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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Mail from a Russian POW held in...
 Brest-Litovsk treaty mail
 Scouting for Boyars
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The story of the battleship...
 A Hungarian emergency issue under...
 Transnistrian date cancellations...
 Final ovals
 Russian mail from Roumania 1916-1918:...
 A registration receiving mark
 Selected items of Armenian postal...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner
 Back Cover






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00036
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Mail from a Russian POW held in Austria-Hungary to Vyatka
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Brest-Litovsk treaty mail
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Scouting for Boyars
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    The story of the battleship "Potemkin"
        Page 39
        Page 40
    A Hungarian emergency issue under Soviet control
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Transnistrian date cancellations and censor markings 1941-1944
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Final ovals
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Russian mail from Roumania 1916-1918: Addenda & corrigenda
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    A registration receiving mark
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Selected items of Armenian postal history
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Review of literature
        Page 81
        Page 82
    The journal fund
        Page 83
    The collectors' corner
        Page 84
    Back Cover
        Page 85
        Page 86
Full Text

Ir .1


5IMMIIHK


THE POST-RIDER

No. 36
June, 1995
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately

Printed in Canada






BEqHAH CJIABA FEPOIM BEJIHKOi OTEqECTBEHHOIi BOAHbI !


30.04.1945 r.: JeHb caMoy6HitcTBa rFTjepa H noHnHMaHHg cOBeTCKorO jmaara na PeixirraroM.
The day of Hitler's suicide and of the raising of the Soviet flag over the Reichstag.
.... -.,-. MbI .MOHIM mH .A onmIHb OWUG'iTM"b OOBeTCKyJ)O ae6MIo-
S"; : or rHtiepo'BCKOfi He'4CTM '(CTal--HYH)








I..
TAEP XOLET ECTb'- it ;'PH F






AKOPMMM EFO! ..

TLER WANTS TO EAT "We can and must cleanse the Soviet land of the Hitlerite filth" (Stalin).
E WILL FEED HIM 'HE WHO COMES TO US WITH THE SWORD SHALL ALSO PERISH BY THE SWORD'
(Aleksandr Nevskii, Grand Prince of Vladimir 1220-1263).

09.05.1945 r.: AA 3APABCTBYET BEJIHKA$ HOBEEnA HA (DAAIIH3MOM !







THE CANADIAN SOCIETY
OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. Box 5722, Station "A",
Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
Canada


"THE POST-RIDER" No. 36.
Contents:
2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Mail from a Russian POW held in Austria-Hungary to Vyatka
15 Brest-Litovsk Treaty Mail
19 Scouting for Boyars
27 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
39 The Story of the Battleship "Potemkin"
41 A Hungarian Emergency Issue under Soviet Control
46 Transnistrian Date Cancellations and Censor Markings 1941-1944
60 Final Ovals
66 Russian Mail from Roumania 1916-1918: Addenda & Corrigenda
69 A Registration Receiving Mark
71 Selected Items of Armenian Postal History
75 Philatelic Shorts
81 Review of Literature
83 The Journal Fund
84 The Collectors' Corner
Coordinators of the Society: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer


June 1995.


Andrew Cronin
Yuri Khranilov
Andrew Cronin
P. J. Campbell
Alex Artuchov
Ya. Afangulskii
Andrew Cronin
Dan Grecu & Ovidiu Reu
Rabbi L.L. Tann
Alexander Epstein
Dr. Peter A. Michalove
Professor Henri Siranyan


P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rabbi L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in the United Kingdom.
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for making this an interesting issue.
(f1995. Copyright by The Canadian Society of Russian Philately. All rights reserved. All the contents of this
issue are copyright and permission must be obtained from the CSRP before reproducing.
1945 -- t
9. V. LX I C
1995 "
2 May 1945: -
Platoon Sergeant Ron -
Anderson (at far left)
and fellow members of
the 1st. Canadian
Parachute Battalion
meeting soldiers of the
Soviet Army in
Wismar, North
Germany. Ron is still
alive and well today in
Toronto at the age of 72.
VICTORY
OVER
FASCISM





























EDITORIAL
Pristine Postcards and Other Oddities

Picture postcards formed an important component of the mail processed in the last few years of the Russian
Empire and they have been classified by design and printer by Dr. Richard Bartmann of Erlangen, Germany,
among other enthusiasts. Some of the printers were foreign, particularly German and Swedish. With the onset of
WWL and the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, they were stuck with large stocks of undelivered and
unsaleable cards which, even now, look freshly printed. Ye olde editor has quite an accumulation of such cards
and they are not rare.

This kind of base material is an absolute godsend for the would-be forger of Russian postal history items. It
always pays to be skeptical when examining cards that presumably went through the post. For example, if one
sees a clear and heavy postmark of a temporary post office and there is no corresponding "bite" on the back of
the card, then something is obviously amiss. If one finds a card with an inflationary franking in 1922 and the
sender giving his address as Leningrad, then something is definitely wrong, as Petrograd was not renamed until
after the death of Lenin in 1924. If one comes across a pristine card with the cachet of the Second Aeronautical
Company / Front-line Company (see the illustration at top right), with no censorship or arrival markings and no
signs of wear and tear, then one must pause to think. Putting it another way, if it seems too good to be true, then
it probably is too gooa to be true.

In a grey area are the cards where the writers sometimes omitted the hard sign "'b" after the end consonant in
words, especially for town names in the addresses. Mind you, certain progressive intellectuals made a point of
omitting the hard sign in writing, thus anticipating the reform in Russian spelling introduced in 1918. The noted
Russian writer Dr. A.P. Chekhov refers to such a usage in his famous novella "The Lady with the Dog",
published in 1899. However, it still pays to be suspicious, as that practice was not common before 1918.

Odd's bodkins, dear children, there is dirty work afoot!

2 THE POST-RIDER/I1MIH4K No. 36
June, 1995







CORRESPONDENCE
WITH CANADA
"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature of this
journal. Anyone possessing interesting Russian mail to
Canada is invited to share it with the readership by
forwarding a photograph or xerox copy of the item to--
the Editor, along with some explanatory text.



.XVl ITERNAb.AL PHISrOLOGICAL CON1R '
LMNAD MOSCOW





-in pr ir.ciinradi s aln Pt'. 93., ui 1
weie sn" "b. r Megi.steoeseae ail dI ngh Me ic Scnc Buldn
: iN-
l" "i .' ir~sy inHalifxoe Novae So "

The' .fars .aite, lwhi ca s so w a v, w .. o .. a

reain "Re Mal eivredn Lmingrad, /ain a damaged stte /t fa of t / env p b a /, It is n or w
^ ,.^j .:; \ ..*.. .-.- .t- ...ri1" ri" rm. : n.^ ch in. ;


CONGRESS MAIL TO CANADA
by Andrew Cronin. ieiL cols.

The Large Soviet Encyclopaedia confirms that the 15th. International Physiological Congress was held in
Leningrad and Moscow at some time in 1935, but does not specify exactly when. From material held by the
writer, it would appear to have taken place in the first half of the year and the organizers had envelopes specially
imprinted with an inscription in English relating to the event. Two such covers have so far come to light and they
were sent by registered surface mail to Professor E.W.H. Cruickshank at the Medical Science Building,
Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The first item, which is shown above, was sent from the Leningrad-9 post office on 11.3.35 and arrived in
Haa 1 da aeralifax 18 days later. It also has on the back a strike in violet of the well-known boxed 5-line cachet in French,
reading "Received in Leningrad / in a damaged state, / the flaps of the / envelope badly / stuck". It is now
generally thought that markings of that type denoted censorship. In this particular case, the cover was in perfect
condition and there was nothing wrong with the flaps! Note the total postage affixed: 45 kop., representing an
overpayment of 10 kopeks.

The second example, also addressed to Professor Cruickshank, was sent from the Leningrad 1st. Despatch Office
on 16.5.35 and reached Halifax 13 days later. It was correctly prepaid at 35 kopeks for the registered foreign
letter surface rate and there is no censorship marking on the back. It would be useful if CSRP readers could
specify exactly when the Congress took place, both in Leningrad and Moscow and whether the same printed
envelopes also exist used from Moscow.

THE POST-RIDER/MIIMIHK No. 36 3
June, 1995





MAL FROM A RUSSIAN P.O.W. HELD IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARY TO VYATKA
by Yuri Khranilov
In 1914 Vladimir Glebovich Dmitriev, a joiner in the railway
workshops of Vyatka, was called up to serve as a non-commissioned
officer in the 13th company of the 193rd Sviyazhsk regiment of
the 49th division of the 24th army corps. By February 1915 he had
already been decorated with the George Cross 4th class No. 34004
and was expecting delivery of the 3rd class Cross. Dmitriev wrote
to his wife, Mariya Fedorovna, who lived in a private flat in
Vyatka with two small children: "If I am killed, let them send
my medals to you, for which you will receive remuneration a year
after my death".

In the summer of 1915 Dmitriev was taken prisoner in Austria-
Hungary. A letter from Vladimir's friend at the front, Mikhail
Chernyishev, dated 5 July 1915 ( Old Style), testifies to this.
In it he spoke of Dmitriev with the words: "Amongst soldiers he
behaved very, very well."

In the State archives of Kirov oblast' there are 50 postcards
(Trans.- formerly in the Kirov museum) sent by Dmitriev as a
prisoner of war in Austria-Hungary (See table and illustrations).
These allow one to retrace: the route taken by post sent from
Russian prisoners of war, the time taken by such post, the use
of postcards of different types and the changes in the processing
of this post by the military censorship. Most of the postcards
are addressed to his wife but some are to his mother who lived
in the Slobodskoy uezd of Vyatka guberniya.

THE MARKS OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

MARKS OF THE CAMPS

At first Dmitriev was held in the Austrian prisoner of war camp
(Kriegsgefangenenlager) Marchtrenk. Postcards 1-8 (July 1915-
January 1916) bear the corresponding violet stamp (ill.l and 3),
whilst on postcard 10 it is in Gothic type. More often than not
there is no date-stamp but if there is (postcards 2-4), then it
contains only the date without any indication of the letter's
place of dispatch; probably it was not applied in the camp. Later
on (March-June 1916) the name of the camp appeared in the date-
stamp (ill.4).

In August 1916 Dmitriev was held in the Hungarian transit camp
Dunaszerdahely (postcards 15 and 16) where a circular violet
stamp was used with the name of the camp in conjunction with a
date-stamp (ill.5).

There are no letters from September to the end of 1916. It is
clear only that by January 1917 Dmitriev was in another Hungarian
camp Ostfiasszonyfa, alternatively transcribed as
Ostffyasszonyfa, (postcards 17-50). In this camp a rectangular
stamp was used with the name of the camp and the date (ill.6,7,9
and 10).

4 THE POST-RIDER/IMII[HK No. 36
June,1995





CENSOR MARKS


The letters of Russian prisoners of war, at least from October
1915, were censored in Vienna. This is evidenced by the name of
the city (WIEN) in the triangular censor mark (designated by the
letter T in the table). These marks vary in colour and text.
However, in all cases there are the words ZENSUR ABTEILUNG
(censorship department) and in most the words Gemeinsames
Zentr. Nachw. Buro (the Joint Central Investigation Bureau). From
September 1917 a machine cancellation was used almost
exclusively. On a postcard this produced two impressions (ill.
9 and 10).

On the very first postcard (July 1915, ill.l) the censor mark is
round with the abbreviation ZENS.in the centre and an indication
of the country (Austria-Hungary) around the circumference.
Unfortunately the remaining text is indistinct.

RUSSIAN CENSOR MARKS AND STAMPS

From the data in the table it can be seen that letters from
Russian prisoners of war during 1915-16 were as a rule sent to
Petrograd. Oval censor marks with the words PETROGRAD MILITARY
CENSORSHIP (ill.l) were applied during the first period of the
war (until September 1915) and bore witness to the fact that the
correspondence had been opened. Stamps marked D.Ts. (Trans. -
permitted by the censorship) PETROGRAD were used between July and
September 1915 and signified that the letter had not been
examined by the military censorship but had been authorised for
further dispatch. Thus on the right of the postcard there is the
scarcely distinguishable impression of the personal stamp of the
senior military censor in Vyatka, Colonel Masalitinov (a better
impression of this is shown in ill.2).

There were next applied in Petrograd personal numbered stamps
with the words in three lines OPENED BY THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP
/CITY PETROGRAD /MILITARY CENSOR No....(ill.3 and 5). These
confirmed that the letter had been examined by the military
censorship and had been authorised for dispatch to its
destination.

As is evident from the table some of the mail from 1916 was
censored in Vyatka and have stamps with the words in three lines
-EXAMINED BY THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP /VYATKA /MILITARY CENSOR
No....(ill.4). As far back as July 1915 a circular was received
in the Vyatka military censors' office from the Military
Censorship Committee in the Headquarters of the Kazan' military
district. In view of the inconvenience of filling in names on
stamps, it contained orders for names to be replaced by ordinal
numbers of the Headquarters Military Censorship Committee. Should
a censor be kicked out his number was not transferred to another.
The Vyatka stamps used in 1916. and mentioned in the table
belonged to the following: No.101 junior cavalry captain Ukhov,
No.180 Fal'k, No.220 Aleksandrov.

In 1917 mail from captivity in Austria-Hungary to Vyatka was
subjected to censorship as follows: in Vyatka (8 postcards), in
Moscow (15 postcards) and, in the autumn, to military postal

THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHHK No. 36 5
June,1995






control in Kazan, (3 postcards). The Moscow stamps had the
following words around the circumference EXAMINED BY THE MOSCOW
MILITARY CENSORSHIP; the Kazan' ones EXAMINED BY THE MILITARY
CONTROL/ KAZAN/ CONTROLLER No.... in three lines (ill.7). For
the moment the names of the censors using the Vyatka stamps Nos.
264, 265 and 282 have not been established.

Amongst the postcards which were censored in Vyatka is a stamp
consisting of three letters which stood for the initials of the
translator (ill.4). The "owners" of the following initials have
been ascertained:
K.V./M. Klavdiya Vasil'evna Makarova
M.V./B. Mariya Vasil'evna Bogdanova
E.A./M. Eva Afanas'evna Mench
N.I./I. Nina Ivanovna Ivanova
So far the name of the translator with the initials A.D./K. has
not been discovered. In the American catalogue "Postal Censorship
in Imperial Russia" these letters are mistakenly explained as
being the initials of censors.

At the end of 1917 the military censorship was abolished by the
government of soviets and replaced by a military postal control,
to which the appearance of the Kazan stamps bears witness
(postcards 39-41). The last censor mark (Moscow No..673) appears
on postcard 45 which was dispatched from Hungary 29.9.17.

The Vyatka military censors' office was closed on 1 October 1917
(Old Style) with the discharge of all employees, i.e. before the
October Revolution.
THE P. OR RUSSIAN R. STAMP *

From 1917 all postcards have a black stamp in the form of a large
letter P or Russian R (ill.6,7,9 and 10). The purpose and point
of origin of this stamp is unknown to the author and he would be
grateful if the editor could clarify this question and supplement
the article with an explanation.

TYPES OF POSTCARDS

In his correspondence Dmitriev used 6 basic types of postcards:
standard postcards for the correspondence of Russian prisoners
of war from Austrian camps (Type II,ill.4); a very similar
postcard with an indication of the camp Marchtrenk (Type I,ill.l
and 3); special postcards of the Hungarian camp Ostfiasszonyfa
(Types IV and V,ill.6 and 10); on single occasions one comes
across a standard postcard for correspondence from Austro-
Hungarian camps (Type III,ill.5) and a postcard published by the
Central Committee of the All-Russian Union of Zemstvos (Type VI,
ill.7). On the reverse side of the Type VI postcard (ill.8) there
is the text in Russian : "Write yourselves or ask a friend to
write the exact name of the camp, the No. of your barracks and
your personal number. This is necessary so that your kinsfolk can
help you".

Types I-a and II-a differ from Types I and II in that on the
reverse side in the left and right margins the German-Russian
alphabet is used. Furthermore, the price of the postcards differs
Type II cost 4 heller and Type I 3 heller.

6 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHIIK No. 36
June, 1995


I






THE TIME TAKEN BY THE POST


For mail dispatched from the Austrian camp Marchtrenk in 1915
(postcards 2-4), one can note a large gap between the date of
writing and the date of the Austrian date-stamp (24-28 days).
This would indicate that the date-stamp was applied not in the
camp, but in Vienna, whilst being censored.

Subsequently, when camp date-stamps were used, the difference was
0-4 days (on average 1.4 days from a selection of 35 postcards).
Mail was processed faster in the Marchtrenk camp (0.8 days) and
slower in the Hungarian camp (1.5 days).

Correspondence written by Dmitriev in 1915 was received by the
Russian post offices 16-18 days after passing the Austrian
censorship and 39-73 days after being written. In 1916 mail
reached its destination 41-67 days after being written and only
once took 119 days (postcard 15 from the transit camp); the delay
was probably in both the Austrian and the Russian censorship.

The February Revolution in Russia in 1917 led to definite shocks
in the working of the censorship. Many gendarme ranks who were
loyal to the tsar were arrested, in particular, the senior censor
in Vyatka, the cavalry captain Bogdanovich. Several times during
the year the head of the Vyatka military censors' office was
changed. Similar events probably occurred in other Russian towns.
All this affected the time taken by prisoner of war mail. Mail
took from 67 to 107 days (up to the October Revolution); with the
sole exception of postcard 37 which reached its destination 37
days after being written.

After the October Revolution, in view of the complete
reorganization of the machinery of State, the confusion and the
sabotage of officials, the time taken for prisoner of war mail
increased to 132-189 days.

MORE ABOUT THE CENSORSHIP OF MAIL FROM RUSSIAN PRISONERS OF WAR

In all 50 of the postcards that were examined, there is an
absence of any crossing out by either the Austrian or the Russian
censorship. Indeed the contents of Dmitriev's letters were
harmless in the main, concern for the fate of his relatives,
requests for parcels and money to be sent, confirmation of the
receipt of letters, parcels and remittances from his wife. In
postcard 14 it was recorded that every month he receives 2
letters, more was not allowed. It can be seen from the table that
in 1917 restrictions on the sending of mail were relaxed. It is
possible that part of his correspondence was not preserved by
Dmitriev's kinsfolk but unlikely that it was not passed by the
censorship.

The Vyatka office used to carry out a lot of work in the
censorship of mail from Russian prisoners of war. According to
statistical accounts, in the period 12 February to 30 September
1917 (Old Style), i.e. during 33 weeks, there passed through the
office 124936 letters from and 402764 letters for Russian
prisoners of war (an average of 3786 and 12205 per week
respectively). During this period the number of censors

THE POST-RIDER/3MIHK No. 36 7
June, 1995







fluctuated between 4 and 7 and the number of translators between
24 and 32. One should not forget that the duties of the censors
also included the control of letters from the Army in the Field
(usually more than 100 thousand per week), international
correspondence (of the order of 2-5 thousand letters per week),
letters from German and Austrian prisoners of war and internees
(between 10 and 28 thousand per week) and parcels to and from our
prisoners abroad (around a thousand per week). The numerical data
is cited for 1917; in 1915-16 the volume of work was less.

What then could be criminal in the correspondence of Russian
prisoners of war? According to the instructions of the chief of
staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief (December 1914), one
should confiscate those letters in which "life in captivity is
described in a very good light"; "the names of the authors of
such letters....it is advisable to communicate to the Special
Section of the General Staff". One should also confiscate
"postcards with photographs on them portraying in an attractive
and peaceful setting private scenes and episodes from the life
of our prisoners of war in captivity" (circular of the Chief
Military Censorship Committee, Petrograd, 28 March 1915). It
should be said that, in the middle of 1915, the Russian military
censorship withheld 165 letters from Bucharest and Galayi written
in one handwriting to relatives of Russian prisoners of war. In
these letters "the life of Russian prisoners in Austria" was
described "in seductive, glowing colours", and "joy was expressed
on account of being in captivity".

If the German or Austrian censorship crossed out part of the text
of a letter from a Russian prisoner, Favorskiy, a privat-docent
from Kazan', had already by January 1915 worked out a method "of
revealing the text hidden by ink stains through fumigation with
hydrogen chloride". It was necessary to place the letter with the
blotted out text over a small bath of smoking hydrochloric acid,
after which the ink acquired a certain transparency and the text
under it could be read.

In preparing this article the archive files of the Vyatka
military censors' office and those of the Vyatka guberniya
gendarmerie were used.

Finally I would like to express my deep gratitude to Arkadiy
Viktorovich Kolotov, a senior scientific worker at the Kirov
district archives, for his constant help in my work.
Editorial Comment: With regard to the mysterious "P." marking handstamped on mail incoming
to Vyatka, as shown in the illustrations 6,7,9 & 10, a possible explanation might well be that it is
Russian in nature and standing for "PaspeueHo", i.e. resolved, for one reason or another.




* Trans. It is generally accepted that the letter P. is a
Russian R. standing for Russia and was probably applied within
Russia.

(Translated by Peter Walker)

8 THE POST-RIDER/ffMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995






.. .............................. ... .... ............................
Absendr: -1 9 correspondence des prisonnie
*Oimpalll rer de guerre ,
MARCHTRENK ABCT.O-BEIIIu :.



Adre .............. ... .. .. I _..... :.
:Adres W. :








Portofrel Verlag der bsterr. Ges. vom' ,Roten Krouze" Nachdru verbuj9 :
BeanjaTio I1nainioe AnclTp. Wi(. Ile'iinero i'pocTn. HIepeneaTit, oc1 p el
i.. ... .....................* ....****.* **;" "**;,j* '* *'****",.r .. '..........lm -r '


ill.l


The first letter of Dmitriev from captivity:
the stamp of Marchtrenk camp, the Austrian censor mark,
two Petrograd military censorship marks, on the right -
the scarcely distinguishable stamp of the Vyatka
military censor (see ill.2). Type of postcard I


o d uerre .7
'.^ TRNK T --- IAPX TPO- BEHrp


arte postale |



." ec ../ ....... ..



....j .-. . .

SPortofreI *, s terr. Ges. vom ,,Roten Kreuze" Nlachl oen.
liBeszarno I Heasuie AscTp. Odm Kpacnaro I(peeTa. Hepelne'iaTKa ocnpeuaenn e :
... .... m. .................................... -.. ................ k
Prcls S3 Hller per Stlck
ill.3- ---,J
The standard Austrian censor mark (from October 1915),
the Austrian date-stamp (without indication of place),
the numbered Petrograd military censor mark


i ; < .. -- .. ,'.<;* :<'i. i' -, sQ .o-





>' '' r~ 1). .' .. :.

.' ,' .


ill.2 A better impression of the
Vyatka military censor mark.


V S........................................................... ...
Absender C... orrespondance des prison
Oinpamitfl / "de guerre *
S ABCTPO BEHrPI







... .. ... .
.Adresse:. B ^^^pe^ -





..... ............................... .. *
.....:........ ,





il 4 Prel 4 IIller per StUck

The date-stamp of Marchtrenk camp, the Vyatka censor
mark, the stamp 'with the initials of the translator.
Type of postcard II


- -


~___I~_~~_;~_ --


I


I










0









0












ci,

H

ci -

I


The camp post-office stamp of Dunaszerdahely camp, the
Austrian date-stamp and censor mark.
Type of postcard III


BCEPOCCICAla Caron 3lon .,
C% A 103 -


1Bb Po e EIALUf


.1 ....... .. ..... .
d. ....- .







t 111.7 ......... ----- -
The stamp of the military controller in Kazan.
Type of postcard VI (a publication of the Central
Committee of the All-Ruc.ian Union of Zcmstvos)


r


-:,. : ;. .. HAD.IFOGLYOK IR



-M i .A ........ ..y a ...a o -. ..e 7 .- -


I ell.5 ________ I__ _1-_--_ I-___ __ -_ ___
Nr op.la t.a- t. ^u 1* ",, .--.


aaonr
MICTo na pyccilk aApec -f saon it



;* V --.M 4 n. flW .ir<" u1s-o D~" dJnprawiod rruri 7w *<. -W.
"ill.5. 4* .


,tanWnTue CaRN, mn1 nonlOCHTO Yc arUa iianCa1Th To'Ioo HasaHIde Bawero
narep, Ng dapaKa H Au411Wu HoMep. 310 HYM:Ho AAM Toro, -ITo0bI pOMnsi mornu
o.asa Jm. no nojb.- ( & *ptt AtW .44 A
11.8 The revrse side of th postcard (il l.-)








SItanHUHTO cami, H n/ nonpocHTo oea'Hina IlanncaTb TO'IlOO HaaB al]BO Bamero
nareFB, lapaxa H na nuBw HoCwcpi. 3to Iyn:nlo n/ Toro, '1101 1 poAnII51 uorfli
oinRilT Oan. nououb.-- L_.,( \^ca Pt-ff f..m./'.gs8encA ,,' ^^,

ilL.8 The roverso sido of the postcard (l1.7)


- II


-


~II-.


, ... .....


,xu. K g MI













w .. .....> .. ........ .............. ................ ..................... :... ....... ......
ill.6. ..
The date-stamp of Ostffyasszonyfa camp, the Moscow
censorship mark. Type of postcard V


- I -- I----~~


i I I I I


%I








Translation of message on ill.8:

" 7 August New Style Greetings dear Manya. I am still alive and
well. I wish you the same. I send greetings to the dear children.
Dear Manya I received your letter which was written on 9 May of
this year. I was very glad and thanks for the letter but the
contents of this letter troubled me terribly. I have never even
thought about such neglect. If only you knew how much I care for
you then you would not think this. Write.

Your Vlad.

If you can, send something"


THE POST-RIDER/HMIHHK No. 36
June, 1995










No. of postcard & Date of Date of Austrian Austrian Type of Date of postmark Russian censor marks
illustration letter date-stamp censor mark postcard Vyatka (or other
Russian towns)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1915 1915
1 (ill.1 & 2) 30.07 --- circle (R) I 01.09.15 Petrograd D.Ts.Petrograd (C); oval
Petrograd military
censorship (V);
personal stamp of Vyatka
censor Masalitinov

2 (ill.3) 30.09 23.10 T (R) I-a 28.10.15 Petrograd No.317 (V)
3 14.10 11.11 T (R) I-a 16.11.15 Petrograd No.189 (V)
Slobodskoy,Vyatka G.
4 30.10 19.11/22.11 T (R) I-a 25.11.15 Petrograd No.231 (V)
5 14.11 ---- T (R) I-a 19.12.15 Petrograd No.445 (V)
6 28.11 ---- T (R) I-a 27.01.16 Petrograd No.257 (V)
7 30.12 ---- T (R) I-a 07.02.16 Petrograd No.315 (V)


1916 1916
8 14.01 ---- T (R) I-a 10.02.16 Petrograd No.807 (V)
9 01.04 01.04 T (R) II-a 07.06.16 Vyatka No.180 (C)
10 15.04 17.04 T (R) II ---
11 01.05 01.05 T (R) II 11.06.16 Vyatka No.220 (C)
12 14.05 15.05 T (R) II ---- Petrograd No.1438 (V)
13 31.05 01.06 T (R) II 05.07.16 Petrograd No.1374 (V)
14 (ill.4) 14.06 15.06 T (R) II 18.07.16 Vyatka No.101 (C);
trans. stamp A.D./K.
15 26.08 27.08 T (R) II 10.12.16 Petrograd No.2025 (V)
16 (ill.5) 03.09 03.09 T (R) III 24.10.16 Petrograd No.1776 (V)


1917
10.02

22.02
01.03
16.03
21.03
31.03
18.04
02.05
05.05


1917
??.02

24.02
04.03
17.03
24.03
31.03
21.04
05.05
05.05


T (C)

T (R)
T (R)
T (R)
T (R)
T (R)
T (R)
T (B)
T (V)


IV

V
V
V
V
V
V
II-a
V


14.05.07

07.05.17

09.05.17

27.06.17


Vyatka
trans.
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Vyatka
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow


No.220 (C)
stamp K.V./M.
No.613 (V)
No.404 (V)
No.603 or 693
No.264 (C)
No.483 (V)
No.305 (V)
No.713 (V)
No.492 (V)


(ill.6)






























(ill.7 & 8)


(ill.9)



(ill.10)


1917 1917 1 1. 1 T


1917
11.05

11.05

17.05
26.05
09.06

15.06


23.06
06.07
13.07


29.07

02.08
07.08
16.08
22.08
07.09
14.09
??.09
28.09
14.10

02.11
09.11
15.11


1917
12.05

12.05

19.05
26.05
09.06

16.06
21.06

illegible
07.07
14.07

28.07
illegible

04.08
11.08
18.08
25.08
08.09
15.09
28.09
29.09
17.10
27.10
03.11
10.11
17.11


T (B)

T (B)


T (B)
T (R)

T (R)
T (R)


T (R)
T (R)

T (R)
T (R)
T (R)
T (R)
2T (R)
2T (R)
2T (R)
2T (R)
2T (R)
2T (R)
2T (R)
T (C)
2T (R)


14.07.17

illegible

21.07.17

29.08/01.09.17

27.08.17
14.07/27.07.17

01.09/02.09.17

25.09/28.09.17

19.10.17
22.08.17


09.11.17
??.11.17

14.02.18

21.05.18
25.01.18



01.04.18
23.05.18


Vyatka
trans.
Vyatka
trans.
Moscow
Moscow
Vyatka
trans.
Moscow
Vyatka
trans.
Moscow
Moscow
Vyatka
trans.
Moscow
Vyatka
trans.
Moscow
Kazan
Kazan
Kazan


No.265 (V)
stamp N.I./I.
No.282 (C)
stamp M.V./B.
No.378 (V)
No.608 (V)
No.265 (V)
stamp E.A./M.
No.401 (V)
No.265 (V)
stamp E.A./M.
No.448 (V)
No.695 (V)
No.265 (V)
stamp N.I./I.
No.736 (V)
No.265 (V)
stamp E.A./M.
No.608 (V)
No.25 (V)
No.25 (V)
No.74 (V)


Moscow No.673 (V)


Footnotes:


1. The postcards in the article are numbered in chronological order of their date of dispatch.

2. The dates of the letters are New Style.

3. The symbol ---- signifies that the dates on the letters, stamps or postmarks are missing.

4. The symbol ?? signifies that the figures cannot be made out.

5. In columns 4 and 7 the colours of the impressions are designated by the letters in brackets:
R rose, C crimson, V violet, B black.






[ TRANS LATIONTS FROM RU S S I AST
-------------------------------
Do you have Russian philatelic source material or postal history
that you would like to have translated?

With a university degree in Russian and a keen interest in
Russian philately going back many years I can offer a fast,
reliable and professional commercial translating service to
collectors and dealers around the world.

Translations can be delivered by post or fax, on disk or via
modem, as required.

Although typed texts are preferred, material written in
manuscript will be considered on their individual merits.

Please call or write today and let me try to help you to enhance
your philatelic knowledge.

All enquiries are welcome with no job too big or too small.

I am a Committee Member of BSRP and a Subscriber Member of ITI.

PETER WALKER
27 South Drive
Ruislip
Middlesex
HA4 8EU
England.
Tel/Fax +44 (0)1895 637597
(24 hr. answerphone/fax)
-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-

r .N -7 M A P H -> BIESAIR Dr'S i-


?""- ~ ~i

EdWards's Philatelic Press List aindAdvertiser of
.ilPhilatelic Supplies. ,<-

Cette publication paraitra le 1-cr Novembre et
contiendra 32 pages a part dla. converture en
couleur. Dans les differentes divisions on trou-
vera les prix d'annonce et d'abonnenmcnt ainsi
que des annonces classifies.
II y aura aussi les noms de touts Publica-
tions Pliilatdles come toutes les announces et
notices sent soigneusemeint classifies il n'y aura
_=3 aucune difficult a trouvcr ce quo 1'on chorchc.
Los prix d'annonces sont toujours payables
d'avance conmme suit:


I PAGE S. 5.00
- 1, ,/2 3.00
S'/4 2.00
/s 1.00
-


Les paiements d'annon-
ccs peuvent se faire avec-
des timbres non oblit6-
res du pays ouf demeure
1'annonceur. .. .'..'.
I ii


S'adresser par lotr-recormmandnde JOHN EDWARDS.
50 Latour Street, Montreal, Canada.


Stamp Dealers Directory for 1897.
e e o (

L'Indicateur d'adresses do vendeurs de timbres men-
tionn6 ci-dessus paraltra Ic 1-er Mai 1897. La compi-
lation dos addresses exactcs de routes s s villes no:in-
mces dans .ce livre a td faitoe i I'aide des meilleur s
oeuvres disponibles ot il n'v aura done aucun danerr
quo les lettres s'dgarent.
II n'y aucun frais pour insurer les a;dresos d!h,
collecteurs ou des vcnd eurs de timbres ;tns co liver.


Pour les anuonces
ables d'avance.


SI PAGE S. 6.00
'/2." 4.00
'I4 2.00
1/s 1.00


los prix soiz t conin o suit tf ply-


Leos paivnienlts dlannonces p'in-
vent, so falire avoc ds timhuis i i-
posto nion ublit~i-ii~s (1i pays 4!'
I'annoncour. AUSSI. Le catalosnrn
(1o Board puri 1897 pnraitra 1w

prix (1es diflVU-ents finiubres;lsarvC d'
offrocs sptieiales pour dos tinibri-.
cartes postales, etc.


Prix, 15 cents franco a toute adresse.
S'adressor a B. L. BEARD, P. 0. BOX 179, IO1KZEAL.
CAIADA.


1R9f6


Two Canadian ads in "MAPKH" of 1896, kindly advised by P.E. Robinson of England.
THE POST-RIDER/IMUIIHK No. 36
June, 1995






BREST-LITOVSK TREATY MAIL
by Andrew Cronin

This terse title basically refers to the general resumption of mail services between Russia and the Central
Powers as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. To appreciate the
significance of such mail, it would be necessary to consider the following facets:-

A. A Short Historical Outline.
With the collapse of the Russian Empire in March 1917 and its replacement by the short-lived Provisional
Government, a well-known barrister and member of the Duma, Aleksandr FUdorovich Kerenskii, soon
emerged as the leading figure in that latter administration. As is evident from photographs of the period, A.F.
Kerenskii was a somewhat hysterical, theatrical and demagogic figure. However, he was favoured by the
Western Allies, as he advocated continuing the war against the Central Powers, despite the hideous economic
and military losses already sustained by Russia. The Bolsheviks, under the adroit leadership of V.I. Lenin,
capitalised on the prevailing war-weariness and economic hardship in the country and were able to seize
power on 7 November 1917 with the simple and highly appealing platform of "peace, bread and land".

The terms of the subsequent Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, imposed on Russia by the Central Powers, were
iniquitous in the extreme and are summarised in the map on the next page (Fig.l). That information has been
adapted from a wonderfully comprehensive work on the subject by John W. Wheeler-Bennett: "Brest-Litovsk
- The Forgotten Peace : March 1918", Macmillan & Co., London, 1939. This treaty caused a severe crisis in
the Bolshevik leadership, but was finally signed at the adamant insistence of V.I. Lenin, in the face of the
continuing advance of the German armies. He foresaw that, with the entry of the United States in the war on
the side of the Western Allies, the Central Powers could not possibly win. A mere two days after the general
armistice ending WWI was signed on 11 November 1918, the young Soviet Government was able to
repudiate the treaty. By the way, it is interesting to reproduce here a truly prophetic cartoon by F.H.
Townsend, which quickly appeared in the now defunct English humourous magazine "Punch" in its issue of
27 March 1918 (see Fig. 2 on p. 17). There are striking parallels between the Russian collapse then and
nowadays. The present writer predicts that Russia will arise again and remember that you first heard about it
right here from that old trucker Cronin.

B. The Resumption of Postal Services.
There must obviously have been a special announcement about the reinstatement of general mail services
between Russia and the Central Powers and the present writer would appreciate any information as to when it
specifically took place. The interesting thing is that such mail was censored by both parties, at least until the
collapse of the Central Powers towards the end of 1918. According to the information on Russian postal rates
given by V.A. Karlinskii in "Philately of the USSR", No. 4 for 1966, the Russian postal rates for both
domestic and foreign mail from 28 February to 15 September 1918 were supposed to have been as follow:-
Postcards: 20 kopeks; Letters: 35 kopeks; Registration fee: 70 kopeks.
However, on the basis of material noted in the period from June to August 1918 the rates actually charged
were notably lower, as can be seen from the following examples:-

(a) A registered postcard sent from the Moscow 1st. Despatch Office 11.6.18 under registration No. 307.
Total fee paid: 42 kopeks (see Fig. 3 on p. 17). Examined by Moscow Censor 93 and Warsaw P.U.S. Nr. 6?
(P.U.S. = Postiiberwachungstelle, the German postal supervision point in occupied Warsaw). Received on 29
June.
(b) A registered letter sent from the same Moscow despatch office on the next day under reg'n No. 533. Total
fee paid: 60 kopeks (see Fig. 4 on p. 17). Examined by Moscow Censor No. 114 and Warsaw P.U.S. Nr. 14.
Received on 2 July. Perhaps we can surmise from the foregoing that the Moscow 1st. Despatch Office was
handling an average of 126 registered articles per day at that time.
THE POST-RIDER/SMImIHK No. 36 15
June, 1995






TERRITORIAL CHANGES AT F I N LA N D
BREST.LITOVSK _- Principal railways.......
The line shown x-x-r indicates the -- ___ I
Eastern Front at the date of the Armistice )v-o.R al_- ogda
of Brest-Litovsk, December 15, 1917. P OGRAD
The treaty signed between the Central Laa
Powers and the Ukraine on January 9, ESTONIA
1918, recognized the latter's independ.
ence and established the frontier line in \
the west, between Pruzhany and the Psk v
Galician border at Tarnograd. - O Tver
The final treaty signed with the Rus- / NOVgO
sians on March 3, 1918, left the German Riga NA / A
army holding the front shown above by
the solid black line from Narva to the MOSCOW
Ukrainian border beyond Homel. The NU R .'
dotted line in Ukrainian territory in- -
dicates the starting point of the German Kovno Vitebsk
invasion of the Ukraine and of the Don
territory after the capture of Kiev and i
Odessa, when the Crimes was also occu- ra Tula
pied. The solid black line denotes the Mo hI
0 fullest extent of German occupation in Minsk v
this area. ilm o* M i n
The "agreed" line, west of which
S" Russia renounced all territorial rights, Pru any Orel
a runs west of Reval through the Gulf of
SRiga to a point just above that city, r\ Brest-Ititovsk Ho~
CA which it embraces; there it follows the ~ Priper ursk ?
Dvina to the extreme eastern point of 3 f *
Courland above Dvinsk, whence it curves
south-west to the east of Vilna, and across g \
the Niemen down to the northern Ukrain- arnograd 1 Bielgorod
ian frontier near Pruzhany. -.-*- **....**"'"' Kiev
t7 Russian claims to Livonia and Estonia Lemberg \ Kharkov
were abandoned under the supplementary A L K ...
treaty of August 27, 1918.
Light dotted lines indicate frontiers RA *N *
of 1914. ......................................... ... E k t rinoslav

Czernowitz? t/ Novo Tcherkask .o0
Budapest *. Taganrog
..--1. c Rostov

H U- G A R Y 0 -
o .

cr_ I- a ep

? .... BU CHAREST -

S0 UL. G A R"'I ntn 19 -1 -











PUNCH, OIl TI~l ll ONDONCI~llV'A~IU.-Mtn:l 27, 191R.


A WALK-OVER P
Tit K.AtsEn. "TIlIS IS THE DOORMAT OF OUR NI':W PREMISES."
EurPr.on KAnt.. "ARE YOU QUITE SURII IT'S DEAD?"

Fig. 2.


Fig. 3.


Fig. 4.
















OJ 7-k



... ..... ........ ..... L h.I
1,'













I 9 -5 Oat
.









P A




011I' A-
',2EdiUAA

~,Aberit t Fig. 7.II
.ra el


Fig. 6.






(c) A postcard from Ryazan' 14.6.18 to Nesselsdorf in Moravia (now Kopfivnice in the Czech
Republic). Fee paid: 12 kopeks (see Fig. 5 on p. 18). The card bears an oval censorship marking of
Moscow and a triangular one of Vienna.

(d) A registered postcard from Govardovo, Kaluga province 15.6.18 to Leipzig 4.7.18. Total fee
paid: 43 kopeks (see Fig. 6 on p. 18). Censored by Moscow No. 68 and en route at KUnigsberg in
East Prussia (now Kaliningrad in the Russian Federation).

(e) A registered letter from Staraya Russa 5.8.18 to the well-known W. Maldon bookshop in
Stomerzee (now Stameriene in Latvia, but then under German occupation). Total fee paid: 60
kopeks (see Fig. 7 on p. 18). Censored by Petrograd No. 1593 and the German censor in Riga: R in
a circle. Backstamped en route with the German marking of Walk 29.8.18 (now Valga in Estonia).

C. Conclusions.
The rates quoted above are remarkably consistent over a wide area: Moscow, Ryazan' and Staraya
Russa. If we accept that item (d) was overpaid by 1 kopek, then the fees specifically charged for mail
to the Central Powers in the period from June to August 1918 were as follow:-
Postcards: 12 kopeks; Letters: 30 kopeks; Registration fee: 30 kopeks.

Brest-Litovsk Treaty mail is not easy to come by and we need to see further examples to fill out the
picture. It seems safe to assume that the volume of mail must have declined throughout the rest of
1918 as Russia slid deeper in civil war.


SCOUTING FOR BOYARS
by P.J. Campbell

On a cold and blustery day in December 1910, an officer of the Russian Imperial Guard met a British
Lieutenant-General at the Hotel de France at Morskaya No. 6 in St. Petersburg. However, the
subject of their meeting was not to discuss clandestine treaties or military matters, but rather the
future development of the Russian version of the Boy Scout Movement that had begun three years
earlier in England. By a strange quirk of fate, the 85th. anniversary of the results of that meeting has
recently been celebrated by the issue of an item of postal stationery by Gosznak, the Russian State
Printery on 20 June 1994 (see Fig. 1 on the next page). Such an issue would have been unthinkable
before the break-up of the USSR on 6 December 1991.

Of course, the British officer was Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, who had formed the first
troop of Boy Scouts in England in 1907. This remarkable man was born on 22 February 1857 in
London and educated at Charterhouse. He joined the army in 1876, serving in India, Afghanistan and
South Africa. Always the innovator, he made use of observation balloons in the Bechuanaland and
Sudan campaigns. His most famous exploit was undoubtedly his defence of the town of Mafeking
during the South African War (1899-1902), also known as the Boer War. Baden-Powell, or "B-P",
as he is best known and by which we will continue to refer to him for the present, was a colonel in
charge of the garrison at Mafeking.

The garrison consisted of only 700 soldiers including some police and volunteers, 300 local civilians,
600 women and children and some 7000 natives. Amazingly, the town held out from 12 October
1899 to 17 May 1900 for a total of 217 days before the relieving columns, including a battery of 12-
pounder guns of the Canadian Artillery, ended the epic siege. One feature of the defence was the use
of boys as messengers, on foot or on bicycles, under the organisation of Lord Edward Cecil and a
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK No. 36 19
June, 1995











tCKAVTbI POCCHH /


rEe






----- w~ u- u


Lp 2_

E xe. 6ioe'' *.
K.o----_- -- --



,/N' w. *.1


Fig. 1: The special Russian envelope v-ith the "A" value indication,
-- printed by Gosznak in honour of the Chief Russian Scout OIP.


Fig. 2: Col. Robert Baden-Powell
at the siege of Mafeking.










noit


Fig. 3: Sgt.-Major Goodyear
of Mafeking.


Fig. 4: Nina Mikhailovna's pennant Fig. 5: Russian Scout insignium Fig. 6: St. George & the Dragon
for the Beaver patrol. with royal monogram on 1915 War Charity stamp;
and motto "Be Ready". "broken lance" variety.


Fig. 7: St. George on a Zemstvo
stamp of Bogorodsk.


Fig. 8: ...and on a
stamp of Georgia.


*MUFOU M u M M













Fig. 9: The special cover printed by Gosznak
for the "ROSSIKA '91" exhibition.


Fig. 10: Baden-Powell's sketch of a
Russian Scout, Dec. 1910.


Fig. 11: The Order of St. George.

THE POST-RIDER/fMHIHK No. 36
June, 1995






Sergeant-Major Goodyear.The siege is commemorated on several stamps of the Cape of Good Hope, with
stamps of the Cape and Bechuanaland surcharged with a value and the words "Mafeking Besieged", as well
as stamps showing B-P (see Fig. 2) and Sgt.-Major Goodyear (see Fig. 3) on a bicycle. All the stamps are
valued in the hundreds or thousands of dollars and excellent forgeries exist of the overprinted stamps.

After the war, B-P stayed on to recruit and train the South African Constabulary, returning to England in
1903 to be appointed Inspector of Cavalry and where he established the Cavalry School at Netheravon in
Wiltshire. He was subsequently promoted to Lieutenant-General. By the way, it has always seemed strange
to me that the rank of Lieutenant-General is higher than that of Major-General. Earlier in his career, during
the Matabele Campaign, B-P had been a keen hunter and tracker and developed great skills in climbing,
tracking, woodcraft and as a "scout". This is using the word in a military sense, what the Oxford English
Dictionary defines as a"...man sent out to get information about enemy or surroundings". He would
apparently use rubber-soled shoes and work in the mountains at night, even tracking the native scouts
employed by the regiment.

Back in England, B-P began to train boys in woodcraft and ran a trial camp with twenty boys in 1907 at
Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. Part of the training was based on a book "Aids to Scouting" that B-
P had written in 1899. This was a book for scouting in the military sense. B-P wrote a further book in 1908
called "Scouting for Boys", which was apparently translated into Russian in 1909. B-P retired from the army
in 1910 to devote full time to organising and expanding the Boy Scout movement, with help from his sister
Agnes, who had founded the Girl Guides in 1909.

Before we describe the second officer at the meeting in St. Petersburg, perhaps it would be well to
summarise B-P's philosophy for the organisation of the Scout movement. As B-P saw it, boys from the age
of eleven upwards, from both town and country, were in need of an organised source of physical training
and of outdoor experience. As secondary objectives, the boys were to be trained in good citizenship and, by
organising into small groups under their own leaders, to train the boys in leadership and to promote a
community spirit. It should be particularly noted that the Boy Scouts, as they became known, were in no
way a military organisation. No scout carried anything more dangerous than a sheath knife or a stout staff,
but these were for use in woodcraft, rather than as offensive weapons. Those boys who wanted to have a
military career would probably have selected the Boys' Brigade, a group founded in Glasgow in 1883, which
included arms drill in their curriculum and practiced marching and close-order drill under their own marching
band. Such boys would later go into some form of cadet corps or an Officer's Training Corps at their school.
Boy Scouts were and always have been an entirely civilian organisation. Some considerable emphasis on
loyalty to one's country or to one's church was part of the Boy Scout ethic, but the loyalty to country or
church would be that of the particular country in which the participants lived. The Boy Scouts movement
was therefore not an international movement. It was an organisation that existed in various nations, as shall
become apparent in the text that follows..

The movement developed and changed somewhat over the years, but it was always based on teaching the
principles of loyalty, trustworthiness, courtesy, helpfulness to all, friendliness, kindliness, cleanliness,
reverence, obedience and thriftiness, as well as stressing the virtues of courage and cheerfulness. The
meetings of groups from many nations at what were to be called jamborees were, of course, intended to
show that boys of various races could meet amicably, with this inter-racial acceptance being another example
of the non-military, multinational and non-denominational nature of the movement. By the way, jamboree is
an interesting word, which seems to have first appeared in the USA and was probably derived to describe a
mixed gathering, from the words "jam" and "shivaree", the latter being another American word for a
gathering. That latter word was likely a mispronounciation of the English word "charivari", in itself a French
word of dubious origin, used to denote a lot of noise made with pots and pans to embarrass an unpopular
person. In the USA, a "shivaree" could also denote a similar noise made to draw attention to a newly-
married couple!
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No. 36 21
June, 1995






It is now time to meet the second officer at the Hotel de France meeting of December 1910; this was
Captain Oleg Ivanovich Pantyukhov of the Tsar's Household Guard and I will generally refer to him
henceforth as OIP. His story and that of his family is set forth in some detail in his book "Of Time Gone By",
which was translated into English and published by Durand House of the USA in 1989. Much of the material
in this article was extracted from that book and from correspondence with OIP's son.

OIP was born in 1882 in Kiev, the youngest of six brothers and no sisters. His father was an army doctor,
rising to the rank of Major-General. OIP graduated from the Tiflis Cadet Corps in June 1899 and went on to
the Pavlovskoe Military College in the capital of St. Petersburg where, as a cadet, he was assigned to a
company of His Majesty's Own and, at a parade on 6 January 1900, he first saw His Majesty Nicholas II,
Tsar of all the Russias. Appointed in time as First Sergeant of the company, OIP completed his training in
August 1901 and found, to his delight that he had been selected to be a subaltern in the Imperial Guard. He
was posted to His Majesty's Own Rifles at Tsarskoe Selo, the town of the residence of the Imperial Family.
OIP was introduced there as a junior lieutenant to the Tsar and was soon assigned to the First Company,
"His Majesty's". This was a great honour and an opportunity to learn the protocol of the Court, as well as to
recognize the various members of the Imperial Family so that they may be appropriately saluted!

Military life continued at Tsarskoe Selo, including during the disastrous war with Japan in 1904-1905. In
May 1908, OIP married Nina Mikhailovna Dobrovolskaya, who also came from a military family, with her
father a colonel in the Army Engineers and with three previous generations of military engineers before that!
Early in 1909, OIP and his bride moved into officers' quarters at Tsarskoe Selo and OIP became involved
with organising a group of about ten boys from the base. It appears that he had read of an organisation that
had been formed in England to train boys. His wife Nina was soon sewing and painting orange and black
pennants with silhouettes of animals, one for each patrol (see Fig. 4 on p. 20) and a seal for the association.
At first, it seems that this seal included the St. George and the Dragon motif and the words "Belief in God,
Loyalty to the Tsar and Help for the Needy", but it became in time the well-known "Prince of Wales feather"
design, with the Royal monogram and the words "Be Prepared" (see Fig. 5 on p. 20). [By the way, St.
George and the Dragon is a legend shared by both Russia and Great Britain. The word "legend" is derived
from the Italian legendda, meaning "a story to be read aloud". The story of St. George and the Dragon was
first written down in "The Golden Legend" about the year 1300 A.D., but it probably has an oral tradition
older than that. As a symbol of bravery and chivalry, St. George was a good choice, although one with
which some animal lovers might not agree. The St. George of Russian legend is probably based on Georgii
of Lydda, who rescued Princess Cleolinda in the 4th. Century and he is depicted on many of the stamps of
Russia (Figs. 6 & 7 on p. 20) and Georgia (Fig. 8 on p. 20), as well as on the stamps of Bermuda. Crete,
Czechoslovakia, Gibraltar, Great Britain, Malta, Mauritania, New Zealand, South Russia, Tasmania and
Victoria. There were also Boy Scout issues showing St. George from Germany (1961 souvenir sheet),
Greece (1960) and Roumania (1939 semi-postals). For the numismatists, St. George, as well as the dragon,
appears on the back of the golden sovereign, while for philatelists there was a beautiful piece of postal
stationery put out for the ROSSIKA '91 Philatelic Exhibition in Moscow in October 1991 (see Fig. 9 on p.
20), unfortunately overshadowed by the political turmoil that led soon after to the breakup of the Soviet
Union on 26 December 1991. A group from Canada, including your writer, was all booked to go to
ROSSIKA '91, but cancelled in view of the situation!].

It seems that the Tsar heard about the events connected with the formation of this new association for boys
and OIP was called into the royal presence. He presented Nicholas II with a set of the by-laws for the new
organisation and a scout insignium for the Tsarevich, explaining that the ends of the banner caring the
motto were turned upwards, like the smile of a boy scout. OIP remembered this day, 17 April 1909 as the
day of the formal founding of the Boy Scouts in Russia. His Highness Grand Duke Georgii Konstantinovich
was the first member of Russian royalty to join and, before long, the heir-apparent Alexis joined also.

22
22 THE POST-RIDER/RIMmIHK No. 36
June, 1995






By 1910, the idea had caught on, as B-P's book "Scouting for Boys" had been translated in Russian and
published, while, in addition to the troop at Tsarskoe Selo, other troops were soon formed in St. Petersburg
and Moscow, It was therefore a great surprise for OIP to hear from a friend Vasilii Grigor'evich
Yanchelevskii, that B-P had arrived in St. Petersburg and both of them (OIP & VGY) went to the Hotel de
France and presented their cards. They were invited in by B-P and talked for hours, explaining that they had
belonged to the Pushkin Hiking Club, but had gradually put together a troop based somewhat on the
principles expounded by B-P. They pointed out how they differed from another Russian group called the
"Poteshnye" (literally "sporting people", but also translatable as "boy scouts"), who were organised along
more military lines, rather like the English Boys' Brigade. Some days later, OIP returned to enjoy lunch and
more conversation with B-P, who invited OIP to England to see the English scouts in action. Soon after,
when B-P was leaving to return home, OIP took 25 of his scouts as a "guard-of-honour" to see B-P off at
the Nikolaevskii Railway Station in St. Petersburg. That apparently pleased B-P very much and he drew a
little sketch of one of the guard, holding a staff with the St. George banner (see Fig. 10 on p. 20); that
sketch was included in B-P's letter to his mother. It seems that OIP saw a copy of the sketch, for he
commented that, while quite accurate, it omitted the coat that the boy would be wearing, of course, during a
Russian winter!

In the following year during the summer of 1911, OIP travelled to Sweden, Denmark and Holland visiting
various scout troops, then on to England, as B-P had invited him to see a scout camp west of London. He
met there scouts from many nations and subsequently reported his experiences in the Militaly Review. While
the spread of the Boy Scout movement went on in Russia, OIP continued with his military career, as most of
Europe became involved in war. Russia was drawn into the conflict on 1 August 1914, successfully
advancing at first, but was then to suffer a series of crushing defeats. OIP himself saw considerable action at
Kholm (now Chelm Lubelski in Poland) Later, at the Battle of Maisiagala near Vil'na (both places now in
Lithuania), OIP, now Colonel of the Second Battalion of the First His Majesty's Own Rifles of the Guard,
was awarded the Order of St. George for personally leading a counter attack on the German lines. This was
a curious coincidence, for the medal bore at its centre a representation of St. George and the Dragon, the
emblem they had earlier chosen for the Boy Scouts! [It was a tradition that recipients of the Order of St.
George (see Fig. 11 on p. 20) would receive an immediate promotion in rank, or they could choose to wait
until their retirement. At that time, they would claim the promotion from whatever rank they had achieved
during their career, which would, of course, result in a better pension. It seems that OIP chose the latter
option, but the Civil War meant that his formal retirement never came, nor did the promotion].

The Russian forces in the field were commanded by the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, to whom OIP had
presented a copy of his book "Guest of the Boy Scouts" and OIP was able to discuss Scouting with the
Grand Duke, as well as other matters. Between actions in 1916, OIP got leave in Petrograd, formerly St.
Petersburg, and was able to meet some of his scouts and their leaders. He attended a parade of the Petrograd
scout units in Petrograd on St. George's Day, 23 April 1916; the day included a church parade, exercises and
games and was attended by several hundred boys and their leaders.

OIP returned to the Eastern Front and was engaged in continuous action on the Stohos River and the Battle
of Kvadratnyi Les (The Square Forest), where he was severely concussed by shellfire for the second time
and, after seventeen months of action, he was invalided out to hospital at Tsarskoe Selo and later travelled
south to Yalta in the Crimea for recuperation. There, in March 1917, the news came of the abdication of the
Tsar and the disorganisation of the army began, although the war continued. In May 1917, OIP was offered
command of the 21th. Siberian Rifle Regiment and he returned to Tsarskoe Selo to collect his family and to
visit his scout troop, which was still having meetings. On reporting to the 5th. Siberian Army Corps
Headquarters in June, OIP found that the 21st. Regiment had been wiped out, so he was reassigned to the
29th., but that regiment soon broke up in disarray. OIP then became involved with officer training in
Moscow, which included some stirring events. In the last days of the Kerenskii Government, civil disorder
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIUHK No. 36 23
June, 1995






was such that OIP led a group of armed cadets into the turmoil, occupying and defending the Kremlin itself
for a period. When Kerenskii fled, disguised as a sailor, OIP, as with all other officers, was in imminent
danger, so he collected his family and entrained for the south, to Simferopol' and Yalta. Kerenskii did not
leave Russia until May 1918, when he departed from Murmansk by travelling on a Siberian passport, with an
unauthorised visa signed by the British agent Bruce Lockhart. Kerenskii was disguised as a Siberian soldier
and the British authorities in Murmansk sent him on into safety.

The turbulent events of 1917 are too well-known to chronicle here; the Civil War, inflation, hunger and the
brutal fighting continued sporadically and the Pantyukhov family lived from day to day, as did all others.
Following upon the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between the Bolshevik Government and the
Central Powers, there was a short period of peace as the German troops occupied the Crimea, but the defeat
of Germany in November 1918 meant that the fighting continued between the White Volunteer Army and
the Red Army. With the death of General Kornilov, the White cause became more and more fragmented,
with Yudenich, Alekseev, Denikin and Kolchak and others unsuccessfully trying to hold the line. By March
1919, the writing was on the wall and, even as some fighting continued, the White forces and their families
began to think of leaving the country.

Strangely enough, during all this turmoil, scouting activities and meetings continued. In October 1919, a
general meeting of scout leaders assembled at Novocherkassk under the auspices of Ataman General
Bogaevskii. After the meeting, OIP was unanimously elected Chief Scout of Russia, a title that he at first
refused, saying that, as Russia was not whole, he would prefer the title of Chief Russian Scout, a fine
distinction. In distant Chelyabinsk in Siberia, a similar meeting made the same nomination. The scouts of
Sevastopol' apparently composed a little song:-

KTO y Hac BcerAa rOTOB? Who amongst us is always ready?
3TO Oner HBaHHIq naHTIOXOB, That would be Oleg Ivanich Pantyukhov.

Sporadic fighting in 1919 and 1920 continued in the Kuban and Don regions, with General PEtr Wrangel
preparing to evacuate the Volunteer Army and its dependents. OIP's last purchases in Sevastopol' were
several sheets of current Russian stamps, some of which he had cancelled, hoping that they would be
saleable for foreign currency and also two cases of Crimean wines. Their ship, the freighter Kherson,
stopped at Yalta and then went down through the Bosphorus to arrive at Constantinople on 2 March 1920.
Scouting activities in the Crimea had been handed over to General Smolyaninov, who was later killed in the
early days of the Soviet regime.

Now, in the Sea of Marmora (which means marble), about ten miles south-east of Constantinople, there are
the Princes' Islands (see Fig. 12 on p. 25) and here it was that the Allied Powers quartered the refugees. The
French had the island of Halki and the Italians chose Antigona, perhaps because it had such a poetic name.
The United States picked Proti and the British set up camp on Prinkipo, the largest of the islands.
Constantinople itself was declared a neutral enclave, with all the four major powers in occupation. The
Pantyukhovs began their exile on Prinkipo and OIP soon began to locate scouts among the refugees, even
forming a Wolf Cub pack. As the great exodus got under way, the Pantyukhovs were able to book passage
on the 6000-ton French Fabre Line vessel, the s.s. Asia, leaving Constantinople on 5 September 1922 and
docking in New York harbour on 11 October.

While the Pantyukhovs made a new life in the New World, as did many others, the exodus continued, with
thousands settling in France and some in Britain and Italy. General Wrangel planned to move the wounded
to sanctuary in Yugoslavia. Among the wounded was an ex-officer and war correspondent named E.M.
Arkhangelskii, who was evacuated from Sevastopol' to Constantinople and then via Bulgaria to Yugoslavia.
When he had recovered from his wounds, EMA together with others founded the Rossica Society of
24 THE POST-RIDER/IIMII(HK No. 36
June, 1995


































Fig. 12: Map showing Princes Islands,
where White refugees gathered.


Fig. 17: Happy 90th. birthday
to Chief Scout and Founder.


Fig. 13: 75th. anniversary of
Canada's scouts.







Fig. 15: Boy Scouts'
of America.


Fig. 16: Founder of the


Fig. 19: A special cachet in honour
of the Founder's centennial.


Fig. 18: Field Post stamps for Fig. 21: Grave of Baden-Powell Fig. 20: Nina Mikhailovna's sketch of her
OIFs 90th. birthday, at Nyeri, Kenya husband in 1920, with the Order
of St. George

THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK No. 36 25
June, 1995






Russian Philately and began publishing a journal, which continues to this day. [See the biography of EMA by
the late Dr. G.B. Salisbury in The Rossica Journal of Russian Philately, No. 44 of 1954].

Meanwhile, back in Russia or, rather, the Soviet Union, the Boy Scout movement was proscribed and
replaced by the Pioneers, an organisation that was a political stepping stone in the Soviet climb to party
membership. However, elsewhere in the world, the Scout movement expanded and created new branches:
the Brownies, the Girl Guides, the Wolf Cubs, the Rovers and the Sea Scouts. Part of that expansion was
among the expatriate Russian scouts, who regrouped outside Russia and established themselves in 26
countries to continue to foster the ideals of scouting abroad, while it was prohibited in the Soviet Union.

In Canada, the first troop of Boy Scouts was formed in 1908 and the Girl Guides somewhat later (see Figs.
13 & 14 on p. 25). In the United States, William D. Boyce, who had been impressed by the courtesy of a
British scout, founded a similar movement in 1910 and the Girl Scouts (the American designation) in 1912
(see Figs. 15 & 15 on p. 25). The USA was one of the countries where expatriate Russian scouts regrouped
and where successive generations continued the good work. Privately printed postal stationery and postal
labels were prepared and circulated in 1972, 1979 and 1982 to celebrate various anniversaries, as seen in
Figs. 17-19 on p. 25.

Returning now to the astonishing piece of official postal stationery issued by the Russian postal authorities in
June 1994, it seems that some considerable thought and research were involved. The original idea may have
been to issue a postage stamp for the 85th. anniversary, but that in time changed in favour of a piece of
postal stationery. The original selection proposed for the portrait was the sketch done in 1920 by Nina
Mikhailovna, the wife of OIP (see Fig. 20 on p. 25) and an essay was prepared with that sketch. For reasons
unknown, the portrait was subsequently changed to one from a photograph taken in Riga in 1929, when OIP
was in Europe to attend the Jamboree in England that was in celebration of the 21st. year of Scouting. When
the essay was shown to the son of OIP, he immediately noted that the portrait showed OIP wearing a red
scarf, i.e. the scarf of the Pioneers, not that of the Russian Boy Scouts. The authorities agreed and the issued
portrait fortunately displays the correct colour of scarf. It seems that the entire issue was soon sold out in
Russia and only a small number even reached the USA, with the imprinted value designated as "A" because
of inflation in Russia. This then is the story of a surprising philatelic item and its strange history.

The writer has consulted a number of sources, but most of the information came directly from the son of
OIP, Oleg Olegovich Pantyukhov, now residing in the USA, after a long career that included service in the
U.S. Army, where he attained the rank of Colonel. One of his great distinctions was to be the only
interpreter present when President Roosevelt met I.V. Stalin in Teheran on 28 November 1943. A strange
assignment for the son of a colonel in the Imperial Guards! He also served as an aide to Averell Harriman
and later as an interpreter between General Eisenhower and Marshal Zhukov, where he used his skills in
discussions involving Generals Montgomery and de Lattre de Tassigny and many other notable participants
in the talks that ended the war with Germany. His souvenirs include a fine letter of commendation signed by
General Eisenhower himself.

As our players leave the stage, this article concludes with a recently-taken photograph of the grave of one of
the key figures, Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, First Baron of Gilwell, who was buried
at Nyeri, Kenya in 1941 (see Fig. 21 on p. 25). This writer's only personal memory of B-P was of hearing
him say, probably at a Jamboree in England in 1938 "........my name is pronounced Bahden Pole...my last
name does not rhyme with towel!"
Special Notes: Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are fully occupied in earning
their livings and thus do not have the time to answer individual requests. Where such questions are of
general interest, they will be taken up in subsequent issues of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us! The
views expressed in the articles contained in this issue are those of the respective authors and are not
necessarily those of the Society or of its coordinators.
THE POST-RIDER/IMII]HK No. 36
26 June, 1995









POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS

by Alex Artuchov

OSA
OCA
(Perm Province)


Osa is located in the central portion of Perm some 55 miles southwest of the capital. In
1900, its population was 4,000.

Osa was an agricultural community. Wheat growing and dairy farming were the principal
agricultural activities.

Osa issued stamps between 1890 and 1910.

Coat of Arms Colours
Top: Burgundy background with silver sheep and cross, golden scripture, brown
earth.
Bottom: Silver background, brown tree and earth and beehives, green leaves.

1890- 1894
14.75 x 22 mm lithographed in 2 colours on yellowish white paper 0.09 mm thick,
background with hatched lines, pointed crown at sides, 5 editions, perforated 11.5 .


C.


THE POST-RIDER/RIMIIIHK No. 36
June, 1995









First Edition (Jan. 1890)
Sheet for 2 kop. value unknown, the 4 and 8 kop. values were 11 x 7, 2 types, the 4 and 8
kop. stamps were made by changing numerals of value on the 2 kop. stamp, The 2 kop.
stamp was used much more than the other 2 values and other printings were likely, the 4
and 8 kop. stamps are known cut horizontally and diagonally into halves and even quarters
and used as provisional 2 kop. stamps.


1. 2 kop. green and yellow green
used
blue green and pale green
dark green and yellow green

2. 4 kop. yellow brown and pale brown

3. 8 kop. dark blue and pale greenish blue


The 4 Kop. Sheet

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 .1 2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2 121 2 2 1
e 2 Ty 2 1 2 1t 2 1 2 1 S2
1T 2 1p 2 1 2 1 2 2


The 2 Types of the 4 Kop Stamp


Type 1.


R (?)
2.00
5.00
7.00


3.00

4.00


The 8 Kop. Sheet


1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
22112212121
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
2 21111 2 1112
21 1 12 12 2 2


The 2 Types of the 8 Kop. Stamp


Type 1.


Type 2.


THE POST-RIDER/HMImIHK No. 36
June, 1995


Type 2.









Second Edition (July,1891)
Similar to the 4 kop. ,stamp of the first edition, 2 types that are different from the 2 types
of the first edition.

4. 4 kop. brown yellow and pale brown (unused) RR (?)
used 5.00

The 2 Types:





Type 1 Type 2


Third Edition (Jan. 1892)
Similar to the 4 kop. stamp of the first edition, 2 types which are different from the 2 types
of the first edition, bisected stamps of this edition are not known.

5. 4 kop. yellow brown and pale brown (unused) RR
used 5.00

The 2 Types
On type 1, the small star in front of the 4 is missing.


Fourth Edition (July, 1892)
Another 4 kop. stamp in 2 new types, also differing from the other 4 kop. stamps by the
dark brown colour, the stamp is known bisected or even torn in half and used as a 2 kop.
stamp.

6. 4 kop. dark brown and olive brown (unused) RR
used 5.00

Fifth Edition (March, 1893)
4 and 8 kop. stamps similar to the first edition in new types and shades of colour, white
paper 0.06 0.08 mm thick, shiny yellow brown gum, perforated 11.5 and also double
perforated vertically, sheet of the 4 kop. unknown but the stamp has 5 types placed
horizontally, the 8 kop. stamp is on a sheet of 14 x 6 and has 4 types in a 2 x 2
arrangement with a 10.5 11 mm horizontal space between groups and a 8.5 9 mm space
vertically, both values are known bisected and the 8 kop. stamp is known quartered.

7. 4 kop. reddish brown and light brown 2.00
chestnut brown and light brown 15.00



29
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMIK No. 36
June, 1995








8. 8 kop. blue and greenish blue


The 5 Types of the 4 Kop. Stamp

T.1 T.2 T.3 T.4 T.5




The 8 Kop. Sheet


The 4 Types of the 8 Kop. Stamp
Type 1- The left spiral ornament in the top left corner is poorly drawn and appears
more like a small circle with a white centre. On some of the stamps there
are 2 small spots of blue just above the right spiral ornament on the left
bottom corner, the right side of the corner circle is uneven and has a bumpy
appearance.



Type 2- Except for a break in the right bottom circle outline above the numeral 8
this type does not seem to show any significant flaws.


Type 3- The right side of the circle outlinein the let bottom corner is uneven and
bumpy, the same circle outline above the 8 shows 2 breaks above the
numeral 8.

Type 4- The numeral 8 in the top left corner is placed low so that it almost touches
the circle outline.


30
THE POST-RIDER/IMII(HK No. 36
June, 1995


W jiWn ,D D ini_ ii niin __i ._

a 7D [D17 D1 D D 1n E' E'I4' D

WIW ID -iiMa D~jDI IEFD D'D


D DI' DQ1 LnD F 1i: i D D El;r1!


4.00








1890 91
18.75 x 26.75 mm, lithographed on white paper, perforated 11.5, 4 editions.


First Edition (May, 1890)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, shiny yellowish white gum.

9. 2 kop. dark green and yellow green and light green and pale green


1.00


Second Edition (July, 1890)
Same stamp as previously but printed in one colour, the plate is somewhat worn, lines of
shading on the behive and its roof are practically gone, the background is often shifted by
as much as 3 mm, perforated 11.5 and also known imperforate horizontally, sheet of 10 x


10. 2 kop. light green or green


2.00


Third Edition (October, 1891)
Space between stamps 2.75 rather than 4.33 mm, the beehive and its roof is with lines of
shading, dot between the door and the roof of the beehive, white gum.


11. 2 kop. yellow green or light green and dirty pale green
S used "


ft~


RR (?)
5.00


Fourth Edition (March, 1892)
Stamps spaced 3.5 4.5 mm apart, in changed colours, on light rose tinted paper 0.06 -
0.08 mm thick, yellowish white gum, some stamps with background shifted up to 4 mm
horizontally and 9.5 mm vertically.


12. 2 kop. pale red to dark carmine and light or yellow green to blue green
(in all possible colour combinations)


0.75


1893 (July)
Similar to previous issues but with flatter oval and a larger crown and with a semi-circle
of 12 bees, lithographed in 2 colours on white paper 0.08 mm thick and shiny brown gum




31
THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIHK No. 36
June, 1995









(No. 13) or on white paper 0.05 mm thick and white gum (No. 14), sheet of 9 x 8,
perforated 11.5.

13. 2 kop. in all possible shades and combinations of red and green 0.50
(shiny brown gum and white paper 0.08 mm thick)

14. 2 kop. in all possible shades and combinations of red and green 0.50
(white gum and white paper 0.05 mm thick)


1894
15.75 x 23.33 mm similar to the previous issue, the word IIOtTOBA5I is not
abbreviated, the crown has rounded sides, the cross is larger, the beehive has a rounded
roof and the bear has one leg raised, lithographed on yellowish white paper 0.06 mm thick,
brownish yellow gum, perforated 11.5.










15.2 kop. red brown and light yellow green 25.00
"used 1.00

These supply of these stamps was used up before collectors found out about them making
the unused copies relatively scarce.


1894- 1898
Similar to issue of 1893, without the word MAPKA, the indication of value 4 KOFI is
between 2 small stars, same size, lithographed in 2 colours on white paper, perforated
11.5, 3 editions.


First Edition (July, 1894)
Yellowish white paper 0.05 mm thick, yellowish white gum, imperforate sheet margins.


16. 4 kop. yellow green and light brown 5.00
"used 1.00





32
THE POST-RIDER/LMIIHUK No. 36
June, 1995


I









Second Edition (1895)
Light brown toned paper 0.07 mm thick,shiny white or brownish gum, imperforate
vertically or horizontally, known with double perforations vertically or badly shifted
perforations, the sheet margins are often imperforate and the background is often shifted,
the stamp is known to have been used bisected horizontally or diagonally as a 2 kop.
stamp.

17. 4 kop. blue green and brownish rose 10.00
used 2.00

Third Edition (1897)
On white lightly toned paper 0.07 mm thick, brownish gum, perforated 11.5, known
imperforate vertically, sheet of 11 x 6 for the 8 kop. value, sheet of 4 kop. value unknown,
the 8 kop. sheet was made by changing numerals of value on the 4 kop. stamp resulting in
2 types placed horizontally and repeated 5 times on each horizontal row, the 11th vertical
column consists of types 1+2+1+2+2+1.

18. 4 kop. ochre brown and light blue green 3.00

19. 8 kop. dark blue and olive green 4.00


The 8 Kop. Sheet


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 12 21 2 1


The 2 Types of the 8 Kop. Value
Type 1 Corner numerals 8 are small.
Type 2 Corner numerals 8 are larger.

Both the 4 and 8 kop. values are known bisected and even quartered and used as 2 or even
1 kop. stamps.


1895
19 19.33 x 25 25.75 mm lithographed in 2 colours on yellowish rose toned paper 0.05
mm thick, perforated 11.5 and known double perforated horizontally, sheet of 8 x 8.




33
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHWK No. 36
June, 1995


















20. 2 kop. gray blue and red

21. 2 kop. ultramarine and red


2.00

15.00


1895-1897
19 x 25.5 mm, similar to previous issue except that the entire design is on 1 plate, on the
first 2 editions of this stamp parts are overprinted, in a second colour, lithographed in I
and 2 colours, white paper, perforated 11.5, 5 editions.


First Edition (1895)
The crown, part of the shield and the oval with the inscription are overprinted in carmine
red, yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, brownish gum, known vertically or completely
imperforate.


22. 2 kop. blue, dark blue and carmine red


1.00


Second Edition (June, 1895)
The first edition but in different colours, the shield is without the vertical lines in the
second colour, yellowish or brownish gum, known imperforate and double perforated
vertically.


23. 2 kop. light blue and yellow rose


1.00


Third Edition (August, 1896)
Lithographed in one colour, yellowish white paper 0.06 mm thick, yellowish white gum,
sheet of 10 x 4 (?), perforated 11.5 and known imperforate horizontallyor vertically and
perforated through the stamp.



34


THE POST-RIDER/IHMUIIK No. 36
June, 1995









24. 2 kop light rose


Fourth Edition (January, 1897)
Changed colours, known imperforate vertically.

25. 2 kop. carmine red, carmine rose 1.00

26. 2 kop. cherry red 10.00


Fifth Edition (October, 1897)
In changed colour, white paper 0.07 mm thick, yellow brown gum, known double and
triple perforated horizontally through the middle of the stamp, sheet of 6 x 10.

27. 2 kop. red violet 1.00


A study of these stamps concludes that they have have distinct characteristics and can be
divided into 4 groups, each with minor plate flaws not found on stamps of the other
groups. Without further research it is not clear whether or not these are actually transfer
types or constant plate flaws. Some large blocks or sheets would be required in order to
provide the answer.

Group A.
A series of short colour lines and dots on the white band are on the left just under the first
O of OCHHCKOI.




Group B
Coloured dot on the on the right upper arm of the K of KOH, the left numeral 2 is quite
irregular and has several colour spots on it.




Group C
The horizontal dividing line on the shield, the bees surrounding the beehive and the
beehive roof are practically invisible.

Group D
None of the flaws found in the other groups.




35
THE POST-RIDER/IlMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995


1.00









1898- 1899
Similar to the issues of 1895 97 but smaller in size 17.5 x 23.75 mm lithographed on
white paper perforated 11.5, 3 editions.

First Edition (March 3, 1898)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, perforated 11.5 and rough or
incomplete at times, this small edition became known to collectors after it was virtually all
used up and unused stamps are accordingly very scarce.

28. 2 kop. orange red R
"used 25.00

The 4 Types of the First Edition

Type 1 The letter B in the word ABIB has a small vertical line which cuts across
the centre bar.
Type 2 There is a slight bulge on the left side of the left square containing the
numeral 2, their is a small period after KOH .
Type 3 Nick on the top left of the coat of arms, long period after KOrI, pointed
foot on the letter C of the word OCMHOBCKOH.


The Second Edition (May 1898)
White paper 0.06 0.09 mm thick, sheet of 9 x 9 without inverts, known imperforate
horizontally or vertically and also peerforated through the upper or lower part of the
stamp.

29. 2 kop. blue green 0.75


Third Edition (January, 1899)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish white gum, perforated 11.5 rough or clean cut, with
inverted stamps in the sheet.

30. 2 kop. yellow green 3.00


1899- 1906
Stamps of 2 values and 2 designs which recurr in all 5 editions, 2 kop. stamp 22.75 x 18.5
mm in size and 17.75 x 22.33 for the 4 kop value.



ell





36
THE POST-RIDER/5IMIIIHK No. 36
June, 1995










First Edition (October, 1899)
Yellowish white paper 0.1 mm thick or a soft shite paper, yellow brown or white gum
unevenly applied, the 2 kop. sheet is 7 x 11, the 4 kop. sheet is 8 x 10 with a transfer
block of 2 x 2, perforated 11.5 and also imperforate.

On soft yellowish white paper
31.2 kop. black and blue green 2.00

32. 4 kop. black red and light blue 4.00


On thick yellowish white paper (0.15 mm)
33. 2 kop. black and blue green with yellowish gum 5.00

34. 4 kop. black red and light blue with white gum 10.00


Second Edition (May, 1903)
White paper 0.06 mm thick, white gum, 2 kop. sheet is 8 x 8 and the 4 kop. sheet is 10 x
7, perforated 11.5, the 4 kop. stamp is known bisected and used as a 2 kop. stamp.

35. 2 kop. violet carmine and ochre yellow 3.00

36. 4 kop. black, light red and light blue 5.00

The 2 Types of the 2 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 In the top left corer the head of the numeral is incomplete and is not connected
to the stem. In the bottom left corner the lower half of the stem is incomplete and consists
of a couple of thin short lines, the head is connected to the stem by a semi-circular line.

Type 2- In the top left comer, the head of the numeral is complete and is connected to the
centre stem by a short line. In the bottom left corer, the lower half of the stem is very
thick and is unevenly shaped, the head is connected to the stem by a solid round spot.

Type 1 Type 2













37
THE POST-RIDERIIMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995








Third Edition (February 24, 1904)
Soft yellowish paper 0.06 mm thick, printing is often permeating, 2 kop. sheet is 7 x 10
and the 4 kop. sheet is unknown, this stamp is known bisected and used as a 2 kop. stamp.

57. 2 kop. yellowish rose and olive yellow 1.00

38. 4 kop. black dirty red and gray blue 5.00

Fourth Edition (June 23, 1905)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, perforated 11.5 sheet of 9 x 9 for both
values.

39. 2 kop. dark blue green and green 1.00

40. 4 kop. black, carmine and blue 3.00

The 2 Types of the 2 Kop. Stamp
Type 1 The inner curl of the head as well as the lower half of the stem are practically
non-existant, the curl of the head is not connected to the stem, of the stem only a single
spot in the centre is visible, the top of the corer circle around the numeral consists of a
series of dots and dashes giving it the appearance of being complete.

Type 2 The inner curl of the head as well as the lower half of the stem are complete, the
curl of the head is connected to the stem by a short line, the top of the circle around the
numeral is broken in 2 places one above the top of the numeral and the other to the right
of the numeral top.

Type 1 Type 2








Fifth Edition (July (?), 1906)
Both values are in the same design as used for the 2 kop. values of the previous editions of
this issue, the 4 kop. stamp was made by changing the value on the 2 kop stamp and
resulting in 2 types, printed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet of
9 x 9, perforated 11.5 and known with double horizontal perforation and with perforation
shifted vertically.

41.2 kop. dark blue green and yellow green 1.00

42. 4 kop. carmine red and orange 1.50




38 THE POST-RIDER/IIMHIIK No. 36
June, 1995


II






THE STORY OF THE BATTLESHIP "POTEMKIN"
by Ya. Afangulskii


Our editor has raised the subject of picture postcards in the editorial for this issue. That has reminded this
writer of an interesting Roumanian one in his possession, as illustrated below and, on showing it to our
editor, who is both Greek and Greek-Orthodox, he said it was an excellent example of what is called in
Greek "mntcKatp6rrza", or "an event as it unfolds" There is always a Greek word for it!


Cuirasatul Rusesc: Kneaz Poter
in portul Constanta pentru
a se preda Autorititilori Romi


nkin VIZ.:
kne.


i ~


No. 179.


N I
5 E L'













3) /
11 -------------


This is a hand-coloured card, issued in 1905 by T.G. Dabo of Constanfa and is inscribed in Roumanian "The
Russian cruiser Knyaz Potemkin in the port of Constanta, in order to be handed over to the Roumanian
authorities". Therein lies a story that deserves to be told.

The statesman after which the battleship was named was Prince Georgii Aleksandrovich Potemkin (1739-
1791), a favourite of the Empress Catherine II. He persuaded the Khan of the Crimea to abdicate in favour
of Catherine in 1787, the general area being then called New Russia and later referred to as the Tavrida
province. It was for this reason that the official designation of the battleship Potemkin was "3cKagpeHHbhfI
6poHeHoceg KHI3b HIOTeMKHH-TaBpHnecKHHI" (squadron armoured cruiser Prince PotEmkin-
Tavricheskii). The keel was laid down in the Nikolaev Shipyards in September 1899 and the ship was
launched in 1904. It had four 305-mm. and sixteen 152-mm. cannons, as well as guns of smaller calibre and
torpedo launchers. Its length was 113 metres, width 22 metres and it had a speed of 16 knots, with a crew of
more than 730 persons and a displacement of 12,480 tons.

The newly commissioned ship quickly became a hotbed of dissatisfaction because of the arrogant behaviour
of its officers. While standing in the Tendrovskii Gulf below Ochakov, a mutiny of the crew broke out on 14
June 1905 n.s., when they were served borshch containing putrid meat. This mutiny was led by Hryhoryj
Nykytovych Vakulenchuk, a Ukrainian born in the village of Bil'shi Korovyntsi, Zhytomyr district of Volyn'
province in 1877. He was a member of the Sevastopol' Committee of the RSDRP (the forerunner of the
Communist Party) and he is sometimes called Vakulynchuk in the literature, but that is a mispelling of his
surname. The commander of the ship, Captain 1st. Class E.N. Golikov, called out an armed watch to put
down the uprising and Vakulenchuk was fatally wounded by Gilyarovskii, a senior officer. However, the
enraged crew managed to overpower their officers, killing some and putting the remainder under arrest.

THE POST-RIDER/MIMIIK No. 36 39
June, 1995






A ship's committee was then set up, headed by Afanasyj Mykolovych Matyushenko, another Ukrainian and
born in Derhachy, Khar'kov province in 1879. The red flag was raised and the ship reached Odessa on the
evening of 14 June, where a general strike broke out, followed by many arrests by the authorities. The
Tsarist Government instructed the Black Sea Fleet to sink the "Potemkin", if its crew did not submit. On the
arrival of the Tsarist squadron at Odessa on 17 June, the cruiser "Georgii Pobedonosets" joined forces with
the "Potemkin" and the fleet hurridly returned to Sevastopol'.

Since the "Potemkin" was starting to run out of coal and provisions, it set sail on the evening of 18 June for
Constanta in Roumania, where all the consuls in the port received an appeal from the sailors, addressed "To
all the civilised world". Not wishing to antagonise the Tsarist Government, the Roumanians refused to help
and the ship sailed to Feodosiya in the Crimea, with the same negative result. The stocks of coal, water and
stores were now very low and the "Potemkin" returned to Constanla on 23 June. Two days later, the sailors
handed over the ship to the Roumanian authorities and came ashore as political refugees. A few went back
to Russia later in 1905, being promptly arrested and sentenced on 26 January 1906. The leader of the ship's
committee, A.M. Matyushenko, returned in June 1907, was arrested on 16 July in Nikolaev, court-martialled
and then hanged on 2 November. Most of the others went back to Russia without incident in 1917 after the
March Revolution.

The Roumanian authorities handed back the ship to the Tsarist Government and it was renamed "CB.
naHTeJefiMOH" ("St. Panteleimon") on 12 October 1905. It reverted to its previous name of"Potemkin" on
13 April 1917 and was renamed again on 11 May as "Bopeu 3a CBo6o0y" ("Fighter for Liberty"). Because
of the danger of seizure by the Germans after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, most of the Black Sea Fleet was
scuttled at the port of Novorossiisk in 1918, by order of the Soviet Government. The "Pot'emkin" was raised
after the Civil War, but then scrapped because of severe damage to its machinery. Quite a story!

The mutiny was the subject of a world classic of silent movies: "Battleship Potemkin", directed in 1925 by
Sergei Mikhailovich Eizenshtein. A print of this remarkable film, with its unforgettable "Odessa Steps"
sequence, may be viewed at many large public libraries. Collecting mail from all phases of the chequered
postal history of this ship would be quite a project and CSRP members are kindly requested to send in any
details of such material in their possession. Of course, there have been several Soviet stamps issued in
honour of the "Potemkin": a 3-kop. value perf. & imperf. on 10 Dec. 1930 and three different 4-kop. stamps
on 20 July & 29 Sept. 1965, as well as on 22 Nov. 1972. Some illustrations of these are given just below.

A 3-kop. commemorative ;T A 4-kop. commemorative
showing the battleship
"Potemkin" and issued X with a still from the film




the "Potemkin" sailors in jnd commissioned in 1900, asissued
on 10 December 1930. It "Battleship Potemkin"
20J uly1.965. 29 September 1965.



A 4-kop. commemorative A 4-kop. commemorative
showing a monument to stating that the ship was
the "Potemkin" sailors in commissioned in 1900, as
Odessa and issued on against 1904 and issued
20 July 1965. on 22 November 1972. ..


O r1TA C CP K




THE POST-RIDER/IIMIllHK No. 36
June, 1995


i
14~1~1ZI~I~Lf9F~im
.-.-~-I.--LILII- -1111)1--~-~--I


I






A HUNGARIAN EMERGENCY ISSUE UNDER SOVIET CONTROL
by Andrew Cronin

I. A review of the events leading up to the Soviet presence in Hungary.
While relations between Hungary and the USSR between the two world wars were decidedly cool,
diplomatic recognition had been established by 1939. That was followed in 1940 by a trade agreement and
the release to Moscow of two leading Communists, MAtyAs Rakosi and ZoltAn Vas, who had originally been
sentenced to life imprisonment for their participation in the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic. The Soviets
reciprocated in March 1941 by sending a special train from Moscow with 56 Hungarian battle standards,
which had been seized by the Tsarist Army in 1849, when it helped the Habsburg Government to put down
the Hungarian revolt against Austrian rule.

Since the end of 1919, the Hungarian Head of State had been Rear-Admiral Miklds Horthy, formerly CIC of
the Austro-Hungarian Fleet and aide-de-camp to the Emperor Franz Josef, who assumed the title of Regent
in a country that was now "a kirAly nelkuli kiralysig" (the kingless kingdom). The Prime Minister at the
beginning of 1941 was Count Pal Teleki, who committed suicide on the night of 2-3 April, as he opposed
Nazi Germany, which was preparing to attack Jugoslavia. Great Britain broke off diplomatic relations with
Hungary on 6 April, as Hungary had now granted German troops transit rights for the Balkan campaigns.

The German-Soviet War broke out on 22 June 1941 and the new Hungarian Prime Minister, Laszl6
Bardossy, broke off relations with the USSR the next day. Slovakia entered that war on the Nazi side on 25
June and Hungary then came under tremendous pressure to follow suit. Around noon on 26 June, two to
three German planes, disguised with Soviet markings, dropped about 30 bombs on Kassa in Hungary (now
Kosice in Slovakia), killing 30 persons and wounding 283. They then flew on to bomb Munkacs (then in
Hungary, but now MyKaqeBe in the Carpatho-Ukraine) and strafed a Hungarian train at Rah6 (now PaxiB
in the Carpatho-Ukraine). As a result, Hungary declared war on the USSR on 27 June 1941.

The next day, the Hungarian 8th. Corps crossed the border with two brigades, followed by the Fast Corps
(on bicycles!) on 30 June, with a total of about 40,000 men. Both entities were subordinate to the German
17th. Army and went through Galicia up to the Seret river. To illustrate the Hungarian presence on the
Eastern Front, let us now look at the following examples as shown on the next two pages:-

(a) Imitating a German initiative, the Hungarian forces also utilised commandeered Soviet postal stationery
as blanks for their field post service. Such usages are much scarcer than similar items sent by German
servicemen. Please see Figs. 1 & 2 for a Soviet card and envelope with Hungarian field post office and unit
markings.
(b) Hungarian field post cards of the period often bore anti-Soviet slogans and Fig. 3 depicts a typical
example, reading at top left: THE PRICE OF HUNGARIAN LIFE IS SOVIET DEATH! It was censored
on 27.6.42, went through Main FPO No. 2 on the 29th., to arrive at the Forces Radio Service, FPO No. 113
in Kiev, Ukraine.
(c) Fig. 4 shows excerpts from a one-sheet field newspaper printed on both sides, entitled KELETI FRONT
(Eastern Front) and issued on 23 August 1942 by the 1st. Royal Hungarian War Correspondents Company,
FPO 202/43. It has details overleaf about Axis advances on Voronezh, Stalingrad etc, which were soon to
end catastrophically, as well as about the Dieppe raid, in which Canadian soldiers took part.

This field newspaper also refers to the 2nd. Hungarian Army of 200,000 men under the command of General
Gusztav Jiny, which had been sent to the Eastern Front in the spring of 1942. In January 1943, the Soviet
Army broke through the great bend of the Don river at Voronezh and the 2nd. Hungarian Army lost 150,000
of its 200,000 men. Things went from bad to worse and the German Wehrmacht occupied all of Hungary on
19 March 1944 up to the Tisza river, effectively terminating the sovereignty of the country. By September of
THE POST-RIDER/aMIflHK No. 36 41
June, 1995









F1 0 T.OBAfl KAPTp 1

S- '-- '.
I 1, .o' -.0 .

0\" T 7 /














Fig. 1: A Soviet 20-kopek card featuring the Mechanisation Pavilion at the 1940 Agricultural Exhibition and
used as a post-free blank by a member of the Hungarian Military Bridge Brigade Command, which was served
on 9 October 1941 by FPO 40/74 on the Eastern Front.
K0.1) C ..





,C\ ,,, .4 We L .












.. .
Fig. 1: A Soviet 20-kopek card featuring the Mechanisation Pavilion at the 1940 Agricultural Exhibition and
used as a post-free blank by a member of the Hungarian Military Bridge Brigade Command, which was served






on 9 October 1941 by FPO 40/74 on the Eastern Front.









S. ....... L... ker. R3. -id.. .ta 28..III .
h"'f^-6::CK'- ;-T',.i^^^^ -









; K .: .2.. .. .... : ;











the 2nd. Firing Division and sent through FPO 42/09 during November 1941 on the Eastern Front.


June, 1995
-0 1.'. H: -N 1) S rnak



4- U:c ..,-f "M.e... -- i ri ., .. "

m npu um en :.......... .. t ...................-.....--.-.. .-...- 21....


,... .. .... .... ".. . .- --.. .. -'...
n C- ". ." " "'" -" r




June, 1995









A MAGYAR- IrLET ARA: TABORI POSTAl LEVELEZ6LAP.
A SZOVJET HALALAI .OS

Hivatalos feljegyz6sek: A
SV 2
f \\NV 2\be 6"Z


A felad6 5


never: ....- a:-- -- ".- .-- I --

rendfokozata : .......-------------------------- ------- ....

A tAbori posta szama : .. ...
ra= 1 tiller. .' .... ...... ............ ......
Ara: I tilleig. 3r.
Fig. 3.


-A It -U" bt-1. -y a' S-Z-A tA
C1 A b -V 0. "K ti


VII 1 ." N T


-~----- -------i-----------~I


A n4met tAvirati iroddnak katonai h(lyr61 ka--
pott magyarizata a hadijelcnt6se!: sz.szavu'-
adgAval szembon rdmutat n6net katonai k6r6k
deruldtisdra 6s hangoztatja, ho'y SztalincrAd
t6rs4g6ben dn a Kaukdzusban lehet virni 6rde-
kes fojlem6nyeket.
Dieppenel a francia partvid6ken Norman-
didban aneol, amerikai 6s kanadrdi csapatok
partraszdll6st kis6reltok meg. Terveik meghiu-
sultak a n6met elharitason}. IT6hiny dra alatt
ezer angolszdsz katona kerillt n6met foesgCba,
a partot a halottak szdzai boritottdk, 28 an-
Gol pinc6los megsenmlstilt, szdmos kisebb na -
gyobb szillit6 6s hadihlaj6 eloiUllyedt. A part-
raszaills neghiusitdsa utAn a helyszinen jirt
n6net haditud6sit6k sSmrnyU khpet festenek az
angolszdsz csapatok pusztuldsrr61.
Egiyptomban E1 Alemeinn61l eyfen)o re,mint
n6not helyen mec6llapitjdk, viszonylagos nyu-
calom van. Az utinp6tldst szAllit6 nmnot es o-.
lasz haj6karavdnok sUirn 6rkeznek Rommel td-
bornayhoz. Az angolok legut6bb pdnc61lo felde-
rit6 el6retbr6ssel kis6rleteztek, de a n4met
6s olasz csapatok visszavert6k 6ket.

ig. 4.-


A hadihelyzet

A nemet hivatalos jelent6sek az ut6b--
bi napokban nagyon sziikszavuan bintak a
fbldrajzi neghataroz-so:kkal. 1.og1llapitot-
trk azonban, hogy a maCyar honv6ds6g arc-
-vonalin, Voronezsn61, 'Orelnel 6s n6deGza-
kabbra Vjazm6ndl 6s Rzsevn4l vtres kutdarc-
ba fulladtak a szovjet timadasok, s sozzd-
val veszitette el a szovjet pdncdlosait.
D61en a kalacsi bekerit6 coata befejez6se
utdn a naCy Don k6nybk teljesen a n4met m-
regek birtokiba kerUlt, a kalmWk fildin E-
listit61 koletre, tehat a Volga torkolat -
t61 250 -300 km-re jolzett el6nyomuldst a
n6met jelent6s. Delen Maikop, Kraszndir
elfoglaldsa s a Rosztov Baku-i vasutvo -
nal tekint61yes resz6nek birtokbavdtele u--
tan mar a Kauktzus heCyei k6z6tt tett el6-
nyomulA.sr61 6s meger6sitett hecyi6llAsok
lekiizd6s6r61 cmlikezik meg a nenet hadije-
lentd. Legujabban a Kubin foly6 als6 fo-
lydsdnal KrunszkajA e6 Kurcsenszkdj; k6z-
s6aek bev6telet jelzi a n6met hadijelentes.

Fi


i


*


Tabori post 202/45.-1942. augusztus .h6 23.-un.


16. sz6m.


THE POST-RIDER/HIMIRHK No. 36
June, 1995


U J S SA


TABO R






that year, the Hungarians were conducting armistice negotiations with Moscow, the process being hastened
by the "Debrecen Operation" in Eastern Humgary, which the Soviet Army began on 2 October 1944. Rear-
Admiral Horthy went on the Hungarian radio on 15 October, asked for an armistice and declared a cease
fire. The 1st. Hungarian Army under General Bl6a Dalnoki Mikl6s promptly surrendered to the Russians and
went into captivity. The next day, the notorious SS officer Otto Skorzeny took Miklos Horthy Junior
hostage in Budapest and his father the Regent was forced to hand over power to Ferenc Szilasi, leader of
the Fascist Arrow Cross Party. The Regent and his family were interned in Germany, while the 2nd. & 3rd.
Hungarian Armies continued to fight on the Nazi side.
AEBPEIIEHCKAaJ OREPAUHa 1944r. |aos
50 0 50 100..

l .B o As a result of the Debrecen Operation, that city in Eastern
B. bM 3 I Hungary fell to the Soviet Army on 20 October 1944 and,
-5Th after very heavy fighting on the 31 st., the town ofNyfregy-
/t ~ 2o ) hiza, about 50 km. (31 miles) to the north and close to the
2 k If the Carpatho-Ukrainian border (see the map and data in
A\ Y ag Fig. 5 herewith). More about Nyiregyhaza anon. A
Sa. i- CO"TC ~'C* temporary National Assembly in Debrecen set up a
o .- co*"c*...Tx Provisional Government on 22 December 1944, with Gen.
S_. .ca 8 1 48.... ,0 .T.. ropo Bila Dalnoki Mikl6s, former commander of the First
Fig. 5: Map of the "Debrecen Operation", Hungarian Army, as the Prime Minister. That government
taken from the Large Soviet Encyclopaedia, declared war on Germany on 28 December 1944, which
2nd. edn., Moscow 1952, Vol. 13, p. 526. meant little, as it had no military forces to speak of.
It also concluded an armistice in Moscow with the Allied Powers on 20 January 1945.

Meanwhile, the Soviet Army went on to surround Budapest, a twin city divided by the River Danube, with
Buda on the north side and Pest on the south. Pest was cleared after very bloody fighting on 18 January
1945 and Buda on 13 February. The last Fascist units were driven out of Hungary on 4 April. By VE-Day, 8
May 1945, there were 100,000 men of the Royal Hungarian armed forces on Austrian and Czech soil. Those
forces did not capitulate; they simply ceased to exist.

I. The emergency issue of the Nyiregyhaza-1 post office.
At the time of the Debrecen Operation, the town of Nyiregyhdiza in North-Eastern Hungary had a population
of around 50,000. As the Soviet Army advanced deeper into Hungary, postal communications were slowly
restored under a combined Soviet-Hungarian censorship. The postal service in Nyfregyhaza had ample
supplies on hand of Hungarian stamps and postal stationery but there was a problem: the adhesives were
inscribed MAGYAR KIR. POSTA (Royal Hungarian Post) and the postcards showed the royal regalia,
including "a sent kirilyi korona" (the holy royal crown of St. Stephen, which is of great emotional
significance to the Hungarian people). The Nyfregyhfza-1 post office instructed a local printer, Kiroly
Venkovits, to design and print a neutral issue of stamps and postcards to cover the following rates:-
Postcards: 20 filler; Letters: 40 filler; Registration fee: 40 filler.

The first issue of two values was in sheets of 12 stamps (4 across and 3 down) in black on coloured paper:
yellow for the 20 filler and rose for the 40 filler. They were line-perforated 10 3/4, with the outer margins of
the sheets left imperforate. Hence, positions 6 & 7 are the only ones on the sheets that are perforated all
around and are worth a premium. The simple design just shows the figure and designation of value, the
numerals "40" being appreciably larger on positions 9 & 12 (see Fig. 6 on the next page). There were 416
sheets of the 20 filler (4992 copies) and 417 sheets of the 40 filler (5004 copies), issued on 16 December
1944 and running low in February 1945. The latest known usage is 12 May 1945. Upon being affixed to
mail, the stamps also received a circular control marking in violet, with the Hungarian coat of arms in the
centre and inscribed M. KIR. ADOHIVATAL NYIREGYHAZA (Royal Hungarian Tax Office *
Nyfregyhiza; see Fig. 7 on the next page).
44 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHIK No. 36
June, 1995










I FILLER FIBER FILLER FILLER FILLEI R FILLER




LLER FILLER FILLeR ILLER FILLER FILLER FILLER MILLER
............. ................ ..... ................ ..... ..;. .. ..





Fig. 6. Fig. 8. f


Fig. 7.


Fig. 10.


Censored letter from Ibr6ny 2.2.45 to
the Town Hall in Nyiregyhaza.


Invalid
stamp!

Large "40"-
Position 12.



.- fe. "e s ,i .;g .,..t/,-4



t Fig. 1 a.: Letter to Gyula Pozsgay, Under Secretary
of State for Transport in the Debrecen Government.
Fig. lb.: Censored card written on 28.1.45,
but posted 10.2.45 to Budapest.


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995







LEVELEZOLAe A
M U Stt
~7tr/AMi


Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14.

The second issue is the same, but it has the office name "Nyfregyhiza 1." overprinted in red below the word
FILLER (see Fig. 8 on p. 45). There were 416 sheets (4992 copies) of the 20 fill and 167 sheets (2004
copies) of the 40 filler stamps, going on sale in the second half of February 1945 and used until the end of
April. The violet control marking of the Tax Office was not applied on the second issue, presumably because
of the abbreviation KIR., meaning royal. A comparison of both issues is shown in Fig. 9 on p. 45.

In addition to NyfregyhAza 1, the stamps are also known with the postmarks of the neighboring localities of
Baktal6brnthiza, Ibriny (see Fig. 10 on p. 45), Nyfrbator and Vencsello; such usages are extremely rare.
The censored mail bore a rectangular two-line bilingual cachet, usually struck diagonally in violet and
reading "nPOCMOTPEHO IEH3YPOI / ELLEN)RIZVE" (Checked by the censorship / it has been
checked; see Figs. 10 & 11 on p. 45). Some usages are shown in Fig. 11, confirming that stamps with the
with the words KIR. or KIRALYI (= royal) and postcards showing the royal regalia were invalid.

That is not the end of the story. There were also three issues of a local postcard, in use from December 1944
to 20 May 1945, with a total of 12,000 copies. Few copies appear to have survived and they bring very high
prices at auction, regardless of condition. The details are as follow:-

First issue: A card of yellowish-white stock, measuring 147 x 105mm., with a typographed inscription
LEVELEZOLAP (Postcard), a handstamped indication "ARA 20 FILLER" (Price 20 filler) and validated
with the Tax Office cachet in violet. Known used from the first half of December 1944 onwards. This is the
rarest of the three issues; see Fig. 12 at the top of this page.

Second issue: Same as before, but with the neutral 20-fill6r stamp design added above the handstamped
indication ARA 20 FILLER. Issued on 16 December 1944, it is the second rarest type. See Fig. 13 above.

Third issue: The designation "Ara 20 filler" now set in type at the top left of the 20-filler stamp design and
issued in January 1945. When on yellowish-white stock, it is the commonest of the three issues, but it still
goes for around USD 350 at auction, mint or used. On rose stock, it is a great rarity (see Fig. 14 above).

So there you have it. Further articles on the Hungarian presence in our fields of collecting will follow in
future issues of "The Post-Rider". On a final and light note, we have a flourishing and dynamic Hungarian
community here in Toronto (including advanced philatelists) and their main neighbourhood, complete with
restaurants serving delectable Hungarian cuisine, is known locally as "The Goulash Archipelago" (!).

TRANSNISTRIAN DATE CANCELLATIONS AND CENSOR MARKINGS (1941-1944)
by Dan Grecu and Ovidiu Reu of Roumania.
(reproduced from The Romanian Postal History Bulletin, Vol. No. 6, Whole No. 16 for April 1995, by
kind permission of the Editor, Dr. Robert M. Bell of Libertyville, Illinois, U.S.A. and the respective authors.
Our Editorial Comment includes some supplementary information about this interesting subject).

This study is based on the analysis of more than 1800 pieces from franked telegrams and money orders,
together with items from our own collections.
46 THE POST-RIDER/HMII~K No. 36
June, 1995


A&A A2 LtSR





Dated Cancellations.
We were able to discover 84 different types of dated cancellations, the majority of which had not been
previously recorded. These are clearly illustrated in the accompanying three plates. The dates of use for each
of these different cancels can be found in Table 1. This table was supplemented by us with the cancels
previously reported by Chris Trevers and Calin Marinescu (see "The Post-Rider" No. 10, pp.8-31 & No. 29,
pp. 25-35), but not found in the material we studied. Such items are noted in the table with an *, but are not
reproduced in the table. By including them, we have brought together in one place practically all the
reported Transnistrian cancellations for this period, allowing for future study and additions.

Observations.
There are some cancellations that appear to be the same, but have different features on close inspection (e.g.
3.1 & 3.2, 6.1 & 6.2, 24.21 & 24.22, 24.16 a & b, etc). This highlights the need for good definition in the
reproductions of all cancels from Transnistria, in order to make it easier to discover new types.

Cancel 11.1 can be considered a provisional type, being used in the first period of the Copai-Gorod postal
agency. It would be interesting to know if this type was in use at all postal agencies. Some places changed
the spelling of the town name and there are thus different cancels for the same town, e.g. CRASNOE-
CRASNA, MOGHILEV-MOGHILAU, NICIANOI-NICIANOE, MERINCA-SMERINKA. All the
illustrated cancels were used on telegrams, with the exception of 24.8, 24.9, 24.11, 24.12. Near these dated
cancellations, we found that the stamps were also cancelled by a post office seal-type marking (Golta and
Odesa, see Fig. 1), as well as by postal administrative markings (one with the text reading "Oficiul PTT
Tulcin / Transnistria / Intrare No.../ din...", which translates as Post, Telephone & Telegraph Office / Tulcin
/ Transnistria / Entry No../ from..."). All the telegrams were franked with Duca Voda (Transnistrian) stamps,
with rates of 6, 12 or more lei; no apparent pattern could be found. These postage stamps and cancellations
were very likely also used on fiscal items (receipts processed at the post offices), but that cannot be
confirmed, as we were working with only on a limited amount of material. We also found a part cancellation,
reading "...TCA / JUD. ANANIEV", dated in September 1943 and as yet not identified.

Censor markings.
These can be classified as follows:-
1. Provisional Markings ("P" type) with just the framed word CENZURAT were the first to be used and
have been seen towards the end of October 1941, soon after the occupation of Transnistria. These "P"
markings are similar at all the censor offices and resemble a Bucharest type used in July & August 1941.
Being individually manufactured, there are small differences in the marks seen from each censor office,
mainly in the dimensions (see Table 2 and Figs. 2-5). This type of mark was in use until July 1942 (12 July in
Odesa, 15 July in Tiraspol and 20 July in Golta being some of the dates that we found).

2. Definitive markings ("T" type) have been seen in Odesa from 13 July and from Tiraspol as of 11 July.
These are the earliest dates found so far. It is unlikely that the smaller offices had "T" types before Odesa
and Tiraspol. It is therefore probably correct to say that, in general, the "T" markings were first used in
Transnistria, beginning on 11 July 1942.
There was a short period of time at Tiraspol between 11 July (introduction of the "T" markings) and 15 July
(withdrawal of the "P" markings) when both types were in use. We have seen one piece (Fig. 6) when both
marks occurred together. It is possible that a similar situation could have existed at other censor offices.
The "T" marking dimensions are given in four measurements: (a) overall length, (b) lower section length, (c)
height of the upper section and (d) overall breadth. See Fig. 7: coded a/b/c/d mm. or in an abbreviated form,
in which only the length and breadth are recorded: a///d mm. The "T" markings can be classified as follows:-

I. Standard T ("classic" type):
A. Small T (sT) with the general dimensions of 52-59/18-21/10-13/16-18 mm. A careful examination of the
material reveals two variants of "sT":-
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIK No. 36 47
June, 1995






sT1: These were the first to be introduced after the "P" markings. Their main characteristic is the distance
between the C of CENZURAT and the left frame of the border, which is about 4-5 mm. (a large distance).
The general dimensions are 55-59/19-21/11-13/17-18 mm.. The appearance and quality of the impressions
vary considerably, with wear and tear being evident over time. Thus, at the beginning of their use (and much
later for some examples that were little used), the impressions were regular, clear and with all angles at 90
degrees (see Fig. 17). In time, the angles of the lower section became sharper (under 90 degrees; see
Fig. 18), with these being the most commonly seen forms of the sT1 types. Some markings (as shown by the
numbers) which were used, either more frequently or roughly, exhibit deterioration and a deformed
impression (D in the tables; see Fig. 19) and very deformed (DD in the tables; see Fig. 20). The "DD"
impressions can even be unreadable, with a lack of letters and the dimensions of the frame being larger than
the normal by 2 mm. or more. The "D" and "DD" cachets were replaced by new ones, generally after May
1943 in Odessa. These new handstamps are coded "sT2":-
sT2 markings show differences from sT1. The inside distance between the "C" and the left margin is about 2
2 mm., with the quality of the impression being high, clear-cut and with all angles at 90 degrees. Irregular or
deformed impressions have not been found so far for the sT2 types (see Fig. 21). The general dimensions are
52-53/18-19/10-11/16-17 mm.
B. Large/big T (bT), with the general dimensions of 72-74/21-22/16-17/30-32 mm. The thickness of the
frame is about 1 mm. and always has a regular look. The letters forming the word CENZURAT have a
different thickness to those forming the place-name (see Figs. 10, 11 & 13).
H. Unusual T (uT).
These have different type letters from the standard ones. We have found three uT types used in Odesa (see
Figs. 22-24) and one in Varvarovca (Fig. 16). One can find close to these censor markings the free censor
markings of "Oprit a se cenzura" (Forbidden to censor), which have been found so far only from Odesa and
Tiraspol (Fig. 25), but are theoretically possible from all offices.

Other observations.
Odesa and Tiraspol did not use bT handstamps, only sT and uT. The Odesa markings show the greatest
diversity and ar accordingly listed separately in Table 3. One can see here that censor markings 1-7 existed
from the beginning in July 1942, with 9 & 10 probably also with a different aspect of the early markings.
Nos. 11-15 and perhaps others were introduced towards the end of 1942, while Nos. 18-20 were in use at
the beginning of 1943. The numbers above 20 were introduced later and are very rare. The other censor
offices generally used sT handstamps, replaced in some cases (always?) by bT types.
ERZU G ATI"

ILLUSTRATIONS 6Bu
qT. 0




Fig. 1 Odesa Post Office Seal Fig. 2 P marking from Odesa
Bu1 AI Wum U





Fig. 3 Adhesive canceled with a P Fig. 4 P marking from Tiraspol
marking inOdesa, an unusual
procedure.
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 36
48 June, 1995



















Fig. 5 P marking from Birzula.

L---


I J
Lbl


Fig. 6 Double censoring in Tiraspol
with both T and P markings (July 11,
1942).


CENZURAT ANANIEV
No. 1


Fig. 7 a/b/c/d/
markings


measurements


of T


Fig. 8 Ananiev sT2


SCENZURAT BALTA
No. 1


Fig. 9 Balta sT1


Fig. 10 Balta bT


CENZURAT BEREZOVCA
~~Im. i]


Fig. 11 Berezovca bTa


Fig. 12 Golta sT1


THE POST-RIDER/IIMImHK No. 36
June, 1995














Fig. 13 Moghilev bT


CENZURATT lRSPOL
-L uil ,P2Y


Fig. 15 Tiraspol


sT2


- CENZURAT ODESA
--'-U No. 4


Fig. 17 Odesa sT1, very good
impression

----.,-
CENZURAT ODESA


Fig. 19 Odesa sT1, D
impression

Fig. 2EZUR1 Odesa sT2
No. 3--

Fig. 21 Odesa sT2


Fig. 16 Varvarovca uT



CENZuRATODESA=
10


Fig. 18 Odesa sTI, usual
impression

CENSZURATODES (
N o. 10o

Fig. 20 Odesa sT1, DD impression

GENEURAT ODESA


Fig. 22 Odesa uT, censor
Nos 9 & 10


THE POST-RIDER/IMIIHIK No. 36
June, 1995


CENZURAT RABNITA
SNo. 1

Fig. 14 Rabnila sTI











SCenzurat Odesa

Flig 28


Fig. 23 Odesa Ut (No. 28)


Fig. 24 Fragment of another uT
Odesa marking, blue color
("Cenzurat O...")in Sept 1942 ? No. 7


OPRIT A SE CENZURAl


Fig. 25 Tiraspol "Forbidden to
Censor" Fragment


TABLE 2. TRANSNISTRIAN CENSOR MARKINGS (excluding Odesa sT type)
Censor Dimension Censor
Office Type Usage Dates Cmmolor
Office (mm) No.
ANANIEV sT2 ...Jun-Jul.43... 7/18/10/16 V 1
BALTA P ...Apr.42... ?/6,5 B -
sTI ...Aug.42 D 58/18/12/17 B 1
bT NoV.42-Nov.43... 74/22/17/32 B 1
BEREZOVCA bT ...Mar.43... 72/21/16/30 B 3,4
BIRZULA P ...Dec.41-Jul.4.42 32/6,5 B -
GOLTA P ...Jul.20.42 32/6,5 B -
sTI ...Aug.43 D ?/20/13/18 B 1
IAMPOL P ...Jun.42 33/6,5 B -
MOGHILEV P ...Feb.42... 33/6,5 B -
bT ...Feb-Apr.43... 73/21/17/31 B 2,3,4
OCEACOV sT ...Nov.42... B 2
bT ...Feb-Nov.43... 74/22/16/30 B 1,2
ODESA P ...Mar-Jul.12.42 31/6 B -
RABNITA sT1 ...Jan.43 D 59/19/11/18 B 1
SMERINCA bT ...Dec.42... 71///30 1
TIRASPOL P Oct.41-Jul.15.42 32/6 B -
sT2 Jul.11.42-Sep.43... 53/18/10/17 R,V,B 1
...Sep.42-Apr.43... 2
VARVAROVCA uT ...May-Sep.43... 52/17/16/25 B,V 2

Note: Censor markings from Birzula (T type), Dubasari, Grigoriopol, Ovidiopol and
Vapniarca have been reported in previous articles in RPHB.
THE POST-RIDERSIMIIHK No. 36 51
June, 1995







TABLE 1. TRANSNISTRIAN DATE CANCELS


1.1
1.2
1.3
2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
6.1
6.2
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.1
11.2
12.1
12.2
13.
14.
15.1
15.2
15.3
16.
17.1
17.2
17.3
18.
19.
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
21.1
21.2
22.


ANANIEV
ANANIEV/TELEGRAME
ANANIEV/TELEGRAF
BALCHI/JUD.MOGHILEV
BALTA
BALTA
BALTA/RECOMANDATE
BALTA/TELEGRAF
BEREZOVCA
BEREZOVCA/RECOMANDATE
BEREZOVCA/MESAGERII
BEREZOVCA/TELEGRAME
BEREZOVCA/TELEGRAF
BERSADE/JUD.BALTA
BIRZULA
BIRZULA*(2 arcs)
CAMENCA/JUD.RABNITA
CICELNIC/JUD.BALTA
CODIMA/JUD, RABNITA
COLBANA/JUD.RABNITA*
OFICIUL PTT COPAI GOROD
COPAI-GORAD/JUD.MOGHILEV
CRASNOIE/JUD.MOGHILEV*
CRASNA/JUD.MOGHILEV
CRIJOPOL/JUD.JUGASTRU
DUBASARI*
GOLTA
GOLTA/RECOMANDATE
GOLTA/TELEGRAME
GRIGORIOPOL*
IAMPOL
IAMPOL/RECOMANDATE *
IAMPOL/MANDATE
KRIVOIE-OZIERO
LUBAWEVCA/JUD.GOLTA
MOGHILEV
MOGHILAU
MOGHILEV/MANDATE *
MOGHILAU/RECOMANDATE
MOGHILAU/TELEGRAME
MOGHILAU/TELEGRAF
NICIANOI
NICEANOE
OBODOVCA/JUD.BALTA


THE POST-RIDERI/1MIHK No. 36
June, 1995


Nov.41-Jun.43
Jan-Jul.43
Jun.43
Sep.42-Jul.43
Apr-Dec.42
Apr-May.43
May-Nov.43
Apr-Nov.43
Jul.42-Mar.43
Mar.43
Mar.43
Mar.43
Mar.43
Oct.42-May.43
Sep.41-Aug.43
Apr.43-Mar.44
Oct.42-Nov.43
Apr-Nov.43
Feb.43
Mar.43
Jul.42
Sep.42-Jul.43
Nov.42
Jul.43
Dec.42-Jan.44
Oct.43
May.42-Aug.43
Apr-Oct.43
Aug.43
Oct.43-Mar.44
Jun.42-Sep.43
Jun.42
Aug.42
Dec.42
Aug.43
Feb-Nov.42
Feb-Aug.43

Feb-Apr.43
Feb-Nov.43
Feb-Apr.43
Feb.43
Feb-Dec.43
Jun.43






TABLE I CONTINUED


23.1
23.2
23.3
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.9
24.10
24.11
24.12
24.13
24.14
24.15
24.16
24.17
24.18
24.19
24.20
24.21
24.22
24.23
25.
26.1
26.2
27.
28.
29.1
29.2


OCEACOV
OCEACOV/MANDATE
OCEACOV/TELEGRAME
ODESA
ODESA
ODESA/No.1
ODESA I
ODESA II
ODESA/3
ODESA/5
ODESA/EXPEDIERE
ODESA I/EXPEDITIE
ODESA/TRANZIT*
ODESSA 2/TRANZIT
ODESA/SOSIRE
ODESA/CURSA II*
ODESA I/OFICIALE*
ODESA/RECOMANDATE I
ODESA I/RECOMANDATE
ODESA/MANDATE
ODESA II/MANDATE
ODESA I/MESAGERII
ODESA/TELEGRAME
ODESA I/TELEGRAME
ODESA I/TELEGRAME
ODESA I/SERV.CASSIERIEI
OLGOPOL/JUD.BALTA
OVIDIOPOL*
OVIDIOPOL/RECOMANDATE*
PESCIANA/JUD.BALTA
PESCIANCA/JUD.RABNITA
RAZDELNAIA
RAZDELNAIA/JUD TIRASPOL


30.1 RABNITA*
30.2 RABNI A/RECOMANDATE*
30.3 RABNITA/MANDATE
30.4 RABNITA/TELEGRAME
30.5 RABNITA/TELEGRAF
30.6 RABNITA-TRANSNISTRIA/
RECOMANDATE*
30.7 RABNITA-TRANSNISTRIA/
TELEGRAF
31. SAD-GOROD/JUD.MOGHILEV
32. SAVRANI/JUD.BALTA
33a. SLOBOTCA / JUD. ANANIEV
33b. SLOBOTCA / JUD. RABNITA
34.1 SMERINCA/JUD.MOGHILEV*
34.2 MERINKA
34.3 SMERINCA
34.4 PMERINCA/RECOMANDATE
34.5 SMERINKA/MANDATE


Jun.42-Nov.43
Feb.43
Feb-Mar.43
Nov.41-May.42
Jan-Jun.42
Jun-Dec.42
Oct.42-Feb.43
Mar-May.43
Apr-Dec.42
Dec.42-Feb.44
Mar-Dec.43
Jun-Dec.42
Aug.43
Feb.44
Apr-Aug.43
Jan.44
Oct-Nov.42
Jun.42-May.43
Jan.43-Feb.44
Jun.42
May.42
Nov.42-Apr.43
Jan.43
Jul.42-May 43
Apr-May 43
Oct.42
Dec.42
Oct.43
Nov.43
Apr-May 43
Nov.42-Aug.43
Mar-Oct.42
Dec.42-Jul.43
Nov.41-Aug.42
Sep.43
Aug.42
Jan.43
Feb.43
Aug.42-Nov.43

Jan.43


Sep.42-Jul.43
Dec.42-Aug.43
Sept. 43. (see Editorial Comment).
Oct. 42 (see Editorial Comment).
Oct.42
Mar.43
Jul-Dec.43
Sep-Oct.43
Oct-Dec.42


35. STANISLAVEIC/JUD.MOGHILEV Aug.42-Aug.43
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIMHK No. 36
June, 1995











TABLE I CONTINUED


36.1
36.2
36.3
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.1
41.2


42.
43**


TIRASPOL
TIRASPOL/EXPED.*
TIRASPOL/MANDATE
TOMASPOL/JUD.JUGASTRU
TROSTINET/JUD.TULCIN*
TULCIN*
VAPNIARCA/JUD.JUGASTRU*
VARVAROVCA/JUD.OCIACOV
VARVAROVCA/JUD.OCEACOV/
MANDATE

VINDICENI/JUD.MOGHILEV
VRADIEVCA / JUD. GOLTA


Oct.41-Apr.43
Aug-Sep.43
May 42-Apr.43
Apr.43
Dec.42

Jun-Aug.42
Feb.43-Jan.44
Feb-Sep.43

Sep.43


Jul.43
July 43. (see Editorial Comment).


TABLE 3. "sT" CENSOR MARKINGS FROM ODESA


1942 1944


CENSOR
ENo. TYPE USAGE DATES COLOR
No.
1 sT1 Jul.42... R
2 sT1 ...Dec.42 D B,V
sT2 ...May-Aug.43... V
3 sTi Jul-Aug.42... B,V
sT2 ...May 43... V
4 sTl Jul-Dec.42...Apr.43 D B,V
sT2 May 43... V
5 sT1 Jul-Aug.42... B,V
6 sT1 ...Aug-Oct.42... V
7 uT*
sTi ...Aug.42-Apr.43... V
9 uT ...Sep.42... Bi
sTi ...Apr.43 DD B
sT2 May-Oct.43... V
10 uT ...Sep.42... B1
sT1 ...Apr-May.43 DD V
sT2 May 43... V
11 sT1 ...Dec.42-Feb.43 D B,V
13 sT1 ...Dec.42... B,V
14 sT1 ...Dec.42... B,V
15 sT1 ...Dec.42... BV
17 sT2 ...Feb.44... B
18 sT1 ...Feb-Apr.43 D B,V
19 sTI ...May-Sep.43... B
20 sTI ...Apr-May 43... B,B1
sT2 ...Dec.43... V
28 uT ...Feb.44... V

R = red B = Black V = Violet BI = Blue


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIJHK No. 36
June, 1995









TRANSNISTRIAN DATE CANCELLATIONS 1941 1944


PLATE 1


L. ~L
/ If- 1JI14< 2tP4' ?o2s
I r
/ ,, ^WOG

11 1.2 1.3 2. 3.1

//k .L\ >' ,OL4 o

\ W \ /\' U VrAR457 )
II~~I 1'II47P
\^ 1 ^o--^ \^^-^ \'~<:blZ4;I ^n~ LH.^ 7 \^ Q^
r4
SZO cz



3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2



\j C -
_7 __ a'AR_- CT; 9.I-6M. -' j 3MA!42-0 1- ECP -
' P. 7 D7 EF C)


0-AA
AG E. 9. 1.1.2 '
4. 3 4.4 4.5 5. 6.1



/PI(;O 01 A, V., 3 7-GG 0,
1 0[ 21 l 13 FEBWf 8)1 /a-^Sf^ (i(3'W -$>



7. 1 3. 1. 15.l-2 11.2



!*" 13l'iy3-0 f f OEC42Ii4 r::j ./ / 1UL2 6i' lAP RUi-4 1 -As,-,

~n^^ > t\\^^y \^ S GR^

12.2 13. 15.1 15.2 15.3


THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIkHK No. 36
June, 1995





TRANSNISTRIAN DATE CANCELLATIONS 1941 1944
PLATE 2


'..'

' 2iU 42-8 .



17.1


4202

20.2


IAIMPOL-



MANDATE

17.3


(f7N

-. .4//cEt?-


20.4


C

, 27FEB43- 8



20.5


,;16E4- G%

20EG
20.6


______ -.


/' I 7- I
^-- + --- /I--

21.2 22.






S1
95t 1 94.-


.jo




23.1


S.3: 12 4



24.3


OCEACOV

lOFt 1 45 -9

MANDATE

23.2


24.4


h" -^.

21.1


J.--*^^^

/ C;. -,

23.3


07
nf ^sz~


24.5


24.62-. ? b (25443) ) 2351UL-7 28 )



24.6 24.7 24.3 24.9 24.12

S O ODESA ODESA II

I 2UL;Z 13KM2-1

/c\ MANDATE 1 MANDATE.

24.16 a 24.16 b 24.15 24.17 24.18
56 THE POST-RIDER/aIMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995


A tic- O
(,51lOEC42-0 j ll^ I2 8FE -2 8



18. 19. 20.1


I


__


+/
^




TRANSNISTRIAN DATE CANCELLATIONS 1941 1944
PLATE 3

q /0
*:3 !C ,2C?-S :. -143 ) i -2M/AI,0 a (8i0 ( ~.~i., ?A1.CTr' I



24.19 24.20 24.22 24.2L 24.23



-E 12,- ,T fill IN )


25. 27. 29. 29.1 29.2

PABNITA' >.. G,. .A s .-


MANDATE i *Y

30,3 30.4 30.5 30. 7 .

--------
I I -7s. ^ /^
s .26OCT42 O 25MAP -0 -7SEPA 9 ) ) B


32. 33. 34.2 34.3 34.4

SMERINKA PS RASPOL
(ZI(. 'I ( f ^ PC
131(? '6 i- E-'7' *--l,'<"l -71UL 12 15 '^" 144, IR ,
MANDATE oG '-- M NOTE '

34.5 35. 36.1 36.3 37.

--i\ VARVA4"O"VCA ".

,(- .135P-,- -iMlC-F 2...V7. 2 ,.,13)5 >;I ,-: i 24 244
NT MANDATE

41.1 41.2 42 1443" 24.11
THE POST-RIDER/SIMIIUHK No. 36 57
June, 1995



























49) ?T
v. '-~l


EDITORIAL COMMENT: Firstly, it would seem from the spelling system adopted during the Romanian
occupation of Transnistria that the partial marking mentioned by Dan Grecu & Ovidiu Reu as ...TCA
JUD. ANANIEV must surely be SLOBOTCA. In short, there must have been two offices called
SLOBOTCA during the occupation: one each in the counties of Ananiev and Raibnita. The Slav place-name
CJIOBOJIKA is relatively common in Belorussia, Russia and the Ukraine. The listing of Transnistrian date
cancellations given by Messrs Grecu & Ovidiu-Orlat has been adjusted to include this addition: Nos. 33a, 33b.

Secondly, another post office can be added to the list, as shown in the illustration above of a German 6-Pfg.
Hitler Head reply-paid card, noted by your editor in Paris at PHILEXFRANCE-82. A 24-lei Duc5 Vod~i
stamp has been added and cancelled VRADIEVCA-6.IUL. 43 JUD. GOLTA. This marking has been inserted
for consistency under No. 43 in the listing and also at the bottom of Plate 3. The message is written in
Ukrainian on 5 July 1943 in the village of Tarasovka and the card is addressed to Tatjana Hrosul, obviously a
Ukrainian slave labourer in Berlin during WWII.

Thirdly, it can be proved that some former Soviet cancellations were modified to take Romanian inscriptions.
Three such instances can easily be recognized from the plates supplied by Messrs Grecu & Ovidiu-Orlat: 24.8
- ODESA EXPEDIERE; 24.12 ODESA SOSIRE & 24.22 ODESA TELEGRAME. Please see the next
page for two examples of these modified Soviet types from the collection of the editor: 24.8 ODESA
EXPEDIERE and 36.2 TIRASPOL EXPED. Other modified Soviet cancellers must surely exist and details
would be appreciated from CSRP readers. They stand out with their smaller size and a distinctively enclosed
date bridge.
*
OBITUARY: DR GORDON M. TORREY
The respected President of The Rossica Society of Russian Philately since 1974, Gordon passed away at the
age of 75 on 28 March 1995. A noted expert on Russia Used Abroads, he exhibited internationally with
distinction. He also shared with your editor a common interest in Ottoman postal history; he would help with
the Arabic inscriptions and your editor would reciprocate with Osmanli translations. His presence will be sadly
missed and our sincere condolences go out to his wife Ann, as well as to the Society he ran so ably.
58 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIUHK No. 36
June, 1995







EXAMPLES OF SOVIET CANCELLERS MODIFIED IN TRANSNISTRIA.
l- i i ^ ^ '


Type 24.8: A cover from ODESA EXPEDIERE 22.7.43 with violet
CENZURAT ODESA / No.9 cachet and 24 lei postage, going to Sibiu in Romania.


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^^-.---T,__ ..___^





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Type 36.2: A cover from TIRASPOL EXPED. 9.8.43, also to Sibiu, but this
time with 60 lei postage, as it was registered (plic recomandat).


THE POST-RIDER/HMIIBHK No. 36
June, 1995


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FINAL OVALS
by Rabbi L.L. Tann

Every train has to reach its final destination and stop. Likewise, this series which has adorned the pages of our
journal. It is my pleasure to present a final selection of ovals: stations, travelling mail-vans, registered covers
and, brilliantly, two very fine covers registered on railway mail-vans. Perhaps if a few really stunning items turn
up later, our editor will find a page or two to highlight them.

Railway station ovals.
Fig. 1: ISAGORKA / VOKZAL. This item has figured here before and in my notes with Alexander Epstein in
BJRP No. 75, p. 27 on the Vologda-Arkhangel'sk Railway. Isagorka was the penultimate stop, envisaged as a
junction station for planned branch lines and therefore a central postal depot for the area. It remains a scarce
station postmark. The card shows a summer house built by Peter the Great at/near Vologda. The postmark is
dated 8.9.17 and is franked with a 5-kop. Arms, paying the postcard rate of the Kerenskii Provisional
Government period. The postmark shows some distortion of lines at the top left and bottom left of the inner
oval on the three examples known. Fig. 2 shows the oval of the ODESSA / VOKZ. serial "a" in 1909. Another
strike is recorded with a different serial in 1906. In my notes on the Odessa North Station (BJRP No. 77, p.
23), I said that the Odessa Vokzal serial "a" had not yet been recorded. It is now! Fig. 3 shows the oval of
POLOTSK R(IGA) ORL(OV)/VOKZAL 2, of 17.1.19. This is obviously Tsarist style, but it was probably
introduced in the 1917 period.

Now, two nice station "postage due" markings. Fig. 4 seems to be an incoming postcard from Germany
(witness the part marking at left). There is a standard-type VYATKA / VOKZAL "a" of 14.9.21 and
underneath that an oval DOPLATIT' / VYATSK. ZD.D.P.O. filled in for 200 roubles! Fig. 5 is a 1910 postcard
from RIGA / VOKZAL "b" with an oval DOPLATIT' / RIGA ZH.D.P.O. filled in for 8 k. alongside. Should it
not have been 6 kop., i.e. double the internal 3-kop. postcard rate?

I do comprehend the difference between an oval and a circle, but as the next example in Fig. 6 was mentioned
in the last BJRP editorial and it is a scarce item, let me show it here: the St. Petersburg Nicholas Station
machine postmark on a postcard to Sevastopol'. It seems that the machine applying this postmark was either
faulty, or the staff found it to be more trouble than it was worth. From observation of usage, it would appear to
have lasted from 25.11.1912 to 25.1.1913. It would be extremely scarce on the Romanov issue that had just
come into circulation when the machine was taken out of duty. Can anyone show this postmark on a Romanov?

Registration at Station POs.
Fig. 7 shows the front and back of a cover to St. Petersburg, registered at the Minsk post office at the Minsk-
Libava-Romny station. The stamps have been stuck on the reverse to seal the envelope so as to prevent secret
and unauthorised official examination and censorship. It must have been a heavy letter as, in February 1909, 7
kopeks paid for the first step in the postal rates (1 lot = 12.794 grammes = 1/2 oz. approx.) and 7 kopeks was
also the registration fee, so the remaining 7-k. stamps paid for another 6 lots of weight. Fig. 8 shows another
heavily franked registered cover from KHERSON / VOKZ. The registration label was slightly torn, but the
letters ZH.D. were originally there. One rouble in postage was paid for this 1915 letter to Petrograd, again with
the assorted postage sealing the back. As of 21 September 1914, the internal postal rates were raised to 10
kopeks per lot, plus 10 kopeks for the registration fee. Figs. 9 & 10 show registered covers from
TSARITSYN/VOKZ. and KRASNOVODSK/VOKZAL. both in 1916.

Travelling Mail Vans (TPOs/RPOs).
Fig. 11 shows a nice item: a postcard addressed to the Active Army. The picture side shows a reindeer
encampment around Arkhangel'sk. The despatch postmark on the front is the oval of ARKHANGEL'SK-194-
VOLOGDA "a" 29.10.15. The view side shows a "socked-on-the-nose" receiving military postmark, reading
60 THE POST-RIDER/3IMIHtlK No. 36
June, 1995












Fig.. .
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THE POST-RIDER/IIMIImHK No. 36
June, 1995


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POLEVAYA POCHTOVAYA KONTORA No. 50 "g" 7.11.15. While on this very northerly railway, Fig. 12
shows a much later Soviet postmark on a small letter addressed to Leningrad with a Workers type 15-kop.
stamp and the oval reading VOLOGDA*322*ARKHANGEL'SK "d". I am grateful to my friend Philip
Robinson for the reproduction of the postmark. This is very interesting as, in 1922, it was announced that the
through route from Moscow to Arkhangel'sk would operate with assigned route numbers 33-34 (see BJRP No.
75, p. 32). The whole route was obviously divided again at some later time and a new route number assigned to
this northern section.

In the Kherson Guberniya, there was a short railway line between Apostolovo and Nikolo-Kozel'sk. The
unnumbered postmark from the local railway mail-van has been known and recorded: see Figs. 13 a & b. The
Kiryushkin-Robinson railway book records these at the bottom of p. 144. The examples illustrated here show
both the "a" & "b" ovals. Recently arrived, item "c" gives the reverse route: NIK. KOZEL'SK-APOSTOLOVO
in March 1915 and it is now recorded in the railway book addendum. It is interesting to note that the local line
should have had two mail-vans, or maybe one with two postmarkers, showing the there and back journeys.

Route No. 192 had two or three changes of termini. In the ovals period, it was ST. PETERSBURG-
ZHLOBIN, during WWI: PETROGRAD-ZHLOBIN and, in 1917, it was altered to PETROGRAD-KIEV. Fig.
14 shows a fine postcard of the 1919 internal post-free period, with the oval KIEV-192-PETROGRAD "e"
dated 5.12.19. It is interesting to see that the Petrograd machine arrival postmark is in the new spelling: no hard
sign at the end of the name.

Now for some nice postage due markings from travelling mail-vans. Fig. 15 shows a 1921 postcard to
Petrograd with a part strike of the oval NOVOSOKOL'NIKI-210-MOSKVA with unreadable serial and, by its
side, an oval DOPLATIT'/210/POCHT. VAGON/210, which is filled in for what appears to be 260 roubles (it
could be that the middle zero has a curly top to join it up to the next figure). Fig. 16 shows a 1918 postcard to
Petrograd (the writer has adopted the new style spelling) with a very fine and rare DOPLATIT/220/POCHT.
VAGON/220 filled in for 40 kopeks. The railway route 219-220 was the Kotlas-Vyatka line (later joined up to
the Vologda-Arkhangel'sk railway). Ovals, and indeed any railway postmarks from this line, are very scarce.
Fig. 17 shows the oval TPO/RPO KISLOVODSK-140-MINERAL'NIYA VODY "a" to St. Petersburg. The
postage due oval reads DOPLATIT'/139/POCHT. VAGON/140 and is filled in for double the deficiency, i.e. 6
kopeks. There are some postage due handstamps that have the numbers of both the outward and return routes,
as does this one, being also known for routes 11-12 & 39-40. But it must be said that an oval for route 139 is
recorded now only from 1929. We can assume that it existed in the earlier Tsarist period, but it ranks as scarce!

My final TPO/RPO postage due marking is the one given in Fig. 18. Strangely, there is no recorded oval for
route 243. It would seem that the earlier circular type (Pochtovyi Vagon with cross date) lasted quite late here;
the postcard is from 1915. Later postmarks, which ought to have been ovals, read CHITA-243-
BOCHKAREVO & BOCHKAREVO-244-CHITA were in circular style. However, this postcard has part of
the older circular No. 243 marking and a postage-due handstamp rather smudged or worn:
DOPLATIT'/POCHT. VAGON and 243 at each side. This is filled in by hand for 6 kopeks, i.e. double the
missing postcard rate.

TPOs/RPOs in the 300 range.
In this final ovals article, I present two in the 300 range. Fig. 19 is a postcard to Petrograd with a 3-kop.
imperf. of the Provisional Government issues. The incomplete ovals read: BERDYAUSH.342.KALINO and the
serial letter might be "g". The date seems to be 6.7.17.

Editorial Comment: With this important find, our author has highlighted a correction in the Soviet TPO/RPO
listing given in "The Post-Rider" No. 24, p. 46 for routes 341-342, which should read Berdyaush (not
Berdyansk!)-Druzhinino-Kuzino-Kalino-Chusovskaya. Go to the top of the class, Leonard!
62 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995








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THE POST-RIDER/IMEItHK No. 36
June, 1995


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The next item, as shown in Fig. 20, is brilliant and this oval has probably never been seen before! The postcard
is to Vladikavkaz and the oval reads PRIMORSKO-AKHTARSKAYA-338-EKATERINODAR "b" 19.11.16.
The message is headed "Station Ol'ginskaya", which is on the line itself. That this is the "b" canceller means that
there must also have been an "a" type, as yet unrecorded and awaiting discovery. Thanks once again to Philip
Robinson for the reproduction of the postmark.

Registered items on Mail-Vans.
These are very scarce and it gives me great pleasure to be able to round off this final article in the series with
two fine items and to report a third. Fig. 21 is a magnificent piece that was once in the collection of Mr. Hans
Dietrich. It was registered on the postal van of the train route Arkhangel'sk-Vologda: POCHTOVYI VAGON
No. 194 with serial "1", 22 XI 19-02 and it bears the handwritten notation "PV 194 / N. 1", i.e. postal van
route No. 194, the first registered article for that day. The cover is franked on the back with 7 x 7-kop. and a
single 1-kop. Arms stamps, with further cancellations of the TPO/RPO; another heavy letter. Fig. 22 was sold
privately in Finland some months ago and its present whereabouts are unknown; it bears 42 kopeks in Arms
franking, with fine ovals ofRIGA*40*S.PETERBURG "b" 24.4.14. There is at the left the boxed manuscript
notation "N2 / P vag 40". That was therefore the second item registered that day on route No. 40. Although the
rectangular mail-van registration handstamps were being issued in 1914, perhaps route No. 40 had not yet
received its copy.

I have notes, but sadly no illustration to show, of a 1917 cover registered at a TPO/RPO. This bore two copies
of the Arms 10 kop./7 kop. blue, with ovals of RADZIVILOV-56-ZDOLBUNOVO 30.5.17 to London. There
was a mauve rectangular registration cachet, but that was mostly covered over by the addition of a London
Foreign Section P.O. registration label, also very scarce.

In final conclusion, let me thank both our editor and Yamshchik readers for allowing me to present this
fascinating Ovals saga over the past few issues. I hope that I have not only given pleasure in showing such
lovely items, but also that we have all learned from useful instruction. Half the fun is looking and searching. The
other half is knowing what we see. If any more really stunning items come along, perhaps the editor will allow a
page or two to show them. My thanks to all who have allowed me to feature items from their collections and to
Philip Robinson for his postmark reproductions and permission to quote from the Railway book by Anatoly
Kiryushkin and him.
*

Announcing herewith the publication in summer 1995 The book Is written In English. On close to 400 pages the following
of the last book by topics between the 17th century and 1918 ore covered In derail,
while the territory of Latvia was under Swedish, Polish ond Russian
N. JAKIMOVS and V. MARCILGER rule : G-rerni postal history; postal routes, stations and postmarks of
E lige .st [l ,istvrT the pre-adheslve period with mops; oil post offices and postmorks
IIe it i aiotLarr after 1858 with mops; the rollway routes, post offices and postmarks;
0 the Postal District of Wenden; machine postmarks; censorship; mule
flit lsin R t cancellations; the post of the Latvian army units; the German Feld-
post; Ob-Ost; picture postcards and other topics.
lt
lre- uhcpenlihent t iatfriia
The number of books printed will be very limited, as they will be
-, / r sold at cost, and no second edition Is planned after the first one
has been sold.
The price of the book has been fixed at US $ 50.-. which includes
\surface mail postage and insurance.
ORDER YOUR BOOK NOW
from

Edited and published by J. Michelson, Mr. J. Michelson, P 0 Box 9314, Johannesbur, 2000,
Johannesburg, RSA Republic of Soulh Africa



THE POST-RIDER/HMII4HK No. 36 65
June, 1995






RUSSIAN MAIL FROM ROUMANIA (1916-1918): ADDENDA & CORRIGENDA
by Alexander Epstein.

These Addenda have been stimulated by the Editorial Comment to my article in "The Post-Rider" No. 34, pp.
55-66 and a recent acquisition of considerable interest, as well as by some recently found information. Fig. 1 on
the next page shows both sides of a picture postcard, with a view of Constanta, a Roumanian town and Black
Sea port. The message was written on 13 September 1916 and two different postmarks, those of Field Post
Office No. 56 and of Field Telegraph Sub-Office No. 56 (in violet) were applied to the card on the same day.
The presence of the latter is a very unusual case, as Russian Field Telegraph Offices did not handle mail during
WWI and such postmarks can be found legally applied only on telegrams or their receipts. In the present case,
the postcard was evidently written and sent by a field telegraph official of Polish origin: a violet handstamp with
abbreviations in Russian "56-ro F.T.O.", i.e. "of the 56th. Field Telegraph Sub-Office", points to that fact as
well. Thus, he might have applied the FTO postmark himself and then turned the card over to the FPO that
usually operated on the same premises.

In September 1916, the Russian 47th. Army Corps was fighting together with Roumanian troops in the
Dobrudzha (Dobrogea) against the Bulgarians. Thus, this postcard shows that FPO No. 56 (and the FTO of the
same number) served this Corps then in the same way as it did from December 1916, being attached in the
meantime to the HQ of the short-lived Danubian Army. Consequently, the opening date for this FPO can
actually be moved back as far as the beginning of September 1916. It also seems almost evident that FPO No.
56 was located during September at Constanta, where the message had been written, being a natural place in
the Dobrudzha for the Corps HQ to be situated.

The cover shown in the Editorial Comment to my original article also gives rise to some ideas. It is important,
not only because it is a confirmation of the fact that local inhabitants could send their mail via the Russian field
post system. The postmark is really that of the Line-of-Communications FPO No. 239. In 1916-1917, such
FPOs were attached as a rule to cavalry divisions on the South-Western and Roumanian Fronts. When this
letter was mailed in May 1917, the 5th. Cavalry Corps was quartered in Southern Bukovina and consisted of
the 11th. Cavalry Division, the 6th. Don Cossack Division and the Orenburg Cossack Division. The 11th.
Cavalry Division was served by the FPO No. 155 attached to the Corps HQ, as was also the case for the so-
called "nuclear" units in most other Russian cavalry corps. The other cavalry divisions usually had their own
FPOs, either as parts of a corps or as detached formations. Since the 6th. Don Cossack Division is known to
have been served by FPO No. 232, it may be assumed with a high degree of probability that the Orenburg
Cossack Division used the services of FPO No. 239 and not of No. 238, as had been assumed in my original
paper. As for FPO No. 238, it was most probably assigned to the 7th. Cavalry Division which, in turn, replaced
the 6th. Cavalry Corps in Southern Bukovina and Northern Moldavia in November 1917.

Costana, the locality where this letter had been mailed, could not be found on the available maps. However,
FPO No. 239 could hardly have been located in such a small hamlet and it seems most probable that the
Division Staff and FPO were actually situated in the district centre of Suczawa (Suceava). While the letter was
routed via Odessa, the Odessa Military District censor mark No. 339 seems to be the same as that on the
postcard described in the original article under Fig. 14, i.e. applied at BTrlad.

In general, there is very little information as to the Line-of-Communications FPOs operating on the Roumanian
Front and their assignments. For instance, a list from archival sources of Russian FPOs functioning on the
Roumanian Front as of January 1918 does not include the FPOs of this kind. In such cases, the necessary
conclusions were drawn by combining and comparing the available postal material with the available archival
and literary data about the military activities in particular areas, the movements of military formations, their
composition etc. etc. Of course, such a method can lead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, the information
obtained in such a way is marked in the corresponding summarised table with question marks.
66 THE POST-RIDER/HMIIIK No. 36
June, 1995




















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June, 1995


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For instance, there are strong reasons to believe that FPOs Nos. 212 & 217 were attached to the 1st. Terek
Cossack Division and the Ist. Don Cossack Division respectively, both forming part of the 3rd. Cavalry Corps.
However, these assignments might well have been in the reverse order. There are also reasons to connect FPO
No. 240 with the Caucasian Native Cavalry Division, which was brought into Roumania in December 1916 as
part of the 4th. Army and FPO No. 216 with the 3rd. Cavalry Division, which was fighting in the Dobrudzha as
of September 1916 and somewhat later became part of the 6th. Cavalry Corps. The HQ and FPO for that latter
Corps had been transferred to Roumania from the Northern Front in October 1916.

One more sending franked with Russian stamps and mailed at a Roumanian State post office has become
known to me. The cover described in the catalogue for the Cherrystone Auction for 17-18 October 1990 was
franked with four 5-kopek Arms stamps (the 20-kopek rate for ordinary letters going abroad), cancelled at the
Roumanian post office at Bacau on 2.1.1918 and routed via the Russian FPO No. 114 as a transit postmark
dated 8.1.18 to Rezno (or Pezno). In this connection, a question arises about the true assignment of FPO No.
114. Based on some indirect considerations, an assumption was adopted in the original article about the
assignment of this FPO to the 3rd. Turkestan Rifle Corps. However, it seems very doubtful, if not completely
wrong, in the light of the information now available, at least concerning the period under consideration.

It seems rather strange that there is no FPO in the listing of the Russian FPOs in Roumania that served the
Roumanian Front HQ situated in Jassy (Iasi). The sending described in the original article under Figs. 12 to 14
were accepted by the Roumanian State Post and routed via the Roumanian State post office in Jassy, where
they were probably handed over to the Russian postal system. Consequently, there is good reason to believe
that the letter from Bacau mentioned above followed a similar route and that FPO No. 114 was actually located
in Jassy. There is some indirect evidence pointing to a possible assignment of FPO No. 114 to the Roumanian
Front HQ. The first is a postcard to the Aviation Department of the Roumanian Front shown in the article by A.
Leppa in BJRP No. 64: the card has a receiving postmark of FPO No. 114. Another piece of evidence is a
postcard from FPO No. 51 with the same arrival postmark and addressed to the 8th. Railway Battalionm such
units were usually directly subordinate to the Front HQs. This card is shown herewith on p. 67.
All this evidence allows us to reconsider the situation regarding FPO No. 114 in the period under consideration
and to come to the conclusion that only FPO No. 114 most probably served the Roumanian Front HQ. The
postmarks of this FPO in the period under consideration (only with the serial letter "a") have been found from
June 1917 to January 1918. However, there is no information available as to the status of this FPO, i.e. whether
it remained as a Reserve FPO or had been reorganised into a HQ FPO. Therefore, until exact information
becomes available, FPO No. 114 remains in the listing among the Reserve FPOs.

Finally, it should be pointed out that, in the above-mentioned archival list of FPOs having operated on the
Roumanian Front, there are still some FPOs, whose assignments have not yet been ascertained. Among them is
FPO No. 59 which, as is evident from another document, was a part of the 9th. Army and consequently should
have been operating in Roumania. Strangely enough, however, no specific postmark of this FPO has been found
up to now, so far as I know. This FPO had initially been formed as a Corps FPO, although its status could have
been altered later.
Proceeding from the foregoing and some other information, the following addenda and corrigenda can be made
in the list of Russian FPOs operating on the territory of Roumania in 1916-1918:-

Western Ukraine: A Catalog-Checklist is a register or checklist of all
major varieties (many for the first time). Occupational issues which are
not properly Western Ukraine emissions are listed separately.
Orders within the United States, Mexico, and Canada are $5.00 (U.S.)
postpaid, all other destinations are $6.00 (U.S.) postpaid, payable to
"Peter Bylen/Ukrainian Philatelic Resources" in U.S. funds, Box 7193
Westchester, IL 60154-7193, U.S.A.
68 THE POST-RIDER/IlMDIIHK No. 36
June, 1995






FPO
No. Entity attached to Period Location
HQ FPO & CONTROLLING FPO:
56 Danubian Army Oct.-Dec. 1916 Braila
CORPS FPO:
56 47th. Army Corps Sept. 1916 Constanja
Dec. 1916
59 ? ?
104 6th. Cavalry Corps Oct.-Dec. 1916
July-Nov. 1917
RESERVE FPO:
114 Roumanian Front (?) June 1917 to Jassy
end of war.
LINE-OF-COMMUNICATIONS FPO:
209 3rd Don Cossack Division Dec. 1916
July-Nov. 1917
212 1st. Terek Cossack Divn (?) Aug.-Dec. 1916
216 3rd. Cavalry Division (?) Sept.-Dec. 1916
July-Nov. 1917
238 7th. Cavalry Division (?) Nov. 1917 to
end of war.
239 Orenburg Cossack Division (?) Jan. May 1917
240 Cauc. Native Cav. Division (?) Dec. 1916 to ?
Also, the following towns in Roumania should be added where Russian FPOs were operating:
Constanja (56) and probably Jassy (114) & Suczawa (A, 150, 239).


A REGISTRATION RECEIVING MARK
by Dr. Peter A. Michalove

We are used to seeing registration cachets, labels or other markings applied on covers at the point of despatch.
These markings tell the postal service to handle the letter as a registered item throughout all the steps of its
route. But the cover shown here on the next page is an unusual case in that it bears a registration mark applied
at the end of its journey, for purposes that we can only guess at.

The cover was mailed from Moscow to Tbilisi on 29 August 1931. The Moscow post office must have been
out of registration labels at the time, as there are only manuscript indications that the letter was registered: a
handwritten "3aKa3Hoe" near the top and a notation "No. 187" at the left. There are no registration indications
on the reverse. The domestic registered letter rate was 30 kopeks at that time and there is a ten-kopek printed
indicium on the postal stationery. As we will see, the letter was apparently franked correctly, so the stamp that
has been removed at the right must have provided the remaining 20 kopeks.

The letter was addressed to General Delivery, i.e. JIo BOcTpe6oBaHa" or Poste Restante in Tbilisi and the
oval postage due marking with the manuscript notation "5" represent the general delivery charge, which Robert
Taylor discussed in "The Post-Rider" No. 33 (1993: 8-40). If the letter had been underfranked, the postage due
would have been greater than five kopeks, so it appears that the postage due indications refer only to the
general delivery charge and not to any deficiency in the franking. The postage due marking is in Russian and
Georgian, which indicates that it was applied upon receipt in Tbilisi. That is logical, since the general delivery
charge was to be paid by the recipient. Also in Georgia, the letter received the large two-word Georgian cachet

THE POST-RIDER/IIISMIK No. 36
June, 1995 69






,-


3AKPblTOE rliCb bMO
S'. I Ir l RW r .1 FERMITA LETERO 6
R r ",' j1-,,-,-




a,;-; t- f
-- ../;t,,/4 ,ni 9,l. o-4 br... ... .:

41-.r-r?""LrP A-w<3 r .^ B< I -I








..... u f -i-j

.. -=-













M len tion period f rom gAbis- Tuman to D e ishan b oth theg
x. .









"A


Je 1
..R .
A^ n, =e .'1,' {'.*y,'. J... '"""" ;i rt;



















.0 . . m- N o.3
'"1' ~ '.'''. .,'- ,.4 .7c ~ -











A rgiterd ovr i te Conn ollctonsen i te Goria
Mesei peio from~ AbsTma oDlihn bt h
sender; an reipen ben rmnas
70 ~ -- THE POT-IR/I IIK No 3
!:..June 1i995-






across the front, which reads "Processed in registration" or simply "Registered". Thanks to Greg Strowig for
translating the cachet. This is the only example of the marking that I have seen.

It is also the only case I can remember seeing of a registration marking applied on receipt, when the need for
such a marking would appear to be over. Why was the marking used, other than to provide collectors with an
unusual usage of an exotic cachet? I can offer two guesses. One suggestion is that the Georgian-language
marking was intended to assure recipients who might not read Russian that their mail had been handled as
registered. The other possibility is that, since the letter arrived with no registration label from the point of
despatch, the purpose was to assure the recipient that the letter had been treated as registered. That may have
been a fairly frequent occurrence if the Tbilisi post office felt the need to prepare a handstamp in advance for
the purpose.

While either of these suggestions is possible, neither sounds particularly convincing to me. Can any readers
suggest other explanations?

Editorial Comment: The subject is thrown open to our readers and it would seem worthwhile to say that Dr.
Michalove has actually opened up a new field for us, namely that of instructional markings, which are begging
to be classified. Just to muddy the waters even further, your editor is showing in the lower half of the previous
page the front side of a Georgian registered cover from the Menshevik period. The two Georgian words
apparently designating registration are different from those given on the cover held by Dr. Michalove. Perhaps
he can get Mr. Strowig to translate this second marking, not to mention what appears to be a censorship cachet
in Georgian at the bottom left of the cover. The rate of 8 roubles was paid on the back with a strip of 4 x 2r.
Queen Tamara imperforate stamps, cancelled ABAS-TUMAN TIFLISK. b 18.7.20. This example is also an
item of Armenian interest, as it is addressed as follows: "Delizhan, Staff of the 3rd. Brigade, to Atom
Sergeevich Ter-Gabrielian, for V. Melik-Zakharian". The sender appears to have been I. Atomian (?), Cottage
of Muradov in Abas-Tuman and the letter was received in Delizhan on 27 July. The word "Ter" in the address
is an Armenian title meaning "son of a priest"; it often occurs in Armenian surnames. Finally, please stand back
and let Peter Ashford have some air!


SELECTED ITEMS OF ARMENIAN POSTAL HISTORY
by Professor Henri Siranyan

This article is the first in a series featuring Armenian postal history and the material has been taken from the
extensive collection formed by Professor Siranyan of France. Your editor had the privilege to view his exhibit at
"POLSKA '93" and, since then, Professor Siranyan has kindly gone to the trouble of xeroxing important pages
from his wonderful collection. The items featured on the following pages are just a fraction of what he can
show from the Russian Imperial period and should prove of great interest not only to Imperial postal historians,
but also to Transcaucasian enthusiasts in general.

It would seem that there were very few, if any, postal markings applied in the pre-philatelic period until around
the 1850s. The earliest examples in the collection date from 1810 and are from ecclesiastical mail, sealed with
appropriate wax cachets to denote that they were official correspondence and hence presumably post-free. Of
course, such items are also of great historic value. It should be borne in mind that, during the Imperial period,
the volume of mail was small due to the low rate of literacy. Hence, even cards and covers from the main town
of Erivan' (now Yerevan) are desirable pieces and are hard to find. Even more valuable are items from the
districts of Ardakhan and Kars, which are regarded as parts of historic Armenia and which have reverted to
Turkish rule since the end ofWWI. Collectors in this field are also referred to the comprehensive and detailed
works on Transcaucasian postal history written and published by our member Peter Ashford of England and
available from him at moderate cost.
THE POST-RIDER/I1MIIHK No. 36 71
June, 1995








Le
u
3


U
S


"U


'U


>. .* -.. .. .. ,- ....



V 1 "* -','"^ ....j : "' *




t zrtV







1 b A. I V ,' .: 1.: I 'g -:
.... :I..




-...... .. . .. .. ... '"".. ... ." ..... .' ...
.. -u ,. ll.







1'W-" Iu"",,* 4.*.ys '*.V.I.,'...u.' 1" '' '
.: .. ,. ,,







I Oan, Stepan, Nikoghos, Satak and Hakob to the Arch
. '. -.. ...


,::.., iso K rlxSprtulFahr fth it f ain


,* ,-- -.. -. .*. / 7- .- .... .. ., .'.. 'r .



-,, .. '



Vp.. '', L-
'" :.:, ", -.. .. -4,.--'M4 'C ,* "" '- *...... .
A4' 4 %v".... ........ ;.. .
.. .. .4 4 .t..r i .
.. ... / .L._,'.-.-*.;
,":":''^-UL *, ,... .* .. 7- *






4 '~ % 4.
4 ,- ;-'' ,





Entire letter from the Cilliolicos ite of Eclhnyidina 10 Sept. 1858
to Moscow.


..rtr-,
lrih8.o S .:


44 .~~
VDJ 3S13,LMuII I~ist .
,jA""
''' ':: I : / 5<


I




-
:.._
,


r.
-





























A card from Moscow 10.4.13 to Aleksandropol' 16.4.13.


..




A cover from Ashlarak "a" 20.6.16 to the Rector of
the Religious Academy in Echmyadzin 21.6.16.


~v~:
-


~:. t
cC
r-
-.I


,c~-

--r
.e
''';
4.-
"
r-;a-cr,---r----~-cTC1;;
J-re ~ \s;j
~*
iO





~-r. ,
:.---LII


-* -1


* ~~L~JA CL! (jth


C>


S At left: A reg'd cover sent through
' the Austrian P.O. in Constantinople
to Archimandrite Garcgin Ovse-
pyants in Echmyadzin "a" 1.2.08.
!


SAbove: A cover from Elisavetpol'
S ,15.11.09 to the same Archimandrite
Sin Vagarshapat/Echmyadzin 20.11.09.


:.*> '*.. '


I


~;~i=/~%~rSo-~ccr-crr3


' 2


-- 1.






j :: j L
LLLUL'~:.
./';: .9..


-9


A lo'cly cover from Kars RI\h Stn.P.O. 8.5.06
to Archimandrite Garegin Ovsepyants in
Echminadzin/Vagarshapat 12.5.06.






.. ". .-" :
... .. ... : '. --'. --.' .' .". -.. / W'. ,

5r. <3__: b. ....
1 ...






,' .'.f,. i








.: ..- LZ -.-':


;. "." -'".._ ,, ''.vi..=,. -.- **, *"*


O0ITOBA5 KAP
toit









.4
A card from Kars "g" 10.7.10 to Batum 12.7.10.


fnO4TOBA5I KAPT: ,{
-. ~.-n .7_ .



A' cr f.r S' "a"7 2.7-.1 to aA-. n iB






A card from Shusha-1 "a" 2.7.12 to an Armenian in Baiu 41.7.12.


A reg'd letter from Erivan' "d" 20.10.16 to Archimandrite
Garegin in Echmyadzin "v" 21.10.16. THE POST-RIDER/IMIIUIK No. 36
74' June, 1995


(to be continued)






PHILATELIC SHORTS
Is there a question or point that you would like
to put across to the readers? Is there an
interesting stamp cancellation or cover that
you would like to describe? Is there an item in "
your collection that could use some clarifying j
information or might there be some gems of
wisdom that you could impart on some newly
acquired item?

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom in o o *
the confines of a couple of paragraphs with oo *
the rest of our readers!

Viktor Mohil'nyj, Kiev, Ukraine.
The Distribution of the L.P. Beria letter of 5.3.1940.
Re the letter from that monster about the mass murder of Polish officers, reproduced in No. 34 of "The Post-
Rider", pp.11 & 14, it would appear that the name deciphered as V. Mayorov, being a member of the Central
Committee of the CPSU, is incorrect. I have never heard of such a person. It is much more likely that the
handwritten notation refers to V. (Vyacheslav) Molotov.
Editorial Comment: Viktor Mykolovych is absolutely correct and, on careful re-reading, it can be seen that
the name is actually a badly written V. Molotov. It has also become possible to decipher the surname of the
second member in the infamous trio that sentenced the unfortunate officers to death. It was not Kobuzov, but
Kabulov, who was the deputy of L.P. Beria in the NKVD. Kabulov had a younger brother, who was sent down
to Kiev, as head of the Ukrainian NKVD. The late N.S. Khrushchev refers to both men in his book
"Khrushchev remembers", published by Little, Brown & Co., Boston 1970, p.98.

Professor A.S. Ilyushin, Moscow, Russia.
(a) The Agricultural School in Kazan'.
I recently came
a c. t w. across a card with a
S_ u(Q U I / ri 'i"\ postmark hitherto
on ao unknown to me and
.U Mkoc 'u .. a. >^O. ", -. readingCEJIbCKO-
Sa .. X03.Y'HHJlHI IE
X. ,"cP! K '. KA3. a 4.10.12
S. L .H ,, La, ---- (Agricultural School
b 1 T 3 in Kazan'). Does
SIV T,>. '1W. ,- iX anyone out there
XU dvq- have further
tIl n K ,. YI ,y Go information or other
StoA .,mtVi, Mu ,. ( 6,- -" n strikes from this
.. ?. -, .O 4, "t *-postal agency?


(b) City Post markings.
We are all familiar with the City Post marks for Moscow, St. Petersburg and Warsaw, while A.M. Il'shtein
recently published in " illustration on the next page). In checking my postal stationery collection, I can now advise the existence of a
similar postmark from Vil'na (or Wilno, now Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania) in the period from 1 March 1878
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 36 75
June, 1995






















o A card and two stamped envelopes from the Professor A.S. Ilyushin

on the front or as a backstamp. All three items were from the same
correspondence and sent from Rezhitsa (now Rezekne in Latvia).


At left: Professor A,S. Ilyushin with George Blizil, then APS Dircctor
fbr International Relations at an APS Annual Convention in Chicago

Soft Phlilatelists of Russia and an internationally accredited judge.


I-- -


" t7 ,- t_. r'
O 3d






through to 18 July 1880 and 24 Oct. 1882, all from Rezhitsa, now Rezekne in Latvia (please see the illustrations
on the page opposite). Can anyone extend these dates and advise of city posts in other hitherto unlisted cities?

A. Cronin, Toronto, Canada.
(a) An American engineer in Urea, Mongolia.


"I am happy to give you what information we have on Charles W. Bamaby. He wrote The Smithsonian on 13
July 1900, sending along two earthenware votive figures he had found near his residence in Urga, Mongolia
earlier that year. He noted that the letter was being sent via Moscow and Irkutsk. The objects were entered in the
museum collections on 22 August 1900, which strikes me as awfully good travelling time, given the
circumstances of 1900.

Be that as it may, the only personal information on Mr. Baraby consists of his statement that he was a member
of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and that he expected to be in Mongolia for several more
years. What work he was doing there, or by whom he was employed, he did not say.

The Head Curator of Anthropology in the U.S. National Museum identified the figurines as of Tibetan origin,
representing the gods Jaimbyand and Drohna, citing their similarity to pieces found in Tibet by W.W. Rockhill
and in Ladakh by one Abbott".
In short, there must still be other pieces of the Barnaby Correspondence from Mongolia floating out there!
THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 36 77
June, 1995


SMITH-SONIAN INSTITUTION,

Washington, D. C. ........


The... package ...advised in yours of7-/ / .......

as sen ... ..... ." b een


S. P. LANGLEY,
Secretary Smithsonian Institution.


This U.S. 2c. postal card is
significant both for the information
on the back with the imprint of the
Smithsonian Institution and the
unusual address on the front: Mr.
Chas. W. Barnaby, Urga,
Mongolia, via Moscow and
Irkutsk, Russia (!). Mailed in
Washington 23 Aug. 1900 n.s.
5:30pm, it received in transit two
handwritten notations on the front
in Russian: "Ypry", i.e. to Urga
and "4HpKyTcKI" (Irkutsk). On
its way across Russia, it was
handled by TPO/RPO 173 (?),
Crew No. 3 on 30.8.1900 o.s.,
Irkutsk 10?.9.1900 o.s. and, on
the back, Troitskosavsk on the
Mongolian border 13.9.1900 o.s.
The message on the back from
The Smithsonian is self-explanatory
and, on writing to that Institution,
your editor received the following
courteous reply from the Assistant
Archivist James A.Steed, dated
21 April 1995:-






(b) A bogus Soviet imperforate variety.
Seemingly imperforate pairs of Soviet stamps keep turning up in auctions and
SO'A Ccp intending bidders should be wary. The pair shown here is a good example, as it
I has never been mentioned in the literature. Such items must be suspected as
I ~ having originally been pairs imperforate-between, with the perforations cut off
to simulate a completely imperforate variety. Sad to say, such mindless
--WB rf" philatelic vandalism is all too frequent in our fields of collecting.

oi c- Michael Kuhn, Bamberg, Germany.
(a) A watermark in the sheet margin.
I have detected a watermark in the bottom margin of the sheet, adjacent to a
[a g 7 horizontal pair of the 10-kop. value perf. 11 noting the 25th. anniversary of the
death ofL.N. Tolstoi (Michel 537; Scott 578; Gibbons 716A).






SKya --------
themselvs.... 4 ..o ....... wa mak. .. "n .- .. r
S- ... .......... .

t ....... ..... fo.... .....e _
.1 ... .. .. . ... . . .. . . . .. : -.. . . . .. .. .





Seen from the back, it shows a pattern of "Is" (please refer to the illustration above at left). The stamps
themselves do not have any watermark.
Editorial Comment: The same phenomenon, although with a different watermark, also occurs on the sheet
margins of the 10-kop. Dobrolyubov commemorative issued on 13 August 1936. That latter stamp has some
interesting features and we will have an article about its usages in the next issue of "The Post-Rider".

(b) An unusual Doplatit' marking.
The card shown above at right from Makeevka 8.8.41 to Poltava 14.8.41 was underpaid by 10 kopeks for the
intercity rate, such that double the deficiency (20 kopeks) was denoted by the oval marking at top centre.
However, what is the significance of the hexagonal cachet at bottom centre, reading KOHTPOJIb/
JOnIJIATIHTb ?
Editorial Comment: That latter handstamp is a money-order and parcels marking, referring to the control or
checking and additional fees for handling such items, the charges being paid by the recipient. It was erroneously
applied in this particular case.

Ivo J. Steyn, Amsterdam, Holland.
(a) Some more Crimean postmarks.
The postmarks of this area during the Soviet period are always interesting and desirable, as the illustrations on
the next page will show. Here are the details of some of my latest finds:-
78 THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHK No. 36
June, 1995























.1.


A surface letter to Germany with the bilingual Russo-.
| Latin Tartar marking of Islam Terek in 1929 (?)


4 q KATPTOLIKA




Kyda ...* -
y~fl "^.?.^ ..P.^!.S '
y.. ... ............... ....... ...." ..:. :.p

.. ... ...: ... . ....... .. .........-. ........-.. .
......... ..... ...... ............ ....... ............. .........: .... ..... .......... ... .......... .- ...............
S.... .................... 7 t... ... ....:......


Mpec .
omnpaeumeAm
Adresse
de IexpMditrl r ........... .......

A domestic censored postcard from SAKI KRYM 28.8.41 & bilingual
Russo-Latin Tartar arrival marking APMI5HCK B KPbIM 30.8.41
SARMJANSK B QRbM, of interest to Armenian postal historians.


.... .. ..A.. ... ..... ........... ... ............... .- ... ..... .. .. ... .... ..

" .eiz /-7z4 u
S... .... .. .............. ................ .................. ..... ....

.. ..... ....... .. ............... ... ^ o. ............................... .... ....--........
... ... ........................ .. .. ... ............ .



AApec oTnpaaBiesfl Ccj"' ga.. U.S. S.,.
1 mad


A nice registered surface letter to Holland with
correct I r. 30k. rate and bilingual Simferopol'
Vokzal 7.3.37 & Latin Tartar name at bottom:
AQ MESCID (White Mosque).


S. it / =....A....... ..................................................
"~""" ". 'ye' i. paOH, .800CTb, 'CCo MaII t

(YANUa, HM o0A H K$ponpW)
K oM y : ..................................................................................................
Koopo e n
(no polnoe 1anage80o80e nOzYualeas)


Now on to Udmurtia for a card to Germany with
bilingual GLAZOV VOT. OBL.v 1.11.29? v
GLAZ UDM OB. "VOT" stands for Votkinsk.


I


















































(b) Markings from Volga-German Province & ASSR
The top item above has a bilingual Russo-German marking reading MARIENTAL ASSRNP MARIENTAL, with
with indistinct date but from the 1939-1941 period to judge from the 30-kop. franking and sent by A.G. Fink to
F.F. Dampier, Poste Restante (General Delivery) in the Republican capital of Engels.

Editorial Comment: Mariental was the capital of the canton of the same name, the Russian equivalent originally
being Tonkoshurovka. A Russian marking dated 19.5.24 and accompanying registration label are also shown
here for comparison and completion.

80 THE POST-RIDER/IMIIIHK No. 36
June, 1995








REVIEW
OF
LITERATURE



THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 77 for December 1994. A 52-page softbound
magazine in A4 format, issued by The British Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Secretary, N.J.D.
Ames, Freefold Priory, Freefold, Whitchurch, Hants. RG28 7NL, England.

This issue has a timely editorial: Reflections on Railway Marks (very thorough), by I.L.G. Baillie; Odessa MKV
Postmark, by Rabbi Tann; Sochi: the 1918 Surcharge (fine study), by P.T. Ashford & R. Taylor; Thinking about
Ukraine, Nikolaev: the computer stamps & Current Events in the FSU (what complex fields!), all by Ivo Steyn,
to end with Questions and Reviews. Some very difficult subjects have been tackled here.

THE ROSSICA JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 124 for April 1995. An 80-page softbound
magazine in standard U.S. format, issued by The Rossica Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the
Treasurer, Gary A. Combs, 8241 Chalet Ct., Millersville, Maryland 21108, U.S.A.

This number contains obituaries about dear old Gordon Torrey & Dr. H. von Hungen; VOA Correspondence &
Chechnya, both by G. Shaw; Forged 100r. stamp, by Col. A. Prado; Free Frank Mail in the New Republics (a
very smart choice!), by P. Burega; Borovichi Zemstvo Post (excellent study), by G.G. Werbizky; Moscow 1st.
State Town Post Branch Office & Unique Moscow Oval, both by G.A. Combs, also with G.G. Werbizky on
Beer Ordering Cards; Non-Railway Vokzal Postmarks, by P.E. Robinson; WWI Postal Havoc, by D. Skipton,
who also translated Soviet Paper Variety, by N. Petrov; 1916-1917 Surcharge on Arms Stamps, by Rabbi Tann;
15k. Arms with 1922 Star Overprint, by R. Pietruszka; Warning: Siberian Forgeries (very timely!), by Ivo Steyn;
More about OKCA Covers, by A. Epstein; TPO/RPO No. 264, by M. Kessler, to end with Society Notes and
Reviews. A wide range of fields covered here.

IIOITA No. 17 for January 1995. A 54-page softbound journal in A4 format, issued by The Australia & New
Zealand Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Secretary/Treasurer: Terry Archer, 313 Mahurangi East
Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand.

This issue has an editorial, Correspondence Russia-N.Z. & Australia, Russian Revaluation & Ukrainian Postal
Rates, all by Dr. A.R. Marshall; Russian Inland Postal Rates 1917-1922 & Local Admn. Handstamps on Postal
Forms, both by A. Epstein; Lithuanian "Angel" Issues & Current Georgia, both by Rev. J.R. Tollan; Pskov Local
Issues under German Occupation, Another Unusual Letter & Origin of a Fake, all by G.G. Werbizky; Moscow
Town Post XVII, by T. Archer; Late Romanov Usage, by Rabbi Tann; Aviation Labels, by V. Pritula, to end
with New Issues and Literature Notes. This journal is getting better all the time!

ES MUSS NICHT IMMER EIN WERTSTEMPEL SEIN (An Indication of Value is not always needed), by
Leon Nebenzahl. A 96-page softbound book in 16.8 x 24 cm. format, available for DM 28,- from the Harry von
Hofinann Verlag, Postfach 52 05 18, D-22595 HAMBURG, Germany.

This is a very unusual work by a very unusual man, who was born 1910 in Voronezh and moved to Berlin ten
years later. What he has done is to examine postcard issues, blanks and with value indications, from 1872 to
1926 in our fields of collecting. Although the text is in German, the book is very easy to follow as most of it
THE POST-RIDER/IIMIIHlK No. 36 1
June, 1995






consists of clear illustrations of material, some of which is astonishing. It is also of great interest to postal
historians and is accordingly highly recommended.

WORLD SYMPOSIUM FOR COLLECTORS OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY. A collection of papers in A4
format, Cerlox bound and read in English on 12 May 1995 at the "FINLANDIA '95" World Philatelic Show.

These interesting presentations include "Russian Stamps used on Finnish Mail going Abroad 1891-1918"
(regrettably much too short), by K. Hellman; "The Opening of the Russian Post in China" (most informative), by
Dr. R. Casey; "Allied Intervention in Russia 1918-1925" (a fine introduction to the field), by A-F. Kugel and
"The Early Period of Registered Mail in Russia", by H. von Hofmann. That last study is the kind of thorough
treatment we have come to expect from Herr von Hofmann and we must see if we can get it reprinted in our
journal.
A particularly jarring note about "FINLANDIA '95" was that one of the above invited speakers finally received
enough points for his exhibit (the finest of its kind in existence), to put him on the bottom rung for a vermeil
medal. Commentary is superfluous. Finally, many thanks to Timo Bergholm for sending us these papers.

WESTERN UKRAINE: A CATALOGUE CHECKLIST, by Peter Bylen. A softbound booklet of 28 pages
in standard U.S. format, available from the author at P.O. Box 7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154-7193 U.S.A. at
USD 5.00 postpaid for North America and USD 6.00 postpaid elsewhere.

This very useful and specialised catalogue lists and illustrates all Western Ukrainian issues and varieties, including
during the Polish and Roumanian administrations. Further work is progressing on Soviet Ukrainian issues,
Carpatho-Ukraine, Postal History of the Polish-Ukrainian War, UNR issues and contemporary official and semi-
official emissions. The insertion of a point or other pricing system should prove most helpful in using these
upcoming publications.

HOqTOBblE IIITEMIIEJII POCCHACKOI HMHEPHH goMapoqH6ifi nepnog / POSTMARKS
OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE (pre-adhesive period), by Manfred Dobin. A 540-page hardbound book in 17.5
x 25 cm. format issued by Standard Collection Publishers, St. Petersburg 1993 in an edition of 1100 copies and
available from the author at P.O. Box 77, 195426 St. Petersburg-426, Russia.

Aided by several philatelists in the Russian philatelic world, as well as by Dr. R. Casey of England and Ing.
Zbigniew Mikulski of Switzerland, the latter contributing a Foreword, the author has produced a sumptuous
bilingual work, which should prove to be the definitive study for some time to come. The layout and illustrations
are truly excellent. A point system has been added to evaluate the various markings and a lot of supporting
information has been included about the Russian Imperial Postal System. A reviewer elsewhere has reported that
in his copy, the covers had warped and that the print had a tendency to come off the page, but your editor has
not run into those problems yet. Possible improvements for a future edition would encompass the listing of
variations for each marking, mainly in the sequence of dates, differences in fonts and the insertion of year dates in
italics, just to name a few suggestions.

SUOMEN POSTILAHETYSTEN HINNASTO (PRICELIST OF FINNISH LETTERS AND CARDS)
1889-1960, by Martin Holmsten. A 96-page softbound and illustrated catalogue in 17.5 x 25 cm. format in
Finnish, English and Swedish. Available from the author at PL 432, FIN-65101, Vaasa, Finland.

The title speaks for itself and the Russian Imperial period features some very interesting usages. As can be seen
from the pricing, competition in Finland for this type of material is very keen and a copy of this book will help
one to spot bargains in other sources of supply. It should be borne in mind that this catalogue reflects collecting
preferences as they apply in the Finnish philatelic world and the emphasis elsewhere could conceivably be
different. Recommended.
82 THE POST-RIDER/RI MIHK No. 36
June, 1995






HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area) No. 25 for December 1994. A 74-page softbound journal in A4
format issued by the Dutch Philatelic Group of the same name. All enquiries to the Secretary: A.C. de Bruin, Ten
Passeweg 10A, NL 8084 AN't Harde, Holland.

This issue contains Society & Auction Notes; Postal Developments in Contemporary Estonia, by J. van
Heeswijk; Stamps of Latvia: Part 5, by late J. Poulie; Russo-Jap. Field Post Mail sent to Baltics, by A.C. de
Bruin; Soviet Latvian Postal History 1940-1941, Lithuanian Stamp Programme 1994-1995 & Literature Reviews,
all by R. van Wijnen, to end with Plate Flaws on Latvian Coat of Arms Definitives (very detailed) by N.
Jakimovs. All in all, very useful for the Baltic collector.

PYCKA HOJIEBA nHOl[ A B B'bJIrAPHII H HA BAJIKAHHTE 1877-79 (Russian Field Post in
Bulgaria and the Balkans 1877-79), by Eng. Nikolai Gr'ncharov. A 56-page booklet in Bulgarian, published in
17.5 x 25 cm. format by The Union of Bulgarian Philatelists, Sofia, 1994.

Anyone who can read Belorussian, Russian, Serbian or Ukrainian will find this work easy to follow. It gives a
very thorough treatment of the subject, based on an extensive study of the Bulgarian archives. Many delectable
markings are shown with their assignments, as well as negative seals for money sending. A small supply of this
work is available from our Journal Fund, which kindly see below.

PRVNI EMISE VYPLATNICH ZNAMEK SSSR 1923-1928 (The First Issues of Postage Stamps of the
USSR 1923-1928), by|L. Cervinkal, Ing. J. Podhajsky & Ing. A. Vavra. A 156-page softbound book in A5
format, issued by the Traditional Philately Section of the Union of Czech Philatelists, Prague, 1994.

This most useful work presents a historic outline, a thorough study of the Small Heads issues, watermark
varieties, plate inscriptions, specimens, unusual frankings including two genuine money orders from Krasnyi
Enis. in 1925 (i.e. Tuva; forgeries also exist); a full listing of the advertising labels; postal stationery; forgeries;
postal rates 1917-1961 and much more. Although in Czech, it is very easy to follow because of 169 illustrations
in the text. A limited supply is available from our Journal Fund immediately below.

THE JOURNAL FUND
Orders should be made out to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous
titles are unfortunately sold out.

RUSSIAN FIELD POST IN BULGARIA & THE BALKANS 1877-79, by N. Gr'ncharov. A definitive study
in Bulgarian, with many illustrations. Limited supply! Price postpaid USD 5.00.

FIRST ISSUES OF POSTAGE STAMPS OF USSR 1923-28, by L. Cervinka, J. Podhajskq & A. Vavra. Very
detailed & easy to follow, with many illustrations. Limited supply! Price postpaid USD 9.50.

DOWN THE VOLGA IN A TIME OF TROUBLES, by Marq de Villiers. Written in last months of USSR
with much data for Volga River postal historians. Fascinating! Published at $ 27.95. Price postpaid USD 9.95.

SOVIET COLLECTOR MANUAL No. 16 for 1978. In Russian, with 128 pages and long out of print,
containing valuable articles on stamps & postal history. Limited supply! Price postpaid USD 9.95.

CATALOGUE OF MOLDAVIAN STAMPS & POSTAL MARKINGS 1991-1993, by V.M. Babich & Yu.
Grekov. A 32-page booklet in Russian and in natural colours. Interesting! Price postpaid USD 5.00.

ARMENIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPAEDIA, Vol. 12, 1986 with entry about philately and 2 pages in colour of
Armenian stamps & foreign related items. In Armenian & great conversation piece! Price postpaid USD 16.00.
THE POST-RIDER/MnIMIHK No. 36 83
June, 1995







THE COLLECTORS' CORNER
Are you still missing that elusive item from your I
collection or philatelic library? Do you have some y /
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell? We can publicise your want-list or duplicates
for the extremely reasonable rate of .25 per line,
with a minimum of $1.00 and a maximum of 16
lines. Ads from collectors only are requested.
The Society disclaims any responsibility for any-
misunderstandings between exchanging parties. -

FOR a biography of Serge Koussevitsky (1874-1951), I would appreciate hearing from anyone with information
about the Boston music critic and Columbia Records executive Moses Smith (1901-1964).
JEROME P. HARKINS, 16 West 16th. Street, New York City, N.Y. 10011, U.S.A.

WANTED: (1) Bugulma Zemstvo 1-38 numeral overprints. Any issue. Mint or used. Singles or Multiples.
Double, triple, inverted and other overprint varieties of particular interest. Would also like to correspond with
other collectors of these issues. Bugulma Zemstvo Chuchin Nos. 8,11,15 & 16 in full sheets or blocks of any
size.(3) Wish to correspond with anyone having or knowing the whereabouts of a complete or partial copy of the
Schmidt & Faberge Catalogue of 1907-1916. It appeared in 20 sections, comprising two volumes of more than
800 pages and covered the districts Akhtyrka to Luga. Please write to:
PAT EPPEL, 108 Pinewood Circle, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55412, U.S.A.

WANTED: Covers from Klaipeda (Memel) Lithuania, from all times but especially the period of Soviet control
(1945-1900). Please send photocopies with prices.
DAVID LINK, 14745-51 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6H 5E6. Tel.: (403) 482-6667.

WANTED: Covers Imperial dotted numerals, Used Abroads and Baltic Forerunners. Buy or trade. Please send
photo or description and price to:
M.R. RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, U.S.A.

MY newly revised and greatly expanded (130 pages) Philatelic Library Listing has been published.The cost is
US$ 6.00, deductible from first order of over US $ 30.00. Many low-cost but excellent reprints are available.
ALEX. SADOVNIKOV, P.O. Box 210073, San Francisco, California 94121-0073, U.S.A.
PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE
(All prices include (surface) postage and packing)
(Collectors remitting in U.S. dollars are asked, please, to send cash by dollar bills
to reduce bank conversion charges).
Georgia; Postal Cancellations 1918-1923 (A4 size; 158 pages) F11.00 (1 20.00 U.S.)
British Occupation of Batum. Postal History and Postage Stamps.
(A4 size: 120 pages) 7.00 (9 15.00 U.S.)
(Hardback edition, bound in blue buckram, gold blocked spine
and cover) 17.00 (9 35.00 U.S.)
Imperial Russian Stamps Used in Transcaucasia (Quarto size)
Part I Postal History (56 pages) 4.00 (d 8.00 U.S.)
Part II Tiflis; Tiflis Town Post (78 pages) Regret not at present available.
Part III Tiflis Guberniya (72 pages) 4.00 (9 8.00 U.S.)
Part IV Kutais Cub.; Batum Obl.; Sukhum Okr. (87 pages) 4.00 (U 8.00 U.S.)
Part V Transcaucasian Railway (62 pages) Regret not at present available.
Part VI Erivan Cub.; Kars Obl. (89 pages) A.00 ({ 8.00 U.S.)
Part VII Elisavettol Gub.; Zakataly Okr. (60 pages) 4.00 ( 8.00 U.S.)
Part VIII Baku; Baku Gub. (94 pages) 4.00 (4 8.00 U.S.)
From P.T.Ashford, 9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Chester CH3 8BR England.

84 THE POST-RIDER/IMIHK No. 36
June, 1995








THE ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS OF
IMPERIAL RUSSIA, Vol. 3
by Alex Artuchov












by ALEX ARTUCHOV
Vol. 3 Kolomna Novouzensk

The author and the CSRP are very pleased to announce that
Volume 3 is at long last completed. The 196 page publication
covers the zemstvo districts from Kolomna through to
Novouzensk. Publication and distribution is anticipated in the
early months of 1995. Pre-publication orders are invited at a
discounted price of $25.00 (US). After publication the price will
be $30.00 (US). Copies of Vol. 1 and 2 are still available for
$30.00 (US) each. Dealers wishing to purchase in bulk are
requested to approach the author for a further discount.

To order your copy please fill in the bottom and return to P.O. Box
5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2, Canada; together
with remittance payable to Alex Artuchov.

This offer is valid for all orders received by August 16, 1995.


I




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