• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Front Cover
 Editorial: Getting the most out...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Postal history of the first Latvian...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The postage stamps of Imperial...
 The mail of Internees in Liech...
 A possible Vlasovite item
 Staliniana
 Flaws
 Early Soviet Lithuanian itmes
 More about Moldavia
 Forgery corner
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00026
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Editorial: Getting the most out of our journal
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Postal history of the first Latvian Soviet Republic
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The postage stamps of Imperial Russia
        Page 50
    The mail of Internees in Liechtenstein
        Page 51
    A possible Vlasovite item
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Staliniana
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Flaws
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Early Soviet Lithuanian itmes
        Page 66
        Page 67
    More about Moldavia
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Forgery corner
        Page 70
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Review of literature
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
Full Text




































































Printed In Canada










M1K


THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, -M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER" No. 26.


May 1990.


CONTENTS:


Editorial: Getting the most out of our Journal
Correspondence with Canada
Postal History of the First Latvian Soviet
Republic
Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
The Postage Stamps of Imperial Russia
The Mail of Internees in Liechtenstein
A Possible Vlasovite Item
Staliniana
Flaws
Early Soviet Lithuanian Items
More about Moldavia
Forgery Corner
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
The Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov,
P.J. Campbell,
Andrew Cronin,
Rev.L.L. Tann,


Allan L. Steinhart
Jan Poulie
Alex Artuchov
Alex Artuchov
Unsigned
Andrew Cronin
Ya. Afangulskii
Rev. L.L. Tann
Various authors
Various authors


Publisher & Treasurer
Secretary
Editor
CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom


The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.

1990. Copyright by the Canadian Society
of Russian Philately. All rights reserved.


P6OST- RIDER


HJ


2
3
5
39
50
51
52
54
64
66
68
70
71
77
79
80


i.d


8




















i 1 EDITORIAL


GETTING THE MOST OUT OF OUP JOURNAL

We occasionally get comments from collectors that such and such an
article is of absolutely no interest to them. That is a very sweeping
statement to make and reflects a point of view which is not supported by
the editor of this journal for the following reasons:-

(a) Ours is a journal of record and, since our spheres of collecting are
so diverse and extensive, we try to cover a wide spectrum of tastes.
(b) Your editor has, over the years, built up extensive philatelic files
on various subjects and these have been supplemented by many other
sources of information. One can never tell when some item, however
trivial at the time, may not assume major importance at some later date.
It is not trite to say that we are living in fast-moving times.
(c) These files are now in such an advanced state that they can be used
to generate articles and studies at short notice, whenever that becomes
necessary. Contributions are always welcomed with gratitude from our
readers, but the Lord will help those who help themselves.
(d) Where a particular subject has already been beaten to death
previously in the literature, we do not go over the same ground. We only
treat an old subject when we can shed new light on it. We try to be trail
blazers and investigate new fields as much as possible.

This editorial started off by referring to the reaction of some
collectors. The reaction of dealers is diametrically opposite. We have
specialist dealers in our membership and they carefully read the
contents of each journal from cover to cover. They then go thoroughly
through their stock and adjust the pricing accordingly. And why not?
Dealing is their livelihood and it helps to point to references in the
literature when offering their wares. "Savoir, c'est pouvoir".

Even more important for our dealer members is the fact that material in
our area constitutes an important proportion of their sales. One leading
cover dealer at a recent philatelic fair told both your editor and
publisher that 24% of his sales were in Russian-area material.

The areas and territories we collect are frequently in the news and,
with the ever-improving political climate, more and more philatelists
are becoming interested in the work we are doing. The more we all
become involved in the fascinating aspects of what we collect, the more
we all stand personally to gain.
DO NOT HAVE A CLOSED MIND!
2 *







CORRESPONDENCE


WITH CANADA


"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerax copy of the item, along with sane expla-
natory text to the Editor.


( ,< ---H. '

I OHT nATOBA P TOHK -F
A CENSORED
.WWI CARD
SPFROM
BELORUSSIA
*JC 'ii 4? 'I TO
^- CJ ;CANADA

b ,.
*.. ., .^ ./ 'Allan L.



S e e e te n ntt t





short-paid 1 kop. for going abroad. Hence the "T" in circle and the
'. / I:






then forward, ed to the nearest censorship office, situated in Minsk.



We know from Antoine Speeckaert's fine book "RO.SSISCHE POSTCENSUUR 1914-
1918" that the Reverse Field Post Office maintained a censorship bureau



in Minsk, as he illustrates a printed sealing tape reading in Russian:
"EXAMINED BY THE MILITARY CENSORSHIP/ATTACHED/TO THE MINSK REVERSE FIELD
POST OFFICE" (his type 42 A,,C). The card got to that office on 25 Oct.
(see the strikeat bottom right f the "g" cds) was examined there by



then forwMilitary Censor No.7 (struck in violet in the centre and an addition to
Antoine's list, as he records Nos. 4,5,6,11,17,18 & 22 in his type 34,
used from Dec.1916 to Nov.1917), cleared by the Reverse FPO on 27 Oct.
in Minsk, as he illustrates a printed sealing tape reading in Russian:
POST OFFICE" (his type 42 A,B,C), The card got to that office on 25 Oct.
Military Censor Mo.7 (struck in violet in the centre anden addition to
Antoine's list, as he records Nos. 4,5,6,11,17,18 & 22 in his type 34,
used from Dec.1916 to Nov.1917), cleared by the Reverse FPO on 27 Oct.
and forwarded to St.Petersburg, where it was censored again (!- see the
violet rectangular marking at bottom right of Military Censor No.566;








also top right at the figure "5" for a violet boxed "66"). The card
went through the entry port of Montreal, Canada, at 12:30pm some day
in January 1917 N.S., on its way to Winnipeg.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Your editor can show two further cards of the same
period, sent from Belorussia and with similar markings, as follow:-
(a) A card from Osipovichi 6.11.16 O.S., struck by the Reverse FPO "e"
cancel on 8.11.16, examined by Military Censor No.4 and released on
10.11.16 by the Reverse FPO "z" marking. It was directed to Basle,
Switzerland, but the sender had mistakenly written Sweden as the
country of destination !
(b) Another card to the same address, sent from Minsk 15.11.16 O.S.,
picked up by the Reverse FPO "e" marking the next day, examined by
Military Censor No.5 and again released in two days.
We can now see from the foregoing that all three examples were held for
censorship by the Reverse FPO for two days and that this office had
circular date stamps with subscripts g, e and z. Also that the Military
Censor No.7 mark was applied as early as Oct.1916, while Nos. 4 & 5 at
least from November onwards. The city of Minsk had a great variety of
censorship markings in use during WWI and further comments on this
interesting subject would be welcomed from our readers.








THE POSTAL HISTORY OF THE FIRST LATVIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC


9 by the late Jan Poulie.
During the years of turmoil from the end of 1918 to early in 1920, there
were various postal markings applied in the area occupied by the Soviet
forces. These markings were of German, Latvian and Russian origin. In
addition, there were pen and indelible-pencil cancellations.

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 3 March 1918 put an end to the
hostilities for the Germans on the Eastern Front. By 8 March 1918, the
Kurland (Kurzeme) Legislature had already asked for the incorporation
of Latvian territory into the German Empire. While WWI was still raging
in Western Europe, Germany already had plans for territorial expansion
on the eastern flank by outright annexation of foreign areas. The
German revolution of November 1918 destroyed these plans and the Latvian
Republic was proclaimed on 18 November 1918. Almost two years were to
pass before the new Latvian state could obtain its complete liberty.

In spite of signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Soviets had by now
decided not to be bound any further by its stipulations. Already by the
middle of September 1918 there was a Soviet invasion to get back their
lost provinces. By the end of November 1918, the areas of Latgale and
Livonia were again in Soviet hands. Riga was taken on 3 January 1919,
while the Zemgale area, which was then part of Kurzeme and much of the
Kurzeme territory itself came under Soviet control. By 22 January 1919,
the Red Army had again occupied all of the territory of Latvia.
* Meanwhile, the White Latvian government, which was led by Dr. Kdrlis
Ulmanis and which had fled to Estonia, planned with the help of the
Entente Powers an invasion of the Latvian areas which had been lost.
That was the beginning of the end of the Soviet occupation of the free
State of Latvia. The Soviet administration of all the territory of
Latvia only lasted a short time. The town of Frauenburg (Saldus in
Latvian) was recaptured on 10 March 1919 and, by 22nd. May, the Latvians
were back in power in Riga. During the summer of 1919, Livonia and
finally, early in 1920, Latgale also came back under the control of the
Latvian government, which had originally been set up in November 1918.

Philatelic mementos of those days are somewhat out of the ordinary, as
they were not made for collectors. The stamps themselves are often not
presentable as, apart from the markings, they were often cancelled on
postal forms by cutting out a piece.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: As readers will see from the pages that follow, Mr.
Poulie had put together what was probably the best postal history study
of that period. As internal letters weighing up to 15 grammes ( oz.)
were free of charge in the Soviet-held areas from 1 Jan. 1919 to 15 Aug.
1921, postage stamps were only affixed to heavier letters, parcels,
money orders, sending abroad and to collect registration and other
fees. A puzzle from this Latvian period is the fate of the Imperial
Russian cancellers for TUKKUM (Tukums). It seems that they had by then
fallen into private hands and may even have been forged. See the cover
on p. 35 to Riga, with the registration fee paid with 50 kop. in Arms
* type stamps and bearing a two-line provisional cancel reading TUKKUM /
-5. Jan. 1919. Does anyone know the present whereabouts of Mr. Poulie's
collection, the xeroxes of which he kindly sent to your editor some time
before his death?







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i




a0
SI





II


russischer Zweikreisstempelt REJITZA WITEB


russischer Zweikreisstempel


lettischer Kastenstempel


Lettisch: REZEKNE


Russisch: REJITZA


Lettisch: ROPAII


. Russisch: RODENPOIS


SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIESOVIETIQUE
1919




U
SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
1919

Lettischt RIGA Russischt RIGA
WVhrend der russischen Besetzung war Portofreiheit
ffr einfache Karten und Briefe
russischer Zweikreisstempel





S...- t o .














(era dofna CTop o Wo anapeca).
Il ". ...... v
S..... ... ...... ....... ,-... ...;.........





| .............. ............... l
... ... . .. . . . :... . .... . : .... I . VT S

.. .* .
.. ..... ....... ..... .







0
-- I













206
---. -.. I
.c-fzt. 0




t 000i0 o 0 0 0
^^ X^W l

'j (-^^ f''-!-^^^^^^

I~~~~~~~~~ '^y'~~----- ^--'(
^^ fi^^,?^^ '^ ^ ^
!L 00 ^ ^ ^^ -Oc -0 S'-O 1O-D- -0 0- 3L O OL




U
fI SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE 0

1919
SLettisch: RIGA Russischs RIGA
russischer Zweikreisstempel





(e -- t I
i 0





0 0-i- g






Skleiner zweikreis lettischer soviet Stempel und ausserdem
lettisch- russischer Stempel: Daugawpils und russischer Feldpoststempel Nr. 50 .
"i' ," / ', ,' -' m" i -
,3HO14I .,'% {








We"". a Ti ,0C, c "WC P"" 0C "M P. C"... .",N0*"Q


.. ............... .. L e. ...Al t. -_ .. .,-
.... U.'ii i. fi.A"*..I ,.Y e J. .,_
.. -. .


.- !.









00 =; 00 0 00 0,00 o 0 00 00 00





SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
1919
Lettischs RIGA Russisch: RIGA
* kleiner zweikreis lettischer sovjet Steapel
8 10 ,







a





a aa












028 0
i- :-- i' +



l0




- 0



o cc C C 00 0 00 00 500 0 0 0 0 0 0





U U
SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIfTIC.QUE
1919

S1 Lettisch: RIGA Russisch: RIGA
RIGA blieb bis 22 mai 1919 von den Ruassen besetzt gehalten. :
I hrend dieser Zeit wurden trotzdem auch lettische Stempel benutzt.
lettischer Zweikreisstempel


0 0





e I I i
0<












;LI sie l
"B ." '. '*w, t .A'. ,-! I"









*' I
'-": "
._ ._.. _- ... .. ..
H A.,"




H x"
.. -










0 0
'01.
or 00 ZV ogLZA00;ao 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 S 0B 0







SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIfTIQUE

1919


Lettisch: SALACGRIVA

russischer Langstempel:
Salaza Regierung Livland mit Datum


Russisch: SALAZA


* '^ '"'' 0




Lettisch: SALDUS Russisch: fRAUENBURG
8 0
lettischer Sovjetstempel ohne Datum








He .ta




30
0 0O 0-O OC ----00, 0O0 00, @00- '00- 00 `QO 00 0-. @0 -00- 00 -O


-~-------~ I _I


I;v


I


c.
ta




U U
.1 a
SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
; 1919
I Lettisch: SASMAKA Russisch: SASMAKEN
U lettischer Rund- und lettischer Kastenstempel






RlEPE B 10
S ey my ...... 0 t .. .... vi" o



(notroplnd lrMmy pyn polH b,- ontu u. ,
nflonagt ajpectnoyPlaTens:

+A .. .. .... .. ...... ........ ... 71
+ + + ,o= .... .....

,A ....::................. ... ........ ,

.... ...........
^^^& ...-..... ..^. .... ... > ... .. m... .....





HHKaKH e AohytKaeT, OKP.

| 0
y yo a
Lettisch: SERENE Russisch: SEREN
Russischer Ovalstempel der Gemeindeverwaltung:
SBrensche Gemeindeverwaltung Distrikt Friedrichstadt
(sp~ter ist der Name Friedrichstadt gefndert roiden in Jekabpils)




0*-I 4,' ---___3
i a




: +31
L-.rD rI~-~-~O CI~DD .D C~-~O 0' 90 00 DD .9. -OC 0~--- ~ y ~ Ci;;7





u U
a" SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
;f 1919
S Lettisch: SAUKA Russisch: SAUKEN
Tintenentwertung -












SRussisch:SEGEWOLD
.3 V
Sovjetstempel





'y ''


... '..'... ... .,










SK:b O. ..... ....p H ,.K .. .. .. .
S32 '
L e ch: -S G"'t o Y .." SQ .





V ceG a 00-po- 0 00 0a000 0 00 .- _00
g~~ ~~~~~i + "+' +-+ ++
,+ [
r'





s I
SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
1919
Lettisch; SMILTENE Russisch: SMILTEN
russischer Zweikreisstempel



* 0



russischer Balkenstempel
WVhrend der russischen Besatzung,welchle ffir Smilten dauerte von januar bis mai
919, war Portofreiheit fUr Briefe und Karten,jedoch nicht ftr Pakete und Geld-
S(anweisungen






leischer Kastenstempel

* 0




o 0





Lett1sch: STOPIWI ____ : I


0* i !








0 L,_ 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0 L------







SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE

1919


Lettisch: STAICELE


Russisch: STAIZEL


russischer Zweikreisstempel


X*MtTKM.


OTpt3H,


-- ........y. '.
(Cyka IkpCe


I Ha.tSHOB;iHie IH aflpec- oTnpaoHTe.rn:

J: -----.. .. ... ...., . .....

+ ..> //. A?.'. -cL. ??./'



' /


4:
V i.i i '


uC c(o6ini1e nI o6opoTr SToro KyiloHNa.

Lottioch: 3 TI'ICI


....Fa cy .m m y y .
... ..MMy ........... 0 pyi-r ........ ...... I

S -- -. _



(IIllooplllrb cyMMy p)6.ril iipo iiHcllri U ko n I tnijlpm:( iipiMii).

nflopo6Hbtl anpeCb no0iylTaenn



o. --
.o. .. ..... ........ .." .


. .. _. ......... .._ _,. 2 ., e: ... i...


. ......... ... ......... ............. ....i .... ..... ...... I -'. 6 .


C- ------- --TrrM-TKIl .


KFtaemi-j nTMBTl
e nnr\i

Riissisch: STAKL'II


=-= a- 0 -- --= 0 = = a _-0 I= a 0 C = a a0-. 0-000 00 0=0 0 O C --- o c---00 0





U U
SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIATIQUE *
Lettischs STAMERIENE 1918-19 Ruasisoh: STOMERSEE

lettiacher Sovjetatempel

0 0
A ---


a 0

Lettisch: STUKMAIi Russisch:STOCKMANNSHOF








lo I
*.I --- | .






,Y i.- ^ .'' ^ -/ / ,, 1


", ',^ + +TU ^ -'; .' : *.. ,. ."t ^ 4 t, -c .'i S- i.. .
+ *' ". + ""- t'+.'. .... |
i+-'+" ... .""..( ". .
o q -i -r-* .1
.I. .. ... .t ..


aa ; a 0 C = ,"- a a .C','== "a" a
*" a S ,

. .j A., B.+ -

.' '

(/ -" 7 ti) ~', *r -
',. I
.J '
o ." 00.r 0' ,r







SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
1919
Lettisch: STREN6I Russisch: STACKEtN
russischer Zweikreisstempel







i _
Lettisch: TALSI Russisch: TALSEN
a ~Doppelringstempel









Lettisch: TILZA Russisch: KOKOREWO
* _----------------------- -----------------0
Zweikreisstempel der R teregierung








Lettisch: VALKA Russisch: WALK
russischer Zweikreisstempel
* 0










Lettisch: VIALKANI Russisch: WELIONY
russischer Zweikreisstempel





36
v Lettisch: VILKANI Russich: WELIONY r Z es m =


0






SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
1919
Lettischt VALLE Rusaisoht WALHOF
T intenentwertung









II)It




-A- 759 7MMM_ 01 8# *
f s I;~r t ~a~Lattischt VAR KWU
*) 0H ap 4 k

















eny)+(eb bi~i 4 r m 14'
dp0
al -
m i no ap m u0nR
*I :.




; I VII~.r Q

er.





~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i floiw aiec noyaHA



S1 0

eJy+e9bF OTiTH.f
II I
W~ ~~6 u dp Jfll


Brr6LI *Kn II~~

US ~~~' ALnyeelfl -1
0 _______ _____ ______
o 00 0 0 0 0( 0 0 00 0 0D0 0 ~ g







SOWJET LETTLAND SOVIET LATVIA LETTONIE SOVIETIQUE
1919


Lettisch: VALMIERA
russischer Zweikreisstempel



.1

7,_3


I ... ...... ......


.. t


Russisch: WOLMAR


a .cyxmy L.. py6 .. Kon.






flnpo6HbiR apec'b DnonyaiaT _


o ...... .... .. ........................... .....
a .... .. ....



CJi lEb -bl OT.
+ 2_. J ..* ; ... . '. m+


J nl.O KoHTp. Ian nonp ne i myci eT.


Lettisch: VIDRIZI


fT) .


Russisch: WIDRISCH


lettischer








POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov
KOLOMNA
KOQTTMHA
Mosc ow Pr ov i ncre










Ji






Kolomna is located in the southeastern corner of the province some
72 miles southeast of Moscow. In 1897, the population was 20,970.

Kolomna is a very old community. It is referenced in the Annals of
1177. Until the 14th century, it was the capital of the Ryazan
principality. Despite being pillaged in the 13th century and
damaged in the wars of the 17th century, Kolomna maintained its
importance as a commercial centre.

Silk and leather goods, rope, cotton and wagons were manufactured
in Kolomna. When the railroads came into being, a locomotive
building factory was established in Kolomna. Active trade was
carried on in grain, tallow, salt, skins and timber.

Kolomna issued stamps between 1871 and 1916.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
COAT OF ARMS COLOURS:
Sky blue background, ornate silver column with a golden crown, gold
stars on the sides, green grass and brown earth.
-----------------------------------------------------------------

1871 1872
20.75 x 25.75 mm, lithographed in colour on white paper 0.12 mm
thick, white gum, small stars in the upper part of the shield, the
red and blue stamps were printed from separate plates as a result
a horizontal row of 6 red stamps is 133.5 mm and 144.5 mm for the
blue stamp, the red stamp also has thin separating lines while the
blue stamp has a frame of thin lines, the blue stamp was used
within the district only as a postage due, sheet of 6 x 5, pin
perforated 8.


1











1. 5 kop. red

2. 5 kop. blue


10.00

8.00


1875
Similar to previous issue but with smaller figures of value and
larger lettering and stars which are in the centre of the shield,
21.75 x 27.75 mm, lithographed on yellowish white paper 0.1 mm
thick, sheet of 6 x 5 with a transfer block of 3 x 1 and 3 types,
imperforate.


3. 5 kop. dull red


THE SHEET


THE 3 TYPES


10.00


- No period after 5 k in SE corner.
- Period after 5 k in all 4 corners.
- No period after 5k in NW and SE corners.


CONSTANT PLATE FLAWS

Type 1 2 spots of colour over 2nd C of CEIbCKTA
Type 2 Break in inner oval outline on the left bottom corner of
the shield.
Type 3 A thin line on the inner oval outline under the Iq of
Yb 3HA


Type 3.


1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 1 2 3


Type
Type
Type


Type 2.


Type 1.










1878
22 x 27.5 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.12 mm thick, white gum,
similar to previous issue but with larger stars and thinner
numerals and letters, sheet of 8 x 5, perforated 12.75, known
imperforate vertically and around the sheet margins.


4. 5 kop. vermillion
orange red


3.00
6.00


1880 1882
24.5 x 31 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.1 mm thick, white gum,
similar to previous issues but with an ornament at the bottom of
the oval that consists of 4 diamond shaped dots, values in corners
in thicker shaped numerals, with various perforations, 2 editions.


FIRST EDITION (1880)
Sheet of 8 x 8, transfer
12 x 11.75.

5. 5 kop. vermilion

6.(P) 5 kop. indigo blue

SECOND EDITION (1882)
Sheet of 8 x 8, transfer
12.5.

7. 5 kop. vermilion


8.(P) 5 kop. blue


block of 5 x 2 with 10 types, perforated


4.00

2.00


block of 2 x 2 with 4 types, perforated


2.00

8.00


THE FIRST EDITION SHEET

1 2 3 4 5 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10 8 9 10
1 2 3 4 5 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10 8 9 10
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3
6 7 8 9 9 6 7 8
2 3 4 5 5 1 3 4
7 8 9 10 10 6 8 9


THE SECOND EDITION SHEET

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4










THE 10 TYPES OF THE FIRST EDITION
Type 1 White dot on E of KQOOMEHCKAO letter E of CETbCKAA has
long horizontal stroke on bottom which almost touches the
letter J the solid colour background in the NW corner
is poorly outlined and the shape is not similar to the
outline of the corner framelines as it does on the other
types.
Type 2 Nick in the thick oval frameline under the last O of
KWIOMEHCKAIO period after YhIb3A appears to be a line,
long white nick in coloured background over XI of YIb3gA
Type 3 E of CEJfbCKAI has short horizontal strokes with a slight
bend in the vertical stroke, tiny dot between the outer
framelines in the NE corner (not always seen clearly).
Type 4 Deformed horizontal strokes in dot left of 1st C and E
of CEJICKAq the middle one appears almost triangular.
Type 5 Nick in the oval outline under the C of CEJhICKAq break
in the oval outline under the A and a nick under the
of YTb3lA X with pointed top.




Type 1. Type 2. Type 3.




Type 4.\ Type 5.


Type 6 Deformed A in Yrb3.A spot of colour on oval outline
under A of OqTA .
Type 7 Dot on thin inner oval outline under last 0 of KmJIOMEHCKAT
Type 8 Breaks in thick oval outline between A of HOqTA and K of
KCfIOMEHCKAO break under A and also 3 of Yb3,IA .
Type 9 Small spots of colour over A of HOqTA which unite it with
the coloured design above, 1st K of next word also
touches the design above.
Type 10 -White spot on E as on T.1, break in bottom outer frameline
on the left from the 5k up to about the centre.



4 A^sJ

Type 6. Type 7.




42T

Type 8. Type 9.








STHE 4 TYPES OF THE SECOND EDITION
Type 1 Break in the thin outer frameline on the left over HO
of HOTRA break in thin outer frameline on the bottom
under SW corner numeral 5.
Type 2 Small line extends to left from bottom horizontal stroke
of letter E of CETIBCKA thick and thin inner
framelines damaged on the right over the last O of
KCTCMEHCKArO thin inner frameline on the same side has
a break near the bottom.
Type 3 One of the horizontal background lines on the shield under
the left star is incomplete resulting in a white spot,
lower half of right leg of J of CEJUICKAH is double thick,
break in thin inner frameline over second letter 0 of
KQTIOMEHCTKAIO
Type 4 Tip of shield at the bottom is damaged, damaged top of C
of KQCJMEHCKArO small dot with thin tail is connected
to SE corner ball.



>1W ILH L\ )ir'
\ Type 1. Type 2.

--.




1886
Similar to issues of 1880 1882, wider and less pointed oval,
thicker column and shorter letters, wider figures of value in
corners, 25.25 x 31 mm lithographed on white paper 0.08 mm thick,
yellowish white gum, sheet of 7 x 8 with 6 types, perforated 11.5
and known perforated horizontally through the stamp.
9. 5 kop. vermilion 1.50
10.(P)5 kop. indigo blue 1.50
THE 6 TYPES
Type 1 Break in inner thin frameline on the right over letter 3
of Y ab3RA tiny dot to the right of the top stroke of E
of CEMTICr
Type 2 Short lines parallel to left frameline at the top, white
spot on ball in NW corner.
Type 3 Dot under top stroke of r of KOInEHCKAM dot over T










of IHOTA period after yirk7AA with tail.
Type 4 White spot at right bottom on ball of thick frameline.
Type 5 Spot under and attached to bottom horizontal stroke of 9
of YIb-3IA top horizontal stroke thick and irregular in


shape.
Type 6 Short line and dot under n of YT1L9IA dot
horizontal stroke.


touches the


Type 1. Type 2.


Type 3.


Type 5.


THE SHEET

1 2 3 1 2 3 4

4 5 6 4 5 6 1

4 5 6 1 2 3 5

4 5 6 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 1

1' 2 3 4 5 6 5

4 5 6 1 2 3 3

PLATE FLAWS
It is not difficult to plate the two stamps of the issue of 1886.
The stamps show numerous plate flaws of which the following are the
best known:

Stamp 10 Damaged T in InOtTA
Stamp 17 2 periods after 5k in SE corner.

AA


Type 1.


Type 6.










Stamp 18 Dot between L and T in IOqTA .
Stamp 21 Dot in top part of oval under J of KOnTCEHCKATO
Stamp 29 Spot on right outer frameline near top, square spot on
base of column.
Stamp 36 Colour spot connects thick and thin lines under r of
KOCOMEHCKAIO
Stamp 38 Spot of colour in place of shading lines on top of
column.
Stamp 39 Spot of colour connects thick and thin outer framelines
on the bottom under the period after 5k in SE corner.
Stamp 41 Spot of colour connects thick and thin inner framelines
under and slightly to the left of the ornament at the
bottom of the oval.
Stamp 55 Semi-circular spot on blue background above letter r
of KOICMEHCKATO


1888
Similar to previous issue, column is thinner and the stars are
smaller, balls in corners are larger, stamps are surcharged in
brick red or carmine with word r~QmTBAq (postage due) diagonally
from SW to NE corner, 22.75 x 28.5 mm, lithographed on yellowish
white paper 0.08 mm thick, colour often permeating, yellowish white
gum, sheet of 14 x 7 with a transfer block of 3 x 1 and 3 types
placed in a horizontal row, perforated 11.5


11.(P) 5 kop. dark blue with brick or carmine red
surcharge


THE SHEET

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 -1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 3


2.00


THE 3 TYPES
Type 1 Tiny blue dot on top part of inner oval on left above the
shield (very faint at times), a blue dot over left
vertical stroke of the first K of KOIOMEHCKAO)
Type 2 Break in thin oval frameline on right under letter Y of










Yrb3gA several dots and short lines of colour outside
thin inner frameline on left near NW corner.
Type 3 Dot on top white part of inner oval above the shield
larger than on T.1 and placed nearer to the centre of the
stamp.


7


Type 1.


Type 2. Type 3.


1889 (January 1)
19 x 24 mm (nos. 12 & 14) and 19.25 x 24 (nos 13, 15 & 16), 2 red
stamps printed together on a sheet of 16 x 8 with the 1 kop. stamp
on the upper half and the 3 kop. on the lower, 3 blue postage due
stamps ( tolTBAH ) on a sheet of 17 x 8 with the 1 kop. occupying
5 vertical rows and the 2 and 3 kop. stamps 6 vertical rows each,
lithographed on yellowish white paper 0.11 mm thick, yellowish gum,
perforated 11.5, 1 kop. known imperforate and vertically
imperforate.


12. 1 kop. red

13. 3 kop. red


14.(P) 1 kop. blue

15.(P) 2 kop. blue


16.(P) 3 kop. blue

3 KOP. BLUE VARIETIES:

A. No period after J0O=TOBAR
133rd stamp on sheet.
B. Spot on bottom of B of
OJITrmBA5 31st stamp
on sheet.


0.50

0.50

1.00

1.00

0.75









THE SHEETS
RED BLUE


1K .~1..ff'."


!.n. i i ] ':- ::::::!:::
3K



1K 2K 3K
1890
Similar to previous issues but with larger letters of inscription,
1 kop. with 0OIH instead of OgIHA 2 and 3 kop. with corner
numerals in a different colour, thin separating lines between
stamps, 19.5 x 23.75 mm lithograpphed on white paper 0.08 mm
thick, yellowish white gum, all 3 values printed together on a
sheet of 15 x 8 with each value taking up 5 vertical rows, the 2
and 3 kop. stamps have 40 types each which differ by the size and
position of the corner numerals, perforated 11.5



";* 3 I --
, -: ._ .. : .
' 51. '.


17.(P) 1 kop. blue 0.75

18.(P) 2 kop. blue and black 0.75

19.(P) 3 kop. blue and red 1.00


THE SHEET


1K 2K 3K


I









1890 (Nov. 26)
25.75 mm square with circular design, lithographed on white paper
0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 8 x 12 with all 3 values printed
together in 4 horizontal rows each, perforated 11.5






20.(P) 1 kop. blue 0.50


21.(P) 2 kop. blue

22.(P) 3 kop. blue


0.50

0.75


THE SHEET


1892
17.75 x 26 mm lithographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, shiny
yellowish gum, red stamps printed together on a sheet of 10 x 7
with each value occupying 5 vertical rows, all stamps in indigo and
ultramarine are printed on sheets of 15 x 7 with each value taking
up 5 vertical rows each, perforated 11.5 .


0








23. 1 kop. red


24. 3 kop. red
25.(P) 1 kop. indigo
26.(P) 2 kop. indigo
27.(P) 3 kop. indigo
28.(P) 1 kop. ultramarine
29.(P) 2 kop. ultramarine
30.(P) 3 kop. ultramarine

-----TO BE


1.00
1.00
0.75
0.75
0.75
3.00
3.00
3.00


CONTINUED


THE ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS

OF IMPERIAL RUSSIA
VOLUMES I and II


ARE NOW BOTH AVAILABLE FOR $30.00(US) EACH. DEALER
AMERMS ARE AVAILABLE. PLEASE MAKE REMITTANCE
AYABLE TO ALEX ARTUCHOV AND FORWARD IT TO THE
SOCIETY ADDRESS.










THE POS TAGE STAMPS OF IMPERIAL RUSSIA 1

by Alex Artuchov

As a lover and avid collector of Imperial Russian stamps, this
writer felt that two recent catalogues of Tsarist issues published
in the USSR merited more than just a book review. The two
publications are a serialized catalogue appearing in the January
and February issues of "Filatelia SSSR" (with continuation pending)
and "The Varieties of the Postage Stamps of Russia" by A.G.
Mayorov. The latter catalogue was published by the author.

This writer has long considered that the standard stamp catalogues
did not, to lesser or greater degrees, do Imperial Russia justice.
It was not until the much more recent publication of Lobachevsky
that a catalogue with some real substance appeared. Both of the
subject catalogues are no doubt Lobachevsky inspired.

The "Filatelia SSSR" catalogue appears in the centre portion of the
magazine and is intended to be removed and consolidated together
with future supplements as a single reference. While this catalogue
is relatively comprehensive it does not deal with the impact of
certain cancellations on value as Lobachevsky does nor is it nearly
as thorough as Mayorov on varieties. The publication is attractive,
well presented and compact with colour illustrations and makes for
a handy and complete pocket reference.

The Mayorov publication is comparatively poorer in the quality of
its presentation. The illustrations are strictly black and white,
which are not quite sharp enough and often of cancellated stamps.
Nevertheless, Mayorov is marvellous technically and provides the
most comprehensive list of varieties this writer has ever seen in
a single publication that truly does the title of the catalogue
justice. The writer particularly appreciated the wealth of
varieties that Mayorov is able to present from among the issues
with EPGB and laid lines watermark that are in fact plate flaws.
This is still a poorly known and appreciated source of varieties.

The author found it unfortunate that each catalogue used its own
system of numbers. A universal numbering system makes for a common
philatelic language. The pricing is an area that left the author
quite confused. The lowest priced stamp is valued at 1. Is this 1
ruble, 1 kopeck or 1 unit of a value rating system? A cancelled
No.l for example, is valued by Mayorov as 9000. Using the
"official" exchange rate this comes to an absurd approximation of
$15,500 US. An exchange rate of some 30 or so rubles to the US
dollar would be required for comparative price equity, using this
example.

Most significantly, the two catalogues and Mayorov in particular
inspired your writer and made him dig enthusiastically through his
collection.










THE MAIL OF INTERNEES IN LIECHTENSTEIN


(This unsigned article originally appeared under the title
"Interniertenpost" in the "Berner Briefmarken-Zeitung" for April 1948,
p.61 and is reprinted here in English translation by kind permission of
Mr. Max Hertsch, CEO of Zumstein & Cie of Berne, Switzerland, to whom
grateful thanks are due).

We are quoting from a communication dated 16.1.48 r-,
from the post office at Schaan in the ,: _^.-
Principality of Liechtenstein to the District ; .
Postal Directorate at St. Gallen in Switzerland: .

"On 4 May 1945, 494 Russian soldiers crossed over .
the Schellenberg into Liechtenstein. -* cI, c :"*j
Their immediate internment took place in (
several emergency camps scattered over the I '.
localities of Gamprin, Mauren, Ruggell and \
Schellenberg (Editorial Comment: See the map J\ '\ J
supplied at right). The accommodation of the .
internees in further camps soon gave rise to
difficulties, so that most of them were generally
concentrated in a camp at Ruggell, in the new
schoolhouse below the post office. However, it .f -J&',I'
quickly became apparent that these premises were
not suitable for long-term internment and the -, -
Princely Administration found it necessary to
transfer all the internees to a barracks set up \, .
at a camp in Schaan. The greater part of the
internees was moved from Ruggell to Schaan on '
28 December 1945. ,/ ./ :

Most of these internees have since moved to ., S a cale:
other countries in Europe and overseas. At the ''1' .,1 cm.
present time, there are only three male and one f2- km. =
female internees in Liechtenstein and they are s 1 miles
thinking of leaving the Principality soon.
These four persons are no longer in the internment camp, but have gone
into private employ. The internment camp in Schaan was therefore closed
down on 27 November 1947.

The Field Post Directorate in Berne had by then taken over postal
matters in Ruggell and they let us have the necessary instructions and
regulations after the transfer of the internees from Ruggell to Schaan.
These regulations were patterned on the Swiss model.

Ruqgell had a rubber stamp in circular
form, as well as the ordinary post /*Alter
office marking. This cachet was then ort~ f Militlr-
superseded by a similar marking, but Interniertenlager
with somewhat larger letters in three
lines, measuring 13.5mm. high by 30.5mm. r -c Rugge
long (see the two illustrations here). S
However, the transfer of the internees from Ruggell to Schaan could not
take place in one step, as the necessary space was still not available
in the barracks. The transfer was therefore extended over several weeks,
so that Ruqgell continued to use its marking for some time yet. Schaan
received a rubber stamp in the same three-line format, reading "Militar-/
51








Interniertenlager / Schaan". The supervision of the internment camp by
the Princely Administration was assumed by the Security Service in
Vaduz, which took over the control and examination of all the postal
sending.

It very soon became apparent that, so far as the collectors and
dealers were concerned, a new collecting area had opened up with these
internment markings. All sorts of attempts were made under all possible
pretexts to obtain postal items with such internment cachets. The
internees were asked by various parties about letters bearing the
internment marking, for which the internees would be offered a
compensation. We put an end to these activities right from the start
and drew a sharp line between genuine mail and outright philatelic
creations, in collaboration with the police who were carrying out the
checking of individual postal sending. It soon became clear that we
had acted wisely in this matter, as the requests from collectors
quickly rose to unbelievable heights. In spite of the very strict
control of these letter and card sending, the possibility still exists
that postal items which, properly speaking, were not genuine mail, were
marked with this cachet and that the contents could not be sent back.
However, it can be stated that no blatant philatelic manipulations were
tolerated".

The internees enjoyed the free-franking privilege, so that the markings
described above can only exist on genuine mail, which bore no postage
stamps. However, there exist express (special delivery) letters, which
were sent for example from the camp at Ruggell to Schaan, or from the
camp at Schaan to Liechtenstein addresses in Vaduz (the capital of the
Principality). They bear the prevailing express fee of 40 Rappen in
Liechtenstein stamps from the end of 1945 to the beginning of 1946 and
cancelled with the markings described above. In most cases, these
examples fall into the category of philatelic sending which slipped
through by oversight.

We subsequently turned to the Field Post Directorate in Berne and
received the following information: "The Field Post Directorate only
delivered to the internees in Ruggell and Schaan the marking inscribed
"Militdr-Internierung in der Schweiz Portofrei" (see the circular
cachet shown on the previous page). This marking was utilised to stamp
the postal sending handed in by the internees until the end of
internment.The straight-line cachet mentioned by you must therefore be
a marking of the camp administration. The Field Post Directorate had
never provided a straight-line field post marking".

Judging by that statement, the markings with the text "Militdr-
Interniertenlager Lager Ruggell" and "-Schaan" were applied on the
postal sending of the internees without the knowledge of the Field
Post Directorate.
*

A POSSIBLE VLASOVITE ITEM

by Andrew Cronin.

The information given in the previous article makes it clear that
examples of such internee mail are scarce and, in fact, such items
bring high prices from Liechtenstein and Swiss specialists when they
turn up in auctions.




























Ac1 tUA1 C' O Q




$C64A, i CL( Qc

^B^ COjwO <


Another point is that the 494
Russian soldiers crossed over
into Liechtenstein from the
west tip of Austria. In short,
they could not have been part
of the Soviet Army, which had
not penetrated that far into
Austrian territory, but were
rather retreating members of
the Vlasov Army which had
fought on the German side.

It should also be remembered
that, while the Principality
of Liechtenstein has had an
economic union with
Switzerland since 1921 and
is very small (area 161 km2 =
62 sq. miles), it has been
fully independent since 1866.
The application of the round
marking "Militar-Internierung
in der Schweiz" was therefore
incorrect and, strictly
speaking, an infringement of
the sovereignty of
Liechtenstein.

What started the author off
on this present investigation
was the recent acquisition of
the Liechtenstein postcard
shown herewith. It displays
several interesting features,
as follow:
(a) It was
sent on 20
-" July 1947
by an
obvious
Russian,
Vasilii
7 -... Martyntsev.

(b) The
C ...'. :. ". ':~ i* Russian
text of the
message
reads:
"Dear
Vasilii
SFdorovich,

yesterday
with Liven.
SHe suggested
that I go to
tP l\it s you and in









way as you did. That is, that you would take me under your wing and
would get me into the printer where you work, in the capacity of a
proof-reader. I agreed. I am now turning to you with a most humble
request: please let me know what would be the quickest and most
feasible way to go about the matter and please give me practical
advice. You went ahead and you know what would be needed for the
journey and what is needed there above all. We would see each other in
2 or 3 weeks. So I was told. Accept my deep thanks and pardon me for
bothering you. Yours faithfully, V. Martyntsev".

(c) The 10-Rappen Liechtenstein card is marked "Rasch" (=Urgent) at
front left, has a 10-Rappen stamp added and cancelled at Schaan on 20
July 1947, is addressed to Regensburg in Bavaria, then in the U.S.
occupation zone in Germany and has received in transit a machine
marking in carmine reading "U.S. CIVIL CENSORSHIP / MUNICH / 29.7.47".

Some observations now come to mind. The handwriting of Mr. Martyntsev
appears to be that of an elderly person, so he may well have been a
civilian camp-follower and acting in some capacity in the Vlasov Army.
The distinction is important as, so far as the Swiss authorities were
concerned, military internees had the free-franking privilege, even for
surface letters going abroad, while civilian internees always had to
pay the postage on their mail. Mr. Martyntsev gives his address merely
as Schaan, so can we assume that he was at the time of writing (20 July
1947) living outside the internment camp there, which was still in
existence at the time and was not to close until 24 November that year?
It seems safe to assume from the text of the message that the addressee
in Regensburg, Vasilii F8dorovich Klement'ev, had formerly been
interned in Liechtenstein.

Any comments and further information from our readership would be most
welcome, as Vlasovite mail would certainly be rare.
*

STALINIANA

by Ya. Afangulskii.

I.
The title refers to collecting philatelic items relating to the life
and times of losif Vissarionovich Stalin. Before proceeding to examine
the philatelic facets of this subject, it would be useful to look at
some of the more important events and conditions which shaped him.
Readers who would like fuller details will find that thousands of books
have been written about him.

Stalin was a brutal and intolerant monster, one of the most successful
tyrants who ever ruled and a classic example of Lord Acton's famous
dictum: "Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely". He was
also a latter-day Peter the Great and one of the towering historical
figures of the 20th. century.

Born an Ossetian in Ceorgia and still revered there, Stalin quickly
became a fervent Russian nationalist as a result of the criminal
ineptitude, glaring weaknesses and stupidity of the last Romanov tsar,
Nicholas II. He belonged to the generation of dedicated Bolsheviks who
swore to avenge the humiliating cdfeats of the Russo-Japanese War of
1904-1905, WWI, foreign intervention in the Civil War and the loss of








territory to neighboring countries. For all his horrible faults, crimes
and mistakes, many admirable and heroic projects were completed during
his rule. He made the USSR hum with activity and, without the
industrial foundation he laid during the first three Five Year Plans,
the country could never have withstood the massive Nazi onslaught in
the desperate months of 1941. He began his task with the most
unpromising human resources: a largely illiterate but very good-natured
population in a culturally and economically backward country, with no
tradition of coming to work on time or of caring for machines. Almost
all the achievements realized since his death, including the Outer Space
programme, were based on decisions originally taken by him. Coupled with
the pervasive terror was the enthusiasm with which the people built up
the country and defended it in Stalin's name. Unlike that other multi-
lingual empire, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which cracked apart like
a rotten apple under the strain of WWI, the USSR under his astute
leadership emerged from WWII bloodied but victorious, now respected
internationally and with an increase in area.

The incorporation of Karelia, the Baltic republics, the eastern lands
of Poland, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were all deplored in the
West but, from his point of view, Stalin was merely restoring the USSR
to its former extent in Imperial times and also liberating the
fraternal peoples of Western Belorussia, the Western Ukraine, Northern
Bukovina and the Transcarpathian Ukraine. At least 46 million soldiers
and civilians died because of WWII, about half of them Soviet citizens.
By contrast, Great Britain had 325,000 and the USA 362,000 dead. As
Winston Churchill stated in his memoirs: "The Red Army tore the guts
South of the German Army".

Desperate as its situation was in 1941-1942, it can be argued that the
USSR under Stalin was in even greater danger in the immediate post-war
period from 1945 to 1949, when it was still without atomic weapons.
The Soviet state was prostrate after WWII, with one third of its national
wealth and thousands of its towns and villages destroyed. Lend-Lease
was abruptly stopped immediately after VE Day (9 May 1945) and UNRPA
aid to Belorussia and the Ukraine in 1946. A disastrous drought
followed in that year and Stalin subsequently rushed grain he could not
spare to Czechoslovakia, to persuade it from bolting into the Western
camp. The result was that thousands of people starved to death in the
central Russian provinces and the Ukraine.

Stalin became increasingly angry and paranoid after WWII, as he felt
that the USSR had been cheated out of the full fruits of victory.
However, he was more than a match for his opposite numbers at the
negotiating tables at Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam. On the other hand, he
had good reason to he paranoid, as Great Britain had denounced in the
post-war period the Anglo-Soviet Treaty of Alliance, which it had signed
in Moscow on 26 May 1942 with a term of 20 years. By 1946, the British
Secret Intelligence Service had launched with U.S. help a massive spy
operation to bring down the Soviet government, mainly in the Baltic area
and it lasted almost ten years. It ended in abject failure, with most of
the Allied operatives killed or captured, as they were up against two
brilliant officers of the Latvian KGB Counter-Intelligence Division,
General Janis Veveris and Major Jinis Lukasevics. The whole story is
given in "The Red Web", by Tom Bower (McGraw-IIill, 1989).

Stalin really died in the nick of time for his sorely tried country and
there is no doubt that, if he ever knew what has been going on there now,
he would not just be turning in his grave but revolving at high speed.
55








II.
We will now look at selected philatelic aspects of Staliniana:-

(a) Soviet post offices and agencies, named in honour of I.V. Stalin.
According to the April 1937 edition of the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de
Poste", published by the UPU in Berne, Switzerland, the following 44
offices were then operating on the territory of the USSR (name,republic,
region):-


Kommuna im. Stalina
Kommuna im. Stalina
Kommuna im. Stalina
Sovkhoz im. Stalina
Sovkhoz im. Stalina
Sovkhoz Stalina
Stalin
Stalinabad
Stalinabad-Tsyk
Stalindorf
Stalingrad
Stalinir
Stalinisi
Stalinka
Stalino


Stalino

Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino

Stalino

Stalino

Stalino

Stalino


RSFSR, East Sib.
RSFSR, North
RSFSR, Omsk
RSFSR, Voronezh
Ukraine,Kharkov
Uzbek, Ikramov
Uzbek, Kokand
Tadzhikistan
Tadzhikistan
Ukraine,Dnepr.
RSFSR
Georgia
Georgia
Ukraine, Kiev
Kazakh, Alma-Ata
Karatalskii reg
Kazakh,Alma-Ata
Kuqalinskii rea
RSFSR, Kursk
RSFSR, Moscow
BSSP, Izhersk
BSSR,Uvarovich-
skii reg.
Ukraine,Donets
Konstantinovskii
Ukraine,Donets
Stalinskii reg.
Ukraine, Odessa
Khmelevskii reg
Ukraine, Odessa
Lyubashevskii r.


Stalino-Privokz.Ukraine, Donets
Stalino- Ukraine, Donets
Rudoupravlenie
Stalino-Sovkhoz BSSR,Dzerzhinskii
Stalinogorsk RSFSR, Moscow
Stalinsk Uzbekistan
Stalinsk RSFSP,W.Siberia
Stalinskaya-MTS RSFSR,N.Caucasus
Stalinskie Uzbekistan,
Lagerya Ordzhonikidze r.
Stalinskii RSFSR,Bl.Sea-Azov
Stalinskii Kazakh,Karaaanda
(Alekseevskoe)
Stalinskii South Kazakhstan
Stalinskii(Kochkorka) Kirgizstan
Stalinskii Khutor Sth.Kazakhstan
Stalinskii Rudnik Kaz.Karaganda
Stalinskii Ukraine,Kharkov
Sakhzavod
Stalinskoe RSFSR, Far East
Stalinskoe RSFSR, Gor'kii
Arzamasskoe
Stalinsk- RSFSR,W.Siberia
Privokzalnyi
Stalinstadt RSFSR, Crimea
Vekhne- PSFSR, Yakutia
Stalinskoe
NOTE: There was a STALINDORF also
in the Jewish Autonomous Region,
but it apparently never had a
post office or agency.


Looking now at the 1951 edition of the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de
Poste", we find that the number of offices/agencies has decreased to 31:-


Kolkhoz im. Stalina
Kolkhoz im. Stalina
Nizhne-Stalinsk
Sovkhoz im. Stalina
Sovkhoz im. Stalina
Stalinabad
Stalingrad
Stalinir
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
Stalino
56


RSFSR,Stalingrad
Sth. Kazakhstan
RSFSR, Yakutia
RSFSR, Tambov
RSFSR, Voronezh
Tadzhikistan
RSFSR,Stalingrad
Georgia,Sth.Oset
Kazakh,Alma-Ata
Kazakh,Dzhambul
RSFSR,Krasnoyar.
RSFSR, Maritime
RSFSR, Moscow
RSFSR, Omsk
RSFSR, Orel
Ukraine, Odessa


Stalino
Stalino
Stalino-Radinskoe
Stalinogorsk
Stalinsk
Stalinsk
Stalinsk
Stalinsk
StalinskieLagerya
Stalinskii Khutor
Stalinskii Rudnik
Stalinskoe
Stalinskoe
Stalinskoe
Stalinskoe


Ukraine,Stalino
Uzbek, Tashkent
RSFSR, Altai
RSFSR, Moscow
RSFSR,Birobidzh.
RSFSR,Kemerovo
Turkmenistan
Uzbek,Andizhan
Uzbek,Tashkent
Sth.Kazakhstan
RSFSR,Chelyabin.
Kazakh.Akmolin.
Kirgiz, Frunze
RSFSR, Kursk
Ukraine,Dneprop.













; /

tr

C~ ----
I ~p6 .: I r-,
.y .. -.

;I


~`~ii:t.
r
I
r. I I/ ~IV V 1 11/1- Il~l~l--rr --- -. Ifl `.-i
I rl
: i i
...
-y~
f
~C I; Ir
I.. .' ; ~-'-,
-,--.. I:
:: .. i .:
-
? ..
''' -i i
: ,: .c~
''' -5-.. i
,,

..I .,
d~.i
i. C/ Il, '



.i~~i:


I


'jr7 ~ ,


(b) Covers

addressed

to Stalin,
which

leaked

out of the

archives

after his

death.


I







(c) Cities in the Socialist countries named after Stalin.


The Bulgarian port of Varna bore his name from 21 Dec.1949 to June 1956.
il ....* m ~ ii. ..1- rr I~I~rl|^ rjtl II. I .. i i -- ri .i.- ii l n M ^- -^^T ~^ 1 il LL -- .T


Note the
Stalin
commem. on
this letter
sent on
18.11.1950
and the
handstamped
name
"STALIN" on
the Varna
registration
label. It
was
received in
New York
City one
week later.


PAR: BVIONA
0(o Blb3IYXA) "


4..J


NO't 9 ~F


3-.- --- .




33f2 >

V "



S *'; '.

91U, '


~1-~


"POSTAGE PAID*
STALIN" mark
applied on
14 May 1955.


_.LI reitrto labe ]-
Continued application of the "STALIN-C" registration label
on 8 December 1956, several months after the port had
reverted to its original name of Varna.


4;g~ f:/4


~ 2, j~tE


58


-e ~f~g~ll~.L~J~d~ Ll~e~--- ~~o~
/j

'
J

E' if
"g~g "~'


'


..t !
t








(c) Cities in the Socialist countries named after Stalin.


The city and province of Brasov in Roumania were also renamed during
this period and reverted back to the original name late after his death.


p.RORLI I KA"rOr.LAR.. -R() .. ..-

\-4 __, -rl_-t- I-"-- -^- -






The Roumanian word
"oragul" translates
....... ... as "the town".
Shields and Company,


A registered AR. letter sent from SIETU-3 (Fermannstadt) post
office in the Stalin (Prasov) province, where there is an
important German-speaking minority.


.- -


r I..:....







(d) Other Staliniana items from the Socialist countries.


---------------
Victor Indra
Javorl6ska 4

---------- ---------------
Czechoslovakia





Chinese cover with Stalin stamp, sent from Lhasa,
Tibet, 25 December 1956 to Czechoslovakia.


cEL NO S.lli \ U I% C N R0Sl u E NS Kl l


Ip.. ,d.f





Z M uVCE A UCi-





"The leader and
teacher of the
working people of
the whole world
has died-PRAHA-1,
12.III.1953"
(Czechoslovakia).








(d) Other examples of Staliniana from the USSP.


. The ancient town
/ of Tsaritsyn on
A the Volga
(founded in 1589)
had its name
changed to
*/ Stalinarad in
1925. See at left
/' an early postmark
dated 15.3.26*V*
on a rea. letter
to Berlin and, at
top right here a
p, iece with a
S marking reading:
STALINGRAD P.T.K.
a.27.5.26. Who
-- has earlier dates?




- ," .63)


I.ropH n.-T. 0o.

The registered
letter shown here
at left was posted
from Gori, Georgia,
on 24 Nov.1927 and
passed through the
Kiev Rly.Stn.P.O. on
its way to Hempstead,
N.Y., where it was
received on 15 Dec.
Gori is 75km.(47 mls)
north-west of
Tbilisi and the
birthplace of Stalin.
The house where he
was born was turned
Into a museum.

61


--


- --













.'*- o 1,i o.i ....-.. ,


S. Yuzovka, the largest industrial centre in the
SDonets Basin, was founded in 1869 by the
SWelshman John Hughes. It was renamed Stalin/
Stalino in 1924. An early marking dated 1.4.26
is shown at top centre and a bilingual machine
S131 cancel 21.II.31 (i.e. 21 Feb.) at left. The
Spostmark at top right reads KRASNOGOROVSKII
7AV.STAL.OKR.**a.18.7.31. This latter town is
now known as Krasnogorka/Chervonohorka, postal
S code 617656.






QSZ, L NI




--------- .-..... .. ... ........ .t a roa


.... .-.. .. ...... ..


20tha. e?/tembr'
&---Ar.--. ,r.-

dL .3 f -- ,




A . ..e c r .o .. . --.. . . .. _. ._.... ....... . . .. . ...
............... ....... . .. ... .... _.. ..








NOTE: As a result of the 22nd. Party Congress in 1961, the body of Stalin
was removed from the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow and all places named
after him had their names changed.Stalino is now Donetsk.
62
62








T.T 1 INS

-. (I K

'f ,-t- e' L Ir i i '





rlG ez, s:I
rN~I*


Chi~~~




~ ~AR~~f~%AAA


We see just above
a postmark of the
Moscow-58 post
office in the
Stalin district,
dated 31.12.31.


A reg. letter from Novokuznetsk (originally Kuznetsk,
founded.in 1617 and renamed Stalinsk in 1932), sent
on 3.12.35 by surface mail and received in Washington
on 21 Dec. Fast transit time, considering the distance!


MW0cKx~a14a;aB30ojeN JJ6HH-H-a-'ms9p-acHoai nwio
r 124459. Tupaw 100000 aJ. Leoa O0 Kon.
3aKa3 N2 285,69. M 125


KYAaD b14 Il 4 LA4J(I4r12(~








OTnipaBHTeJlb
..... .n.. .. ...........s ~ ~ .......


...... ...s.i


The postcard shown here is franked with a 30-kop. stamp with the heads
of Lenin and Stalin for the 29th. anniversary of the Revolution in
1946. It was probably sent in Nov. 1946, going by pouch to Washington,
where such mail was cancelled (barely touching the stamp at top right)
and a lilac cachet added, reading "This article originally mailed / in
country indicated by postage", plus "DIPLOMATIC/MAIL" in blue on stamp.
Further comments on "Staliniana" are invited from fellow readers!
63







FLAWS

by the Rev. L.L. Tann

The subject of flaws is a wide one. It has been touched upon in the BJRP
from time to time, with notes and observations by the late Dr. Alfred
Wortman, Professor Winterstein, Dr. Gould and others. Some notes and
illustrations appear in the "Arms" book (p.147). I thought I would
augment that information with a few new points. I wish to state my
thanks and indebtedness to Harry Turner of Stockport, Cheshire, for his
fine photography, which reproduced and enlarged the items shown here.

The "Arms" stamps.
1-kop. pair of the 1902-1906 printing. The stamp at right shows a
significant break in the inner circle, by the right wing-tip of the
Imperial eagle (all illustrations are on the next page).

10-kop. of the 1909-1917 issue. These are in the medium blue shade of
the second printing of 1910-1911. The left stamp of the mint pair and
the used copy show a break in the very top frame-line, just above the
"CH" of "POCHTOVAYA".

The 5-kop. single, probably from the 1912-1917 printing, shows a line of
smudged ink in the same claret colouring down the left side. It
stretches from the curled ornament above the leaves to the four pearls.
This is obviously an incidental flaw, which would not be constant.

The 5-kop. block with plate number 2. Again from the 1912-1917
printing, the left stamp at the bottom, No.99 in the sheet, has a full-
stop dot between the P and O of POCHTOVAYA in the ribbon at the top.

The 70-kop. value. Unfortunately, the stamp is damaged at the base, but
that does not detract from the plate flaw. There is considerable damage
to the left wing of the Imperial eagle. Note that the photo has picked
up the sharp varnish lines criss-crossing the stamp. This item was the
subject of an interesting discussion between Yamshchik member Andrew
Cronin and myself. The question was: was the damage due to a flawed
plate, or caused by the application of the varnish lines? Mr. Cronin
suggested that the stamp might have been a trial run for the varnish
lines. The colouring of the stamp certainly places it among the first
printing in 1909, as it matches to a block with dated margin. I still
think that it is a flawed plate. Can anyone produce a "twin"?

The 15-kop. currency tokens of 1915. The following four flaws are on
these tokens. The printings went from 1915 into 1917 and possibly beyond,
creating a fertile area for studying flaws. The plates were wearing and
produced sheets with many flaws. Here are four, which I have noted. Many
more must be waiting to be seen.

1. The "v"-shaped nick in the top frame-line, just by the left edge of
the "POCHITA" tablet.
2. See again the "POCHTA" tablet. The top of the "A" and the frame-line
above it fail to print because of wear.
3. The "POCHTA" tablet again. The top and inner frame-lines and the
riaht corner of the "rI" did not print because of worn-down plates.
4. The ear of the Tsar has a crack along the top, giving an extra
parting to his hair. This is a crack in the plate.

And now, having opened the subject, can we add to the information?
*










EARLY SnVIET LITIUAN1PN ITEMS


by various authors.


49 about t formatio S of th F Lhn o







f.f 47
~r




Sf x i p o


,H: s "1 *- -/
.- i" 't. *^ ..,,- -..-..,,







Pf ^ j-"" .. L--.".



One does not need to be reminded that Lithuania is very much in the news
these days and we all hope that everything will end peacefully for all
concerned. As a follow-up to the reference in "The Post-Rider" No.24,
p.49 about the formation of the First Lithuanian Soviet Pepublic under
Vincas Mickevicius-Kapsukas, we can bring two fascinating items to the
attention of our readers.

The first example is the postcard shown above and advised by Paimundas
Marius Lapas as beina in a collection in Lithuania. It dates from the
first interval of Soviet power in Lithuania, when the Red armv was in
Vilnius from 5 January to 22 April 1919 and ordinary mail was postfree.
The message is in Russian and the date written in Old Style (17 March
1919) on this card. addressed to Antonina Vasil'evna Okhanskaya in
"Peterburq" (sic). The postmark reads VIL'NA-2.b.30.3.19 and the card
was received in Petrocrad on 1.4.19, per the machine postmark at bottom.
The "25" at top right was possibly the price of the illustrated card.

The Red Army was back in Vilnius from 14 July to 27 August 1920 during
its offensive against the Poles and we are indebted to Dr. Vytautas
(William) Doniela of Bankstown, Australia for the illustrations ons on the
next page of the front and back of a superb money-order in his
possession. The amount of 4500 roubles was sent on 15?.8.20 from the
Vilnius Railway Station (see the Pussian "zh" postmark at bottom,
coupled with a two-line arkin reading "No. 39/aVil'no-vokzal") and there
is a further three-line hand-set cachet up the right side of the form
with the text "Za neimenier marok/oplacheno nalich.den-/gami devyanosto
rub.", followed by the signatures of the postmaster and controller of
money orders: Dubov and Jakutis. The text of this rare provisional
cachet translates as "Because of the lack of stamps, (the sum of)
'ninety' roubles has has been paid in cash". The payee was Maria Ivanovna
Vorob'eva in the village of Kotovras, Balashov District, in the province
of Saratov. Please see the next page for further details. This is a rare
and superb piece.









A 4"



Ila_ .... _o .. ..... -


M- a -

(noTrrlan CM pTefl npouECst, a I(out1iX( W-map ). a C
no,fpo6&Swi apec' nony.Tlaenal ./

KOMY -- '
%A I
4) ,



o ,- 'r. ........... 0


_. ,*;. /.- / "< -
"O g,
cls n .Tf^- "-
CYIKEIBHfiblI OTJiTKTKH


PocnHci(a noJIaq TeaJii.

03HaqeHHylO Ha nilJUIeB6H CTOpOH- sTro AOKyM'eHra

cynMy nonywHn / -b r.
(u~tncauh,-'mcn o roal).

l],o n~cr,:,.($' / s


Note the large
circular cachet,
inscribed
VILENSKAYA
VOKZAL'NAYA
KONTORA (Vilnius
Railway Station
Office), crossed
thunderbolts and
posthorn at
bottom and the
arms of the
RSFSR in the
centre.

The commission
of 90 roubles
charged for the
money order
represented 2%
of the amount
being
transmitted
(4500 roubles).











The money-oder
was received in
Kotovras nine
days later on
24.8.20, but
was not paid to
the addressee
until 9 October.
There is a
further strike
of the Kotovras
"a" postmark in
the martin at
left and dated
15.10.20 (:).


1


~"C
rt~
LP,-
~'
~ I,*
~..







MOLDAVIA
In the Soviet Union's SET
second-smallest republic,
unrest which captured
headlines last summer
and fall made Moldavia
seem a sort of microcosm i
of the union's nationalities
problem. USSR
Moldavian nationalists (Ukraine)
were demanding more
autonomy from Moscow.
Minorities within Moldavia LDAV
were protesting to defend
their rights. One group, Kilhilnlv
the Turkic-speaking
Gagauz, were calling for
their own autonomous
region within the republic ROMANIA
with their own language
and schools. Ethnic
Russians and Ukrainians
were demonstrating
against a law making
Moldavian the official o 1
state language. In
November, crowds in the thousands battled police.
In the face of this, local Communist Party officials were pledging
reforms. When deposed dictator Nicolae Ceausescu of neighboring
Romania was executed, a rally in Kishinev celebrated his death and even
heard some talk of union with that country to which it once belonged.
Romania has a province by the same name and the Moldavian language
is almost identical to Romanian, with dialect variations.
Moldavia is the centre of what was once Bessarabia, on the ancient
route into Europe which had brought many invaders and influences from
Romans to Tatars. After occupying the area several times between 1711
and 1812, Czarist Russia took control in 1812 and held on until 1917.
Then, Bessarabia broke free and promptly joined Romania. After 1940,
the Soviet Union, which had never dropped its claim, forced Romania to
give up Bessarabia, merging a big part of it with a Moldavian republic that
had been established earlier.
The republic supplies electricity to southern Ukraine and to Bulgaria
and is part of the southern Soviet power system. It produces wines,
tobacco, processed foods, refined sugar, machinery and building
materials.
Ethnic makeup: About two-thirds are Moldavian, with Ukraine and
Russian minorities of about 13 to 14 percent each and 3 to 4 percent
Gagauzi.
Population: 4.2 million.
Capital: Kishinev.


MORF ABOUT MOLDAVIA

by various authors.


(1) as a matter of interest,
please see at left an excerpt
from the authoritative Toronto
daily "The Globe & Mail",issue
of 27 Feb.1990, which refers
to Moldavia. The historical
summary parallels the data
given in the article "Matters
Moldavian" (see "The Post-
Rider" No.25,pp.41-67) and is
reproduced here by kind
permission of the News Dept.
of the newspaper.

(2) Dr. Peter Michalove of
Champaign, Illinois writes:
"The article on Moldavia was
very interesting. Here is a
cover from one of the Soviet
occupying troops in the brief
1940-1941 period. It has a
strike of the triangular
!military cachet KpaCHOapMeIicnpe
rnHCbMo/SecnanaTHo and then a
civilian cancel of BEL'TSY
MSSR.v.-6.6.41. Unfortunately,
it is a dark cover, so it is
difficult to get a good
impression of the markings".






(3)
... ., ;. Mr. Cronin has
S .. since acquired
the following
S' l nOHTOBAR KAPTOHK two interesting
CARTE POSTALE card withitems
(a) A card with
S-. .'- a dramatic text
in Russian to
S... the well-known
... HamuCHB HHeecia r lo cnqa cA ba c -DfmeIo H/ po Latvian
philatelic
..i" ".. .a. .. .....' -. publisher Karlis
.... *o HJH f,^ >Mikelsons:
; ."A oUB ... H......l... "Bendery, .9.40.
'o.y ..' -. .. : :- Dear colleague,
anoprdoy : v ee F ..- RBeing a Bucharest
...... .. ... .C your journal

S.' -" 'Baltika' and as
Apec: ... .. ........... ..i.. .. .. we have had the
"ormnpa3umeAr I. :.-'- .''''.', opportunity to
A-resce ..
e i E ,r r' l ;' ~, become citizens
... .U -_i-j ,: '. of the Soviet
..................... Union, I as a
.., Union, I as a
Bessarabian and you as a Latvian, I wish to inform you about my new
address, namely: Bendery, Konstantinovskaya 42, Haimovich, M.G.,Moldavian
SSR. Please send me the last issue of your journal, for which I thank you
in advance. In fleeing from Roumania, I left behind all the journals and,
as I wish to have some addresses of colleagues in the Soviet Union, I
would be very grateful to you for the despatch of a suitable last number
of the journal. With fraternal greetings, M.G.H."
Note the continued use of the Roumanian canceller: TIGHINA I,1 SEP.40.18.
Let us hope that Mr. Haimovich also escaped from Moldavia in June 1941 '

" ."..l ".Z '. ..'- IF (b) An


.. RAS Pt
SSO"A L I


~~~I /z. if


7-:1
-t_________________
DI-Is'
P4' U Cf.' .:~ ehdi

~ 0 /iJ'


early post-
W I I
letter from
Tiraspol',
the former
capital of
Moldavian
ASSR. The
actual rate
paid was
50k. for a
surface
foreign
letter,
80k. reg.
fee and
Ir. for
airmail.
Sent on
14.4.49 via
Kishinev-8,
20.4.49, to
arrive in
Chicago on
28 April.


~


i








(4) Ivo Steyn
of Amsterdam
has come up
with the bank
receipt card
shown here.
It was sent
from Moscow
9.6.26 and
signed on
14.6.26 at
Glikstal'.a.
in the
Moldavian
ASSR, before
being
returned to
Moscow, where
it arrived
on 18th.

We welcome
more details!


*

FORGERY CORNER


:-O A MHU ,I 3pD CTPOE IKiE 0











(a) BoCus cancellation on the Rostov-on-Don Obligatory Famine Tax Issue.

A recent auction featured the 6000r. value with an impossible postmark
from Belorussia, reading GOMEL'-.3 n.5 IV 22, i.e. wrong area and 14






days before these stamps were issued in the Don territory! They are
known applied with postmarks of Rostov and Nakhichevan'-on-Don, a strike
of the latter dated 5.5.22 being shown on the 2000r. stamp just above.
The issue had no franking value and mail is rare with these stamps
properly applied and tied. The situation is complicated by the fact that
x/ 011 OJA 21MM" TV, CPrfMffCA1EC













at least one cover is known in which the tax stamp was apparently added

at the time of posting, but not cancelled. It sounds logical enough'
(b) Bogus canperforation on the Airship Constructtv--Dion set of 15 May 1931.
A r eent auction featured the 6000r. value with an imsupplies of the setmark
from Belorussia, reading GOMEL'-.3 n.5 IV 22, i.e. wronq area and. 14





days before these stamand decides were issued in the Don terrducinits own version fare
known applied with postmarks of Rostov and Nakhichevan'-on-Don, a strike




of the perforated set, by applying a sholine-perforation gauging This wasabove.
The issue had no frankina value and mail is rare with these stamps




NOT a known Sovappliet perforation and tied Thehe firm went one better by "cret hating"
vat ieties, such ar is note pair in which mperforate-between horizontally, as showed
at the time of posting, but not cancelled.. It sounds logical enoucrh!

(b) Bogus perforation 11 on the Airship Construction set of 15 May 1931.
A well-known firm of stamp dealers in Berlin had supplies of the set
IMPERFORATE and decided to "economnse" by producing its own version of
the perforated set, by applying a line-perforation aauqinq 114. This was
NOT a known Soviet perforation and the firm went one better by "creating"
varieties, such as the pair imperforate-between horizontally, as shown
just above here at right. You have been warned!
70


L '

SI BEAoOMIEHME O flOJ1YHEHHHM


*Ii \
OCKOBCKO 4 KOHTOPI.

rocy apcTseHHoro BaHa C.

S HQ.CTPAHHblIO OTAEJ1.

.. 1' I- II T\


Iuv %7 V I I u
Hy3HeuAHM MOCT, 10.


Apec.

3aK. .V 961-50.000.


I


_ ~I


--


H B A


r
r
L
i nli ~!~b MPIX.*_







(c) Bogus imperforate variety created by trimming.
The Baku Commissars set issued on 1 December 1933
was line-perforated 14 and some values are known
with partially missing perforations. That gave rise
to genuine varieties, such as fantail margins and .
pairs imperforate-between horizontally. Such items o
were sometimes trimmed to "produce" an apparent
imperforate variety, as with the 5-kop. stamp shown
here at left. Even imperforate pairs are suspect,
since even the item featured at right has two lines
of perforation missing: between the two stamps and also
between the upper stamp and the sheet margin.

In view of the foregoing, it seems reasonable to assume that
no stamp of this set can be considered as also existing in
an imperforate state unless it can be found in a block of
four or an even larger multiple.





PHILATELIC SHORTS
DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting i
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that \
could use some clarifying information, or might there
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some
newly acquired item ?

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines oOo "a
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers I o o
000 o
.4 i q. V 4 4 1
oW I1*- aoo .A
d Po oovo



Ujd ~ is o d-r' of note
Sp .) } 'reu nde des ^^]. 4 because of the
S..... religious text,rdam,
Srln b1. ) H Irollanin an
V o p a ,- r: ,1 < l < rd t,-o J j


N .. o. H ii refers to YMCA a 0
.) f ) c-o I ~--I g is of note







U2 t-p .rl f. V,, H "-er4 "tio '9t'1f'd -- --' (Postal Agency
PA a ')e 'Cl I ) No.6 in andk


43 : u 12 CH 4) 4 -H ref the 5-k o Yxpress
:C aFe c~l~ ~ dpu~ 1-'o P VIIa ithe 5-k.Fxxpress










(Special Delivery) stamp, which formed part of a set of three values,
issued on 10 April 1932 and rarely found postally used. Here it helped
to make up the 10-kop. rate for a surface postcard going abroad, but
has anyone ever seen any of these three stamps properly used for their
original purpose: express mail? Such usages would be among the
highlights of Soviet postal history.

Herman Z. Hirsch, Bloomington, Illinois, USA.


--~ ~ "i.




i~ Y~A


';' ' r6 _7>
LL

,. ,.



2.d
>-c^<^^ ue<>< C

3:: *: *.. ;'^} :





___. .. ^ .


. ,..'" ... OR.DIT LYONNlAI1'MOSOOU,


I. b 0.
rilut q MOW 0 kbWT,1-\`8 ~ 1 "
i. .!I;0


Just a short follow-up to the note by John Bodnar in "The Post-Rider",
No.25, p.70. Herewith is a xerox of a similar cover, marked "registered"
and again overpaid by 1 kop. so as to get the set of four values on
cover. The stamp selection is mixed, as the 1-kop. & 3 kop. are on white
paper & perf. 11; the 7-kop. on buff paper with the same perf. 11 and
the top value on white paper and perf. 12. The letter was sent from
Moscow on 3.2.17 O.S., examined by Moscow Censor No.44 and received in
Heer near Maastricht in Holland on 22.3.17 N.S. The total elapsed time
was therefore 34 days.

Rev. L.L. Tann, Birmingham, England.

In a previous "Yamshchik", examples of Romanov stamps used after the
Bolsheviks had seized power were shown with cancellations of the cradle
of the Revolution (Petrograd)-

I illustrate here a cover that has come into my collection (see at left
72




























just above). It is registered at Orel, Tula Province and is an envelope
with imprinted 5-kop. design and surcharged "3 kop." in the 1909 rate
reduction (see the catalogue of the Cercle Philat6lique France-URSS,
Russie Imp6riale, p.36). The added franking consists of the 25-kop. Arms
perf., an apparent corner copy of the 70-kop. imperf., 1-kop. & 4-kop.
Romanovs and 2 & 3-kop. currency tokens of 1917. There are perfect
postmarks of Or8l 28.6.18 and a registration label of Or~l 1 Otd. The
two currency tokens applied are from the republican issue of April 1917,
the inscription on the back omitting the Tsarist eagle. The two-kop.
bears the large figure "2", clarifying the value because of forgery and
fraud.

It is a philatelic cover, addressed to an in-town location and I leave
to students of postal rates of the period the question of the postage
represented by Ir. 8k. (EDITORIAL COMMENT: The rates from 28 February to
15 September 1918 were 30 kop. for a local letter and 70 kop. for the
registration fee, so the example here was overpaid by 8 kop.). Romanov
stamps are known used much later than this; after the Revolution in 1920
at 100 times face value. So let us see your post-Revolution Romanovs to
determine the latest dates of usage and whether within White or Red
areas of influence.

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

(a) The trilingual fiscal stamp imperforate shown at top right is from
the Russian zone in Rethymnon Province on the island of Crete. It is of
interest as it ties in with the stamps of the Russian postal service
which operated on the island from 1 May to 29 July 1899. The type-set
frame and value of 6 six piastres in black are intended to be in French.
Within that printed frame, there is a handstamped rectangular cachet in
blue, inscribed in Greek and reading: CRETE/fiscal tax/being levied. All
this is topped off by the final addition in blue of the circular cachet
in Russian, which reads "Ekspeditsion. Otryad na Ostrove Krite"
* (Expeditionary Detachment on the Island of Crete). That is the same
cachet which was applied in the centre of blocks of four of the first
four handstruck postage stamps of the Russian Zone, issued in May 1899.

(b) The cover shown immediately at top on p. 75 is of interest to
73








specialists in Belorussian postal history, bilingual cancellations and
registration markings. The last-named is of especial interest in this
particular example, as it has been handstamped in violet and the Russian
inscriptions have been completely transliterated into Latin letters. The
panel at left translates as "Industrial Bank of the USSR",the centre as
"R No.../The Minsk 1st. City Post & Telegraph/Office/attached to the
Industrial Bank" and the panel at right as "Carries out all/banking
operations". Unless this owner is mistaken, that is the only example
known so far in postal history of a registration marking which has
incorporated advertising in its text. This registered letter was sent on
23 December 1926, i.e. during the period of the NEP (New Economic Policy),
which ran from 1921 to 1928 and was so successful that the 1913 level of
production was reached by 1927, because of concessions to private
enterprise. The text was a reflection of that fruitful period.

(c) The cover shown in the bottom half of p.75 was sent by registered
surface mail from the Gor'kii-7 post office, where the proper postage of
Ir. 30k. was affixed (50 kop. for a surface letter going abroad and 80k.
for the registration fee). It would appear that the stamps were
cancelled at the main post office in Gor'kii on 1.3.41.v., as the
postmark reads GOR'KII POCHTAMT (Gor'kii Post Office). Note the
prominent "Zakaznoe" (= registered) cachet struck in violet at top
centre, presumably at the main post office. There is no evidence of
censorship en route and the letter presumably travelled across Siberia
to Japan and down from there to Australia, on its way to the unusual
destination of New Zealand. There are two transit postmarks on the back,
reading REGISTERED BRISBANE 1-A 15 AP 41 OUEENSLAND and G.P.O. SYDNEY
RS (= REGISTRATION SECTION) 16 AP 41 A-NSW-AUST. The letter was not
examined until it arrived in the country of destination, where a tape of
white paper was affixed at left, reading "Opened by Censor in New
Zealand". This is an unusual item to say the least, as it was sent by a
lady in Gor'kii, Tamara Ageeva, in the midst of a most turbulent period
for all the parties concerned.


The late John Lloyd, Colchester,
Essex, Enaland.

S..'. aj .... The block of 9 of the "8/KOP."
S1 surcharge on the 7k. Popov commem. is
significant, as it pinpoints the
location of the well-known variety,
the inverted figure "8". It is easily
S_ recognisable, as the upper loop of
the figure is smaller than the lower
Sone and it is shown here as occuring
^iT once in the sheet, on the second
Stamp of the third row. Has anyone
V ever seen this variety postally used
Sf on a cover of the period?

EDITORIAL CCO'[rurFT: John Lloyd was a
keen student of Soviet stamps and
postal history and the above
I i information is now being published
as a tribute to his services to
Russian and Soviet philately. This
S variety is very hard to find now
S--in a position block.











Salvador Bofarull, Madrid, Spain.


I have two interesting philatelic events in my country to report to the
readers, as follow:-

(a) The First Hispano-Soviet Philatelic Exhibition, which ran from 5 to
11 February 1990 at the Cultural Centre in the Municipal Government
premises in Madrid and.was organised by The European Philatelic Society
(a member of the Spanish Federation of Philatelic Societies) and the
Union of Philatelists of the USSR. It consisted of 22 Soviet exhibits
and 18 Spanish entries. The emphasis was on thematic (topical) exhibits,
but among the Soviet entries there was a fine showing of Numeral
Markings of Russia 1858-1905, by V.A. Kalmykov; Reissues of Soviet
Definitives, by A.G. Osmantsev; Propaganda Cards of the USSR, by V.A.
Pantyukhin and Military Postal Sendings of Russia 1800-1917, by V.A.
Savin. On the Spanish side, we had Soviet Postal Stationery, by Manuel
Laqo Martinez; Soviet Aerophilately, by Salvador Bofarull; Russia 1917-
1923 and Russian Post Offices in Turkey, both by Enrique Martin de
Bustamante. A special postmark was applied, as shown at top left, while
the 16-peseta Europa commem. of 1983 was made available with an unusual
two-line perfin, reading EXPO-90/ESP-CCCP (see the stamp at top centre).
There is to be a return exhibition in Moscow, to take place on 17-25
November 1990 in the Polytechnical Museum and it will be competitive.

(b) Following on the heels of the above, we had the 4th. International
Philatelic Exhibition "Rumbo al 92" (Run-up to Expo-92), which took
place on 22-28 February 1990 in Seville. There were 100 exhibits with a
total of 692 frames and a further 66 entries in the Literature Class
(one of the latter was "The Latin-American Post", from Hinton, Alberta,
Canada). The Court of Honour and Hors de Concours Classes were very
impressive and in the competitive areas, this writer received a gold
medal for seven frames of the First Issues of the USSR and a larae
vermeil for four frames of the Postal History of the Russo-Japanese War
1904-1905. The international jury had judges from Argentina, Colombia,
England, Italy and the U.S.A., as well as five from Spain. There were
four commem. stamps for EXPO '92 and two special postmarks for the show,
as shown at upper right.

SPECIAL NOTES:
Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are
fully engaged in earnina their livings and thus do not have the time to
answer individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of
general interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent
issues of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!
The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The
Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily
those of the Society or its coordinators.
All the contents in this issue are covered by copyright and permission
must be obtained from the CSRP before they can be reproduced.








REVIEW OF















POSTAL CENSORSHIP IN IMPERIAL RUSSIA by Dr. Peter A. Michalove & David
M. Skipton. A two-volume hardcover work in a slip case, obtainable for
US $95.50 (U.S. addresses) and US $113.00 (elsewhere) postpaid from
John H. Otten, P.O. Box 577, Urbana, Illinois, USA 61801-0577.

This exhaustive work is the result of four years' effort by the authors
and covers in twelve chapters the history of Russian postal censorship in
all its facets, including military censorship during the Russo-Japanese
War and 7WI, to terminate with a comprehensive catalogue of about 1000
censorship markings and postmarks, places of application and
dates of usaae. It will be the standard reference for many years to come,
* as it is the last word so far written on the subject and well worth
waiting for. The main thread running through the two volumes is that
Imperial Russia was not really that much different from its successor,
the USSR, in thought control. The work is very strongly recommended to
all collectors of this particular area of Russian history and postal
history in the period from about 1700 to 1920.

ROSSICA Nos.113/114 for 1990. An 112-page journal of The Possica Society
of Russian Philately. For further details, please apply to the Acting
Secretary, George Shaw, 7496-J Lakeside Village Dr.,Falls Church,Va.22042.

This is the first issue of the journal with D.M. Skipton as Chief Editor,
G.A. Combs doing Layout & Production and an impressive new Editorial
Board, using a computer and laser-writer printer. The results are
spectacular, although this reviewer found the double-column format rather
distracting; it is easier on the eyes to read straight across the page.
The main items covered are Society Notes; Stamp World '89, The Emperor's
Mail, "Khronika" translations, Imperial Handstamps and Soviet Postal
Communications, all by P.M. Skipton; Soviet Air Fleet Labels & 1927
Airpost Congress Varieties (both excellent!), by G.A. Ackerman; Postal
Receipt Forms & Translation from MARKI-1896, both by D.W. Levandowsky;
1822 Arkhangel'sk Marking, Tientsin POW Cover & Unusual Covers to Russia,
all by M. Kessler; Fake Hailasu Marking, by V. Popov & G. Shalimoff;
Modaoshi, "V" Crayon Marking, Tomsk Provisional & Collect on Delivery,all
by V. Popov; Asobny Atrad Design & Nova Odessa, both by R. Polchaninoff;
Soviet Occpn.of W. Ukraine & W. Belorussia, by Dr. P. Michalove;
Retouching History, by Dr. R. Minkus; Nationalities Ouestion (timely:),
by Ivo Steyn; Stationery Cut-Outs & Unusual Wrapper Usage, both by George
Shaw; Library Acquisitions, Literature Reviews, to finish off with tit-
bits on postal affairs. In short, the best issue in quite some time!








TIIOTA No.7 for December 1989. A 52-page journal in A-4 size, issued by
The Australia & New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries
to the Secretary-Treasurer, Terry Archer, 313 Mahurangi East Road,
Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand. Annual membership in the Society
for overseas members, including Newsletters and Journals, is US $20.00
or equivalent in other convertible currencies.

This issue, with excellent type-face and illustrations, has an Editorial;
details of 4 fine items from Russia-USSR to Australia; Readers' Pages;
Follow-Up Articles; Comments on Expertising Marks, by G. Werbizky; Report
on STAMPSHOW '89 (Melbourne), 1917 Provisional Letter Card, Artemovsk-
Siberia, The Real Siberia and Censorship; New Issue Details & Soviet
AUSIPEX '84 Envelope, all by Dr. A.R. Marshall; Soviet Three-Trianale
Markings, by E. Rombaut (stated by author to have been applied to mail
controlled by Soviet Philat. Assn, but that seems doubtful); Mysterious
Russian 'RETHYMNO' Latin Marking of Crete, by D.W. Johnson; Adventures of
No.15 Squadron, by P. Collins; Kherson 1922 Provisionals, by R. Taylor;
Card from Revel', by Rev. L.L. Tann; Valentina Tereshkova, by D. W.
Gallagher; Apothecaries' Post, by P.E. Robinson; Postal Censorship in
Imperial Russia-reviewed by N.R. Banfield and followed by five excellent
examples from his collection; Siberia 1901 & Vladivostok 1916 Telegraph
Marking, by the same author, to finish with Publications Received and
Members' Adlets. A very enjoyable and commendable effort.

The overriding impression gained from all this activity that there are
now four Russian philatelic societies in the English-speaking world
(Rossica in the USA, BSRP in England, CSRP in Canada and ANZSRP in New
Zealand) and our field is so huge that we do not really compete against
each other. It is a healthy state of affairs and may we all keep growing
and flourishing!

INFORMACE SEKCE SSSR PRI TK SCSF (Bulletin of the USSR Section in the
Traditional Philately Commission of the Union of Czechoslovak
Philatelists). The Bulletin is a stapled booklet in A5 format, printed
in Czech and it has appeared to date in 27 issues at fairly regular
intervals since 1981. All enquiries to the President of the Section, Pan
Vladimir Sulc, Marie Cibulkov4 6.24, 140 00 PRAHA 4-Nusle,Czechoslovakia.

Our Society has established contact with this Section and both of us will
be reprinting articles from each other's publications. The Czechoslovaks
have long had a solid reputation as keen philatelists and a lot of
Russian mail has come into their country over the years. These bulletins
cover a broad spectrum of Russian and Soviet philately and postal history
and the various contributors have clearly demonstrated that they have
extensive knowledge of their subjects.

RSFSR-SSSR : Autorsky Kolektiv Sekce SSSR (RSFSR-USSR : a series of
studies by various authors in the USSR Section). A paperback of 128 pages,
being No.2 in the series of philatelic handbooks, issued by the Union of
Czech Philatelists in the Czech language, Prague 1987, in an edition of
500 copies. All enquiries to SCSF, CeletnA 26, 110 00 PRAHA 1.

There are ten articles in this handbook, some of them expansions of work
previously published in the Bulletins mentioned above and giving an
excellent overview of Soviet philately: the sword-cutter issues, worker &
dragon stamps, Philately for the Children set,propaganda labels, Lenin
mourning issue, Lenin definitive, Moscow-San Francisco ovpt,photogravure
screens and reprints of Soviet issues. Some excellent work here.







POLNf POTY 6ESKOSLOVENSKYCH VOJSK V SOVATSKEM SVAZU V LETECH 1942-45
(Field Posts of the Czechoslovak troops in the Soviet Union in the years
1942 to 1945), by Pavel Fiala. A 154-page paperback in A5 format, No.17
* in the series of philatelic handbooks and issued by the Union of Czech
Philatelists, Prague 1989 in an edition of 550 copies. On sale at SCSF.

The author is a veteran of the subject he describes and had reached the
rank of Snr. Lieutenant at the end of WWII. The clear text covers the
postal history in great detail, but the illustrations of some items
leave much to be desired. Such material is historically important and rare.

SBORNIK (LANKU O TERITORIALNI FILATELII (Collection of Articles about
Traditional Philately). A 100-page paperback in A5 format, issued by the
Commission for Traditional Philately in the SCSF, Prague 1989 in an
edition of 500 copies. On sale at SCSF, Celetna 6.26, 110 00 PRAHA 1.

The article of interest to us is a wonderful 40-page study by Ing. Alois
Vavra of the first definitive of the USSR (the well-known "small heads"
of the 1920s), backed up by many clear illustrations. Bravo!

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area). The organ in A4 format of the
Study Group of the same name and issued in Dutch. All enquiries to the
Secretary, W.R. Muller, Einsteinlaan 23, NL 2641 ZL PIJNACKER, Holland.

No.15 for January 1990 contains 34 pages and covers the Crimean War in
the Baltic Area & German Ship Postmarks used in Baltic Ports before 1914,
both by Andre de Bruin; Estonian Forged Postmark & Latvian Parcels sent
out through Poland, both by W. Muller; Exhibition Notes and Criteria, by
S. Reurich; The Lithuanian Posts in Western Belorussia in 1919, trans. by
J. van Heeswijk from "The Post-Rider" No.24, to finish with a list of
members. There is some solid work recorded here.
*

JOURNAL FUND

Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto,
Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

RAZNOVIDNOSTI POCHTOVYKH MAROK ROSSII (Varieties of postage stamps of
Imperial Russia) by A.G. Mayorov. A truly excellent 96-page catalogue in
Russian, just out and an expansion of the Lobachevskii work. Privately
published and almost sold out in the USSR. Price postpaid US $ 8.50

1911 TIMETABLES OF "SAMOLET" POSTAL & PASSENGER STEAMSHIP CO. ALONG
ENTIRE VOLGA FROM TVER TO ASTRAKHAN. A photo-lithographic reprint of
84 pages, all in Russian, with many advts, ship's menu, illustrations,
schedules etc. Very nostalgic. Few only!. Price postpaid US $ 5.50

KATALOG RUSSKIKH ZEMSKIKH POCHTOVYKH MAROK, KONVERTOV I BANDEROLEI
(CATALOGUE OF RUSSIAN ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS, ENVELOPES & NEWSPAPER
WRAPPERS), compiled in 1889 and issued in Russian by I.I. Kreving in
St. Petersburg. A photo-lithographic reprint of 32 pages and of great
bibliographic interest. Passed by SPB Censor. Price postpaid US $ 3.00

* DEREV'YANI TSERKVY V UKRAYINI (WOODEN CHURCHES IN THE UKRAINE). Lovely
48-page booklet compiled by M. Koljankiws'kyj & long out of print. Text
in Ukrainian with many illustrations. Few Only!Price postpaid US S 6.00

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of Dec. 1918, embodying the latest facts by four
noted researchers. A great subject for study. Price postpaid US $ 5.50









THE COLLECTORS' CORNER

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you -still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some .
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your ,
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line _
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a book on collectors and collecting, I would appreciate hearing from
collectors on the what, how, when and why of their activities.
RUTH FORMANEK, Dept. of Education, Hofstra Univ., Hempstead,N.Y.,USA 11550

PICTURE POSTCARD ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF RUSSIA 1896-1917 (2nd. Edition), by
Dr. Richard Bartmann. PAINTERS, DESIGNERS, PUBLISHING HOUSES, PRINTERS,
PRECURSORS, FIRST RUSSIAN POSTCARDS, WESTERN EUROPEAN MODELS, TRADE
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA & WESTERN EUROPE. OVER 134 PAGES 8" x 11",
INCLUDING 3 PAGES OF COLOUR PRINTS & ONE PHOTO. OVER 250 ILLUSTRATIONS.
PRICE US $ 50.00. Please send cheque to:
DR. R. BARTMANN,Rathsbergerstr.30,D-8520 ERLANGEN,Fed. Rep. of Germany.

WANTED: The 1920 Kharkiv (Khar'kov) & 1922 Kyiv (Kiev) postmaster
provisional issues: select singles, multiples, usages on covers & cards.
Willing to purchase or trade for same. Please write or telephone first:
(312) 685-4348, early in the evening.
PETER BYLEN, Box 411238, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 60641-1238.


MUTE CANCELLATIONS of Russia WWI. Information and listings required. Can
spare many duplicates in exchange for this knowledge.
JONAS MICHELSON, P.O. Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

WANTED:1. Auction catalogues containing specialised and/or unlisted
Russian or related area material.2. Back issues of-FRANCE-URSS
PHILATELIE(Journal of Cercle Philatelique France-URSS);good quality
photo or xerox copies acceptable.3. Back issues of RUSSISCHE /
SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE(Journal of BAG Russland/UdSSR); good quality
or xerox copies acceptable.4. Russian philatelic literature,preferably
in English. For any items 1-4 above, please write first, listing
material you have available and your asking price. Would also like to
correspond with English reading/writing member of Cercle Philatelique
and/or BAG Russland-UdSSR.
PAT EPPEL, 108 Pinewood Circle, Apple Valley, MN, 55124, U.S.A.




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