• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 More about the Soviet POWs held...
 Zemstvo varieties
 Special announcement
 Soviet "slogan" cancellations
 Soviet numbered ovals
 The absent-minded senders of St....
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The stamped envelopes of Tuva
 Foreign mail sent to Tuva
 Some items of postal and historical...
 Special announcements
 A modern Russian postal forger...
 The first censorship marking of...
 Imperial mail
 New data about the mail of the...
 The mail of the "Gheorghe Matei"...
 Kiev City post office cancels...
 Postage stamps of Imperial Russia...
 Imperforate varieties of 19th century...
 There were also other Lenins
 The railway post in Russia during...
 Some notes on the 1919 Hungarian...
 Zemstvo prices: A statistical...
 Some Armenian overprints on...
 More early Soviet usages
 Special announcements
 Review of literature
 The collectors' corner
 The journal fund
 Advertising






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00040
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00040
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Advertising
        Advertising
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    More about the Soviet POWs held by the Axis powers
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Zemstvo varieties
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Special announcement
        Page 13
    Soviet "slogan" cancellations
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Soviet numbered ovals
        Page 19
    The absent-minded senders of St. Petersburg
        Page 20 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 21
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    The stamped envelopes of Tuva
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Foreign mail sent to Tuva
        Page 37
    Some items of postal and historical interest
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Special announcements
        Page 44
    A modern Russian postal forgery
        Page 45
    The first censorship marking of the Baltic Fleet
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Imperial mail
        Page 50
        Page 51
    New data about the mail of the "Tudor Vladimirescu" division
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    The mail of the "Gheorghe Matei" armoured detachment
        Page 55
    Kiev City post office cancels 1927-1928
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Postage stamps of Imperial Russia 1866-1889: A review of major printing errors
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Imperforate varieties of 19th century Imperial Russia
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    There were also other Lenins
        Page 67
        Page 68
    The railway post in Russia during the transitional period (1915-1923)
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Some notes on the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Zemstvo prices: A statistical analysis
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Some Armenian overprints on covers
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    More early Soviet usages
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Special announcements
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Review of literature
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The collectors' corner
        Page 120
    The journal fund
        Page 120
    Advertising
        Page 121
        Page 122
Full Text



IIMIIHK
s@@m AMmmME43


ThE POST-RIDER


No. 40
JUNE 1997


ThE CANAdiAN SociETy oF RUSSiAN PhilATEly


Printed in Canada








Are you thinking of selling your zemstvo
collection, some covers or R items?

Please let me know!

Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station"A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2



Postmarks of the Russian Empire
(pre-adhesive period)
by Manfred Dobin

copies for sale $50.00 US postpaid

Alex Artuchov, R 0. Box 5722. Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2



The Zemstvo Postage Stamps of
Imperial Russia
Vols. 3
$30.00 VS each postpaid
Alex Artuchov, P.O. Box 5722, Station"A",
Toronto, Ontario, CanabA, MsW 1P2







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada
FAX: (905) 764-8968.
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 40.


June, 1997.


Contents:
2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada Jeffrey J. Klein
5 More about the Soviet POWs held by the Axis Powers G.G. Werbizky & A. Cronin
10 Zemstvo Varieties G.G. Werbizky
13 Special Announcement
14 Soviet "Slogan" Cancellations Alex Artuchov
19 Soviet Numbered Ovals Terry Page
20 The Absent-Minded Senders of St. Petersburg Kimmo Salonen
20 Obituary: Terry Archer
22 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
34 The Stamped Envelopes of Tuva F. Vanius
37 Foreign Mail sent to Tuva A.V. Savost'yanov
38 Some Items of Postal and Historical Interest Professor A.S. Ilyushin
44 Special Announcements
45 A Modem Russian Postal Forgery David Link
46 The First Censorship Marking of the Baltic Fleet Janis Ozolis
50 Imperial Mail Rabbi L.L. Tann
52 New Data about the Mail of the "Tudor Vladimirescu" Division Dan Grecu
55 The Mail of the "Gheorghe Matei" Armoured Detachment Dan Grecu
56 Kiev City Post Office Cancels 1927-1928 Robert Taylor
59 Postage Stamps of Imperial Russia 1866-1889; A Review of Major Printing Errors Ing. Z. Mikulski
63 Imperforate Varieties of 19th. Century Imperial Russia Ing. Z. Mikulski
67 There were also other Lenins A. Artuchov & A. Cronin
69 The Railway Post in Russia during the Transitional Period (1915-1923) Alexander EpStein
86 Some Notes on the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic Andrew Cronin
102 Zemstvo Prices: A Statistical Analysis Alex Artuchov
110 Some Armenian Overprints on Covers Stefan Karadian
113 More Early Soviet Usages Robert Taylor
116 Philatelic Shorts
118 Review of Literature
120 The Collectors' Comer
120 Journal Fund

1997 by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this issue are
copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing. The opinions expressed in
the articles printed in this issue are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of The
Canadian Society of Russian Philately or of its Coordinators: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer; P.J.
Campbell, Secretary; Andrew Cronin, Editor and Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the U.K.


-- ,.~o

.rj


















-' EDITORIAL
OUR 20TH. ANNIVERSARY

It has been twenty years since we founded The Canadian Society of Russian Philately in June 1977. In fact,
that momentous action was preceded at the beginning of the same month by a prophetess out in Vancouver,
B.C., who announced in the press that, according to her calculations, the end of the world was to take place
on the third Sunday in June and specifically at 9pm. sharp. Her portentous announcement received wide
publicity throughout our country.

On the very same evening of that particular Sunday, Alex Artuchov and Patrick Campbell sat down with
your editor in his apartment to plan the establishment of the CSRP. Right in the midst of those historic
discussions, we in Toronto were hit with the worst hailstorm we had ever experienced in our lives. The hail
was as big as oranges and caused extensive damage throughout our fair city. The effect on the credulous
townsfolk was traumatic and they bombarded the local police, radio and television stations with calls, to find
out if the end of the world was really about to take place. C.JOBOM. Haame 06uecTBo iie.ieo 6ypHoe
pox;eHHe! The prophetess subsequently announced that there must have been a mistake in her
metaphysical (!) calculations and she was going to work up a new date for Doomsday. We are still waiting.

Meanwhile, our Society and its journal "The Post-Rider / 5IMIIHK" have gone from strength to strength.
Most of the material we have published is original and has been reprinted in other journals around the world,
as it has generally broken new ground. Our readers have often asked us how we have managed consistently
to maintain such a high standard. Well, all one has to do is to set up files for the accumulation of information
and material, no matter how inconsequential they may seem at the time. Keep that up for fifty years and then
everything seems to fall into place. It is very simple, really.

And so, dear children, let us press on and, once again mixing our metaphors, put our shoulders to the wheel
and face the music !



SPECIAL NOTE:

We have received positive responses about the proposed International Federation of Russian Philatelic
Societies from the Russian Study Circles in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The matter will be discussed
further by all interested parties at the "MOSCOW '97" International Philatelic Exhibition.


2 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997






CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to J
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to
the Editor, together with some explanatory text. a U H

A FILINTERN COVER SENT TO MONTREAL
by Jeffrey J. Klein.





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................. -.......




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THE POST-RIDER/a'MIHK No. 40
June,1997
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THr~l E POST-ID/fM K No 40
::rJune, 1997':S ;






Judging from the interesting article "The Socialist Construction of Philately in the Early Soviet Era" by
Professor Jonathan Grant reprinted in "The Post-Rider" No. 39, pp. 4-12, the call of our editor for the
creation of a Russian "FILINTERN" would seem to have been preceded by just such an organisation in
Moscow more than 70 years ago.

That fact is illustrated by the cover shown on the previous page and sent to Montreal, Canada in 1928 from
the familiar Moscow address of the Soviet Philatelic Association at Tverskaya-Yamskaya No. 3. The
envelope is of brownish-olive paper, covered by a mesh of small (printed?) circles. At the top of the address
side, there is a printed heading in Esperanto, indicating the sender as:-
=FILATELISTA INTERNACIONALO= =PHILATELIC INTERNATIONAL=
TUTMONDA ASOCIO DE KOLEKTANTOJ UNIVERSAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLECTORS
The cable address is given as : "MOSKVO FILINTERN". A faint "Kanada" is handwritten in Russian in
pencil at the lower right, following the typed Montreal address.

The letter is franked with the 14-kop. commemorative of the 1926 SAT Esperanto Congress, held in
Leningrad (Scott No. 348). The cancel is an unusual (to me) oval, 27 x 31.5 mm., in black ink and reading
MOSKVA 1 GOR. POCHT. OTD. 17.1.28, showing a six-pointed rosette to the left and a rectangle
containing a circle on the right.

There is on the reverse a 5-kop. philatelic tax stamp, the overprinted Scott No. B5a (perf. 13 1/2; Michel
IIla), cancelled with a large rectangular boxed violet handstamp, 37 x 80 mm., certifying that the letter
contained philatelic material and that it was being officially exported (see Robert Taylor's article in "The
Post-Rider" No. 15, pp. 49-61 for the usage of these stamps and cancellations). The authorising signature "F.
Chuchin" is handstamped in the same violet ink at the lower right.

I have never, in my admittedly rather limited experience, seen any other examples of material such as this.
published elsewhere or featured at shows, although it must have been fairly common. Any information
concerning the activities and/or postal usages of the original "FILINTERN" would be interesting and
welcome. Also, any enlightenment concerning the oval cancellation. Meanwhile, Andrew, you had better
amend your call for the creation of the "Second FILINTERN" !
Editorial Comment:
The cover is addressed to Leonid Snegireff, who was born in Russia and was the son
of a priest. As a result of the Civil War, the family migrated to Montreal, Canada,
Where Leonid took a degree in medicine at McGill University. He then migrated to
Boston, Massachusetts, where he engaged in cancer research. A heavy smoker, he died
of lung cancer in the late 1960s. There is a moral there somewhere. He served in the
U.S. Army during WWII and was an official interpreter at the historic meeting of
S--27 April 1945 at Torgau on the Elbe between high officers and soldiers of the Soviet
and U. S. armies. He has an honoured place in Russian philately and postal history
.j-, as he was a frequent contributor to the Journal of the Rossica Society, almost from its
inception in 1930 and, among other coups, unearthed a real treasure trove of mail addressed to the Russian
monastery and hermit cells on Mt. Athos from the early years of the 19th. century onwards. He also reviewed
the manuscript of "The Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad", compiled by S.D. Tchilinghirian and
W.S.E. Stephen. His portrait is shown herewith.

As for the FILINTERN, it was founded in the USSR during the mid-1920s and received a boost from the
SAT Congress of 1926. It did not survive the 1920s in the USSR but, during that time, there was an insert
entitled RADIO DE FILINTERN, which was included in the current monthly magazine "Soviet Philatelist"
or "Soviet Collector". The SAT or Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (Universal Without-Distinction-of-
Nationality Association) was a leftist Esperanto Society, then headquartered in Leipzig during the Weimar
4 THE POST-RIDER/flMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997







K tr a kaj -- n r a ........ ............
Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda
K l tiura k a:j inter-. d prol l to
hielpa organizo de s I\to efs;erai tistoj i a lr -





0psu sroio ead cl ea Aie Svtb asir and featured

BIcrpb




ane putsha'ot memberan Kdictnas... .a ... ...A S ... d fe
A G W e. .zk y.

Shere SAT flirtia sid st ndsrd nn -T N PA


Republic and a typical card printed in green is shown here. The illustration reads at top "Cultural and
Mutual-Aid Organisation of Worker-Esperantists" and at bottom: "Over the demolished borders, SAT flies
its flag". It was sent from Valki, Khar'kov province 2.6.32. This organisation still exists, but is now in Paris
and puts out Esperanto dictionaries and encyclopaedias An imperf. Soviet label, also in green and featured
here, is from 1931 and is inscribed in Russian: "LEARN ESPERANTO, INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE
OF THE PROLETARIAT". That policy was changed drastically as a result of the Great Purge and, by 1940,
Esperantists were among the class enemies who were to be deported from the former Eastern Poland and
Baltic republics.

On a final note, who has other examples of the unusual Moscow oval marking applied on the remarkable
cover that member Jeffrey Klein has unearthed?


MORE ABOUT THE SOVIET POWs HELD BY THE AXIS POWERS
by George G. Werbizky & Andrew Cronin.

A. George G. Werbizky.
In the brief article "Soviet POWs held by Axis Powers" in "The Post-Rider" No.39, pp. 16-17, Dr. P.A.
Michalove shows two interesting post-WWII covers from Latvia, then under Soviet occupation and then
comments on Soviet POWs and other WWII events. Due to the brevity of that article, an incomplete story
emerges. Additional information needs to be presented for the sake of accuracy and completeness.

Soviet POWs.
In an authoritative article dealing with the fate of the Red Army POWs and Ostarbeiter, V. P. Naumov
presents the following data: (1)
Year Red Army POW Losses Year Red Army POW Losses
1941 About 2 millions 1944 203,000
1942 1,339,000 1945 40,600
1943 487,000 Total for all years: 4,069,600+

Only about half of the POWs survived Nazi captivity; that is the number quoted by Stich & Stich.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40
June,1997 5







International Agreements.
The Soviet Union did not sign the 1929 Geneva Convention on the treatment of POWs and did not ratify the
Hague Agreements of 1899 and 1907, which dealt with the conduct of land wars. Instead, on 16 August 1941
and above the signature of Stalin, a barbarous order was issued, stating that any Red Army personnel who
became POWs would now be declared "traitors" and "betrayers". Their families were arrested as "families of
deserters, who had violated their oath and betrayed their country". The Nazis did not need any special
encouragement to engage in the annihilation of Red Army POWs, but this order clearly put Red Army
personnel beyond the pale. It also precluded the receipt of International Red Cross food parcels, which were
regularly distributed to the POWs of other nations. Those food parcels would have saved many lives. The
same order required the murder of Red Army POWs "by all means, using land and air weapons". There are
known cases where the Red Air Force bombed and strafed its own troops while in German captivity.

POW Mail.
Because the rules of the Geneva Convention were not ratified, there was no mail from or to Red Army
POWs. There were also no postal, telephone or telegraph services in the occupied parts of the Soviet Union:
such services existed in all other occupied countries.

The covers shown by Dr. Michalove were more likely an attempt by Latvians to find their relatives in
American captivity. The "15. Lettische SS Freiwilligen Division" (15th. Latvian SS Volunteer Division)
surrendered to the U.S. forces in the West in January 1945 (2). That is why I think that the Soviets allowed
the mail to be forwarded to Geneva. The search for people in Soviet captivity was carried out by the "Union
of Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR". The second possibility is that the search was
for civilians, who ended up in Europe. The offices of the International Red Cross in Geneva served as a focal
point for reuniting families and kept files on civilians as well as POWs.

Major-General A.A. Vlasov (3).
It is estimated that over one million Soviet nationals served in various para- and military anti-Communist
formations during WWII. Specifically, in the ROA (PyccKas OcBoGounrTenbHaaa ApNlMiu or Russian
Liberation Army), there were very few men who had not previously served in the Red Army. Major-General
Vlasov took command of the 1st. ROA Division (about 20,000 strong) on 10 February 1945. The staffing of
the 2nd. Division was not completed. It was never the strategy nor the intent of the Russian Liberation
Movement to achieve its goals through military victory. The aim was always to provide an opportunity for
the peoples of Russia to join their fellow-countrymen in the liberation of their homelands.

(1) B HayMoB. Cyab6a BoeHHonJOeHHbix H genopTnposaHHblx rpa>KnaH CCCP. MaTepm.a-bl
KoMccnH no Pea6HHneTaUHu )KepTB rIoJHTHrecKHx Penpeccan. )KypHan "HoBaqa n HoBeiUmaa
McTopHu", No. 2, 1996. IHCTHTyT Bceo6meeii HcTopHH, MocKBa.
(2) David Littlejohn. Foreign Legions of the Third Reich. Volume 4. R. James Bender Publishing Co., San
Jose, California, 1987.
(3) 1H. XocdpMaH. HCTopHq BnacoBCKOfi ApMHn. YMCA Press. Ifaptwc, 1990.

B. Andrew Cronin.
Your editor is reluctant to go into the political background of this affair, as interpretations can vary, but as
Mr. Werbizky has raised the subject, the following comments are offered, together with philatelic examples,
to help fill out the picture.

International Agreements.
The salient fact is that Imperial Russia also did not sign the Hague Agreements on Land Wars of 1899 &
1907, but that omission did not stop the Austro-Hungarian, German and Russian Empires from treating their
POWs humanely during WWI. On the other hand, Imperial Japan signed the Hague and Geneva Agreements
6 THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIHK No. 40
June, 1997






and Conventions, but still violated at least 80% of the regulations with its hideously brutal treatment of
Allied POWs. It shared the view of Stalin that POWs were traitors and betrayers and many Japanese camp
officials were subsequently executed for war crimes committed during WWII.

With Hitler's incessant and maniacal ravings about the "Jewish-Bolshevik conspiracy", can it be seriously
believed that he would have treated Soviet POWs humanely if the USSR had signed and ratified the Hague
and Geneva Conventions? It is most sickening to read the self-serving memoirs of the German generals who
were in command on the Eastern Front. With their full knowledge and acquiescence, MASS GENOCIDE
was carried out against Jews, Commissars, Communists and other helpless Soviet POWS. When Admiral
Wilhelm Canaris protested in 1941 about that policy to the Chief of the OKW (German General Staff), Field-
Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, the reply was as follows:-
"These objections arise from the military conception of chivalrous warfare. We are dealing here with the
destruction of a world philosophy and I therefore approve of such measures and sanction them".
As a result, Keitel was hanged as a war criminal at Nuremberg in October 1946. Case closed.

Hitler is on record as having ordered that, upon the capture of Leningrad and Moscow, both cities were to be
razed to the ground and their inhabitants were to be starved to death. His callous inhumanity played right
into Stalin's hands and combat morale on the Soviet side stiffened greatly. That was confirmed by the
following excerpt from a speech by Stalin at the Victory Parade Banquet in the Kremlin on 24 June 1945:-
"Our government made quite a few mistakes; there were moments of desperation in 1941 and 1942 when our
army retreated, abandoned our native villages...because it had no choice. Any other people might have said
to the government 'You have not justified our expectations, get out; we will establish a new government,
which will sign a peace with Germany and give us a respite'. But the Russian people did not take that road,
because it had faith in the policies of its government. Thank you, great Russian people, for your trust".
Stalin was really not being fair here, as many millions of Belorussians, Ukrainians and Central Asian levies
also fought very bravely for the Soviet State. The Central Asian units quickly acquired a fearsome reputation
for ferocity, as the retreating Germans found out to their horror.

As for the Red Air Force firing on its own men, there have been plenty of such instances in every war and
such assertions have to be investigated very thoroughly. On the other hand, there is a contemporary newsreel
in existence, which documents the unbelievably criminal stupidity of the German forces encircled at
Stalingrad. Right throughout the winter of that decisive battle, they kept Soviet POWs in a camp IN THE
OPEN AIR. Needless to say, there were few POWs left at the time of surrender.

Because of the appalling Soviet casualties in WWII, there was widespread prejudice throughout the USSR,
not only by Stalin, against the returning POWs, who were suspected of collaboration in order to save their
lives (see the harrowing novel by F'dor Abramov: "Two Summers and Three Winters" in the journal
"HoBbij Mnp", Nos. 1-3 of 1968).









C j ROIX RCUGE I,, RAIT EcAIX ,

Suis se .
g 1. THE POST-RIDER/5MIMK No. 40
June,1997






Mail to the International -- ,a-....
Committee of the Red
Cross in Geneva. 1 .
Both Dr. Michalove & George
Werbizky have raised the
subject of Soviet post-WWII Coi t- _ri ', .I t, _--
mail to the International Red da .& CJX. fS '
Cross in Geneva. Actually,
that practice started after i0 a d.
the USSR took over the 'r
Baltic republics, Bessarabia, Fig 2. x -ili -- I_ .
Western Belorussia and the Oj .
Western Ukraine between .--
17 Sept.1939 and 27 June ILRt 1 c '- I'
1940. Please see Fig. I on the J31 -- --c 3-'
previous page for a
registered letter from L'viv-1 LIWlt I [j -
(Lwow-JIbBOB)17.1.41, sent
by a Polish woman H. M.
Komaricka of Torufiska 1 and presumably enquiring about the fate of her relatives) in the Polish Army. It
arrived in Geneva on 24 February 1941. Fig. 2 just above features a registered letter with the same franking
from Kishine'v, Moldavian SSR 31.5.41, a bare three weeks before the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union and
sent by M. Gurfolk (?) of Podol'skaya 37. It reached Geneva on 17 June and probably enquired about missing
relatives) in the Romanian Army. Other such examples must exist and would be worth recording.
'...rnegsgelanrcnenpost
POW Mail. r a" ne
After the crushing defeat of the German -- /7,- e
"Operation Citadel" on 12 July 1943 in Gebiet Ocm /.
the Kursk Salient, the end loomed near '
for the Wehrmacht and its allies on the Kreis O _r
Eastern Front. Belated mail privileges ts factor co -'
were now being extended to at least Fig. 3... -. .
Ukrainian POWs in Germany, who Strafle B,
were allowed to write to the few A.n _--.- .
Soviet areas still held by the Nazis.
By the courtesy of Viktor Mohyl'nyj ----- '- '
F..Flls nicht bestellbar.
of Kiev, please note here in Fig. 3 a ] i o e Roi Kr prsid
-S Berlin SW6L L:!se-_r Ia z se-^d.t
bilingual German-Ukrainian card, = : --
sent by a POW on 10(?).9.43 from
Stalag 326 to Kiev. Such items must be rare, as Kiev was liberated by the Red Army almost nine weeks later
on 6 November 1943.

Major-General A.A. Vlasov.
To say that A.A. Vlasov and his adherents were true Russian patriots, who just happened to be allied with
the Germans is to say that Nazi Germany was conducting a "war of liberation" on the Eastern Front. Believe
that and you will believe anything. More than fifty high Soviet officers were taken prisoner and very few of
them chose to commit treason by joining the Vlasov or similar movements. If one changes masters and bets
on the wrong horse, then one has to take the consequences. When the Western Allies landed in France in
June 1944 to begin the Second Front, they did not appreciate finding former Soviet POWs helping the
defending Germans and those Soviets paid very dearly for their actions. That was one of the reasons why the
8 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIRIHK No. 40
June, 1997






U.S. Army in Czechoslovakia handed the surrendering Vlasovite units and A.A. Vlasov himself over to the
Soviet authorities at the end of WWII.
The other side of the coin is that there were also loyal Soviet POWs, who never lost faith in the eventual
victory of their state, however hideously flawed and they were all murdered by the Nazis for their activities
in the camps. They also deserve to be remembered and at least two of them have been honoured on Soviet
stamps. They were as follows:-
(a) Musa (Mustafa ogly = son of Mustafa) Dzhalil.


prot 13 h ,-* w ..o. 1 nrFPi.no CrETnbrg Cr
.*.-'J... i .; ..-; C --..". : _.v"_y






rlific h a.tafr" poet o ae -, s bor e. in st 'a" g ovn.-------

". .,.. ," ;'.'.*:.' /,-e, ? o -, a "W 1'''


safekeeping 4. Fig. 5

By 1939, he was writing librettos for the Kazadn Opera. He volunteered for the Red Army on 13 July 1941,
serving in the next year on the same Volkhov Front commanded by Major-General A.A. Vlasov (2nd. Shock
Army). His last letter was dated 3 June 1942 and he was taken prisoner on 26 June after being wounded in
the left shoulder and suffering a broken arm. He wrote many poems in Tatar during captivity in notebooks
that he formed out of salvaged paper, which sometimes bore the heading "Feldpost" (!);and dictionary". above. To
ensure their survival, at least three e such n con o training poems erme pass ed to other prisoners for
safekeeping.

A former POW, N. Teregulov, handed in one such notebook to the Tatar Union of Writers in 1946. All the
poems therein were written in Arabic script, traditionally used in Tatarided a until 1930. The page shown in Fig
4 bears a dedication written by Musa Dzhalil in Russian, in the ULTA (United Latin Turki Alphabet, used in
the USSR 1930 to 1941) and in German to a Belgian POW cell-mate, Andfa Timmermans, in Spandau
Prison (Berlin). Musa Dzhalil gave Andre Timmermans a second notebook of poems, which were now
written in the ULTA and the title-page is shown in Fig. 5. As can be seen, that title-page is inscribed in
German and in Tatar in the Arabic script, reading "Musa Dzhalil lines of verse and dictionary". Some of the
poems in the first notebook are repeated in the second volume. Andr6 Timmermans managed to smuggle this
second notebook back to Belgium and handed it overmmit the Soviet Consulate in Brussels in 1947. He
subsequently visited the USSR in 1957 and 1966, where he was awarded a medal for his services. A third
notebook was acquired by Mikhail Ikonnikov in the autumn of 1944 in the Tegel Prison and it was
impounded in a screening camp for returning POWs after WWII. Its further fate is unknown, but it is
probably sitting in a still unopened KGB file.

It is ironic to compare the fates of A.A. Vlasov and Musa Dzhalil. Both were on the Volkhov Front and both
were executed. The first by the Soviets in Moscow on 2.8.1946 for treason and the second by the Nazis in
Moabit Prison (Berlin) on 25.8.1944 for refusing to commit treason. Musa Dzhalil was posthumously
declared a Hero of the Soviet Union and two stamps were issued in his honour: a 40-kop. value on 16.7.1959
THE POST-RIDER/!5MlIHK No. 40 9
June, 1997






Scott 2221 and a 4-kop. commem. on 2.2.1966 (60th. anniversary of his birth; Scott 3063 see Fig. 6 on the
previous page for both stamps). Your editor has the collected poems of Musa Dzhalil in the Cyrillic alphabet
used in Tataria since 1941 and the book runs to more than 720 pages!

(b) Lieut.-General D.M. Karbyshev (1880-1945).
S... '-'. : Another Nazi victim, he was tortured to death in the Mauthausen
C,- 1 : 1 Concentration Camp, Austria for pro-Soviet activities. He was
S'i 1" : ;-l. = posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union and a 4-kop. stamp,
,, -- I Scott 2494,was issued in his honour on 22 June 1961, the 20th.
'0--i : 'i anniversary of the Nazi attack on the USSR. There is an interesting
on,-lm: PMitt plate variety "extra star" in the collar insignia on the second stamp of
Fig' -"- the second-last row (see Fig. 7).
Fig. 7.
Conclusions.
No matter how one looks at the foregoing information, there is no doubt that it can serve as a basis for
putting together interesting postal history and thematic studies of that harrowing period. As the Cold War has
been well and truly over for the past six years, your editor feels it is high time to start treating the horrors and
heroics of the Soviet era as history, rather than as a basis for scoring political points. Ours has always been
an imperfect world, but let us hope that we have all learned some lessons from what has gone on before in
this particularly bloody century.

Finally, with regard to the Tatars specifically, who are a Turki-speaking people, your editor has a card and
cover from the Imperial period, with a notation and text written in the Arabic script.. That alphabet is fine
when writing in Arabic, but it is deficient in vowels and thus a very poor medium when applied to the Turki
languages, which all possess a highly developed system of vowel harmony. In short, your editor will not be
able to record these items until he enlists the aid of a Tatar, who can still read the Arabic texts.


ZEMSTVO VARIETIES
by George G. Werbizky.

A few years ago,Alex Artuchov began publishing a new Zemstvo catalogue, based on the latest available
information. Three parts have appeared in print by now, spanning the issues from Akhtyrka to Novouzensk.
This work is a welcome addition to any Zemstvo library. The descriptions are accurate and the illustrations
are well executed. However, this catalogue, together with all others, do not illustrate varieties, such as tete-
beches, couches, perforation errors, pairs imperforate-between, inverts, etc. The purpose of this article and
the intention is to follow with a series of articles is to show as many varieties as possible. It is hoped that
readers will also contribute by sending in their examples of unusual Zemstvo items. So, here is Installment
No. 1. The numbers used are from the F.G. Chuchin Catalogue.

Akhtyrka. ..... --


I I '1





Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
10 THE POST-RIDER/AMBIHK No. 40
June, 1997

















































































Fig. 6.


Fig. 7a.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIlIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Fig. 3a.


Fig. 4.


Fig. 3b.


ii h:roec



II


.1OB
l^^
~
'-' -;-> '
*i AJ'

; it' 1111P r'


Fig. 5.


Fig. 7b.


IY1~~iY~rlliPIIIUC--~I-


~
























:4' LJO;-


Fig. 8.


Fig. 9.

THE POST-RIDER/IlMIHK No. 40
June, 1997


__


I
---
r

i..,
`~~ ``






Akhtyrka.
In Fig. 1 at the bottom of page 10, the left-hand stamp is normal. The stamp at right shows no tip to the
top centre of the shield. That is a minor variety and both stamps are shown enlarged.

Aleksandriya.
Fig. 2 at the bottom of p. 10 shows a tete-beche pair, composed of No. 4 in blue at left and No. 5 in
green at right.
In Fig. 3a on p. 11, we see a block of four, the upper right-hand stamp of which has a double overprint.
That variety has not been recorded previously. The single stamp in Fig. 3b has this overprint omitted.

Anan'ev.
Fig. 4 features a half-sheet of No. 3, showing all six types. The differences are in the presence or
absence of a period after "KOTI" and "Y'Bb3'B" and the regularity of the circles.

Ardatov.
Fig. 5 has a copy of No. 6 with flat tops to the "3s". This is not a variety per se, but is rated RR by
Chuchin and is shown here because of its scarcity.
In Fig. 6, we see a tete-beche pair; Chuchin No. 7a.
For Fig. 7a, we note a vertical pair of No. 36, showing different styles of the letter "P" in the word
"MAPKA": with a wide loop on the stamp at top and with narrow loop for the stamp at bottom.
In Fig. 7b, we have a horizontal pair of No. 28, differing in the way the two portions of the ornament
interlace.
For Fig. 8 on p. 12, we have at top a complete sheet of No. 33. The two rows are tete-b8che and the
ornaments at top interlace differently.
Fig. 9 shows a complete sheet of No. 38. Note the wide and narrow loops to the "Ps".
Editorial Comment: An examination of the sheets shown in Figs. 8 & 9 confirms that the printing
forme consisted only of one horizontal row of stamps. For No. 33, the sheet of paper was then turned
around before adding the second row, which was tete-beche in relation to the first row. In the sheet of
No. 38 in Fig. 9, we note that the sequence of wide and narrow loops to the "Ps" is the same in both
horizontal rows of stamps, pointing to the possibility that the upper row was printed first and the sheet
of paper then adjusted upwards to add the second row. Fascinating!

Amur.
In 1919, a set of "stamp currency" or money tokens was issued in the ,-
following denominations: 50 kop., 1, 3 & 5 roubles. All the denominations UL'. "
have the value also printed on the backs and show significant variations in :' ..
colour, from light to dark. Fig. 10 shows both sides of the 50-kopek
value. Used copies exist with the cancel of Blagoveshchensk, but
no covers have been found, bearing these tokens postally used. i1::

Atkarsk. Fig. 10.
In Fig. 11, we see Chuchin No. 18, with a short tail variety for the middle
bird. The stamp is shown enlarged.
(to be continued)
SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT.
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately will be sharing a booth with |
The Rossica Society of Russian Philately throughout "PACIFIC '97"
from 29 May to 8 June 1997 and we will also have a slide show on
June 1st., covering aspects of Russian and Soviet philately. Please meet us
in the South Hall, Room 250 at 4pm. See you all there! Fig. 11.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIlHK No. 40
June,1997 13










Soviet "Slogan" Cancellations
By Alex Artuchov

The Soviet propaganda machine was extremely efficient and missed few opportunities to
spread a multitude of messages aimed at furthering the objectives of the regime. One
fascinating form of conveying "the word" to the masses was through "slogan"
cancellations.

These cancellations have never appeared in philatelic literature with which this writer is
familiar. The cancellations appeared on stamps of the late 1920's and early 1930's. This
era was a particularly difficult and stormy time in Soviet history. It was during this period,
that the regime vigorously tackled the task of transforming a backward rural nation into a
world power, through industrialization.

The transition was particularly heavy and difficult on the peasantry. They were deprived of
the ability to own land and forced into collectivization. Authorities regarded the peasantry
as a stubborn and conservative force that was untrustworthy and consequently an
opponent of socialism. The same peasantry were however, of some significant importance
in the transformation process. Their role involved the responsibility of feeding a growing
urban labour force and to provide other crops for industry,such as cotton,for example.

The agricultural restructuring aimed at increasing efficiency and productivity met with
considerable resistance from the peasantry and resulted in tragedy of widespread and
colossal proportions.

The regime took aim at the "kulak" (KyJIaK meaning fist in direct translation) a term
referring to the better-off farmer that managed to prosper during Lenin's earlier NEP or
New Economic Policy which allowed a measure of capitalism. Lenin's well quoted, "one
step forward, two steps backwards" provides a fascinating if not even a foreboding
commentary. Ironically and tragically, the efficiency and the productivity of the kulak was
not to be equaled by collectivization.

The "dekulakazation" forced the deprivitazation of land, collectivization and the
liquidation of the kulak as a class. As a sad consequence, some 4,500,000 persons were
exiled and their property was confiscated. The resistance to collectivization did not end
there, however. The peasantry preferred to destroy their livestock rather than allowing
them to fall into state ownership. By 1932, the decline in the herds was profound. Goat
and sheep populations were one third of their 1929 size and the number of horses and
pigs declined by half during the same years.

The combination of peasant resistance, lack of machinery and draught animals and the
great inefficiency of collective farming accounted for a dramatic decrease in agricultural
productivity. In turn, the tragic but artificially induced famine ravaged through the
countryside in 1933. One estimate suggests that 7,500,000 died in the Ukraine alone,

14 THE POST-RIDER/5MIMHK No. 40
June, 1997









while another pegs the total to be as high as 10,000,000. It was a small wonder that even
Stalin, the brutal architect of collectivization, in a later admission to Churchill let it be
known that this period was more difficult and trying than the darkest days of the Nazi
invasion of 1941.

This is the stage and the background of "slogan" cancellation. They promoted the
objectives of the regime in an virtually subliminal manner but in absolute fairness also
provided useful information in the more particular examples of some of the postal
stationery shown below.

Some of the cancellations shown below are complete while some of the others require
more information in order to decipher them in full. Readers able to supply missing words
or new "slogan" cancellations are encouraged to contribute towards this remotely known
segment of postal history. This writer will be delighted to supplement this article when
new information warrants.


Fig. 1


Fig. 2


Fig. 3


"KanKgbiH
AonjKeH YqacTBOBaTb
B CTpOHTejnbCTBe
CoBeTcKIHX iHpH)Ka6jneii"

"Everyone should participate
in the construction ofSoviet
dirigibles"


"FopoA,
HoMoraii ]epeBHe
HOBblCHTh YpaKafi"


"City help the countryside
increase the harvest"


"OqHCTHM
CeM3epHO
HOBbICHM
YpaKaiiHOCTb"

"Clean the seed,
increase the harvest"


Fig. 4


"K KoHny IaTiIeTKII, HH OnHOfi

THE POST-RIDER/IMIUHK No. 40
June, 1997


I










?-------------------? )o IIIKOJIbHoro YqpeiKAeHIa"


"By the end of the Five Year Plan, not one factory not one collective farm
? --------------------? to an educational institution"


One reason for the lack of knowledge and literature dealing with "slogan" cancellations
relates to the fact that the messages were lengthy and well exceeded the limited surface
area of the stamps of the period which were characterized by a proliferation of smaller
sized definitive. Without a decent-sized receptacle for a lengthy message that dwarfed
stamps and being decipherable in part at best on stamps, "slogan" cancellations left too
faint a trace to inspire their pursuit.

Fig. 5 Fig. 6

110.HHEM VYPOWKHOCTb I1nOflHHMEM VPOKIlRHOCTh

4 -, ".2 Z;, '- i I
1:!:~~ l~I~P~ a~3PiEUlf
Grj~d n dn


"Ha HnHcbMax B MOCKBy
YKa3blBaiTe No. HOqTOB. OTAeneH.
B PaiioHe KoToporo Hpo~KHBaeT
Bam AApecaT.
IpocHTe ero o6 3TOM"

"On letters to Moscow, indicate the number
of the postal district of the recipient, ask him
for it"

Fig. 7.


"PacwupaiiTe HoceBHylo
rHomaAyb HyreM
06pa6oTKl HycTonJIoHiix
3eNMenb"


"Increase the area of cultivated land
by working fallow lands"


Fig. 8


AP ;




-------BpeMsI HepecbarKn
KoppecnoHAeHIXHH
------- fH fo9 riqTo
HOWTit


16


"Y6ei )Ibpyriix
o 06.iraiwito


THE POST-RIDER/HMIMIHK No. 40
June, 1997










"----delivery time "Convince others
of correspondence that bonds ???
? mail ? loan"
mail"

It is interesting to note that Figs. 5 and 7 both relate to postal service and the slogans in
this case are aimed towards increasing the efficiency of delivery. It is also very
noteworthy to mention Figs. 9 and 10 as having a 1990's ring of "reuse and recycle" in its
message to the masses.

Fig. 9 Fig. 10






*\ 1-1M d; Ha




"CTapile rojiomui, xjiaM H naKJIIo
co6npaiTe I caaaBiTe rocTopry" "O6paTHM OT6poCKu )HoMamuero
Xo3aiicTBa B 30JIOTO, MamHHbi
n TpaKTopbI"
"Gather old galoshes junk and stuffing "Convert domestic refuse into gold,
and give it to government stores" machines and tractors"

A lack of cover material providing a larger surface to display cancellations is also very
acute. A general shortage of the postal history of this period can be directly attributed to
a frightened population that ridded itself of any possible reason for which they could be
artificially incriminated no matter how remote the possibility. This is a grim reminder
of the unpleasant and oppressive conditions that prevailed at the time and characterized
the great purges of the late 1930's.

As a further example of the slogan theme, a number of related items of postal stationery
are illustrated. Their depiction of slogans with illustrations adds a further dimension that
very graphically enhances the message. Furthermore, unlike cancellations, postal
stationery always appears in its entirety leaving no need to guess for missing words
and letters.

One particularly interesting example of such postal stationery is Fig. 12, illustrated below.
This particular slogan encourages the breeding of rabbits. Since rabbits are notorious for
breeding prolifically, their presence was envisioned as a quick fix to the meat shortage.


THE POST-RIDER/51MIIIHK No. 40 17
June, 1997










The inhospitable Russian winter was not nearly as favourable as climactic conditions in
Australia where rabbit populations grew exponentially, did not yield the desired results
and caused the rabbit to be referred to as a "Stalinist cow" (cTajmIHCKal KOposa).

Fig. 11 Fig. 12


"Machinery in good repair will assure "Collective farms, farmers and workers
high quality harvesting of the produce" breed rabbits! The rabbit gives nourishing
and valuable fur! In exchange for rabbit
fur we will receive machinery and tractors
from abroad--- etc.-etc.-"


Fig. 13 Fig. 14


"All Forces------------------- "Beet growers, collective farmers and ---
-------------------to the Collective Farms" independent farmers, mechanize the
harvesting of sugar beets"


THE POST-RIDER/IMIKHK No. 40
June, 1997






SOVIET NUMBERED OVALS
by Terry Page.

I am trying not to get too badly bitten by that somewhat infectious "Numbered Ovals" bug. However, the
comprehensive work by Kiryushkin and Robinson and recent articles in "The Post-Rider" by Rabbi Tann
have caused me to review the limited amount of material in my own collection. I find that the Imperial
examples all fall into the range of areas covered by past research. However, searching through Soviet
material has produced a couple of items of interest.

Firstly, I am happy to be able to add to Leonard Tann's observations in "The Post-Rider" No. 39 on the
KUSHKA-228-MERV handstamps, used on that isolated branch-line from the Afghan border. Fig. 1
shows the so far unrecorded "6" serial, struck no less than six times on a block of six of the 9-kop. perf.
12 definitive.The date is 10.2.26; a very late usage. Since the subsequent "a" serial canceller is recorded
as in use from 1910, why is the "8" so elusive?

Fig. 2 shows a Soviet-made canceller ARKHANGEL'SK-280-LENINGRAD, reflecting the change of
name from Petrograd. Several strikes were applied on 5.8.25 to a block of sixteen 50-kop. brown
definitives.This postmark proves that Numbered Oval handstamps were still officially used as part of the
Soviet system, rather than simply having been inherited from the Imperial regime. This poses an
interesting question. While we know that the postal wagon numbering system remained in use until after
WWII, for how long did the use of the Numbered Oval cancellers continue? They make only sporadic
appearances beyond the mid-twenties and were in decline well before the introduction of the Soviet
circular TPO/RPO marks. This period, up to 1938, is a mystery which still needs to be unravelled (see
also Ivo Steyn: "The Golden Age of Soviet "" ""
Postmarks", BJRP No. 80).. ,R

It would be an interesting exercise to attempt to :
record and, perhaps, to make sense of the later "
sightings. Kiryushkin and Robinson record Fig. 1.
SEMIPALATINSK-328-NOVO- :
NIKOLAEVSK, dated 24.3.26. The same ..''
route with NOVO-NIKOLAEVSK renamed
NOVOSIBIRSK appears in Philip Robinson's
1997 SIBERIA Supplement, with date 29.6.28.
Once more, a change in nomenclature and a ,. ..'
new handstamp, yet still a classic Numbered
Oval, even at such a late stage. Philip tells me
that the latest he has seen is VOLOGDA-322-
ARKHANGEL'SK, dated 16.9.32, but this .".. ....-
may be a straggler from the past, perhaps j
discovered and dusted off to serve in an
emergency. So, let us start to fill the gaps!
Can we please hear from anyone who has ..........
evidence of a later dated TPO/RPO oval,
or with information on usage between 1927
and 1932? Oh, and for the purpose of this
exercise, let us exclude any post-Soviet
"renaissance". Ovals have started to
reappear in the Baltic area, but that is
another story....... (See also pp. 69-86).
THE POST-RIDER/RMIUIHK No. 40ig.
June,1997 19






THE ABSENT-MINDED SENDERS OF ST. PETERSBURG
by Kimmo Salonen.

The present writer is a Canadian, born in Finland and he is also deeply interested in the postal history of
"Pietari" (St. Petersburg) in the Imperial period. To this day, there are ethnic Finns living in St. Petersburg.

Among other items in his collection, the author has a series of nine 3-kopek (intraurban) Imperial Russian
postcards, which were written and mailed in St. Petersburg in the period from 26 December 1882 to 24
January 1883. The problem is that all nine senders forgot to specify on the front sides the names and
addresses of the recipients. By the next day, all these incomplete cards had landed in the St. Petersburg
equivalent of the Dead Letter Office. Judging from the postmarks on the fronts of the cards, that office
applied the marking of the St. Petersburg 6th. Despatch Office, Canceller No. 11, serial letter "v" (Fig. 1
on the next page).

All the cards have a characteristic tick on the fronts, as well as remnants along the left margins of a paper
"cnpaBKa" on yellow stock, where the details for tracing the senders would have been filled in (Fig. 1).
Fortunately, most of the senders had signed their names in full, so it would have been just a matter of the
postal authorities checking with the "AgpecHbif CTOJ" (Address Bureau) in St. Petersburg, in order to
return the cards to them.

Judging from the messages on the backs, some of the senders expected same-day delivery since, among
other requests, they had made appointments with the intended recipients for the next day! One message
in somewhat ungrammatical Russian has a special human interest, as follows: "Vladimir Vasil'evich! My
son has a swollen arm and he broke two fingers. He went to the doctor, who ordered him not to worn,
soak with cold water for two days and (then) bandaged (it) up. Please pardon me that I cannot come.
Yours faithfully, Mikhail Rudnitskoi" (Fig. 2).

Note in Figs. 3 and 4 that the messages were written in Yiddish (21 & 24 January 1883 respectively). That
must have been unusual for St. Petersburg in the Imperial period, as the Jewish population in the Russian
Empire was generally confined to the Pale of Settlement. In any case, would our Jewish members in the
CSRP please come forward and translate these two intriguing cards for us? Judging from their precise
penmanship, it appears that both writers must have been highly literate.

Having traced the senders, one would think that the Imperial Postal Service would then have allowed
them to fill in the names and addresses of the recipients and repost the cards. That obviously did not
happen, so all the senders were out at least three kopeks each. There probably were postal regulations in
effect at that time to cover such eventualities and it would be most helpful if some reader could bring
them to light.

The nine cards are all in very good condition and they may have come out of some postal archive, after
having been impounded, rather than returned. Most of the senders were doubtless wondering at the lack
of response. Any further examples, data or theories would be most welcome.
OBITUARY
TERRY ARCHER: 29 October 1923-28 November 1996.
It is with great regret that we announce the death by a heart attack of our
enthusiastic member in Warkworth, New Zealand. Originally from ]
England, he migrated to the "Shaky Isles" in 1946 and his interests in the
Russian area and Tuva led him to becoming the Secretary-Treasurer of
The Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. Our
association with him was most beneficial to both sides. Mnp npaxy ero!
20 THE POST-RIDER/IlMIIIK No. 40
June, 1997

























/ .0 *'4"4 : ^'/
9 QJA^/ 'i4' 'A' A'/2', A J/. .7/,-/.2 r-o ) // '*2-)''.
el t


,2 /n:. -"I "/ /1/' i/~')- 2 ,



" .4 ",9" ^ /A _j/)o, )JIC -,
;# J *? )Y 2? "'*.'' ^." "/, .

,, V'.l.hlI.
-/ ': nJ '/ 4 ) / 7) 9)/ 3 '/
~,CT/?~'~ Q(q -3y7
I../: Ilb llln i gy dy)2~P'~ eI/,/~


.o~3Li~L- J,/(-~,/s~L:o'/


v-, ~2-~p~6(
nq C7(I~~i!. .%/C-/L

t~~~ ; r ~n~' ~ i


"W^.^^ ^ 'Jr''" ^ ^ ^
"9 /w/)/A% // I / / //71// ^ f^
7/ A' '


r1--


Fig. 3.


Z










POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS


by Alex Artuchov
(continued from No. 39)

PEREYASLAVL

Third Edition (August, 1902)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, yellowish white gum, crosses between stamp covers, sheet of
9 x 6.


23. 5 kop. emerald green


35.00


Fourth Edition (January 15, 1904)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, white gum, without the small crosses between the stamps
corners, sheet of 7 x 8.


24. 5 kop. brown


3.00


Fifth Edition (January, 1906)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, white gum, without the small crosses between the stamp
covers, sheet of 9 x 6.


25. 5 kop. emerald green


3.00


Sixth Edition (June 13, 1908)
Yellowish white paper, 0.1 mm thick, shiny yellowish gum, without the small crosses
between the stamp covers, sheet of 10 x 6.


26. 5 kop. analine red


2.00


1913- 1915
20.5 x 26.6 mm lithographed on white paper, white gum, perforated 11.25 x 11.5 2
editions.


THE POST-RIDER/SMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


I








First Edition (February, 1913)
The 3 kop. value is on white and the 5 kop. on greenish yellow coated paper 0.12 mm
thick, both values are printed on the same sheet of 10 x 7 + 3 x 7, the 3 kop. value is in
the group on the left while the 5 kop. is on the right side, there is a 35 mm space between
the 2 groupings of stamps, the 5 kop. stamp has 2 types, 20,000stamps were issued of the
3 kop. value and 6,000 of the 5 kop. value.


27. 3 kop. ultramarine on white paper


Variety:


0.50


Numeral 5 instead of 3 in the right upper corer, 6th stamp in the 2nd
horizontal row.


28. 5 kop. olive green on greenish yellow coated paper


1.00


The Sheet


3 kop.


5 kop.


The 5 kop. Group


The 3 Types of the 5 Kop. Value
Type 1 The 5 in the NW corer has a well rounded
bottom, the outline of the large 5 in the centre is complete
all around.
Type 2 The 5 in the NE comer appears more square at the
bottom, the outline of the large 5 in the centre has a break
near the ball end.


qN


Type 1


Type 2


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


*0010'6


~aF~j~










Notes relating to the 3 kop. value:
Schmidt notes that there is a noticable difference in stamps printed in the light and dark
shades. The plates appear to be overinked on the dark shades and there is a loss of fine
detail. Schmidt accordingly suggests that the darker shade may be the result of yet another
and later printing.

The stamps with the light shades seem to show the existence of 2 types with differences in
the star in the oval under the large 3. Both types show the star with a short ray at the
bottom but, on the type 2 there is a small dot under the bottom ray which makes it appear
to be longer.

A number of plate flaws have been found on the on this issue.


Second Edition (November, 1914)
Changed colour and slightly different corer numerals, white paper 0.07 mm thick, shiny
yellowish white gum, sheet of 7 x 7 with 2 types, issue of 6,000 stamps.


29. 5 kop. violet


1.00


The Sheet

1 2 1 2 1 2 1

1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1

1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1


The 2 Types
Type 1 Period after 5 kop. in the SW corer.
Type 2 No period after the 5 kop. in the SW corer.


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:
Sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Ch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9a 10 11 12 13 --

Sch 26 27 28 29
Ch 20 24 25 26

24 THE POST-RIDER/Il


16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
14 15 15 16 17 18 19 21 23 22


MllIHK No40


June, 1997









PERM
HEPMb
(Perm Province)


Perm was the capital city of the province, located more than 1,100 miles northeast of
Moscow. In 1879 the population was 32,350 and reached 45,403 by 1897.

Perm's industries developed slowly in the latter part of the 19th century and included
shipbuilding, tanneries, soap and candleworks and ropemaking. There was also a gun
factory and munitions works. It was also the location of a monastery, military school and
several scientific institutions.

Perm was located on the banks of the banks of the Kama River and was not only a
important point along a water transportation route but also on the great overland
highway to Siberia. Perm was originally known as Brukhanovo which was founded by
one of the Stroganovs. The name Perm became official in 1781.

Perm issued stamps from 1872 to 1881 and later from 1892 to 1914.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Red background with a silver cross and sheep on brown earth and a golden scripture.


1872 1875
29.75 30.3 x 30 30.5 mm lithographed on various papers, imperforate, 3 editions.


THE POST-RIDER/HMII(HK No. 40
June, 1997










First Edition (January, 1872)
Yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet of 6 x 8 with 6 types in
each horizontal row, period after the word cep. on type 1 only, imperforate.

1.3 kop. black 5.00


The Sheet


Second Edition (1873)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, sheet of 4 x 6 with a transfer block of 4 x 1 and 4 types, all the
types have a period after the word cep..


2. 3 kop. black


The Sheet




12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
1 2 3 4
12 3 4


8.00


THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


123456
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6


1 2 3 4 5 6


123456
1234 56









Third Edition (1875)
Bluish white paper 0.08 mm thick, shiny grayish white gum, sheet of 4 x 2 with a transfer
block of 4 x 1 with 4 types, all stamps have no period after the word cep. there is a thin
connecting line between the thick and thin outer framelines over the letter Ib on the
bottom right.

lb


3. 3 kop. black


5.00


1878 (March)
Similar to previous issues, inscription in block letters and in smaller size, none of the
words in the inscription are abbreviated and there is an ornamental star on the top, inner
circle with background of horizontal lines, the word cep. is omitted, 30 x 30 mm ,
lithographed on white paper 0.13 mm thick, brittle grayish white gum, sheet of 5 x 3 with
5 types in each horizontal row, imperforate.


4. 3 kop. black or black-gray


5.00


From 1881 until 1892 the mail was delivered free of charge.



1892- 1896
This issue was for registered mail only and ordinary mail continued to be carried free of
charge, initially the rate was 5 kop. but it was reduced to 2 kop. in 1899, 25.5 x 32.3 mm,
on various white paper, perforated 11.5, 5 editions.


THE POST-RIDER/HMI(HK No. 40
June, 1997









First Edition (January 1, 1892)
Grayish white paper 0.08 mm thick, shiny yellowish gum, print can be seen through the
back of the stamp, sheet of 7 x 4, space between stamps 3.3 mm .


5. 5 kop. indigo blue

6. 5 kop. aniline rose


5.00

6.00


Second Edition (January, 1893)
With dot on cross in coat of arms, white paper 0.13 mm thick, shiny yellow brown gum,
sheet of 7 x 5 and a transfer block of 7 x 1, space between stamps 3.75 mm .


2.00

2.00


Third Edition (1895)
Dot on cross, yellowish white paper 0.06 mm thick, light yellow gum, print can be seen
through the back of the stamps, sheet of 7 x 7 with a transfer block of 2 x 3 and the 2nd
and 3rd stamps of the first 3 horizontal rows inverted, space between stamps 3.75 4.33
mm.


15.00


The Sheet
4 *


inverted

Fourth Edition (1896)
Similar to the third edition, dots of colour on cross and ball of crown, a horizontal line
across the top of the right leg of nI of KOII as illustrated below, white paper 0.07 mm
thick, light yellow gum, sheet unknown but a 5 x 4 multiple shows a transfer block in a
horizontal row of 1+2+3+4+1.


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


7. 5 kop. dark blue

8. 5 kop. carmine red


9. 5 kop. lilac blue


4SgW44t









10. 5 kop. dark blue


Fifth Edition (1897)
Retouched plate, all shaded parts are lighter especially the right hind leg of the bear, on
white paper 0.07 mm thick, light yellow gum, sheet unknown, distance between stamps
4.25 mm known to have been used bisected in 1899.


11. 5 kop. blue, light or dark


3.00


1899
17.5 x 24.33 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick, brownish
11.5 rough and clean cut.








12. 2 kop. green, light or dark


gum, perforated


2.00


1901 1905
Similar to the issue of 1899, the side numerals 2 are smaller, there is a dot in the centre of
the stamp, the inscriptions are taller, lithographed on white paper perforated 11.5, 3
editions.


First Edition (December, 1901)
White paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet of 11 x 11.


13. 2 kop. emerald green


1.00


Second Edition (April, 1903)
Yellowish gray white paper 0.07 mm thick, brfownish yellow gum, sheet of 8 x 7.


14. 2 kop. yellow rose


1.00


Third Edition (September, 1904)
Similar to 2nd edition but on sheet of 7 x 8.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMImHK No. 40
June, 1997


10.00









15.2 kop. blue


1907- 1914
Similar to the previous issue, a line with a small circle above the word IIHCbMO as
shown below, lithographed on white paper, sheet of 12 x 7 for all 4 editions, perforated
11.5.




1,MCb MO

First Edition (January 14, 1907)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated rough or clean cut,

16. 2 kop. rose, lilac rose 0.75

Second Edition (end of 1908)
As for previous edition but in changed colour.

17. 2 kop. carmine rose 1.00

Third Edition (end of 1912)
Smooth white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, transfer block of 4 x 1 with insignificant
differences between types, rough perforated 11.5, issue of 42,000 stamps.

18. 2 kop. pale rose 0.75

Fourth Edition (November, 1914)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, light brownish gum, some of the stamps of this issue are
known with a strongly permeating print, issue of 44,000 stamps, these stamps were
received from the printer in June of 1914 but not put into use until November.

19. 2 kop. yellow 0.75

Proofs
White paper 0.07 mm thick, imperforate and without gum, printed on small sheets with 4
stamps all in a horizontal row.

- 2 kop. blue
- 2 kop. green

Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:
Sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Ch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 91011 12 13 14 15 15 15 16


30 THE POST-RIDER/IIMlIHK No. 40
June, 1997


I


1.00









PETROZAVODSK
IETPO3ABOJCK
(Olonets Province)


I-P$


Petrozavodsk is located on the shores of Lake Onega in the western part of Olonets
province some 190 miles northeast of St. Petersburg. In 1865 the population was 11,027
and 12,521 by 1897.

The city was founded in 1703 when an ironworks centre was founded there by Peter the
Great but actually put into operation in 1727. Cannonworks were established in
Petrozavodsk in 1774 and the city was designated as the provincial capital in 1802.
Brickworks, tanneries and the facilities for the building of boats as well as the making of
iron and copper were developed at a lesser scale. A mining school and two cathedrals
were other notable features of Petrozavodsk.

Petrozavodsk issued stamps between 1900 and 1916.

Coat of Arms Colours
Top: Silver background with brown bears, golden throne and red cushion.
Bottom: Green and gold alternating stripes with white mallets.


1901 1916
19.33 x 26.25 mm, printed by the State Printing Office in St. Petersburg, typographed on
white paper 0.09 mm thick, white or yellowish white gum, sheet of 5 x 5, perforated 13.25
with small and large holes, probably several editions with shades of colour being the
major difference.


THE POST-RIDER/lMIIHUK No. 40
June, 1997









First Edition (February, 1901)
White paper, perforated 13.25 with large holes, all values except 1 and 2 kop. also have
small holes.

1. 1 kop. brown 0.35

2. 2 kop. orange 0.35

3. 3 kop. green 0.50

4. 5 kop. dark blue 1.00

5. 10. kop. carmine 1.50

6. 15 kop. red lilac 2.00

7. 20 kop. gray 3.00


Imperforate: Apparently one sheet of each of the stamps was printed imperforate.



Second Edition (1908 and May, 1916)
Thin white paper 0.06 mm thick, differences of shades of colour, perforated 13.25 with
small holes, the 5 and 20 kop. stamps also have large holes.

8. 1 kop. brown 0.35

9. 2 kop. orange 0.40

10. 3 kop. green 0.50

11. 5 kop. dark blue (1908) 0.50

12. 10 kop. carmine 1.00

13. 15 kop. red lilac 1.00

14. 20 kop. greenish gray (1908) 1.50


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:
Only the first edition is listed by Chuchin.



32 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997









PIRYATIN
HHPHITHH
(Poltava Province)


Piriatin lies almost in the centre of the province some 80 miles distant from Kiev. The
population was 5,000 in 1868 and rose to 7,000 by 1890.

Piriatin is located in an agricultural and livestock raising area and is along the Kiev to
Poltava highway. The founding of Piriatin has disappeared into the oblivion of time. It is
mentioned as existing in the 11th and 12th centuries and was destroyed by the Mongols
during their invasion of 1239 1242. Is development resumed only two centuries later
and the city was subsequently under both Polish and Russian rule.

Piriatin issued its only stamp in 1868.

Coat of Arms Colours
Burgundy background with golden bow and arrow.


1868
27.66 x 27.75 mm, typographed in black on surface coloured paper 0.06 mm thick, sheet
of 4 x 6, imperforate.


1. 3 kop. black on orange paper


10.00


The stamp is listed identically by both the Schmidt and Chuchin catalogues.


THE POST-RIDER/IHMIHK No. 40
June, 1997











MapKnpOBeaHble


rlocJie nyo6IH1KaiM HeCKOrbKHX MOHX CTaTel B pa3ge-
ne > <. a TaK.Ke c[HJiaTen"c-
T'IeCKIIX paccKa30B o TyBe B xypHane <(1HjIaTeJInHa KO
MHe O6paTiHnHCb MHOrHe KOJUieKUHOHepbi C npocb6bof oc-
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o npo6ax. o UlTeMnene Be.noUapcKa. o 3aKa3HblX WTaM-
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FIocTapaIocb OTBeTHTb. B KaHYH HOBoro floa HaqHy, no-
>KaJyl, IMeHHO C KOHBepTOB. flyCTb KTO-TO 13 HaliHX
-MNTaTejle, npocMOTrpeB CBOKO KOJIneKqHIO, cRejiaeT CaM
ce6e HOBorOfHHM noaapoK, o6Hapy>KHs Hes3BCecTHyo emy
paHee pa3HOBHaHOCTb KOHBepra TyBbi.
MapKHpOBaHHble KOHBepTbL TyBHHCKOA HapOtHOf
pecnyGJnHKH (THP), B OTJIMHHe OT MHoroHHcneHHbIx
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1935 roana GbiiH OCHOBHblMH 3HaKaMH lO'ITOBOfi onna-
Tbl tacTHOA KoppecnoHaeHuHH.. HH OAjIH KaTanor MHpa.
SBKIolaSI t1 H3BeCTHbi, MICHEL GANZSACHE-KA-
TALOG, HX He AaeT. lIHuWb B MOHorpaq(bH C. SnjexMa-
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< M., 1976, c. 109-111). HHnre TyBHHCKHe KOHBepTb1 nt
He ot tIeHbi. B HaCToamllee BpeMa ace OHH peMKH. B
IupItBOIMMOM HHKe OnHCaHHH yKa3aHbi JIH41b HX CTene-
HH pe:;KOCTII, iHCIHCJeHHble aHaJiOTrHIHO TaKOBbIM A1RJI
MapoK a ynOMRHyTOM )KypHaJlbHOM KaTanjOre-cnpaBO4-
HHKC. 'ITO we KacaeTCR L eH, TO, KaK noKa3aJi MHOrO-
neTHMI OinbT, tueHa Ha Kaxabli 113 HHX ROrOBOpHasi
(UI,). OAHaKo He TOJibKO ueHb, Tpe6yorT yro'leHHa,
HO TaK;4Ce H naTbI BbinyCKa, BbIXO[HblC lIaHHble if apyrne
xapaKTeplcTHKH. Bce paccMaTpHaaeMbie KOHBepTbi
HMeIOT 3aocTpeHHblA BepxHMH KJ1anaH IH OTne'laTaHbi
TiinorpacjICKM cnOCO6OM. Bcero IIX 1313aHO, He C'IHTaB
pa3HOBH3AHOCTCeI, UCCTb HOMepoo (KI K6). Hx
yro'l4HCHlHble naHHbIe cneyiK)LlOe.
1935. Lions Benaa rn3aaKna yMara (6yM.) 6e3 BuoSHOro 3Na-
Ka (i. 3.). 'a3Mep 162-163 x 128-129 MM. Bcc TCKCTI. Hane-
'laTanllu jnaTIHll3HpOBaHHlbIM IIpH()TrOM, An anupeca rTnpaBHTC-
111 HitnC'IaTaHO TpH CTpOKI. 1I ncjOM nepxiic yrny rep6
THP. 'PaccTroNne MeKay rcp6oM i MapKOR (M.) COCTBanBRCT 67
MM, r[Iyrps torllTiaTaI CIIHMi opiaInMCiT (py6OawKa), B ocHony
KOTO)1OrO InOeJ1)KCH KBIapaT. H3rOTOnnICI B MOCKBC.
Cronesn pOAKOcrT
4HCTibir raj HblA
K 1. 20 m unuiiC c ponmionu)iol M.. 3000 2000


noatnopnivii'trei) cwmen .N.,
.C1Ipaw-i04Iul41e noi / Af 47
ffY0(II4A(I 113 IIOM6IIWCAW('()
o4(pltiMeilal (196 1.)
V11. J. (JlI(IKO-. 6 V.)1if P)(1111M,


.1000 1500
- 1'


KOBepTbi Tynbi

1937. 1lo0Tope/He npejuwinyu~ero KOHaepTa B N3MeHCHHOM
LtoeTc. yVM. 6onee TOJCTasi. cepooarasa 6e3 B. 3. Pa3Mep
160-162 x 127-128 hiM. PaccToS[nne Mewity rep6om H At. 52
MM. BHYrpH CnHHB py6amsca H3 poM6NqeCcOrO opHaMeHTa. 143-
roToBneH B MocKue.
K2. 20Kx. 1 epuiblcpC PoMuowAOHaff M.., 3000 1500
noamopnRk14eli cik)mC M. A 47
C Te'eHHeHm opeMeHH 6vplara KoHBepTa )KeJ1TeeT. TCMHeeT,
cTaHOBHTCR Wo'ITH Kopwaiecorl H JOMKOA.
1939. CepoBaTo-JenTo0BaTaR 6vi.. 6eC S. 3. Pa3Mep 160- 162
x 127-128 hiM. 1IPH(PT TeKCTOB Melb'le, ieM y KI H K2. ThB
agpeca oTnpasBTCienR Hane'iaTaHo TOJ1bKO ABe CTPOKH. rep6 THP
yMeH1weH. PaccToRHHe Me3wzy HI/ m M. 72 MM. BHyrpH CHHIBSI
py6aWKa 'fo'ri ao OpHaMeHT H3 CTHJIH3OBaHHbix aTpHmvToB
Nowlrbi (Kpy)KoqIn-urre1rnenA, ripsMoyrojibHHKH-MapicH yBiAH.
Lie/I/be nppMoyron6HHKH-KoHBep'se H npo04.), coeglMHeHHLIX Te-
.ierpacpHblMH JIcHTaMH. 43rOTOBneH B MOCKBe.
K3. 20 cepo-qbuoAemosHu! 4000 3000
c fpR.MOYO/hHO6 .L,
nuemopnioue(1 cKioxem n. h 71
1940. Maii. flo1rOpefite npeabi21y~uero KoHIBCpra B H3MeIeH-
HOM LtseTe. PaCCTORHI/ MC)KJY rep6oM H M. 74 MM. H3rovro3neH
B MOCKBe.
K4. 20K. cuHuO C npnmowvzoAhl .i.. 4000 3500
flO(PR/~O ioiu cir'.em AL. .h 71
a. 1CMRHo-cunuaU 4000 3500
1942-1943. BeaaR wepoxosaraa OyM. 6e3 B. 3. PaMep
160 x 120 mHm. Mecay rep6om H M. Hane'eaTaHo r1O-TVBHHCKH 113-
peLieiiHe CTarn/I/a. KoTopoe B nepeeone 3Ha4HT: -3a HaWy no6e-
Ay Briepeag(. Py6auMlKH HeT. 1l3roToBneH B Kb1361e.
K5. 25K. cuuuiwcn flpAMOVfa1hRO6l, PPP
onle'/amanHwoi c KAuuie
Ac A5 142 (1kM 17paHumeAhcmaa)
Tipa* 661JI HC(OOnbII. .5 H OH Becb pa3OwejicR B OCHOBsHOM B
Tyne.
1943-1944. rlonropeuIe npeAblulyllero KoBeprTa. Ho c 3a-
meIIoO KnItue h. M3roTonnBiC B K6s1b31e.
K6. 25 0 1HIIIIU C IPRMOV0lbi HOil M., 20000 10000
Onlflt41llnl(ijOlu C K/C4utu
.1. Mt 143 (CeAhXuclhNcrnaaxa)


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ro Kaiccnma (&'aai 'lytb i(eJ1To 11T9, (TrOJlU(CNH laR...).
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Internal designs: The Post, Rhomboids and Squares.


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--






THE STAMPED ENVELOPES OF TUVA
by F. Vanius.
(translated from the Russian newspaper "PRAVDA-5" of 27 December 1996).

After the publication of some of my articles in the "Collector" section of "Pravda-5" and also philatelic
tales about Tuva in the magazine "IHnaJaTenju", many collectors turned to me with the request to reply to
those questions, which have not been covered previously: about the proofs, about the postmark of
Belotsarsk, about the registration markings and especially about the stamped envelopes (postal
stationery), as the data about them in the Catalogue-Handbook in the magazine "HjnaaTejna", Nos. 4, 6
& 8 of 1992 were clearly insufficient. I will try to reply. With the onset of New Year's Eve, I will now
start specifically with the stamped envelopes. Let us hope that our readers will look into their collections
and give us a New Year's gift by finding a hitherto unknown variety in the Tuvan envelopes.

The stamped envelopes of the Tuvan National Republic (TAR) were intended exclusively for postal
needs, in contrast to the numerous vivid pictorials. From 1935, they were particularly based on the
postage stamps used for private mail. Not even the well-known MICHEL GANZSACHEN-KATALOG
lists them, let alone any of the universal catalogues. One can find short notes about them only in the
monograph by S. Blekhman (C.M. BjiexMaH: "I/CTopi I nOiTbI n 3HaKH noqTOBOHf OInIaTbl TyBbI",
MocKBa 1976, cTp. 109-111). The Tuvan envelopes have never been priced anywhere and, as of now,
they are all rare. In listing them below, only the grades of rarity are given, enumerated as with the postage
stamps referred to in the Catalogue-Handbook, printed in ">HniaTenjin". With regard to pricing, that can
only be based on many years' experience and by agreement. However, not only prices, but also the dates
of issue, visual data and other characteristics have to be taken into account. All the envelopes examined
so far have pointed upper flaps and were printed by the typographic process. Not counting varieties, six of
them (KI to K6) were issued in all. The specific details are as follow:-

1935, June. Smooth white paper, without watermark. Size 162-163x128-129mm. All the text is in the
Latinised alphabet. Three lines are printed for the name and address of the sender. The arms of the Tuvan
National Republic are at top left. The distance between the arms and the imprinted stamp is 67 mm. The
interior of the envelope has an ornamental design ("py6almKa"), printed in blue and composed of squares
(see at bottom right of the previous page). Prepared in Moscow. Grade of Rarity
Mint Used
KI. 20k. Diamond-shaped stamp imprinted in blue and repeating the design 3000 2000
of the 5-kop. "Yak" stamp of 1934 (Gibbons No. 47).
I. Internal design in rhomboid form (1936). 3000 1500
A. On greyish-green paper with a mosaic watermark; no internal design. R

1937. Repetition of the previous envelope, but with the colour changed. Thicker and greyish paper,
without watermark. Size 160-162x127-128mm. The distance between the arms and the imprinted stamp is
now 52mm. Blue internal design with rhomboid ornamentation. Prepared in Moscow.

K2. 20k. Black, with the same diamond-shaped stamp imprinted in black. 3000 1500
With the passage of time, the paper has yellowed and darkened, becoming almost brown and brittle.

1939. On greyish-yellow paper, without watermark. Size 160-162x127-128mm. The letters of the text are
smaller than for K1 and K2. Only two lines are now given for the name and address of the sender. The
arms of the Tuvan National Republic are reduced in size. The distance between the arms and the
imprinted stamp is 72mm. The internal design has a "Post" theme, composed of stylised postmarks,
stamps, envelopes etc., linked by telegraphic tapes (see at the bottom right of the previous page). Prepared
in Moscow.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 40 35
June, 1997






K3. 20k. Violet-grey, with a rectangular imprinted stamp repeating the design of the 4000 3000
5-kop. sable stamp of 1935 (Gibbons No. 70)

1940, May. Repetition of the previous envelope, with a colour change. The distance between the arms
and the imprinted stamp is 74mm. Prepared in Moscow.

K4. 20k. Blue, with a rectangular imprinted stamp 4000 3500
a. Dark blue 4000 3500

1942-1943. Rough white paper, without watermark. Between the arms and the imprinted stamp, there is
printed in Tuvan a slogan by Stalin, which translates as: "For our victory / forward!". No internal design.
Prepared in Kyzyl.
K5. 25k. Blue, with a rectangular design imprinted with the die for the stamp Gibbons RRR
No. 133 (Government House).
This item had a small printing and was completely used up in Tuva.

1943-1944. Repetition of the previous envelope, but with another imprinted die. Prepared in Kyzyl.
K6. 25k. Blue, with a rectangular design imprinted with the die for the stamp Gibbons 20,000 10,000
No. 132 (Agricultural Exhibition).
There are grounds for suggesting that this envelope kept on being printed as required right up to October
1944, as it is known on various grades of paper: white, almost yellowish and of a thicker grade.

From 1945, the centralised envelopes of the USSR went exclusively on sale in the Tuvan Autonomous
Province of the RSFSR. The Tuvan envelopes were formally taken out of circulation in September 1945,
although by then there were practically none left to be sold. In closing, I feel obliged to express my
gratitude to V.V. Lakshtanov, P.B. Trusov, A. M. Churashev, S.A. Shestopal and other collectors for the
help extended to me in unravelling the characteristics of the envelopes described, here.
Editorial Comment:
The only example of these envelopes _. -- .. ,
ever recorded in the West was by -. .
W.H. Adgey-Edgar years ago in the .N -
defunct "Weekly Philatelic Gossip" .. '' .
of Holton, Kansas. This was of K2 ... -i'- '
and the Latinised inscriptions are in Kajnaar _____ _
the ULTA (Unified Latin Turki //
Alphabet), used by all the Soviet io 1 .o) / K 7 .. "
Turki republics, Mongolia and (' .a- > ua:
Tuva from 1930 to 1941. The
(arean, turlaq ai& pazn, ere ,)d W )
translation is as follows:- p
"To where Kbmga .. re I
(region or town) -
(district or street)
(quarter, billet or house, room No.) Pizeen kizlnin turar ceri polga' adb: 7~(- gzay
To whom 7. -,e .
Writing person's dwelling place and ..--, ...
name: 'Tuvan Herdsman's Republic,
town of Kyzyl, TAR, Chief of
Communications (i.e. PM)'". Note that it was registered by adding a 70k.stamp of the 1936 Jubilee set and
cancelled with a strike of the rare KbZbL "b" marking, dated 2.9.37. Tuvan is a Turki language, but it has
borrowed from Mongolian, as is evident from the inscriptions given here. *
36 THE POST-RIDERSIMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997








,.- .. i FOREIGN MAIL SENT TO TUVA
by A.V. Savost'yanov.


,. 'Such items during the independent
S* period are hard to find and I show two
Soviet letters sent during the BOB
S' (WWII) to Turan. The example at
left was from Usman 23.2.43 with two
Censors, including No. 15 in Moscow
Sand KbZbL TbBA transit 20.4.43.
S-I -' Unpaid, but no postage due raised.
CAf /
'-.''-:' ^ ^' y ^ ^: :-^>^^;.; : '- t.




i ; .... ?. "












The tri/an. /a"lrl.o s
triangular letter al



;noted by Moscow-4 ---. A'


untpad and double taxing











THE POST-RIDER/5IMII HK No. 40 3
Junetransit, 1997
7.42.





THE POST RIDER/IMMHK No. 40
June 1997
June, 1997






SOME ITEMS OF POSTAL AND HISTORICAL INTEREST
by Professor A.S. Ilyushin.

Quite a few such examples in our fields of collecting have been featured in preceding issues of "The
Post-Rider" and I will now describe some specific items that have come my way over the years.

Fig. 1 on the next page shows a 40-kop. postal stationery envelope, sent to Moscow from Kaganovich,
Moscow province, 12.4.56 and with serial letter "a".
Editorial Comment: This is an interesting piece of Judaica, as the town was named after the hard-line
Stalinist political figure Lazar Moiseevich Kaganovich. He was born on 22.11.1893 in Kabany, 120 km.
(75 miles) N.E. of Kiev and died in his 97th. year on 25.7.1991 in Moscow. Among other projects, he
superintended the construction of the Moscow Metro, which also bore his name for some years. He was
expelled from the Central Committee of the Communist Party in 1957, as a member of the "Anti-Party
Group" which opposed the policies of N.S. Khrushchev. The only known biography is by an American
nephew, Stuart Kahan, who wrote "The Wolf of the Kremlin" (William Morris & Co. Inc., New York
1987). Mr. Kahan states that eight towns in all were named after L.M. Kaganovich, but he does not say
where they were located. Any further information on that point would be most appreciated.

Fig. 2 has a 20-kopek stamped envelope with a "Staliniana" theme, prepared by Goznak on 26.5.34 in an
issue of one million copies and, on the backs, advertising a campaign for "30T" (3A OBJIAJIEHHE
TEXHHKOI = For the Mastery of Technology). The left panel reads: "The ZOT brigades of wood-
processing enterprises should become exponents in the productive quality and craftsmanship of work.
Every member of a 'ZOT' cell should read the ZOT magazine 'Wood Processing"! The panel at right
states: "The combative task of the 'ZOT' cells is to transform the wood-processing enterprises into
factories of uninterrupted study of technology. The public and technical examinations are a powerful
means for fighting against demurrage, damage and defective material in the enterprises". At bottom
centre and around the badge with the head of Stalin: "Technology in the period of reconstruction decides
everything", flanked by the inscription: "The 'ZOT' badge to every shock worker processing wood and
mastering technology".

Fig. 3 features a letter from Kiev, with postal code 11-Y-4 and dated 3.7.35, sent to Gelendzhik 6.7.35
and with a Ukrainian text handstamped on the back (shown here in actual size). It starts off with a
famous slogan by Stalin, pronounced after the horrors of collectivisation: "Life has become better,
comrades; life has become merrier". The rest of the text is unreadable, so perhaps some member can
come up with a clearer strike of this historic cachet.

Fig. 4. Here we have a 15-kop stamped envelope, posted in the Leningrad Volodarskii District 8.12.32
and addressed to Stalin in Moscow at the "IH.IK" (L1eHTpanibHbi m IcnojiHMrenbHblii KoMrreT =
Central Executive Committee).

Fig. 5 has a registered letter from Aban, Krasnoyarsk province 25.11.50, serial letter "a", apparently sent
by a deported Armenian Tomas Mnatsakanovich Miansarian and addressed to Stalin in the Kremlin.

In Fig. 6 on p. 40, we see another letter of Armenian interest, as it is addressed entirely in that language
to Moscow, Kremlin, CPSU (Bolsheviks) and namely to Stalin. Prepaid 60 kop. (for registration?), it
was sent on 10.12.39 from somewhere in Armenia (our Armenian readers should be able to tell us
where). Received in Moscow 18.12.39, with appropriate translation of the address into Russian.

Fig. 7. This is a registered item (8 kop. for an internal letter and 10 kop. registration fee), sent through
the Odessa Goods Exchange Office 23.8.27 to Moscow in the last years of NEP (New Economic Policy).
38 THE POST-RIDER/RMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997












411
Sy. L.: 0-4

'.7 ...' .. .




: .I .1a



L. cf 4r ^^


Adpec omnpansmejn.: 2 -
4.21 Z- =' -'- .


Fig. 1.


30TOBCBIIE
BPHrAALI HA
1IEPEB005PABATbI-
BAIOIMIX IPEaPnn-
TIIRX JI OIIILI CTATb
nOKA3ATMl3bHbIl 1n 0 KA-
'IECIBY nPO3YRIII HP n'PO-
iH3BOIIHTEALIIOCT TPYMA.
IAH EIAR AEI 9qEnKI /'
,,30T" A0.M1IIEH 'HTATL
30TOTBCKiii HIYPIIAI
..AEPEB00 PA- .
0 T K A"


'&. '~ c **=1.


Fig. 2.
~------ ''". .- ,/--;--- ..

,,'HiiTH OTanio Kpa,-..

TOBa'pWHUi.

I :- rT OTanTio, sceniiue

S(CTa ii H)









S .,-- -:-" > "-- / '


-I------


Fig. 3.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIlIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Fig. 5.


I


I., ,
.. -,.... .. ..., .... .. ........ ... r... p ..
S .... ... .. ....... p ,



- t f i
... ..... ... .. ......... "p ...... .. ..

Adpec Omnpasanmea "


(JeoCKC.' Alpewkt U5 11


---- ^ .<<-- -
/eeeoahii Creeia da/ uei od CCI









^eeo mnaS', ycpage eisueue,. o 7oa*t gW.

:-"Auucne.cpej. M7lo n~s~ CiIca $"A-,~~


IIPEBPA.
TlHT 1EPEBO-
O0PAATUlIBAIO.
B 3A 01 l CIIOHfllIOR
TEXYLEB6bl-EOEBA
3AAAIAA IIEEN ,,3OT-.:
IEMIIECTBEIIIHO -TEFiqECIhlIE
3KAEJ. hE -. lOtIHOECPUE.
CTBO COP Lu C IPO-
CTO.MIH. ABAPiB.III1.
EPAIOM IIA nPEiI.
IIPU2799X


.... ii


I--L ~~--- -~


~f~f~




























Fig. 6.


<0 .A o .C /

MOCK

QSL Bropo geH
Blopo ceKupi*
BOAH


USSR. Mosco
Karuninskaia pl.
Qsl Bureau. Central
waves sec


f /






\: ) ,Fig. 7.















BECnJiRTHO


BA,
aAb, AOM 2/5 *
TpaAbHora
KOpOTKIHX

T6OSLA ,1,RAt sg- .0G

/ .. ......

Bureau Short f *
tio. + Fig. 8.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMI~IK No. 40
June, 1997


----
:- ~i
~ ~-f':

9..



~-x~ s~


I- ---

rc~~~ .,~/~Lm4
'3~a-.
~PS,

~i~-
:. /~Ll~_j~L~Cd-U-yi(L~(W) g. sig. c
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--- -- IC-



























Fig. 10.


Fig. 13. THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 40 Fig 14
June, 1997


Fig. 9.























- / 77 -



^/ I
- k' ^ '
Fig 5.. .

Fig. 15.


nap..,.


I ^.-I- 1


VHShV'Xti




OT


npanBTe.a: rJABnPODOBP, SIOPO 3AOqHOFO
npl JIOMOHOCOBCKOM HHCTIITyTe


OGY'IEEHfl


MocKBa, 9. BAaroBeujeHcKuir nep., A. 1.


Fig. 17.


-/ 3'
.,-.,--,.-,, -/.. '^/, S ,
no9ToBAS7HPT K '*HA c.


rnn

...-, ^^- 1 ^^ -
'-i/*. *..*/* '-: / cx
'c*-. .a -,^y- 1' -
^ __ fs ibocw::^ --.'-*-


Fig. 18.


Fig. 19.

THE POST-RIDER/IIMIlHK No. 40
June, 1997


KA ^
:, "- -r.- -; ':. 0,',- .-
i -_ .,.. -- : -





I'l l
:.... -, -., 2 '0
.. ... ;,f .. .




: .' ; "-:L : '-- ". -. .


Fig.20.


OTKPbITOI

,Ad flHCbMA


1. l).. ,.

S. ."
- .-. ..1 ..



l, .i Is A i.
,, .


-


\^,J ^


Fig. 16.


---,


I -- I-- -






Fig. 8 on p. 40. Soviet short-wave operators were regulated by a Central QSL Bureau in Moscow and
special cards containing reporting data could be sent postfree, in accordance with Circular No.23/150 of
11 May 1924 of the People's Commissariat of Communications (Bulletin No. 160), as stated at top right
front of the card shown here.

Fig. 9 on p. 41. This registered letter from Khabarovsk 19.3.26 to Moscow had the correct total rate of
18 kopeks made up with two 8-kopek "Small Heads" definitive, plus a 2-kopek postage due stamp.
Postage due stamps were abolished as of 1 February 1926 and some were subsequently used as here in
the capacity of postage stamps, but that was unauthorised.

Fig. 10. Another registered letter is presented here, sent locally from Moscow-23 on 26.5.41 and
correctly prepaid at the 15-kopek local letter rate, plus 30 kopeks for the internal registration fee. It is
addressed to the Prison Administration of the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs).

Figs. 11 & 12 feature dispensary reports sent postfree by the provincial administrations of Ryazan'
8.7.10 and Tambov 2.8.11 to the Medical Administration in Moscow. Both of the senders applied
special seals on the backs of the reports to denote exemption from postal charges. That was confirmed
one day later by being backstamped at the Moscow 5th. Despatch Exemption Department (JIbr. OTq).

Fig. 13. The rate for this card, posted in Moscow 12.5.18 should have been 20 kopeks. It was underpaid
by 5 kopeks and so it was taxed at double the deficiency, as denoted by the )OnIJIATHTb "10" oval
marking of the Moscow No. 2 office.

Fig. 14. This cover was sent unpaid from Odessa 15.10.23 and was correctly taxed on arrival in Moscow
at the equivalent of 12 gold kopeks (double the deficiency).

Fig. 15. This example is from the same correspondence, but it does not reproduce well, as it was lightly
written in pencil. The writer was now in Sevastopol' on 30.10.23 and, once again, did not prepay the
letter. This time, the postage due was assessed (incorrectly, it seems) at 15 gold kopeks. See on p. 42.

Fig. 16 shows a card sent from Yalta, Crimea 25.6.28 to Tiflis. It was apparently partly prepaid, but the
stamp has fallen off. There are several markings in Georgian, including an oval bilingual one of Tiflis,
presumably indicating that 5 kopeks were still due on this item.

Fig. 17. It would seem that the Office of Correspondence Courses at the Lomonosov Institute in
Moscow had limited franking privileges under Article No. 136, as indicated at the top, together with a
space for a stamp at top right. This particular example was sent at a wrapper rate of 2 kopeks on 7 May
1929 to Pupil No. 1169-T in Perm'.

Fig. 18. The card here was sent from Kislovodsk 18.7.12 to Delizhan 24.7.12 in Armenia, which was
not a common destination in those days.

Figs. 19 & 20. The 20-kopek reply card was sent censored from Moscow 27.11.41 to the oil refinery at
Orsk in the Chkalov province, where it was received early in December. A clear strike of the receiving
office is given in Fig. 20 and it reads ORSK REFINERY PLANT CHKALOV, with serial letter "a".

Fig. 21 overleaf shows a telegram form, advertising a "Picture-Communication" service (BHJIbA-
CB5I3b) for 5 roubles between Moscow and Leningrad, i.e. a picture-gram service for transmitting
photos, diagrams, drawings, resumes, printed texts, manuscripts etc within the dimensions of 10 x 218
cm. It was thus the forerunner of the present-day FAX system.
THE POST-RIDER/IaMIHIK No. 40 43
June, 1997










nolb3 fTECh
nepePna e ri
Ir3SEPA5EHEHl




.-.---
.^~3~.-.


Mea,,
ir HeW 1i
nOMblAirE MOCKo m n.e .urpao.....
cyusecTBy-T
OOTO BHAb-CBHI3b
TEIPAIm M Topr 'o rt o1:0 1CBmn... .
.O Ix tOpejl r, oo 1utio. 0.ey, p *
I~a 11 1I '*t.,?;"'*..t, ";"*


.;; L)~
* ...d.
* /,t '?


Fig. 21.









* *


The World Philatelic Exhibition


17. 26.10.1997 "s i





MOCKB V97

Welcome to Reservations for dealers
t MOSCOW-97 booths, exhibitors, seminars,
society tables and club
memberships.

For information write to:
V. Sinegubov, Union of
Philatelists of Russia,
12, Tverskaya street, 103831,
:, Moscow, GSP-3, Russia.


MARKA
PUBLISHING AND
TRADING CENTRE


General Sponsors


JSC
,,The International
Economic Cooperation"


SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT.
As this is the 20th. Anniversary of our Canadian Society of Russian Philately, we will continue to
celebrate during 1997 by expanding No. 41 of "The Post-Rider/HMIIHK" also to 120 pages. With
our usual punctuality, we expect to have it out by the end of the year and trust that our members will be
suitably overwhelmed.
*
44 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


ENIC MAHMA(~\


_ ___ _~____


_ ~ __


ci~j









A MODERN RUSSIAN POSTAL FORGERY


by David Link.


..1. l a. u P
.A POCC1Lj? POCC1P


I bought this item recently in a Cover Exchange mail auction. According to their description, the 5000-r.
stamp is a forgery, made to bilk the postal service. The total franking on this airmail registered express
cover is 10,210 roubles. It would appear that the 5000r. actually counted as part of the postage, as the
total amount comes to the equivalent of under US $2.00. The cancellation reads SANKT PETERBURG
P-372 04 09 96 20. There is no arrival marking, which seems unusual for a registered letter, but then I
do not know what the rules are in Japan. A comparison with another cover bearing a presumably
genuine copy of this 5000-r. stamp (Scott 6125A, Michel 42 Iv) has revealed the following differences:-


Genuine
Paper white, matte
Perf. 12 x 12 (not 12 1/2 x 12 as Scott says)
Colour blue-green (Scott)


Forgery
paper very slightly greyish, shiny
perf. 11 x 11
colour blue-green, but less intense.


The most immediately obvious differences lie in the quality of the design. In the genuine version, the
theatre has been rendered with numerous fine lines that are not visible in the forgery. For example, the
upper front steps of the forgery are a solid block of colour. The same applies to the gable end trim and
the area in shade below the lower roof. The "b" of "rub." is in outline in the forgery, while it is solid in
the genuine. The impression sizes are the same. It would be interesting to see if this forgery is in Michel.

THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIIHK No. 40 45
June, 1997







THE FIRST CENSORSHIP MARKING OF THE BALTIC FLEET
by Jinis Ozolips.


In my collection of the
siege of Leningrad, the
earliest letter with the
marking
FIPOCMOTPEHO
BOEHHOH
~IEH3YPOI (=
Examined by the
Military Censorship)
is dated July 1941.
There was still no
uniform system of
military censorship at
that time. The mail of
sailors, letters from
military units or civilian
letters were struck with
differing cachets in
various sizes and heights.
I should like now to
discuss in more detail


the mail from the Baltic Naval Fleet. First of all, a short review of the history of those days. By the end of
August 1941, the German divisions had advanced right up to Leningrad. The city was surrounded on all
sides. On 8 September, the town of Shlisselburg fell and the Germans reached the southern shore of Lake
Ladoga. On another flank, the Germans seized Slutsk and Pushkin and got to the shores of the Gulf of
Finland. On the northern side, Finnish forces took Beloostrov and crossed the River Svir'. Giant pincers
enveloped and squeezed Leningrad (see Fig. 1).


: -

















Fig. 2.
."1 ,' ..S





Fig. 2.


/A/
01,
1;7'


ici,; t ei3k-'J3 3.~.~



--A 441,j09 ZL



C. _.


Fig. 3.


THE POST-RIDER/SIMmIHK No. 40
June, 1997


THE BLOCKADE OF L E N I Q S R A D
CPl.;. G.RUPA4 '>T. '
OPER. GROUP) \. .. *

K.FINLAN~D', ?~
L E N I HG: A
I- -



F / N 0 N



'I. KI~~~~ s
I -
/ l..R

SALIWAS "LOTE' ILEN INGRADRD ;i

ORAi;NIEUBAUM 7
STRELM~ Sq A' _~,


Fig. 1. G R rAM A P Y G1 Y 0


R 03


n


'r,
,-C ~tci
j~
~CC-CI t






The civilian population then amounted to 2,544,000 persons, including about 400,000 children. There
were a further 343,000 residents in the suburbs. Many refugees were also in the city and so the total
number of people could not be determined exactly. The overall area of the besieged territory came to
3600 sq. km. (about 1370 sq. miles), of which about 11% was covered by the city proper.An especially
important role in the defence was played by the fortress of Kronshtadt (on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of
Finland). A destructive barrage was kept up from the batteries of the fortress and the guns of the Baltic
Fleet.

In looking over the mail of Baltic Fleet sailors, it can be determined that, from October 1941 to October
1942, a special marking of military censorship was utilised, with the arms of the USSR on the left side
and, at right, a text in two lines reading FIPOCMOTPEHO / BOEHHOII IjEH3YPOII (see Fig. 2).
Apart from this marking, numbers are also to be found (but not on all pieces of mail) and they are very
likely those of the censors. I know of the following numbers: 1, 5, 6, 8, 69, 70 and 78 (see Figs. 3, 5 & 6).
__--' CMcT. HeMeKHM OKxKynaHTa," .;






BnepeAt Ht 3ana I OmcTTu coseT ny)o
3eM10no or 4au1ICTCreKx 3SSXaTMHHrK I


nOHTOBAF HAPTOHA A












am o 4., I2 .
yoa "-, ,, C






. ....... f ....... .. .. .




..... ...... ..


MOPCKAI
1-IOTA a
io 1001.



Fig. 4.


ID DA \~~A~ts


'*..--. ... ,C ,, ., ________________,.-__. _. .
,5 5. ,-
's e--c'n4..:~ ~ L ? '
:9 0 01 czuf 49 10, 9 "-5 C 0C' 6


'UTaaue b uucamt.ruemuccKU X-PIo KCb J 1U3
M 3.95. TUo. 50 (X. LI(es 25 Ken. Orr. pea. r. E. JeGee.er.
.M 21. 2l- Tsun. Hm. 1Hu. 0exopoea. 3a1.. !53. .eHinrp:I 191!


THE POST-RIDERSIMIIIRIK No. 40 41
June, 1997


Fig. 5.


.ocancma HHbc'l eoCCKu .r .M1Y3z
B. 'eJPrX, C. <. M KWHo a XK6lUHar. 193f; r.


-----CL-- ---. ------ ~PI---















f ~ ~ r/- I~-- 1 ~ ~ s~oee~r xcnrr~
-- ~~ ax..

~i









rjr
..r.... r............ ....~H




K o ......... .... .... ..





...1 .................. Ina'










BnepeA, ma3 3anaA 04I ~CTHM cioneTCKYo Om4 od -
2eMYl1o OT QSUJIICTCI414X 3a3XIaT'4Wcae




Fig. 6.


BCECOIO3HAA CE;9b-CRD.T9QfiMtCHR qq
BbICTABKA 7 7 cOrl !bO6E4 / :
COVAMA P'FkCXO 'ffM E.E



..~. ....../


MOPCKA5I

rnOtTA a

JV_ 1104.


. pCnflflp' ~fclf


Fig. 8.

All the illustrations

have been taken

from my exhibit "The

Siege of Leningrad",

as shown in Oslo at

NORWEX '97,

48 16-21 April.


) ... KA..SWNAA GORKA N G

7L PEN 7 1- ,


SI BAi .UM




~Y ...- .i C
'BRIDGE. HEAD -c- -






--.7


-j Fig 7.X-1
~~..cr--:Z~e,: I
Fig.~r r.I'. .


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHUK No. 40
June, 1997


J


i


1"
E
r.
--
-
U
- -
L


%-
C=
--
--
~

I
r
r:
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We see in Figs. 3 & 4 that the censorship marking is either on the front or the back. The cards were sent
through BMIIC No 1001(Naval Postal Station No. 1001) at Kronshtadt. In Figs. 5 & 6 we see the
numbers 69 and 70 struck, in addition to the censorship marking.

A special role during the siege was played by the "Malaya Zemlya" seaside staging ground. After the
seizure of the town of Strel'na by the Germans, the city of Oranienbaum with the fort of "Krasnaya Gorka"
became isolated from the other forces on the Leningrad Front. The Oranienbaum staging ground defended
the approaches to Kronshtadt. That bridgehead lasted throughout the siege and in January 1944 there
began from that area the counter-offensive of the Soviet forces, which culminated in the liberation of
Leningrad (Fig. 7). We can see in Fig. 8 a letter sent through Naval Postal Station No. 1104 ("Krasnaya
Gorka" Fort) on 29.1.42 to the town of Galich in Yaroslavl' province. The families of the sailors were
evacuated from Leningrad to that province.
A further card was
Sent on 15.5.42 from
S; ,, the Black Sea Fleet
.i ,: '" :. ,, .i (N aval Postal Station
Z .-'I .*-'--, ,_. u .I.er. uo eu ini i / ,.- ... No. 1134 atthe
'y -~: ,2"\L" P\Sevastopol'garrison),
S. -That port was also
lyjA.. LL ...~ .-() '-' .surrounded and the
,e ,- / card was sent to
S, ---- --- Oranienbaum, where
S- it was received on
... 11.6.42. There are no
._,_ censorship markings
Loo;o. a. on the card. It was
printed for the mail
Ia iina-x yamit pi r ii:.r. pp ..I i b i en 'v.i of servicemen and
S: .- reflects the appeals
p fL%.. .cL^4 .(tof that period, as
o npaxre. 1 Z 1 11 T shown at top centre
SIenia 3 Fig. 9. .;and across the
S-bottom in Fig. 9:-
"Be alert and keep military and state secrets. The divulgence of state secrets is treachery and a betrayal
of the mother country".
"Panic is the worst enemy. Fight the panic-mongers and unmask the whisperers".
The garrison at Tallinn (Estonia) was
S0. ^L\ Ic\ (-T evacuated in the last days of August 1941.
C'r 4\ 0~ The defenders of the naval bases on the
,x o0 (^ (^ G Moonzund Islands and the Hanko
S' Peninsula found themselves in rear of the
e e ^ b ^s o e- i v o's, enemy, but kept up a stiff resistance. The
survivors of the garrisons were evacuated
to Leningrad in Oct. 1941. I am showing here
"ka, o e.. r 3 in Fig. 10 a cover from Hanko (Naval Postal
Stn. No.1108 on 5.10.41). A censor mark
and the figure "1" are on the back. It was
sent to Yaroslavl' province, but there is no
-oew o- r cr .. .O indication of receipt. This is a very rare item.
1 0 Fg-... .i. .':* :. .1._. * *
.:. ^-s'^<. '. ^*Fig. 10.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40 49
June, 1997






IMPERIAL MAIL
by Rabbi L.L. Tann.

We all utilise the work of others and build on the foundations established by fellow collectors. Let me pay
a well-deserved tribute to David Skipton for his brilliant and seminal notes in the Rossica Journal Nos.
113 & 114 on the State Chancellery of the Tsar's Court and the various types of Chancellery postmarks
usually applied to incoming mail. While the Chancellery dealt with mail not only addressed to the
Emperor and Imperial Family, but also to high officials of the Court and Secret Police functionaries
operating there, I would like to show a few items now in my collection and that passed through the State
Chancellery of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg.




SL. Fig. 1.
Tee 'isain r m.r, readig. ..... PETERBURG /KANTS. POH90TR ( Fig. I.


Chnlry f t Pt D y 1908 STis Sko T
Fi 2., Ts is a vy fn r is/cover from utyn R ya
1 ,lnyThTHHlO t






---------------------------------2 ^ ^






Fig. 1. A picture postcard, showing Trafalgar Square in London and addressed to: St. Petersburg, Russia
Her Imperial Highness / The Grand Duchess / Olga Nicholaevna / Alexandria / Peterhof. It bears a British
1-penny stamp of King Edward VII (an uncle of the Tsar). The message reads: "This is Trafalgar Square.
The monument is dedicated to Lord Nelson, the greatest English admiral". It is signed only with initials.
There is a fine receipt mark, reading S. PETERBURG / KANTS. POCHT. DIREKTORA (SPB /
Chancellery of the Postal Director) 19 July 1908 O.S. This is Skipton Type 4.

Fig. 2. This is a very fine registered cover from Putyatino, Ryazan' province, franked with 7-kop. & 14-
kop. Arms stamps of the 1902-1906 issue and dated 24.XI. 1906. It is addressed to His Imperial Highness
the Sovereign Emperor, at St. Petersburg. It is sealed on the reverse by a red wax seal bearing a motif that
has a crowned canopy with a shield inside. There is alongside a similar strike of the Chancellerly
postmark, Skipton Type 4 and dated 27 November 1906.

Fig. 3. A postcard from England, showing the Tower Bridge in London and bearing two halfpenny stamps
of Edward VII, postmarked South Kensington April 1910 on the view side. It is addressed to a Mr. Kiro
Butler at the Bulgarian Legation in St. Petersburg. It bears on the address side a double-circle type of
Chancellery postmark (Skipton Type 5), which David says was used for diplomatic mail as well, as seen
50 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK No. 40
June, 1997






here. The postmark reads:
S POST CAI ..... S. PETERBURG / OTD.
6, ,, .dfor orre,,de.- ./ F DOST. VYSOCH. KOR.
S. (SPB / Office for the
S delivery of Imperial mail).
j l /t- Date 8.4.10. Skipton Type 5.
-8- 4. 13 David notes this type as
--/ \.-& .' ; ,,:f. ^ ',., z being used June 1914 Sept.
1914, when it was changed
-- ~r ,- to Petrograd, instead of St.
F 3. Petersburg. Here we are able
SFig. 3. _- to put it back to April 1914.


-6 A t .
', l'ts^ { tu fo








Fig. 4.
0^<9 0f IVeAc6 e&
6 6-9 102 jj -
.ij~~e^^ w- ,yn~t o -- ^ ^

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. This item confirms the use of Skipton Type 5 in 1910. A beautiful cover with the railway station
registration label of Krasnoyarsk Station, it is addressed to the city of St. Petersburg, to His Own
Chancellery of His Imperial Highness, the Sovereign Emperor. A pair of the 14-kopek Arms 1909 issue
on the reverse with oval Krasnoyarsk Station postmarks, dated 30.8.10. There is a mauve SPB arrival
postmark dated 6.9.10 and a further curious SPB marking of the same date, followed by the designation
"2 g" (= ABa saca gHa = 2 pm ?) and an inscription at bottom, reading: OTJ. KCTI. FOP. H. o.
(Despatch Office of the City Postal Section ?; it is listed by Heinrich Imhof on his 1976 book on the
postal markings of St. Petersburg under No. 1.10.5.1., dated 23.4.13 and also with the "2 A" designation !).
Finally, a strike of the Chancellery postmark of 6.9.10.
Fig. 5. As noted by Skipton and
mentioned above, the postmark
):1 was altered to read PETROGRAD
"ar, /r'4. A4 after September 1914. This cover
"'0 is franked with 2-kop. & 3-kop.
S.''1 / f/Romanovs for the in-town rate.
12. .5 Addressed in French to H.I.H.
i ,. Konstantin Konstantinovich, the
N^C August President of the Academy
/'J i~ n of Sciences in Petrograd. Town
/ / pmks of Petrograd 11.4.15. On
Fg. 5'. A .. ewg the back there is a PETROGRAD
Fig. 5. : x- Chancellery mark,Skipton Type 6

THE POST-RIDER/SMIMHK No. 40 51
June, 1997











.. .



-' A -. "-. ", ,-_

... "" ..-. : ?.. :^. "


o .; *' ~ '


Fig. 6. This is a very nice cover, registered at Omsk 22.3.16 and from the District Agricultural
Committee. It is addressed this time to Petrograd, to the Chancellery of H.I.H. the Sovereign Empress
Aleksandra Feodorovna. It is franked on the reverse with a pair of the 10-kop. Arms (medium blue shade).
There is at top right a red arrival postmark of Petrograd 28.3.16 and alongside a strike of Skipton Type 5,
dated 28.3.16. There are spelling mistakes in the address on the cover.

The scarcest type of all, as David notes, is the "Kerenskii Republic" successor to the State Chancellery
markings. Mail continued to arrive at the Palace, particularly diplomatic mail. But people still appealed to
the "Tsar's Successor" for grants from the State coffers. Once the Bolsheviks came into power, the State
Chancellery, even in its residual form, was abolished. It would be interesting to see other examples of
mail that passed through the State Chancellery Office.


NEW DATA ABOUT THE MAIL OF THE "TUDOR VLADIMIRESCU" DIVISION
by Dan Grecu.

CARTA'POSTALA
MILITARA
41Lrur c Fig. 1.


r .- ,. -_ _


|I- ., T. 9 P /S' N 4


____ Jn 'yCARTE POSTALA 1
I' ic \' '* ". -


[I. J Fl % :,- p" .^ ---,----------,----^-----,----,-

-' N







52 THE POST-RIDER/.MIUMK No. 40
June, 1977


Fig. 6.


r -






Following upon the initial publication in the Bucharest magazine "Filatelia" of an article about the "Tudor
Vladimirescu" Division of former prisoners of war, several collectors in Romania have been kind enough
to send in pictures of several interesting pieces. As a result, we can advance a little in the study of this
little-known chapter of military postal history.

A. Here, to begin with, are the pieces advised.
(1) Mr. Constantin GomboS in Timioara notes another two items to complete those which originally
appeared in the "Filatelia" Almanac of 1989 and are now described in the first part of this article: see
Figs. 1 & 2 on the previous page. Both bear the name of the same sender, Major A. Popovici, at the
military post office (OPM) No. 42299, being written on a fieldpost card at a reduced rate of 3 lei, as well
as on an ordinary civilian card with an impressed die of 9.50 lei and a supplementary franking of 1 leu!
They bear Soviet fieldpost markings of the type described as "TIOJIEBASI FIOHTA e", being dated
2.2.45 and 18.2.45 respectively. There appears as a new element on the second example a marking of the
Soviet military censorship, reading: I-POCMOTPEHO / BoeHHof~ eH3ypoHi / 02589 (Examined by
the Military Censorship). No arrival markings are visible.


(2) Mr. Christian
Scaiceanu of Craiova
advises the piece in
Fig. 3. It was written on
8.11.44 on a Soviet
fieldpost card by Corp.
Nicolae Stoiconiu, who
was in the Transmission
Comp. of 1st. Inf. Regt.
of 1st. T.V. Division of
Romanian Vol(unteers),
as is clearly written in
the address and thus
uncoded! Moreover,the
address also has the
notation "P.S. Brasov"
(Rear Base at Brasov),
thus fixing the location
of this formation,which
did not have an FPO
number. The card also
received in despatch a
Soviet censorship mark
No.27048. Its arrival in
Romania is confirmed
by the date 7 FEB.(45),
i.e. three months after
having been written!

(3) Mr. Teodor Melnic
of Bucharest advises
another interesting item
(Fig. 4), dated 10.1.45
on a Soviet fieldpost
card and with another


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No. 40 53
June, 1997


Cupmbem aemaifu sam amuaail *v' c
BOMHCKOe OC&OTPeHC
7 's ^ ^.l#g ^ ,o


K og -' "

.- .' .
...c ,r .p...A 7 Ma< nO4m.
'7f^~f'* TI\ M-. '> L.-


E


n ..2 ynn a i. -24i44


/


Fig. 4.







design on the front than before. This piece was sent through FPO No. 11274 and bears the already known
fieldpost marking IIOJIEBAAI nIOTA e, dated 12.1.45. The Soviet military censorship cachet
includes the number 27082. There are no postal markings of arrival.

(4) Finally, I have discovered in an older issue of the Bucharest magazine "Filatelia" (No. 8 of 1969) a
partial reproduction of another item. It was written on a fieldpost card with the reduced rate of 3 lei, sent
from FPO 19750 and cancelled upon despatch with the same fieldpost marking FIOJIEBA5I TIOHTA-e.
dated either 13.1. or 13.2.45. There was also a Soviet censorship cachet with No. ?7441 (it could be
27441) and it arrived in Brasov on 6.3.1945.

B. And now, some new conclusions.
(1) With regard to the supporting material, it can be said that everything was used that was at the
disposition of the servicemen during the period in question, namely:-

(a) Soviet fieldpost cards (see Figs. 3 & 4 on the previous page); theoretically, they would have been
regarded as being standard items for the mail of the "Tudor Vladimirescu" Division. The question
remains as to how many were required because the Romanians were under Soviet subsistence and how
many for propaganda motives. Moreover, as we shall see, other Romanian postal items were also
tolerated.

(b) Ordinary envelopes (see Figs. 1 & 2 on pp.62-63 of the first part of this study in "The Post-Rider" No.
39). It is likely that they were obtained by servicemen in the localities traversed by the Division. The two
envelopes illustrated there do not appear to be of Romanian origin.

(c) Romanian postcards: Fieldpost cards at the reduced rate of 3 lei (Fig. 1 herewith) or civilian postcards
found in use during the same period (Fig. 2 herewith). It is absolutely improbable that the Soviet military
authorities would have permanently allowed in a division subordinate to them that it be supplied with
Romanian postcards. From the foregoing, it can be presupposed that such cards were obtained only
occasionally and tolerated for use in one of the following situations:-
- They were obtained by servicemen in transit across Romania.
- They were received from the home country, enclosed in an envelope as private mail. That was a
procedure also often followed on the Eastern Front (such a method was also used for civilian postcards).
- They were brought from the home country by supplementary troops, who arrived in December 1944.
That was especially the case for the 3-lei fieldpost cards, which could be obtained only by servicemen in
the sedentary sectors (rear bases) or in garrisons.

(2) With regard to the postal markings of the Division, it now appears evident that, in the first period up
to at least December 1944, Soviet fieldpost markings were not applied. The IOJTIEBASI IIOHTA
canceller in a single type with serial letter "e" appears on the known mail from 12 January to 26 February
1945. It is highly probable that this was the canceller assigned to the Field Postmaster of the Division and
used by the Divisional Staff. However, this contention cannot be affirmed with certainty. For example, it
could also be a marking of a Soviet unit that was subordinate to the Division.

(3) The markings of the Soviet military censorship. The different numbers of the Soviet military
censorship suggest either different locations or subordinate units of the Division. It would be difficult to
believe that the Division would have had many of its own censorship sections. It is much more probable
that censorship was carried out by the supervisory Soviet military units, away from the Division and with
evidently suspicious motives. Thus, No. 27048 was originally encountered probably as a Soviet unit in the
zone of Hajdubirszbrmeny (Hungary), while No. 27082 was likely a Soviet military unit in the 57th.
Army Corps and No. 02589 a unit in the 49th. Armoured Corps or the 10th. Cavalry Division. It has not
54 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997






been possible to pinpoint No. ?7441 (27441?) during this period.


(4) With regard to the transmission of mail, it appears that,, in the first period of operations in
Transylvania and partially in Hungary, the Divisional postal service was not yet well organised. In the
first phase, there did not exist numbers allocated to the FPOs (see Fig. 3), all the mail being carted and
transmitted through the Sedentary Sector (Rear Base) at Braqov. This obligatory transmission can be
deduced either from the existence of a relevant mention in the address (Fig. 3), or from a clear
indication of transmission (Seal of the Sedentary Section and the postmark of Braov; see Fig. 1, p. 62
of "The Post-Rider" No. 39).

However, in the period when the front moved away from Transylvania and from the Sedentary Sector,
this situation could no longer be satisfactory. There existed great delays in postal transmission; in the
item shown in Fig. 3, it is noted that "I have received on 8.11.1944 the letter mailed on 3.9.1944", i.e.
two months in transit. That fell into the same category as a particular postcard which took three months
to get to Romania, as we have seen. It could be concluded that the mail stream from the front to the
homeland was irregular, occasional and possibly carried by military courier. Such was the case in the
first period.

Upon the lengthening of the front, a postal service was organised for the Division, similar to that for the
large Soviet units and this service can be assigned to the second period. Thus, there now appear:-
- Fieldpost numbers for the sub-units. Up to now, we know of Nos. 10079, 11274, 19750 (appearing in
two different styles) and 42299.
- The fieldpost marking HOJIEBAqI FOHTA e, which postmarked all the mail leaving the Division.

It now became apparent that the mail stream was also regular, flowing from the front to Romania in
under one month.

(5) Finally, it would seem that absolutely all servicemen had the same access to mail services, as would
be normally expected.

THE MAIL OF THE "GHEORGHE MATEI" ARMOURED DETACHMENT
by Dan Grecu.


ROMANII
I-T E-JAT A I Aia


-- ...... .... ---- -- -

' "*" .'- ". .Yf: ."f ,-., '..,

... ... .


Fig. 5.
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


The "Tudor Vladimirescu"
Division is the best-known
Romanian military entity that
fought within the framework
of the Soviet Red Army.
However, other similar but
lesser known examples also
existed in the first weeks
after 23 August 1944 (the
date when Romania joined
the Allies). Mail from these
units is especially rare when
it chances on the philatelic
market. Such an item is the
postcard in Fig. 5 which,
while it is clearly not
spectacular, is a great rarity.
It comes from a Romanian
55


Nomrle 01 adre'a:
trlmpialorului
. vee, e



--------------- ....
*' .s'0 (M


C-)
V


' -







soldier in the "Gheorghe Matei" Armoured Detachment. Let us look at a short history of this unit.

Immediately after 23 August 1944, very many Romanian units were disarmed by the Soviets and their
men sent into captivity, although the Romanian and Soviet Armies had recently become allied- There
escaped from this harsh fate the units which had succeeded in time to cross over to the side of the new
allies, or had negotiated with the Soviets by offering to fight on their behalf. That was the case with the
103rd. Mountain Division, the Detachment of Border Guards, the 7th. Heavy Artillery Regiment and the
"Gheorghe Matei" Armoured Division. All of them helped the Soviets to force the passes in the Eastern
Carpathians through to Transylvania. The "Gheorghe Matei" Armoured Division was formed from the
remnants of the Romanian 1st. Armoured Division, which had been almost destroyed prior to 23 August
1944. It had already come to an understanding with the Soviets on 25 August and helped them in the
battles to force the Ghimes approaches into Transylvania. The offensive developed between 2 and 11
September, the Detachment being incorporated into the Soviet 24th. Corps of the 7th. Guards Army,
being aided by the 6th. Orlov Guards Division. On September 2, the Detachment occupied the locality
of Lunca de Sus, enabling it to enter and occupy on September 9 the community of Frumoasa in the
Ciuc Mountains. In the period from 20 to 28 September, it was in action between the Niraj and Mure?
rivers, advancing to the south of Reghin. It was regrouped on September 29 and placed at the disposition
of the Romanian 4th. Army, thus ending our story. Of the 1058 men originally in the Detachment, it
suffered 249 losses in dead, wounded and missing. It was the first Romanian unit to enter Northern
Transylvania. It is evident that all the mail of the Detachment, little as it was, had been sent through the
Soviet Fieldpost Service (of the 6th. Guards Division?), as seen in Fig. 5 on the previous page.

That free-of-charge fieldpost card, of a type hitherto unrecorded, was written by a soldier in the 3rd.
Hunters Moto Regiment within the "Gheorghe Matei" Armoured Detachment. It was sent through the
Soviet FPO No. 07224, this route and designation in Russian being transcribed phonetically as
"Polivania Pocita" and it was endorsed manually "De pe front" (From the Front). Unfortunately, the
postcard does not have a strike either of a military postmark or of the Soviet censorship during despatch-
It arrived in Tlrgoviste on September 30, which was very fast and one must assume that there existed
good postal connections. It was censored there, as seen by the marking "1 CENZURAT TARGOVISTE"
at bottom front. It then proceeded to the post office of destination, as shown by the marking "BREAZA,
JUD. PRAHOVA 4? OCT. 944" at top centre. In the text of the postcard, the serviceman lets his family
know about his health and it is evident that this was the first news from him during a long period of time.


KIEV CITY POST OFFICE CANCELS 1927-1928
by Robert Taylor.

The Kiev City Postal Authorities released sometime in the latter part of 1927 a striking new format of
postal cancellers for their various city post offices. These fairly large 30-mm. in diameter double-circle
cancellers were bilingual: Russian at the top and Ukrainian at the bottom, including both the name and
the number of the individual post office, with subscripts denoted from "a" to "g/h" ("a"). As the 1920s
came to a close with the phasing-out of Lenin's New Economic Policy and the degree of individuality
that that policy generated, these cancellers, some of which publicised local Kiev markets, were no
longer perceived as "politically correct". They were apparently phased out by late 1928, thus giving
them a period of use of only just over one year's time. It should be pointed out that Kiev cancellers
identifying individual post office names are noted at least in the 1926 period, but those cancels did not
include full bilingual wording and did not identify post office numbers, as on the 1927-1928 cancels.

At the moment, we have identified individual Kiev City Post and Telegraph Offices with numbers
ranging from 1 through to 14. There could well be more, but we have actually identified the names of
56 THE POST-RIDER/AIMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997































Fig. 1.


- .. .;.



*/ .










F.


Fig. 2.


Fig. 3. Fig. 4.


Fig. 5. THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 40 Fig' 6
June, 1997







only six. No. 1 is Petrovka, No. 4 Zhit. Bazar (Grain Market), No. 11 Gosbank/Derzhbank (State Bank),
No.12 Sennoi Bazar (Hay Market), No. 13 Bessarabka (Bessarabian suburb) and No. 14 ul. Lenina
(Lenin St.). We also know from Ivo Steyn and our Editor (see "The Post-Rider" No. 29) of a 1927 cover
in the earlier style mentioned above, identifying a Kiev postmark of Galitskii / Halyts'kyj Bazar
(Galician Market) and this is likely one of the unidentified numbers in the 1927-1928 series of
cancellers, perhaps No. 5.

Another interesting aspect of these cancellations is the related registration labels and handstamps that
come in a wide variety of styles for both internal and external use, some identifying the full post office
name and others only the P.T.O. number.

I am sure that some of our Ukrainian readers can fill in some of the missing details and provide perhaps
some further cover illustrations of these most interesting cancellations and registration markings.
Meanwhile, please refer to the illustrations on the previous page in reading the following comments:-

Fig. 1 shows a registered cover mailed 21.6.28 at the Kiev P.T.O. No. 4 in the Grain Market. It is
franked with three of the scarce 8 kop. surcharges on 7-kop. commems, which were only available at the
Soviet Philatelic Agency and overpaid the letter by 6 kopeks. The registration label is in black on white
paper and does not bear any Grain Market designation.

Fig. 2 features a local registered cover 9.2.28, correctly prepaid at 14 kop. and bearing the address and
registration label No. 111 completely in Ukrainian: "Kyiv / State Bank agency / of communications".
The City Post Office No. 11 is specified in the bilingual cancellation.

Fig. 3 is a cover properly prepaid at the foreign registered surface rate and sent from the Kiev city post
& telegraph office No. 12, located at the Hay Market and with the bilingual cancellation of that office,
dated 30.4.28. Note that the registration label does not have a Hay Market designation. There is a Kiev
Vokzal (Station) transit mark of the same day and New York City arrivals of 11 & 12 May on the back.

Fig. 4 illustrates a registered airmail cover bearing four values of the 10th. Anniversary of the
Revolution set, issued ahead of time in October 1927 (the right date should have been November 7).
Mailed at the Kiev 13 Bessarabka office on 26 October, which may have been the first day of issue for
the 3, 14 & 28-kop. values, it was overpaid by I kop. for registered airmail to Germany. A further 7-kop.
stamp in the same set was added in transit by the Moscow 1st. Despatch Office on 29 October! Was that
the first day of issue for that value? Again, the City P.O. No. 13 is not specified on the registration label.

Fig. 5 is from the same correspondence as before, sent one day earlier and demonstrating that the 5, 8 &
18 kop. values of the same set were then available at the Kiev-14 City P.O. on Lenin St.. Here again, the
post office number is not designated on the registration label for mail going abroad, a generic style
reading "Kiev Poste" in French being affixed. This item is also overpaid as before by 1 kopek for airmail
transmission to Germany for the 1927 season. Note in both cases the boxed Soviet red on cream airmail
label affixed and reading: "BO3jAYIIHA5I / IIOHTA / Par avion", as well as the boxed rectangular
German cachet inscribed: "Mit Luftpost befdrdert / Luftpostamt Berlin C. 2".

Fig. 6 represents the latest noted use of the bilingual numbered Kiev city post office special
cancellations. In this case, the cover with the correct 28-kop. foreign surface registered rate was posted
from the No. 14 office on Lenin Street, 10 November 1928 and with a matching external label, again in
French and reading "Kiev oul. Lenina / No. 202". We see on the back a Kiev Vokzal transit marking of
the same day and of New York City November 27, to arrive finally in Los Angeles on December 1.
*
58 THE POST-RIDER/IMMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997






POSTAGE STAMPS OF IMPERIAL RUSSIA 1866-1889:
A REVIEW OF MAJOR PRINTING ERRORS
by Ing. Zbigniew S. Mikulski.
(Reprinted from Bulletin No. 2 of the "MOSCOW-97" International Philatelic Exhibition by kind
permission of the author, to whom many thanks are due for his generous cooperation).

The postage stamps of Imperial Russia issued during the 19th. century are striking in their beauty, both
on the artistic and technical levels. The first Russian stamp, issued in 1857, combined the technique of a
bicoloured design with embossing the double-headed eagle of Russia in the centre. In this respect,
Russia was considered ahead of other stamp-issuing countries, which generally produced monotonous
and monocoloured adhesives at that time.

On closer examination, every bicoloured Russian stamp is a miniature work of art, full of harmony and
regal elegance, with superior graphics and a wonderful choice of vibrant colours. Even in the early 20th.
century, when it was no longer economical to continue embossing the central eagle, the genius and
technical superiority of the Tsar's artists were still very much in evidence. The early designer and
engraver of the stamps in question was Franz Kepler, a great artist who superbly completed the task of
engineering the first Russian postage stamps, which were produced by the Imperial State Printing Office
in St. Petersburg.

The kopek values were set up in large panes of 100 subjects, divided into four smaller blocks of 25,
separated by gutters 7-8 mm. wide. On the other hand, the larger 3r. 50k. and 7-rouble values were
issued in panes of 25, with large margins all around.

The 1858-1865 kopek values were printed in two steps. The first plate contained the outer frame, with
the centre left completely blank. The second plate consisted of the coloured oval, with a white eagle and
either post horns or thunderbolts embossed in the middle. The 1866-1889 kopek values, in which the
eagle was no longer embossed, were also printed in two steps: the first plate included the completed
design with an eagle in the centre, along with either the post horns or the thunderbolts. The second plate
contained the coloured background (or groundwork) for the entire design, including its centre.

Because each sheet went through the presses twice using the two different plates, many printing errors
occurred. They included inverted centres and inverted backgrounds, which happened usually as the
result of a sheet of stamps being inserted upside down during one of the printing operations. This article
covers the popular "inverts", which are found on Russian stamps from 1866 to 1889 (no such errors are
known on the first five issues printed until 1865).

The first inverted centre is the 10-kopek value of 1866, printed on horizontally laid paper.We can
assume that three sheets with this error found their way into circulation, because they exist used in four
known examples at Kibarty (Suwalki province) in February 1874; two known used in January 1875 at
Porech'e (Grodno province; see Fig. 1 on p. 60) and four known examples from Kursk, including two
used 21 December 1874 on cover from Kursk to Warsaw (Fig. 2). This unique cover was addressed to a
Polish aristocrat August Potocki (his name and address were cut out contemporaneously). It is one of the
rarest covers of Imperial Russia and was once in the famous collection of Russian stamps owned by
Baron Rothschild.

In the same series, we also find the 1-kopek value with inverted background. At least four sheets with
this error were circulated on horizontally laid paper, in various shades. This error is known unused, as
well as cancelled at Novgorod in 1882 (Fig. 3), Moscow (Fig. 4), Mitava (Jelgava;see Fig. 5)in 1883 and
Warsaw in 1881. In the great collection of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland formed by W. Polanski(he
THE POST-RIDER/aIMIHIK No.40 59
June, 1997







































Fig. 3.


Fig. 6.


Fig. 7.


Fig. 12.


Fig9. Fig. 15. Fig. 16.


Fig. 13.


Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19.


60 THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Fig. 14.
















Fig. 21.


Fig. 24.


Fig. 26.


Fig. 28. Fig. 29.


.30. Fig. 31.


. e, "-" -1


* C~ -.- -.. ..,,.
. ... .. "_-, .. +, A '^
<,, ; .'!h
-* -- ; ; .


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Fig. 25.


Fig. 33.


Acipaxanm
*nr.r<.'i.


Fig. 34.


Fig. 35.






owned among other items an unused pair of Russia No. 1), there was a large fragment with eight 1-
kopek inverted background errors used at Warsaw in 1881. The 1-kopek error is also known imperforate
on vertically laid paper (Fig. 6). The few known examples bear Moscow cancellations of 1872.

Some collectors find it difficult to distinguish a stamp with inverted background from an ordinary one.
The simplest and surest method is to look for the white crown, which is always at the bottom of the
stamp with an inverted background (Fig. 7).

There exists an interesting error of background still in the same issue. It is the 3-kopek value printed
with the background for 5 kopeks where, instead of the figure "3", we find the Roman numeral "V" in its
place. These errors have been seen used in 1870, mainly from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Odessa, some
Baltic provinces and the Kingdom of Poland. While the used stamps are not rare, the largest known
multiple is a block of six, used with an additional single on cover, sent on 24 May 1870 from Warsaw to
France (Fig. 8). Unused stamps with original gum are not common, with a block of four being the
largest known multiple (Fig. 9).

1875 was a popular year for inverted backgrounds, especially on the 2-kopek value. The error is easily
spotted this time, since the background figure "2" is upside down. Only five examples are known from
two different sheets, used at St. Petersburg in April 1879 (Fig. 10) and in July 1880 (Fig. 11). The
subsequent 1875-1879 issues are replete with some errors, which have obtained world class rarity status.
Inverted centres are known on the 7-kopek, 10-kopek and 20-kopek values. The sole legendary 7-kopek
invert was alleged to have been (and perhaps still is) in the famous collection of T. Champion in Paris. It
is the only major Russian error which has eluded me.

There are five known examples of the 10-kopek invert. My copy (Fig. 12) is cancelled at Kostroma and
is position 64 on the sheet. The 20-kopek invert is one of the rarest errors of Imperial Russia and only
three are known, all cancelled at Yarmolintsy (Podolia province). My copy is from the second printing
plate for the 20-kopek value, position 82 on the sheet (Fig. 13). Another interesting error of the 20-
kopek stamp is the only known copy with a double centre. This variety is from position 4 on the sheet
and is cancelled at Moscow in 1878 (Fig. 14).

We cannot overlook another important rarity in this issue. It is the famous 7-kopek value, used at Perm'
with a fiscal "hexagon" watermark. It is presumed that, during the printing of the 7-kopek stamp on the
normal laid paper, one sheet of paper with a hexagon watermark normally used for fiscal stamps, was
erroneously inserted in the printing press. Only four such errors are known, all cancelled in 1880 at
Perm' (Fig. 15).

The following inverted background errors are found on stamps issued 1883(narrow designsl8x24.5 mm):
1. 1 kopek orange, used at Izyum; four copies known.
2. 2 kopeks blue-green, cancelled "8" of St. Petersburg; only one copy known (Fig. 16).
3. 5 kopeks purple and dull purple, three copies known. The purple shade at St. Petersburg in 1888 and
the dull purple with indecipherable cancellation (Fig. 17).
4. 7 kopeks blue; several unused examples are known (Fig. 18).

In the 1888 issue (wider designs 18.75x25mm), the following inverted backgroundvarieties exist:-
1. 1 kopek orange used with unclear cancellation; unique (Fig. 19).
2. 2 kopeks yellow-green, used at St. Petersburg in 1888; unique (Fig. 20 on p. 61).
3. 3 kopeks carmine, used at Riga; two copies known (Fig. 21).
4. 7 kopeks blue, over a dozen are known, originating from four different sheets: used at Warsaw in
1890 (Fig. 22), at Mikhailovskii Khutor in 1889 (Fig. 23), at Staraya Russa in 1891 (Fig. 24) and at
62 THE POST-RIDER/$IMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997







St. Petersburg (Fig. 25). A used pair is the only known multiple. A number of unused examples of the
5-kopek value also exist with the background doubled (Fig. 26).

The 14-kopek stamp in blue and carmine is to be found with inverted centre, with a dozen or so known
examples used during May 1891 in the Ukraine: at Tarashcha (Fig. 27) and Berdichev (Fig. 28).

The last kopek series showing post horns and thunderbolts contains several very important errors:-
1. The 2-kopek value with inverted background; only two examples are known, both used in 1898 at St.
Petersburg (Fig. 29).
2. The 7-kopek value with inverted background; only four examples are known: two unused (Fig. 30)
and two used (Fig. 31) with indecipherable cancellations.
3. The 7-kopek value without background; a few unused copies are known (Fig. 32).
4. The 14-kopek value exists with inverted centre and there are over a dozen known unused and used
copies, including one on piece cancelled in 1891 by the postmark of Lyubim (Fig. 33). There is also a
registered cover with a late usage, dated 20 December 1909 from Astrakhan to Vienna (Fig. 34). Two
other covers are known franked with this invert.

The final error in the 19th. century is the 7-rouble value of 1889 with the frame doubled. Only two
examples are known, both used in May 1890 at Moscow (Fig. 35).

In closing, I would like to emphasise that the numbers of known errors and the cities where they
originated are based on studies conducted during my 40 years as an expert in Russian philately and on
my own collection, all the covers and stamps pictured here being from my holdings. The studies include
the materials in the famous Russian collections formed by Ferrary, Agathon and Oleg Faberg6, Baron
Rothschild, H.C. Goss, R. Boughman, Sir John Wilson-Bart., Isleham, N. Epstein, M.V. Liphschutz and
others. It is possible that there are other examples of these great gems of Russian philately which remain
hidden and I would be delighted to be advised of their existence, my address being at
Kammelenbergstrasse 15, CH-9015 ST. GALLEN, Switzerland. These wonderful errors include many
world-class rarities and it is difficult to imagine a collector specialising in Imperial Russia who would
not wish to own them.

IMPERFORATE VARIETIES OF 19TH. CENTURY IMPERIAL RUSSIA
by Ing. Zbigniew S. Mikulski.

In the previous article, I reviewed major printing errors of Imperial Russia. This article is a continuation,
now focussing on imperforate varieties.

The first imperforate variety is in fact the first postage stamp of Russia, the 10-kopek brown and blue of
1858, originally intended to be issued with perforations. Unfortunately, the high-technology stamp-
perforating machine imported from Austria could not be activated in time. A decision had to be made,
as three millions of the 10-kopek stamps had already been printed and were awaiting perforation. The
postal officials preferred to adhere to the release date of 1 January 1858 and delivered these imperforate
stamps to the larger post offices around the country. Thus, thanks to a quirk of fate, stamp collectors
have this traditional philatelic classic issue, enjoying considerable international popularity.

Before actually discussing the imperforate errors, let us consider the mechanics involved and how these
varieties could have entered into circulation. In general, imperforate varieties are caused by:-

(a) A defective or malfunctioning stamp-perforating machine, leaving sheets of stamps imperforate, or
partly imperforate.
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK No. 40 63
June, 1997






















Fig. 40. Fig. 42.


Fig. 43. Fig. 44. Fig. 45.


Fig. 46.


Fig. 47. Fig. 48. Fig. 49.


Fig. 52.


Fig. 53.


Fig. 50. Fig. 51. 4i "
Fig. 54.







Fig. 57.
Fig. 56.





Fig. 55. ---
Fig. 59. Fig. 60. Fig. 61. Fig. 63.
64 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No.40
June, 1997


Fig. 37.
















A ife n b g n gro ..-ok r n to Fig. 58.





















defects were discovered by quality controllers, nobody bothered to perforate them. Rather than being
discarded, they were consigned to storage, with final disposition to be determined later.
Fig. 62.






_.- ^- ., ../.... ... .





On occasion, in filling orders from individual postal regions, shortages were supplemented with such
"defective" imperforate sheets. They were subsequently gummed and deemed adequate for postal use.
Such actions were economically justified; it was cheaper to use existing stock, rather than order a new
printing. In fact, previous "defective" sheets date back to the very beginning in 1858, specifically to the
20-kopek and 30-kopek values with numeral watermark. Several months after their release, some of
these stamps printed on thick paper (now known as Russia Nos. 3 & 4) were withdrawn from
circulation. There were too many complaints that, because of their thick paper, such stamps did not stick
to the letters. In keeping with the practice that we have just described, these "rejects" were put into
storage. In the subsequent years from 1863 to 1875, they were added as needed to the later
contemporary sheets of 20-kopek and 30-kopek stamps.

The older imperforate varieties in the period from 1866 to 1885 are found exclusively in used condition,
with the exception of the 2-kopek and 7-kopek values of 1884. Later imperforate varieties exist unused,
with occasional multiples and on covers. It was during that later period that Russian philately bloomed
and imperforate varieties were discovered by collectors. In their quest for such errors, they often assisted
the postal clerks in carefully examining their stocks. And now for a chronological summary:-
THE POST-RIDERIMIHK No.40 65
June,1997
ic re ,te eec n in dt trg ,w t .ia .. .- ito n t.- .... .-. ; '_-,' -.. ,
, ,.. io .n .i~n orer f.'" iniida :_%..=,.:_ reios shra. : upemnedwth
"defective"~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~,, ..erort .hes T-.:.e, weesb. -tl ume n eee d'.: frpstlue
Suhat.,... cnmial usiid;i a chae ':.' '.e-.:,,- exsigsokrt, hn re
ntn. .. .a t .;._ou ."fe tie .het --.e ba ..-: e ... y ,,,.-.. n ,o sp...= ,y toth
20-kpek and30-ope vales ithnumralwatrmar. Sverl mnth afer teirrelase soe I
these stamps printed on th~~~i-kppr(o nw sRsi o.3&4 eewtdanfo
/ !;-aio. "hr weetomn opanstabcueo hi hc ae,.sc tmsdi o t














circulation. ThereDR/MIM weetomn opanstabcueof thei thc aesc tap i o t
to thelettes. Inkeepig wit he racti e thtw aejutdsrbd tee"eet" eeptit






I. The first imperforate varieties, appearing in 1866 on horizontally laid paper.
1 kopek. Two sheets existed. The first sheet was used in Moscow (Fig. 36 on p. 64) and in the mail van
of TPO/RPO Moscow-St. Petersburg in 1869. The second sheet had all the stamps with a shifted
background and was used in the mail van of TPO/RPO Warsaw-Granitsa in May 1874 (Figs. 37 & 38).
3 kopeks. A pair used in Wtoctawek,Kingdom of Poland, 31 May 1876 (Fig. 39). This pair is ex Ferrary
who, at the time, considered it to be his greatest Russian rarity. It was ultimately purchased by Sir John
Wilson, the curator of the Royal British Stamp Collection and himself a great Russian philatelist.
5 kopeks. Two sheets existed. The first sheet had all the stamps with shifted background and was used
at Riga in 1873 (Fig. 40). The second sheet had normal stamps, used at Riga in 1876 (Fig. 41).
10 kopeks. Only two examples are known, originating from different sheets. The first sheet with slightly
shifted centres, used in June 1874 (Fig. 42) and the second sheet with normal centres, used in July 1875
(Fig. 43). Regretfully, the postmarks are fragmentary and we cannot ascertain where these varieties were
used.

II. Imperforate varieties on vertically laid paper.
I kopek. Three sheets are known, including one with inverted background:-
First sheet: used at Moscow in February 1872 (Fig. 44).
Second sheet: used at Moscow in February 1872 (Fig. 45).
Third sheet, with inverted background: used at Moscow during September to November 1872. These
stamps were also described in my preceding article. Please note that all of these 1-kopek errors were
used in Moscow during the course of several months. This in fact confirms my theory regarding the
practice of adding "defective" imperforate sheets to fulfill postal requisitions.
5 kopeks. There were two imperforate examples in the Faberg6 Collection, both in poor condition and
repaired (see Fig. 46, which was taken from the auction catalogue). Both stamps showed normal printing
characteristics.
10 kopeks. The final imperforate variety on vertically laid paper is the unique example of the 10-kopek
value, used on 15 April 1872 at Rostov-na-Donu (Fig. 47).

1II. Continuing along with the 1875 issue.
8 kopeks. Five examples are known (Fig. 48), including the beautiful vertical pair currently in the
Tapling Collection at the British Library in London. All these were cancelled at Riga in March 1879.
7 kopeks. We find that four examples are known, used in December 1882 at Riga Fig. 49), as well as in
the mail van of TPO/RPO Riga-Dvinsk (Diinaburg, Daugavpils).

IV. The 1884 issue yields the following imperforate varieties.
1 kopek. With the groundwork shifted to the right (Fig. 50), two stamps forming a pair are known, used
at the border post office of Kibarty in Suwalki province, 1 June 1886.
2 kopeks. Two sheets existed. The first is in dark blue-green, being unused and also used at Moscow in
December 1885 (Fig. 51). The second is in yellowish blue-green, used at Moscow in June 1892 (Fig. 52).
3 kopeks. Three examples are known, each originating from the same sheet, including one unused (Fig.
53) and a pair cancelled at Lagodekhi, Tiflis province, 6 February 1887 (Fig. 54).
7 kopeks. This is the most common imperforate variety. Several multiples and used on cover are known,
originating from at least four different sheets, including a block of four from the second sheet; note the
groundwork shifted to the bottom (Fig. 55). Also, a single from the third sheet, cancelled at Moscow in
March 1885 (Fig. 56), a strip of five from the fourth sheet (Fig. 57) and, finally, a single from the fourth
sheet used on cover from Moscow, March 1887 to Liverpool (see Fig. 58 on p. 65).
14 kopeks. The imperforate varieties of this value are typical examples of a defective stamp-perforating
machine failing to perforate the last vertical row on the sheet. All the imperforate varieties originate
from the bottom edge of the sheet and are cut very close at the top. It is likely that the perforator did not
penetrate completely at top and, for a better appearance, the stamps were trimmed to eliminate partial
66 THE POST-RIDER/HIMIIIK No. 40
June, 1997






perforations (see Figs. 59 & 60).


V. The final issue of the 19th. century in 1889, produced on horizontally laid paper.
Three imperforate varieties are known, as follows:-
1 kopek. Only unused examples are recorded.
2 kopeks. Two sheets have been identified: the first in dark green, used in Taganrog on 24 July 1898
(Fig. 61) and as of now it is the only copy known, while the second sheet is in yellow-green, known
unused, as well as used at Moscow in 1895 (Fig. 62). This local Moscow cover, as shown on p. 65, is
philatelic in nature. The variety was discovered by a stamp collector, who wanted it on cover.
7 kopeks. This is the last imperforate variety of the 19th. century and it is a considerable rarity. Four
examples are known, used at a St. Petersburg Telegraph Sub-Office in April 1892. It is possible that
only part of the sheet was imperforate and that the harassed postal clerk was not familiar with such
varieties. He obviously used a knife to cut them apart (Fig. 63).

In summing up this short review of the imperforate varieties of 19th. Century Russia, we can definitely
conclude that they are indeed very rare, some being unique. We cannot imagine an important collection
of Russia without such errors. In fact, they were treasured on a par with inverted centres and inverted
backgrounds by such famous collectors as Ferrary, Baron Rothschild, Agathon Faberg6 and Sir John
Wilson. Before World War I, when these great (and wealthy) collectors competed for rarities, they paid
incredibly high prices for these imperforate errors.

After 1920, interest in the stamps of Imperial Russia weakened, due to a notable lack of wealthy and
avid collectors. That situation improved dramatically after 1955, especially in the former Soviet Union,
where there is a resurgence in collecting the classic issues of Imperial Russia. Recent auction
realisations at international sales have been very strong, reflecting a trend for further growth of
philatelic and monetary interest.


THERE WERE ALSO OTHER LENINS
by Alex Artuchov and Andrew Cronin.

Vladimir ll'ich Ul'yanov had several aliases, of which "Lenin" was
IP' .89 | I the longest and last in his political life. It appears that he did not
-!: start using it until around the beginning of this century and it is
Eh i"cto interesting to collect also pieces of mail, sent or received by other
CGTas.1EHO H,, ,u/ people, with genuine claims to that surname. We can now advise
iJima a / of two such interesting examples in our collections, the details of
I;x';.Io pA. t' which are set out hereunder.

a -/ :r. f if t n IO' LTO ,H4' .i o -i,. c(.( I:,.
E TUNIOX I'UST.ITAR LUIII I/SEIU.,I. iCLSSI.
Ju OTIie'TOE IIICLIO 11MT1 I'99'.7LE- -
N rr a, r,, r. In, Ai OTBtTA.. R tE NPON S E.
w j .ra.. n <.a ly... ... <. -t k. ..,y- / .. : ,,_..l. n, /
l N l."' 64'af a aat-"ua k% Fig. 1. :



..... .... .. .... .. 1 .... ......
J'I o 'tll 1nit,,au ,,,rg- cilt c ,, J lr n .i l av'pret. ci- e r tiert Ctiuf.irntr nsl. adr -
THE POST-RIDER/jIMIIIHK No. 40 67
June, 1997






In Fig. 1 at the bottom of the previous page, Alex Artuchov shows the reply half of a 3-kopek postcard
(issue of June 1886), typically used by the Mariinskii Theatre in St. Petersburg on 4 November 1889
with a handstamped text to advise Nikolai Lenin at Kazanskaya 56, Apt. 10 that he had been allotted
two seats in the gallery for the performance of 8th. November. He could not have been Vladimir I'ich,
who was then just 19 years old and had been expelled in December 1887 from the well-known
University of Kazan' for taking part in a political demonstration. The young student was still trying
(unsuccessfully) in 1889 to be readmitted to the University of Kazan' and he was either in Kazan' or
Samara, when Nikolai Lenin in St. Petersburg received confirmation of his two gallery seats. It would be
interesting to know what was being performed at the Mariinskii Theatre on 8th. November 1889 and we
hope that our readers in present-day St. Petersburg can look up that information for us!

The postcard featured here by Andrew
Cronin in Fig. 2 was sent from Vloni / -- Carte Postale -
(Valona, Vlorf) in Southern Albania with / .
10-qindar postage on 31 January 1914 to c/ ,
Mr. Anatole de Lenine (AHaTOJnIi I -
JIeHHH) in Bari, Italy c/o Fermo Posta -
i.e. "no BocTpe6oBaHHu" in Russian, t ,--. -, j.- Fig. 2.
"Poste Restante" in French and
"General Delivery" in North America.
The message is in Russian and reads: A -/
"In memory of my journey in wild
Albania". Unfortunately, we do not
know who was the sender, as he did not sign his name. He was right about the situation in Albania at
that time and we can quote a confirmation from the work "High Albania", published in 1909 by a noted
British anthropologist, Mary Edith Durham (1863-1944): "Many people told me that, for a good old-
fashioned wound, the good old flintlock, with a dram of powder well rammed down, carrying a huge
bullet, nails and other fancy articles, was a sure thing at close range". Good Lord, with a blast like that
one should have been able to bring down an elephant. Sad to say, things have not improved since!
Any further details about such "Leniniana" would be welcome from the readership.
Publication List
January 1997 this hst canccls all previous lists
Peter Bylen Westcrn Ukraine: A Catalog-Checklist (UPR 1; 24 pages, 8.5 x 11, ISBN 1-889581-00-3) 55.00
Peter Bylen Soviet Ukraine: Catalog-Checklist of National and Local Postage Issues 1919-1923. including
Occupational Issues of 1918-1920 and 19-i1-1944 (UPR 2; 34 pages, 8.5 x 11, ISBN 1-889581-01-1) S5.00
Peter Bylen Carpatho-Ukrame: A Catalog-Checklhst (UPR 3; 26 pages, 8.5 x 11, ISBN 1-889581-02-X) $5.00
Bohdan Pauk Belarus: A Catalog-Checklist of National and Local Postage Stamp Issues including
Administrative Issues of 1916-1920 and 1941-1944 (UPR 4; 45 pages, 8.5 x 11, ISBN 1-889581-03-8) S6.00
Peter Bylen Independent Ukraine 1918-1920: A Catalog-Checklist of the National Postage Stamp Issues as w-el!
as Regional Trident Overprints and Occupational Issues (UPR 5; 128 pages, 8.5 x 11.5, ISBN 1-889581-04-6)
$18.00
Ingert Kuzych Ukrainian Postage Stamps: A Catalog oflssuesfrom 1991-1995 (UPR 6; 64 pages, 8.5 x 11,
ISBN 1-889581-05-4) $6.00
Titles in preparation for-u-ture release:
Ukrainian Provisional Postage Stamps: A Handbook of Semi-Oficial Postage Stamp Issues 1992-1993
The Rural Posts of Ukraine 1867-1916: A Catalog-Checklist ofZemska Postage Stamp Issues
Independent Ukraine 1918-1920, A Supplement: The Local Trident Postage Stamps of Ukraine 1918-1920
Western Ukraine 1918-1919:A Philatelic Handbook
All prices are postpaid. Orders outside North America will be sent surface mail. Payment strictly
in U.S. currency drafts, made out to Ukrainian Philatelic Resources, P.O. Box 7191, Westchester,
Illinois 60154-7193, U.S.A. Voice Mail: (847) 254-3190; Office: (773) 693-0010; Fax: (773) 693-1308.
68 THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997






THE RAILWAY POST IN RUSSIA DURING THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD (1915-1923)
by Alexander Epstein.

An excellent and almost comprehensive description of the organisation and activities of the Railway
Post in Russia during the Imperial period was made by N.V. Luchnik (Rossica Journal No. 92, pp. 18-
47). However, up to the present, almost nothing was known about this aspect in the years that followed.
This article is an attempt to fill the gap as concerns the Transitional Period from 1917 (or even 1915) to
1923, i.e. from the most difficult time for Russia in WWI up to the point when the Railway Postal
System was almost completely restored after the years of the Civil War.

Essential changes in the TPO/RPO routes had already begun during the WWI years. By the autumn of
1915, considerable territories of the Empire, including Poland, Lithuania, Kurland and parts of the
present Ukraine and Belarus' were occupied by the Central Powers. That led to the complete abolition or
considerable shortening of a number of former TPO/RPO routes, which fully or partially crossed the
occupied lands. That process also continued in the years that followed. At the same time, there were two
occasions when the TPO/RPO routes were extended to the enemy territory occupied by the Russians, as
a result of the offensive on the South-Western Front in 1916. Thus, the route 47-48 Zhmerinka-
Volochisk became Kiev-Tarnopol' in December 1916 and the route 147-148 Zhmerinka-Novoselitsa was
extended to Chernovtsy in September 1916. The Railway Station Post Offices (RSPOs) were transferred
from Volochisk and Novoselitsa to Tarnopol' and Chernovtsy respectively; they were the only cases
when Russian RSPOs ever functioned in the foreign towns occupied by Russian troops. However, both
places used the cancelling devices of their former locations. The same applies also to the RSPOs
transferred to other towns on the territory of the Empire, as the result of evacuation from towns
occupied by the enemy. See Figs. 1 & 2 herewith.
40 4
S- f nloToBAlI KAPToqKA. E.- nIlOHTOBAI1 KAPTOIKA
CARTE PoSTALE.J i

F./,/ .. GRO.DNOVOKZAL4.4.16 on.a"s'oldiers psr post-ard. Actually, ti R s situaed
,. ., VOOHS V K A L /2'i'4, 't a tls,,..r car toXVe,.k-. ogann,., .i R .P wa
2;tt I1 /,





,' ,' ". "* ""> z t ,(,. / ................ ............................................... ................ .. .. ....................... ... .. .... ...
S. .
'" / "' J^ jijif


1r fn V. .lelk.i 'dI -F ig 1. -

Fig. 1. GRODNO-VOKZAL 4.4.16 on a soldier's postfree postcard. Actually, this RSPO was situated in
Rezhitsa, since Grodno was occupied in April 1916 by the Germans for a number of months.
Fig. 2. VOLOCHISK-VOKZAL 25.4.17 on a postal stationery card to Veliko-Iogannis. This RSPO was
actually functioning at Tarnopol' in April 1917. The message begins with the words: "From Austria",
since while Tarnopol' was occupied by Russian troops, it still remained formally a part of the Austro-
Hungarian Empire.

On the other hand, an intensive construction of new railways continued during 1916 and 1917 in the
eastern and western parts of the Empire, the latter mainly for military purposes, as well as the
reconstruction of old lines and new TPOs/RPOs and RSPOs were opened in this connection. The
following RSPOs unmentioned by Luchnik were opened or reopened at the end of 1916 and during 1917
Akkerman, Arys', Berdyaush, Bessarabskaya (formerly Leiptsigskaya), Biisk, Bochkarevo, Bogdanovich,
Bologoe, Dno, Dzhalal-Abad, Egorshchino, Kalinkovichi, Karshi, Karymskoe, Kem', Khar'kov,

THE POST-RIDER/MflMIHK No. 40 69
June, 1997






Khartsyzk, Kitab, Korosten', Kushchevka, Kustanai, Kuzino, Likhaya, Osipovichi, Petrozavodsk,
Poletaevo, Polochany, Polotsk II, Rezhitsa, Semipalatinsk, Taiga, Taldan, Tatarskaya, Tavda, Termez.
Tsvetkovo, Tula and Yurga.
Some of these RSPOs are mentioned in the recent "Russian Railway Postmarks" book by Kiryushkin
and Robinson.

Some of the evacuated RSPOs continued to function under their former names at the new places, using
also the former cancellations. For instance, the RSPO of Grodno was transferred to Rezhitsa, Vindava to
Kreitsburg, Riga to Ramotskoe, etc. The alterations made of the former TPO/RPO routes or the new
TPOs/RPOs opened during 1916-1917 and not mentioned or wrongly indicated by N.V. Luchnik are
listed below:-
57-58 Staraya Russa Petrograd from 15.12.16
65-66 Rostov Baku (with OTD) 5.16
89-90 Petrograd Gapsal 5.16
115-116 Shadrinsk Bogdanovich 1917
133-134 Dolgintsevo Konstantinovka 7.16
243-244 Chita Bochkarevo 5.16
269-270 Aleksandropol' Sarykamysh (instead of Tiflis Dzhulfa) 12.14
299-300 Nizhnii Tagil Shadrinsk 18.7.17
303-304 Simbirsk Chishmy 1.12.16
305-306 Kustanai Poletaevo 5.16 to 19.11.16
307-308 Ekaterinburg Tavda (formerly Ekaterinburg Bogdanovich)" 18.7.17
353-354 Narva Pskov 21.7.17

After the Bolshevik coup d'etat, the Railway Postal Organisation remained virtually unchanged during
1918-1919, i.e. the Railway Postal Administration with its sections continued its activities. However, the
number of TPOs/RPOs and RSPOs under its jurisdiction decreased considerably at the beginning of
1918 when, after the conclusion of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the whole Baltic area with its railways,
as well as some parts of present-day Belarus', came under German occupation. The Ukraine, also
occupied by German and Austrian troops during March-April 1918, proclaimed its independence, as
also did the Transcaucasian republics. Armed conflicts in the Don area and the Southern Urals, which
were the first signs of the incipient Civil War, led to interruptions in the railway traffic and,
consequently, in the conveyance of postal mail along the important railway lines leading to the Northern
Caucasus and Turkestan.

The uprising of the Czechoslovak Legion in June 1918 led to a complete interruption of the postal
connections between the central part of Russia still under the Soviets and Siberia with the Far East, the
Urals and a considerable part of the mid-Volga region. With the Civil War in full swing during the
second half of 1918, the whole of 1919 and the first half of 1920, the conveyance of mail by postal vans
in Soviet Russia was very irregular and the TPO/RPO routes were changed very often. However, in spite
of all this, postal activities did not cease. Some new RSPOs and TPOs/RPOs were opened as well even
in 1918-1919.

However, most of them came to life in connection with the shortening of TPO/RPO routes, because of
the German occupation and Civil War conditions. For instance, the following new RSPOs were opened
in different periods during 1918-1920:-
Bogoyavlensk, Chudovo, Danilov, Dno, Druzhinino, Fastov, Gorbachevo (sic), Kastornaya, Narva,
Nevel', Nizhnii Tagil, Opochka, Rozenovskaya, Sebezh, Slavnoe, Sukhinichi, Valuiki, Velikie Luki,
Yamburg and Zvanka. Some other RSPOs were opened anew, closed down or were transferred to other
stations.
70 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK No. 40
June, 1997








Some TPOs/RPOs ran in 1918-1919 in the Soviet territory along shortened routes, e.g.:


3-4
15-16


17-18
19-20
23-24
27-28
29-30
35-36
39-40


41-42
45-46
65-66
81-82
83-84
91-92

111-112
119-120
121-122
151-152
177-178

193-194
233-234

285-286


297-298
353-354


Petrograd Dvinsk
Moscow Oril
Moscow Korenovo
Moscow Kursk Prokhorovka
Moscow Bryansk
Lozovaya Nikitovka
Bologoe Kostroma
Kazan' Shikhany Timiryazevo Ruzaevka
Stolptsy Minsk
Petrograd Masel'skaya
Petrograd Yamburg
Petrograd Narva
Petrograd Yamburg
Moscow Slavnoe
Minsk Molodechno
Rostov Mozdok
Perm' Ekaterinburg
Likhoslavl' Vyaz'ma
Elets Uzlovaya
Elets Tula
Sinyava Luninets
Moscow Valuiki
Tsaritsyn Sarepta
Saratov Ershov Nikolaevsk
Voronezh Kursk Prokhorovka
Voronezh Kursk Korenevo Nezhin
Vologda Nyandoma
Novosokol'niki Rezhitsa
Novosokol'niki Kreitsburg
Polotsk Seslavino
Polotsk Molodechno
Pskov Polotsk Molodechno Listopady
L'gov Khar'kov Nyrkovo
Pskov Gdov
Pskov Valk (instead of 125-126)
Dvinsk Riga (Latvian TPO/RPO)


As to the completely new routes or former unnumbered TPOs/RPOs which have received numbers, the
following can be mentioned:-
27-28 Penza Kazan'
71-72 Danilov Bui from 12.18
87-88 Likhvin Tula (formerly unnumbered) 1919
89-90 Kem' Murmansk (ran only for a very short time): from 04.06.18 to beginning of 07.18
271-272 Zvanka Gostinopol'e Chudovo from 12.18
355-356 Voronezh Grafskaya Anna (formerly unnumbered)
Torzhok Selizharovo

Let us now look at some concrete examples of these changes.

THE POST-RIDER/IMIMHK No.40 71
June, 1997


from 01.19
04.18
06.18
10.12.18
S 2.19
10.05.19
"01.04.19
26.02.19
06.05.19
07.18
03.18
12.18 to 01.19
from 18.01.19
29.10.18
06.05.19
04.18
07.18
03.06.18
06.18
10.18
06.05.19
07.18
?.19
08.18
06.18
10.12.18
08.18
01.19
02.19
01.19
01.02.19
02.19
10.05.19
01.19
01.19
02.19 to 04.19


















'''ig. 13. A'_ L_____ _.. .

Fig. 3. RIGA*40*PETROGRAD 10.3.18 on a postcard to Arkhangel'sk. This TPO/RPO was running
only between Yamburg and Petrograd in March 1918.
Fig. 4. KINESHMA*224*MOSKVA 9.6.18 on a cover to Moscow. The letter was overfranked 1 kopek
against the current postal rate.

nOqTOBI! IQa PTOq K..C. g-i




,


Fig. 6.
Fig. 5.___ F g. 6.
Fig. 5. NOVOSOKOL'NIKI-VOKZAL16.9.18 on a postcard to Petrograd.
Fig. 6. RIGA*40*PETROGRAD 31.12.18 on a postcard to Elisavetino (overfranked by 5 kopeks). The
card was posted during the short period when this TPO/RPO was running between Narva and Petrogra


Fig. 7 Fig. 8.

Fig. 7. SMOLENSK*235*BOGOYAVLENSK 11.1.19 on a postcard of the early free-post period and
addressed to Petrograd (Robert Taylor Collection).
Fig. 8. RUZAEVKA-VOKZAL 9.2.19 on a postal stationery card to Petrograd. Although within the
second month of the free-post period, the card was still franked according to the former 10-kop. rate.
72 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997











c OTRPIATO)C fl~Cb~ti IL'i
WI
... ...... ...........



4..
............. ......
.I. ... ..


41.man a Ulepr llIra.u EKo.. Hoc..u I9 06 ProtoLyple Schtere. Nabtbl. C Co.. Mo.aso. I
___Fig. 9__. i Fig. 10.
Fig. 9. VYAZ'MA-VOKZAL 19.2.19 on a free postcard to Yaroslavl'.

Fig. 10. MOSKVA*209*NOVOSOKOL'NIKI 29.4.19 on a free postcard to Ryazan'.
SIO'ITOBAq KAFYqAmA. ..:
ni 11. STRY RUS' A5, 8*PET G H6A.51 oaPTogKrA. d..
t~ I POSTAL.

Fig.-2. ,A *R. ''.O. 205-n.eexotc--rd t i s Bcu o the C v
W a i, v e.. in t ...... .-R. ru nn v se a n 1.
-A '*; IL14'-


i .. .-.- -' .- '-
4 '1'. t- +-- eL1 i l E fit,



FFi.12.' ,

Fig. 11. STARAYA RUSSA*58*PETROGRAD 6.5.19 on a free postcard to Novgorod.

Fig. 12. ASTRAKHAN*288*SARATOV 20.5.19 on a free postcard to Dmitrovsk. Because of the Civil
War activities in the surrounding area, this TPO/RPO was running very irregularly in 1919.


OAIT -POETA~
-. -,? .~.-;Yj
a. *.~~- `~c
/r.C C '('m X ci

X4,


Fl4 g 3 ,


. .. .... .... I .. .. ...... ..
S .................................. ..
Fig. 14.


Fig. 13. SUKHINICHI RSPO 3.9.19 on a free postcard to Kaluga province. Having been opened only in
1919, the Sukhinichi RSPO was supplied with a circular cancelling device, reengraved from some old
circular dated postmarker, instead of an oval one.

Fig. 14. RTISHCHEVO-VOKZAL 8.9.19 on a 3-kop. postal stationery card, used as a blank for a free
postcard addressed to Petrograd (Leonard Tann Collection).

THE POST-RIDER/HMIMIHK No. 40 73
June, 1997









__ .



Fig. 15.







Fig. 15. SHADRINSK-VOKZAL 31.3.20 on a registered cover, franked according to the corresponding
postal rate then in force (10 roubles) and addressed to Slobodskoi.


SCbMO 1n
01 k.- f& "): ". -

,7,, '". -.- r..






Fig. 16. Fig. 17. -

Fig. 16. LIKHAYA-VOKZAL 15.6.20 on a postal stationery letter-card, used as a blank for a free
ordinary letter addressed to Balashov.

Fig. 17. ALEKSANDROVSK-VOKZAL 14.12.20 on a free postcard to Khar'kov. Note the 9-day
interval required for this sending to go about 250 km. (156 miles) between Aleksandrovsk and Khar'kov,
which would take no more than one day under normal conditions.


9'.-,, ", "' j, ^--

S ... ... Fig. 18. CHUDOVO*271*ZVANKA 7.1.21 on a
'-- .. free postcard to Petrograd. The canceller was
reengraved from an older one, probably from the
.. .. i ....... ....;........ .... ........... former route with the same number: VALK-ALT
..,,." -SHVANENBURG or VALK-SHTOKMANSGOF.
^ -=;- :,- -' '. -*. <-t

Fig. 18.
F i 18 '... _-. ..L ... :.....:....... -*.:*.... .

Little is known about the railway postal operations in the regions outside the jurisdiction of the Central
Railway Postal Administration, particularly there where White Russian or national governments ruled
(Siberia and the Far East, North Russia, North-West Russia, South Russia, Ukraine, Transcaucasia etc).
However, a few specimens of covers and loose stamps cancelled by oval postmarks show from those
regions found in the collections that the railway post did function in those areas as well. For instance, it

74 THE POST-RIDER/IfMIllHK No. 40
June, 1997






is known from archival sources that, in the area under North-West Army control, mail vans ran in the
second half of 1919 between Narva and Pskov and between Narva and Yamburg, being later united into
a single route between Volosovo and Pskov. Still later, after the fall of Pskov and Volosovo to the Reds,
this route was shortened again to serve the section between Narva and Gdov.

It also seems that most of the pre-1918 TPOs/RPOs maintained their former numbers and, as well, the
RSPOs kept functioning in Siberia, the Far East, South Russia and the Ukraine. However, almost
nothing is known as to how they were administered in those regions, i.e. whether they had their own
railway postal administrations or if there was another kind of administration. For instance, the above-
mentioned TPO/RPO running between Pskov and Volosovo was under the Military Communications
Administration of the North-West Army.

Some former TPO/RPO routes were divided between different administrations. For instance, during the
second half of 1918, postal mail between Soviet Russia and the Ukraine under the government of
Hetman Skoropadskii and German-Austrian occupation was conveyed by TPO/RPO 15-16 between
Moscow and Korenevo on Russian territory and by a Ukrainian mail van between Korenevo and Kiev.

It would also appear that, in the period of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic in 1919, there existed a
separate Railway Postal Administration, although in close connection with its Russian counterpart. A
Latvian mail van is known to have run between Riga and Dvinsk (Daugavpils) in February and March
1919, i.e. during the existence of the Latvian Soviet Republic, but this route was merged in April with
the Russian TPO/RPO Riga-Or'l.

A TPO/RPO under No. 1 is known to have been running on the territory of the independent Republic of
Armenia in 1919 and perhaps later, but its route has not yet been ascertained. The following TPO/RPO
routes are known to have functioned in the Far Eastern Republic during 1921-1922:-
243-244 Chita Khabarovsk
259-260 Chita- Manchuria
261-262 Vladivostok Pogranichnaya
263-264 Vladivostok Suchan
265-266 Khabarovsk Pogranichnaya
269-270 Bochkarevo Vladivostok
Sretensk Kuenga
Priiskovaya Nerchinsk
Now for some further illustrations:-



fs qd J D:3
/, $

,,? Ep rk .
!.,; ..i............... <" 's <' ..... ............ ...... ,,
...... ... -.: .......










June, 1997
^V~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~5 < ( *-..wi!-y, l/ ^^^^W .







June,1~997






Fig. 19. ROSTOV*20*KHAR'KOV/OTD 16.10.18 to Slavyansk (see at the bottom of the previous page)
on a postcard franked with a Ukrainian stamp of 20 shahiv = 10 kopeks, according to the rate then in
force in the Ukraine in October 1918. In that year, TPO/RPO No. 20 was running on the territory of two
non-Soviet states: the Ukraine and the Don Republic (Robert Taylor Collection).

Fig. 20. VOLOCHISK-VOKZAL 30.10.18 (bottom of the previous page) on a postcard with the same
franking as above, but addressed this time to Kiev.The Volochisk RSPO was then situated again at its
proper railway station in the Ukraine (Robert Taylor Collection).

."" (C"n'"! ^-



d l I
,, ,, ..


.. .. ... -Pb..p K. `. oI I ; \. IJ -' I-

Fig. 21. z Fig. 22.
Fig. 21. KRASNOYARSK-VOKZAL 21.9.19 on a postcard to Atamanskaya Stanitsa, a suburb of Omsk.
There was no free postage under the White Government of Admiral Kolchak in Siberia. The card was
unfranked because of a shortage of postage stamps and it was handed over at the postal counter, rather
than having been dropped into a letter box.

Fig. 22. TIKHORETSKAYA RAILWAY STATION POST OFFICE 28.12.18 on an unfranked postcard,
addressed to the railway station at Armavir (there is an indistinct oval arrival postmark of the latter). In
December 1918, both Tikhoretskaya and Armavir were under the administration of the government of
the Kuban Republic, being in turn a part of the South Russian White Union, with General Denikin as its
head. The card was posted as free by the head of the Tikhoretskaya RSPO to his colleague at Armavir.









O'iA "r. -'

A A-.'L,\ .(- k Fig. 23.
V ,




Fig. 23. EKATERINODAR-VOKZAL 3.4.20 on a registered cover to Moscow. Posted soon after the
recapture of Ekaterinodar by the Reds, it was franked with 4 x 1-r. stamps of the Kuban Republic,
corresponding to the rate valid in Soviet Russia until 20 March 1920.
76 THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIHK No. 40
June. 1997







As of the end of 1919 and during 1920, a gradual abolition of the Central Railway Postal Administration
departments took place in Soviet Russia and the Ukraine. The RSPOs and TPOs/RPOs were transferred
to the jurisdiction of provincial postal administrations and, later on in 1922, came under the newly
created Regional Postal & Telegraphic Administrations (the so-called Communications Districts). That
process was completed in 1921. From now on, the former RSPOs differed from the ordinary post offices
situated at the railway stations and elsewhere only in that they continued to function as the places where
the itinerary postal documents were stored.

During 1921-1922, as the fighting in the Civil War was dying down, the process was being continued of
restoring the former TPO/RPO routes, as well as opening new ones. By 1923, the last of the TPO/RPO
routes still administered separately now became part of the postal system of the newly created Soviet
Union. An official list of the TPOs/RPOs functioning in 1923 is presented below:-


TPO/RPO Nos.


TPO/RPO route


1-2
3-4
5-6
7-8
9-10
11-12
OTD
13-14
15-16
OTD
17-18
19-20
21-22
23-24
25-26
27-28
29-30
31-32
33-34
35-36
37-38
39-40
41-42
OTD
43-44
45-46
47-48
49-50
51-52
53-54
55-56
57-58
59-60
61-62
63-64


District of
Communications

North-West
North-West
North-West
Oril
West
Moscow

Moscow
Moscow

Moscow
Khar'kov
Black Sea
North-West
Volga-Kama
Mid-Volga
West
Khar'kov
Moscow
North-West
Khar'kov
North-West
Moscow

Moscow
West
Kiev
Black Sea
Transcaucasia
Kiev
Volga-Kama
North-West
Black Sea
Moscow
Moscow


Petrograd-Moscow
Petrograd-Ostrov-Pytalovo
Novgorod-Luga
Orel-Bigosovo
Orsha-Krichev-Kommunary-Unecha
Moscow-Nizhnii Novgorod
Moscow-Petushki
Moscow-Rostov/Don
Moscow-Khar'kov
Moscow-Serpukhov
Moscow-Kiev
Khar'kov-Rostov/Don
Kiev-Odessa
Petrograd-Kostroma
Kazan'-Ekaterinburg
Kanash-Krasnyi Uzel
Minsk-Negoreloe
Poltava-Popasnaya
Moscow-Arkhangel'sk
Petrograd-Murmansk
Khar'kov-Pomoshnaya-Odessa
Petrograd-Kingisepp
Moscow-Minsk
Moscow-Golitsyno
Moscow-Saratov
Moscow-Radoshkovichi
Zhmerinka-Volochisk
Razdol'naya-Tiraspol'
Tiflis-Telav
Kazatin-Shepetovka
Agryz-Votkinskii Zavod
Petrograd-Staraya Russa
Khar'kov-Sevastopol'
Ryazhsk-Vyaz'ma
Ryazhsk-Samara
THE POST-RIDER/NIMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997






South-East


65-66
OTD
67-68
69-70
71-72
73-74
75-76
77-78
79-80
81-82
83-84
85-86*
87-88
89-90
91-92
93-94
95-96
97-98
99-100
101-102
103-104
105-106
107-108
109-110
111-112
113-114
115-116
117-118
119-120
121-122
123-124
125-126
127-128
129-130
131-132
133-134
135-136
137-138
139-140
141-142
143-144
145-146
147-148
149-150
151-152
153-154
155-156
157-158
159-160


Rostov/Don-Baku
Rostov/Don-Baku
Kiev-Kherson
Samara-Tashkent
Moscow-Bui
Vorozhba-Khar'kov
Mokhovye Gory-Kotel'nich
Murom-Nerekhta
Mariupol'-Liman
Vyatka-Ekaterinburg
Vyaz'ma-Likhoslavl'
Egorshino-Bogdanovichi-Shadrinsk
Likhvin-Tula
Zhlobin-Shepetovka
Elets-Uzlovaya
Gomel'-Zhitkovichi
Baku-Batum
Samtredi-Poti
Rostov/Don-Znamenka
Sharopan-Sakhcheri
Minsk-Kremenchug
Khashuri-Borzhom
Or'1-Gryazi-Tsaritsyn
Nikitovka-Zverevo
Tiflis-Erivan'-Dzhulfa
Okulovka-Lybitino
Ekaterinburg-Omsk
Gomel'-Bryansk
Lev Tolstoi-Valuiki
Tsaritsyn-Tikhoretskaya
Samara-Chelyabinsk
Did not exist
Kazatin-Uman'
Vapnyarka-Tsvetkovo
Kerch-Dzhankoi
Znamenka-Volnovakha-Debal'tsevo
Moscow-Kazan'
Tashkent-Aulie Ata
Kislovodsk-Prikumsk
Cherigov-Ichnya
Bryansk-L'gov
Rybnitsa-Slobodka
Zhmerinka-Mogilev Podol'skii
Tambov-Kamyshkin
Saratov-Ural'sk
Rostov/Don-Torgovaya
Atkarsk-Vol'sk
Pokrovsk-Aleksandrov Gai
Penza-Khar'kov


78 THE POST-RIDER/SVMIMIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Kiev
Turkestan
Moscow
Khar'kov
Upper Volga
Moscow
Khar'kov
North
West
Ural
Moscow
Kiev
Or'el
West
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
Khar'kov
Transcaucasia
West
Transcaucasia
Orel/Lower Volga
Khar'kov
Transcaucasia
North-West
Ural
West
Orel
South-East
Mid-Volga

Kiev
Kiev
Black Sea
Khar'kov
Moscow
Turkestan
South-East
Kiev
West
Black Sea
Kiev
Voronezh
Lower Volga
South-East
Lower Volga
Lower Volga
Mid-Volga







161-162
163-164
165-166
167-168
169-170
171-172
173-174*
175-176*
177-178
179-180
181-182*
183-184
185-186
187-188
189-190
191-192
193-194
195-196
197-198
199-200
201-202
203-204
205-206
207-208
209-210
211-212
213-214
215-216
217-218
219-220
221-222
223-224
225-226
227-228
229-230
231-232
233-234
235-236
237-238
239-240
241-242
243-244
245-246
247-248
249-250
251-252
253-254
255-256
257-258


Khar'kov-Lugansk
Talovaya-Kalach
Krasnodar-Stavropol'
Chelyabinsk-Omsk
Perm'-Ekaterinburg-Chelyabinsk
Dolinskaya-Ekaterinoslav
Tatarskaya-Pavlodar
Vorozhba-Makovo
Kiev-Voronezh
Stavropol'-Vinodel'naya
Berdichev-Gaivoron
Pskov-Bologoe
Omsk-Novonikolaevsk
Novonikolaevsk-Krasnoyarsk
Tomsk-Taiga
Petrograd-Zhlobin
Did not exist
Verkhov'e-Marmyshi
Krasnoyarsk-Irkutsk
Bryansk-Peschinskii Zavod
Did not exist
Did not exist
Krasnovodsk-Tashkent
Tashkent-Andizhan
Moscow-Sebezh
Rudnitsa-Olviopol'
Petrograd-Oranienbaum
Moscow-Samara
Inza-Simbirsk
Vyatka-Kotlas
Ekaterinoslav-Berdyansk
Moscow-Kineshma
Chusovskaya-Solevami
Merv-Kushka
Torzhok-Selizharovo
Shepetovka-Kamenets Podol'sk
Petropavlovsk-Kokchetav
Smolensk-Kozlov
Likhaya-Tsaritsyn
Atkarsk-Balanda
Irkutsk-Chita
Chita-Bochkarevo
Moscow-Savelovo-Krasnyi Kholm
Nizhnii Novgorod-Penza
Vladimir-Ryazan'
Belgorod-Kupyansk
Kiev-Poltava
Novozybkov-Novgorod Severskii
Belgorod-Sumy

THE POST-RIDER/5MIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Khar'kov
Voronezh
South-East
West Siberia
Ural
Khar'kov
West Siberia
Khar'kov
Kiev
South-East
Kiev
North-West
West Siberia
Mid-Siberia
Mid-Siberia
North-West

Orel
East Siberia
West


Turkestan
Turkestan
Moscow
Black Sea
North-West
Moscow
Mid-Volga
North
Khar'kov
Moscow
Ural
Turkestan
Moscow
Kiev
West Siberia
West
Lower Volga
Lower Volga
East Siberia
Far East
Moscow
Upper Volga
Moscow
Orel
Kiev
West
Orel

79






259-260
261-262
263-264
265-266
267-268
269-270
271-272
273-274
275-276
277-278
279-280
281-282
283-284
285-286
287-288
289-290
291-292
293-294
295-296
297-298
299-300*
301-302
303-304
305-306
307-308*
309-310
311-312
313-314
315-316
317-318
319-320
321-322
323-324
325-326
327-328
329-330
331-332*
333-334
335-336
337-338
339-340
341-342
343-344
345-346*
347-348
349-350
351-352
353-354
355-356


Chita-Man'chzhuriya
Vladivostok-Pogranichnaya
Vladivostok-Kangauz
Khabarovsk-Vladivostok
Kiev-Korosten'-Berdichev-Kazatin
Bochkarevo-Blagoveshchensk
Chudovo-Zvanka
Bochkarevo-Khabarovsk
Veradovka-Kustarevka
Did not exist
Petrograd-Vyatka
Goroblagodatskaya-Nadezhdinskii Zavod
Bologoe-Polotsk
Pskov-Polotsk
Saratov-Astrakhan'
Krotovka-Surgut
Rostov/Don-Novorossiisk
Did not exist
Eisk-Sosyka
L'gov-Likhaya
Nizhnii Tagil-Alapaevsk-Ergorshino
Osipovichi-Slutsk
Simbirsk-Ufa
Kustanai-Chelyabinsk
Ekaterinburg-Tavda
Bakhmach-Odessa
Did not exist
Did not exist
Did not exist
Armavir-Tuapse
Did not exist
Did not exist
Did not exist
Did not exist
Novonikolaevsk-Semipalatinsk
Barnaul-Biisk
Yurga-Bachat
Did not exist
Did not exist
Krasnodar-Akhtarskaya
Kushxhevskaya-Timashevskaya-Protoka-Krymskaya
Berdyaush-Kusino
Orenburg-Orsk
Kagan-Karshi
Did not exist
Did not exist
Did not exist
Pskov-Polya
Voronezh-Anna


80 THE POST-RIDER/IMIUIIK No.40
June, 1997


Far East
Far East
Far East
Far East
Kiev
Far East
North-West
Far East
Voronezh

North-West
Ural
West
North-West
Lower Volga
Mid-Volga
South-East

South-East
Khar'kov
Ural
West
Mid-Volga
Kirgizia
Ural
Black Sea



South-East




Mid-Siberia
Mid-Siberia
Mid-Siberia


South-East
South-East
Ural
Kirgizia
Turkestan



North-West
Voronezh







* These routes were altered during September-December 1923 in the following manner:-
85-86 Bogdanovich-Shadrinsk
173-174 Tatarskaya-Slavgorod (and then became unnumbered)
175-176 Vorozhba-Glukhov
181-182 Khmel'nik-Gaivoron
299-300 Nizhnii Tagil-Alapaevsk
307-308 Ekaterinburg-Turinsk
331-332 Yurga-Prokop'evskie Kopi
345-346 Kagan-Samsonovo


Unnumbered TPOs/RPOs:-
Azov-Rostov/Don
Tuapse-Sochi
Kurgannaya-Labinskaya
Maikop-Belorechensk
Nal'chik-Prokhladnaya
Vladikavkaz-Beslan
Groznyi-Kizlyar
Makhach Kala-Buinaksk
Georg'evsk-Nezlobnaya
Popov Ostov-Kem'
Petrograd-Sheremet'evka
Petrograd-Vaskelovo
Petrograd-Beloostrov
Borovichi-Uglovka
Sestroretsk Kurort-Petrograd
Volkhov-Zvanka
-** Mshinskaya-Volosovo
-** Bogorodsk-Fryazevo
-** Balasikha-Reutovo
Moscow-Egor'evsk
-** Golutvin-Ozery
-** Roshal'-Cherusti
-** Kirzhach-Aleksandrov
-** Klin-Vysokovo Nekrasino
-** Kashira-Venev
** Lukhovitsy-Zaraisk
-** Kaluga-Tikhonova Pustyn'
Moscow-Shchelkovo
-* *Zikeevo-Zhizdra
Inokovka-Inzhavino
Bogoyavlensk-Synovka
Grafskaya-Ramon'
Berdyaush-Bakal
Nizhnii Tagil-Vysimoutinskii Zavod
Nadezhdinsk-Bogoslovskii Zavod
Vyazovaya-Katav-Ivanovskii Zavod
Chaikovskaya-Nytva
Kalino-Lys'va
Nadezhdinsk-Vagran


South-East
South-East
South-East
South-East
South-East
South-East
South-East
South-East
South-East
North-West
North-West
North-West
North-West
North-West
North-West
North-West
North-West
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Voronezh
Voronezh
Voronezh
Ural
Ural
Ural
Ural
Ural
Ural
Ural


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIHK No. 40 81
June, 1997







Votkinskii Zavod-Talevo
Kemerovo-Topki
Kainsk-Barabin
Bagat-Prokop'evskie Kopi
Ermak-Ekibastuz
Skobelevo-Torgakovo
Kagan-Stakhili-Bukhara
Kokand-Namangan
Andizhan-Dzhalal Abad
Simferopol'-Evpatoriya
Vladislavovka-Feodosiya
Novo Alekseevka-Genichesk
Polotsk-Farinovo
Zhukovo-Kletnya
Vasilevichi-Khoiniki
Popel'nya-Skvira
Tereshchenskaya-Pirogovka
Korosten'-Olevsk
Shepetovka-Krivin
Verkhnii Baskunchak-Vladimirovskaya Pristan'
Aleksikovo-Uryupino
Vertunovka-Bekovo
Korenevo-Ryl'sk
Korenevo-Sudzha
Okhochevka-Kolpna
Rzhava-Oboyan'
Akhal Senaki-Kheta
Rion-Tkvibuli
Borzhom-Bakuriani
Millerovo-Lugansk
Achinsk-Uzhur
Priiskovaya-Nerchinsk
Kuenga-Sretensk
Kangauz-Suchan
Ershov-Pugachev
Krinichnaya-Debal'tsevo
Apostolovo-Kherson
Ekaterinoslav-Kil'chen'
Krivoluzginskaya-Donskaya
Dyad'kovo-Vytochi
Stantsiya Dorogobuzhskaya-Dorogobuzh
Unecha-Starodub
Khar'kov-Likhachevo
Khar'kov-Kolomak
Kirikivo-Akhtyrka
Boromlya-Lebedinskaya
Lokhvitsa-Gadyach
Krindachevka-Shterovka
Dergachi-Khar'kov
Khashuri-Suram
Baku-Surakhany
THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Ural
Mid-Siberia
Mid-Siberia
Mid-Siberia
West Siberia
Turkestan
Turkestan
Turkestan
Turkestan
Black Sea
Black Sea
Black Sea
West
West
West
Kiev
Kiev
Kiev
Kiev
Lower Volga
Lower Volga
Lower Volga
Ofrl
Oral
Oril
Oral
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
Khar'kov
East Siberia
Far East
Far East
Far East
Lower Volga
Khar'kov
Khar'kov
Khar'kov
Lower Volga
West
West
West
Khar'kov
Khar'kov
Khar'kov
Khar'kov
Khafkov
Kharkov
Khar'kov
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia


-

-
-***
-
-
-
-
-




-
-
-

-





-
-
-
-
-**
-






** Closed down during September-December 1923.
*** Altered to Glukhov-Pirogovka in October 1923.

As can be seen from the list, the quantity of numbered TPOs/RPOs is little different from the nominal
amount before 1918. This means that new routes were opened in place of those which had previously
run on the territories that had broken away as a result of WWI and Civil Wars (Poland, the Baltics,
Bessarabia, parts of the Ukraine, Belarus' and Transcaucasia). The numbers for those TPOs/RPOs were
transferred to newly opened or to some former TPOs/RPOs, which previously had other numbers.
However, by the same reasoning, the amount of unnumbered TPOs/RPOs is appreciably less than
before. It is also remarkable that a considerably lesser proportion of covers with TPO/RPO postmarks in
the total amount of entire has been preserved from the 1918-1923 period (which are much scarcer in
themselves for quite understandable reasons), compared to the amount existing of the pre-1918/1919
covers. That circumstance can be explained partially by the fact that, during this period, the so-called
postal points at railway stations or stops served by railway officials, where ordinary mail was received
and then handed over unpostmarked to TPOs/RPOs during train stops, had been closed down or
transferred to ordinary post offices. Consequently, the only way for a cover to be treated and cancelled
at a TPO/RPO was to post it at the TPO/RPO itself and that did not happen too often.




./ '._.. : ... / Fig. 24. BOLOGOE-VOKZAL 29.9.21 on a
postcard to Kashin, franked at 100 roubles
/ '. (the 20-kopek stamps sold at 100 times face),
in accordance with the current rate.


.. Fig. 24.

















Fig. 25.
Fig. 25. ZHMERINKA-VOKZAL 11.12.21 on a registered cover to Tallinn, Estonia, franked in
accordance with the corresponding foreign postal rates (1000r. for a surface foreign letter, plus another
1000r. for the registration fee).
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40 83
June, 1997













m^^ ^^t

r-vnz (fj4C Cf/
f ftAejju ^J~Cre!U01

'/?!4^<^f5
12*fyB ;d;:p3


Fig. 26. TIKHORETSKAYA-RAILWAY POST OFFICE (RSPO) 24.2.22 on a ordinary cover to Tiflis,
franked at 7500 roubles, in accordance with the current inland letter rate.


Fig. 27.
Fig. 27. ZHLOBIN-RAILWAY POST OFFICE (RSPO) 25.7.22 in circular form as an arrival postmark
on a postcard from Petrograd. Although Zhlobin was using oval cancellers before 1918, they were
probably lost or stolen in the meantime, so a circular canceller was manufactured to replace the lost one


Fig. 28. Fig. 29.


Fig. 28. OMSK-VOKZAL 25.11.22 on a postal stationery card used as a blank, addressed to Petrograd
and franked with a 10-rouble stamp in accordance with the rate then in force.
84 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997







Fig. 29. VLADIKAVKAZ-VOKZAL 15.6.13 on an unfranked postcard to Estonia and with two Postage
Due markings.


Fig. 30. Fig. 31.

Fig. 30. MOSKVA-NIKOL. VOKZ. 22.8.23 on a postcard to Petrograd, with a mixed franking of 50 r.
1922 (= 50 kop. 1923) plus a further 5 r. 1923, thus overpaying the internal rate by 50 kop. 1923.

Fig. 31. KOSTROMA*34*BOLOGOE 2.9.23 on a postcard to Petrograd, correctly franked at 8 r. 1923
in accordance with the postal rate then in force. Actually, the TPO/RPO was running between Kostroma
and Petrograd, but an old canceller was still being used.
,? r ,, .-


A,-
X,*
:-LIAP,


Fig. 32. CHITA-VOKZAL 2.6.23 on a cover
to Germany, franked with a 20-kop. Chita
issue of the Far Eastern Republic, when this
republic existed no more as it had become
part of the RSFSR (Timo Bergholm
Collection).


.... '-,.'T- ".' ..^ ''- ^.' -.J --. ; .. --- '
[| ?.%.-.*":. '; ^Fig. 32. .? .


In the period from 1918 to 1923, the former oval cancellers were mainly used for postmarking mail at
RSPOs and TPOs/RPOs. As a rule, they remained unaltered, although a new spelling was introduced in
1918. The corresponding devices were reengraved, now already according to the rules of the new
orthography, only in cases when completely new routes were opened, after some period of time of
utilising the old cancellers of a former route. It seems that, in this period, no great alteration was made
in the shape of the cancellers. If necessary, old circular cancellers were also utilised by reengraving
them for use in some newly opened RSPOs and TPOs/RPOs, or to replace cancellers lost or stolen
during the disorders of that time (see Figs. 13 & 27). True, such non-observance of the formalities began
still earlier, e.g. when circular cancellers for the TPO/RPO Nos. 241-242 Chita-Bochkarevo were
manufactured in 1917.

THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK No.40 85
June, 1997






The following sources were used in writing this article:-
-Official journals of the Postal Administration: HnoToBo-TeJnerpaq)HbiH )KyvpHan (MacTb
ocbnuHajsibHa) 1915-1919, C6opHHK noCTaHOBJReHHI4 H pacnopRwKeHufi HapoAHoro
KoMMHcapnaTa 1IoMT H Tejerpa coB (HKHI-T) 1919-1920, BronneTeHb HKInuT 1921-1923.
-Central State Archive of Estonia in Tallinn: Fund 54 (Estonian Postal Adminsitration).
-Various articles and notes in the BJRP, Rossical Journal and The Post-Rider.
*

SOME NOTES ON THE 1919 HUNGARIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC
by Andrew Cronin.

The basic purpose of the present study is to point out the similarities that this republic of "133 Heroic
Days" (as one Armenian author put it) shared with the struggling Soviet Russian republic led by V.I.
Lenin. To appreciate what happened during that period, it is necessary to provide some data about a
truly remarkable and distinctive people living in Central Europe: the Hungarians.

I. Historical synopsis.
As a partner in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Hungary was dragged unwillingly into WWI and found
itself fighting on the Eastern Front. Many thousands of Hungarian soldiers were taken prisoner by the
Imperial Russian forces and sent to camps, mainly in Siberia. Among them were three future
Commissars of the Hungarian Soviet Republic: B61a Kun (1886-1939), Matyis Rakosi (1892-1971) and
Tibor Szamuely (1890-1919).

After the Russian Empire collapsed from within
AGAR ,,,during 1917, many of the POWs were exposed to
Bolshevik political propaganda. Released from a
POW camp in Tomsk after the March 1917
Revolution, Bl6a Kun published in the period from
April 1917 to November 1918 a total of 20 articles
..T,-A in the Tomsk newspaper "Sibirskii Rabochii" and in
..... .. ....'... ...7 "Pravda". He even met V.I. Lenin, before returning
to Hungary. Tibor Samuely organised an International Brigade of the Soviet Red Army from among the
POWs and a monument in Omsk erected in honour of the "Hungarian Internationalists" is shown on the
1-forint commem. of 1977 illustrated here. He was also able to meet Lenin on his way home, as featured
on the 20-filler stamp of 1959 herewith. The Soviet propaganda had a particular effect on the
Hungarians, whose country was a thousand-year-old monarchy, badly in need of a land reform.

Following upon the surrender of the Central Powers in WWI, Hungary broke away from the Empire and
became a republic on 16 November 1918, the same day that B6la Kun arrived in Budapest from Russia.
The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the republic was gr6f (Count) Mihily Kirolyi
(1875-1955), one of the richest landowners in Hungary: a total of 60,000 acres (24,280 hectares) and
assets of $125 millions. He was both a great Hungarian and a great humanist, as he was willing to give
up his properties to help solve the problem of the landless peasants. He also had strong Socialist
leanings and the Land Reform got under way in February 1919. Unfortunately, the attitude of the Allies
to this first democratic republic in Hungarian history was most unsympathetic and he was forced to
resign on 20 March 1919, as the Romanian Army continued advancing in Transylvania, with the active
encouragement of the French Allied Representative in Hungary, Lieutenant-Colonel Fernand Vix.

His government was followed on the next day by a coalition of the Social Democrats led by Sindor
Garbai and the Communists. They formed a Revolutionary Governing Council with Sindor Garbai at its
86 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No. 40
June, 1997
















head. However, the real leader was Bl6a Kun, who had founded
the Hungarian Communist Party on 24 October 1918 (see the
1-forint stamp above at left, issued in 1958) and was now the
Commissar of Foreign Affairs.


The animosity of the Allies increased and Czechoslovak forces '
struck southwards into the Hungarian heartland on 26 April "
1919, also occupying "Ruszka Kraina" (the present-day
Carpatho-Ukraine). The Commissar of Defence and C.I.C. of _._A
the quickly organised Hungarian Red Army, Vilmos Bbhm
(1880-1949; see the photo above at right, taken from a contemporary postcard) and the Chief of Staff,
Colonel Aurel Stromfeld (1878-1927; see the 1.50 Ft. stamp second from the left above) counter-
attacked brilliantly at Salg6tarjan and Miskolc, driving the Czechoslovaks back northwards. Note the 1-
forint stamp third from the left above, which lists the locations of the main battles. Subsequently, a party
congress on 12 June 1919 agreed on a Socialist Constitution for Hungary. Meanwhile, a counter-
revolutionary organisation had been formed in Vienna and a National Government under Rear-Admiral
Mikl6s Horthy at Szeged in the south, subjecting the young republic to tremendous pressure.

Colonel Stromfeld resigned in July 1919 and full command of the Hungarian Red Army was assumed by
Jeno Landler (1875-1929; note the 2-forint stamp above at right, issued in 1961), a lawyer and
Commissar of Internal Affairs. His forces fought bravely, but could not prevail against the much
stronger Romanian Army, which entered Budapest on 2 August 1919. Upon hearing about the fall of the
Government, Tibor Szamuely committed suicide the same day on the Austro-Hungarian border. The rest
of the Commissars escaped to Vienna, where B61a Kun was interned and later released.

It goes without saying that the Hungarian Soviet Republic never had a chance of succeeding, as its very
existence scared the hell out of all its conservative neighbours and Soviet Russia was too embroiled with
its own Civil War to be of any assistance. The HSR also lost a lot of popular support for its Land
Reform Programme, as it wanted to take over the large estates and run them as state farms. V.I. Lenin
learned from that mistake and allowed the Soviet peasants to have individual plots of land under his
New Economic Policy.

Meanwhile, Count Mihaly Karoly had left Hungary on 4 July 1919 and settled in France. Matyas Rakosi
reentered Hungary illegally in 1925, was arrested and on the verge of being executed. Count Karolyi
organised a campaign through the "Ligue des Droits de 1'Homme" and English friends, to have the
sentence commuted to 17 years' imprisonment. Rakosi was subsequently exchanged in 1940 with
Moscow against the return of 56 Hungarian battle standards taken by the Imperial Russian Army in
1849. Count Karolyi never returned to Hungary during the Horthy regime and he toured the USSR
extensively in 1931, meeting George Bernard Shaw there and also Bl6a Kun, who was now in exile. In
referring to this trip in his memoirs, he made a pertinent comment about the tragic fate of the last Tsar
and his family: "Innocent humans, placed in exalted positions to which they were not equal".

THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK No. 40 87
June, 1997






----- --........ He returned to Hungary after WWII and was ambassador to
Sr. ^ 6 : France from 11 June 1947 to 9 June 1949. At the height of the
.............. Stalinist terror in that latter year, the Minister for Foreign
"uo .,s." Affairs, Liszl6 Rajk, was arrested on trumped-up "spy" charges.
SCount Karolyi tried to intercede on his behalf with Mityas

IL_ Workers' Party and the most powerful man in the country. He
r:! was sharply rebuffed and Rajk was unjustly executed, as were
lWlii- ,,many other totally innocent people. Mihily Karolyi then left
....."...... ........... ---.. Hungary, never to return, but his remains were reinterred there
with full honours in March 1962. See the 1-forint stamp here at left issued on that occasion and a further
1-forint value to honour the centenary of his birth in 1975.

Following upon the fall of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, Vilmos Bb'hm lived in exile, first in Vienna
and then in Sweden. He came back home in 1945 and was ambassador to Sweden from 1946. He never
returned again to Hungary, as he could see the writing on the wall.


victim of the Great Purge in 1939. Two
--- MAtyH sB61a Kun disappeared in the USSR as a

Hungarian stamps have been issued with
his portrait: a 60-filler in 1966 and a 4-Ft.
in 1986 for the centenary of his birth. A
Soviet 10-kopek value (Scott 5431) was
_a. 198 lf also issued that same year. as shown here.
MAGYAR POSTAL MAGYAR POSTA nO
Jen' Landler went into exile in Vienna and eventually died at Cannes. His ashes were buried by the
wall of the Kremlin in Moscow.

Matyais R~ikosi was demoted from Prime Minister
ST to lst. Secretary of the Hungarian Workers' Party
MAY 2 : on 4 July 1953, after the death of Stalin. He was
dismissed in July 1956 and left for the USSR in
%tA I t disgrace. He was expelled from the party in August
SMAARpoA 1962 for his role in the illegal trials of the Stalinist
,,-, -, era. A set of three stamps came out in 1952 for his
SA- 60th. birthday and a diplomatic bag cover to the
U.S. is shown here with a pair of the 1-forint value,
cancelled on arrival in Washington, 25 May 1952.
Relations between Hungary and the U.S. were at an
all-time low during that period of the Cold War.

Finally in this section and as a matter of historical interest, please refer to the illustration on p. 89 of part
of the front page of "VOROS UJSAG" ("Red Newspaper", the official afternoon organ of the Socialist
Party of Hungary), issue of Saturday, 31 May 1919. It carries, among other items, some telegraphic
reports from Pgtervir (Petrograd) about the Russian Civil War. Note also the 2-forint stamp issued in
1958 for the 40th. anniversary of the foundation of that newspaper.

II. The philately and postal history of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
By the beginning of the year 1918, the Hungarian people were completely fed up with the endless
slaughter on the battlefields of WWI. A Bolshevik entity, called the "Stern, Martos and Schima Group"
88 THE POST-RIDER/IaMIIIHK No. 40
June, 1997







Budapest, 1919 szomRat mJlus 31.
It. dv, 9G. szim.


* ilgi' proletariai egvesUljeteek


2424
... ROS U* .

$SerkesztlisM g: K -ladlhvatal:
Budapest, VIll.,.Rakk Szllird.ulea 4. szAm, A MAGYO RORSZnAG SZOCIALISTA P RT IBudapest, Vll., ROkk Szllbrd.utca 4. szm..
.Telefonsiimok: JOzae 43, 16mzet 53. 16ztef 63. DELUTANI IIVATALOS LAPJA Telefonszamnik: Jzbset 43, Jozsef 53. Ibzset 63.
"' 162se 23-84. 1 6 zset 23-84. -
ip i~ ..,..,, ....T B muajf il ..i.. ... 11 --..... l,, .,i.n

SA RI6zponti MunRistandcs
0 ifilkse
~ budapesti kizponti for-
radalmi dlunkis- 6es Hatona-
.tanacs o h6 31.6n, ezombaton
M d6lutin 4 6rakor az Ujvoros-
hizan til6st tart. TArggsorozat:
1, ~1llelmez6si tigyek. 2. A poll.
S .tl~kal helyzet. 3. Valasztisok.


i I osaZI YSZlMe Po
bizonydra nonm AltalAnos cm-
beri szempont ds nem a legeti-
kusabb szempont a viligon. De
oszthlyszempont 6rv6nycsiilt a
Ltrt6nelem eddigi folyaminI
mindaz6ta, ami6ta a tirsadalorn
osztdlyokra szakadt, ami6la az
egyik oszltly, mint uralkod6
oszthly, a hirsadalomn vezedt&6t
az nlami gpcezet kimMellen ki-
hasznd~hisAval az elnyomotlak
ellen, magthoz ragadta. De leg.
inkabb a burzsolzia, amelynek
eg6sz t6rtenete a vernek, a gyil-
00 kolasnak, a kiineltlen, cmbertc-
'-len oszlAlyharcnak a szakadat.


l6elb0 1 -zoinal ki ne kiisz6-
bjljc. Csupfin iz a be'hilis, hogy
a burzsoazia kltsihbeesctl ellen
illhisa sInskdpp, mint a prolela-
ridius szervczett osztfilycrej6vel
Ic nem t-iirhi I ClMuntin az ellen
forradalom leltr6s~nek kikeriil-
hetetlen sziiks6gessege szorilja a
prolelariitust a -i' -tudra ut jra
es ugyanez a k&nvszeriiseg az,
mely a prolctlriitust ma m6g
az osztalyszerapontok kimni!t-
len 6rv6enyesil6ssire' kliyszerili.
Egyellen pillainlra feledkeiz-
ztk csak meg a proletrialtis
arr61, hogy osztti!yszempontjait
erv6nyesitse, gv.ellen, pillanatra
pr,'4,lja ,"ncg 6rv6'nyesilen l az
illanlnos ".' .'" ;. szernponlokat
6s binjon kczlyiis lkzzel a hall-
dokl6, tde mn(g h;i'o ll senm le-
1rt hurzso;izi:ival szenilen -
6s a gviizelmes hlrzso:i ellen-
forraduloum gunylkacajos vC-
rengz6se fogj, kioklatni arr61,
hogy a burzsoAizia sem szenti-
menltlitist, scm filantr6piAt,
sena iAalnlinos mlnberi szempon-
lokat nem'ismcer, &s az oszlily-


nlajd az ember, az az ember,
akinck lelke k6pes lesz az altahi-
nos embcri szempontok befoga-
ddisra., Amig ez az uj ember
meg nem sziiletett, amig,osztl'ly-


emberek osztilyharcokat viv-
.ilk, adding csak oisz.ilyenmbrek
.1lkotjidk a tarsadalmat, akik
:szh'ilyszeniponiiok szerint kdny-
'lenek vagigkiizdeni Oletiiket.


y i, Syoze -_--
Orosz u


szovfetcsapatok y e
.. tervir, mnjus,30.(Szikratdvirat.)
A v6r6s cscapalo nujus 22-';re virrad6"' jszakdn be-
yoomiultak Alcxandrouszkba, ahol, Grigoriev fj6hadiszulldsa
is tartaldkainak le gnagobb reszec,volt. Grigorievnek sike-
iilt enncnekiilnie,h-, csurotait sz6lv~rtck. Az ellcnscii rendel-
lenil menekiilt minden irdn'!ibai,
Ez az ednminy, valamint Snamenku es' NaPo!oi ray/a
clfoglaldsa lchel6vi lelle a v56rs csupaltok, acna csoportjiri-
val val6 cgyesiilcst, melb Jckalcrinoszhli ticrilelin mni&-
dik. Roszlovban, -Novocserkaszkban es 'Taganrofban mair
wvrjik a munkcisok a szovjelcsapatokal. 1A miuin-'.isk 4!-
land6an szlr.ikolnak a gririrakba,; nqhAlca: szlrtrjkokalt vI.
resen toroljdk meg. Alcxapdrbvszkban 1inmegcsen qtllelik
agon a sztrdjkold. b(dnamumnkdsokal.
UKRAN SZ6OV',T SEG'SfU.NK
HUSZ VERSZTNYIRE ALLANIAK KISENEVTOL


/


L






came into being and used its graphic skills to produce astounding hand-drawn and hand-painted
postcards, mailed openly with anti-war propaganda. About 375 designs were circulated and posted
mainly from Pozsony (now Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia). The recipient was Martos Viki in
Mezdkivesd, Borsod county, who fled to Vienna when the Hungarian Soviet Republic collapsed.
-. A typical and
unique
Example
.... is given here,
showing the
.-W A four paws of
the Russian
bear at odds
with each
other at the
onset of the
Civil War.
S The wording
at bottom
7-: reads
P_"RUSSIAN
REVOLUTION
,'-^ ."1918" and the
FO -ALO .' -: card is drawn
and hand-
r-^- .-, 6K' "1 painted in
black, brow-n
.. : /':" andred
: Written on 8th.
SFebruary 1918,
can gthe message
'-d lb Gis h p reads as
~ follows:-
-- "In Russia,
; ~t,, ,h -.. \ one calamity
feeds upon

.. ,will only come
can see in general that the world war is the greatest madness". Strong stuff. The about green




author has seen, but was not able to acquire another card in this series, showing Tsar Nicholas and his
c,, r(, n ,-muszk6r
4 -., 4r (muzhik?) is
,.ing on the
ground. The body of opinion from Western culture is still not imbued with concern for the people, who
can see in general that the world war is the greatest madness". Strong stuff. The addition of the green
"Feldpost" label is puzzling, as the card was franked at the normal civilian lO-filldr rate. The present
author has seen, but was not able to acquire another card in this series, showing Tsar Nicholas and his
entourage being knocked down as chessman. That was a very striking design.

Another satiric card is shown on the next page, this time with a printed design in the Seidner series,
issued by the "Nepszava" Publishers in Budapest. It was posted locally in Csap (now Hon in the
90 THE POST-RIDER/IMIMIHK No. 40
June, 1997










''lll~.-EZ-6,".--`MA i :KEP: ~
i: i-:r:7


*1 ___________________________________________________________________


--- '.' .eclrJ y .y th' w hsiu










Carpatho-Ukraine), early in April 1919 and
just a few days before the Czechoslovaks
marched in to occupy that area. The card is
headed "The Weeping Mary Picture" and
mocks such practices that were made on
credulous congregations, as encouraged by
the clergy. By the way, the present author has
seen similar examples of "weeping icons" in the "Co6op Ka3aHcKOfI B o>vef MaTepH" (the beautiful
Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin of Kazan' in St. Petersburg) which, in the Soviet period, was the
"Museum of Religion and of Anti-Religious Propaganda" in Leningrad.

Let us now look at some specific facets of philately and postal history in the Hungarian Soviet Republic:

(a) The postal issues on sale to the public.
It seems that none of the stamps and postal stationery of previous regimes was demonetised and the
following issues were made available and/or tolerated during the 133 days that the HSR was in existence.

1. Issues of the Kingdom of Hungary, inscribed MAGYAR KIR. POSTA Royal Hungarian Post.
2. The above issues, overprinted diagonally with the word KOZTARSASAG = REPUBLIC during the
Government of Count MihHly Kar6lyi. Valid through to 31 December 1920.
3. The definitive "Harvesters" and "Parliament" types, with the abbreviation KIR. = ROYAL taken out.
That work was started during the Kirolyi Government and was continued during the life of the HSR.
Valid through to 30 June 1921. The definitive were now inscribed MAGYAR POSTA.
4. Commemorative set of the HSR, honouring Karl Marx (20 f.), Sandor Pet6fi (45 f.), gr6f Ignac J6zsef
Martinovics (60 f.), Gy6rgy D6zsa (75 f.) and Friedrich Engels (80 f.). Issued on 12 June 1919 in
honour of the First National Assembly of Hungarian Soviets and valid through to 30 November 1919.
A special numbered folder, celebrating the Assembly and upon which these stamps were to be affixed,
was also made available on the first day of issue. This folder is an interesting souvenir, as we shall see.
5. The second and final issue of the HSR, consisting of the MAGYAR POSTA definitive overprinted
MAGYAR TANACSKOZTARSASAG (Hungarian Soviet Republic) in three lines (filler values) and
two lines (korona values). On sale from 21 July to 30 November 1919.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 40 91
June, 1997


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... ... ... .-. .. a ~ ** |H > ....-----------------n m -- --- --




Looking now at the commemorative issue of the HSR listed under Category 4, a total of 491,600
complete sets was printed and the designers were as follows:-
Ferenc Bokros: 20 filler Karl Marx and 80 filler Friedrich Engels.
Oszkir Fekete: 45 filler SAndor Petofi.
Arnold Gara & Jozsef Gr6f: 60 filler Ignic J6zsef Martinovics and 75 filler Gy6rgy D6zsa.


The commemorative folder is
shown herewith. It measures
150x210mm. and is printed
in red, with a dark cream
background and black
numerals on cream stock.
The three signatures in black
ink are purportedly those of
Oszkar Fekete, Ferenc
Bokros and Arnold Gara,
but cannot be authenticated
at this late stage. The text
translates as follows:-
A GIFT OF THE
HUNGARIAN POSTS -
IN COMMEMORATION
OF THE FIRST
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
OF THE SOVIETS OF
HUNGRY.
By the way, the present
author has only ever seen
philatelic usages of this
set and mostly over-
franked at that.
Commercial usages are
undoubtedly very scarce.
The subjects on the first
and last values of the set
(Marx and Engels) need
no further explanation, but
some notes are now given
about the three
Hungarians, who are less
known to us in the West.
92


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.4,

A AJANEDI
A A~1AOUSZGL AMACOI~.ELS



'R.SZAGOSS O~izt$~~I4
-~~~- i-ZMEIZR


THE POST-RIDER/IMllI'K No. 40
June, 1997







Sandor Petofi (45 filler) was born at Kiskor6s in Pest county on 1 January 1823 and he is revered as the
greatest poet of Hungary. He died in the battle of Segesvar on 31 July 1849 during the Hungarian War of
Independence against the Habsburg Monarchy. He has subsequently appeared on quite a few issues of
Hungary.
Gr6f (Count) Ignic J6zsef Martinovics (60 filler) was an abbot, philosopher and political writer, born
in Pest on 20 July 1755. As a result of the French Revolution, he was influenced by Jacobin ideas and
founded in the spring of 1794 a Secret Society of Hungarian Jacobins. The aim was to bring about a
revolutionary transformation of society and establish a republic. He was arrested by the police on 23
July 1794, convicted of high treason and beheaded with four other leaders on 20 May 1795 at the
V6rmezo (Field of Blood) in Buda. He has not appeared on further Hungarian stamps.
Gyirgy Dozsa (75 filler) was born in 1470 at Dilnok in Haromsz6k county and led a peasant war
against the Hungarian nobles. In short, a forerunner of the Russian peasant leader Emel'yan Pugachev
(1726-1775). D6zsa was defeated in 1514 and the infuriated nobles executed him by placing him on a
red-hot iron throne, with a fiery crown to match. He has appeared on several other stamps since WWII.

On a final note, the first two stamps of this set (20 filler -
Karl Marx and 45 filler Sandor Petofi) were featured
as part of the designs on two values of 40 filler and F
60 fill6r, to commemorate the 30th. anniversary of the
foundation of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. This MA:aYA .. AO
MAGYAR POSTA 40' ;
latter set was issued on 9 March 1949. .......r.....

In rounding off this survey of the stamp issues, it is also worthwhile recording a set of five stamps and a
miniature sheet, issued on the occasion of the 50th. anniversary of the foundation of the HSR (21 March
1969). The designs reproduce posters, which were issued during the 133 days that the HSR existed and
are of historical interest as a reflection of those turbulent times. The individual slogans translate as
follows:-

BE AVOROS -/








40 filler: "WHAT A RED ARMY!"
60 filler: "LENIN"
1 forint: May Day 1919: "AT LAST!"
2 forint: "OUT OF SOCIAL FEVV
PRODUCTION, THE FEGYVER EE
RESULT IS PROSPERITY"
3 forint: "YOU! HIDING IN THE
DARK, SPREADER OF
ALARMING NEWS,
COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY
WAVERER!"
10 forint: "TO ARMS! TO ARMS!"


THE POST-RIDER/IMIHIHK No. 40
June, 1997







(b) Postal usages during the period of the Hungarian Soviet Republic (21 March to 1 August 1919).
Because of the wide variety of the available postal issues, some interesting frankings can be found. We
will now examine them under the following headings.
(1) Continued usage of the Kingdom issues.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2.
Fig. 1 shows a C.O.D. card sent from Gyor with an imprinted 10-filler die, a pair of the 80-fill6r
Parliament, plus a 5-fill6r Harvesters and 20-filler King Karoly, both with REPUBLIC overprints. Hence,
a nice mixed franking.
Fig. 2 has a 10-filler King Karoly, franking a card with the machine cancellation of Budapest 62 and
dated 7 April 1919.


j,


SZSlTiny. COpCn. minltraton de Postes da Hongrfe. '
t ""." F i, l -Bulletin d'expedition,
Cachet de 'expeditear:
.r A> rinbevailas vagy mis okminy.
CI-jellllt clratlln (i d UiIa a t alles declml t
trtak: Valeur: n* S 0

FI ijl,' nr L
A fetcdd no" Oslakia: Czim I ; c
.11m It domicile dr A J

Rendeffethts hely 1 11.11' a -2
Lieu de destination I
SRue It nuera on oureau de ppst-a
SP' ostai e jegyzse iN


A'' .-.4 l S-t y -i1m 1 msl I -l, A- --I -
soyds


A gSet Iter0 glira a eermi gglngylltr. Irm. A ..rnmagr 11 a .... uSakit -


THE POST-RIDER/SIMIUIHK No. 40
June, 1997


Fig. 5


Fig. 4.


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Fig. 3 shows a local cover with the 15-filler Kingdom Harvesters used in Budapest on 11 April 1919.
Fig. 4 is a parcel card from Nagyoroszi 7 May 1919, completely franked with Kingdom issues.
Fig. 5 features a 10-filler Kingdom card, sent from Budapest 20 May 1919 to the Senf Brothers in
Leipzig, Germany and apparently not censored anywhere along the way.



Fig. 6 bears a mixed
franking of the 5-
fill6r Kingdom
Harvesters and
2 x 20-filler
REPUBLIC -- -
overprints to pay the
registration rate from
Sz6kesfehrvfir to Zsbt r -r
Budapest. /


Fig. 6.

(2) Usages of the MAGYAR POSTA definitive.
While these stamps have only been seen with postmark dates starting from the second quarter of 1919,
when the HSR was already in power, the decision to take out the abbreviation KIR. (= ROYAL) must
have been taken by the previous Mihily Kirolyi Republican Government.

r U N G ,A D I, ._-: I- ,, I. .-








dy .n r. i ntee R n' A' ;'i th e 'i c i- a .
Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Two examples are given here to demonstrate the earliest usage seen so far of the 10-filler applied at
Nagykaroly (?) on 7 April (Fig. 7) and the latest for the 20-fill&r at Budapest on 29 July (Fig. 8), just four
days before the Romanian Army entered the capital.

(3) Usages of the MAGYAR POSTA definitive overprinted "MAGYAR TANACSKOZTARSASAG".
These overprints, in the values from 2 filler to 10 korona and totalling 319,600 complete sets, were issued
on 21 July 1919. They are apparently quite hard to find on mail sent during the HSR period, as the
Romanian Army entered Budapest on 2 August. Later usages are noted further on in this article.

(4) Censorship markings.
The types so far noted include an unframed two-line cachet in violet, reading "The political representative
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIH4K No. 40 95
Jube, 1997
- ---0- 0 0. .. .
















Jube, 1997










































Fig. 11.


-------------- 7------ lateg felirrelaur al ------------

P 4 -I4 ------


j ^ i%;* Fig. 10.


of the Veszprem post office". Please see Fig. 9 above for a card so treated and sent from Veszpr6m on 22
June 1919 to Abony. The cover in Fig. 10 was despatched from Budapest on 26 June and was censored
on arrival in Veszpr6m. Note also the mixed franking of the 15 filler Kingdom Harvesters and 5-filler
MAGYAR POSTA Harvesters on this cover.

Mail from civilians to members of the Red Army was postfree and subject to censorship. A typical
example is shown here in Fig. 11, in the form of a postcard sent from Budapest on 24 July 1919 and also
bearing an unframed three-line cachet in black, reading "VERIFIED / MILITARY CENSORSHIP /
BUDAPEST". Addressed to FPO No. 102. This cachet is also seen struck in red.

(5) Telephone calls.
As in most other countries, the telephone service was a State monopoly in Hungary, coming under the
Ministry of Posts. There were not many private telephones there in 1919 and one normally went to a post
office to place a call. In the example featured in Fig. 12 on the next page, a receipt was issued and the
fee, in postmarked postage stamps, was affixed to the back. At Csorna on 26 June 1919, the fee for a call
to the subscriber No. 201 in Gy'r was apparently 70 filler per minute, being paid with a mixed franking
96 THE POST-RIDER/HIMIUHK No. 40
June, 1997












-i5ra ..-perc- ig 2n
C o .Leb. ,* *,. ." eI -


.. sr nyom t. LUL L a ". 9 "r .- -4 "m-. I Im 'd. a,-p
.... .' <- : i 5.6 "" .. ,y -a z iti omda. Budape -i
Fig. 12.
of a 50-filler REPUBLIC overprint and a 20-fill6r MAGYAR POSTA Harvesters.

6. Official Mail. ______-_________


MAGYAR NEPKOZTARSASAG NEMET MINIS


Fig. 13 illustrates an envelope, -
marked "Official" at bottom
left and sent unfranked locally
in Budapest on 3 April 1919
by the Minister for German
Affairs in the Hungarian
People's Republic. Fig. 13..





(7) Military Mail.
There were many unit markings, usually as one- or two-line unframed cachets, as well as postmarkers for
the field post offices. A selection is given in Fig. 14 on the next page and, if we start at left downwards,
the markings translate as follows:-
(a) "POLITICAL COMMISSAR OF THE 1ST. INFANTRY REGIMENT".
(b) "8TH. LABOUR REGIMENT".
(c) "30th. Red Brigade Command", with the postmark of Kecskemet dated 9 July 1919.
(d) Sent through FPO No. 417 on 25 June 1919 from the "32nd. Red Regiment, Technical Company" with
the last two words also repeated in an unframed cachet. Note the anti-war theme on this illustrated
card, based on a painting by A. Grottger: "Men or Hyenas?".
Now at right downwards:-
(e) Continued usage of a Kingdom fieldpost card, the undated circular marking at left reading "ARMY
CORPS COMMAND" and sent through FPO No. 255 on 9 July 1919 (then at Cegl6d).
(f) A two-line unframed cachet, reading "29th. Red Field Artillery Regiment / 6th. Battery" and sent
through FPO No. 4, also at Cegld on 6 July 1919. It passed through Budapest on 8 July, on its
way to Leninvaros (!). That was a renaming of Erzebetfalva in Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun county. It did
receive a canceller, inscribed LENINVAROS 1A in the standard Hungarian bridge type, but without
the crown of St. Stephen. That marking is rare, as it was not safe to keep it after the fall of the HSR.
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 40 97
June, 1997










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THE POST-RIDER/aMlIIHK No. 40
June, 1997


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