• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Philatelic downturn...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Three days early
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The forgery and bogus corner
 Report on "Stamp world London...
 Report on "New Zealand 1990"
 Documents relating to the Russian...
 Repolonizacja
 The Lithuanian Republican...
 The life and times of Andrei Aleksandrovich...
 A North Korean cover to German...
 Still more about Moldavia
 Mail to the Empire: Pre-UPU mail...
 Documents from the Latvian Soviet...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00027
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Philatelic downturn in the USSR
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Three days early
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The forgery and bogus corner
        Page 18
    Report on "Stamp world London 90"
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Report on "New Zealand 1990"
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Documents relating to the Russian posts in Bulgaria
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Repolonizacja
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The Lithuanian Republican posts
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The life and times of Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    A North Korean cover to Germany
        Page 64
    Still more about Moldavia
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Mail to the Empire: Pre-UPU mail from Denmark and Hamburg
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Documents from the Latvian Soviet Republic in 1919
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Review of literature
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
Full Text






























































Panltd Ik Caned










8I WF1 K

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER" No. 27.


November 1990.


CONTENTS:


2 Editorial: Philatelic Downturn in the USSR
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Three Days Early
6 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
18 The Forgery and Bogus Corner
19 Report on "STAMP WORLD LONDON 90"
21 Report on "NEW ZEALAND 1990"
23 Documents Relating to the Russian Posts
in Bulgaria
45 Repolonizacja
54 The Lithuanian Republican Posts
60 The Life and Times of Andrei Aleksandrovich
Zhdanov
64 A North Korean Cover to Germany
65 Still More about Moldavia
68 Mail to the Empire: Pre-UPU Mail from
Denmark and Hamburg
70 Documents from the Latvian Soviet Republic
in 1919
73 Philatelic Shorts
76 Review of Literature
79 Journal Fund
80 The Collectors' Corner


Rev. L.L. Tann
Alex Artuchov
Andrew Cronin
Diana Johnson
Georg D. Mehrtens
Andrew Cronin
Vygintas Bubnys
Ya. Afangulskii
Allan L. Steinhart
Various authors
Andrew Cronin
Dr. Vittorio
Mallegni


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.


( 1990. Copyright by the Canadian Society


of Russian Philately. All rights reserved.


All the contents in this issue are copyright
and permission must be obtained from the CSRP
before they can be reproduced.


Tp PST RIDEER


II


j'll




















i S^ y I EDI TORIAL

PHILATELIC DOWNTURN IN THE USSR

The Soviet philatelic press has, of late, been making the point that
there is a crisis among collecting circles in the country. The main
reason for this alarm is the decline in membership of the national
federation, now known as the Union of Philatelists of the USSR. It
peaked in 1982, with a total of 402,200 adult and junior members and
has gradually been declining ever since to 289,100 in 1988 and this
trend is continuing. Several factors are obviously involved, the main
Soviet explanation being the scarcity and poor quality of philatelic
supplies. If that were the only problem, then it is capable of
solution, as philately can still flourish, even in such a Spartan
society as the USSR. So we must look further into the matter, as it is
clear that this downturn is not just a Soviet phenomenon, but has also
been apparent in Western countries for some time.

Much has been made of the necessity of getting children interested in
philately, both as an educational aid and because they presumably will
become the serious philatelists of the future. Even the FIP
(International Federation of Philately) promotes the idea of
propagating philately among the young and has a special class for them
at international exhibitions, where they pay no frame fees. Your editor
personally thinks that such encouragement of the young is largely
wasted as, in these fast-moving times, there are too many other
activities that compete to attract their attention. The most promising
group from which to attract serious recruits to the hobby would seem to
be adults in their mid 30s, who have been married for some time and
whose children would no longer require a large amount of care. Such
adults would now be casting around for an intellectual hobby and
philately fits the bill perfectly. That is the group that the Soviet
philatelic establishment should be aiming at to strengthen the hobby.

Coupled with that campaign should be a project to improve the contents
of the monthly magazine "Philately of the USSR". The great majority of
philatelists in the USSR collect thematically (topically) and, frankly,
the result is that they are philatelically underdeveloped. Our own
journal is now circulating more freely in the USSR and we have been
getting delighted and appreciative comments about its contents. In
other words, the interest and potential for widening the Soviet
philatelic horizon are there; all they need is glasnost on the
collecting scene.
*











WITH CANADA


"CORRESPONDENCE WITH CANADA" is a regular
feature of this journal. Anyone having
interesting Russian mail to Canada is
invited to share it with our readers,
by forwarding a photograph or xerox
copy of the item, along with some
explanatory text to the Editor.




SOVIET AIRMAIL TO CANADA


by Andrew Cronin


LTYI a j^Ti^^^L1
i^ ^^^- .y/ I
j^Mjf^ .^^^


/KI IrA


The cover above was mailed at the Moscow-9 post office on 2.9.32 and
obviously addressed by a foreigner to Thetford Mines, Prov. of Quebec,
Canada, "AMERIKA" (at bottom left). It was endorsed Air Mail in English
and Russian at top left and a boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet measuring
41 x 13 mm. was applied in violet just below to the right, presumably
also at the Moscow-9 post office (the famous Central Telegraph office).
* Note the arrival cachet in red at centre right, reading MIT LUFTPOST
BEFORDERT/LUFTPOSTAMT/BERLIN C2 (Forwarded by Air Mail/Airmail Post
Office/Berlin C2). Also that the violet boxed cachet has now been
crossed out by pencil. In short, the only aerial portion of transmission
was from Moscow to Berlin. The rate for a surface letter going abroad








at that time was 15 kop., so the airmail surcharge to Berlin was 40 kop.,
beyond which the letter must have gone by surface to Canada. The total
elapsed time was then probably better than for the same journey made
nowadays! Soviet airmail covers to Canada in the 1920s and 1930s are
rarities and it would be interesting to hear from our readers about
other examples.
*

THREE DAYS EARLY

by Rev.L.L. Tann

The Romanov Jubilee stamps were officially issued on 2 January 1913.
That was the first day upon which this magnificent and historic tribute
to three centuries of the Romanov Dynasty made its debut. I refer to
"The Post-Rider", No.12 of May 1983, p.68, where there is an
illustration of a Romanov First Day cover, then in the collection of
Rene Hillesum of Holland and now in my own collection. It is one of two
known first day of issue covers, the second being shown in "The Post-
Rider" No.6 of April 1980, from the collection of Henry Blum in Canada.
I believe there are a few loose stamps with the date 2.1.13, which
qualify of course for First Day status too.


In that same issue of "The Post-Rider" No.6, p.41, I drew attention to
two Romanov stamps advised by Antoine Speeckaert of Belgium. He wrote
to me, reporting a 35-kop. (Paul I) and 70-kop. (Mikhail Fedorovich),
both with a clear cancellation of URGA IN MONGOLIA. Curiously, the
35-kop. was clearly postmarked 21.12.12. I touched upon this in my
book "The Arms Issues 1902-1920", pp.141-142 and mentioned a 2-kop.
Romanov seen by the late Dr. G.B. Salisbury (a towering authority on
Imperial Russia), who said that, in his opinion, that too was a pre-
release item.

The illustrations opposite show a postcard bearing 3 x 1-kop. Romanov
stamps. They are cancelled by a POCHTOVYI VAGON No... with cross-set
date 30 XII 19-12. Next to the card is an enlargement of the postmark,
with retouching to clarify it. Of course, both postmarks read similarly.
The receipt postmark, which overlaps the left-hand postmark, is of
STAROZHILOVO, which is on the railway south of Ryazan' to Ryazhsk (see
the map opposite). The card is addressed to St(antsiya) Starozhilovo.
Unfortunately, we are unable to make any guess at the point of origin
of the postcard, because the railway postal van number is missing on
both postmarks. What we can say is that this is a pre-release usage of
the Romanov stamps, three days before official issue. The Starozhilovo
receipt postmark is 1. (1).13. Post offices were closed on New Year's
Day for counter services, but did deal with incoming mail for delivery,
hence the 1.1.13 receipt postmark.

This is undoubtedly non-philatelic use. The 3-kop. rate was the inter-
city postcard rate and the sender just asked for 3 x 1-kop. stamps. The
clerk reached for a sheet of l-kop.stamps and found the new ones. So he
sold them. They were stuck on a postcard, which was sent on its way to
the tiny town of Starozhilovo; a remote corner of the Tsar's empire,
that thus celebrated the Romanov Jubilee slightly earlier than the rest
of Tsar Nicholas II's dominions, except for the one or two other pre-
release usages. This will now rest in my collection alongside my First
Day cover and a nice Nicholas II letter card, which is cancelled 3.1.13:
the second day of issue.







7- kolIomno &* Mosco,


\cj


CT.


-1o Simbrsl. &Sj3San









POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov
-continued from No. 26-
KOnIMNA


26.(P) 2 kop. indigo


27.(P) 3 kop. indigo

28.(P) 1 kop. ultramarine

29.(P) 2 kop. ultramarine

30.(P) 3 kop. ultramarine


THE SHEETS
RED


1K 3K
INDIGO AND ULTRAMARINE

- il- ll
- -si- | | |.|
_- -s- |||||
- -__s-ii. iilll
1__-aaii :.|||,
_____^ ^ iii
______g ggg ii


0.75

0.75

3.00

3.00

3.00


VARIETIES
There are atleast 3 constant varieties on the sheet:
A. 1 kop. red stamps Break in circle at the top of the stamp,
35th stamp on the sheet.
B. 1 kop. red and indigo stamps White spot on red background just
below NE corner circle, 45th stamp on the sheet.
C. 3 kop. red Top edge of stamp design is damaged, 30th stamp.
















c
b


1893 (January)
Circular and square designs for postage paid and postage due
respectively, postage paid ( OInAmEHHAq ) and postage due ( anIOBAR )
are noted in small print at the bottom of the stamps, 25 mm in
diameter for round and 24.5 x 24.5 mm for square design,
lithographed on white paper, sheet unknown, perforated 11.5,
paper of square design 0.07 mm thick.






\ I' ( l"nA


ROUND DESIGN
31. 1 kop. orange and orange yellow 0.50

32. 2 kop. green 0.75

33. 3 kop. carmine rose 0.75

34. 5 kop. blue, dark blue 1.00

35. 1 kop. yellow brown (1903) 1.00

SQUARE DESIGN
36. (P) 1 kop. orange and orange yellow 0.50

37. (P) 2 kop. green 0.75

38. (P) 3 kop. carmine rose 0.75

39. (P) 5 kop. blue, dark blue 0.75


1895 190?
Similar to previous edition but with octagonal shape and with
numerals of value in corners, 6 editions perforated 11.5 .









lithographed on coloured paper 0.06 mm thick, 24.5 x 24.5 mm







FIRST EDITION (1895)
6.5 mm space between stamps, each stmp is framed by thin lines,
sheet unknown, the 2 kop. stamps are known printed sideways as well
as normally.


40. (P) 1 kop. orange and orange yellow


41. (P) 2 kop. olive green

42. (P) 3 kop. carmine rose


0.50

0.50

0.50


SECOND EDITION (1901)
Distance between stamps 4.5 4.75 mm sheet unknown, largest
known block 8 x 9, without sheet margins.


-43. (P) 1 kop. red brown


3.00


1It is possible that of 2 x 2 was used for this issue. A study of
the block of 8 x 9 shown below reveals a constant plate flaw on
every block of 4. The.flaw is a dot inside the lower half of the
letter 3 of the word 3EMCTBO. The position of the flaw is very
regular except for the bottom horizontal row.


3 3 3 3



3 3 3 3



3 3 3 3



3 3 3 3



3 3


\3










THIRD EDITION (190?)
Similar to previous edition, colour changed.


44. (P) 1 kop. light brown yellow


5.00


FOURTH EDITION (1902)
With slight traces of separating lines, sheet unknown but largest
known block is 7 x 9, some of the stamps on the sheet are inverted
as shown below, transfer block of 4 x 1 with 4 types.


45. (P) 1 kop. dull orange


1.00


FOURTH EDITION BLOCK

V C Z T P E Z

1 2 3 4 E Z T
1 2 3 4 V Z
1 2 3 4 V9

1 2 3 4 V C Z
1 2 3 4 C Z T
1 2 3 4 V C 2
1 2 3 4 1 1 1
1 3 4 2 3 2


FIFTH EDITION BLOCK

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


THE FOUR
Type 1 -
Type 2 -
Type 3 -

Type 4 -


TYPES
Extra


lines of shading on base


of right column.


Dot between letters E and n of CETlhCKAH
Spots of colour under letter K of KQTMEHCKOE almost
connecting it to the letter O.
The thin outer frameline of the octagon on the left
extends beyond the outer corner and is faint on some
stamps.


Te i. Tp 2. T


Type 3.


Type 4.


Type 1.


Type 2.










FIFTH EDITION (190?)
Similar to previous edition, sheet unknown but largest known block
is 12 x 7 and is without inverted stamps, same transfer block of 4
x 1 and same 4 types as on the fourth edition.


3.00


46. (P) 1 kop. orange yellow, brown yellow

SIXTH EDITION (190?)
Similar to previous editions, colour change.


47. (P) 1 kop. reddish brown


10.00


190?
Similar to previous issue, 24.75 x 24.75 mm lithographed on
yellowish white paper 0.08 mm thick, yellowish gum, on the design
of the stamp the columns are slightly shorter than on the previous
issues and there are no stars, the corner numerals have pointed
heads, only a few single copies are known, perforated 11.5 .

48. (P) 1 kop. reddish brown RR
(? known)

1906 (July)
17.25 x 23.5 mm lithographed on white paper 0.08 mm thick,
yellowish gum, sheet of 3 x 10 with 3 types placed vertically,
perforated 11.5


0.50

0.50


49. 1 kop. dull rose


50. 2 kop. blue


THE SHEET

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1

2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2
1111311131










THE THREE TYPES
Type 1 White dot next to SW corner circle, knot below letter R of
3EMCKAq
Type 2 Defect in top centre ornament, scratch across base of
column and left star.
Type 3 No knot as on type 1.

Type 1 Type 2









1913 1916
Similar to issue of 1893 but without the inscription OInJqAEHHA
on the bottom and also some other minor differences, 25 mm
diameter, lithographed on white paper of various thickness,
perforated 11.5 .

FIRST EDITION (Feb. 16, 1913)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, sheet of 8 x 4 with small corner marks in
sheet corners only, 1,700 stamps printed.

51. 2 kop. yellow green 1.50

SECOND EDITION (1914)
White paper 0.08 mm thick, no corner marks, sheet unknown, largest
known block is 8 x 2, with pointed perforations.

52. 2 kop. light yellow green 3.00

THIRD EDITION (June 22, 1915)
Sheet of 3 x 12 arranged in 2 vertical panes of 3 x 6, 3 types
arranged in vertical rows, corner guide marks between the stamps
on the sheet margins and in the 4 corners of each pane.

53. 1 kop. red, light red 1.00

54. 2 kop. green, light green 1.00

THE THREE TYPES



/1 /1 12
Type 1. Type 2. Type 3.









THE THIRD EDITION SHEET

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3
1 11

2 2 2
3 3 3

1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
1 1 1

2 2 2
3 3 3


FOURTH EDITION (1916)
Similar to the stamps of the previous edition, different shades of
- colour, sheet unknown and only small blocks of either value are
known, with the same 3 types as on the previous edition.

55. 1 kop. red, dark red _*_

56. 2 kop. blue green _*


1916
Similar to previous issues but with a wider shield, 25.5 mm
diameter, lithographed on grayish white paper 0.12 mm thick, no
gum, the bottom inscriptions are larger and the stars are further
apart, the numeral 1 of value is thinner, all stamps have guide
marks in the corners, both 1 and 2 kop. values are printed on the
same sheet in identical panes of 7 x 11 with the 1 kop. printed on
the right and the 2 kop. on the left, space of 30 mm between the
panes, perforated 11.5 both sharply and roughly and known
imperforate and imperforate vertically.


57. 1 kop. carmine red 0.40

58. 2 kop. green 0.50
58. 2 kop. green 0.50










THE SHEET


SCHMIDT\CHUCHIN
Sch Ch Sch
1 1 11
2 2 12
3 3 13
4 4 14
5 5 15
6 6 16
7 5 17
8 6 18
9 7 19
10 8 20


CATALOGUE
Ch Sch
9 21
10 22
11 23
12 24
13 25
14 26
15 27
16 28
17 29
18 30


CROSS-REFERENCE:
Ch Sch Ch
19 31 26
20 32 27
21 33 28
22 34 29
23 35 40
24 36 30
25 37 31
38 32
39 33
40 34


KONSTANTINOGRAD
(POLTAVA PROVINCE)

KOHCTAHTHHOIPAq


Sch
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50


Sch
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58


Ch
44
44a
43
44b
43b
44c
45
46


-----------------------------------------------------










Konstantinograd is located in the southeast corner of the province
some 45 miles away from the capital of Poltava. In 1900 its
population was 6,500.

The activities of Konstantinograd were primarily agricultural since
the region is located along the southern fringe of the grain and
sugar beet growing belt of the Ukraine. The raising of cattle and
horses was also characteristic. The city was renamed Krasnograd by
the Soviets.

Konstantinograd issued stamps in 1913.
---- --------------------------------------------------------

COAT OF ARMS COLOURS:
White background with a blue stream flowing in the upper portion
with a red crown on top. The cossack is dressed in a khaki coloured
coat with red trim along the neck and a brown and red hat.
------------------------------------------------------------------

1913 (March 23)
26.75 x 39.5 mm typographed on coloured paper 0.12 mm thick,
white gum, sheet of 8 x 2 with the right half inverted, 2 types
placed horizontally side by side, perforated 11.5 with imperforate
sheet margins, no. of sheets issued: 1 kop. 131
....... ..... 3 kop. 340
S1 6 kop. 83
I/,o1 \ 0 kop. 27
^Av3 h


1. 1 kop. green on yellow paper

2. 3 kop. green on carmine red paper

3. 6 kop. green on blue green paper

4. 10 kop. green on gray blue paper


5.00

3.00

15.00

30.00


THE SHEET

1 2 1 2 Z T Z T

1 2 1 2 Z T Z T










THE TWO TYPES
Type 1 Normal.
Type 2 Curved and more oval inscription, smaller point at bottom
of shield, smaller helmet on warrior.

1913 (Aug. 20)
Printed in St. Petersburg by the Government Printing Office,
typographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 5 x
5, perforated 13.25, 71,400 stamps were printed in the following
number of sheets: 1 kop. 472
2 kop. 272
3 kop. 956
6 kop. 480
10 kop. 484
30 kop. 192
An additional 80,000 stamps were printed in 1914 but, these cannot
be distinguished from the stamps of this edition.









5. 1 kop. green 0.25

6. .2 kop. light blue 0.25

7. 3 kop. carmine rose 0.40

8. 6 kop. indigo blue 0.75

9. 10 kop. lilac 1.00

10. 30 kop. yellow brown 3.00

SCHMIDT/CHUCHIN CATALOGUE CROSS-REFERENCE:
The stamps are listed identically by both catalogues.
-------------------------------------------------------------

Korcheva is located in the eastern portion of the province of Tver
some 40 miles away from the city of Tver. In 1900, the population
was only 2,400.

Korcheva was an agricultural community which sent its cereal grain
crops down the Volga by boat. The town council, made up of 12
merchants and farmers handled the affairs of the zemstvo including
postal matters.

Korcheva issued stamps between 1876 and 1902.








KORCHEVA
(TVER PROVINCE)

KOPtEBA


COAT OF ARMS COLOURS:
Top: Red background with pedistal with golden legs and a golden
crown.
Bottom: Green background and grass and brown rabbit.


1876 1902
17 x 24.25 mm lithographed on various papers, perforate and
imperforate, 3 editions.










FIRST EDITION (Jan. 26, 1876)
On thick yellowish white paper 0.12 mm thick, space between stamps
1.25 1.5 mm small crosses in upper and lower semi-circles,
small round dots on sides, yellowish gum, sheet of 9 x 4.


1. 2 kop. blue


5.00


SECOND EDITION (1880)
On thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, distance between stamps 2.75 -
3.25 mm without the small dots on the frameline, yellowish white
gum, sheet unknown, largest known block 9 x 3.
--------CONTINUED IN NO. 28-----------






Tml ZEMSTVO
POSTAGE STAMPS
Of IMPERIAL RUSSIA
VOLUMES I and II


CAN BE ORDERED FOR $30.00 (US) EACH.
DEALER TERMS ARE AVAILABLE.
MAKE YOUR REMITTANCE PAYABLE TO
ALEX ARTUCHOV AND FORWARD IT TO
THE SOCIETY ADDRESS.








THE FORGERY AND BOGUS CORNER


Before we look at the examples herewith, let us first have a couple of
definitions. A forgery is an imitation of an existing marking, cover,
overprint or stamp, while a bogus item is a product that never existed
in the first place Now to our examples.
BULGARIE
Obliterations


o- --- \Y '---







The illustration above shows Imperial Russian postmarks of Kovno 8 June
1889, Lubny 7 Nov. 1887, St. Petersburg III 12 June 1889 ...Chasa,
Novoradomsk 12 Nov. 1886 and St. Petersburg III 21 May 1888 4 Chasa, all
forged by F. Fournier of Geneva, Switzerland. He operated around the
first couple of decades of this century and, due to a loophole in Swiss
law, was able to offer openly forgeries of scarce foreign stamps, which
he advertised in his magazine "Le Facsimile", together with order forms!
The Philatelic Society of Geneva acquired the remaining stock after his
death and issued albums in 1927 with collections of his varieties, each
stamp being handstamped FAUX (= false). A complete album brings a high
price at auction these days. Anyway, due to the compilers' ignorance of
the Cyrillic alphabet, the albums had the above five Russian postmarks
classified under BULGARIA That is a common mistake in philately; one
often sees accumulations of Bulgarian or Serbian issues mixed in with
stamps of our Russian and Ukrainian areas.








Among the stamps forged by Fournier were the rare 3r. 50k. and 7r.
Imperials without thunderbolts. Used copies keep popping up at auctions
and two examples are given here at left of the 3r. 50k. with a KOVNO
(Kaunas) postmark, dated 8 June 1889 (the first marking in the album),
followed by three further copies with the fifth marking from the album
(St. Petersburg III 21 May 1888 4 Chasa). The last 3r. 50k. stamp bears
a marking not in the album, but apparently from the same stable; it
reads RIGA 1 June 1888.
Any doubts about the genuineness of that RIGA
marking are confirmed when we find it also on
the first 7r. stamp here at left! The second
7r. has a forged MOSKVA 11/14 DEK.1888 NIKOL.
ZH.D. postmark, probably also done by Fournier.
Please note that, apart from being forged,
these postmarks are also of interest to
Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish specialists.
18







The possibility is not excluded that the other three postmarks in the
Fournier album will also show up on the forged no-thunderbolts stamps.
Counterfeiters prefer to apply postmarks to hide the imperfections in
their work and, in Fournier's day, cancelled stamps were more highly
regarded by philatelists than mint examples. The forgeries are perf.15.

Strictly speaking, it is easy to expertise any copies of the 3r. 50k.
and 7r. stamps without thunderbolts. All one needs to remember is that,
when the postal and telegraphic services were amalgamated, the only
plates that had to be changed were those for the centres. The same
values with thunderbolts may be used to compare with the no-thunderbolts
stamps for verification. The frame plates were the same for both issues
and if they match in size, clarity and other details, then one has a
genuine no-thunderbolts stamp. Elementary, my dear Watson!

Now to an example of our second definition. The --
illustration here at right shows a pair of pre-
WWII Polish 15-groszy stamps with a surcharge in
Russian, reading: "POCHTA S.S.S.R. / 50 kop. +
50 kop./ Golodayushchim" (POSTAGE USSR/50 kop. +
50 kop./For the starving). The description of
the auction lot stated that there were eleven
horizontal and vertical pairs of Polish stamps
so treated in all and that they were prepared for issue after the
incorporation of the Polish eastern territories into the Soviet Union
in September 1939. Your editor believes that all such items are
completely bogus, as the USSR certainly not have advertised to the
world in 1939 that people there were starving, however true that may
have been at the time. It would be helpful if readers could provide
details and illustrations of the other ten pairs that were surcharged.
By the way, the lot remained unsold!
*

REPORT ON"STAMP WORLD LONDON 90"

compiled by Andrew Cronin

The writer was not present at this outstanding philatelic exhibition,
but several visitors told him that the venue, the Alexandra Palace,
was somewhat out of the way, but that was offset by the frequent and
free shuttle service from the Wood Green underground station. Also,
that at least five of the receptions,including the Palmares, were
"black-tie" affairs, requiring formal evening wear (tuxedos) and thus
setting a rather elitist tone to the proceedings. A particularly
jarring note was the application of the Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus to sell its postal issues (not recognized by the UPU) at stand
No.53. That led to a protest from the Cyprus Philatelic Society and a
stiff reprimand from the FIP Secretariat, both prior to the opening of
the show. On the third day, the page for Turkish Cyprus was removed
from the philatelic passports and the latter were withdrawn altogether
on 8 May. This fiasco could and should have been avoided.

Anyway, standards were very high and, with that in mind, our collectors
did very well, as can be seen from the results below. Our subscriber,
Michel Liphschutz RDP, was a judge on the international jury and the
attendance was around 80,000 visitors. The results in our spheres of
collecting were as follow:-








FIP CHAMPIONSHIP CLASS
Hiroyuki Kanai : Finland Classics.
Sven Kraul : Latvian Forerunners 1736-1902.
Christian Sundman : Finland 1638-1885.

LARGE GOLD
Christian Sundman : Finnish Postal Stationery 1638-1885.

GOLD
G. Adolf Ackerman : Soviet Air Mail the early years.
Manfred Dobin : Postal Markings of Russia.
Estonian P.S. Sweden : Eesti Handbook and Supplement.
Vambola Hurt : Estonian Prephilately.
N. Mandrovskii : Russian Steamer Posts.

LARGE VERMEIL
Per Anders-Erixon : Russia 1812-1875.
6. Hindrekson : Estonian & Latvian Postal History to 1800 (+SP).
Dr. A. Orth : Mongolian Postal History 1854-1937.
J. Pietil& : Finnish Postal Stationery 1871-1889.
Dr. B6la Simady : Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History 1722-1988.
Laszl6 Surany : Hungarian Newspaper Tax Stamps.
Dr. Gordon Torrey : Russian Used Abroads.

VERMEIL
Vygintas Bubnys : Vilnius Postal Markings 1816-1939.
Marat Kabanov : RSFSR-USSR Definitives.
B. Lundh : European Letters to Finland 1819-1873.
E. Mattila : Estonia 1940.
Zdenek'Mekyna : RSFSR 1917-1923.
V. Savin : Russian Red Cross Mail 1878-1917.


LARGE SILVER-
Estonian P.S. Sweden
J. Jensen.
Vaino Karmi
J. Mors
Philip E. Robinson

SILVER
S. Andersen
Viktor Sinegubov
Ivo Steyn

SILVER-BRONZE
P. T. Ashford


: Eesti Filatelist (Literature).
: Romanov Tercentenary Issue.
: Estonia 1918-1940.
: Latvian Postal History 1770-1925.
: Siberia Postmarks & Postal History (Literature).


: Russia 1784-1905.
: Russian Letters by Sea 1792-1917.
: Siberian Postal History 1918-1923.


: British Occupation of Batum (Literature).


In addition, the collection of Boris Kaminskii was taken out of
competition, as the jury felt that it consisted of two separate exhibits.
The outstanding exhibit of Laszl6 SurAnyi has been listed above as he
featured the application of Austrian and Hungarian fiscal prior to
printing of the newspapers "Ung" and "Ungvari K6zl6ny" at Uthorod in the
Carpatho-Ukraine during 1868; these were journal tax stamps and such
usages are great rarities.

*


s







REPORT ON "NEW ZEALAND 1990"


by Diana Johnson
S"NEW ZEALAND 1990"was New Zealand's first world stamp exhibition under
the patronage of the F6deration Internationale de Philatelie (FIP). It
was one of the major attractions of New Zealand's celebration of 150
years of nationhood, alongside such events as the Commonwealth Games,
the World Orchid Congress and the International Ornithological Congress.
It was held in Auckland's Greenlane at the N.Z. Expo Centre from 24 Aug.
to 2 Sept. 1990, coinciding with the 150th. anniversary of the foundation
of the city of Auckland and with the establishment of the New Zealand
Post Office 150 years ago. Coincidentally, 1990 also marks the 150th.
anniversary of Sir Rowland Hill's invention, the postage stamp, which led
to the world's most widely enjoyed pastime philately.

Some 875 entries were received from around the world for NZ 1990, but
with 2800 frames available, only 658 exhibits were able to be presented
to be judged. From these 21 large gold, 59 gold, 79 large vermeil, 120
vermeil, 107 large silver, 126 silver, 82 silver-bronze, 55 bronze
medals and 14 diplomas/certificates of participation were awarded.
Exhibits in the Court of Honour included twelve frames from the Royal
Philatelic Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. There were 19
exhibits specifically relating to the Russian collecting sphere:-

FIP CHAMPIONSHIP CLASS
4. Mongolian Postal History 1877-1935 by Meiso Mizuhara of Japan. This
eight-frame exhibit included.two frames showing the postal activities of
* Tsarist Russia in Mongolia. Covers bearing the first pen cancellations
and the well-known first type of Urga cancellations were shown, along
with other typical examples of postal activities at Urga before 1918.
Covers with postmarks from the offices at Kobdo, Sharasume, Tszain-Shabi
and Ulyasutai were also on display.

TRADITIONAL
113. Azerbaijan 1919-1923 by Petr Blaha of Czechoslovakia. His 5 frames
paid attention to varieties, postal use of provisionals & inflation rates:
vermeil medal(Editorial Comment: The country is spelt AzerbdjdzAn in Czech).
170. Aspects of Latvian Philately 1798-1945 by Ivars MastiqS of Australia.
This 5-frame exhibit was awarded a silver-bronze medal and was selected
from a specialised collection. It included prestamp covers, printings on
map and banknote paper, Wenden Local Post, provisionals, Soviet occupation
of Livonia (Vidzeme), censorship, elusive watermark and perforation
varieties, proofs etc.
198. Estonia 1918-1940 by Warren Dickson of Canada. This 5-frame exhibit
was awarded a large silver medal. Encompassing the Republic of Estonia
from stampless covers, first independence issue, proofs on the backs of
Russian theatre tickets, errors and varieties, this display paid special
attention to frankings, air covers, stationery etc.
203. Definitive Stamps of the USSR:V-XII Issues by Arkadii Pevzner of USSR.
This 5-frame exhibit was awarded a vermeil medal and showed covers with
stamps, plus their varieties, essays, proofs, forgeries etc.
204. Zemstvo Post by Daniel Lijtmajer of Argentina. This 5-frame exhibit
was awarded a bronze medal and showed stamps, varieties and covers of the
Rural (Zemstvo) posts of Tsarist Russia.

POSTAL HISTORY
331.Russia Censor Markings 1914-1919 by Norman Banfield of New Zealand.
Awarded a vermeil medal, this 5-frame study of military censor markings






on mail to and from Russia and in transit, included one of the earliest
censored covers, previously unrecorded marks and cards from the Royal
Naval Air Service Armoured Car Squadron in North Russia in 1916. Areas
covered by the display were Petrograd, Moscow, Odessa, Minsk, Archangel,
Irkutsk, Kharkov, Kupyansk, Riga, Verro, Vladivostok, Russian Army in
Persia and dual censorship markings.
332. Aerophilately of the USSR by Salvador Bofarull of Spain. This five-
frame exhibit was awarded a silver medal and showed, among other things,
the fieldpost of the Russian Imperial Air Force in WWI, military airmail,
foreign military occupation (USA,UK), First International Air Mail
Conference, first Soviet airmail issues, consular airmail, Graf Zeppelin
flights, 1937 Air Force Exhibition, Polar flights, WWII Soviet fieldposts.
335. Mute Cancellations of Russia in WWI by Arnold Levin of the USSR.
This 8-frame exhibit was awarded a gold medal and showed part of a
magnificent research collection of mute cancellations, which were in use
in the Warsaw, Vilna and Petrograd military districts of Russia during
August-October 1914. Different kinds of mute cancellations were
displayed, together with covers showing earliest and latest uses;examples
of breaking of security rules by some post offices were also shown.
340. Military Censorship in the USSR 1939-1949 by Dmitrii Galishnikov of
the USSR. Awarded a large vermeil medal, this 5-frame exhibit was an
investigation based on philatelic material, which passed through the
post from the beginning of WWI until 1949, the year of formation of the
two German states. The author proposed his own systematisation, classif-
ication and terminology for the different military censorship marks.
386. Numbered Postmarks of Russia 1858-1905 by Vladimir Kalmykov of the
USSR. This 5-frame exhibit was awarded a large silver medal and showed
the types and forms of numbered postmarks used in Moscow, Arkhangelsk,
Smolensk, Tambov, Tula, Yaroslavl, Oranienbaum, Dinaburg, Bogorodsk,
Nizhnii-Novgorod,.Kargashino, Odessa, Taurogen, Vysokolitovsk, etc. and
the St. Petersburg and Moscow City Post marks.
396. Estonia by Timo Verho of Finland. This 5-frame exhibit was awarded
a large vermeil medal and showed postal markings and cancellations from
the prestamp era up to the time of the first Russian stamps in 1857.

POSTAL STATIONERY
472. Russia: Postcards and Lettercards 1872-1917 by Yurii Myakota of the
USSR. This 5-frame exhibit was awarded a silver-bronze medal and showed
postcards and lettercards for Russia, including uncatalogued postcards
for service correspondence 1892-1917. Postcards and lettercards used in
Russian offices in the Levant were displayed, plus provisional Civil
War overprints (1918-21) and official lettercards (1896-1916).

AEROPHILATELY
519. Lithuanian Air Mail by Paul Barbatavicius of Canada. This 5-frame
exhibit was awarded a vermeil medal and showed stamps, covers, essays,
proofs, varieties and Zeppelin flights.
525. Airmail Communication in Europe by Vsevolod Pritula of the USSR.
This 5-frame exhibit received a vermeil medal and showed philatelic
material about airmail communication in Europe.

MAXIMAPHILATELY
703. V.I. Lenin by Vladimir Sadovnikov of the USSR. This 5-frame exhibit
was awarded a silver medal and showed an impressive array of cards and
stamps depicting V.I. Lenin's life and work.

YOUTH 16-17 YEARS
749. On the Roads of Russia by Kirill Osyantinskii of the USSR. Awarded
a silver medal, this 4-frame exhibit depicted the history of the non-
railed transport in the USSR, beginning with communications in ancient
22







Russia and progressing through the ages to the appearance and production
of the first cars, problems of road maintenance during the Civil War,
horse transport, motorcycle transport, the beginning of the Soviet
* automobile industry, the Great Patriotic War and post-war reconstruction
of the automobile industry.

LITERATURE: JOURNALS, PERIODICALS
L83. The Estonian Philatelist by the Estonian Philatelic Society of
Sweden won a large silver medal (yearbooks of Estonian Philately Nos.30-2).

LITERATURE: CATALOGUES
L115. Estonia: Philately and Postal History. This Handbook-Catalogue by
the Estonian Philatelic Society of Sweden won a gold medal (Handbook-
Catalogue 1986; Supplement 1988).

Two other exhibits contained items of Russian interest:
Seymour Banchik's (USA) Wrapper Bands: World Usages through 1900, which
gained a vermeil medal, included an 1866-70 3-kop. stamp additionally
franking a wrapper from St.Petersburg to Zurich; a 1-kop Bogorodsk
Zemstvo stamp to Shapov, 16 April 1890 and an 1893 registered wrapper
from Ketsov to Guatemala with 41 cents postage due, as Guatemala was
not yet a member of the U.P.U.
The other exhibit was Dirigibles by Gerardo Salomon of Uruguay (awarded
a large silver medal), which displayed a 1924 15-kop surcharge inverted
on 1-rub. brown airmail and a 1930 80-kop. Graf Zeppelin on cover flown
on the Graf Zeppelin from Moscow to Friedrichshafen.

All in all, NEW ZEALAND 1990 was well worth the visit from a Russian
collector's point of view, offering the opportunity for New Zealand
* collectors to meet fellow philatelists from within New Zealand and
around the world and to study many interesting and varied collections.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Reports from Canadian visitors to the show indicate
that it was very well run, reflecting great credit on a country of less
than four million people in putting on an international philatelic
exhibition of such magnitude. Our readers will be interested to know
that two of our subscribers, M.V. Liphschutz R.D.P. of France and Dr.
A.R. Marshall of New Zealand (editor of the Australia & New Zealand
Society of Russian Philately) were judges on the international jury.
*

DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE RUSSIAN POSTS IN BULGARIA

by Georg D. Mehrtens
A. POSTAL RECEIPTS
Re the remarkable T'rnovo parcel card forerunner and receipt described
by Dr. R. Stevens in his article about his Bulgarian material in "The
Post-Rider" No.24, pp.59-65, I have in my collection a similar receipt,
under No.5, also issued on the very same day 3 January 1879 at T'rnovo
and again giving Ilarion Rusovich in Sofia as the addressee (see
overleaf). The receipt is, of course, in the same format as that of Dr.
Stevens, printed in Russian front and back and is apparently Form No.l,
set up in vertical strips and with a notation up the left side, reading:
BOOK FOR THE INSCRIPTION OF PARCELS WITHOUT VALUE. Once again, the
receipt was intended for the post office at Gabrovo, that name being
crossed out and "Tyrnov" (T'rnovo) written above. The manuscript data
are in Russian, referring to a money packet of 25r. 75k. and weighing
10 grammes (roughly 1/3 oz.), for which 10 kop. was the postal rate,
26 kop. the insurance fee and 5 kop. for the receipt, totalling 41 kop.









Bs cayui yrpat rpauosoi ioppecnonxeniB, no,-
Tuooe ar oscrcno orhTCTeryeTr speAi noAaMaeemzL
enrancao liftcrTmymjanus sauoHurs somesmiaj. 06s
yTpaTi crpazoBoi oppecnoaxesais noxaMean Xao-
zens GasrXT, me nose dryz airs r A u DOarMU
ea as nony, Haqa&niy IIoromaro YpiT-
-leuix, n atiit'a. soero cocTro i soroaoe y.UpV -
seaie,m riu 6uCa T ona soppocnoalxeja, cxIspe r
aeuiein eAcro1ei pocnucu aus ascauneln rso*
sol "ot oni ai sea.-Ecn uoxatean moxeaes,
,ro6bs osarpaaxeide 61uo 3xaao 3ioe eiy,. fpe-
Ciay M py xproy *nny, TO 'louena .o oresopsn


i /..:/.' --. I/ ., p,./ 2
" +- -- ,


There is a notation in
3 January / to Sofia".


Greek on the


back at bottom, reading "1879


V-..
I S,.


Bi s.cayu yirpam cTpxoMoI ioppecnonaxeCMi, noi-
.Tomo ri0xoMcro oTrikCTOyen npexs noAamTmesr
a'orneo xlcTiaymmmu suomms i i bOemdIm. -'Oo
yTpar/ erpaxoBoi noppecnovAem;ti noxasaBe AI-'
we e sau aBHT e SeWO d~ya d irs x o JH noxWiX
ea = noTry, Hau iuMsy HoTro ro Ynp--:
'jenis, i itiid zoero coCTOTrs norrooe y7pe0e-
ule, r SeMU IOa saI oppecnoaxeuls, sI lpeAcrAI-
sielexs asromlset poaCacna Hm satcxAareaCo-
uaolt toniX a ei.-Ecun oXuaTen noeUaTSR,
nrodu MosarpaAeaie 6uzo iaod' -e exy a &xpe-
ciay Ks ApyroNy e e T ozgeNs ano oromopun
ii awsuezil.


__


'I


The second receipt shown here under No.41 is from the same setting and to
the same addressee, but filled in by a different postal official in
Russian. It was issued on 24 Nov.1879 for a money package of 61r. 90k.,
weighing 45 grammes (roughly lh ozs.). The postal rate was 75 kop.,
insurance fee 65 kop., plus 25 kop. for the receipt, totalling Ir. 65k.


I ~ .. ~ -. ,


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~LCT ~xz~5srr~-r, ~ -
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I







Please note here that the Bulgarian National Postal Service officially
came into being on 1 May 1879 O.S., with the issue of postage stamps
printed by the EZGB in St.Petersburg and denominated in the French
currency system. This independent postal service inherited the bilingual
Russo-Bulgarian postal markings and Russian forms and continued to
accept Russian currency.


Iy6epHiH


PocnicK ~a C. t fr-A / -.
Dt npiemt ,Zype(e tt t/c.'. /



I CteosBIxI. 11.11)1 u" non.

CTXOBX h ------- P. jK" \


Bs cJayqa'a yTpaTbl CTpaXOBOh jo)ppec-
noAeHiniH, norTOBoe BsAOMCTBO OT HI3TcTByeTb *
npea'b noAasBaTeeMAn corAacHo %,\eiCTBVyo-
IAHM'b 8aEKOHaM'b H Kc)PBeHiafM.I,.


The next two receipts were again printed in Russian, this time for some
province within the Empire and also in vertical strips. They were from
two separate issues, with a printed notation up the left sides referring
to books for the recording of parcels without value and the relay
service, as well as for insured correspondence. Both were filled in by
sorting clerk Petrov the first under No.226 in Russian on 24 July 1879,
as illustrated above, for a money packet of 4 francs and weighing 45
grammes, addressed to Mladen Georgiev in Pleven. The postal rate was
75 kop., the insurance fee 5 kop., plus 25 kop. for the receipt, to
total Ir. 5k.

The second receipt under No.73 is shown overleaf and was issued on
27 Oct.1879 for the despatch of 1735 francs to the Vladov Brothers in
Lom-Palanka. The postal rate was Ir. 20k., insurance fee 8r. 35k., plus
5 kop. for the receipt, to total 8r. 60k. The details have now been
* written in Bulgarian and, in both examples, there is an impression of
the rare bilingual SOFIYA/SREDETS postmark, dated 24.VII.79 and 27.X.79.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: The Director of the Postal Section in Bulgaria was
Vladimir Trubacheev, formerly of the same position in Smolensk province,
from where he had possibly brought with him the above receipt forms.


__


;. C. ?d. I.
3n poc.1cy .--. '- "-



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,B c &b "y9a" YTPTbl PX.BO KoP0T .... KoI. ec-
SA Ba 4X noHAeHiiHn, no'ITOBoe B+.AOMCTBr o+TB-rTICyyeri-
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Mseo ^ >. nrrpeA's nogasaraTeeMen COF.aCHo +tbicTByEo- -
Pb.------- .: 'HM aaKOHaWMb H KCHBeHnflMrb.
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SBawro Dcero _--- -- 0


BL A LETTER FROM VLADIMIR TRUBACHEEV, DIRECTOR OF THE POSTAL SECTION IN
BULGARIA
"No.279 of the Director of the 6 April 1878.
Postal Department in Bulgaria.
5th. April 1878.
No. 669. To the Postmaster
Town of Sistov (Svishtov). at T'rnovo.
'Re the state of the postal stations:'
(Diagonal note at left; see the
original Russian text opposite).

With the attached copy herewith of the contract with Schemer, you are.
being made 'aware of the extent of his duties. In accordance with the
contract concluded with the postal contractor, the supervisors at all
postal stations will be replaced as of 14th. April by clerks appointed
by him and, as a result, Staterov, the supervisor of the Gabrovo office
and the postilion acting pro tem as the supervisor of the T'rnovo
station must be returned to their duties in the T'rnovo post office. The
movable property of the Dryanovo and T'rnovo postal stations should be
transferred to me here in Sistov with a specially assigned postilion.

Upon inspecting the Dryanovo and T'rnovo postal stations on 14th. April,
you should immediately report to me by telegram under your personal
responsibility whether the stations have been put into service by Mr.
Schemer and, if not, exactly whatever has not been carried out.

As you yourself have a copy of the contract with Schemer, you are
obliged to supervise the proper departure of the postal despatches at
the postal stations. Upon your examination of the stations, if an
insufficient quantity of horses becomes evident, or if horses are found
to be unfit for the transmission of the posts, then you are to set up a
report about such a matter in the presence of the officer authorised by
the postal contractor, which you are to present to me and give to him a
12-day period for the replacement of the missing or unsuitable horses.

In cases where the station clerks are found to be unfit in any official
or moral respect, then you are obliged to recommend to the officer
authorised by the postal contractor that they be replaced by other
persons within a mutually agreed period and report to me accordingly.
If ever a complaint is lodged by any of the travellers, then you must
take the matter in hand and make the necessary arrangements, reporting
the matter to the corresponding extent in the book of complaints.
However, where a complaint is serious and requires investigation or
26









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calling the postal contractor to account, then you are to present me
with a copy of such a complaint, together with your investigation and
conclusions.

The boxes installed at a station for the lodging of letters must be
handed over against a receipt to the station clerks and all ordinary
mail deposited in them, both official and private, should be taken out
at the T'rnovo station by a postilion assigned by you and transmitted
to their destinations. Also, at the Dryanovo station, you should
instruct the clerk, upon clearing the boxes, to combine the mail to be
transmitted in special postal packages with the exclusion of documents,
sorting the mail according to destination, to T'rnovo or Sistov and
also order him to distribute the mail proceeding to the Dryanovo station,
as well as the correspondence left there by the posts passing through.

The two books enclosed for the recording of the mails, relay routes and
travellers should be handed over to the station clerks against a receipt,
instructing them in the way these books should be utilised. The two
enclosed books of complaints for use by the travellers are to be stamped
with the seal of the T'rnovo postal station and displayed in a prominent
place in the room set aside for the travellers, while instructing the
clerks about their custody. Apart from the tables of listings on view at
the station, the enclosed notices should also be hung. All the others
should be returned to me and no other notices should be hung at the
station without my orders.

The handling of the rolls referring to the state of the postal station
and about the horses on the road by the Director of Civilian Affairs
attached to the Commander-in-Chief of the Army on Active Service will
be abolished as of 14th. April, but the reporting to the Administration
of the state of.affairs about the condition of the stations must be
continued and this roll must be presented by the 12th. day of each
month. For all misunderstandings which will be encountered by you in
the course of supervising the stations, you must direct yourself to me.

The Administrator: (signed) Trubacheev.
The Secretary : (signed) D. Popov."

C. A LETTER FROM F. SCHERNER, CONTRACTOR OF THE BULGARIAN AND EASTERN
ROUMELIAN POSTAL STATIONS (See the Russian text overleaf on p.30).
"F. SCHERNER
CONTRACTOR OF THE
BULGARIAN & ROUMELIAN
POSTAL STATIONS
30 April 1878.
No. 44. To the Postmaster of the
Town of Sistov. T'rnovo Post Office.

Following upon the reference of Your Excellency of the 27th. of this
month under No.455, I have the honour to inform you that, with regard
to the replacement of the station clerks, I should like to submit to
His Excellency, the Director of the Postal Section in Bulgaria a
revocation of the task assigned to me for carrying this matter forward
to execution, because of the serious lack of suitable candidates at
the designated places.

For the Postal Contractor, Granitic Merchant of the First Guild,
F. Schemer,
The Deputy: (signed) F. Lindenberg." 29







~~ -



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I






D. A LETTER OF THE FIELD POST ADMINISTRATION OF THE ARMY IN OPERATIONS.
"THE FIELD POST
ADMINISTRATION OF THE
ARMY ON ACTIVE SERVICE.
26 July 1878. To the T'rnovo
No.1258. Postmaster.


In forwarding to you herewith, dear Sir, a copy of my telegram, which
had been sent to the Governor at T'rnovo on the 24th. of this month
about the results of the inspection of the postal stations along the
route from Rushchuk to Gabrovo, I am also adding that Lindenberg, the
deputy of Schemer, must replace the unfit horses with good ones in
accordance with the copy being sent herewith, not within 19 but in 12
r days and that, if after the expiration of this period the horses have
not been replaced, then the matter will be acted on in accordance with
clause No.6 of the contract.
From the Director of the : Trubacheev.
Postal Section in Bulgaria
For the Secretary : Kar......." (Russian original below)


1 1'


I, "

i f I





4i j I'


c~v


0
0'
07


m
C.,


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*1


L;


(Russian text continued overleaf) 31


^1 II
*^
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E. A REGISTERED LETTER FROM TEPLITZ
The illustrations on the opposite page are of an Austrian registered
letter with 15 Kr. on the front and 5 Kr. on the back, sent from Teplitz
(now Teplice in Czechoslovakia) on 6 Sept.1877 N.S. and addressed in
German and Russian via the field post office to Janko Vojvodic, captain
of the General Staff at the 12th.Cavalry Division, Bucharest, Roumania.

There is a small part of the Bucharest arrival mark on the back at top
right, but no date is visible. To the left of the 5 Kr. stamp on the back,
there is an incomplete strike of the canceller for Field Post Branch
Office No.2 (3?), subordinate to Field Post Office No.l and apparently
dated 29 Aug.1877 O.S.(= 10 Sept.1877 N.S.). It then went on to Field
Post Branch Office No.4 on 5 Sept.1877 O.S.(top left on the back) and
stayed there at least until 3 Nov.1877 O.S.(bottom centre). It was
presumably then forwarded to Field Post Office No.l on 4 Nov.(?)1877 O.S.
(at top, towards the left) and remained there until 17 Jan.1878 O.S. (the
strike just touching the 5 Kr. stamp).

The letter could not reach the addressee after roughly 5 months in
Roumania and/or Bulgaria, the reason being given by the two different
Russian notations at top on the front and back, reading: "On account of
death, back to Teplitz" and signatures. In its return, the letter finally
entered Russia at the border post office of Ungeni in Bessarabia, where
it received the No.9 postmark at centre left on the back, dated 23 Jan.
1878 O.S.(=4 Feb.1878 N.S.). On 24 Jan. O.S.(5 Feb.N.S.), it was in the
Russian border post office at VOLOCHISK (see at front, just to the left
of the 15 Kr. stamp), stayed there for one day (see back at top right)
and then crossed over to the Austrian side at PODWOLOCZYSKA the same day
on 6 Feb.1878 N.S.(incomplete strike just left of the centre on the back).
It was back in Teplitz two days later on 8 Feb.N.S.(postmark at far left
on the back). Quite an odyssey!













































EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Mehrtens also included a copy of the Treaty of
Berlin, signed on 13 July 1878 and superseding the earlier Treaty of San
Stefano. The latter treaty would have made Bulgaria a strong Slav state
under the auspices and control of Russia. The subsequent Treaty of Berlin
sharply reduced the size of Bulgaria and the influence of Russia, while
leaving the many Christians of Macedonia still under Turkish rule. It
thus sowed the seeds for further conflict, which was not resolved until
the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. The Treaty of Berlin cannot be reproduced
here, as it was one of the longest on record, with 63 articles. It is
given in full, with introductory comments, in "The Times" of London for
Wednesday, 17 July 1878, p.10.

Passing now to recording items with field postmarks of the Russo-Turkish
War, it should be noted that there was only one Field Post Office
(Kontora No.l),to which at least 22 Field Post Branches (Otdeleniya)
were subordinate. Mr. Mehrten's wonderful study is continued overleaf.











F. LIST OF FIELD POST POSTMARKS OF THE
ADMINISTRATION OF MILITARY POSTS OF THE OPERATIONAL ARMY IN BULGARIA
(1877-1879)


No. No. of
Rossica
List

1 (23)


FIELD POST


"Kontora" No. 1


2 ( 1)


3 ( 2)


5 (41)



6 ( 3)



7 (37)


DATE


16/07/1877



18/07/1877




10/08/1877



04/07/1877 +
17/01/1878



02/01/1878



10/01/1878



18/02/1878


TYPE


DESTINATION


letter (sealed) Bucharest



letter (sealed) Bucharest




St. Petersburg


COLLECTION



P. Sedura


Rumanian-Russian Museum,
Bucharest



M.Liphschutz, Paris


seal reg.letter priv.letter X
for an officer with the 12.Cav.Dir.


seal.reg.letter



letter(sealed)


Sistov


Svishtov


Sofia


B.V.Stenshinskii,Moscow


Fr. Zee, Vienna



D. Kraev, Sofia


V. Stoianov, Bulgaria


8 (31)


17/06/1878


money letter


Tirnovo


















No. No. of FIELD POST DATE TYPE DESTINATION COLLECTION
Rossica
List

9 (42) "Kontora" No. 1 29/06/1878 seal.reg.letter Novyi Petergof, A.N.Muchaidze Tbilisi,
Russia USSR


05/07/1878


10




11 (35)



12 (36)



13


II (X)14


" (from
Rustchuk)


17/08/1878



17/08/1878



25/08/1878



01/09/1878


18/09/1878


official package Tirnovo (mit
Zivilpostst.)


Bucharest


official package Ruen Lifl.gub.


Tirnovo



Tirnovo



Tirnovo


x




B.A.Kaminski, Moscow



O.Forafontov, Moscow



D. Kraev, Sofia



D. Feldmann auct.



see Publication of
D. Zagorsky


03/11/1878


official package Sofia


S.Bofarull, Madrid


17 (4"3)


07/11/1878











No. No. of FIELD POST DATE TYPE DESTINATION COLLECTION
Rossica
List


"Kontora" No. 1


30/11/1878



30/12/1878


L.Wortman, England


unknown


unknown


1878 official package field hospital


18 (32)



19 ( 4)



20 ( 5)



21 ( 6)


Sophia


F. Zee


Kurt Adler, New York



M.Liphschutz, Paris


Sophia (arr.21/2/1879) D.Kraev, Sofia


26/03/1878


letter (sealed)


45th Reserve
Batallion


K. Adler, New York


Otdielenie No. 2


21/09/1877


01/10/1877


with Rumanian
stamp / used



sealed letter


unknown


B.A.Kaminskii, Moscow


Milan, Italy


R. Casey


1 4


21/01/1879



18/02/1879


23 (22)


"Kontora"


24 ( 7)


25 (38)


















No. No. of
Ross ica
List

44 (16)


45 (26)



46 (17)



47 (18)


48 (47)


49 (19)



50 (20)



51 (25)


L 52 (46)


DESTINATION


Otdielenie No. 9


17/08/1877



25/03/1878


Otdielenie No. 11 09/1877



30/05/1878




24/09/1877




Otdielenie No. 12 14/07/1877



16/07/1877



22/07/1877



(operating at this 06/10/1878
time out of Adrionopel)


letter (sealed) St.Petersburg



official package Bolgrad



letter (sealed) St.Petersburg



insured letter Ekaterinodar


sealed letter


Zimnicea


formular postcard Zaraisk


stamped postcard


stamped postcard Zaraisk


official package Sofia


M.Liphschutz, Paris



Gordon Torrey, USA



M.Liphschutz, Paris



N.Iliev,V.Turnovo,
Bulgaria



A.N.Muchaidze,
Tbilisi, USSR



M.P.Terenina, Moscow



K.Adler, New York



A. Boves, Moscow


M.Liphschutz,Paris/Fr.


FIELD POST


DATE


TYPE


COLLECTION













No. No. of
Rossica
List


DESTINATION


26 (44) Otdielenie No. 2 24/09/1877 "Zimnicea A.N.Muchaidze,
Tbilisi, USSR


No. 2
(or evtl.


Otdielenie No. 3




Otdielenie No. 4


29 or
28/08/1877

01/12/1877




23/07/1877



07/11/1877



14/07/1878



03/11/1877



14/08/1878


05/09/1877
+ 03/11/1877


seal.reg.letter
with the 12th Cav.Div.


with Rumanian
stamp / used


unknown


letter (sealed) Moscow


see Sovetskii
Kollektsioner, No. 8



M. Liphschutz, Paris


bivouac near Pleven B.A.Kaminskii, Moscow


St. Petersburg


O.V.Forafoutov, Moscow


see BJRP 34


28 ( 8)




29 ( 9)



30 (10)



31 (11)



32 (30)



33 (33)


B.A.Kaminskii, Moscow


official package Bucharest



( seal reg.letter priv.letter
with the 12. Cav.Div.


COLLECTION


DATE


TYPE '


FIELD POST


, I












No. No. of FIELD POST DATE TYPE DESTINATION COLLECTION
Rossi ca
List

35 (24) Otdielenie No. 5 06/07/1877 letter (sealed) lassy B.Aleksandrovich, Moscow


Otdielenie No. 6



Otdielenie No. 8


18/07/1877



17/06/1878


unknown


Bucharest



unknown


Rumanian-Russian Museum



see Filatelen Pregled,
No. 4, 1963


27/06/1878



08/08/1878


09/08/1878



17/06/1878



03/03/1878


see Prigera


official


money letter



formula postcard


Turnovo


Tirnovo



Riazan


see Sovetskii
Kollektsioner, No. 8



M.Liphschutz, Paris



V.Stoianov, Bulgaria



L.Mel'nikov, Moscow


08/07/1878 official Tirnovo


36 (12)



37 (13)


39 (14)


40 (15)



41 (34)



42 (45)







0



No. No. of FIELD POST DATE TYPE DESTINATION COLLECTION
Rossica
List
53 (39) Otdielenie No. 12 09/01/1879 official package Sofia D-. Kraev, Sofia
53 (39) Otdielenie No. 12 09/01/1879 o ff i cial package Sof ia D. Kraev, Sofia


Otdielenie No. 15


Otdielenie No. 16



Otdielenie No. 18



Otdielenie No. 19
at Nikopol


26/07/1877



24/09/1877



23/12/1877



20/08/1878



05/01/1878



29/09/1878



27/02/1878



11/07/1878


stamped postcard Piarnu


unknown


letter(sealed)



sealed letter


insured letter


unknown



Svishtov



Tirnovo o


Sistov



SIiven


letter (sealed) Riazan


off.package


Raymond Casey,England


see Prigara


Boris Pritt, England


D. Kraev


B.V.Stenshinskii, Moscow



L.Iurkovski, Bulgaria



S.M.Blekhman, Moscow



ex F. See


Sofia


0


54 (27)


56 (28)



57 (40)



58 (48)



59 (29)



60 (21)



61





'< I <


No. No. of FIELD POST DATE TYPE DESTINATION COLLECTION
Rossica
List
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
62 Otdielenie No. 20 06/05/1878 Tirnovo X



63 (49) 03/07/1878 official package Tirnovo S.Bofarull/Madrid,Spain



64 Otdielenie No. 22 04/09/1879 letter unknown unknown see Prigara+Glasewald

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



The postmarks of Kont. 1 (17/06/1878) and Otd. 8 (17/06/1878) are on the same cover
Otd. 4 (14/08/1878) and Kont.1 (17/08/1878)
Otd. 4 (05/09/ + 03/11/77)
and Kont. 1 (04/?/1877 + 17/01/1878)
and Otd. 2(or 3) (29/?08?/1877) are on the same cover.

(X) On this cover there is a second print of a "Kontora" postmark on this letter described as Kontora No. 2.
The print was, however, not clear enough to say for sure that Kontora 2 was involved.


X under collection are items in my collection.



















































CKo6eAeB% noAL ILAtieHi 1877 roAmxa.
IIcrTncEa oToorp anecEa czHEa.
, ~eu rt, PrE-Snmilchn.


lHH WHIEH 1f7 r.


IIptHHaBaHeTo na AHyasa Ha


* ~ *- *,
V..


G. POSTCARDS WITH SCENES AND PERSONS
RELATING TO THE LIBERATION OF
BULGARIA IN THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR.
The three cards shown on this page
were produced by V. Neubert of Prague-
Smichov (now in Czechoslovakia),
while the item at the top of the next
page is a local Bulgarian production,
issued to commemorate the 25th.
anniversary of the beginning of the
war and the main personalities involved.


-











S 7 --- Card showing
S Shuvalov,Totleben,
Gr. Duke Nikolai
r Nikolaevich,Tsars
'Aleksandr II&III,
Skobelev,Kridener,
Gurko, Batemberg,
IT Gen. Dragomirov,
aKing Carol I,
Korsakov,Ganetskii,
Radetskii,
Dandevil', Zotov,

Obruchev, Gen.
S Popescu, Stoletov,
Tsimmerman,Zedeler.
Designed by Pet'r
A.Petrov of Sofia.


G. A PROCLAMATION BY H.M. NIKOLAI II OF 5 OCT.1915 (Russian text overleaf)
" By the Grace of God, We, Nikolai the Second, Emperor and Sole Ruler of
all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, etc., etc., etc.,
announce the following to all Our faithful subjects:

SCraftily preparing from the very beginning of the war and all the while
seeming impossible, the treachery of Bulgaria against the Slav camp has
been brought to a conclusion: the Bulgarian forces have attacked OUR
faithful ally Serbia with the spilling of blood in the struggle with a
most powerful enemy.
Russia and the Great Powers allied with US warned the government of
Ferdinand of the Coburg Dynasty against this fatal step. The fulfilment
of the long-standing aspirations of the Bulgarian people the
incorporation of Macedonia had been secured for Bulgaria by another
method, in accordance with the interests of Slavdom. But the secret and
greedy calculations inspired by the Germans and the fraticidal enmity
against the Serbs won the day.
Bulgaria, which has the same religion as US and, indeed, was recently
liberated from Turkish bondage by the brotherly love and blood of the
Russian people, has openly gone over to the side of the enemies of the
faith of Christ, of. Slavdom, of. Russia.
The Russian people will receive with sorrow the treachery of Bulgaria,
which has been so close to them right up to the very last and will
unsheath its sword against it with a heavy heart, leaving the fate of the
traitors to Slavdom to the just retribution of God.
Given at the Imperial Headquarters on the 5th. day of October in the
year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifteen, in the twenty-
first year of OUR reign.
The original proclamation has been signed by the Very Own hand of HIS
IMPERIAL MAJESTY:
& 'NIKOLAI'.

Place of Printing: Printed in Petrograd, at the Senate, October 6th. 1915."

43* *
43






BOIE IE0 MIJOCTIIO


MbI, HIKO/IAl BTOPbIH,

HMIIEPATOPI H CAMOREPIfEr%

BCEPOCCIKCHIl,
UAPb IIOJbCKI., BEJHKI4 KHR3b HHJIHH~CCKI{ ,
H IPOrLA R, H rPOqAH5, H nPOrIAH.

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meCq,, npeaocTaBsna cyab6y H3MtHHHKOB'b CAaBIHCTBa cnpaBeaJIHBOf Kapt Boxiet.
AaHS BTb LapcKofi CTaBK- B- 3 ACeH OIKTR6p, B'b AtTO on POHmecTBa
XpHcroBa TucRaa AeBaThCOra naTHaaraToe, IjapCTBOBaHia me HALUEFO B- ABaAuaTL
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Ha InO21HHHOM-b CO6CTBCHHOIo EI'O HMHEPATOPCKATO BEJIHIECTBA
pyKO0I noAnrcaHO:
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IleqUano Ba IIcTporpaAt, upli Cenart. |OKTai6pa 6 AIIa 1915 rowa.
r, Airni --, -~iE







REPOLONIZACJA

by Andrew Cronin.

* The title is a Polish word, referring to the doctrine of reclaiming for
Poland the eastern territories lost at the beginning of WWII to its
Belorussian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian neighbours. This movement has
resurfaced since the recent drastic political changes in Poland and,
early in February this year, the writer saw a remark in a Toronto
newspaper by a noted Polish political figure that "it is now time to open
up with the Soviet Union the question of Poland's eastern borders". It is
sincerely to be hoped that this doctrine does not become a national
policy, as the possible dreadful consequences in that part of Eastern
Europe in these unpredictable times are just too horrible to contemplate.

The Rzeczpospolita Polska or Polish Commonwealth lost its eastern
territories when the Red Army crossed the border on 17 September 1939.
The philatelic consequences for Central Lithuania and Western Belorussia
have already been covered in "The Post-Rider" No.14, pp.4-32. With the
entry of the Lithuanian SSR into the USSR on 2 Aug.1940, all the former
Polish eastern provinces were now Soviet territory. However, the Polish
military circles in exile abroad did not recognize this incorporation.
It is the intent of the present article to shed some light on the
factors involved and the philatelic material linked to those events. The
latter will be examined under the following headings:-

I. THE POLISH ARMY IN THE USSR UNDER GENERAL WLADYSLAW ANDERS.
This force decided during 1942 to issue
a postage stamp for the Polish field
posts in the USSR and a design
competition was held. It was originally
won by a designer under the pseudonym i I'
of "STAN." and his entry is illustrated ZAVA
herewith. The writer has die proof R
impressions in inverted pairs of this
essay in the following combinations:- POCZTA POL/KAwZY..R

(a) Milky blue on white paper.
(b) Blue on grey paper.
(c) Carmine on grey paper.
(d) Green on grey paper.

This essay was rejected because of the /.' vaZ0/1Od V1230d
political implications of the design.
The wing of the Piast eagle more or"'
less outlined the pre-WWII eastern
border of Poland and included Lw6w O N.
(L'viv, capital of the Western Ukraine)
and Wilno (Vilnius, capital of
Lithuania). The famous "Dojdziemy"
design was then selected and it was
issued at Yangi Yul near Tashkent in Uzbekistan on 18 August 1942.

II. THE ISSUES OF THE POLISH OFFICER CAMP POSTS IN GERMANY DURING WWII.
The officer corps was the cream of Polish society, as it was difficult
to enter a military college between the two world wars and the graduates
were highly educated and cultured men, especially those in the reserve.
They were also strongly nationalistic and that trend was reflected in
the postage stamps and associated material issued by the camp posts.







Ingeniously cut on wood to produce single dies for printing under
difficult and restrictive conditions, these items are fascinating, both
in the subject matter and the final results achieved. The two camps of
interest to us were Ob6z Oficer6w / Oflag IIC at Woldenberg and IID at
Gross-Born. Let us look at each in turn:-

(a) Woldenberg (Camp IIC).
(i) The first reference in this camp to the eastern territories was to
the city of Lw6w/L'viv in the Western Ukraine. It was founded soon after
the year 1245 A.D. by Prince Daniil Romanovych, who named it after his
son Lev. Lev means lion, which is why it appears in the city's coat of
arms. It was first mentioned in 1256 in the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle
and became the capital of the Galician-Volhynian Principality in 1272.
It was captured by the Polish King Kazimierz III in 1349 and remained
under Polish influence until 22 September 1939 upon the entry of the Red
Army. There are now about 20,000 Poles left in the city.

The camp post celebrated on 22 Nov.1943 with a special postmark the 25th.
anniversary of the entry of Polish forces in the city, after the
collapse of the Austrians, who had ruled it since 1772. This impressive
marking gives the name of the city and its motto in Latin, to read: LWOW
ALWAYS FAITHFUL. The coat of arms shows a lion rampant in the portal of
a castle and three towers above. The designer left out the two stars in
front of the lion's head, but has inserted at its feet what seems to be
the cross of the VIRTUTI MILITARI order, which was instituted in 1792.
The head of an eagle and a sprig of laurel leaves were also added.

In conjunction-with this marking, there were two separate woodcuts of
famous churches in the city, applied on the backs of postcards sold in
the camp (please see the illustrations on the next page). The card at
left shows the ensemble of the Latin Cathedral and the associated Boim
Chapel, situated on the square between Halyts'ka and Teatralna streets.
The'writer has-separate postcards with this woodcut printed in black,
green, dark green, red-brown and dark red-brown.

The card at right shows the ensemble of the Church of the Assumption,
together with the Kornyakt Bell Tower and the Chapel of the Three
Prelates, located at the corner of Pidvalna and Rus'ka streets.
Kornyakt was a wealthy Greek merchant in the city, who had financed the
construction of the Bell Tower and Chapel from 1572 to 1591. The
author has this woodcut printed on the back of cards in red and olive-
green. Other colours probably exist.


VULITSA ARMYANSKA
Map of the city
centre in Lw6w/
L'viv, showing 1-
the location ofy k^ke O .
the two churches -
mentioned above. -- l ,
It will be noted A Church of the
that they are Assumption
not very far Latin ULITSA FRUNZE i
apart. CathedralI IF II- i







*n


-, _______- ______ I.
(ii) The second reference apparently
coincided with the celebration of Christmas
1943 at Woldenberg, with the appearance of
another woodcut applied to the backs of cards
and showing the famous Pointed Gate in the
oldest section of Wilno (Vilnius, capital of
Lithuania). Best known as Ostra Brama in
Polish, it is called Ausros Vartai or
MedininkV Vartai (The Dawn Gate or Medininskii i
Gate) in Lithuanian and Ostrye Vorota or
Medininskie Vorota in Russian. In his great B
work "Pan Tadeusz", the finest Polish poet
Adam Mickiewicz refers to "Lithuania, my
motherland" in the first three words of the
poem and to Ostra Brama in line six.
The woodcut also shows the small chapel above
the gate (Kaplica Ostrobramska), founded by
the Carmelites in the 17th. century and where
there is a renowned icon of the Holy Virgin Litwo!Ojczyznomojaltyjeste jakzdrowie;
Mary, captured by the Grand Duke Algirdas Tie ci trzeba cenic, ten tylko siq dowie,
at Khersones in the Crimea in 1363. The Kto ciqstaci. Dzig piqkno tw w calej ozdobie
writer has this woodcut on the backs of Widz i opiujq,botskni po tobie.
cards used on 27 Dec.1943, printed in black
or red-brown. Other colours may exist.
r r. O c m e Panno Swiqta, co Jasnej bronisz Czqstochowy
We see above the chapel an ornamented
We see abve the chapel an onamented I w Ostrej dwiecisz Bramie! Ty, co gr6d zamkowy
attic. This attic and the famous icon were Nowog6dzkiochraniaszzegie
Nowogr6dzki ochraniasz z jego wiernym ludem
47


II



.. fl .....







L. I. LIETUVA+LITUANIE

ATVIRUKAS
CART E POSTAL



L'ottiqve d'Auiros Vrtaonol
LI ETUVA+LITUAN I E

featured on twoeiro
35-cent.cards of.. A T V I R U K A S
i'thuania early cA.R TE POSTALE
in 1940 and
photogravured in
red-brown. They
are very scarce,
as the printings
were small and
the cards were
withdrawn later
in the year
because of their
religious content
after LithuaniaI Vi niusr, vwheno Di.vo Moin
became part. of. .cs Viwp0 d'A*t ol Voai i
the tUSSR.. c w b g



(iii) The third reference came about
on 19 April 1944 in honour of the" ..
25th. anniversary of the entry of
the Polish Army into Wilno (Vilnius, "
capital of Lithuania), when a
special cancellation was applied in .
black, as shown here. The meaning
of the three crosses will be given WILNO .. .'.'- ,,
later. This marking was also o oa
struck onf various-stamps of the ..;
camp issues, affixed to embossed rect








affixing a stamp to the uppermost "
pieces of paper.An example is *to be XJ191: II T II.4
pseenrhere,-with the Polish essagle d. i
shown twice at top and separated byears :" i
the number XXV, while the name WILNO
flanked4by curved bars appears at
bottom. There were also horizontal
strips of paper, folded in half at
left and with an embossed rectangle
plus simulated perforations for
affixing a stamp to the uppermost
half of the folded paper. This. -. 1 l 91l1Q
embossing can be found in two .V.--
variations: concave and convex. The '" .- [ .
paper-half underneath is embossed V X,
with the arms of the city, the years ,i
1919 & 1944 and the word WILNO
48







flanked by bars. Unfortunately, as the embossing is colourless, it
cannot be shown here. The arms feature St.Christopher & the Christ Child.

A quick word here about St. Christopher (Swiuty Krzysztof / 6ventas
Kristupas), as he will crop up again. He was martyred in Roman times and
legend has it that he carried an unknown child across a ford. He was
borne down by its weight, despite his own gigantic stature and strength
and leaning on his staff. It was the Christ Child, carrying in his hand
the weight of the whole world. Hence the saint's name, derived from the
Greek and meaning Bearer of Christ. He has appeared in this pose on the
seal of Wilno/Vilnius as far back as 1387, as well as constituting the
coat of arms of the city.
Also in conjunction with the anniversary, .
there was a woodcut applied on the backs
of postcards and featuring a famous" -
monument on a hill in the city, which
was originally called Plikasis Kalnas
(Lithuanian), Lysa G6ra (Polish) or
Lysaya Gora (Russian); they all mean The
Bald Hill. The writer is indebted to his
correspondent,native of the city, for the
fascinating story of this hill. The
Lithuanians were pagans until they
adopted Christianity in 1387. During the
temporary absence of the ruling prince,
the pagans seized the Christian / S
missionaries and crucified them on the .
hill. On his.return, the prince ordered
the adoption'of. Catholicism and that
three crosses be placed on the hill in a
memory of the massacre. It then became
known as Trijq Krylii Kalnas (Lithuanian)
or'G6ra Trzech:Krzyiy (Polish), i.e. The
Hill of the Three Crosses. The crosses --
were of wood until 1916 when, during the
German occupation, the Polish architect
A. Wiwulski constructed the monument in
reinforced concrete, as shown on the l
woodcut. That was the first reinforced
concrete structure in those parts. It -.
survived WWII but, on the occasion of19
the 10th. anniversary of the Lithuanian-
SSR in the summer of 1950, it was blown |Of
up one night by the Soviet authorities LnoM W INI
because of its religious significance.
However, that is not the end of the story as our readers will find out
when they read the Editorial Comment to the article by Vygintas Bubnys
on "The Lithuanian Republican Posts" (see p.59).
The writer has separate postcards with the woodcut applied in black and
blue. It would be interesting to know if other colours exist. The
significance of the three crosses appears to have been derived from the
crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the two thieves on Mount Calvary in
Jerusalem.

* (iv) On 18-25 August 1944, the camp celebrated the Week of the Eastern
Lands (Tydzief Ziem Wschodnich), during which a special set of three
stamps imperforate was issued on 20 August, ungummed and with a total
printing of 6040 sets, valid until 31 October 1944. The details are as
follow:-







10+15 Pfg. olive: Krzemieniec-Gimnazjum WolyAskie /
01i[eGla m s Lk Kremenets'kyj Litsej. Kremenets' is beautifully located
63 km.(40 miles) NNE of Ternopil' in the Western
Ukraine and the stamp shows what was originally a
church and Jesuit college dating back to about 1720.
It was transformed into the Volhynian Gymnasium or
Junior College in 1804. After the failure of the Polish
Uprising of November 1830, the Gymnasium was closed,
its large library transferred in 1831 to Kiev and acquired by the
university there, which opened in 1834. Aleksander Mickiewicz, the
brother of Poland's greatest poet, studied at the Gymnasium, as did
Kazimierz Gzowski, who later became Sir Casimir Gzowski, a famous
Canadian educator and engineer in the last century; he is on a 5
Canadian stamp issued on 5 March 1963. It was a Polish high school
between the two world wars, transformed into a Ukrainian teachers'
college in 1940 and subsequently became a State Pedagogical Institute,
which has been named after Taras Shevchenko since 1989. The writer is
very indebted to Mieczyslaw Lubinski of Toronto, a pre-war pupil of the
school and Henrykh Styrankevych of Kremenets' for valuable information
about this institution.
20+25 Pfg. blue: Zamek Swirzu/Zamok Svirzhu. Svirzh is
W 35 km. (22 miles) south-east of L'viv, the capital of
the Western Ukraine and the castle shown here goes
back to the 15th. century. Almost nothing has been
published about this edifice, but the writer is deeply
grateful to a 70-year old Svirzh resident, Lyudviha
Prokopivna Lemishovs'ka for photographs of the castle
-a----s it now stands and to Anna Sniefek of Poland, who
sent .a book .with a reference to and illustration of the castle.
1 35+45.Pf. 'red-brown: Kosci61 Swietego Jana w Wilnie /
Svento. Jono BaZnycia Vilniuje. This church of St. John in
RU Wilno (Vilnius, capital of Lithuania) is situated in the.
university grounds in the old part of the city, being built
between 1387 and 1426. It was visited by several Polish
kings and even Peter the Great of Russia. Serving as the
university church for many years, it was closed after WWII
and used as a warehouse until 1979, when it became a
museum of sciences where concerts and chamber music have
been performed. There is now agitation to return the
building, with its associated 68-metre high tower, to its
original function. Once again, the writer is much indebted to his
Vilnius correspondent for translating the above data from a
comprehensive Lithuanian handbook on historical monuments.

There were at least two presentation sheets issued with this set, with
appropriate-spaces.for affixing and cancelling the stamps with the
special postmark in Polish, reading TYDZIEN ZIEM WSCHODNICH 18-25 VIII 44:

(1) A design measuring 102x132 mm. and embossed in colourless relief on
white paper, so it cannot be reproduced here. It has the Piast eagle at
top, flanked on each side by four tassels, below which are the names
and spaces for KRZEMIENIEC, WILNO and SWIRZ, in that order. At centre
bottom, there is a sprig of laurel crossed by a sabre, the word ZYWIOL(?)
at left and BRONIC(?) at right, presumably meaning:to defend the element,
i.e. the Polish element in those areas.

(2) A frame design in grey on white paper and measuring 69x124 mm. (see
the illustration on the next page). It reads at top TYDZIEN KRESOW =
Week of the Limits, i.e. of the Borderlands and at bottom it has the
names KRZEMIENIEC, WILNO and SWIRZ.














*':




















..

6I


--;c p T....J



.>lu3ucz-

6 ~


.*' .W. .,s' *


: :
I
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~. .;
'-' ;
,c: ~
-


* I. :


a






There was also a card produced with a medieval theme in black and gray,to
which any stamp and the special postmark could be applied, as seen in
the second illustration on p.51.

The same set of three stamps has also be seen on piece with a special
double postmark in red, dated 22 VIII 44, featuring the Red Cross in
the centre of the left-hand part of the marking and with an inscription
which appears to read MILUJ BLItNIEGO (see the third illustration on
p.51). Confirmation and further information about this marking would be
appreciated from our readers.

(b) Gross-Born (Camp IID).
This camp post did not start functioning until a good 18 months after
Woldenberg and, by perhaps profiting from the experience at the latter,
Gross-Born produced stamps in a more professional way. Although only
single woodcuts were made for each design, they were carefully impressed
in alignment on the paper to produce sheets of stamps, generally 2
across by 5 down. As of 22 June 1944, they were rouletted for ease of
separation by using cog-wheels from watches! More about that later. Now
to the issues of interest to us.

(i) A set of five rouletted stamps was issued on 4 Sept.1944, showing
the coats of arms of various cities. Two of the cities were in the
former eastern territories and the following items can be recorded:-

P 0 C Z T. A.I O CT AV 7 -.T-,

POCWA I CZTA


QBOZU1IIW' WUU







The 5 Pfg. value in brown, showing the arms of the city of Wilno/Vilnius,
with St. Christopher fording the river with his staff and holding the
Christ Child, printed in 17,616 copies and also applied in the same
Scolour to two varieties of postcards, differing in the lettering of the
word POCZT6WKA.'The writer also has a card with the adhesive affixed and
a woodcut in black on the back showing St. Christopher and the Christ
Child, with the years 1919 and 1944 at bottom separated by the word
WILNO. Note the reversed N in the name among the illustrations given on
the previous page. The entire set was valid until 28 January 1945.

The 30 Pfg. value in orange, with the arms : TA P CZ
of the city of Lw6w/L'viv showing the lion : i
in the portal of the castle, the three
towers above and,.once again at the feet
of the lion rampant, what appears to be
the medal of the Virtuti Militari order
and associated ribbon on each side. There I ID BOZ I
were 11,332 copies printed of this stamp.... .. *

(ii) The city of Lw6w/L'viv appears again
on 11 Jan.1945 with a rouletted stamp now 20GPDoCzR 4 20*POCZTA
on gummed paper and the value given in
Polish currency i.e. 20 GR. The design
shows the partial arms of the city with
the lion rampant and the motto SEMPER
FIDELIS (ALWAYS FAITHFUL) printed in
brown and the frame portion in blue.
Examination of copies of this issue
Proves that several cog-wheels of various
gauges were in use and one can thus find GR08BJID UIiUROBID'20
stamps with compound roulettes, as will
be seen here on the example at right. The writer believes that this
variety has not been recorded in the literature until now and other
examples should theoretically exist.
I I 2










AEPBEICb O MICTA A u XII cr. 3.3

OF THE 12TH. CENTURY.
This bicoloured stamp was also impressed on a special postcard on the







occasion of the Week of the Land of Czerwien, which ran 7-14 Jan.1945.
Both the bicoloured stamp and the postcard were .valid until 28 Jan.1945.
The ZIEMIA CZERWIEASKA or GRODI CZERWIENSKIE (in Ukrainian:
CflScu a ~1O9) 1 MM 35 XSNQmC"o
AREA OF THE TOWNS OF MAIE T N7IEM1
CZERWIEN' AT THE END CZERWIE"Mi
OF THE 12TH. CENTURY.

This bicoloured stamp was also impressed on a special postcard on the
occasion of the Week of the Land of CzerwieA, which ran 7-14 Jan.1945.
Both the bicoloured stamp and the postcard were-valid until 28 Jan.1945.
The ZIEMIA CZERWIE'SKA or GRODI CZERWIENSKIE (in Ukrainian:






Chervens'ko-Kholms'ka Zemlya or Chervens'ki Mista) was a medieval area
grouped around the town of Czerwien (currently Czermno in Poland) and
included such localities as Belz, Chelm Lubelski (Kholm), Grabowiec,
Hrubiesz6w, Volodymyr, Vsevolozh etc in the borderland of what is now
Eastern Poland and the northern part of the Western Ukraine (see the
map herewith at the bottom of p.53, taken from the Ukrainian Soviet
Encyclopaedia, Vol.16, p.95, Kiev 1964). It was mentioned by the
ancient chronicler Nestor (see the two Soviet stamps in his honour,
issued on 22 Sept.1956) as far back as the llth. century and was
subsequently absorbed by the Halyts'ko-Volyns'ke Knyazivstvo (Galician-
Volhynian Principality), whose overall area approximated what is now
the Western Ukraine and lasted from 1199 to roughly the end of the 14th.
century when it was carved up by the Hungarians, Lithuanians and Poles.

The design on the postcard and on the special postmark for the TYDZIEN
ZIEMI CZERWIENSKIEJ (Week of the Land of Czerwien) shows the three coats
of arms for Tarnopol/Ternopil' (should be a 6-pointed star and crescent),
Lw6w/L'viv (abbreviated to show just the lion rampant) and Stanislaw6w/
Stanyslaviv, now Ivano-Frankivs'k (abbreviated to show just the Eastern
Orthodox Cross). The camp designers have made a historical mistake here,
as none of these three towns was in the Land of Czerwien, but rather in
the much larger Principality. The identification of coats of arms in
Eastern Europe is tricky, as many of them were similar, or were often
changed as fiefdoms passed to new feudal lords. The writer is
especially indebted to Henryk W6jcik of Toronto, an expert in Polish
heraldry, for his help and valuable advice.

Further.comments and/or additional data would be welcomed by the writer.
*

THE LITHUANIAN REPUBLICAN POSTS

by Vygintas Bubnys.

As of 29 March 1990, special markings in two lines reading "Lietuvos
Respublikos Pastas" (Lithuanian Republican Posts) began to be applied
by the post offices of the Lithuanian Republic. Upon receipt of the
correspondence to be sent, the postal employees themselves applied the
above-mentioned cachets. However, there are many towns where people
took it upon themselves and thus applied such markings without any
objection being raised and the letters successfully reached the
addressees. I am presenting below a listing of the towns known to me
where the above-mentioned markings were put into use, together with
indications of their size, colour, time and earliest date which I have
been able to find on mail, taking into consideration non-philatelic
correspondence and official mail, despatched by persons who cannot be
suspected of special philatelic intent.

1. Antakalnis 08.05.90 8.5 x 41.5mm. black
2. Anykg6iai 03.04.90 9 x 42.5mm. black
3. Biritonas 20.04.90 10 x 43.5mm. black
4. BirZai 02.05.90 9.5 x 43.5mm. black
5. Druskininkai 03.05.90 10 x 42.5mm. black
5a. Druskininkai 17.05.90 10 x 45mm. black
6. Garliava 10.07.90 9.5 x 42.5mm. black
7. Ignalina 09,04.90 9.5 x 42mm. black, violet
7a. Ignalina 05.07.90 11 x 50mm. black
8. Jonava 03.04.90 8.5 x 43mm. violet
9. Jonigkis 04.04.90 9 x 43mm. black, violet







10. Jurbarkas
11. Kaisiadorys
12. Kaunas
12a. Kaunas C
12b. Kaunas 21
12c. Kaunas 31
12d. Kaunas 42
12dd. Kaunas 42
12e. Kaunas 43
13. Kelm6
14. Kedainiai
.14a. Kedainiai
15. Klaip6da
15a. Klaipbda
16. Kretinga
16a. Kretinga
17. Kupiskis
17a. Kupiskis
18. LaZanoras
19. Lazdijai
20. Marijampol6
20a. Marijampole
21. Maieikiai
21a. Mazeikiai
22. Moletai
22a. Mol6tai
23. Naujoji Akmene
23a. Naujoji.Akmene
23b. .Naujoji Akmend
23c. Naujoji Akmene
24. Neringa
25. .Palanga
25a. Palanga.
26. Pakruojis
26a. Pakruojis
26b. Pakruojis
26c. Pakruojis
26d. Pakruojis
27. Panevezys
28. Pasvalys
28a. Pasvalys
28b. Pasvalys
29. Plung6
30. Prienai
31. Radviliskis
31a. Radviliskis
32. Raseiniai
33. Rokiskis
34. Skuodas
35. Sakiai
35a. gakiai
35b. Sakiai
35c. 6akiai
36. 6iauliai
36a. giauliai
36b. giauliai
36c. Siauliai
37. tilal6
37a. Silal1
37b. Silale


02.04.90 9x43mm.
30.03.90 9.5x45mm.
30.03.90 9x43.5mm.
06.04.90 9.5x42mm.
20.04.90 9.5x42mm.
06.04.90 8.5x42mm.
02.04.90 10x42mm.
21.06.90 12x52mm.
09.04.90 10x44mm.
02.04.90 9x42.5mm.
15.04.90 11x43.5mm.
29.05.90 11x48mm.
10.04.90 9x44mm.
18.07.90 11.5x51mm.
02.04.90 10x43mm.
08.05.90 llx47mm.
09.04.90 9.5x42.5mm.
07.06.90 10.5x46.5mm.
31.07.90 9x41.5mm.
06.04.90 9x42mm.
06.04.90 10.5x42.5mm.
01.06.90 11.5x45.5mm.
03.04.90 9x42mm.
20.08.90 12x51mm.
09.04.90 10x43.5mm.
04.06.90 10x45mm.
03.04.90 10x45mm.
13.06.90 9x42. mm.
23.05.90 11.5x51.5mm.
15.05.90 10.5x48mm.
12.04.90 9x41.5mm.
10.04.90 10.5x42.5mm.
13.08.90 8.5x43mm.
18.04.90 11.5x46.5mm.
09.07.90 12x51.5mm.
31.05.90 9.5x45mm.
30.05.90 10x48mm.
21.08.90 12x53.5mm.
26.04.90 8.5x42.5mm.
09.04.90 9.5x44.5mm.
18.05.90 10x49mm.
09.04.90 8.5x42.5mm.
26.04.90 9x41.5mm.
03.04.90 9x43mm.
13.04.90 9.5x45mm.
10.06.90 11.5x50.5mm.
03.04.90 9x43.5mm.
19.04.90 8.5x42.5mm.
31.03.90 9.5x41.5mm.
02.04.90 9.5x42mm.
25.04.90 9.5x45mm.
29.06.90 10x47mm.
04.07.90 12x51.5mm.
30.03.90 9.5x41mm.
03.04.90 10x43.5mm.
05.06.90 11.5x47.5mm.
24.07.90 11.5x52.5mm.
30.03.90 10x44mm.
03.05..90 10.5x48mm.
04.07.90 12x50mm.


black, violet
black
black
violet
black
violet
black
black
black, violet
black, violet, blue
black
black
black
black
black
black
black


black
black
black
black
black
black,
black
black
black
black
black
black
black
violet
black,
black
black


blue








blue, violet


black
black
black
black
violet
black
black
black
black, violet
black
black
black
black
blue, violet
black, blue, violet
black
black
black
black
violet
black
black
black
black
black
black







37c.
38.
38a.
39.
40.
40a.
41.
42.
43.
43a.
44.
45.
46.


47.
47a.
47b.


Silale
dilute
gilute
Sirvintos
gvencionys
Svendionys
Taurag6
Telliai
Ukmergq
Ukmergd
Var6na
Vilkavigkis
Vilnius
(split into
two parts)
Zarasai
Zarasai
Zarasai


18.08.90
06.04.90
16.07.90
02.05.90
15.05.90
02.07.90
30.03.90
29.03.90
03.04.90
24.05.90
03.06.90
04.04.90
29.03.90
05.04.90

13.04.90
25.05.90
16.08.90


12.5x51mm.
10x42.5mm.
9x45mm.
9x42mm.
9.5x44mm.
11.5x48.5mm.
9x42mm.
9.5x42.5mm.
9.5x42mm.
10x47mm.
10.5x43.5mm.
9.5x43.5mm.
15x34mm.
(in three
lines)
10x43mm.
10x46mm.
10x49mm.


It should be noted that there are distinctive framed cachets in two
lines (size 16x43mm.) in the postal section serving the mail of the
Supreme Council of the Lithuanian Republic. I have covers with these
markings and receiving postmarks dated 29.03.90. Also interesting are the
old LSSR (LTSR) postmarks, in which some letters have been erased by
mechanical means: CCCP, CC and here and there inscriptions in the
Russian language. Such modified postmarks are known to me from the
following towns:-
1. .' Alytus 12. Lazdijai 23. Siauliai
2. AnykSEiai 13. Mazekiai 24. Silale
3. BirZai 14. Naujoji Akmene 25. dilute
4. Gargzdai 15. Pakruojis 26. Sirvintos
5. Ignalina 16. PaneveZys 27. Tauragd
6. Jonava 17. Pasvalys 28. Telgiai
7. Jonigkis 18. Plung& 29. Trakai
8. Kaunas 19. Prienai 30. Utena
9. Kelm& 20. Raseiniai 31. Varena
10. Kretinga 21. RokiSkis 32. Vilnius
11. Kupiskis 22. Sakiai

Unchanged postmarkers are also being utilised in these same towns. I
would also draw attention to the usage of machine cancellers with a
text in three lines inserted and reading: LIETUVOS/RESPUBLIKOS/PASTAS
(Lithuanian Republican Posts). Three such markings are known to me,
being from the following towns: Kaunas (25.5x55mm.), Siauliai (same
size) and Vilnius (25.5x49mm.). Also interesting are the additional
cachets in three lines, reading: Atstatyta Lietuvos/Nepriklausoma
Valstyb6/1990 metV kovo 11 d (Restored Lithuanian Independent State, in
the year 1990 March llth. day) which, to my knowledge, were applied at
the beginning of April in the post offices of Kaunas GPO (14x59mm.),
Kupiskis (13x59.5mm.), Naujoji Akmene (14x59mm.) and Pasvalys
(12x59.5mm.).
A selection of covers referring to this article is given on the next
two pages.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Re the machine cancellers mentioned in the last
paragraph of the article above, your editor has a cover sent from
Vilnius on 3 July 1990 in which the rectangular slug containing the
text LIETUVOS/RESPUBLIKOS/PASTAS is inverted (see at the top of p.59).
He has a further cover from Vilnius, posted on 30 May 1990, to which
there has also been affixed and cancelled by a modified postmarker


violet
black
black
blue
black
black
violet
black
black, violet
black
black
black
black


black
black
black




II


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at bottom an imperforate multicoloured charity label with simulated
perforations, face value 50k. and the inscription BLOKADOS FONDUI =
TO THE BLOCKADE FUND. Lo and behold, the theme of this non-postal label
is the TrijV Kry ip Paminklas or Monument of the Three Crosses, on the
hill of the same name! In 1989, the Lithuanian organisation "Sajudis"
had the three crosses re-erected in the same style as the original 1916
structure done by the architect A. Wiwulski, but the monument is now
1.6 metres (almost 5 feet) taller, so that it can be seen everywhere in
Vilnius.

There are many more developments on the
Lithuanian philatelic scene, which will be
published at length in the next issue of
"The Post-Rider". Suffice it to note for &W65 &&5
now that the city of Vilnius was included f
in the series of new Soviet 5k. stamps
featuring views from the republican capitals
and this particular stamp has unofficially been
* overprinted in green "1990-3-11/Lietuvos/ 5e 5 5.
Respublika" in three lines. It is even known
used. The basic Soviet stamp for Vilnius has
slipped out of the Goznak printing works in
imperforate state, as shown in the block of four herewith.
*
59







THE LIFE AND TIMES OF ANDREI ALEKSANDROVICH ZHDANOV


by Ya. Afangulskii

"All-these feelings of hopeless resignation, all this mysticism mixed W
up with erotic dreams such is the world of (Anna) Akhmatova, the world
of the old nobility, of 'the good old days of Catherine the Great'. A
mixture of nun and whore, that's what she is.....If we had educated our
young people in the spirit of Akhmatova, we would have lost the war".
A. A. Zhdanov, August 1946.

Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov was born on 14/26 Feb.1896 in Mariupol'/
Mariupil' in the Ukraine, the son of a Tsarist inspector of schools and
received a good middle-class education. He became a revolutionary at the
age of 16, joining the Communist Party in 1915. During the Civil War, he
did party work in Shadrinsk and Tver'. He succeeded S.M. Kirov as head
of the Leningrad party organisation in December 1934, after the latter's
assassination. He was the party chief of Leningrad during the horrible
blockade in WWII. In short, he had been through a lot as a leading party
apparatchik and acquired a well-deserved reputation for ruthlessness. A
registered cover is shown here, sent from Rusanovskaya, Mglin district
in Leningrad province on 24.14.40 and addressed to him at the Smol'nyi
Institute in Leningrad. The cover was backstamped the next day at the
Leningrad-Stalinsk and Leningrad-60 post offices.



























It has been stated before in our journal that the USSR came out of WWII
in a particularly pitiful state and the government was under tremendous
strain during the period of reconstruction, which coincided with the
onset of the Cold War. It was thus in no mood to tolerate what it W
regarded as frivolous behaviour in rarified intellectual circles. A.A.
Zhdanov was therefore selected to lead two separate ideological
campaigns, as follow:-
It asben taedbeor i or ouraltht heUSR am ot f WI




inapriclryptiu tteadtegoenet a ne teedu
stai drig hepeio o rcostucio, hih oiciedwih h
onst f-heCol Wr.Itwasths n o modtotoerae ha i
.egreda fiolusbhaiuri rriid neletul icls AA







(a) The Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU on Literary
Matters, dated 21 August 1946.
That resolution specifically attacked the activities of two Leningrad
literary monthlies, "Zvezda" and "Leningrad" as a refuge for two
escapist writers, the popular humourist Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko
and the noted poetess Anna Andreevna Akhmatova. By the way, both were
of Ukrainian descent: Zoshchenko's father came from Poltava and
Akhmatova's maiden name was Horenko.

A few days after the publication of the resolution, A.A. Zhdanov called
a meeting of the Leningrad writers, where he denounced the literary
activities of Akhmatova and Zoshchenko as un-Soviet. The meeting
unanimously expelled both of them from the Union of Soviet Writers and
they were not reinstated until after the death of Stalin. The magazine
"Zvezda" was reorganised and the monthly "Leningrad" closed down. A few
biographic details now follow about both authors.

Anna Andreevna Akhmatova was born on 11/23 June 1889 in Odessa and she
died at Domodedovo near Moscow on 5 March 1966. The surname Akhmatova
was a pen-name, borrowed from her grandmother. She divorced her first
husband, the poet Nikolai Gumilev in 1918 and he was executed by the
Bolsheviks in 1921. Her third husband, N.N. Punin, was arrested during
the Great Purge and never heard of again. Her only son, Lev Gumilev,
was also arrested, released for air force service in WWII and arrested
again, to be finally released after the death of Stalin. She was
evacuated from Leningrad to Tashkent during the war and despite all she
had suffered as a wife and mother, she was very patriotic and never
dreamed of escaping abroad. Some of her best poetry was written after
Stalin died.

Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko was born on 29.7/10.8.1895 in Saint
Petersburg and died in Leningrad on 22 July 1958. A Tsarist army major
in WWI, he was severely gassed and wounded, leaving him with permanent
heart and liver damage. Like many successful humourists, he suffered
from severe bouts of depression from an early age. He was immensely
popular with the Soviet reading people and the general tone of his
stories made it clear that he was no friend of the Communists.

The centenary of Anna -
Akhmatova's birth N.S. 1n OOn. /o
was celebrated on 23 June 1 .
1989 with a special 4k. CU
postcard,-of which 450,000 W -.
were issued. There were _______
two special postmarks tied_____
to the event, applied at _
Odessa, where she was born Ko
and at Leningrad, where ..__ __....- ..1........
she spent much of her F n \M"
life. There was a regal -- -------
look about her, as can be ----
seen from her portrait on ______..... '
the postcard shown here.

* Does anyone know if Zoshchenko was ever commemorated on any of the
Soviet postal stationery? Neither Akhmatova nor he has ever appeared
on a Soviet postage stamp.







(b) The Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU "About the opera
'The Great Friendship' by V. Muradeli", dated 10 February 1948.
This was a more complicated matter and had to do with what the Central
Committee perceived as formalist tendencies in Soviet musical composition
i.e. music for a select few, rather than music for the people. Contrary w
to the commonly held belief that repressive political regimes are
culturally sterile, the fact was that, in the USSR under Stalin, Soviet
composers were miles ahead of their counterparts elsewhere in the world.
The West had basically stopped producing great orchestral music for many
years, but in the USSR that art form was flourishing and the country also
had a remarkable wealth in first-rate pianists, violinists and cellists,
all educated at the expense of the poverty-striken Soviet taxpayer. That
is basically still the case till this very day.

Of the seven composers criticised in the resolution, the "Big Four" were
especially singled out for attack: A. I. Khachaturian, N.Ya. Myaskovskii,
S.S. Prokof'ev and D.D. Shostakovich. Let us look quickly at each of
these composers in turn.

SlAram Il'ich Khachaturian was born an Armenian in
Tiflis (Tbilisi), Georgia on 24 May/6 June 1903 and
died in Moscow in 1978. He was a pupil in musical
composition of N.Ya. Myaskovskii (see below) at the
Moscow Conservatory. His works are well-known in the
West, where they have been enormously popular with
..-.................... concert goers. The Armenian nation is understandably
very proud of its illustrious son. A Soviet 4-kop. stamp commemorated
the ,80th. anniversary of his birth by being issued on 25.May 1983, i.e.
one day later according to the Old Style calendar. See the illustration
herewith, showing what is apparently an excerpt from that dazzling
composition,.the. Sabre Dance from the Gayane Ballet. This stamp is an
absolute marvel of hand-engraving, as it reproduces faithfully the
composer's original manuscript, complete with vertical fold and his
musical terms handwritten in the traditional Italian. By contrast, S. S.
Prokof'ev was a staunch nationalist and wrote out his musical terms in
Russian.
Nikolai Yakovlevich Myaskovskii was born on 8/20 April
1881 at the fortress of Novo-Georg'evsk (now Modlin near
Warsaw) and died in Moscow on 8 August 1950. He studied
music from the age of 10, among his teachers being N. A.
Rimskii-Korsakov, R.M. Gliere and A.K. Lyadov. Nikolai
Yakovlevich was a professor at the Moscow Conservatory
from 1921 until his death and instructed more than 80
leading Soviet musicians, including the composer and
pianist D.B. Kabalevskii (1904-1987). Influenced by
Brahms and Rimskii-Korsakov, Nikolai Yakovlevich was a
prolific composer of high professional standard; by 1948 he had written
25 symphonies, plus many other orchestral works and chamber music. His
works have a loyal following in the USSR and he deserves to be much
better known and performed in the West. Like Petr Il'ich Chaikovskii, he
did not have a jealous bone in his body and was always visibly happy to
hear any new work by a Soviet composer. He has never been featured on a
Soviet stamp, but it is possible that he may have been honoured at some
time on one of the many items issued of Soviet postal stationery.

Sergei Sergeevich Prokof'ev was born on 11/23 April 1891 in the village
of Sontsovka/Sontsivka, Katerynoslav province in the Ukraine and died in
Moscow on 5 March 1953, just 15 minutes before I.V. Stalin left this
earth. He lived abroad from 1918 to 1932 and, in this writer's opinion,







he was the greatest of all the Soviet composers. His works
are all well-known in the West and need not be enumerated
here; there is a lyric grace to his music. A Soviet 4-kop.
stamp honouring him was issued on 23 April 1981, coinciding
with the 90th.-anniversary of his birth according to the
New Style calendar. See the illustration here, showing at
bottom right a key signature and part of a piano keyboard.

Dmitrii Dmitrievich Shostakovich was born of Polish
ancestry on 12/25 September 1906 in St. Petersburg and UoTACCP.981
died in Moscow on 9 August 1975. He is
the most performed Soviet composer in the
West, possibly because of the strong
promotion given his works by two
expatriate Russians, his conductor son
Maksim and the noted cellist and
conductor Mtsislav Rostropovich. He has 1 i
been compared favourably by some critics
to Beethoven. This writer finds some of .
his music to be on the garish side, but he certainly was a great
composer. A 6-kop. stamp was issued in his honour on 25 Sept. 1976, on
the 70th. anniversary of his birth per the New Style calendar. The
design includes an excerpt from his well-known Seventh Symphony (the
Leningrad Symphony), with the wartime searchlights of that heroic city
in the background. Czechoslovakia has also paid homage to him on a 1 K6s
stamp issued on 10 March 1981 as part of a set honouring famous
personages and that design has captured very well the introspective
nature of the composer (see the illustration above at right).

* Professor Myaskovskii, who was an "old intellectual" and had done his
level best to.conform to the ideological requirements of the Soviet
government, took the criticism in the resolution very hard. He was
essentially a broken man until his death a couple of years later,
although he did produce his last 26th. Symphony in the interim. Never
mind, dear Nikolai Yakovlevich, your day of recognition will surely
come, even though you will not be around to savour it!

For a short time after the appearance of the resolution, the musical
compositions of all the criticised composers were left out of the
Soviet repertories, but they gradually crept back again. This row had
a most unfortunate effect at the time on the international image of
the USSR, but the Cold War was at its height and there was every
indication that it could turn hot at any moment.

Anyway, in the midst of all these wondrous doings, A. A.
Zhdanov suddenly up and died on 31 August 1948. As with
many Russians, he was fond of a wee drop of the hard stuff
and it is generally believed that he drank himself to
death. Needless to say, a 40-kop. stamp was issued in his
memory (see the illustration), namely on 3 September 1948.
That betters by three days the record previously set by
the Lenin mourning stamps of 27 January 1924 for the
rapidity with which a Soviet stamp was designed,
prepared for the press, printed and issued to the public.
* A first day cover of this Zhdanov stamp must surely be a rarity and
well worth looking for!

And that is the true story of Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov.


* *







A NORTH KOREAN COVER TO GERMANY


by Allan L. Steinhart


Early commercial North Korean covers are rare, as little mail left the
Soviet zone of occupation, which was set up after 15 August 1945 in the
upper half of the Korean peninsula and succeeded by the republic
declared there on 9 Sept.1948. The last Soviet troops were out of North
Korea by 30 December that year.

The illustrations here show a spectacular item, sent by Sister M.
Diomedes Meffert of the Catholic Mission in Hamheung, who must have been
there all along, including during the Japanese occupation. Hamheung is a
few miles inland from the Korean Eastern Sea and about 70 km. (47 miles)
NNE of the port of Wonsan (Gensan). Bearing an imperf. pair of 1-won
stamps showing the harvesting of rice (SG 7), the letter was posted on
.3 July 1947, the original Japanese postmarker for Kanko now being
modified to read Hamheung in the Korean alphabet.

The letter passed through Pyongyang, the capital of the Soviet zone of
occupation on 14 July, receiving in violet an unrecorded transit
marking in violet and reading in Russian PKHENG-YAN/SEV. KOREI. The
three types of a similar Russian marking already described by
Tchilinghirian and Stephen in their Russian Used Abroads series, Vol.6,
p.576, are different, as they all lack the letter G in the Russian
spelling for Pyongyang.

The sender endorsed the envelope so as to go via Siberia to the British
Occupation Zone in Germany. In short, a most unusual item, which went
from one occupation zone to another!
*
64


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~--
44fr9 La :~~ '
yjC,







STILL MORE ABOUT MOLDAVIA


by various authors.


A. John V. Woollam, Axminster, England.


f ] I .t il af u .
Vf L
.. .. ........ .. ...... .... ....r -.. .
I .T
Jr. x. Li 1 -" Y p,





OTiPABJflHTE CBOH)0 KOPPECrOHIEHTiUIO C YB OMJIEHH H 1

*.1 $7 J7 *
;,!,l :l. l [ :: ............. .... ^ .. .............




New York Reg'y Div. 24 Nov.,on its way to Elizabeth, Ne


I can show an
interesting,if
incomplete card
from the early
post-WWII time.
Sent from
Beltsy, it has
the regn. hand-
written at top
left as B~iti
in Roumanian.
_ The rates were
then 30k. for
the card going
by surface
abroad plus 80k.
for regn. There
was a stamp
lifted off of
Ir.(?) value,so
the card was
probably over-
paid by 10k. It
passed through
SKishinev-8 P.O.
on 6.11.46 and
!w Jersey, USA.
EDITORIAL
COMMENT: This
card has the
P same KISHINEV
8 CITY P.O.
marking with
serial letter
I "a" as shown
by Mr. Cronin
in "The Post-
Rider" No.26,
p.69 on the
reg.cover from
Tiraspol' sent
on 14.4.49 and
passing thro'
Kishinev-8 on
20.4.49. The
illustration
a is repeated
here and it
seems safe to
say that this
8th. office
acted as a
checking and
sorting point
for Moldavian
mail sent







abroad. The usage of Roumanian in the reg. indication is understandable,
as Beltsy had been still under Roumanian occupation a bare 2 years
before.

B. Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

(i) Another
censored cover :-
has surfaced
from the C / 7-7
troubled 1920s, ... .
this time a
reg. item

postage from 38039
ORHEI (Orgeev)/
17 Mar.1923, to
pass through 7
N.Y.Reg'y Div.
on 4 April and -A/"
arriving in : '
Baltimore the
next day. Note / '
the boxed '
RECOUVREMENT =
Recovery in -
French i.e.
Postage Due(?) l t
and CENSURAT / t-- 5-
JUD. ORHEI
-(Censored / ..... U A
Orgeev County) d.ORH
rectangular:
marking at
bottom right.
Such items are ...
very scarce.

(ii) There was a bilateral USSR-Czechoslovakia philatelic exhibition in
Kishinev 22-29 October 1989, with the striking advertising placards
issued separately in Moldavian and Russian. The Moldavian version is
shown on the next page, but one has to know the Russian alphabet in
order to read it and Roumanian or some other Latin language to
understand it!

(iii) There were two special envelopes utilised in Kishinev on 15 Jan.
1990 to celebrate the 140th. anniversary of the birth of the Moldavian
and Roumanian poet Mihai Eminescu. As shown at the right of the next
page, one was a multi-coloured effort with an imprinted 5-kop. stamp
design and a quotation by the poet translated into Russian, reading:
"I both was and am a Romantic", while the second was a local
composition in black and produced in Kishinev. Both envelopes are
completely inscribed in Russian, but in the special postmark, the name
of the city is also given in Moldavian.
(iv) By May this year, the Roumanian language was beginning to appear
on the postal markings, as we can see from the cover at the top left of
p.68 with the bilingual internal registration cachet for the CHISINAU-12
KISHINEV post office. The official 5-kop. Eminescu envelope has also






* t I


MM)( a4*3"HECKY




Iam -na ipuern o,, iur
Kyea

*=- ^.~ I -M.3MHHECKy /
((O ... ----- __________













-- --- --f
























Kong


PyMUBlCKIIJA II MOAJI~.tKill 1 031 ap aps ce wa' .
Mmxamn 3MRHecKY
..... ... ....


nm se aner mtlm* car roe Masnut M







been seen with a special
oval postmark inscribed in .:, I
Roumanian ANUL EMINESCU o J cnm
CHISINAU 15.VI.89,as
shown on the second cover
here for "The Year of
Eminescu". Despite the
year date, it appears to
have been applied in 1990.

As, predicted in the
original article on .....
"Matters Moldavian" in
"The Post-Rider" No.25,
pp.41-67, there is now in -
the republic very serious
ethnic tension between the
Moldavian majority and the
non-Moldavian minority (1/3
of the population). The
three Gagauz districts
centered on Komrat declared
their independence on 19
August 1990 and the
Pridnestrov'e area (Left-
Bank Moldavia, populated by
Bulgarians, Russians and
Ukrainians) followed on 2nd
September. Some Russians
and"Ukrainians were killed.
in a1clas.hat Dubossary on .-
2nd.' November and, unless.
resolute steps.will-have ,
been taken to defuse the
current situation, a major
tragedy may well be in the n
making. Whatever happens,
there will be philatelic repercussions,
Post-Rider".


which will be reported in "The


* *


MAIL TO THE


EMPIRE

Russian philatelists in the Western
World have many examples of Imperial
mail directed abroad and have, in
fact, ensured the survival and
loving preservation of practically
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is
a horse of another colour, as
terrible things have happened since
the collapse of that Empire and
many magnificent philatelic items
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.


0


* I i1u, o ---MN.*



C- i- i n.
m,.n i. mi e


:E~~IZ: L ,- riIIxn


__.__







PRE-UPU MAIL FROM DENMARK AND HAMBURG


by Andrew Cronin.





cre -cies i t 10



:^i*ez KeX0 .^ > .




Two beautiful and so far unique letters are considered hers ar cns he from the
Kingdom of Denmark and the Hanseatic Free City of Hamburg in the last
century. They were almost adjacent and traded extensively with each
other. We can even establish the relationships between their and other
currencies in the 1860s:-
1% Hamburg Schillings = 4 Danish killings = 9 3/8 Pfg. 1.125 pence =


The Danish letter was sent from Frederikshavn 9.9.1861 to a sea captain
c/o a company at the Russian Baltic port of Kronshtadt. It was
endorsed and handstamped FRANCO, i.e. prepaid with 68 killings postage
S= 21 Hamburg Schillings 159 Pfg.- 19 pence 38 U.S. 9 76 centimes.
Note the boxed Aus Dnemark, presumar re bly a Prussian entry mark, the
handwritten split rate-"52/17" under the handstamped FRANCO and the "12"
in red crayon at centre bottom. This beautiful item was Lot 30040 in the
David Feldman sale of 13-16 Sept.1990 and fetched sFr. 25,000.-

The Hamburg letter was posted on 28.8.1866, also endorsed and
handstamped FRANCO and addressed inland to Moscow. By contrast, there
are no trat r aansit or accountancy markings applied to the front of this
letter, which was Lot 196 in the Dr. P. Fischer auction of 8-9 June 1990
in Bremen and estimated at DM 6700.-. Note that the postage paid for
such a long journey, presumably entirely overland and involving border
crossings, was only 5 Hamburg Schillings or 17.6 Danish killings, i.e.
roughly a quarter of the Danish rate shown above.

If we assume that both letters were approximately of the same weight
and that the postal rates in both despatching points had not gone down
in the intervening five years, then some questions arise. Did the
Hamburg postage merely pay the rate to the Prussian border? Was the
addressee charged the transit fee across Prussia and for the portion of
the journey within the Russian Empire?

There have been entire books written on the complexities of pre-UPU
postal rates and treaties. In trying to reconstruct how these two
letters were handled in the given period of time, we are hampered by
* not knowing what markings were applied to the backs in both cases.

Answers, anyone?
*







DOCUMENTS FROM THE LATVIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC IN 1919


by Dr. Vittorio Mallegni

Further.to the details given of the Jan Poulie collection of this area 0
in "The Post-Rider" No.26, pp.5-38, I can show the five following
parcel cards of that historic period from my collection in
chronological order:-
A. KORSOVKA, Vitebsk province (Karsava).

(i) A 29-funt parcel with a total charge of 18r. 20k., sent on 1/4
(1 April 1919) and received in Riga by Tevel' Yavits on the 4th.
(1 Russian funt = 96 zolotniki = 409 grammes = 0.903 pounds avoirdupois).
(ii) A 14-funt parcel, rated at 5r. 70k., sent on 2/1111 (2 April 1919)
to the same Riga address, arriving on the 4th.

(iii) An 11-funt parcel, rated at llr. 70k.(all the stamps cancelled in
Russian manuscript "24 April 1919 Korsovka") to B. Belkind, Riga on 26th.

B. JAUN-GULBENE, Livonia province (Nei-Shvanenburg.

A 5-funt parcel, rated at 3r. 75k., sent on 16.4.19 to Alma Kakteet in
Riga, where it was received on the 18th.

C. AUMEISTERE (Aumeisteris = Serbigal').

A 10-funt parcel, rated at 3r. 75k., sent on 17 April 1919 to Maria
Wambuth in Riga, where it.was received on the 20th.
































S










*


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(Mtoiho uaaxa~sal a u uozpoaul aupeci nozyecal~z


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no 10OA2BaTSf hIOi LWTS NEGrb 0011yo roqI Pm1r WPAO IX no'oo nuo gc a o
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JlTceejib noqToi m-b nocbelnbt.
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0Kyda.
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(Mtro Hajaateif! H nOApO6'Hhab aipeci nojiyqaTeJIs).''

Bt~b(DHT CJIYHiEBiHblf OTMSTHH.
no noitaearenbCK0n 11 UTemnens nosiOearo ~
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fo ojaBaTeaJbcKofI UlTemneaib zoqToBaro
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72










PHILATELIC SHORTS

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that f*
could use some clarifying information, or might there of 0 *
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 0 oo
newly acquired item ? 0 oo f

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !


G.G. Werbizky, Vestal, N.Y., USA.

The Liechtenstein postcard described in "The Post-Rider" No.26, p.53
is in all probability correspondence from a former member of the
Special Division Russia, which was renamed in March 1945 "The First
Russian National Army", Major-General Boris Alekseevich Holmston-
Smyslovskii commanding. At the height of its strength, it consisted of
20,000 men. On 2 May 1945, the remnants of this group, consisting of
462 men, 30 women and 2 children entered and surrendered in
Liechtenstein. This formation was never formally part of the R.O.A.,
i.e. of General Vlasov's army. Further information may be found in
Nikolai Tolstoy's book "The Secret Betrayal", Charles Scribner's Sons,
New York ,1977 and in.Joachim Hoffmann "History of the Vlasov Army",
YMCA Press, .Paris 1990 ,(in Russian).

Michael J. Carson, Tuscola, Illinois, USA.

I have a few comments on the cover of the Rev. L.L. Tann, featured in
"The Post-Rider" No.26, p.73, which may help to clarify the postal rate
shown. There are in my opinion two points to be made: (1) It was
relatively common at the time for local mail to be sent at intercity
rates and, (2) The Soviet government had demonetised the printed
indicia on Imperial and Provisional Government postcards and it seems
likely (though I'm not certain) that postal stationery envelopes were
similarly demonetised. If so, then the cover in question is a local
letter paid at the intercity rate of 35 kop. plus 70 kop. for
registration, a total of Ir. 5k.

Michel Liphschutz, Paris, France and Ivo Steyn, Amsterdam, Holland.

Re the inverted "8" on the surcharged 7-kop. Popov commemorative issued
in 1927 and shown in a mint position block in "The Post-Rider" No.26,
both of the above subscribers have come forth with this scarce variety
properly used on registered covers. Please see overleaf a pair with the
error used together with an imperf. 3-kop. Decembrist commem. on a reg.
cover from Tver' 12.5.28 to Moscow in the M.V. Liphschutz collection,
W followed by another example showing the variety very clearly and sent
from Kiev 21.3.28 at the proper rate of 28 kop. to Berlin 25.3.20 (Ivo
Steyn collection). In this second case, the R-label for mail going
abroad is unusually inscribed "Kiev / poczt. kontora". Does anyone have
the other surcharged commems. of Dec. 1927 properly used on cover?
73



























M.V. Liphschutz
Collection.


Ivo Steyn
Collection.


S







Helmut Weikard, Hamburg, Germany.

)n dustrieu d H and6es A .-G e's". );
inetrn atio 'ai eArbeIterhi fiU.r S"wjet-Ruf3Iand .
Berila.W8 Unter din Llnafe~l 1 -

J.

e,.







z e1' r /




'.1k
j i?
~ 1 -7-f 1.r
Nt5f;f~
IN ~ r ~..


TOBAR KAPTOHqKt
It4 CARTE POSTAL



K y.a .iiLL e .......................... ............... ..
I a ggl~,oa:,u r.,ccra. I .1e Il ,, gs a 110.1 1 I nac 11.. It M 11 8' f AJIIU C Ii)M4t6-ailiiL pulH.
a&tZ i .............. .........a.. ... .. ..
I'oiw,;, eran I!.1II w1 iig r Iw



KOt................ ... ........................ .

.... ... ....... ... ...c . ..uo a., r. .. ... I.:.pc..........


Adpec
omnpaeumean
Adresse
de I'expi.diteur


i........... c.. .. .......................................... ..... .....
..l. it.,a ..lib .c ................ ...........
--L b "I'


(a) The envelope
above bears the
imprint of the
International
Workers' Aid for
Soviet Russia
Industrial and
Trade Co. Ltd.
and a confirming
label on the back,
sent from Berlin
15.8.23 with
1000 marks postage,
as inflation
increased. An
interesting item
reflecting those
times!
(b) The Soviet
card here was
written in Tilsit
(now Sovetsk) and
passed through the
Kaliningrad P.O.
21.7.48, on its


way to Nuremberg in Bavaria. Kaliningrad is the new name given to the
devastated city and province of K8nigsberg, formerly in East Prussia. The
first Soviet postmarks for this city read KENIGSBERG and the example here
has the new name in Latin letters for international mail. Such early
post-WWII items are rare.







REVIEW OF



6 *
\lTERATURE A\L9









THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No.68 for 1990. A-60 page
magazine in A4 format and the official organ of The British Society of
Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Hon. Secretary, N.J.D. Ames,
Freefold Priory, Freefold, Whitchurch, Hants RG28 7NL, England.

This issue is devoted to a single subject: the postmarks of Saint
Petersburg, by I.L.G. Baillie. The author investigates in great detail
seven categories of markings from 1857 onwards, expanding on the earlier
work done in this field by Heinrich Imhof of Germany and Manfred Dobin
of the USSR. Each of these three investigators has formed his own system
of olassification-and the present author includes an Imhof-Baillie
conversion'table..Mr. Baillie has now recorded many new finds in the
categories he has covered and it is hoped that a unified classification
system will eventually-be worked out in this huge field..

THE ROSSICA JOURNAL.No.115 for October 1990. An 80-page organ of The
Rossica Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the Secretary,
George B. Shaw, 7596-J Lakeside Village Dr., Falls Church, VA,22042,USA.

This number contains Society notes; Report on Stamp World London 90 &
Disinfected Mail, both by D. Skipton, also translator of some snippets;
Russian FPOs in Hungary 1849, by I,W. Roberts; Russian Deltiology, by Dr.
W.R. Nickle; Zemstvo Look-Alikes, by Dr.G. Murdock; Russian Military
Pictorial Covers & Mail between Fighting Enemies 1918, both by A. Leppa;
Additional Raz'ezd Marking, by J.G. Moyes; Trans-Siberian TPOs, by P. E.
Robinson; Steamer Mail to & from Tsuruga, by E. Rasmussen; Two Censors,
ODVF Revisited, Soviet Censorship & Lithuania, where have you been?, all
by.Ivo Steyn; Repatriation of POWs from Russia 1917-21, by H. Taitl;
Postage Stamps of Siberia & New Forgeries of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, both by
G.G. Werbizky; Revenues in place of Postage Stamps, by V. Mohyl'nyj,trans.
by R. Dallair; Variety of 1st. Soviet Stamp, by B. Rodionov, trans. by G.
Combs; Airmail Update, by G. Ackerman; Soviet Naval Mail 1941-45, by Dr.
P. Michalove; Soviet Varieties, by N. Epstein; Rehabilitation of Soviet
Stamps, by R. Polchaninov, trans. by S. Allen, to finish with Library
Acquisitions, Reviews, Adlets, etc. A lot of ground covered here!

SIBERIA: POSTMARKS AND POSTAL HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE PERIOD, by
P.E. Robinson. The second edition of this seminal work in A4 format and
184 pages, obtainable for US $30.00 post paid anywhere from the author
at 2 Rydalhurst Avenue, Sheffield S6 4BG, England.

This new edition, enlarged in information by 50%, includes 12 pages of







detailed maps and has over 2000 postmarks listed, illustrated and
described. The TPO (RPO) and Steamer postmarks have been much enlarged.
The markings have all been beautifully drawn by Anatolii Kiryushkin of
S Minsk and, if you liked the first edition, you will love this second
one. In addition to Mr. Kiryushkin, there are nine other Soviet
philatelists listed in the acknowledgements. Strongly recommended!

THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA 1917-23, Vol. 3, THE ARMIES & POST
OFFICES, Parts 16-18: RUSSIAN POST OFFICES IN THE LEVANT AND WHITE
ARMIES, by Dr. R.J. Ceresa. A 180-page handbook, softbound in A4
format and available for US $37.00 post paid from the author at
"Fairview Cottage", Quarry Lane, Gorsley, Ross-on-Wye HR9 7SJ, England.

The title is self-explanatory and, apart from the issues of the White
Armies, these parts cover a lot of murky and local issues during the
1917-23 period. Our current knowledge of many of these emissions is so
sketchy that it will still take a long time before the full facts come
to light. The author has set up his pages with the help of an Apple
Macintosh Plus computer, thus giving these three parts a more
professional look. The proposed future publication of Vols. 4 & 5 will
take the author well into the year 1993.

EESTI FILATELIST (The Estonian Philatelist) Combined Nos.33-34 for 1990.
A 216-page paperback in A5 format, issued by the Estonian philatelic
societies in Sweden and New York. All enquiries to Elmar Ojaste,
Mandolingatan 17, S-421 45 VASTRA FR6LUNDA, Sweden.

This magnificent publication covers the Stamps of Otepaa, by E. Avarsoo;
Private Postal Agencies, by A. Epstein; P&rnu Postal History, by Elmar
S Ojaste; HaAdemeeste Postal History, by former postmistress H. Ermel;
Commem. Labels, by G. Pant; Excerpts from current Estonian press;
Literature Reviews; Addenda to.Postal History of Viljandi, Haapsalu,
Rakvere & Kuressaare-Saaremaa, by E. Ojaste & A. Vaigur; Soviet & Other
Postmarks and Items with Estonian Themes; Philatelic News from Estonia;
Exhibition Results, to end with Supplement III to the Estonian Handbook-
Catalogue. A lot of comprehensive and nostalgic information here!

I-IOKTA No.8 for June 1990. A 54-page journal in A4 format, the organ of
The Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries
to the Secretary-Treasurer, Terry Archer, 313 Mahurangi East Road,
Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand. Annual membership in the Society
for overseas members, including Newsletters and Journals, is US $20.00
or equivalent in other convertible currencies.

This issue surveys Correspondence Russia-Australia/New Zealand; Report
on AUSTAMP 90; Joint Australia-USSR Stamp Issue; Reader Follow-Ups;
Comments on Expertising Marks & Comments on Pribaikal Overprints, both
by G.G. Werbizky; Zieher Postcard with Imperial Stamps; Soviet Medium &
Heavy Tanks in WWII, V.V. Tarasoff-Stamp Dealer, Foreign Letter Postal
Rates & Soviet Airmail Covers 1929, all by Dr. R. Marshall; Postal
Censorship of Foreign Stamp Magazines & Three Triangles or Three Castles
Postmarks, both by N.R. Banfield; Literature Received; The Three-
Triangle Datestamps Revisited, by D. Skipton; Private Overprinted Postal
Stationery Card, by J. Walton; Cash Frankings in White Siberia, by Ivo
Steyn; Postal Sendings without Stamps 1919-23, by V. Mohyl'nyj; Cash
Frankings in Inflation Era, by M.J. Carson; Surface Mail Routes 1942-45
from and to China, by L. Blackburn, to end with a survey of Soviet New
Issues. Once again an excellent effort.






IIOTTA No.49 for January 1990. A 44-page magazine in A4 format and the
official organ of the Russia-USSR Study Group in Germany. All enquiries
to Wolfgang Nietsch, Spessartstr.5, D-5300 BONN 1, Germany.

This number contains Society notes, AD ASTRA-89 Report & New Wind also in
Philately, both by P. Aerni; 20th. anniv. 1st. Outer Space Mail, by B.
Bachmann & T. Dahinden; Note on Baikonur; 250th. anniv. Great Northern
(Polar) Expedition, by N. Aerni & H. Tobler; Advertising Postcards 1927-
1934 (very useful!), by K. Schauritsch; Cossack Topic, by W. Nietsch, H.
Tobler & P. Aerni; 400th. anniv. Tsaritsyn-Stalingrad-Volgograd, by N.
Aerni; Fire Engine Exhibition in Volgograd, by T. Spiegel; Notes on
Forgeries; Varieties of the 1883 & 1889 Definitives, by G. Unger;
Wrangel Army Post in Gallipoli, by J. Freese; Moscow in Philately, by W.
Nietsch, to wind up with adlets. The emphasis is thematic this time.

ZIVILPOST-ZENSUR'IN 6STERREICH-UNGARN 1914-1918 (Censorship of Civilian
Mail in Austro-Hungary 1914-1918), by Horst Thielk. A 369-page handbook
and catalogue in paperback A5 format, issued by the author in 1989 and
available from him for DM 50.- post paid at Schilkseer Strasse 152,
D-2300 KIEL 17, Germany.

This well-produced book is of great interest also to collectors in our
fields, as the long list of collaborators is impressive and the author
includes censorship in the Carpatho- and Western Ukraine, Northern
Bukovina and the former Russian Poland. The illustrations are clear and
the information very detailed. This work is highly recommended.

V BRONZE I KAMNE VOSPETYE (Celebrated in Bronze and Stone), compiled by
V.P. Markov. A 208-page paperback, issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'"
Publishers, Moscow 1990 in. an edition of 25,000 copies.. Price Ir., 50k..

This handbook and catalogue does a good job of listing and illustrating
monuments-and statues.on .the stamps and postal stationery of the USSR
and the former socialist bloc. Unfortunately, the paper is of newsprint
quality and the copy received for review was also poorly bound.

ODNOSTORONNIE POCHTOVYE KARTOCHKI S ORIGINAL'NYMI MARKAMI 1971-1988
(One-Sided Postcards with Original Stamp Designs 1971-1988), by Nataliya
M. Maksimenko, "Marka" Publishers, Moscow 1990, a 168-page paperback in
A5 format, printed in 70,000 copies and priced at Ir. 20k.
POTOVE LISTKY ZSSR (Postal Cards of the USSR), by V. Priputen & F.
Martinka, published by the Union of Slovak Philatelists, Bratislava 1989,
a 210-page paperback in A5 format, printed in 1500 copies; unpriced.

These two titles are reviewed together, as they both examine the same
subject: those charming 4-kop. illustrated cards which first appeared in
1971 for internal airmail despatch and then issued for surface internal
mail as of 16 Feb.1983. Both books do an excellent job, as they also
show the associated special postmarks. The Slovak version is more up to
date, as it includes the cards issued in 1989; our Ukrainian readers
will find it easy to understand the Slovak text.

KRATKII TOPONOMICHESKII SLOVAR' BELORUSSII (Short Dictionary of
Belorussian Place-Names), by V.A. Zhuchkevich. A 448-page hardbound book
in A5 format, published by the Belorussian State University, Minsk 1974,
in an edition of 12,700 copies. Price Ir. 16k.

This very detailed book is highly valuable in helping to identify the
bilingual postmarkers issued for offices in the Belorussian SSR between
the two world wars. Similar works exist for other republics, ASSRs, etc.






ZAKARPATSKO (Transcarpatho-Ukraine), by Miroslav Blaha. A 172-page
paperback in A5 format, issued by the Union of Czech Philatelists,
Prague 1989 as No.20 in their Philatelic Handbooks series, in an
Sedition of 1000 copies.

The title of this book is the name now given by the local inhabitants
to their native province, the most beautiful in all the Ukraine. Your
editor has had the great honour of knowing Miroslav Blaha for almost
25 years and regards him as Mr. Carpatho-Ukraine. Buy this book and you
will find out why. His services to the philately and postal history of
S the Carpatho-Ukraine are immeasurable; he did all the spade-work and
we are all descended from him. It is all laid out in concise and compact
form in this work, which will remain the standard work for years to come.
The text is in Czech, but will be easily understood by all those
interested in this multi-faceted field because of the many illustrations,
maps and tabulations. Readers may order from the Journal Fund below.

RSFSR: DOBROCINNE ZNAMKY 1921-1923 (Charity Stamps of the RSFSR 1921-23),
by Ladislav Cervinka. A 64-page paperback in A5 format, issued by the
Union of Czech Philatelists, Prague 1990 as No.24 in their Philatelic
Handbooks series, in an edition of 500 copies.

The stamps examined by the author are the semi-postals issued in the
given period and including the hazardous "Philately to the Children"
overprints. His treatment is most comprehensive, the illustrations many
and clear, including those of some delectable covers and the forgeries
minutely described. What more could anyone want?
*
JOURNAL FUND
* Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto,
Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

PREIS-KURANT FABRIKI' SHTEMPELEI I PECHATEI Ya. LERNERA (Price-List of the
Ya. Lerner Factory of Handstamps & Seals), being a supplement to the 1907
Post & Telegraph Journal, showing samples of many postal markings, incl.
for non-stamp issuing Zemstvos. Fascinating! Price post paid US $ 3.00

RAZNOVIDNOSTI POCHTOVYKH MAROK ROSSII(Varieties of Imperial Russian
Postage Stamps), by A.G. Mayorov. A 96-page catalogue in Russian, based
on Lobachevskii and sold out in the USSR. Price post paid US $ 8.50

1911 TIMETABLES OF "SAMOLET" POSTAL & PASSENGER STEAMSHIP CO. ALONG
ENTIRE VOLGA FROM TVER' TO ASTRAKHAN. An 84-page reprint in Russian with
schedules, illustrations etc. Very nostalgic. Price post paid US $ 5.50

ZAKARPATSKO (Transcarpatho-Ukraine), by the leading expert Miroslav Blaha.
In Czech, but very easy to follow. Price post paid US $ 9.00

SBORNIK CLANKK 0 TERITORIALNI FILATELII (Handbook of articles on
Traditional Philately) with an excellent and well-illustrated study of
the USSR Small Heads of 1920s. Easy to follow. Price post paid US $ 6.00

DEREV'YANI TSERKVY V UKRAYINI (Wooden Churches in the Ukraine). Lovely
48-page booklet compiled by M. Koljankiws'kyj & long out of print. Text
in Ukrainian with many illustrations. Few left! Price post paid US $ 6.00

W LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of Dec. 1918, embodying the latest facts by four noted
researchers. A great subject for study. Price post paid US $ 5.50

SOVIET 4-k. STAMPED ENVELOPE FOR "CAPEX-78" IN TORONTO AND WITH SPECIAL
CANCEL IN RUSSIAN. Mailed flat anywhere. Price post paid US $ 2.00
79








THE COLLECTORS' COgRNER ,

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your .
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16 r
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise ''
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a biography of Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), born J6zef Korzeniowski in
Berdichev, Ukraine, I would appreciate hearing from anyone who has
personal recollections or unpublished material.
JEFFREY MEYERS,Dept.of English,University of Colorado,Hellems 101,
Campus Box 226, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0226, USA.

WANTED: The 1920 Kharkiv (Khafkov) and 1922 KyYv (Kiev) postmaster
provisional issues: select singles, multiples, usage on cover and cards.
Willing to purchase or trade for same. Write or phone (312) 685-4348.
PETER BYLEN, P.O. Box 7193, Westchester, Illinois 60154, USA.

WANTED: Ukraine, Western & Carpatho-Ukraine stamps & postal history,
incl. related material: occupations, cinderellas & especially overprints.
Also specialised Russian WWI postal history with (a) Austrian, German &
Russian FPO markings from Bukovina, Galicia, Poland & Ukraine, (b)
Russian censor markings and (c) Russian military & FPO markings.
DR.RON ZELONKA, 1274 Monks Passage, Oakville, Ont.,Canada L6M 1R4.

MUTE CANCELLATIONS of Russia WWI. Information and listings required. I
can spare many duplicates in exchange for this knowledge.
JONAS MICHELSON, P.O. Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
MIKE RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, USA.
FOR a "St.George & the Dragon" topic, I need the following material:
Armenia Scott 265; Russian R.O.N.D.D. private issues; Wrangel overprinted
Denikin issues on cover; Russia St.George semi-postals used outside
Russia; Arms type covers in combination with stamps of other countries;
Georgia & South Russia Denikins on cover; Savings and Control stamps
postally used on cover; Errors; Varieties; Forgeries; Essays etc.
GEORGE B. LOAN M.D.,1306 South Barclay St.,Bay City,Michigan,U.S.A.48706.
SPECIAL NOTES:
Readers are reminded that all coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!
The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
the Society or its coordinators.
80




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