. Further details about the
structure of this Army Group are unknown.

11th. Army Corps: It was dissolved in April 1918, establishing with the Command of the 7th. Army a
formation called the "7th. General Command at Czemowitz". By June 1918, it had become operative
again; it was detached from the 7th. Army Command and was subordinate to the "Ostarmee", being
reactivated between 15 & 30 June. The Command was set up in Mariupol'/Mariupil' and it went from
there to Ujvidek (Novi Sad in the Vojvodina) on 14 October 1918.

12th. Army Corps: Permanently subordinate to the 2nd. Army (Ostarmee) and it advanced from Galicia
into the Ukraine at the beginning of March 1918, to establish its Command at
Ekaterinoslav/Katerynoslav. It remained in the Ukraine until the end in November.

17th. Army Corps: It was moved into the Ukraine in May 1918, being permanently subordinate to the
Ostarmee and setting up its Command at Kherson, where it remained until the end in November.

25th. Army Corps: Subordinate to the 2nd. Army (Ostarmee), it advanced from Galicia into the Ukraine at
the beginning of March, having its Command at Zhmerinka and where it remained until the end. Its units
revolted at the beginning of November.

The Kosak Group: It originally belonged to the 7th. Army, finding itself between the Dniester and Prut
rivers in Bukovina. It advanced within the framework of the 2nd. Army (Ostarmee), together with the
2nd. Cavalry Division and the 187th. Militia Brigade (Landsturmbrigade).

11th. Infantry Division: Subordinate in March to the 12th. Army Corps, then in May (?) to the 7th. Army
Corps. It went on the offensive from Galicia, the main column reaching the Chemyi Ostrov line on 1st.
March and Odessa on the 11th. It was stationed to the south-east of Kherson and was told to be ready for
evacuation on 30th. October.

15th. Infantry Division: Subordinate to the 12th. Army Corps, it arrived from Transylvania to
Ekaterinoslav/Katerynoslav on 19.5.18. It left Ekaterinoslav for Budapest on 26.10.18.

30th. Infantry Division: Subordinate in March to the 12th. Army Corps; on 1st. June to the 17th. Army
Corps; on 15th. June to the 25th. Army Corps; on 30 August again to the 17th. Army Corps. Actions: from
Galicia, reaching Kuzmintsy on 1st. March, while the 30th. Assault Battalion arrived in Proskurov 65 k.
(40 miles) further on at 11pm that night. The Assault Battalion went from there by rail to Zhmerinka, one
hour ahead of the Germans and occupied the railway station at midnight. It was stationed to the south-
west of Kherson (in Odessa, according to other sources), from where it left by sea for Braila on 4.10.18,
leaving behind only the 97th. Infantry Regiment and the 2nd. Cavalry Division.

34th. Infantry Division: Subordinate to the 12th. Army Corps. Actions: it left Cernmiui on 24th. April and
arrived in Odessa on 7 May 1918. It was finally stationed to the north-east of Ekaterinoslav. It left the
Ukraine for Italy on 6 July 1918, leaving behind the 93rd. Infantry Division. The latter left the Ukraine for
the Balkans on 14th. October.

36th. Infantry Division: It moved forward from Bukovina to the Ukraine with the Kosak Group. By 15th.
April, the division was incorporated in the 7th. General Command at Cernaui (Czemowitz, Chernovtsy,
Chernivtsi), confirming that it was stationed in the Ukraine only as of March..

54th. Landwehr (Militia) Division: Subordinate to the 25th. Army Corps. Actions: after a short battle, it

THE POST-RIDER/MIIM HK No. 41 75
November, 1997






entered Kamenets-Podol'skii on 28 February 1918 and, with its forward echelons, reached the Novaya
Ushitsa line on 1st. March, carefully securing the railway lines then. It was stationed to the east of
Zhitomir and it was in the town on 30 October 1918, ready for evacuation. The troops revolted there some
days later.

59th. Infantry Division: Subordinates from March to June 1918 to the 12th. Army Corps and on 30th.
August to the 11th. Army Corps. Actions: it reached the Kutkovitsy-Ivakhnovtsy line, then Gorodok on
1st. March and finally arrived at Yarmolintsy, together with the 15th. Jiger Battalion. It was stationed
south of Ekaterinoslav and left for Serbia in the Balkans on 14th. October.

155th. Honv6d (Hungarian) Infantry Division: Subordinate to the 25th. Army Corps. Actions: it left
Galicia and reached Babin on 1st. March, to secure the railway in the zone. It was stationed in Zhmerinka
and left the Ukraine on 24 October for Proskurov, on its way to Romania.

145th. Infantry Brigade: Subordinate on 1st. June to the 12th. Army Corps, then placed directly under the
Ostarmee. It was also directly under the authority of the Governor of Odessa on 15th. October. Actions: it
left Romania and advanced into the Ukraine with the 2nd. Army, to be stationed in the garrison at Odessa.
It was ready for evacuation on 30 October, but it revolted on 2nd. November, together with the 2nd.
Cavalry Division.

187th. Landsturm (Militia) Brigade: It left Bukovina with the Kosak Group and was incorporated at the
end of March in the 7th. General Commando in Cemiuti (Czernowitz, Chemovtsy, Chernivtsi).

93rd. Infantry Regiment in the 34th. Infantry Division: It was in Kiev on 1 June 1918, subordinate to the
German Army Group of Eichhorn. It left the Ukraine for Serbia on 14th. October.

27th. Jiiger Battalion: Subordinate to the 16th. Infantry Brigade of the 30th Infantry Division on 28
February 1918. It was in Nikolaev/Mykolaiv on 1st. June (in Odessa, according to other sources) with the
German 212th. Infantry Division of the 17th. Army Corps. It was subordinate on 15th. June to the 60th.
Brigade of the 30th. Infantry Division; on 30th. August with the German 42nd. Infantry Division in
Nikolaev, directly subordinate to the Ostarmee. Under the 2nd. Cavalry Division on 15th. October.

2nd. Cavalry Division: Subordinate originally to the Kosak Group, then to the 17th. Army Corps up to
June 1918. It appears to have been directly subordinate to the Ostarmee on 15th. June. Actions: upon
leaving Bukovina, it took Novosulitsa on 24 February, Lipkany and Larga on 2nd. March (all of them
localities in Bessarabia). It was finally stationed in Odessa. The soldiers of this division revolted in
Odessa on 2nd. November.

4th. Cavalry Divsion: Subordinate to the 11th. Army Corps. Actions: it left Drohobycz on 5 July 1918 and
arrived in Podwoloczyska on the 18th. It was then stationed at Ekaterinoslav, from where it left for the
Balkans on 14th. October.

5th. Honv6d (Hungarian) Cavalry Division: Subordinate in May 1918 to the 17th. Army Corps and on 1st.
June to the 12th. Army Corps. Actions: it left Vatra Dornei on 28th. March for Rybnitsa, where it arrived
on 11th. April. Stationed to the west of Ekaterinoslav, it was ready for evacuation on 30th. October.

7th. Cavalry Division: Subordinate to the 17th. Army Corps. Actions: it was stationed in June 1918 to the
north of Kherson. It was in the process of evacuating from the Ukraine on 30th. October.

Components of Large Units (Units of Infantry, Artillery, Cavalry etc. of the same).
76 THE POST-RIDERISIMIlIHK No. 41
November, 1997






This section, as well as much of the preceding data, has been put together on the basis of documentation
furnished in the excellent work (unpublished, but available in typescript) by Mr. John Dixon-Nuttal, born
in Canada and thus with double citizenship: British and Canadian! I extend to him sincere thanks for his
kindness in putting his tabulations at my disposal. The dates which appear in these two sections are in
general orientative, indicating the fact that a unit had a composition or location on that particular date, but
not necessarily beginning with that date, as it appears in the Operative Orders of the Austro-Hungarian
Army, abstracted from the above-mentioned study.

Infanterie-Regiment / Gyalogezred (Infantry Regiment).
IR 16 = 72 Bg,36ID
18 = 215 (59) IBg, 30 ID
24 = 117IBg,59ID
29 = 67 IBg, 34 ID; it was with the 68 IBg on 15 October
33 = 68IBg, 34 ID
41 = 118 IBg, 59 ID; it was with the 117 IBg on 15 June
IV/42 = 117 gBg, 59 ID (only on 28 February), then with the 104 IBg, which was not in the Ukraine
VI/48 = 145 Bg
53 = 72 Bg, 36 ID
58 = 22IBg, 11 ID
60 = 30 Bg, 15 ID
VII/63 = 118 IBg, 59 ID (28 Feb.), then transformed into Battalion II of IR 103
65 = 30 IBg, 15 ID
66 = 29 IBg, 15 ID
V/ 71 = 145 IBg, then transformed into I/112, which was not in the Ukraine
V/ 76 = 145 Bg
78 = 13 IBg, 36 ID (28 Feb.), then with the 71 IBg (?)
89 = 4(21) IBg, 11 ID, directly subordinate to the 11th. Army Corps as of 15 October
90 = 4(21)IBg, 11 ID
93 = 67 IBg, 34 ID, then 1st. June with Eichhorn Army Group; 30th. Aug. German Army Group Kiev
95 = 215(59) Bg, (28 Feb.)
97 = 30 ID up to 15th. June and on 4 October with the 2nd. Cavalry Division
103 = 118 IBg, 59 ID; on 15th. June, the 1st., 3rd. & 4th. Battalions were outside the Ukraine
V/103 = 145 IBg
115 = 22 IBg, 11 ID; a new regiment formed from III/95, IV/95 & 1/15
116 = 13 Bg, 36 ID; a new regiment formed from III/78, IV/78 & IV/16. In June in the 71 IBg,
outside the Ukraine
134 = 29 IBg, 15 ID; a new regiment formed from III,IV/65 & 11/34

Honved-Infanterie Regiment / Honvedgyalogezred (Hungarian Infantry Regiment)
HIR 308 = 130 HIBg, 155 ID
309 = 129 HIBg, 155 ID
310= 129 HIBg,155ID

K.u.K. Landsturm-IR / NrpfelkelS-gyalogezred (Militia Infantry Regiment)
LstlR = 130 HIBg, 155 ID

Feldjiigerbataillon (Field Hunter Battalion)
FJB 1 = 16(60)IBg, 30 ID
3 = 117 IBg, 59 ID; it was with the German Knb'rzer Corps in Rostov na Donu on 1st. June
13 = 16(60)IBg, 30 ID
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 41 77
November, 1997






FJB 14 = 16(60) Bg, 30 ID
15 = 117IBg, 59ID
16 = 16(60) Bg,30 ID
18 = 16(60) IBg, 30 ID
24 = 68 IBg, 34 ID
27 = see the previous section
28 = 67IBg, 34ID
32 = 67IBg,34ID

Infanterie-Schutzen-Regiment (firstly Landwehr = Militia;then Schutzen = Defence = Austrian Territorials)
ISchR 19 = 132(107) SchBg]
29 = 131(108) SchBg]
30 = 132(107) SchBg]
32 = 131(108) SchBg]: All included in the 54th. Landwehr (Militia) Division

Feldartillerieregiment (Field Artillery Regiment)
FAR 11 = 11FABg, 11 ID
30 = 30 FABg, 30 ID
34 = 34 FABg, 34 ID
36 = 36FABg,36ID
54 = FABg 54, 54 LwrD; in the 2nd. Cavalry Division on 15 October
59 = FABg 59,59 ID
IV,V/ 60 = 145 IBg (in February)
111 = FABg 11, 11 ID; in the 15th. Infantry Division on 15 October
130 = 30 FABg, 30 ID
134 = 34 FABg, 34 ID
136 = 36 FABg, 36 ID
154 = FABg 54, 54 Lwr D; in the 2nd. Cavalry Division on 15 October
159 = FABg 59,59 ID
IV,V/ 160 = 145 IBg (28 February)

Honv6d-Feldartillerieregiment (Hungarian Honv6d Field Artillery Regiment)
HFAR 255 = 155 HFABg, 155 ID
355 = 155 HFABg, 155 ID; in the 1st. Cavalry Division on 15th. June

Gebirgsartillerieabteilung (Mountain Artillery Section)
GbAA 11 = 11 FABg, 11 ID; on 15 October in the 62 FABg and not then in the Ukraine
30 = 30 FABg, 30 ID; on 15 October in the 62 FABg and not then in the Ukraine
36 = 36 FABg, 36 ID
255 = 155 HFABg, 155 Honved ID

Schwere Feldartillerieregiment (Heavy Field Artillery Regiment)
sFAR 30 = 30FABg, 30ID
34 = 34 FABg, 34 ID
36 = 36FABg, 36ID

Kavallerie-Feldartillerieregiment (Mounted Field Artillery Regiment)
FAR 2K = 2KFABg,2KD
HFAR 5 K = 5 HKFABg, 5HKD (Hungarian Honv6d Mounted Field Artillery Brigade and Division)
FAR 7K = 7KFABg, 7KD
78 THE POST-RIDER/IMUIIMHK No. 41
November, 1997






Husarenregiment (Regiment of Hussars)
HR 3 = 3KBg,2KD
6 = idem
16 = idem

Honved-Husarenregiment (Hungarian Honv6d [Hussar] Mounted Regiment)
HHR 1,6,7 & 8; all in the 23(9) HKBg, 5HKD
III/10 = 145IBg
1/10 = 36 ID
VI/10 = 59 ID

Ulanenregiment (Regiment of Uhlans)
UL 1 = 21(7)KBg,4KD
2 = l1(13)KBg,7KD
3 = 11(13)KBg,7KD
5 = 3KBg,2KD
13 = 21(7)KBg,4KD

Dragonenregiment (Regiment of Dragoons)
DR 5 = 21(7) KBg, 4 KD, with the exception of some sub-units
9 = 21(7)KBg, 4KD
10 = 11(13)KBg, 7KD
12 = 11(13) KBg, 7KD

Sturmbataillon (Assault Battalion)
It bore the number of the division: StB 11, 15, 30, 34, 36, 54, 59, 145 & 155.
A Sturmhalbregiment (Assault Half Regiment) existed in the cavalry, with the same number as for the
corresponding division: 2, 4, 5 & 7.
There were also staging units, naval detachments etc. (see Fig. 6 on p. 82).


TABLE OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN FIELD POST OFFICES IN THE UKRAINE


Unit
1 th. Infantry Division
145th. Infantry Brigade
GHQ Ostarmee: 2nd. Army
Command of the Kherson Group,}
then 4th. Army Command }
?
?
12th. Army Corps
4th. Cavalry Division
2nd. Army Command: Ostarmee
7th. Cavalry Division
25th. Army Corps
GPO 2nd. Army: Ostarmee
2nd. Cavalry Division (Hungarian)
11th. Infantry Division
54th. Landwehr (Militia) Division
17th. Army Corps
?


Period in the Ukraine
March-November 1918
March-November 1918
March-November 1918
March-June (?) 1918

March-October 1918

March-November 1918
18 July to 14 October 1918
March-November 1918
June-October 1918
March-November 1918
March-November 1918
March-November 1918
March-November 1918
March-November 1918
May-November 1918


Location

Odessa
Odessa
Odessa

Kiev
Lyuboml' (?)
Ekaterinoslav
Ekaterinoslav
Odessa

Zhmerinka

Bessarabia; Odessa 3.18

Odessa in August 1918
Kherson
Zhmerinka


THE POST-RIDER/I MII(HK No. 41 79
November, 1997


No.
80
168
240
255

258
259
282
284
332
377
380
388
402
408
423
436
443


Type
FPA
FPA
FPA
FPA,
TPH
EPA
EPA
FPA
FPA
FPA
FPA
FPA
HPA
TPH
FPA
FPA
FPA
EPA






No.
585
618
621
634
635
638
642
649
1062


Type
FPA
TPH
FPA
TPH
TPH
FPA
TPH
TPH
FPA


Unit
15th. Infantry Division
15th. Infantry Division
59th. Infantry Division
15th. Infantry Division
5th. Honved Cavalry Division
30th. Infantry Division
34th. Infantry Division
155th. Honved Infantry Division


Types of postal service: EPA = Etappenpostamt = Unit Postal Station; FPA = Feldpostamt = Field Post
Office; HPA = Haupt-Feldpostamt = Main Field Post Office (GPO); TPH = TAbori postahivatal =
Hungarian Field Post Office
Abbreviations in the text: A = Artillery; B = Battalion; Bg = Brigade; D = Division; F = Feld (Field); Gb
= Gebirgs (Mountain); H = Honv6d (Hungarian Territorial); I = Infantry; J = YJger (Hunter); K = Cavalry;
Lst = Landsturm (Militia); Sch = Schutzen (Defence; duties similar to those of the Militia); s = schwere
(Heavy); U = Ulanen (Uhlans).
Notes: (1) Certain brigades had their numbers changed in the spring of 1918, e.g. Bg. 4 became Bg. 21 and
this change is noted in the text as Bg.4(21).
(2) The notation V/71 refers to Battalion V in the 71st. Infantry Regiment, while III/10 is Squadron mI in
the 10th. Hungarian Honv6d Hussar Regiment, etc.
(3) The field post office utilised by the 11th. Army Corps in the period from June to 14 October 1918 has
not yet been identified.
Bibliography
(1) John Dixon-Nuttal: "The Austro-Hungarian Army 1914-1918; For Collectors of Its Postal Items",
Eastbourne 1990-1993, Great Britain.
(2) Keith Tranmer: "Austro-Hungarian A.P.O.'s 1914-1918", Horchurch 1973, Great Britain.
(3) "A Magyar Tiizer" ("The Hungarian Artillery"), pp.212-213, Budapest; undated but from 1930s approx.
Illustrations:


.. . ... ................... :... ...................
..................... .... ..................................


K. u. k. Feldpost No. .... A Fig. 4.
Fig. 1.


"li._,., :' ., ,. !r

IP. ~3C+ 4- e6-7-
c uc v Y .-<-- -i .,a- ."--: --: ,-,) f ,.

S" --) "^- -
.-.),-- l-~-- T~^ -- -r--l?+~- ?
/_ *.f II Uh-~-Tl.---*- C- ^^( CZL *|^ .Il_-h:_^!t-t *
*^-~i ,11, u-^ ^-^ n-^. L^-.'J(^ fw^^t p'^^^4 A^Z~)\--f ^-''^
^_- ^-*^i_ f -11* -. J-^ .M u -rrr T'-* --**\--~^C ^
^^*.."lc-r--, -^-^ ^**1^--'Mel.
-~^^~- --*---a h^- "-W I(- *>M >--'-' *n-.-?r
i "6 -^- *1 Ijlf,- '.i- -Y" :


The card shown in Fig. 1 was sent from the 3rd. Battery of the 355th. Honv6d (Hungarian) Artillery
Regiment, but it bears at top front an underlined single-line cachet, reading: "M. kir. 308-ik. honv6d
gyalogezred" (Royal Hungarian Honved Infantry Regiment). Both units belonged to the 155th. Honv6d
Infantry Division, which used the marking of FPO No. 649. It bears in this case the late date of 14 October
1918. The German text offers some interesting comments.
Fig 2 on the next page has a postcard cancelled with the postmark of FPO No. 635 of the 5th. Honv6d
Cavalry Division, but it was sent from the 3rd. Battery of the 72nd. Field Artillery Regiment. According to
80 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


Period in the Ukraine
May-November 1918
19 May to 26 October 1918
March to 14 October 1918
March 1918
11th. April to November 1918
March to 4 October 1918
7th. May to 6 July 1918
March to 24 October 1918
September 1918


Location
Nikolaev
Ekaterinoslav



Odessa


Odessa


14 tH
FejJad6,
Dil~teiw)i"
prmmjucl.
Pwjieirl
Lnr< PmuiLuw.



%a -


ELI








uM V. FED. AST REi c ri PObts
& j-. I Vd sa .
'TABORI POSTAL ARP




IL. t I .... ........... ....



Fig. 2.


the study of Mr. Nuttal-Dixon, the 72nd.
Artillery Regiment was located in the
summer of 1918 in Romania as part of
the Mackensen Army Group. The card
in Fig. 2 proves the fact that, by 3rd. July,
the unit had moved to the Ukraine, thus
requiring an addition to the listing of the
units in his article. It is evident that there
exist some omissions in the above-
mentioned work and the basic article
needs to be completed.


Ie .h.. -tr. i:~~:ti.e ` ~
L:ne, Odessa; Oogirlb3 15. j..








tDP5
-~ a

-.'... j.
4d ; v


Figs. 3 to 8 have been taken from
the Cronin Collection to illustrate
further items in this area. We see
in Fig. 3 a registered cover from
the Quartermaster-General of the
Ostarmee at 15 Gogol' Street in
Odessa and sent through FPO
No. 240 on 24.6.18. Note also
the 2-Krone Fieldpost stamps
used here on 13 & 18 June and
6 July 1918 respectively.


V ,ijI^ j -./l..."^ 1^ ...... ......... i /7 ) ,- --- ...... .
.. ..... ....... ......... .......... ': ..... ,


i 4 J iaF
Fig. 4. ?depomersut Fig. 5.
Fig. 4 has a card from the II Battalion of the Fig. 5 has another card from Unit Postal Stn.
93rd Infantry Regt., then subordinate to some No.258 on 23.8.18 with spelling error in the large
German units in the Eichhorn Group in Kiev & cachet: "Deutsch-sUterreichisch-ungarische
sent through Unit Postal Stn.No.258 on 1.8.18. Wirtschaftszentralle".
THE POST-RIDER/IMII[HK No. 41 81
November, 1997







borr. PO I. U k. Mazinedetachemecni Odessa,,,,,, ,! 2
S ; i .. 18 --.....
Tibori a aI peve6. : o
-e-.',g8~.F g. 6
T I'aldbor i Tibor h at



-2
T ,K .. / -....-..




Sf s F o Fig. 6.
to -W I 1 .L- ,S... w.. ... k4In ........ k n ...- .,


Fig. 6 has a parcel card sent by a Dalmatian
sailor in Odessa through FPO No. 332 on
29.7.18. Note the postage paid of 2 Krone.
Two further copies of the 2-K have been seen
used from this FPO on 11 Aug. & 9 Sept.


Editorial Comment: Mr. Grecu has
made it clear in his wonderful study that
the Austro-Hungarian and German
Armies cooperated in the Ukraine. Hence,
it seems worthwhile to show German
items from that area and the Crimea. We
see here in Fig. 8 a letter with a declared
value of 500 Marks, sent by the German
General in Odessa through the Deutsche
Feldpost No. 450 on 22 October 1918.


Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 is a picture postcard of Odessa, sent on
21.9.18 via FPO No.1062 from the 13th. JYger
Battalion, subordinate to the 30th. Inf. Divn. of
the 17th. Army Corps. This FPO may have
allocated to that particular Army Corps.


Fig. 9 shows two cards from the Dr. Ivo Steyn Collection, sent through the Deutsche Feldpost in Simferopol'
and Sevastopol' in the Crimea on 27.4 & 17.6.18 by a soldier to his parents and Gertrud in Hamburg.
82 THE POST-RIDER/51MIIHHK No. 41
November, 1997






THE SOVIET OCCUPATION OF THE BIAEYSTOK DISTRICT, PODLASIE & EASTERN
MAZOWSZE 1939-1941
by J. Witold Zurawski.
(Permission was furnished to translate this article from the journal "Historyczno-Badawczy Biuletyn
Filatelistyczny" Nos. 1-2 for January-June 1996, published in-ELdz, Poland. The impetus for this study was
provided by the article "The Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia 1939-1941" by Moshe Shmuely & Andrew
Cronin, published in "The Post-Rider", No. 14). Grateful thanks to Dr. Ing. W. Farbotko and the author.

The partition of the lands of the 2nd. Polish Republic, which ensued in September 1939, was the
immediate result, not only of the crushing defeat of arms imposed by the most powerful military power in
the world at that time, i.e. the Wehrmacht of Hitler, but equally by the corresponding agreement concluded
then between the German Reich and the USSR. The final division of the spoils in the period from 17
September 1939 to 22 June 1941 resulted in important ethnic Polish areas also coming under Soviet
occupation. After the end of WWII, they were fortunately returned in part to Poland. That pertained to the
following areas:-
(1) The province of Bialystok, except for two districts, i.e. Grodno and Wolkowysk, which remained with
the USSR.
(2) The district of omza, as well as the eastern parts of the Ostroleka district and the Ostr6w district in the
province of Warsaw.
(3) The district of Lubacz6w, a great part of the Jaroslaw district, the portion on the right bank of the
Przemysl district, as well as small parts of the Dobromil, Sokal, Rawa Ruska and Jawordw districts
of the former Warsaw province.

For a proper understanding of the changes that took place in the areas mentioned above (especially with
reference to the lands listed in the title, which will the subject of further detailed investigation), a necessary
background would be to take into account the events, which can be presented briefly in the form of a
historical calendar (see references in the Bibliography), e.g.:-
23. 8.1939 A secret protocol for the division of the Polish lands was signed in Moscow between the
German Reich and the USSR (The Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact).
1. 9.1939 German aggression against Poland.
15. 9.1939 The seizure of Bialystok by Wehrmacht units.
17. 9.1939 Soviet aggression against Poland.
23. 9.1939 The Red Army takes possession of Bialystok from the hands of the Wehrmacht. The town,
as in 1920, became the core of Soviet power and this time in what was now called
Western Belorussia.
28. 9.1939 Delineation of the new Germano-Soviet demarcation line and the signature of an accord
"about the borders and crossing points" between the German Reich and the USSR.
29.10.1939 Vote of the Congress of 1500 Deputies in Bialystok regarding the unification of Western
Belorussia with the Belorussian SSR.
2. 11.1939 The Supreme Soviet in Moscow issues a decree about the union of Western Belorussia
with the USSR.
12.11.1939 A decree issued at the 3rd. Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Belorussian SSR about the
unification with Western Belorussia in the form of new provinces of the republic:
Baranovichi, Brest and Vileika.
21.11.1939 Cancellation of all means of payment issued during the period of the 2nd. Polish Republic.
15. 1.1940 Establishment of the new administrative divisions. The separate Bialystok area remained
composed of three local regions: Bialystok, Grodno & Lomia, as well as 23 rural districts.
22. 6.1941 The German forces invade Belorussia and, in the first week of military operations, seize all
the western and central parts of the country.
30. 7.1941 Signature in London of a Polish-Soviet agreement, acknowledging that the territorial


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997






changes in Poland as outlined in the 1939 Soviet-German Pact had lost their validity.
1.8. 1941 The so-called "Bezirk Bialystok" (Biatystok District) was detached from the area occupied
by the Wehrmacht and incorporated in the boundaries of the East Prussian province of the
German Reich.
1. 12.1943 Agreement of the Allied Powers at the Teheran Conference about the future eastern
borders of Poland.
27.7. 1944 Capture of Bialystok by the Red Army. Signature in Moscow of a border agreement by
the representatives of the Polish Committee of National Liberation.
20.9. 1944 Liquidation of the Bialystok area (formal abolition of the Soviet administration).
16.8. 1945 Signature in Moscow by E.B. Os6bka-Morawski and V.M. Molotov of an agreement
about the Polish-Soviet state boundaries (a personal dictate by Stalin).
(Editorial Comment: That last action formalised the return of the Bialystok Province to
Poland. Last-minute findings by the author, .Jzef Witold 2urawski, will be found set out at
the top of p. 112 herewith).

The studies conducted up to now in the columns of the philatelic press and pertaining to the functions of
the posts in the Polish lands under Soviet occupation have concentrated mainly on the patterns of definition
of the provisional period in which the Polish pre-war postal articles (postage stamps, cancellers and postal
stationery) were put into use in the occupied Eastern Borderlands. All this, however, without testing the
conclusions and the final consequences, even if only hypothetically. It has turned out that, among other
things, there are not known up to now the relevant directives of the postal authorities of the USSR- Also,
the material that has been examined is unusually modest in amount and can only be found occasionally.

There has not appeared up to now in the Polish philatelic press any study about the Soviet postage stamps
that circulated in the Polish lands. It is known that the Borderlands were incorporated quite quickly into the
Soviet administrative system and divided between the Belorussian and Ukrainian SSRs (with the
outstanding exception of the Wilno/Vilnius district, which was transferred separately at that time to the
Lithuanian Republic).

Hence, there were not any temporary issues or even provisionals for this area. The only provisionals about
which one could speak are the markings of Hrycewicze, Lutowisk and Rawa Ruska, described in the
"Historyczno-Badawczy Biuletyn Filatelistyczny" (see Reference No. 9 in the Bibliography), as well as
some datestamps used temporarily. The "NIEWAZNY" (= invalid) overprints in boldly presented
documentation must be treated as a speculation by some ingenious philatelist. Regarding the scale of such
a speculation is the obvious fact that, in both the articles about this subject (see References 10 & 11), only
one example was utilised in the form of a postcard with the date 7.XII.1939, not from Minsk as the author
states, but in Pinsk at 10pm (!). Also, another blank piece of a postal form, which did not go through the
mails. Numerous mixed frankings of two countries are known (i.e. with the postal issues of Poland and the
USSR), which do not, on the other hand, come under the definition of provisionals (see the "Encyklopedia
Filatelistyki", References 13 & 14).

Soviet postage stamps and postal stationery, which were quickly put into wide use also in the Borderlands,
are generally known and have been recorded, so there is therefore no need to occupy ourselves with them.
On the other hand, a huge field for investigation has come about by the introduction at the end of
November and beginning of December of new occupation postal cancellers, thus already testifying to the
final phase of the organisation of postal services in the newly captured lands.

In the first instance, we encounter the examination of the mail of Polish POWs held by the Wehrmacht
(Reference 2) and with Soviet occupation postmarks applied upon arrival in the Eastern Borderlands. We
will therefore proceed to examine that subject more closely. Unfortunately, the material has come to hand

84 THE POST-RIDER/IMmHK No. 41
November, 1997






in an extremely slow way. The almost unique exhibit of Moshe Shmuely of Israel became a powerful
impetus and was shown in six frames during the "POLSKA '93" International Philatelic Exhibition, held in
Poznan (Reference 3). It was actually awarded only a silver medal and that judgment did not constitute a
proper assessment of the discovered rarities represented by the original sending, which were placed in the
mails and their significance in the presentation of the postal history. A further impetus was the article by
Moshe Shmuely and Andrew Cronin, published in the columns of the journal "The Post-Rider" No. 14,
issued by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. A copy of this article was made available to
interested parties during "POLSKA '93" (see Reference 4). We have also received from the Belorussian
philatelist, L.L. Kolosov of Minsk and well-known in the columns of the H-BBF, an expected listing of
postal points established by the Soviet Posts in the Bialystok and Brest areas (Reference 5).

In analysing the material mentioned above and after careful study of all the articles written up to now,
together with the perusal of all reproductions of postal sending, as well as original pieces of mail in
private collections, we can now speculate about the overall picture and formulate some conclusions. There
is a lack of information as to when and in what succession the postal points were put into operation
individually. In the process of conjecture, it would appear that the regional post offices were the first to be
put into operation, then the subsidiary post offices and, finally, the postal agencies in the small localities.
According to several reports, there were some postal points which, after the entry of the Red Army,
actually did not stop working, although they practically functioned "on the run" and they did not
significantly perform postal services in the sphere of accepting and despatching mail. Such activity was
possible only when the first regular connections were put into motion and stations were designated for the
transmission of mail.

It is clear that, in the area of reviving postal services, the majority of post offices were still not supplied
with Soviet stamps and postal stationery. As the Polish zloty remained in circulation and at par with the
rouble (1 zloty = 1 rouble), Polish stamps and postcards stayed equally in circulation until they were
replaced by Soviet items, which started arriving in succession by the end of September 1939. We can thus
postulate that, from the moment of annulling all Polish means of payment as of 21 December 1939, the
utilisation of Polish postage stamps was also formally discontinued. The Polish pre-war cancellers
remained in general use in the existing circumstances until the introduction of new Soviet cancellers. In
some known cases, local provisional cancellers were put into use and the reasons for their appearance
could have been quite varied (loss or destruction of Polish cancellers, manifestations of nationalism, etc.).

It should be emphasised that, in the occupied Eastern Borderlands, there appeared in the first few months
an increase in demand in the sphere of postal services, over and beyond the normal Soviet volume of mail.
There arose an increase in sending of food abroad, as well as a need for communicating with relatives
who, in this period, found themselves under German occupation and for getting in touch with POW camps
in Germany, or with escapees, who found themselves in other countries in Europe, Asia and America.
There was a demand for supplementary postage, beyond the general scope of the Soviet "nO'TOBAI
KAPTOHKA" (postcard) with an imprinted die of 20 kopeks, per the table of rates set out hereunder:-

Type of sending Polish rate Soviet rate
Postcard : local 10 groszy 10 kopeks
:domestic 15 groszy 20 kopeks
:foreign 30 groszy 30 kopeks
Letter :local 15 groszy 15 kopeks
:domestic 25 groszy 30 kopeks
:foreign 55 groszy 50 kopeks
Reg'n fee : domestic 30 groszy 30 kopeks
:foreign 45 groszy 80 kopeks
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK No. 41 85
November, 1997






There were also from the outset unusual instances in this area of mixed Polish-Soviet frankings, with
stamps affixed to postal stationery in combination and soaked off by the censorship. Attention should also
be drawn to the involuntary surveillance of private mail, hastily put into practice by the Soviet political
service (NKVD), including the retention of correspondence in the reports of such activities. Some time had
to go by before the people using the postal services oriented themselves in this whole procedure and then
used postal communications most prudently. Regarding the amount of mail directed to the occupied lands
by senders beyond the borders of the USSR, such mail was later most often destroyed by the recipients, so
that it could not serve as an eventual pretext to be used against them in charges of espionage against the
USSR. Also, so far as the Poles were concerned, what with successive mass deportations to Siberia and
Kazakhstan, they only took with them some hand baggage with small useful articles, rather than old letters
or postcards. There is hence not very much material available to establish the documentation of those times.

There is a lack of access to official documents regarding the period of introduction of the cancellers of the
Soviet occupation in the Eastern Borderlands but, from the material discovered up to now, it follows that it
could have already taken place in the second decade of November 1939, namely quite soon after the
admission of the Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia into the USSR. The only three such cancellers
known so far used in Western Belorussia during 1939 date from Grodno (19th. November), from the
locality of Iwje near Lida (20th. November), as well as from Bialystok (15th. December), all of them
having been discovered and described by M. Shmuely and A. Cronin (Reference 6).

The first Soviet cancellers included the place-names in the Russian language, followed by the designation
BSSR and with a fixed temporary specification, namely that the cancellers so inscribed were in use in the
relevant areas before 15 January 1940, i.e. before the creation of the Bialystok Province. The subsequent
cancellers no longer showed the abbreviation BSSR, but included in its place the inscription BELOST.
(OKSKAYA) OB.(LAST') or BREST.(SKAYA) OB.(LAST'). By paying attention to those changes, it can
be easily postulated that the late Professor Antoni Laszkiewicz had erroneously read the date on the
canceller for CZARNA WIES (Reference 7), which should be regarded with complete certainty as 9
October 1940, as the Bialystok Province frankly did not exist on 9 October 1939.

C ./ All the Soviet postal cancellers known applied up to now in the localities situated in
i4 the Biatystok area, Podlasie and Eastern Mazowsze are shown on the next page, i.e.
f 7. from the lands which were under Soviet occupation after 17 September 1939 and
a which were returned again to Poland after 16 August 1945. There is not taken into
account on the next page the curious canceller shown here, which was included in
2 the work of Dr. H. Schultz (see Reference 8). The place-names on it, namely
Korycin and Bryansk, are 78 km. (49 miles) apart and there is no way of linking them in any way at all. It is
possible that the original strike of the canceller was badly read and thus the illustration presented here has
only been imagined by the author of the cited work.

It follows from the examination of the assembled cancellers illustrated on the next page that, in comparison
to the listing of postal points, the markings of the Soviet occupation discovered so far comprise about 23%
of the places where postal services functioned. Each of them would have been furnished with one canceller
bearing the name of the locality, while in the case of regional and first-class post offices, they would have
each received several cancellers as a rule. Three post offices apparently existed in Bialystok. It should be
noted that it behoves us to carry out further intensive research on the still unknown cancellers and the
author hopes that, with the present article, the aims of such research have at least been outlined.

Editorial Comment: The author of this magnificent study has kindly provided on the pages that follow a
comprehensive bibliography and map, illustrations of 18 items and a bilingual Listing of Post Offices. That
is followed by more data on the Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia by Rex A. Dixon & Andrew Cronin.
86 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997






Belostok Province
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THE POST-RIDER/HMIMMHK No. 41
November, 1997


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BIBLIOGM&PHy
Przypisy:


1. Lojek Jerzy (Leopold Jerzewski), Agresja 17 wrze-
inia 1939, Warszawa 1990.
Sudol Adam, Jak Polska, nie mogla byd Polska (Kulisy
IV rozbioru), ksia2ka document, Bydgoszcz-Torun 1993.
Turonek Jerzy, BialoruS pod okupacja, niemiecka, War-
szawa 1993.
Eberhardt Piotr, Polska granica wschodnia 1939 1945,
Warszawa 1993.
Historia Polski w liczbach, G16wny Urzqd Statystyczny,
Warszawa 1993.
Garlifski J6zef, Polska w drugiej wojnie Swiatowej,
Warszawa Wroclaw 1988.
Kosman Marceli, Historia. Bialorusi, Wroclaw 1982.
Bialoruskaja, Sowieckaja Socyjalistycznaja Respublika,
Galownaja Redakcyja Bielaruskaj Sawieckaj Encyklopedii,
Mi6sk 1978.
Encyklopedia II wojny 9wiatowej, Warszawa 1975.

2. Zurawski Witold. Niemieckie obozy dia jedc6w wo-
jennych (1939-1945). VL. 16. Wymiana poczty jenieckiej po-
miqdzy Rzesza i zagranick, ,HBF', R. XXVI, 1985, nr 1(91),
s. 27-40.

3. Szmueli Mosze, The post in western Regions of the
USSR (The post in occupied Poland during the period:
September 1939 June 1941) [Poczta zachodnich region6w
ZSRR (Poczta w okupowanej Polsce: wrzesie6 1939-
czerwiec 1941)]. eksponat wystawiony na SWF
.POLSKA,93". Poznah 1993.

4. Szmueli Mosze, Cronin Andrew, The Soviet Post in
Western Belorussia 1939-1941. (Poczta, sowiecka na za-
chodniej Bialorusi 1939-1941) [w]: Zbi6r artykul6w interest
polskiego z komplementami czasopisma JAMSZCZIK"
(Postylion) z okazji SWF ,POLSKA 93", Canadian Society
of Russian Philately, 1993.

5. Alfabitnyj spisok pocztowych priedprijatij zapadnych
oblastiej Ukrainskoj i Bicloruskoj SSR, Narodnyj Komisariat
Swiazi SSSR Centralnoje Uprawlienie Pocztowoj Swiazi,
Lw6w 1940, wypis oryginalu sporzrdzony przez L.L. Kolosowa.

6. Szmueli Mosze, Cronin Andrew, op.cit, s. 10, 26-27.

7. Laszkiewicz Antoni, Obieg polskich znak6w poczto-
wych po kampanii wrzeiniowej 1939 r,,LBF", R. XIV, 1973,
nr4 (46). s. 239, fot. 10.

8. Schultz Hermann dr. Deutsche Dienstpost 1939-1945,
Handbuch und Stempelkatalog, Neue Schriftenreihe der Posts-
tempelgilde, Rhein Donau", Heft Nr 19, November 1955.

9. A.W. (Wiecek Adam), Nieznane prowizoria z lat
1939-1940, ,HBF", R. XXVI, 1985, nr4 (94), s. 193-194.

10. 26lkiewski Stanislaw J., Niewa2ny, ,,HBF", R.
XXIV, 1983, nr 2(84), s. 71-73.

11. 261kiewski Stanislaw J., Korespondencja z Kres6w
Wschodnich po 17 IX 1939 r., ,Filatelistyka", R. 1, 1990, nr
5, s. 87-89.

12. Tokar Jerzy, To nie jest polska erka!, ,,Filatelistyka",
R.2, 1991, nr 1(9), s. 22.

13. Dziulikowski Wiktor, Prowizoria Iwowskie jesief
1939-wiosna 1940, ,Filatelistyka", R. 2, 1991, nr 9 (17), s.
223-225.

14. Ways Marian, Prowizoria Iwowskie, ,Filatelistyha",
R. 3, 1992, nr 8 (28), s. 272.

15. TW (Wincewicz Tadeusz), Korespondencja z Kres6w
Wschodnich, ,Filatelistyka", R. 3, 1992, nr 8 (28), s. 271-272.


Map of the Biatystok District, Podlasie
and Eastern Mazowsze, formally
returned to Poland on 16 August 1945.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIImHK No. 41
November, 1997


WSPOtCMESNE ORANICE PAASTWOWE
GRANICA POMIEDZY HITLEROWSKIMI NIHECAHI '% t'
I ZWI4ZKIEM SOWIECKIM (28 X1939;,22V11RJ.
ORANICA PMIEDZY OBWOOA)4
t1AtOSTOCKIM I BRZ!(iloj4M' WW-*
BIuXsToKI CENTRUI OBWODU IUEH0 ACTII AJGiTW
GRAJEWO CENTRUM REJONU JAARCLJV JASTRZEBMA
(MENTP PA1OHMA) QKROsZE3 0 P
SZTABIN
cRGRAw M PABR DWO
BIALOSTDCXI(A
SUCHOWOLA* R!5ANYSTOK
GszCZUCZYN TDDORWA
Q BIAMSZEWO JAtWMLY SIORAQ A
Q 0 0 -',5 bIA
GRABOWOO W4 OSOWIECO GONI4OZ JANW
KOLNO~ RA~DZOW KAPN&RKAQ QKORYCIH
r STAVASKIO OSIO)HM SXItK
< MAtY PLOCK TRLANNEQ 105 ZARN
"" KNYSZYNO sulmrtO-woo
KRYPNO KOSCIELNEO OCZARNY KRYNtX
,)...R0.I -,OBRLIBqIl BLOK
JMIASTKOWOEOMA GWIZHA I WASI 810KRAA
TZAWAY I WhIY QSUP
RU-TKI -KOM "IM ~CSTAROSIELCE..o OWALIL
KLECZKOWO 64Y QKOSSAKI 0 BA 1IN BIALYSTO A
~e1IISZEK0 ~ EDIA GRI'DEK
TRSZYN NOWHRY 0Jf~ TU Q.ko
%Q tfflP po K OLAKO Q ZAB1.1LW
Pj~rl ZM WN SOokYO t P JUCHNOWI EC JAOX
1LUBQTYIQ JABMONKA WYSOKIE MAgZ. QSLRt
S SZUI4WO 0 P0mW 10
DABROWA WLK.Q PIETKOWO QSTRABLA/ ONAREW
NCZYZEW NOWE O"~~"";"" f~En WYSZKI 0
MA~rO.W0SZ B.IELSK PbOLASKI
BOGUTYQ WYSZONKI tUBINK0lCIELNY
'N EL~pN1JR I~ ORLAS: 61CX~i
Belostok Provi' W RO%-'URZEC
P Q .... -ORLA 8IAIZ L 001
returned to Poland '+, PER 'JE Y o / OO vnAWCZER
CZRMCAGMELANIEC
August 1945. M HAROJKI MILEJCZYCEO *
REJONOWE URZEDY POCZTY k 3SIEMIA CZE eZ Pal of Brest
(KOHTOPA CBOM3H) k J DROHICZYN* Province
ODDZIAtWWE URZk0Y POCZTY L jI
(OTAEAEHHE CBR3H4 NIL4ZW r edto
o AGENCJE POCZTOWE Poland in
(ArEHCTBO CBR3HI
KOLEJOWE ODOZIAtY PRZEWOZU POCZTY August 1945.
(XEflE3MHO9R0paHOE OTAEIIEHHE nEPEB03KH fO4Tbl -WKO)
0 STACJA KOLEJOWA PRZEtADUNKU POCZTYFR t
(CTANUHRIJ




















Fig. 1: French postcard from
Metz 17.3.40 and with
arrival marking YANOV b.
SOKOLKI BSSR 9.4.40.








... '- s"". 6
tf -W1--
oii**irt

ig. 4: POW card written
2.7.40 from Stalag IA
Stablack and with arrival
marking BELOSTOK
BSSR 26.7.40?


Fig. 7: POW card from
Oflag III A Luckenwalde
and with arrival BELSK
PODLESSKII BSSR
8.6.40 "a".


Fig. 2: POW card sent on
21.12.39 from Stalag VI C
Bathom and with arrival
marking BELOSTOK
BSSR 30.1.40.15 "a".




.- 463.




', /1.;""


Fig. 5: Reg'd Soviet card with
BELOSTOK 3 BELOST.OBL.
26.9.40 "a", cachet "R.
BIELOSTOK 3", Wehrmacht
censor & LITZMANNSTADT
-2, 15.7.40.14 "g".


Fig. 8: U.S. reply paid card with
cancel GRAEVO BSSR 3.3.41 "a"
(M. Shmuely Collection).


Fig. 3: POW card sent 21.12.39
from Stalag 1A Stablack & with
arrival marking BELOSTOK
BSSR 8.6.41.13 "a" sixteen
months later!







BELOS'TOAK ZH.D.P.O.


BSSR 19.7.40 "a" ando ,
Fig. 6: Soviet card cancelled
BELOSTOK ZH.D.P.O.
BSSR 19.7.40 "a" and
with Palestine censor
(M. Shmuely Collection).


Fig. 9: POW card sent 17.2.40
from Stalag I B Hohenstein
(Olsztynek) and with arrival
EDVABNO BELOST.OBL.
7.4.40 "a".


THE POST-RIDER/ASMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


















Fig. 10: POW reply card
postmarked KORYTSIN
BSSR 25.7.40 and sent
to Stalag II D Stargard.


Fig. 11: Soviet card postmarked
LIPSK BSSR 3.3.40 via MINSK
5.7.40 to Oflag VII A Murnau.


Fig. 12: Field postcard sent
9.1.40 from Stalag 1A Stablack
and with arrival marking LOMZHA
BELOST.OBL. (rest illegible).


Fig. 13: Soviet card postmarked
VASILKOV BSSR 3.5.41 via
BELOSTOK 6.5.41 and with
Palestine censor (M. Shmuely
Collection).


Fig 16: POW reply card with
postmark SUPRASL' BSSR
8.1.41 to Stalag 1 B
Hohenstein (Olsztynek).
(M. Stagkiewicz Collection).


Fig. 14: Cover portmarked
BRANSK BSSR 6.1.40 "a"
& sent to Krak6w POW camp.
Marked "unknown and sent to
Stalag XX B Torufi 14.2.40.
(W. Nachciinski Collection).


Fig. 17: Lithuanian reply card
from Ukmerge 3.2.40 and
with arrival marking
SOKOLKA BSSR 20.2.40.
(W. Nachcifski Collection).

THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHHK No. 41
November, 1997


Fig. 15: POW reply card with
postmark KLESHCHELE
BREST.OBL. 26.9.40 "a" via
MINSK (unreadable date) to
Stalag I A Stablack.


Fig. 18: Pre-war Polish card
sent from LOMZHA June 1940
and with arrival marking
TSEKHANOVETS BELOST.
OBL. 13.6.40 "b".
(M. StaSkiewicz Collection).







Listing of Postal Points functioning
in the period from September 1939 to June 1941.

SPIS PLACOWEK POCZTOWYCH
FUNKCJONUJACYCH W OKRESIE OD IX 1939 r. DO VI 1941 r.


Lp NAZWA POLSKA NAZWA ROSYJSKA REJON RODZAJ
Polish name Russian name District PLAC6WKI
1 2 3 4 5


Belostok Province

AUGUST6W*
AUGUST6W
BACIUTY
BARGLOW
BIALASZEWO
BIALYSTOK*
BIALYSTOK*
BIALYSTOK
BIELSK( Podlasi )*
BIELSK(Podlaski)

BOCKI
BOGUTY
BRAiSK
CHOROSZCZ
CIECHANOWIEC*
CZARNA WIE*
(ob. CzarnaBialostocka)
CZARNA WI S
(ob. Czama Blalastocka)
CZARNOWO- UNDY
CZARNYBLOK
CZERWONY B6R
CZYZEW
CZY2EW
DABROWA ( Bialostocka)
DABROWA WIELKA

DZIATKOWICE
GONIADZ
GRABOWO(k. Kolna)
GRAJEWO*
GRODZISK
GRODEK ( k.Bialegostoku )*
JABLONKA KOSCIELNA


OBW6D
BIALOSTOCKI

ABrYCTOB
ABTYCTOB
BATIOThI
BAPrJIOB
EAJIAUIEBO
BEJiOCTOK
BEIOCTOK
BEJIOCTOK
BECJIbCK
EEJILCK
7Iod0eccku
BOtbKH
BOTYTMI
EPIHCK
xoPot
'EXAHOBELI

qEPHASI BECL

YEPHAf BECh
qEPHOBO YHOM
VEPHIR FEnOK
qEPBOHblR BOP
'H)KEB
WMKEB
AOMEPOBA
AOMSPOBA
BEJIHKAA
A3sTKOBHqH
rOHHOA3E
IPABOBO
TPAEBO
rPOAHCK
rOPOAOK
SflJOHKA -
KOCTEJlbHAS


centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
bialostocki
augustowsld
grajewski
centrum obwodu
centum obwodu
centrum obwodu
centrum rejonu

centrum rejonu
bidski
cechanowiecki
centrum rejonu
bialostocki
centrum rejonu

bialostocki

bialostocki
zambrowski
sok6lski
zambrowski
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
czytewski

bielski
moikowski
kolnowski
centrum rejonu
brafiski
zabludowski

zambrowski


RUP
SKPP
SKPP
AP
AP
RUP
KOPP
SKPP
RUP

SKPP
AP
AP
RUP
AP
RUP

OUP

SKPP
SKPP
SKPP
AP
RUP
SKPP
RUP
AP

AP
OUP
AP
RUP
AP
OUP

AP


Polish name


|JAL6WKA*
JANW (k. Sokolki )
JASIONOWKA
JASTRZ=BNA
JASWILY
JEDWABNE*
JEMKI
JUCHNOWIEC
KALINOWKA( Koicelna)
KITTY
KLECZKOWO*
KLUKOWO
KNYSZYN
KNYSZYN
KOBYLIN BORZYMY

KOLAKI
KOLNO*
KORYCIN*
KROSZEWO
KRYNKI
KRYNKI
KRYPNO KOSCIELNE

KUZNICA (k.Sok61d)
KUtNICA (kSok&ki)
KULESZE KOSCIELNE

KURIANY
LEWICKIE
LIPSK (n.Biebrzc)*
LUBOTYN
LAPY
LAPY
LOMZA*
LOMZA4
LUBIN KOCIELNY

MALY PLOCK
MIASTKOWO ( kLomty)
MICHALOWO
MONKI
MORKI
NOWOGROD (Lomyisld)
NOWY DWR (k.Sokol6wki )
NUR
OBRUBIKI
ORLA ( na Podlasiu)
OSOWIEC
OSOWIEC


_- bI 1


Russian name


JIOBKA
AHOB
SCEHOBKA
fCTREMEHA
SCBHJIbl
EABABHO
EHbKH
IOXHOBEL
KAJIHHOBKA
KTMT
KJIE9KOBO
KJIIOKOBO
KHbIIHH
KHMUIIHH
KOEbUIHH -
BOP)KHMH
KOJIAKH
KOJIbHO
KOPbI1(HH
KPOWIEBO
KPbIHKIM
KPhlHKH
KPbiflHO-
KOCTEnJbHbIE
KY3HHUA
KV3HHLIA
KYJIEIIH
KOCTEJIhHIE
KYMPRHM
JIEBHHLKAJ
JIHITCK
JIIOBOTbIHb
JIAlnbI
nAIlI,
JIOMKCA
JIOMmKA
IIYBHH
KOCTEnIbHblR
MAJIbiR flIOLIK
MMICTKOBO
MHXAIIOBO
MOHbKH
MOHbKM
HOBOrPAA
HOBbIfl BOP
HYP
OBPYBHHKH
OPUIM
OCOBEL,
OCOBEIf


I 2 3 4 s5


District


swislocki
sok6lski
monkowski
augustowsld
moikowski
centrum rejonu
lapski
zabtudowski
mofikowski
czylwsld
hniadowski
dechanowicdd
moikowsid
mofikowsli
lapski

zambrowski
centrum rejonu
sokolowski
augustowski
centrum rjonu
centrum rejonu

mofikowski
grodzieskid
grodzi~eski

zambrowski
bialostocid
zabludowsid
centrum rejonu
dniadowski
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
bielski

kolnowski
lomtyiski
zabludowski
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
lomtyiskis
dqbrowski
ciechanowiecki
bialostocki
bielski
moAkowski
moikowski


AP
AP
AP
SKPP
AP
RUP
AP
AP
AP
SKPP
AP
AP
OUP
SKPP
AP

SKPP
RUP
AP
AP
RUP
SKPP

AP
AP
SKPP

AP
SKPP
SKPP
RUP
AP
RUP
SKPP
RUP
SKPP
AP

AP
OUP
AP
OUP
SKPP
AP
AP
AP
OUP
OUP
OUP
SKPP


"






Polish name


Russian name District Polish name


Russian name District


S- I A I I I I I I


OSSE
PERLEJEWO
PIEKUTY (NOWE)
PIETKOWO
PISKI
POBIKRY
POSWI~TE(k. Lap)
RADZ[L6W
RAIGR6D
RACIBORY
R62ANY STOK
RUDKI-KOSSAKI
SIDRA
SOKOLY
SOK6LKA*
STAROSIELCE
STAWISKI
STRABLA
STRABLA
SUCHOWOLA
SUPRASL*
SURAZ
SZCZUCZYN( Bialostodi )*
SZEPIETOWO
SZEPIETOWO
SZTABIN
SZUDZIALOWO
SZUMOWO
SNIADOWO*
TODORKOWCE
TROSZYN
TRZCIANE
TUROkL
TYKOCIN
WAULLY
WASILK6W*
WASOS( Grajewskd)
WIZNA*
WNORY
WYSOKIE MAZOWIECKIE

WYSZKI
WYSZONKI ( Kocidelne)
ZABLUDOW
ZAMDR6W
ZARBY (Koicielns)
ZAWADY (k. Lomty)
ZEDNIA


OCCE
IIEPJIEEBO
ITEKYTbI HOBME
IETKOBO
IHCKH
IOEHKOPLI
IOCBETHE
PAA3HJIOB
PARflAJA
PATHEOPM
POc)AHbffl CTOK
PYAKH- KOCAKH
CHIAPA
COKOJIM
COKOJIKA
CTAPOCEInbhMb
CTABHCKH
CTPAEJIS
CTPN4EfIl
CYXOBOJIM
CYVIPACJIb
CYPAK
1JYLIHH
IIIEETOBO
JIIEnETOBO
UITABHH
vIIIY3lKOBO
lYMOBO
CHAAOBO
TOAOPKOBU1M
TPOImHH
TPOCTAHOB
TYPOCJIM
TbIKOIHH
BAJIHJII
BACHJIbKOB
BOHCOII
BH3HA
BHOPM
BbICOKO -
MA30BEUK
BbIlUKH
BbIIIIOHKH
3AErlYAOB
3AMBPOB
3APEMEM
3ABAMlb
)Km qH


lapsld
cichanowickid
braskid
lapski
iniadowsld
ciachanowiecid
lapsldi
jedwabie6ld
grajewsl
bialostodd
dabrowski
zambrowski
d(browskid
lapski
centrum rejonu
bialostocki
kolnowski
bielski
bielski
dqbrowski
bialostocki
zabludowsld
grajewski
czytewsld
czytewski
augustowski
sok6lsd
Wniadowsld
centum rejonu
sokolowski
Aniadowski
mo6kowski
zabludowski
bialostockd
zabludowsld
bialostocki
grajewski
jedwabnowsld
zambrowski
czytewski

brahsld
dechanowiecid
centrum rejonu
centnum rejonu
czytewski
zambrowski
bialostocki


SKPP
AP
OUP
AP
AP
AP
AP
AP
AP
SKPP
AP
AP
AP
OUP
RUP
AP
OUP
AP
SKPP
OUP
AP
AP
AP
OUP
SKPP
AP
AP
AP
RUP
SKPP
AP
AP
AP
AP
SKPP
AP
AP
AP
SKPP
OUP

OUP
AP
RUP
RUP
SKPP
AP
SKPP


Brest Province

BIALOWIEZA
BULOF7E2A
BIAWWIEZ4 A
BIALOWIEZA PALACE
CZEREMCHA
CZEREMCHA
DROHICZYN nad BUGIEM
DZIATKOWICE
HAJN6WKA*
HAINOWKA
KLESZCZELE*
KLESZCZELE
MILENIK ( n. Bugiem)
MILEJCZYCE
NAREW
NAREWKA
NAREWKA
NAROJKI
NIEMIROW
NURZEC
OMELANIEC
SIEMIATYCZE*
SIEMIATYCZE


OBW6D BRZESKI

EEJIOBE)KA
SEHOBEXA
SEnOBEKA UIAlA4
xEPEMXA
YEPEMXA
APOrTHHH HA BYrE
AETKOBHqH
rARHOBKA
rAAHOBKA
KJIEmEJIH
KIEL1EIIM
MEn11HHK
MHJIElqHLI 1
HAPEB
HAPEBKA
HAPEBKA
HAPORKH
HEMHPOB
HYPEL
OMEIEHE1
CEMaTHqH
CEMATHYHf


hajnowski
hajnowsid
hajnowski
kleszczlski
kleszczelki
siemiatycki
simiatycki
centrum rejonu
centrum rejonu
centnunm rejonu
centrum rejonu
siemiatycki
kleszczlskid
hajnowski
hajnowsld
hajnowski
siemiatycki
siemiatycid
kleszczeski
kleszczelski
centrum rejonu
centrun rejonu


OUP
SKPP
SKPP
OUP
SKPP
OUP
AP
RUP
SKPP
RUP
SKPP
AP
AP
AP
OUP
SKPP
AP
AP
SKPP
AP
RUP
SKPP


SKR6TY OKIRESLAJCE RODZAJ rAC6WKI POCZTOWEJ: Abbreviations:

RUP REJONOWYURZADPOCZTY(KOHTOPA CBA3H): 1st. Class P.O.
OUP ODDZIALOWY URZAD POCZTY(OTAEnIEHHE CBS3H ): 2nd Class P.O.
AP AGENCJA POCZTOWA( ArEHCTBO CBA3H ) : Postal Agency.
KOPP KOLEJOWY ODDZIAL PRZEWOZU POCZTY ( WEIE3HOaOPOXHOE OTLEJIEHHE
I1EPEBO3KH no9Tu XA.O.): Railway Section for the conveyance of mail.
SKPP STACJA KOLEJOWA PRZELADUNKU POCZY ( CTAHIU )
: Railway Station for the transmission of mail.


uwAgl: Notes:

Nzwy sucji kolejowych podano kursyw dia odr6tnienie od mijscowosci w kt6ych funkcjonowaly
urzydy i agencjo pocnowe wypousone w datownikl
Gwiazdki omaczono miejscowoci z kt6rych mnane s sowieckie okupacyjne datowniki pocnowe.
The names of railway stations are given in italics, to distinguish
them from the localities where post offices and agencies
functioned and were provided with cancellers.
The localities marked with an asterisk are those known with
Soviet occupation cancellers.






MORE ABOUT THE SOVIET POSTS IN WESTERN BELORUSSIA 1939-1941
by Rex A. Dixon & Andrew Cronin.

A. Rex A. Dixon.
In accordance with the classifications set out in "The Post-Rider" No. 14 and in the article herewith by J.
Witold Zurawski, I can record the following additional material:-
(a) From the areas returned to Poland on 16 August 1945.

,. ,. ar a t 'or t I (1) A card in German by a Yiddish writer from
.. .,... Tomasz6w Mazowiecki 19.5.40 to BELOSTOK
S..! BSSR 22.6.40.5 "a"; Minsk-type canceller with
S. ,.- a diameter of 29 mm.

(2) Card from Dabrowa Biatostocka (returned
S ACARTE POSTALE to Poland) to Scotland. Mailed from GRODNO
S TBAFR KAPTOLIKA BSSR 7.12.40 "b" (remained in W. Belorussia),
'. 1 -, i with BELOSTOK "'1" transit and MINSK-4
.e i. fUw Monitor P.O., both dated 20.12.40. All these
-%AusdnWA t"~'f-ck r-o cancellers presumably manufactured in Minsk.
Kriegsgelangenenpost d

S --):^ c-rf .-*71'e~4;-
C__ IV en /2 (3) Unusual German POW card with "U.d.S.R.R."
GebOhrenfreil stamped at foot, from Stalag IV E at Altenburg in
Abn der: Thdringen 12.6.41 and received at NURETS
Vr. .nd Zuna.: ..~ p BREST.OBL. 20.6.41 "b"; this is a Moscow-
neon.oBr; 1 4 s._o.. i type canceller with a diameter of 25 mm.
G.rang.,.Bn.,cuhm.er: SL .. S
STalr ItV E -1
D..n.h..,d tAll.e.e.se J. P.


(b) From the area remaining in Western Belorussia.



(1) Registered letter with Minsk-type
10 ? .,r ,".'." BRASLAV BSSR 12.7.40 "a" and MINSK-4
S/ Monitor 25.7.40, to arrive at International
i...ji Committee of Red Cross in Geneva 9.8.40.
SOn the front: boxed BRASLAW and
Recommande in Latin script. Censored in
Berlin: boxed "Gepriift XI" (Riemer Type 77)
l:da g reserved for Red Cross mail. Sealing strip
intermediate between B-50 & B-51, tied by
B3a.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


















(3) The cancellation by favour shown
here reads DUNILOVICHI VIL.
(EISKAYA) OBL. 22.6.41 "b". The
Vileika province no longer exists and
this place is now in Vitebsk province.


(2) An interesting internal 20-kop. Soviet card
postmarked BYTEN' BARANOV.OBL. 31.3.41
"b" to Vilnius-9 on 2,4,5 & 7.4.41, finally landing '
in the Address Bureau as unknown at that
particular address and with oval "TO PAY IN
ADDITION / 10" of Vilnius-C.


(4) Finally, a chilling card from the JUDENRAT /
WARSCHAU (Warsaw Ghetto) 28.3.41, censored
in Berlin (Riemer B-20) and addressed to Horyri
Station, served by Stolin in Brest province; the
Minsk type reads STOLIN BSSR 9.4.41 "b".

B. Andrew Cronin.

(a) From the areas returned to Poland on 16 August 1945.

S nOITOBAR KAPTOHIKA-
CARTE POSTAL

....:.. ..: ...... .
: -* .. ". ,..
.. .. ..... .. .. ... .. *"P" "" .MS: -".'a M

~ o y ... .. l.+.. >....... ........................
,. ,. .

.Apec .. .:. ..- -. ... ... .

die tx'.riur......
.. .. ..


(1) An unusual card sent locally in Belostok from
School No. 38 and cancelled with a Polish
pre-war marking: BIALYSTOK 2, 11.1.40.22.
94 THE PnOT-RIDER/!


(2) Here we have another Minsk-type canceller
used in transit: BELOSTOK BSSR 21.12.40 "p"
(= Cyrillic "n" in lower case).


HMIIIHK N 41


November, 1997






















SRegistered airmail letter with Minsk-type BELOSTOK BSSR 15.3.40 "z" via MINSK-4 Monitor
19.3.40 to New York City 30.4.40.


(4) A Minsk-type arrival marking is applied
here, reading BELOVEZHA BSSR 23.11.40
"a" in Brest province.


t.O C-K <^- i>W^^'
_' _,n 3 et 0 v', ^"': e, ,' ,
(5) A Soviet 20-kop. card with Minsk-type
marking: SIDRA BSSR 7.12.40, underpaid
by 10 kop. to Stalag XIII B and with boxed
"Gepriift / D20" marking.


(6) A registered surface letter to the Red Cross
in Geneva, cut down and thus missing part of
the postage. Note the pre-war "R" cachet of
SOKOLKA and very early date for Minsk-
type pmk SOKOLKA BSSR 16.11.39 "a".


' : $ ; .- -- ... .. ,
L. (7) A surface foreign rate letter with Minsk-type.
canceller reading TYKOT 'IN BELOST.OBL.
10.9.40 "b".


THE POST-RIDER/IMIUlHK No. 41
November, 1997


.... ... .s. .
Kyda..... ...... .......

"-i "' ....... .. -' P ..... ....;:" ..... "' ;:







(b) From the area remaining in Western Belorussia.


Lanxett/SzPrtaz1:
Gelangenen-Num ner:
?Nr. ewidencli je~ca voj
- 'eM '7DI T
oeblnrenrre
Wodze od oVrl


(1) Soviet 20-kop. card headed "3aKa3Hoe"
= registered and thus underpaid by 90 kop.,
with Minsk-type BARANOVICHI BSSR
9.1.41.19 "v", via MINSK-4 Monitor
11.1.41 and sent to Stalag I A.


(2) Bilingual POW card of German origin
with Minsk-type BREST-LITOVSK BSSR
14.7.40.9 "a", sent to Oflag XI B.


E ..o .^ .......................... K .. ... ..........................................................
.. .......... / 2 te .... .........

.. .., ART. PO!

A'7 r- b3 Y HTECb ABHAnfo HTO H '.*.
..pa ium t .. ......... ... .. ......... % ^ Q ..... ....
Adresse ......... --
\ A.rpedaei" )t ".. ........JL L z. .... .s.. _

(3) Soviet 20-kop. card with additional postage I Ky .....:.. .
lifted off by censor and Minsk-type GLUBOKOE ...':i. ..... ....:......_ .:
BSSR..."a", via MINSK-4 Monitor 13.5.41; sent ?- .
to Stalag 1 A. Glubokoe was then in Vileika, but 'om .pas ;.
now in Vitebsk province. 'd r"uexpJ t. ........ .i


(4) We see from the trio above that Grodno
had at least three cancellers in the Minsk
type: "a", "b" and "v".

THE POST-RIDER/MIIIllHK No. 41
November, 1997


















(5) Hand-made envelope at the foreign surface rate with Minsk-type reading IZABELIN BSSR 15.3.41 and
sent to a German camp in Lautenthal. Note the Wehrmacht "Geoffnet b" censor tape on the back.


(6) Soviet 20-kop. card with additional postage
lifted off by censor and Minsk-type KURGAN
BARANOV.OBL. 29.4.40 "a" via MINSK-4
Monitor with illegible date and forwarded to a
POW camp in Krak6w.


(7) Registered foreign surface letter with Minsk-
type NESVIZH BSSR 28.5.41 "a" via MINSK-4
Monitor 8.6.41 to New York City 8.8.41. Note
the handstamped "Recommandd" & "R-NIESVIZ"
cachets in violet.


.... ........... .. .. .. ; .. ....


.. ..... .... .. .. ... / I "
K'd., y aAV a r.4 Mpl
texplditenr J /r 1-7

(8) Soviet 10-kop. card with additional postage partly (9) Soviet 20-kop. card with additional postage soaked
lifted off by censor and Minsk-type NOVOEL'NYA off by censor and Minsk-type RUBEZHEVICHI BARAN.
BARAN.OBL. 16.9.40 "b" via MINSK-4 Monitor OBL. 28.2.40 "a" to Polish Red Cross Hosp. in Krak6w.
7.10.40 to Lublin. THE POST-RIDER/IlMIMlHK No. 41 97
November, 1997












(1/A4!., .I~tA'6'

J21W4. ~In't.-^ ^___


11/
* I.
'-272,; j~,


I-


-..................* .
. .. .- ...... _
AKo-'*


HA. KAi, L OMN fIORTOBOX OTPAMEEABHH MIIBIHTE CBO OEPATHLuhI EC


.7p. t -Xomnpa.,meA 5 ,- -
A e omnpasumeA~:. .. ......... ....... -/ .. (.. .
9^^/6< cIlc >tf t


(10) Two Minsk-type markings are shown here, reading SLONIM 1-E GOR. BARANOV. OBL. 20.5.40 "a"
to Stalag III A and SLONIM BARANOV. OBL. 20.4.41 "z" to Brest-Litovsk.


fnOqTOBA- KAPTO'KA
CARTE POSTAL /


Kya ., --


: f w*,,f '*, f e, *, -


OTnPABJ1lHiTE CB010 KHOPt-ECn OHi EHflliO C 0CI.1OnJ HIifl n O F.P 0 EHill




(12) Surface letter to U.S. with Minsk-type
VEL. BERESTOVITSA BEL. OBL. 31.10.40
"a". Sent by Mendel Levin in the Krynki district.
Krynki (p.91) went back to Poland, but Velikaya
Berestovitsa (Brzostowica Wielka) stayed in W.
Belorussia. Malenkaya Berestovitsa also exists
and may have had a postal agency in the 1939
to 1941 period (Brzostowica Maka in Polish).


(11) Soviet 20-kop. card, this time with Moscow-
style SVIR' VILEISK. OBL. 1.4.41 "a" and sent
to the Zhary district. Then in the Vileika, but now
in the Minsk province.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIIHK No. 41
November, 1997


__


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2 1 -


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