• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: International judging...
 The treatment & importance factors...
 Siberian postal rates: A recon...
 The saga of the "Earl grey"
 Correspondence with Canada
 Varieties of the oval SPB...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Mail to the Empire: A postcard...
 Matters Moldavian
 Warning - forgeries!
 History repeats itself
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: International judging in our spheres of interest
        Page 2
    The treatment & importance factors in evaluating a traditional philately exhibit
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Siberian postal rates: A reconstruction
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The saga of the "Earl grey"
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Varieties of the oval SPB cancellation
        Page 28
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Mail to the Empire: A postcard from an Ionian island to Siberia
        Page 40
    Matters Moldavian
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Warning - forgeries!
        Page 67
    History repeats itself
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Review of literature
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    The journal fund
        Page 77
    The collectors' corner
        Page 78
Full Text






































































PrIntod hI Canada













THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 25.


December 1989.


CONTENTS:


2 Editorial: International Judging in our Spheres
of Interest
3 The Treatment & Importance Factors in Robert P. Odenweller
Evaluating a Traditional Philately Exhibit
9 Siberian Postal Rates: a Reconstruction Ivo Steyn
16 The Saga of the "Earl Grey" 'P.J. Campbell
26 Correspondence with Canada Andrew Cronin
28 Varieties of the Oval SPB Cancellation Alex Artuchov
29 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos Alex Artuchov
40 Mail to the Empire: A Postcard from an Ionian William J. Liaskas
Island to Siberia
41 Matters Moldavian Andrew Cronin
67 Warning Forgeries!
68 History Repeats Itself Andrew Cronin
70 Philatelic Shorts
74 Review of Literature
77 Journal Fund
78 The Collectors' Corner
COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.

C1990. Copyright by the Canadian Fociety
of Russian Philately. All rights reserve.


Pd'


T.POSTKII.ER


'I
V




















J 5 I& DI.ET2IRIAAL

INTERNATIONAL JUDGING IN OUR SPHERES OF INTEREST

International exhibitions under the patronage of the FIP (F4deration
International de Philat6lie) have officially been judged since 1988
under a marking system, originally formulated in 1978 by its current
president, Ing. Ladislav Dvor6aek of Czechoslovakia. This marking
system appears to be here to stay. It would therefore be important for
our readers to become familiar with it, not only for exhibition
purposes, but also because it sets out guidelines on how to approach a
new field of study, of which there are many in our own areas.

A typical scoring sheet used by international judges is shown on one
of the pages that follow. The Spanish Federation of Philatelic
Societies uses this system in its national exhibitions and the total
scores for each exhibit are published in the list of awards for each
show. That gives the collector some idea as to how to improve an
exhibit for the next showing. The Scandinavian federations hand out the
individual score sheet to each exhibitor, which is even better, as it
allows them to see where their weaknesses lie.

The first page of an exhibit is the most important one, as it sets out
the plan of the collection. It is carefully read by the judges and, if
its claims are not borne out by what follows, the exhibitor loses
valuable marks. The trick is to make the statements in the plan as
vaaue and ambiguous as possible; you might then conceivably be able to
get away with murder! The main stumbling block in this new system of
evaluation is the definition of importance and it has not yet been
satisfactorily resolved. Is a collection of, say, Armenian Monograms
less important than a specialised study of Russia No. 1? Your editor
thinks that they are equally important, but for different reasons.

In order to understand some of the issues involved, the guidelines are
reproduced for Traditional Philately (i.e. primarily of collections of
postage stamps) as drawn up by its FIP Chairman, the well-known U.S.
philatelist Robert Odenweller and reprinted here by his kind permission.

*








The Treatment and Importance Factors in Evaluating a Traditional Philately Exhibit.
by Robert P. Odenweller
Treatment and importance in traditional philately are quite different in their application
when compared with other exhibiting classes. Indeed, one of the most difficult problems we faced
in our early discussion of the General Regulations of the FIP for the Evaluation of Competitive
Exhibits at FIP Exhibitions (GREV), was the amount of weight to be placed on treatment by the
different commissions. The compromise that brought most of the commissions together was the
combining of treatment and importance.
In some commissions, treatment is the essence of the exhibit. They might ask, "How well
does the theme of the exhibit develop the subject chosen by the exhibitor?" A postal history
exhibit without this development would be merely a display of covers, and would probably be
transferred to the traditional class.
In contrast, treatment in a traditional exhibit is quite straightforward and should yield a full
score to any reasonably careful exhibitor. If the exhibitor, in preparing the exhibit, or the judge, in
evaluating the exhibit, can answer all the following queAtions affirmatively, it should receive full
credit for treatment.
1. Does the exhibit have an adequate introductory statement?
2. Are all the claims in the introductory statement accurate?
3. Does the exhibit include all material indicated in the introductory statement?
4. Is the development of the exhibit easy to follow?
5. Does the exhibit show tasteful originality?
Some judges may prefer to use a worksheet to show the different considerations involved in
evaluating each of these elements. Please refer to the worksheet marked "Treatment."
The Introductory Statement

Is there an adequate introductory statement? According to the Special Regulations for the
Evaluation of Traditional Philately at FIP Exhibitions (SREV), 'The plan or concept of the exhibit
shall be clearly laid out in an introductory statement which may take any form."
In theory this would mean that an exhibit could get by with a brief statement such as
"United States 1847 to 1869". In practice, there are few exhibits which can, or should, be so bold
as to try to escape with such a statement. Normally, a full title page is both expected and
desirable, particularly in lesser known exhibiting areas.
A successful introductory statement will probably show what material the exhibitor has
included in the exhibit, how he has developed it, and what important material is worthy of
particular notice. Geography and history lessons will normally be omitted, since they generally
waste space that could be put to better use. In essence, the introductory page is a guide which
should educate viewers and judges, giving them a very clear idea of what they will see in the
exhibit, especially those who might not be very familiar with the material.
Judges will be expected to study the introductory statement for accuracy, as well. If
unsubstantiated claims are made, such as difficulty of acquisition of certain material which they
may know to be more available than inferred, the exhibitor will lose points. The absence of an
adequate introductory statement will usually cause a similar loss, since there will be none against
which to check.
Finally, the introductory statement will show the way in which the exhibitor has developed
the exhibit. If this is easy to follow, both in the statement of the exhibit, the exhibitor will gain
points.
Completeness of the Exhibit
A vague or inadequate introductory statement may imply that certain material should be in
the exhibit. If the material shown is quite inconsistent with the introductory statement, it should







not receive credit for completeness.
Some exhibitors may feel that they can add a level of more "respectability" to the exhibit by
including too much scope to the stated exhibit area. They may include issues which, if present,
would elevate its importance but of which they have only poor copies, if any at all. In such
exhibits, they would lose some credit for completeness, as well as having opened the door for
criticism in the criteria for condition and importance.
All an exhibitor has to do to gain full credit for completeness is to confine his statement of
what is to be shown to the material that he has in the exhibit. If that material happens to be of too
small a scope or too "trivial" to satisfy the requirements for a better exhibit, that will be handled
under the later discussion on "importance."
It is important to note, however, that the Guidelines for the Evaluation of Traditional
Philately Exhibits at FIP Exhibitions provide specifically that a token showing of material
representative of the more common material in the area may be made to provide space for the
more important items. This may be done by showing an unusual cover or a few multiples or
similar items which are uncommon examples of the common material. Omission of the remainder
of the common material should not be penalized, and, in fact, will demonstrate the exhibitor's
understanding of the area.

Balance of the Exhibit

The preceding discussion shows that it is not necessary for an exhibitor to show more than
a small example of material of lesser significance. In evaluating the balance of the exhibit, the
judge should see that there is a proper emphasis in the exhibit which is appropriate to the material
being shown. This would vary according to the exhibit. In an exhibit which covers a number of
areas of uniform importance, there may be equal amounts and scope of material covering each
period. In another which may cover both easy and difficult material, there might be only a token
showing of the common issues and a concentration on the difficult ones.
An exhibit which gives a cursory treatment to the difficult issues and concentrates on the
commoner ones may be considered to be unbalanced. Similarly, however, as provided in the
Guidelines, an exhibit which shows "a page of unused examples with no differentiation as to shade
or several pages of covers all showing the same rate and usage, regardless of value" will be
considered unbalanced as well.
Originality
If every exhibit were to be a clone of the one that preceded it, however well executed, an
exhibition would fast become boring. It is expected that each exhibitor will introduce a measure
or originality into the exhibit, to give the exhibit its own "personality".
This could be by arrangement, mounting style, or any of a number of ways. A unique
feature of the philately of the area being shown could suggest possible new ways to show that
unusual aspect to the judges and public. Innovation should not be discouraged or penalized, but
encouraged.
If the exhibitor's creation is presented with taste, he should be rewarded for originality.

In summary, treatment of a traditional exhibit should not pose problems for most exhibitors
unless they choose to misunderstand or disregard the few basic concepts about exhibiting that
have long been established.

Importance
There are many different elements which combine to determine "importance" in a
traditional exhibit. As with treatment, the judge or exhibitor may ask questions, and depending on
the answers may find how well it will rate on the "importance" factor.

1. How easily could the material of this exhibit be duplicated?
2. How much individual effort would normally be expected to assemble this exhibit?








3. Are there key or important items which could or should be in this exhibit but which are
omitted?
4. How significant or important is the exhibit in the philately of the country, area, or time
reference chosen to be shown?
5. How significant or important is the exhibit considered to be on a worldwide basis?

Reference to the expanded worksheet marked "Importance" will help to understand the
various ways in which these criteria may be applied. It will be seen that some exhibits may score
well on some of them but not so well on others.
Ability to Duplicate the Exhibit

Part of what enables an exhibit to reach the highest level of competition is its advancement
or scope. At national and lower levels of competition there will be quite a number of exhibits that
could be easily duplicated without much difficulty. At the world competitive level, exhibits are
expected to be more complex.
Difficulty of duplication is meant to gatge the ability to find such items as those that may
have few, if any, similar items to match them. It is not meant to consider, for example, a cover
sent to you by your father as being "unique" simply because there are no others like it. The level
of difficulty should be by virtue of important differences rather than trivial ones.
It is important that this criterion and the others under "importance" should not be confused
with "rarity." There are a number of expensive or rare areas that may be fairly easily duplicated, at
least in part. Other exhibits may have relatively inexpensive material which is impossible to
duplicate.
The idea of difficulty of duplication is that a successful exhibit should not be so easy to copy
that it lacks the importance to be an exhibit at the world level.

Difficulty of Assembling the Exhibit
Another measure of importance is how much time and personal effort would normally be
expended by the exhibitor in preparing the exhibit. If the exhibit covers a complicated and
complex subject which requires many years or a lifetime of effort to assemble, it will receive full
credit in this category. Conversely, if the exhibit is so easy to form that a person need only make a
few calls with a big checkbook in hand and have all the material he needs for the exhibit, it would
not be very difficult at all.
Naturally, there will be times when major collections will be broken up and a person may
be able to obtain large amounts of material that would normally take many years to assemble. In
these cases, the emphasis is on what time it would normally take, rather than what time one may
know was actually involved in building the exhibit. If the main repository of material happens to
be in the hands of one or a few collectors, and it took them great periods of time to assemble the
material piece by piece, the fact that their collections are being dispersed does not diminish the
difficulty factor that might normally be expected. The collector who is willing to step forward and
to commit himself to a major purchase to complete some of the areas of his collection which may
have taken his predecessor a great deal of time should not be penalized for his good fortune.
Presence of Important Items
A more traditionally expected category within importance is the presence of important
items. This involves a knowledge by the judge of what are the key or important items that may be
expected to be seen in the exhibit area. An exhibit may have major omissions of key material,
with only a token showing of the more difficult items. If such is the case, it can be considered
lacking in this category.
As an exhibit shows more of the items which are important to the area chosen, it will gain.
Full marks are given only if all major items or showpieces are present, or are adequately
represented. There may be cases in which the most famous pieces are in museum collections or
are similarly unobtainable. Obviously there should not be any major penalty given for such an











occurrence.
This section of "importance" will be more applicable to the higher level exhibits, say, from
the gold level on up, rather than to the lower level exhibits which would be less likely to have full
representation of showpieces.
Importance Within the Country or Area Being Exhibited
The two final areas of "importance" are gauges first of their importance within their "home
territory" and then on a worldwide basis. Lesser known areas which are significant within the
home country's collecting traditions will gain on the first of these. If it is considered to be of
primary collectability and importance among those who share the interest in the home area, it
should receive high marks.
Recognition of a previously ignored or obscure philatelic area can be gained by extensive
writing in such publications of worldwide distribution as the Collectors Club Philatelist and the
London Philatelist. Many subjects now considered important were not always so. Articles that
demonstrate how a subject contributed to postal or philatelic development can often help to
elevate the appreciation of a subject's importance.
As the degree of difficulty and significance to the local collectors drops or is diluted by
issues of lesser interest, this rating will also decline.
This category will give special help to those exhibits that might not be as well known on the
world level.
Importance on a World Philatelic Level
The final area of "importance" is a gauge: of the significance that the exhibit would be
considered to have on a worldwide scale. The exhibits in this category which would gain the
highest marks would be likely to draw crowds. Most collectors would have heard of the area and
might have read about it in newspapers or books. This is often the most traditionally accepted
meaning of the word "importance." Judges should avoid the tendency to give this criterion too
much emphasis.
Less prestigious exhibits will gain from the other previously mentioned parts of
"importance" if they are given their proper evaluation. This final section will give a small
additional reward to the more renowned areas of world philately, but they will still have to satisfy
all the other criteria, such as condition and rarity, as well as knowledge and research if they are to
receive a major prize. A collection of the first issue of Great Britain may have the capability of top
significance at the world level, but may fall far short of that in actual performance.
Further, it is the significance of the exhibit, itself, not the area chosen, that is to be rated.
A minor collection of Great Britain first issues might not have much significance at all, while
another of the exact same area could achieve top marks and be in strong contention for a major
prize. It is necessary for the judges to apply their depth of knowledge to the area to determine
which is which.

In essence, the evaluation of "importance" has a number of parts. These favor the difficult,
the significant, and the complex exhibitss which demand the respect of judges and exhibitors
around the world. Some of them give the balance of respect due to lesser known areas that have,
in the past, been somewhat ignored. All of them are measures that separate the exhibits which are
special from those that are more common.
A careful application of these elements should result in a very fair evaluation which will be
consistent with the philosophy of traditional philately.







Treatment (10)


Introductory Statement

Is there an adequate introductory statement? DYes OMarginal ONo
Notes:

Are the claims made in the introductory statement all accurate? OYes ONo
Notes:

Completeness of the Exhibit

Does the exhibitor show all the material indicated in the introductory statement? (See note
under balance.)
DAll material OSome OMany ODoes not follow
shown omissions omissions introductory statement
Notes:

Balance of the Exhibit

Is there a proper balance of material to show all aspects with appropriate emphasis (that is, a
token showing of common material and an ii-depth coverage of better material), or is there an
overconcentration on one area and too little in others?
Note: A token showing of common material within the area is expected treatment, as is a showing in depth of the
better material. Proper balance OUnbalanced
Notes:

Does each item advance the development of the exhibit, or is there an unnecessary duplication
of material?
OAll items OSome Unnecessary duplication
justified duplication or bloating

Notes:

Arrangement of the Exhibit

Is the exhibitor's development, both in the introductory statement and as accomplished by the
exhibit, easy to follow? DYes ONo
Notes:

Originality

Has the exhibitor made a tasteful effort to prepare the exhibit in a fresh, new, original, or
different way? OYes ONo
Notes:






Importance (20)


Ability to Duplicate the Exhibit

How easily could the material of this exhibit be duplicated? (Note: The condition factor is a separate
category. Also, "duplication" is not meant to include such items as covers which may be considered "unique" by virtue
of unimportant or trivial differences. The term instead includes those other items which may have few, if any, other
similar items available to match them.)
SImpossible DDifficult DModerately Relatively DEasily
to duplicate to duplicate difficult easy duplicated
Notes:

Difficulty of Assembling the Exhibit

How much individual effort would normally be expected to assemble this exhibit? (Note: An
exhibitor may have been personally able to concentrate more effort than usual in developing an exhibit, or there may
have been an unusually concentrated number of key collections dispersed in a short time. This evaluation is more to
reflect the absence of these conditions.)
DA lifetime work or a major dedication of personal effort.
o 10-20 years or equivalent of study and effort.
DAs much as 10 years of attention and effort.
DSome effort over a few years.
OVery little effort.
Notes:

Presence of Important Items

Are there key or important items which could, or should, be present in this exhibit but which are
omitted?
DAll major items or showpieces present or adequately represented.
OKey material represented, but often by lesser items.
DSome omissions of key material.
SMajor omissions of key material.
Notes:

Importance Within Country or Area

How significant or important is the exhibit in the philately of the country, area, or time reference
chosen to be shown?
OHighest significance the key collectable material in the area.
OHigh significance but avoids some of the most difficult areas to collect.
OSignificant interesting to many, with some difficulties.
DMildly significant some minor interest but relatively easily collected.
DInsignificant a common area of little interest.
Notes:

Importance on a World Philatelic Level

How significant or important is the exhibit considered to be on a worldwide scale?
0 Of highest significance and interest to philatelists (may draw crowds)
OHighly significant Most philatelists should be conversant with area.
OSignificant Many philatelists will be reasonably acquainted with area.
DMildly significant Some philatelists will be somewhat familiar with area.
DInsignificant Few philatelists would consider the area to be of any interest.
ONo significance May or may not be familiar, and few would consider the area to be
appropriate for an internationally competitive exhibit.
Notes:
8















SCORING SHEET
BEWERTUNGSBOGEN
FEUILLE DEVALUATION


LARGE GOLD (LG)
GOLD (G)
LARGE VERMEIL(LV)
VERMEIL (V)
LARGE SILVER (LS)
SiLVER (5)


95- SILVERBRONZE (SB)65-69
90-94 BRONZE (B) 60-64
85-89 DIPLOMA (D) -59
80-84 SPECIAL PRICE (SP)
75-79 FELICITATION (F)
70-74 GRAND PRIX (GP)


0 U-
<-z = I -
C* C ZPT OJ o I
Z UJ 0 W W

g EXHIBIT
EXPONAT || V1 -1
5PARTICIPATION ___ =_=W "=g 0- Q' 2
(10) 0-30 ) 0-35 ( ) 0-30 0(-5 (
(20) (10 5)



REMARKS
IENERKUNGEN
SREMARQUES


SIBERIAN POSTAL.RATES t A,RECONSTRUCTION


by Ivo Steyn.

Is this cover correctly franked? That is the first question any collector
of postal history should ask when a new item is added to his collection.
Whether this question is easy to answer or not depends on the country of
origin and on the period. Collectors of Russian and Soviet postal history
are reasonally well off when it comes to checking a rate. Postal rates
for the Imperial Russian period and for the RSFSR/USSR from 1917 onwards
have been published, not once, but several times. See, for example, BJRP
No.60 (1983), pp.46-52.

However, the period of the Civil War (1918-1922) does occasionally
present a collector with puzzling rates, as pointed out by Dr. Ross
Marshall in "The Post-Rider" No.16, pp.51-55. The explanation is simple:
the rates published for the RSFSR were applied only in the area
controlled by the RSFSR. Outside that area, various local governments
set their own rates. Thus, the separatist governments of the Ukraine,
Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Batum, the Don, Kuban and Siberia each had
their own tables of rates and these rates have not yet been reconstructed.
9


-*****M


* ol
9


BUlrGARIR'89


PHIIIEX TRANCE
of


TRADITIONAL
TRADITIONELLE
TRADITIONELLE

TREATMENT (10) 0-30
SAND IMPORTANCE(20)
KNOWLEDGE (25) 0-35
AND RESEARCH (10
CONDITION (15) 0-30
AND RARITY (15)
PRESENTATION 0-5






I want to look here at the rates prevailing in Siberia during the
period of the Civil War. Since I did not have access to official
publications of the various White governments that flourished there, I
had to resort to the empirical method to reconstruct the rates used in
Siberia: i.e. collect as much information as possible about covers and
rankings and then try to make some sense out of it all. While my own
collection of Siberian covers was a natural starting point, this
article could not have been written without the kind help of the many
people who supplied me with information about the covers in their
collections. My special thanks go to Antoine Speeckaert and Drs.
Vittorio Mallegni, Ross Marshall and Howard Weinert.

The period we shall examine may be subdivided according to the
political mood prevailing in Siberia. From the October revolution to
the end of May 1918, Siberia was firmly under the control of the Soviet
government and used the rates set out by the government in Petrograd.
These rates are given in Table 1 directly hereunder.

TABLE 1 : SOVIET POSTAL RATES IN 1918.

letter rates registration fees
local inland foreign inland foreign
To 28-2-18 0.10 0.15 0.20
28-2 to 14-9-18 0.30 0.35 0.70
To 10-3-18 0.20 0.20
10-3-18 to 1919 0.30 0.30

With the eruption of the Civil War in May 1918, connections with
Petrograd were severed, so the changes in rates which were ordered in
the RSFSR in September 1918 were ignored in Siberia. The latter
obtained a unified government in that month and the first question we
must address is: when did this Siberian government introduce its own
rates? The answer turns out to be very surprising indeed: not until
early in May 1919! This means that the rates originally set by the
RSFSR in March 1918 were used in Siberia for over a year, i.e. more
than six months longer than they were applied in the RSFSR itself!

The exact date on which the Siberian government then headed by
Admiral Kolchak finally introduced its own rates could not be pin-
pointed. It must have been at some time between 14 April and 18 May
1919; May 1st. seems as likely a date as any. The new rates are given
in Table 2. The tariff for postcards could not be reconstructed with
any confidence, but a rate of 35 kopeks seems very likely. Note that
the new rates immediately created a need for stamps of 35, 50 & 70 k.
Since the earliest known use of the Kolchak surcharges (a 35/2 kopek
stamp) is May 1919, it is very likely that the three lower values of
this set were issued in May 1919.

TABLE 2 : KOLCHAK RATES, MAY 1919 TO SEPTEMBER 1919.

letter rates registration fee (inland & foreign)
inland foreign
0.50 0.70 0.70

These rates did not last very long. The war against the Red Army cost a
lot of money and the rates were increased later in 1919. Once again, I
was not able to pinpoint the exact date, but early in September 1919
seems the most likely choice. The increased Kolchak rates are given in
Table 3.
10
































Fig.l An ordinary letter from Omsk (14-4-19) to Irkutsk (17-4-19). Addressed
to the "Information Dept.of the Czechoslovak War Ministry", it is a very late
application of the Soviet rate of 35 kopeks for an inland letter.



via ftP ---ez"'**n--- -















S992
IBnAHBOCT
k 3 .

i ."n'"1--. *' '), ,. ,'* "1



Fig.2 Registered letter from Vladivostok (26-5-19) via San Francisco(20-6-19)
atoPalo Alto, California (21-6-19). The second earliest recorded use of the
Kolchak 35/2 perf. stamp to make up the 1.40 rate.. ,;, "


11






TABLE 3 : INCREASED KOLCHAK RATES, SEPTEMBER 1919 TO JUNE 1920
(Vladivostok).
letter rates registration fee (inland and foreign)
inland foreign
1.50 2.00 2.00

Postcard rates are again uncertain, but a tariff of 80 kopeks is
consistent with a fair number of observed frankings. Note that these
rates would create a need for rouble values and we may again speculate
that the rouble values of the Kolchak surcharges were, if not issued,
then at least conceived around this time. The rouble values did not
come into circulation until after the collapse of the Kolchak govt.

As the Soviet rates of March 1918 outlived Soviet authority in
Siberia, so did the Kolchak rates outlive the Kolchak government. His
army collapsed in the autumn of 1919 and the Red Army reconquered
Central Siberia in a matter of months. The Kolchak capital at Omsk was
abandoned on 14 November and I can prove that the Soviet postal system
was in operation there no later than 5 December 1919! The Red Army
apparently did not waste any time in setting up a postal system,
merrily using the Kolchak surcharges as "trophy stamps". The date on
which Irkutsk fell to the Red Army is more difficult to identify
(Editorial Comment: Admiral Kolchak was executed there on 7 February
1920), but we can say that, by February 1920, all of Central Siberia
up to Lake Baikal was in Soviet hands. This means that Soviet postal
rates were reintroduced in that area. Aberrant postal rates could
henceforth only occur in Eastern Siberia, where political chaos
reigned.

Roughly, Eastern Siberia could be divided into five spheres of
influence:
1. Verkhne-Udinsk. This became the focus of the Soviet-dominated Far
Eastern Republic. Soviet rates were used in this area until at least
16 May 1921.
2. Chita. The lair of Ataman Semenov, this was a White enclave until
October 1920, but it is not clear what rates were used there. A cover
from July 1920 shows Soviet rates, but this was sent during an
extremely confused period during which Sem&nov attempted to reach a
modus vivendi with the Soviet government, so who knows? After 22nd.
October 1920, Chita toed the line set by the Verkne-Udinsk government,
whenceforth the two areas could be considered as one.
3. Blagoveshchensk. A city that went through quite a few changes from
6 February to 25 May 1920. Part of the Far Eastern Republic after that
date. Rates as in Verkhne-Udinsk.
4. Khabarovsk. A city that went through quite a few changes in
political colour. After the overthrow of the representatives of Kolchak
in February 1920, it had a leftist government until 5 April 1920, when
a Japanese attack helped to install a conservative government. This
government would last until the winter of 1920-1921, when the city fell
to the Far Eastern Republic. Interestingly enough, the conservative
government which ruled the city during those eight months or so in
1920 did not acknowledge the authority of any other government: White,
Red or Pinkish, so Khabarovsk essentially went it alone during that
period. After its capture by the FER, it presumably changed to the FER
rate system. Just to make things confusing, the city was captured by
the Vladivostok-based PVP on 22 December 1921, but recaptured by the
FER on 14 February 1922. Khabarovsk thus presents us with an enormous
puzzle when it comes to rates. My guess would be:-
February 5 April 1920 : Increased Kolchak rates of September 1919.

































Fig.3 Registered letter from Irkutsk (15-12-19) to Chita (19-12-19), with a
cash franking of 3.50 ruble for the increased Kolchak rate of late 1919.
Addressed to Nikandr Mirolyubov, who was investigating the murder of the Tsar
and his family at the time.
I DELEG'TIOIN de la LEGATION ROWibLE-de DRNEMRRK t


scarn--ni-


AN


DEN D3UTSCHEN

STOCKHOIM


f.1 f


J7 ft / /
8 ~ 31 :; .:.~4 ,
116


I;


11
A~Z~c~ ~ ,


C


g. The puzzling interim period which followed the first currency reform of
June 1920 in Vladivostok is .shown in this letter, dated 5-8-20, to Stockholm.
The rate of 1 ruble is half the pre-reform rate.


~"~~ ''


#*


JVtftVVUV7"







5 April December 1920 ?
December 1920 to 21-12-21 : As in the rest of the FER.
22-12-21 to 14-2-22 : As in the PVP.
15-12-22 to end of 1923 : As in the FER.
5. Vladivostok. Under a pinkish government from 31 January 1920 to
26 May 1921. Under the ultra-conservative PVP/PZK government from 26 May
to 25 October 1922. Under FER rule after that.

So we have to deal with two competing postal systems in Eastern Siberia
during the last three years of the Civil War: the FER rates and the
Vladivostok rates. To start with the first, it is almost certain that
the FER used Soviet rates at least until 16 May 1921. On that date, the
FER switched to a gold rouble standard and the rates became roughly
those of Imperial Russia before WWI. However, a case is known of a
cover sent on 21 May 1921 and still franked at the Soviet rates.

The various governments which ruled Vladivostok left a confusing legacy
of changing postal rates and the following reconstruction is tentative:
Up to 17 June 1920 : Kolchak rates of September 1919.
17 June to August 1920 : Half former rates (1st. currency
reform).
August to 27 September 1920 : Steadily rising rates.
27 Sept.1920 to 31 Dec.1921 : Vladivostok rates (Table 4).
1 January 1922 to 1923 : Increased Vladivostok rates (Table 5).

Some remarks about these puzzling rates. The currency reform of June
1920 halved the postal rates. While the rouble was revalued at a rate
of 200:1, the postal rates had been calculated on a theoretical Kolchak
rouble, changed into the various currencies at daily rates. In June
1920, this theoretical rouble must have been equal to about 100 paper
roubles, which is how a 200:1 currency reform managed to halve the
postal rates. Confusing? Believe it!

The introduction of the Vladivostok gold rouble (equal to one Japanese
yen) led to stable rates from 27 September onwards. These rates are
shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4 : VLADIVOSTOK RATES, SEPTEMBER 1920 TO DECEMBER 1921.

letter rates registration fee (inland and foreign).
inland foreign
0.15 0.10 0.10

There is some evidence that the inland rates were changed at least once
while foreign rates remained stable, but this is not borne out very
convincingly by the few available examples of domestic mail.
The cost of the Winter Offensive of 1921, in which the PVP attacked the
FER, forced the PVP (renamed the PZK in August 1922) to increase rates
and the higher Vladivostok rates are shown in Table 5. They were still
being applied in 1923 and it is possible that they were adopted by the
FER government,when the FER finally conquered Vladivostok in October
1922. Certainly, covers from all over Eastern Siberia were franked
according to these rates in 1923.

TABLE 5 : INCREASED VLADIVOSTOK RATES, JANUARY 1922 TO 1923.

letter rates registration fee (inland and foreign).
inland foreign
14 0.15 ? 0.20 0.20














\" \ p ,, "



N;. ,,





I 'I;,-.I .--. ..--- ..--\'.- .
-;' '^ 'f : ^;.. ". .4'
C ( V..t:


7" f /d)Q
^ ^ *if14
/ P^f^.--C^ r"/''^*-^^4LV~


Fig.5a. Front of a registered letter from Ekaterinoslavka, Amur Oblast
(21--21) to Pogranichnaya. The Russian post office there had been closed and
the letter was delivered by the Chinese post office in the nearest equivalent
: Sui-Fen-Ho (15-12-21). The letter took 6 months to reach its destination as
neither the Amur railroad nor the mail services on the Ussuri river were
functioning. The letter probably traveled overland, though Manchuria.


Fig 5b. Reverse of the letter, showing the 10 ruble franking (a Soviet rate!)
made up with the Blagoveshchensk issue. Only known cover with this issue.







The rates for postcards are eminently mysterious. My best guess is five
gold kopeks for a postcard going abroad before 31-12-1921, seven gold
kopeks after that and twelve gold kopeks in 1923. Not very detailed,
is it? Search your collections!

As will be obvious, only the rates for letters to foreign destinations
are at all clear, which is only natural since most of the items in our
collections are such covers. The rates for parcel post (which
functioned early in 1919), money orders (?) and things such as printed
matter are mostly unknown. In the latter category, I can show an
unsealed item of printed matter sent in October 1922 from Vladivostok.
It cost the sender four gold kopeks to send, but do not ask me if that
was the correct rate (see Fig. 6 immediately below).



















Fig.6. Unsealed printed matter, Vladivostok, October 1922. Franked with 4 Gold
Kopeks...
.,------------------____________-

*
THE SAGA OF THE "EARL GREY"

by P.J. Campbell.

This is the story of one of the most amazing little Canadian ships
that ever sailed the seas. Over a period of 50 years, it fought every
force of man and nature, yet ended its days of honourable service in
a museum in the Soviet Union.

Our story really has to begin in the fine harbour of Pictou, Nova
Scotia, which served for a number of years as a postal crossroad of
Canada. The first mails probably came overland into Pictou in the late
1790s from Halifax and proper mail routes were soon set up on foot, or
later, on horseback and by coach, to bring the trans-Atlantic mail from
Liverpool via Halifax overland to Pictou, then onwards to Prince
Edward Island by schooner.

By 1832, Samuel, and later Joseph, Cunard had contracts to take mail
to Charlottetown and also to Quebec, where mail could move into Canada.
By 1845, the Canadian mail began to be routed through Boston, but
there was still need for the Pictou-to-Charlottetown steamers






































































THE C.G.S. "EARL GREY".







and later for steamers to travel from Pictou to Quebec to link up with
the Allen Line steamers to Liverpool. By this time, a rail link had
been established from Halifax to Pictou Landing, but steamers still had
to provide the link to Prince Edward Island. This route was really only
feasible in summer, for the Northumberland Strait was icebound in
winter and mail was sometimes delayed for up to a month between
December and April.

In an attempt to solve the problem, the "Northern Light", a wooden ship,
was replaced by the "Stanley" and the "Minto", both of them vessels of
steel construction and with ice-breaking capabilities. The "Stanley"
was a 914-ton ship, built in Govan, Scotland in 1888. The "Minto", of
which more anon, was of 1089 tons gross and built in Dundee, Scotland.
These two vessels were used for several years, but the "Stanley" gave
poor service. Sometimes the "Stanley" operated from Pictou and the
"Minto" from Georgetown, P.E.I. and, on occasion, the two ships arrived
at the edge of the ice and transferred passengers and mail across the
ice to each other. The winter of 1905 was particularly harsh and
finally, an order valued at $501,266 was placed with Vickers of Barrbw-
in Furness for a more suitable vessel. The "Earl Grey", the subject of
this story, was the result.

It would perhaps be useful here to say a word about ice-breaking and
icebreakers. It should be obvious that a rowboat can move through thin
ice on a pond and that a wooden sailing ship could force its way
through thin pack ice which had been broken up by wave action. Steel-
hulled vessels could force their way through somewhat thicker ice, but
with increasing risk as the ice got thicker. The danger increased when
the ship became frozen into the ice, for then the movement of the ice,
driven by wind and wave action, could crush the vessel or cause
distortion in the hull and the seams would open. One school of thought
gave some ships rounded bottoms, so that they would be lifted rather
than crushed, but they were poor shapes to sail on ice-free seas. The
next line of thought was to produce reinforced or "ice-forcing" ships
for exploration or carrying cargo in the Arctic or Antarctic. Examples
were wooden ships with double skins, multiple ribs and heavy cross-
bracing, or steel hulls with sturdy construction and thick skins.

We come finally to the true icebreakers, ships with massive
construction, very powerful engines and carrying great reserves of
fuel, but no space for cargo, except to supply the ship and its crew.
These vessels would be used to break up the ice in a river or harbour
so that it could float away, or force a passage through the ice for the
cargo vessels which would follow. There were two basic types: the
first, and most common, was the type with a long sloping stem (the
forward member of the ship that runs from the bow, down under the water,
until it meets the keel). With such a construction, the ship either
cuts its way through the ice, throwing it aside or,if the ice is very
thick or in ridges, the ship rides up over the ice, until the huge
weight of the vessel crushes the ice beneath it and the ship proceeds
in a series of rushes forward, then going astern, then moving ahead
again. Most of the icebreakers in the world operate like that, although
there are modern refinements which need not be discussed here. These
vessels are normally very broad of beam, so that they may crush a wide
passage for the ships which follow.

The second, and very rare type is the "ice-cutter" and that was the
design chosen by Vickers for the "Earl Grey". Such vessels are







relatively long and narrow and they cut their way through the ice,
pushing it aside as they forge ahead. The design was probably selected
for the conditions in the Northumberland Strait, for the builders
could never have foreseen the astonishing future ahead for their brain-
child. The C.G.S. "Earl Grey" looked more like a luxury yacht than an
icebreaker, for it had a splendid clipper-bow and a lean and rakish
look. The presence of a-long bow-sprit and two masts, both raked well
aft and an overall white paint scheme made it a most attractive vessel.
The C.G.S. designated it as a Canadian Government Ship, with a tonnage
reported as 3028, which included 750 tons of coal, over twice what a
similar-sized cargo vessel would carry. The engines produced 7900
horsepower, again very powerful to suit the role. In the winter of
1909, the "Earl Grey" began delivering the mail from Pictou to Prince
Edward Island and proceeded to give very satisfactory service for the
next five years. See the illustrations on p.17.

To go back a little, the name "Earl Grey" had been
chosen after the popular Governor-General of
Canada, Albert Henry George Grey (1851-1917), who
was appointed to his post as representative in
Canada of H.M. the King in December 1904. Earl
Grey was born in Howick, Northumberland and had
been a member of Parliament in Britain and
administrator of Rhodesia. Most of his efforts
were directed towards bringing Newfoundland into
union with Canada and he is remembered for ''
presenting in 1909 the Grey Cup as the foremost --i
football trophy of Canada. In the summer of 1910,
the C.G.S. "Earl Grey" sailed north and around
into Hudson's Bay to pick up Earl Grey, who had
been visiting the proposed site of the port and AlbertHenry GergeGrey.
railway terminal for the Hudson's Bay railway; a (-44335)
good practice run for what lay ahead.

Then, unfortunately, world events caught up with the "Earl Grey". On
1 August 1914, Germany declared war on Russia and moved into
Luxemburg and Belgium. On 4 August, Great Britain declared war on
Germany and WWI began. In September, a message was forwarded from
Russia through the Colonial Office to the Canadian Government, asking
if Canada would be able to sell one or more icebreakers to Russia for
use at its northern port of Archangel. The note was supported by a
telegram from the Secretary of State, Harcourt, stating that no such
vessel was available in Britain and that His Majesty's Government
hoped that Canada could accede to the request. The Russians argued
that it was very important from a military point of view to keep this
channel of supply open, for the Baltic Sea was too hazardous and the
Dardanelles had ceased to be available when Turkey joined the Central
Powers in October.

By an Order in Council PC 2522 of 6 October 1914, Canada responded
handsomely with the offer of both the "Earl Grey" (A100,000) and the
"Minto" and both set sail for sail, manned by naval crews as the ships
had been transferred to the Naval Service Department. The "Earl Grey",
with Commander Trousdale RN on the bridge, arrived safely after a
passage of 14 days, but the "Minto" was unfortunately wrecked on the
coast of Norway in 1915. The "Earl Grey" crew turned the ship over to
the Russian authorities and many of the crew members returned to
Canada by regular steamer for further service in the Canadian Navy.


i







The Russians renamed the ship "Kanada" and it conmenced its wartime
work of keeping the White Sea ports open, ensuring a winter service
between Archangel and Murmansk.

In Russia, the war led from disaster to disaster and Tsar Nicholas II
finally abdicated in March 1917, leading to the interim government of
Aleksandr Kerenskii, to be replaced in turn by the Bolsheviks under
Lenin and Trotskii in November. The Soviet Government ended
hostilities in December and began peace talks with Germany. There
followed the period known as "The Allied Intervention"; tens of
thousands of Allied troops poured into South Russia, Siberia and North
Russia to support the White Army. Some 16,000 Allied troops landed at
Murmansk and a further 13,000 at Archangel. Included in these numbers
were 41 Canadian officers and 554 other ranks.

However, all was in vain. The Allied troops were ultimately taken out
by troop ships and the White Army finally collapsed on 19 February 1920.
The collapse, however, led our little ship the "Kanada" into the most
bizarre episode of its career. The White Army in the North had been led
to the last by General Miller and it was decided that he and almost
1000 government officials and their families, as well as some of his
own staff and the British Liaison Staff, should escape to Norway by the
icebreaker "Kuz'ma Minin". The overcrowded ship had to run the gauntlet
of shore batteries and was pursued by the "Kanada", which had been
seized by the Bolsheviks.A gun battle between the two icebreakers did
not, however, take place and the "Kuz'ma Minin" escaped to Trondheim.
The Bolsheviks now renamed the "Kanada" as the "Third International".
While peace was restored on land, the ocean is never at peace and we
soon find the "Third International" rescuing the crew and passengers of
the vessel "Solovei Budimirovich", which had been beset by ice and was
drifting helplessly in the Kara Sea.

-- In June 1921, our friend was rechristened again, this
S time as the "Fidor Litke", named after the famous 19th.
century Arctic explorer, who had made a number of
voyages into the Arctic from 1821 to 1824, including
detailed charting of the western coast of Novaya Zemlya.
The "Litke",a name it was to keep for the remainder of
its career, was transferred to the Baltic in August
----. .. -., 1923 and then made a passage of the Baltic and
Mediterranean in the summer of 1925. For the next
four years, it kept the traffic moving through the
winter ice of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
In the summer of 1929, the "Litke" was off again,
passing through the Suez Canal on its way to
SVladivostok to lend a hand in a series of strange
,,..o events taking place in the Chukchii Sea, which are
too complex to report in this artice, except in
----- summary.

......... There had been reports for many
years from native hunters that there
was a mysterious land in the Chukchii
Sea. Various expeditions, Russian and
American, confirmed its existence and
an American, Thomas Long, named it
Oc 4n." K. Wrangel (or Vrangel) Island after
F.P. Vrangel', who had first reported


































sighting the island in 1823. In 1911, two Russian vessels, the "Vaigach"
and the "Taimyr", were engaged in a series of scientific expeditions
from the Bering Strait into the northern seas (see the map directly
above). During one of its northern forays, the "Vaigach" surveyed the
shores of Vrangel' Island. Later expeditions completed the charting and
found coal deposits. Shortly before, in 1912, the Imperial Government
of Russia issued a communique claiming a number of northern islands,
including Vrangel', as "forming a northern extension of the Siberian
continental platform". Such a claim did not deter the Canadian
explorer, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, as he decided that Vrangel' Island
would form an ideal location for an airport to be part of a network of
trans-Arctic air routes between Europe and the Far East. He therefore
wished to establish the sovereignty of Britain or Canada in the area.
Accordingly, he landed a small expedition on Vrangel Island in the
autumn of 1921 and even got Mackenzie King (a Prime Minister of
Canada) to claim that Vrangel' was "part qf the property of this
country (Canada)".

It was to Vrangel Island, then, that the "Litke" was headed in 1929,
for the Russians had placed a colony of Chukotka Eskimos on Vrangel' in
1926 and no ship had been able to visit them since then. Despite heavy
ice, the "Litke" reached Vrangel on 28 August 1929 and relieved the
party ashore, leaving a new party to carry on for the next three years.
There followed two comparatively tranquil years, keeping Vladivostok
harbour clear of ice in winter and acting as a water-carrier in summer.
* More stirring stuff came in the winter of 1931-1932, for three steamers
were beset by ice in the Sea of Okhotsk. Although itself beset, the
"Litke" was able to break out after drifting for 61 days and rescued
all three vessels.

21







N..~....,T... About this time, the "Litke" acquired one of the
S....I..go little Shavrov Si -2 amphibian flying boats from the
Production line at the Krasnyi L8tchik (Red Airman)
t S-- 'plant in Leningrad. These little aircraft were
carried on the stern, as seen on the 1976 Soviet
Stamp of the "Litke" (the second stamp illustrated
on p.20 herewith), or could be folded up and crated
when not in use.

The next task of the "Litke" was to escort the first
convoy ever to reach the mouth of the Kolyma. The
E convoy was forced to winter in Chaunskaya Bay, but
.all the ships discharged their cargoes and returned
to Vladivostok with the help of the "Litke". On
this voyage, the medical officer aboard the "Litke" was Dr. L. M.
Starokadomskii, author of the book "Charting the Russian Northern Sea
Route". This work gives a fascinating account of the Arctic Ocean
Hydrographic Expedition of 1910-1915, including the voyage of the
"Vaigach" and the "Taimyr" through the Northern Sea Route from east to
west between June 1914 and September 1915. That was the first time
this feat had ever been accomplished, but it took two seasons, for the
two ships spent one winter frozen into the ice just west of Cape
Chelyuskin.
...................r..... ..... ................*, Now came another adventure,
'"W" amw Xww w* but one that came at a time
i 'when the "Litke" was
i seriously weakened and
9 LJi l I leaking from damage
'" received on the voyage of
.*;"O~L ijl,'' % the Kolyma convoy. A Soviet
or i steamer, the "Chelyuskin",
_si _____~____b__aEj 3F had tried to sail through
............................ ......................... the Northern Sea Route from
west to east and had been within 25 miles of the Bering Strait, when
its progress was stopped by ice and it was driven back northwards into
the polar seas. The "Chelyuskin" radioed the "Litke" on 10 November
1933, asking for help. The "Litke" set sail from Providence Bay in its
damaged condition and short of coal, hoping to proceed up the Alaskan
coast and then to break through the ice fields to recue the
"Chelyuskin". However, it soon became apparent that the "Litke" was
leaking so badly that, had it run out of fuel, the loss of its steam
pumps would have resulted in its sinking, so the "Litke"had to return
to port. The "Chelyuskin" was finally swept back along the coast and,
crushed by the ice on 13 February 1934, it left 104 men, women and
children stranded on the ice. Their ultimate rescue by air constitutes
one of the most stirring events in the exploration of the Arctic (see
the article "Chelyuskin" in "The Rossica Journal" No.90/91, 1976).
Meanwhile, the "Litke" made its way to Japan, where it underwent some
makeshift repairs before being declared fit for its greatest adventure
of all.

In June 1934, the "Litke" set out from Vladivostok, around Cape Dezhnev
and westwards in an attempt to reach Murmansk in a single season! On
the way, it rescued in passing five ships which had been forced to
winter near Cape Chelyuskin and then continued on its voyage. Having
reached Murmansk on 20 September, it sailed onwards around Norway and
through the Baltic to reach Leningrad on 7 November. Not bad for a
44-year-old ship! The "Litke" had achieved the first single-season







east-west voyage along the North-East Passage in history and, as far
as I can trace, it was only the second vessel in history to
circumnavigate the Eurasian continent. It had been done once before by
Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskjbld in his little steamer the "Vega" in 1878-
1879. That was also an astonishing feat, for the "Vega" was a wooden
vessel with a 69-horsepower steam engine (see Sweden, Scott No. 1007;
one of the 1-kr. commems issued on 22 Sept. 1973). By the way, the
voyage of the "Vega" had made use of the Suez Canal, which had been
opened ten years earlier. Parenthetically, the first west-to-east
crossing of the North-East Passage had been accomplished by the "A.
Sibiryakov" between July and October 1932. It was an ice-reinforced
ship of 2600 tons, built in 1909 (see the 1977 Soviet stamp immediately
below at left). Its captain was V.I. Voronin, who also commanded the
"Chelyuskin" and whose voyage has been noted above. See last stamp below.
--------rm----- r---------- r-- ----q -


Olon -- 0--








However, there was no rest for the "Litke" and it was soon back on the
Northern Sea Route, shepherding convoys to and fro. During the
disastrous 1937 season, the "Litke", together with many other vessels,
was trapped with a convoy not far from Cape Chelyuskin, to be released
by the icebreaker "Yermak", which was an even older icebreaker (the
"Yermak" had been built in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England in 1899 as the
brain-child of Admiral S.O. Makarov, the father of icebreakers. Note on
p.23 the second Soviet stamp showing the "Yermak" and, in the second and
third rows, stamps and a cover referring to Admiral Makarov. The rounded
lines of the "Yermak" were the basis for the design of the "Vaigach" and
the "Taimyr", which were virtually identical to each other. The "Yermak"
was of 8250 tons and carried 200 tons of coal for its 9500 h.p. engine.
It may well be worth an article of its own).

The object of their voyage was to rescue the ice-reinforced ship "G.
Sedov", drifting rudderless in the Laptev Sea. The "G. Sedov" had been
beset by ice in October 1937, but the "Yermak" and "Litke" were
unsuccessful in their rescue and the "G. Sedov" drifted on until Jan.
1940, when it was released by the newly-built icebreaker "losif Stalin"
after 812 days of drifting right across the Arctic, almost half a
circuit of the globe at that latitude! The "Georgii Sedov" had been
built in Great Britain in 1910 as a deep-framed shelter decker for the
Newfoundland trade, so it was a cargo vessel with some capability on
ice. It was transferred to Siberia in 1919.Soviet stamps referring to
the Arctic explorer G. Ya. Sedov, the icebreaker named after him and
the icebreaker "losif Stalin" are shown ir the first and second rows
of illustrations on the previous page.

Returning to the "Litke", we now find it beginning its second spell of
wartime service. The summers were spent along the Northern Sea Route
and the winters in escorting Allied convoys to and from Archangel.


I MEOT0 J)-nETIM( gtIM o W









M c2 ..7 ,r .7



X* 407.681


With the war over, the "Litke" was used on a scientific voyage in 1955,
during which it reached 83011' N latitude porth of Svarlbard
(Spitzbergen). That stood as a record for surface ships under their
own power until 17 August 1977, when the Soviet icebreaker "Arktika"
of 23,460 tons reached 900N, assisted considerably by its 75,000 h.p.
nuclear engines. Sec the stamps and miniature sheet just above.







In 1959, at long last, the "Litke" was retired from service and broken
up after 50 glorious years, but its wheelhouse was removed and is
still to be seen in the Moscow Marine Museum. Not a bad end for a
little ship designed to sail from Pictou to Charlottetown!

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. "Post Office Pictou", by Lynn and Paul W. Binney.
Journal of The Postal History Society of Canada, Issue No.31.

2. "Soviets in the Arctic", by Dr. T.A. Maracouzio.
MacMillan, New York, 1938.

3. "Charting the Russian Northern Sea Route", by L.M. Starokadomskii.
McGill-Queen's University Press, 1976.

4. "Forty Thousand against the Arctic", by H.P. Smolka.
Hutchison, London, 1938.

5. "The Naval Service of Canada", by Gilbert Norman Tucker.
King's Printer, 1952.

6. "Canada in the Great World War", Vol. II, Chapter IX, by Charles
Hanbury-Williams, United Publishers, Toronto.

7. "Canadian Coastal and Inland Steam Vessels (1809-1930)", by John
M. Mills, Society of America in Providence, Rhode Island, 1979.

* 8. "The Canadian Forces in the Great War 1914-1919", Vol. II, by
Col. A. Fortesque Duguid, H.M. Printers, 1938.

9. "The Canadians in Russia 1918-1919", by Roy McLaren.
MacMillan of Canada, 1976.

PHOTO CREDITS

1. National Archives of Canada, Canadian Postal Archives.
Negative No. POS2193 for the photograph of the "Earl Grey".

2. "The Archivist", Vol.16, No.2 of March-April 1989 for the
photograph of Albert Henry George Grey, Governor-General of
Canada, 1904 to 1911.
*


SPECIAL NOTES:
Readers are reminded that all coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!
The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
the Society or its coordinators.
* Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.








CORRESPONDENCE

WITH CANADA .



7' N

"Crrespenaence with Canada" is a regular feature Kana, I '
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting-
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it / .
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph / ''
or xer= copy of the item, alang with sare expla-
natcry text to the Editor.
A REGISTERED LETTER FROM THE RUSSIAN LEVANT TO ONTARIO
by Andrew Cronin

The cover shown here was sent by Argia Veneziani, whose address was c/o
The Italian P.O.in Constantinople, being despatched paradoxically
through the ROPiT Russian post office there.

This is a cover from a well-known turn-of-the-century correspondence,
addressed to W.H. Schmalz in Berlin, Ontario. That town had its name
changed for obvious reasons during WWI to Kitchener and it has been
noted for its strong German-speaking element to this very day. It is
now a twin city, Kitchener-Waterloo and famous in North America for
its Oktoberfest.

The envelope demonstrates several interesting features, as follow.
First of all, the ROPiT office in Constantinople used the New Style
(Gregorian) calendar at that time, as can be deduced from the sequence
of dating: Constantinople 4.6.1910, New York 15 June, Toronto on the
16th. and arriving in Berlin, Ontario on the 17th.

Now, re the postal rates and comparison of currencies. The rate paid
was 1 piastre for a letter going abroad, plus 1 piastre registration
fee. The total amount was made up with a pair of 10-para surcharges,
plus 1x20-para and lxl-piastre. At that time in the Turkish.Empire,
40 paras made 1 piastre and 100 piastres equalled 1 Turkish pound,
then roughly at par with the English pound sterling = US $4.80 =
24 French (gold) francs = 9r. 60k.

We can then surmise that the postal rates were the same as within the
Russian Empire, i.e. 10 kop. = 2d. sterling = 5 U.S. = 25 centimes
for a letter going abroad, with an equal amount charged for the
registration fee.

Finally, we note that the sender used a variety of postage stamps of
low values, which were affixed over the flaps at the back of the
envelope. That was a common precaution in the Middle East in those
days, designed to prevent any opening or rifling of the mail.

*











J7




at



















t~4L)



0/
1 :2
~. ~ ViZ J,'




2 5i
E~ i) ;

"8A5rV








-~~I c~r \

'~f 0",





















4.; -O
~27






VARIETIES OF THE OVAL SPB CANCELLATION
by Alex Artuchov



The oval cancellation with letters CHB and surrounded by
dots in an oval is a fairly common cancellation of St.
;Petersburg that was used until the middle of the 1870's. In
all references it is represented as a single variety of
cancellation with no variations to the basic form.

In the publication of the New York Branch of Rossica, dated
May-June, 1961, A.M. Rosselevitch describes and discusses a
single known variety of the subject cancellation in an
article entitled "The Riddles of Russian Philately". The
variety of cancellation illustrated below as Fig. 2 varies
from the normal type illustrated as Fig. 1 by virtue of a
slightly larger format, a somewhat different location of the
same number of dots, a larger size and different shape of
lettering as well as the absense of the surrounding oval.
Most significantly, no one has ever come across another copy
of this one known variety of cancellation.

*.-** **Of. i e**K
.iw. ic.irL c nrr


----.mm.--- ---26 mm.--"

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

In a recently acquired accumulation of the subject
cancellation type, another variety of this cancellation was
discovered by this writer. The variety was particularly
noticeable by its larger lettering. Upon careful examination
and through several measurements, the writer concluded that
the lettering on the new variety (Fig. 3) was virtually the
same as that on Fig. 2. The only noticeable distinction
seemed to be that at the base of the vertical strokes on the
letter n the ends were pointed like in Fig. 1 rather than
rounded as on Fig. 2. The new variety seems to be the same
size and have the same location of dots as the Rosselevitch
variety. A significant distinction is however, that the new
variety has an oval surrounding it. The fact that the
Rosselevich variety is now in this writer's collection
assisted greatly with the observations and conclusions.

The most plausible explanation to the riddle of these
varieties of cancellation would seem to lie in the theory
that several variations of the.cancellation were prepared
before Fig. 1 was selected as the one to be used. Somehow
the unselected facsimilies found themselves in limited use.

This writer would be delighted to hear from anyone else
having copies of these varieties or of any other information
on this topic.







POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov














KHERSON
XEPO)H
KHERSON PROVINCE

Kherson is the capital city of the province by the same
name. In 1900 its population was 73,185.

By virtue of its location on the Dnieper River near the
Black Sea, Kherson was a busy seaport. Its name was derived
from the name of an ancient Greek city upon whose remains
Kherson was presumably established. The city was founded by
Potemkin in 1778. His body is buried in the cathedral.

Kherson issued stamps between 1867 and 1911.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Blue background with a silver cross in the centre and two
golden crowns on either side of the cross.


1867
18.5 x 24.5 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.1 mm thick,
white gum, sheet of 5 x 5 (according to S. Koprowsky),
imperforate.








1. 10 kop. orange yellow 120.00

Reprints
Reprints are known on the same paper as the original stamps
and are imperforate. Known reprints are as follows:











- 10 kop. black
- 10 kop. orange
- 10 kop. yellow (also known perf. 12.5)
- 10 kop. blue

1871
23 x 27.75, lithographed in 2 colours on white paper 0.09 mm
thick, white gum, sheet of 9 x 4 (according to Koprowsky),
perforated 13.5.









1 .- -
L. --


2. 10 kop. carmine red and black R
(23 known)

Reprints
Reprints can easily be identified by the pearl in the NW
corner as illustrated below. A line also runs from the
numeral 1 in the SE corner across the letters 3g of YSJtA
The following reprints have been reported:

- 10 kop. carmine rose and black, perf. 12.75
- 10 kop. carmine rose and black, perf. 12.75, inverted
rider
- 10 kop. carmine rose and black, imperf., rider omitted
- 10 kop. carmine red and black, perf. 12.75
- 10 kop. carmine red and black, perf. 12.75, inverted
rider
- 10 kop. carmine red and black, imperf.
- 10 kop. carmine red and black, imperf., inverted rider




Pearl on Originals Pearl on Reprints


1872
Similar to previous issue but in a smaller format of 17.75 x
21.5 mm lithographed in 2 colours on soft white paper 0.07
mm thick, white gum, sheet of 6 x 9 with imperforate
margins, perforated 12.5.


3. 10 kop. yellowish red 25.00

















Reprints
Reprints can be easily identified by a white spot in the SE
corner which is a little to the side and under the 0 of the
10 of 10 kon. A horizontal line extends from the k of
kop. on the left side to the right until it passes the outer
circle outline and then turns upwards and runs for a short
distance between the two circle outlines. The colours of the
reprints are thicker, brighter and redder. The paper is
thinner and the gum yellowish and thickly applied.
The following reprints are known:

- 10 kop. brick red and black, perf. 12.5
- 10 kop. brick red and black, perf. 12.5, inverted rider
- 10 kop. brick red and black, imperf.
- 10 kop. brick red and black, imperf., inverted rider
- 10 kop. brick red and black, imperf., without rider
- 10 kop. rose red and black, imperf., without rider


1874 (June)
Similar to previous issue, 18.25 x 21.5 mm circle framed
by a single line only, numerals and letters are slightly
larger, the rider is in a more upright position, the stamps
are separated by thin lines, lithographed in 2 colours on
soft white paper 0.06 mm thick, sheet unknown,
transfer block of 5 x 1 with insignificant differences
between the types except for the 1st stamp which has a break
in the upper frameline on the right, perforated 12.5 with
imperforate sheet margins.





f.i C4 LI--_ -:.



4. 10 kop. yellowish red and black 15.00


Reprints
Reprints can be distinguished by the first 3 wavy lines of
the background in the NW corner. On the original issues they
stop short of the frameline. On the reprints they pass
beyond the frameline. The following reprints are known:


L










- 10 kop. red and black, perf. 12.5
- 10 kop. red and black, perf. 12.5, inverted rider
- 10 kop. red and black, perf. 12.5, rider printed twice
- 10 kop. red and black, imperf., inverted rider
- 10 kop. rose red and black, perf. 12.5
- 10 kop. rose red and black, perf. 12.5, inverted rider
- 10 kop. rose red and black, imperf.
- 10 kop. rose red and black, imperf., inverted rider
- 10 kop. carmine red and black, perf. 12.5
- 10 kop. carmine red and black, perf. 12.5, inverted rider
- 10 kop. yellow red and black, perf, 12.5
- 10 kop. green and red, imperf.
- 10 kop. dark green and red, imperf.
- 10 kop. lemon yellow and dark violet, imperf.
- 10 kop. dark yellow and dark violet, imperf.


1879
Similar to earlier issues, inscription in block letters, 3
letters of KOn are of uniform size, 18.5 x 21.5 mm ,
lithographed on white paper 0.08 mm thick, brittle white
gum, sheet unknown and 10 x 4 is largest known multiple,
stamps separated by single vertical and double horizontal
lines, perforated 11.5 and imperforate, known with
inverted centre.

5. 10 kop. yellowish red and black 4.00

Reprints
Reprints can be identified by the faulty cliche from which
they were printed. The cliche has 2 vertical lines running
across the centre of the reprints. Although an attempt was
apparently made to remove them their presence is still quite
visible.
The known reprints are as follows:
I. 1884 (?) Slightly bluish paper 0.08 mm thick, streaky
brown gum, imperforate.

- 10 kop. red and black
- 10 kop. red and black, inverted rider

Yellowish paper 0.09 mm thick, yellowish white
gum, imperforate.

- 10 kop. red and black, inverted rider
- 10 kop. black brown, inverted rider

II. 1900 White paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum,
perforated 11.5.

- 10 kop. emerald green
- 10 kop. carmine red
- 10 kop. blue










Coloured paper 0.05 mm thick, no gum, imperf.


- 10 kop. black on violet paper
- 10 kop. 10 kop black on olive yellow paper
- 10 kop. on blue green paper
- 10 kop. on violet carmine paper

Coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, perforated 11.5,
heavily gummed.

- 10 kop. black on red orange paper
- 10 kop. black on green paper
- 10 kop. black on yellow paper
- 10 kop. black on lilac red paper


1884 (July)
New design, 20.75 x 30.75 mm lithographed in 3 colours on
white paper 0.07 mm thick, largest known multiple is 8 x 9
and sheet is probably 10 x 10, 2 types, all stamps in the
first horizontal row are Type 1 and the remainder are Type
2, perforated 11.5




Op.Pk4








6. 10 kop. gold, brown and dull blue 1.00
without crown 10.00


The 2 Types
Type 1 No crown over the word iLA .
Type 2 Crown over the word LV~I


Proofs
On white paper 0.06 mm thick, ungummed, imperforate.

- 10 kop. gold, brown red and ultramarine
- 10 kop. gold, carmine rose and ultramarine
- 10 kop. orange, carmine rose and ultramarine
- 10 kop. gold, carmine rose and brown red


i










1891
New design, 19.25 x 27.5 27.75 mm lithographed in 2
colours on white paper 0.07 mm thick, yellowish white gum,
sheet of 6 x 11 (?), perforated 11.25













7. 10 kop. blue and gold 1.50

A stamp very similar to this issue appeared in probably 1895
in an indigo blue and gold colour. There are some
differences in the lettering and the numerals. The letter 0
of XEPOOHCUA replaces the letter A of which there are
visible traces. The O is slightly tilted and the distance
between it and the first letter of the next word is smaller.

This stamp closely resembles reprints printed in reversed
colours. It is accordingly unclear as to whether this stamp
is a different printing from a new plate or if it is also a
reprint.

The stamp is not known postally used.

Reprints

White paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, perforated 11.5
- 10 kop. blue green
- 10 kop. carmine red
- 10 kop. dark blue

Coloured paper 0.05 mm thick, no gum, imperforate
- 10 kop. black on violet paper
- 10 kop. black on yellow paper
- 10 kop. black on blue green paper
- 10 kop. black on brown red paper
- 10 kop. black on white paper
- 10 kop. black on gray blue paper
- 10 kop. red on yellowish white paper

Coloured paper 0.13 mm thick, imperforate, no gum
- 10 kop. black on red violet paper
- 10 kop. black on yellow paper
- 10 kop. black on blue green paper
- 10 kop. black on carmine red paper










- 10 kop. black on yellow brown paper


Coloured paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum, perforated 11.5
- 10 kop. black on orange red paper
- 10 kop. black on green paper
- 10 kop. black on yellow paper
- 10 kop. black on violet red paper
- 10 kop. gold and blue (colours of original reversed)


1895 1899
Similar to previous issue, postal rate reduced from 10 to 5
kop., lithographed on white paper, yellowish white gum, 2
types, perforated 11.5, 2 editions.

First Edition (1895)
Yellowish white horizontally laid paper 0.1 mm thick, sheet
unknown.

8. 5 kop. dark green or dark blue green 2.00

Second Edition (Aug. 1899)
Smooth yellowish white paper 0.09 mm thick, sheet unknown.

9. 5 kop. blue green 1.50

The 2 Types
Type 1 Left foot of letter I of the word rIfTb is
precisely aligned with over the end of the corner
ornament. The letter I has a large head.
Type 2 The word nLTb is moved over to the left. The
letter 5 has a small head,

Type 1 Type 2







Variety: The letter b of the word IITb is missing.

Proofs
Proofs in 3 different designs are known as follows:
I. The accepted design.
II. Similar to I. but, inscriptions in white on coloured
background and numeral 5 at bottom sides instead of
stars.
III. A completely different design.
IV. Another design, larger format, large central oval and
coat of arms, numerals of value in all 4 corners,
taller and larger letters and numerals.


35











Proofs of the accepted design were made in 25 colours:
1. Red on white paper
2. Red on gray yellow paper
3. Red on dark yellow paper
4. Red on light yellow paper
5. Red on gray paper
6. Red on blue green paper
7. Red on yellow brown paper
8. Brown on white paper
9. Brown on gray yellow paper
10. Brown on yellow paper
11. Brown on gray paper
12. Brown on brown paper
13. Brown on dark blue paper
14. Brown on orange paper
15. Dark blue on white paper
16. Dark blue on gray yellow paper
17. Dark blue on rose red paper
18. Dark blue on light rose paper
19. Gray blue on white paper
20. Dark green on white paper
21. Dark green on gray yellow paper
22. Olive yellow on white paper
23. Olive yellow on gray yellow paper
24. Olive yellow on gray paper
25. Orange on white paper

Reprints
Reprints of the proofs were made of all 4 designs at the
same time as the reprints of the other issues. All are in
black and on paper of various colour. These reprints were
made by printers for speculators who in turn sold them to
collectors. The Zemstvo itself had no involvement in these
reprints.


1900
Similar to previous issue, bottom inscription is smaller,
stars at the sides of this inscription are different as
illustrated below, 19.25 x 27 mm lithographed on white
paper 0.07 0.15 mm thick, white thickly applied gum,
sheet unknown, 2 types, perforated 11.5 .

10. 5 kop. gray green 1.50

Stars on side of Type 1 Type 2
bottom inscription (Point of shield at bottom)






b b










Reprints
- 5 kop. red on white paper
- 5 kop. dark blue on white paper
- 5 kop. black on red orange paper
- 5 kop. black on green paper
- 5 kop. black on yellow paper
- 5 kop. black on violet red paper

1902 1911
Similar to issue of 1900, bottom inscription is in thinner
and taller letters, lithographed on white paper, 4 editions.

First Edition (Feb. 1902)
Smooth white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 14 x 6
with 4 types in a 2 x 2 transfer block repeated 7 times
horizontally and 3 times vertically on the sheet, perforated
11.5

11. 5 kop. bright blue green 1.00

The 4 Types
Type 1 The left foot of the letter 1 of H~TB is
extended and passes by the corner ornament.
Type 2 The extension of the left foot of the letter H
points to the corner ornament.
Type 3 The letter I is longer and is placed lower and
leans slightly to the right.
Type 4 Similar to T.3 but the n leans slightly to the
left.


Second Edition (1906)
White paper 0.11 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, sheet of 10
x 10 with the same 4 types repeated 5 times each way on the
sheet, perforated 11.5

12. 5 kop. emerald green 3.00


Third Edition (1909)
Yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet of 10
x 10 with same types as for earlier editions, perforated
11.5 .

13. 5 kop. slate blue 1.00


Fourth Edition (1911)
White paper 0.1 mm thick, light brownish gum, sheet unknown,
same 4 types as for previous editions, perforated 11.5

14. 5 kop. indigo blue 2.00











Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:


Sch


Ch Sch


Sch
11
12
13
14


Ch
10a
10a
11
lla


KHOLM


xonM

PSKOV PROVINCE


Kholm is located in the pine forested, northeast corner of
the province of Pskov. In 1897, the population was 5,899.

Timber used for shipbuilding was the main occupation of the
residents of Kholm.

Kholm issued stamps between 1906 and 1913.

Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Blue background with a silver cloud and outstretched
hand reaching for a golden cat.
Bottom: Same blue background with a tall brown hill on a
grass covered field.

1906 1913
Printed by the State Paper Printing Office in St.
Petersburg,typographed on white paper, sheet of 5 x 5,
perforated 13.25, 5 editions.








First Edition (April 1, 1906)
White paper 0.06 mm thick, white gum, 6,375 stamps printed.
1. 3 kop. yellow green 0.25
Second Edition (Nov. 1908)
White paper 0.09 mm thick, 12,700 stamps printed.
2. 1 kop. yellow brown 2.00
Third Edition (Jan. 1909)
5,750 stamps printed.
3. 3 kop. green 1.00
Fourth Edition (1911)
15,700 stamps printed.
4. 3 kop. dark blue 0.75
Fifth Edition (1913)
White paper 0.06 mm thick, 11,700 stamps printed.
5. 1 kop. carmine rose 0.30
Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:
Sch 1 2 3 4 5
Ch 2 1 2a 4 3




PRE-PUBLICATION NOTICE


THE ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS OF

IMPERIAL RUSSIA VOL. II

Volume II of THE ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS OF IMPERIAL
RUSSIA featuring the issues of CHEMBARY through KOLOGRIV
is in a mature state of completion with publication scheduled
during the first half of 1990. A pre-publication price of $25.00
(US) is currently available. The price will be $30.00 (US) after
publication. Dealer terms are available. Please make cheques or
*money orders out to ALEX ARTUCHOV and forward them to the
Society address. Copies of Vol. I are available at $25.00 (US).


i








MAIL TO THE


EMPIRE




Russian philatelists in the Western I
World have many examples of Imperial -.
mail directed abroad and have, in B '
fact, ensured the survival and le epiro -
loving preservation of practically *
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is "(
a horse of another colour, as
terrible things have happened since
the collapse of that Empire andJ
many magnificent philatelic items-
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.

A POSTCARD FROM AN IONIAN ISLAND TO SIBERIA

by William J. Liaskas

I am showing here the view and address sides of a postcard, exchanged
between two countries of the same faith, Greece and Russia, which at
that time (1909), both used the Julian calendar (Old Style, then 13
days behind the Gregorian, or New Style).

The card is No.2563, done in coloured half-tone by Purger & Co. of
Munich and showing the royal villa "Mon Repos", which Kaiser Wilhelm II
maintained on the island of Kerkyra (Corfu) in the Ionian Sea. Written
on 19 Nov. 1909 N.S., it was mailed at the printed matter rate going
abroad (5 lepta = 5 centimes = 2 kop. = d. sterling = 1i U.S.) from
Kerkyra the next day 7 Nov. O.S. and addressed to M. Otto Apsit,
Irkutsk, Asiatic Russia. That surname was a well-known family name in
the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire. The card presumably went
by sea around to Odessa, thence by rail up to Moscow and from there by
the Trans-Siberian Railway to Irkutsk. The service for that last leg
of the journey was normally twice weekly and took around eight days,
i.e. half the elapsed time for the card.

Received in Irkutsk on 22 Nov. O.S., the name was transcribed into
Russian and the street address added for the guidance of the postman;
18 Admiralty Street. The sender must have been quite a linguist, as he
wrote in three languages: French (rate designation = printed matter;
t.c.v. = timbres c6te vue = stamps on the view side and the address),
Greek at top: entypon = printed matter and Russian for the destination:
Irkutsk, Russia.

A nice addition to a collection of the postal history of Siberia.









L Souvenir de Corfou. Villa ctlate "r.~cn repos.".


I Uor.e t Co., Mtilo iPllotoIhroMI-IkL..Le 2583 / 'O ^ O^ j
*
MATTERS MOLDAVIAN

by Andrew Cronin.
I.
Moldavia is very much in the news these days and that would be a good
reason for reviewing the complicated postal affairs of this
fascinating area, together with its influence on our spheres of
collecting. There have been three Moldavias at one time or another
which we will have to consider, as follow:-

(a) Roumanian Moldavia, with its capital of Jassy (Iasi) on the right
bank of the Prut River, looking down from Moscow. It has always been
Roumanian territory, originally as a principality in the earlier part
of the 19th. century and, since 23 December 1861, in union with the
principality of Wallachia (capital: Bucharest). 41








(b) The Moldavian ASSR or, as it has aptly been called in Russian:
Levoberezhnoe Poddnestrov'e, i.e. The Left-Bank Territory below the
Dniester River (looking down from Moscow). It was formed from 14
riverside districts within the framework of the Ukrainian SSR on 12th.
October 1924 and lasted until 2nd. August 1940. The original capital
was at Balta, but it was moved to Tiraspol' in 1928.

(c) The Moldavian SSP, formed on 2nd. August 1940 from the union of
most of the Moldavian ASSR and the greater part of Bessarabia, which
the USSR had regained from the kingdom of Roumania, as the result of a
48-hour ultimatum presented by the former on 26 June 1940. Its capital
is Kishinev (Chisinau).

Who are the Moldavians? They are the descendents of the Daco-Romans,
who lived there in ancient times and had absorbed the "lingua romana
rustica" spoken by the Roman legions during their 165-years of
occupation and colonisation of Dacia. Still earlier, the Greeks had
established settlements in those parts and their influence lingers to
this day in place-names such as Tiraspol' (= city on the Tiras or
Dniester River). The finest period in Moldavian history was during the
reign of the hospodar (ruler) Stefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great), who
held office from 1457 to 1504 and was married to Princess Evdokiya of
Kiev. He successfully beat back the forces of the Turkish Empire and,
of the 36 battles he fought, he only lost two; neither of them was
important. He has been featured on several Roumanian stamps, some of
which are shown directly below. More about Stefan cel Mare later on.





a .




With his passing, Moldavia became part of the Turkish Empire until
1774, when the portion to the right of the Prut River remained under
Turkish suzerainty but came under the protection of Russia as a
Christian principality. The area between the Prut and Dniester Rivers
was taken from the Turks in 1812 and formed into most of the province
of Bessarabia and the easternmost riverside territory was included in
the Kherson province of the Russian Empire. The greatest Russian poet,
Aleksandr Pushkin, lived in exile in Kishinev during 1820-1823 and it
was there that he began writing his great work Evgenii Onegin.

The history of Bessarabia under Tsarist rule is most depressing, with
widespread poverty, appallingly high illiteracy (85%), pogroms and
what have you. As a result of the October 1917 Revolution, Bessarabia
was legally Soviet territory, but a local organisation called "Sfatul
Tarii" (The Council of the Country) worked with the Roumanians for
incorporation into that kingdom. Units of the Roumanian army entered
the province and the capital of Kishinev (Chiginau in Roumanian) was
taken on 26 January 1918. The Soviet government never accepted
Roumanian sovereignty over the province, but the seizure was
recognized in 1920 by Britain, France, Italy and Japan. In retaliation,






the USSR organised the Moldavian ASSR on the other side of the Dniester
River, with Roumanian as one of the official languages and using the
Latin alphabet. A changeover to the Cyrillic alphabet was made in the
late 1930s and the language has since been referred to as Moldavian.

It should be pointed out here that the Roumanian language belongs to
the Latin family, as can readily be seen from the example below and
referring to the Moldavian SSR.

Date general

R.S.S. Moldoveneasca este situation in partea
dc sud-vest a teritoriului Uniunii Sovietice Si se
intinde de la Prut pina dincolo de Nistru, under
pe malul sting se afli o buna parte a pamintului
acestei republicii. Lungimea teritoriului Republi-
cii Moldoveneqti este de 350 kilometri de la
nord spre sud i de 150 kilometri de la est
spre vest. R.S.S. Moldoveneasca se invecineaza
la nord, est i sud cu R.S.S. Ucraineani, iar la
vest, de Prut, cu Republica Socialist Romania.
BPO Teritoriul R.S.S. MoldoveneSti ocupa 33,7 mii
Si de kilometri patrati. Capital republicii, oragul
ChiSinau, are 312.000 de locuitori.
La 1 ianuarie 196S, populatia republicii se
S l ridica la 3,550.000 de oameni sau 103 locuitori
pe kilometru pitrat al teritoriului. R.S.S. Mol-
doveneasc~ define astfel primul loc printre re-
publicile sovietice unionale, in ceea ce priveSte
densitatea populatiei. Ea se repartizeazi in mo-
dul urm~itor: 29,6'o la orate i 70,40o la
sate.

Association over many centuries with the Slavs and, in particular, with
their immediate Ukrainian neighbours, has markedly affected both the
pronunciation and word-stock of Roumanian/Moldavian. The result has
been that when the Latin alphabet is used to write the language, it has
to be extensively modified with various diacritical marks, as can be
noticed from the text above. On the other hand, the Cyrillic alphabet
is an almost perfect fit and three examples are shown hereunder on
Soviet stamps. We will return to this point later.



E ET KIWMHEB
AE A7V b AE KWMWMHBYAY <-
P4 0

ILI__
V I HbAI IMUnH3yiII I Ji I





The incorporation of Bessarabia into the kingdom of Roumania turned out
to be a great economic disaster, as the province was cut off from its
natural markets in the Odessa area. Worse still, it could not even
compete internally with the other more fertile counties in Roumania.
There were serious disturbances in Bessarabia during the 1920s, which
were put down with great severity by the Roumanian army. One of the
results was the censorship of civilian mail, as can be seen from the







































.4


Union Postale Univers~




Ir e, 2^

r1/~ 0~m-


Caiswao-U otl uI triwrfDLb
C.e"W-L. Cam".. a k bw
gA03cz d'4!9"4



,V ^ W^ AU


6/6#4~n 1?dPt*z
V A e" ,p

ra-IOe


P^Tzt^ tFn^


) ~

e. .,ee es ? -'.
Jff .eAe ee4v
s eLS^MfAiO <*


Mass illiteracy continued to be a problem, the volume of
lowest in Roumania and, by 1940, there were 13,000 person


41. *L *^ -LM. MCI'V 0 19 .L- <

_-Q -
I"- t" "1 5 '
.; S.Cta ",
.' r .."K 1,,.


.I ~r .4


**. .


registered
cover here,
sent from
Tighina
(Bendery) on
1 July 1926
with 20 lei
in postage
applied
across the
back. Note
the oblong
cachet at
bottom left
reading
"CENSORED/
DIST.TIGHINA"
and the still
Russian name
of the street
in the address
of the sender
at top, i.e.
Lermontov (!).
The letter
arrived in
Ztrich on 7th.
July 1926.

The situation
became so bad
that 300,000
Bessarabians
emigrated
abroad in the
first twelve
years of
Roumanian
rule, i.e.
more than 10%
of the
population at
that time.
The card
shown here
was written
by a Russian-
speaking lady
in Soroca on'
1 Jan. 1930,
who was
arranging
-with A.
Gherman of
New York for
her emigration
to the U.S.A.
mail was the
Is unemployed


>


f







in Chisiniu (Kishiniv), which then had a population of 112,000
inhabitants. So much for the good old days!

SThe Moldavian SSR went through a harrowing time after the combined
Germano-Roumanian attack on 22 June 1941, as will be seen when we look
at the postal history in detail. Many thousands of Soviet Army men died
in driving out the German and Roumanian Fascist forces in 1944. About
75% of Kishinev had been destroyed when it was finally liberated on
24th. August. Things have improved greatly since then. Illiteracy is
now a thing of the past, as will be noticed from the dramatic increase
in the number of post offices during the post-war years. A five-volume
encyclopaedia has been issued entirely in Moldavian (Enciclopedia
Sovietica Moldoveneasc ) and education is now universal.

That has proved to be a mixed blessing as, among other things, it has
led to the rise of Moldavian nationalism., There have been fervent
demonstrations during the past year at the statue of gtefan cel Mare,
at the entrance to Pushkin Park in Kishinev. Moldavian has always an
official language in the republic, but the Frontu Popular nationalists
now want to make it compulsory for all 4.2 millions of the inhabitants,
64% of whom are Moldavians, 14% Ukrainians, 13% Russians and the rest
Bulgarians, Gagauz, Gypsies and Jews. The Gagauz are an interesting
Turki-speaking Orthodox Christian minority in the southern part of the
republic, who had originally emigrated from Bulgaria during the Turkish
occupation. They have a prominent facial characteristic of hooked
noses, hence their name, which means beakyy tip" in their language.
They number around 200,000 and there is now talk of setting up a Gagauz
ASSR within the framework of the Moldavian SSR, which in turn is
Already the second smallest republic in the Soviet Union!

The aims of the Frontu Popular nationalists appear to be illogical as,
among other things, they are pushing for Roumanian to be the official
language, i.e. they want to bring back 'the Latin alphabet, although we
have already seen that Cyrillic is a better medium for writing the
language. There is no economic advantage to adopting Roumanian, as the
Soviet Moldavians are certainly better off than their brethren across
the Prut River. No one can predict the future, especially in these
fast-moving times, but the USSR, as with us in Canada, is a multi-
cultural society and we both have similar problems in some areas. It is
going to take a great deal of patience and maturity to solve them.
Perhaps the Soviet Moldavians are now emphasising the sentiment
contained in one of their sayings:-
"Mama rus, tat5 rus,
lar Ivan moldovan".
(Mother is Russian, Father is Russian, still Ivan is a Moldavian).

II.
We will now look at some aspects of Moldavian stamps and postal
history in chronological order.

(a) The Russian Imperial Posts in the Roumanian Principality of
Moldavia during the last century.
This subject has been covered fully in "The Stamps of the Russian
SEmpire Used Abroad" by W.S.E. Stephen and S.D. Tchilinghirian. Suffice
it to show overleaf an example of a pre-stamp letter sent on 7 June
1832 O.S. from the Moldavian capital of Jassy (Iasi), being addressed
in Russian and Greek to Nezhin in the Ukraine. Following the Russo-
Turkish War of 1828-1829, the Russians were for all practical purposes





























the masters in the Roumanian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia,
as they had troops stationed there from 1829 to 1834. Their presence
was the first step in ridding the Principalities of many years of
Turkish corruption and inefficiency.

(b) The First Issues of Postage Stamps in the Principality of Moldavia.
The Roumanian language was originally written in the
Cyrillic alphabet, then early in the 19th. century in
a confusing mixture of the Cyrillic and Latin
t alphabets. The arms of the Principality of Moldavia
consisted of a bull's head with a star between the
Shorns and were incorporated in the design of the four
famous Moldavian "cap de taur" stamps issued on 15th.
July 1858, together with a Cyrillic inscription
reading PORTO SCRISORI, or POSTAGE (FOR) LETTERS. The
27-parale value is shown here and three further
stamps soon appeared with separate inscriptions in
the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.

(c) The Russian Imperial Postal Service in the Province of Bessarabia,
1812-1917.
That is a huge and complicated subject in and of itself, with many
discoveries still to be made. It will be treated in a separate study
in a future issue of "The Post-Rider". Meanwhile, please refer to the
next page for a map of the province, taken from The Great Soviet
Encyclopaedia, 1938 edition and a postcard, written in Esperanto from
Kishinev on 11/24 Jan. 1912. The next day's date in the postmark was
erroneously set as 12.1.21 (W) and the peasant'in the photograph has
been referred to in Esperanto as "tipo de moldavo" (Moldavian type).

(d) The Austro-Hungarian Field Post Service in Bessarabia during 1918.
The events leading up to the establishment of this service were
unusual, to say the least. The kingdom of Roumania went to war against
the Central Powers in August 1916, with the aim of liberating the
Roumanians of Transsylvania. That campaign failed disastrously, with








At right: a picture
in 1912 and showing
* Bessarabian peasant
"Moldavian type".







the German Army occupying Wallachia and the Bulgarians all of the
Dobrudja. After 26 January 1918, only Roumanian Moldavia with its
capital of Jassy (Iagi) and the Russian province of Bessarabia were in
the hands of the Royal Roumanian forces. By May 1918, the kingdom of
Roumania was forced to sign the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central
Powers, taking it out of the war. That treaty recognized Roumanian
sovereignty over Bessarabia, but Austro-Hungarian units entered the
province, mainly to establish troop-raising services. There were at
least two Austrian FPOs operating in Bessarabia in the last few months
of WWI and the writer has seen the following examples:-


service would be welcomed from the readership of "The


rea I





privitor la Armati, ici data, nicl loclitateL
XX1i7 I/ee rt


i. o k Pufbring usko tmand ir Bessaraben
cles '1.Generae i-/ni a ndos
EinKIaufSkonom mission Nr, 3


C p N

^/ A /' w

^d;'C LA- AA
/yrc'^^ ^S'

;P / /)t

-A/^t>^?rC


I-


(1) A Roumanian
military card
sent through the
Austrian FPO 299
in Kishinev on
7 Sept.1918 and
also bearing a
Roumanian
military cachet
at top centre!
'Note also the
boxed strikes of
a Russian
KISHINEV cachet.
This card was
originally in
the Franz See
collection and
its present
whereabouts are
unknown.

(2) A cover
sent through
Austrian FPO
No.416, serial
"b" on 1 Nov.
1918 and
showing the
cachet of the
Imperial and
and Royal
Troop-Raising
Authority,
Purchasing
Commission No.3,
presumably in
Kishinev. The
author also has
another cover
from this
Authority, sent
through FPO 416
serial "a" on
26 October 1918.
Further data
about this
Post-Rider".







With the military position of the Central Powers rapidly deteriorating
in the last few months of WWI, the kingdom of Roumania put itself back
into the fray by very adroitly redeclaring war on the German Empire
and its allies on 9 November 1918, a bare two days before the
Armistice! That move paid off handsomely, as Roumania emerged from WWI
with a greatly increased national area, obtained with a minimum of
effort.

(e) The Roumanian Posts in Bessarabia 1918-1940.
The Roumanians divided Bessarabia into nine judeti or counties, of
which the following were subsequently incorporated into the Moldavian
SSR: Bl~ti, Cahul, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca, Tighina and part of the
Hotin county. The post offices operating in the counties, according to
the April 1937 edition of the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste"
issued by the UPU in Berne, Switzerland, were as follow:-


Albota
Alexandreni
Bahmutia
Baimaclia
Balti
BoldureSti
Bravicea
Briceva
Bucovat
Bujor
Bulboaca
Cahul
Cainari


(Cahul)
(Balli)
(Tighina)
(Cahul)
(Balti)
(Lcpugna)
(Orhei)
(Soroca)
(Lapusna)
(Lapugna)
(Tighina)
(Cahul)
(Tighina)


Calaragi-Targ
(Lapugna)
Capreti (Soroca)
Causani (Tighina)
Cazanepti (Orhei)
Ceadar-Lunga(Tighina)
Chiperceni (Orhei)
Chiscireni (Bali)
ChisinAu (Lapusna)
Cimiglia (Tighina)
Cini Auyi (Orhei)
Ciocalteni (Orhei)
Ciuciulea (Balgi)
Ciuciuleni (LApugna)
Cob9lca (Orhei)
Comrat (Tighina)
CorneSti-Targ
(Balfi)


Cotiugeni-Mari
(S
Criuleni (O
Cubei (C


oroca)
rhei)
ahul)


Dondusani (Soroca)
Drochia (Soroca)
Dumbraveni (Soroca)
Edinti-Targ (Hotin)
Falepti (Balti)
Floresti (Soroca)
Glodeni (B6lgi)
Greceni (Cahul)
Gura-Galbena(Tighina)
Hancesti (Lipusna)
Hartopul-Mare
(Orhei)
laloveni (Lipugna)
largara (Cahul)
I.G. Duca (Bal5i)
I.G. Duca (Cahul)
Isacova (Orhei)
Lapuna (Lapusna)
Leova (Cahul)
Lipcani-Targ(Hotin)
Lipnic (Soroca)
ManzAr (Tighina)
Marculesti (Soroca)
Mingir (Cahul)
Mireni (Lapugna)
Nemteni (LApusna)
Nisporeni (Lapusna)
Orhei (Orhei)
Otaci-Targ (Soroca)
Parjolteni (Lapusna)
Peresecina (Orhei)
Prut (Cahul)
Rascani-Targ-(Bal'i)
Rezina (Orhei)
Rogojeni (Soroca)


Romanesti
Sofia
Soroca
Straseni
Susleni
Sofrancani-Lambo
Soldanesti
Talmazu
Taraclia
Taraclia
Tarnova
Telene+ti
Tighina
Vadul-lui-Vod5
Vadu-Rascu
Valea-lui-Vlad
Vertiugeni
Visinesti
Vorniceni
Zabriceni
Zguriga
Zlo*i
*


Chiginau-
Mandate
(Money
Orders).
7.5.19


(Tighina)
(B~lti)
(Soroca)
(Lapugna)
(Orhei)
(Baiti)
(Orhei)
(Tighina)
(Cahul)
(Tighina)
(Soroca)
(Orhei)
(Tighina)
(Lapugna)
(Soroca)
(Bclti)
.(Soroca)
(Cahul)
(L~pusna)
(B lfi)
(Soroca)
(Tighina)
*


Soroca-
Recomandate
(Registereds)

6 June 1931.


NOTES:
(a) Notice once again how much the Latin alphabet has to be modified
* in order to accommodate Roumanian sounds and spelling.
(b) Among other place-names, those of Cobalca and Peresecina are of
obvious Slav origin, meaning "filly" and "barricade" respectively.

Examples of the Roumanian posts are shown above and on the next pages.
49










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an ) U-

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d Qir4 (0
SCD
4 4-4

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41 ) H -H

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.J >4 ) r
r 14-4 r-1*H >


* S

P >,
m
CO
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*rI
4-) U4

En U)

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m d



p 41
S 0
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-4-



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,H U)0
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0) P40 0 c4
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- nSaip-n ?1w1tur

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1' c ~ rs
-....'t~'

C .OMITFULTCENTrRAL'

-ANTORARAE~~ EVRE~ILOR 0 STAT HN MUAIM-~
* CC CIIIlINAU --RUMA dine 35

,. my


.d r- f. 4 i ,


interesting
registered
cover from
the Central
Committee
to help
Jews ruined
in the
Ukraine
(during the
Civil War).
Sent from
Chiginau
(Kishinev)
19 June 22
to
Washington.


: -

1. 1 ~
1,


i_
-1 :.
-;
~


.


~ Z~"E2863.82 ,

-4 I







(f) The Soviet Posts in the Moldavian ASSR 1924-1940.
The extent of this republic may be gauged from the map on the next page,
taken from The Great Soviet Encyclopaedih, 1938 edition, Vol.39,
column 659. Its area was 8400 sq. km. or 3230 sq. miles and the
population in 1933 was 615,500.According to the Soviet census of 1926,
the demographic composition was as follows:-
Ukrainians 48.5% Russian 8.5% Others 4.4%
Moldavians 30.1% Jews 8.5%
It can thus be seen that the MoldaViars were a minority even within
their own ASSR. This has also been the case with other ASSRs in the
Soviet Union. According to the April,19 7 edition of the "Dictionnaire
des Bureaux de Poste", the following 203 post offices were then
functioning in the Moldavian ASSR (t. e raion = district):-


Abamelikovo
Alekseevka
(Kamenskii raion)
Alekseevka
(Oknyanskii raion)
Anan' ev
Anan'ev 1 Uchastok
Anan'ev 2 Uchastok
Anan'ev 3 Uchastok
Anan'ev 4 Uchastok
Anan'ev MTS
Andryashevka
Antonovka
Artirovka
Baitaly
Balta
Bachmanovka
Beloche
Bendzary
Berezovka
Bergdorf
Birzula
Blizhnii Khutor
Bolgan
Bol'she-Kondratskoe
Bol'shoi Fontan
Bol'shoi Molokish
Borshchi
Borsuki
Botushany
Budei
Burshtein
Butory
Bychok
Chebruchi
Cherneche
Chorna
Delakeu
Doibany-2
Dorotskoe
Dubossary
Dubovo


Eftodiya
Elenovka
Erzhevo
Fedorovka
Fedoseevka
Fermatiya
Flera
Frantsuzskoe
Gamburovo
Gandrabury
Garaba
Garmatskoe
Gavinosy
Gederim
Gerbino
Gertop
Giderim
Glikstal
Glinnoe
Glubochek
Golma
Gonorata
Goyany
Grabarovka
Grabovo
Grebenik
Grigoriopol'
Grushka
Gulyan.ka
Kachurovka
Kamenka
Karagash
Karantin
Karpishty
Kassyanskaya Slobodka
Katerinovka
Kirillovka
Klein Bergdorf
Klement'evo
Kodyma
Kolbasnaya
Komarovo


(Dubossarskii raion)Kommuna im.Tkachenko
Dubovo Kommuna Mayak
(Oknyanskii raion) Korotnoe
52


Korytna
Korzhevo
Koshary
Koshnitsa
Kossy
Kossy-2
Kozatskoe
Krasnenkoe
Krasnogorka
Krinichki
Krutye
Kryzhovlin
Kuchiery
Kuchurgan
Kuyalnik
Kuz'min
Labushna
Lesnichevka
Lipetskoe
Lunga
(Birzulskii raion)
Lunga
(Dubossarskii raion)
Lyakhovo
Lyubomirka
Malaeshty
(Oknyanskii raion)
Malaeshty
(Tiraspol'skii raion)
Malovatoe
Malyi Molokish
Mardarovka
Marienberg
Maryanovka
Mikhailovka
(Anan'evskii raion)
Mikhailovka
(Rybnitskii raion)
Mirony
Mokraya
Moshnyagi
Nemirovskoe
Nestoita
Neudorf
Nezavertailovka














































MAP OF THE MOLDAVIAN ASSR


KAZATSKOE
BALTSK. R-N
MOLDAVIYA


ANAN'EV ANAN'YIV


BALTA A.M.S.S.SR.


BIRZULA


BIRZULA


DUBOSSARY-
DUBOSARI


GRIGORIOPOL'-
HRYHORYOPIL'


KRUTYE-KRUTI


rd,


TIRASPOL'-TYRASPIL'


VALEGOTSULOVO







Novaya Georg'evka
Novaya Kulnya
Novo-Aleksandrovka
Novo-Komisarovka
Novo-Krasnoe
Novo-Samarka
Novoselovka
Obzhila
Oknitsa
Okny
Parkany
Pasitsely
Passat
Pereima
Perelety
Pererytoe
Peschany
Pisarevka
Ploskoe
Plot
Podoima
Podoimitsa
Pogreby
Popenki
Puzhaikovo
Rakulovo
Rashkov
Rogi


Romanovka
Rozalevka
Rybnitsa
Sarazhinka
Selivanovka
Sennaya
Serby
Severinovka
Shershentsy
Shibka
Shlyakhetnaya
(Anan'evskii raion)
Shlyakhetnaya
(Baltskii raion)
Slavyanoserbka
Sloboda
Sloboda Bashkov
Slobodzeya
(Kodymskii raion)
Slobodzeya
(Slobodzeevskii raion)
Smolyanka
Speya
Stanislavka
Staraya Kulnya
Stavrovo
Stepanovka
Strointsy


Sukleya
Tashlyk (Grigoriopol' r.)
Tashlyk (Smolyanskii r.)
Ternovka
Teya
Tiraspol'
Tiskolung
Tochilovo
Tokmozeya
Topala
Tregrady
Tsybulevka
Tymkovo
Ukhozhany
Vadaturkul
Valegotsulovo
Valyadynka (Kamenskii r.)
Valyadynka (Kodymskii r.)
Vladimirovka (Oknyanskii r.)
Vladimirovka
(Tiraspol'skii raion)
Voronkovo
Voronkovo Plitotdel MTS
Vykhvatintsy
Yagorlyk
Zherebkovo
Zhura
Zozulyany


We can see from the above that there was on the average one post office
for roughly 3000 persons, which was more or less in accordance with the
ratio for rural areas as noted by Belyaev & Kuznetsov in their article
in "The Post-Rider" No.24, p.20.

Postmarks from this ASSR are hard to find and the best source has been
in the form of money receipt cards. They were mainly confirmations for
remittances by American Jews, made out in U.S. dollars and sent by the
M. Blitzstein Co. of Philadelphia, via the Dresdner Bank in Berlin to
Moscow during the 1920s. The amounts remitted were often substantial
and must have been of great help to the recipients in those years.
Please see the previous page for illustrations of the postmarks so far
found. It will be noticed that only Russian and Ukrainian inscriptions
have so far been found on these markings. The subsequent history of the
Moldavian ASSR is very depressing, as it suffered grievously both
during collectivisation and the Great Purge of the 1930s, as it
bordered on Roumanian Bessarabia and was used as an escape route to the
West by many desperate people.

(g) The Soviet Posts in the Moldavian SSR 1940-1941.
...... In unifying Bessarabia with the Moldavian ASSR, the
nO4TACCCPi1'BO following territorial adjustments were made for ethnic
considerations:-
(1) In Bessarabia, the upper part of the Hotin county in
the north and the Cetatea Alba (Akkerman) and Ismail
Counties in the south were incorporated into the
Ukrainian SSR. The noted Soviet military figure S.K.
Timoshenko was a Bessarabian Ukrainian from Furmanka, now
PWAn *MoIcooc103 Furmanivka, Kiliya district in the Odessa province. He had
CK8.IW O been promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union on 7.5.1940,

54






a few weeks before the unification and a famous photograph exists of
him greeting his brother in June 1940 in their native village after
the Red Army had crossed the Dniester River.
(2) In the former Moldavian ASSR, the districts of Anan'ev and Balta
were turned back to full Ukrainian control, as that ethnic group was
solidly in the majority there. So far as can be determined, the
following post offices in the old ASSR were included in the
unification:-
Alekseevka Krasnogorka Rashkov
(Oknyanskii raion) Kuchiery Romanovka
Bol'shoi Molokish Kuchurgan Rybnitsa
Butory Kuz'min Shibka
Doibany-2 Malaeshty Speya
Dubossary (Oknyanskii raion) Strointsy
Gertop Malaeshty Sukleya
Glikstal (Tiraspol'skii raion)Tashlyk
Glinnoe Malyi Molokish (Grigoriopol'skii raion)
Grigoriopol' Mikhailovka Tiraspol'
Kamenka (Rybnitskii raion) Tokmozeya
Karagash Novo-Komisarovka Tsybulevka
Katerinovka Oknitsa Voronkovo
Kolbasnaya Parkany Voronkovo Plitotdel MTS
Koshnitsa Plot Yagorlyk
Krasnenkoe Podoimitsa Zhura

Many of the other offices listed previously as having functioned in
the old ASSR cannot he traced and it is assumed that they were
destroyed during WWII and never rebuilt, or have been renamed.
Soviet mail from the Moldavian SSR sent during the year from June 1940
to June 1941 is rare and also of great historical value. Only three
examples can be shown from this period, as follow:-


(1) A now invalid Roumanian postcard with Soviet postage of 20 kop.


/.

'I ____
(


v a 7r^"


?-. rozat L(V 1--07


-----'------


.~i~ t


---


'1 Lr, -"% /a






affixed, sent from Brichany 20 Sept.1940 and arriving in Bel'tsy the
next day. Note the continued use of the old Roumanian postmarkers of
Briceni and Balti respectively.

--. -_ **- -- ...-


V--i '. .WP ., .
.... ... ..*... .... .... ... .. .... ....... ....

.:....C~;C~- ~ a _.. .. .. ,: .

J sl- m s.J ot I E MR p ar



CARTE POS -E



n, omenusan -di n. i u n


registration cachet, the latter being intended for internal mail only,







(2)1 Il 1111-3./ XtI
registration cachet, the latter being intend-d for internal mail only,
hence the designation "3" at left for "zakaznoe" (=registered).


...*^*s^' nOHTOBAH 1P
CARTE P8S Ci 1 "
"" .... ..
-,~~ ~~ /Z h -, .,.. ,Irii, : ., :x ..:' .


56


,r . . .. .........


A ep- 61i'
it, 't 1q lpd,hurJ,
/L ~







(3) A Soviet 20-kop. postcard sent from Sholdaneshty 4 Sept. 1940 and
arriving in Dnepropetrovsk on the 12th.(Robert Taylor Collection), as
shown at the bottom of the previous page. Note the continued use of
the old Roumanian postmarker, inscribed SOLDANETTI JUD.ORHEIU *.

(h) The Roumanian Posts in Bessarabia and Left-bank Moldavia 1941-1944.
The kingdom of Roumania attacked the USSR in June 1941 as an ally of
the Third Reich primarily to get back Bessarabia. We know from the
issued Roumanian stamps that Kishinev was captured on 16 July 1941 and
we have seen from an article in "The Post--Rider" No.10 that Soviet
territory further east between the Dniester and the Bug Rivers was
administered by Roumania under the name of Transnistria. The ensuing
Roumanian postal arrangements were complicated and fell into the
following categories:-

(1) The area between the Prut and Dniester Rivers was fitted back into
the old Roumanian territorial subdivisions for Bessarabia and normal
Roumanian postage stamps were reintroduced there. Philatelic usages
have been noted, but commercial mail from this period appears to be
rare in the West. That situation should change as a result of recent
events in Roumania. See the non-philatelic card shown below.
(2) Left-bank Moldavia, or the former Moldavian ASSR, is a more
complex problem, as we have to distinguish between the districts
added by the Soviets to the Bessarabian counties to form the Moldavian
SSR in 1940 and the Anan'ev-Balta districts, which had gone back to
the Ukraine at the same time. All those areas on the left bank of the
Dniester River were incorporated into Transnistria during 1941-1944
and used the four special Roumanian stamps issued for that territory.
We already know from the article by C.M. Trevers in "The Post-Rider"
No.10 that mail from Transnistria is rare and while the present author
has examples from places that went back to the Ukraine,
he has no items from the Moldavian left-bank area.


Z : 2- ,*-q vA -' 'i j c





A card sent ;
through the '*
Manzar P.O. f9 _____
31 Jan.1943 .. .
during the .-
Roumanian- _-
administra-
tion in .
Bessarabia ..': AG _
1941-1944. .. .-' .
z .I .. ". .. _. .





(i) The Soviet Posts in the Moldavian SSR, August 1944 to date.
No mail has yet been seen from the immediate post-liberation period
and it must be assumed to be rare. Provisional postal markings would
certainly have been applied and, according to the "Dictionnaire des
Bureaux de Poste", 1951 edition, the following 151 post offices were


then in operation:-
Albota
Aleksandreny
Ataki
Baimakliya
Bakhmutiya
Beltsy
Bendery
Bessarabskaya
Boldureshty
Bol'shoi Molokish
Bolotino
Bratushany
Bravicha
Brezoya
Brichany
Brichevo
Bulboki
Butory
Buzhory
Chadyr Lunga
Chekolteny
Chimishlya
Chinisheutsy
Chobruchi
Chuchuleny
Chuchulya
Chuchuleshty
Doibany-2
Dondyushany
Drokya
Dubossary
Dumbroveny
Edintsy
Faleshty
Farladany
Feteshty
Floreshty
Gavanosa


Gertop
Giduleny
Glikstal
Glinnoe
Glinzheny
Glodyany
Goteshty
Grigoriopol'
Grigocheny
Grushka
Gura Galbeny
Ilenytsa
Isakovo
Izvory
Kagul
Kainary
Kalarash
Kamenka
Kamrat
Kangaz
Kapreshty
Katerinovka
Kaushany
Kazaklya
Kazaneshty
Khrustovaya
Kipercheny
Kishinv .
Kishkareny
Kitskany
Kobylka
Kolbasnaya
Korneshty
Korzheutsy
Koshnitsa
Kotovsk
Kotyuzhany
Krasnenkoe


Krasnogorka
Kryulyany
Kugureshty
Kuz'min
Leovo
Lipkany
Lopushno
Malaeshty
Markuleshty
Mikhaileny
Mikhailovka
Miklausheny
Minzhir
Mokra
Moskovei
Nispoieny
Novo-
Andre aslevka
Novo-
Komi$sarovka
Oknitsa
Olaneshty
Orgeev
Parkany
Pepeny
Peresechina
Plot
Podoimitsa
Pugoi
Pyrlitza
Rashkov
Raspopeny
Rezina
Romanovka
Rybnitsa
Ryshkany
Salkautsa
Shibka


Shipoteny
Sholdaneshty
Skulyany
Soroka
Speya
Strasheny
Strointsy
Sturzhany
Sukleya
Susleny
Synzhereya
Tarakliya
Tashlyk
Teleneshty
Tiraspol'
Tokmazeya
Tolmaz
Troitsa
Tsybulevka
Tvarditsa
Tyrnovo
Ungeny
Vad-Rashkov
Vadu-lui-Vody
Vertyuzhany
Vishineshty
Volontirovka
Vornicheny
Voronkovo
Vulkaneshty
Yagorlyk
Yargara
Zabricheny
Zguritsa
Zhura
See below two covers
from Orgeev 1962 & 1965.


-c,



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-- ~~~1i' ~ J
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_A GAH


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m







10 KIV 28 O PROKURO


MAP OF MOLDAVIAN S.S.R.
SMo giv-Podolky i-.w U.S.S.R. State Borders
*** Atk \ Borders of Union Republics
OBhany Onits. Towns with a population of
oipkan mpol KISHINEV over 100.000
STyrno Soi YASSY from 50.000 to 100.000
SJTy'rnovoor KAGUL under 50,000
S Yedintsy Zguritsa SCALE
SKetrosy Komenka 20 0 20 40 60 M
Brotus any oNtduhita
48 < \OBto
00 Floreshty VetyuhtnY Rashko B
Rykshony >
Kosteshty yndeshty o 1 0
Belt sy -tRaspopeny
rodan Domuluzheny eino Rybnits
Bolotino I Synzhereya Ordashei
S Foleshty esht
O L\ o /" '
Bivolary K ipercheny N
Teleneshty Susleny /<",
Sku y orneshtya rgey Dubosry
S loroh Perese hina i
A v s Dubossary I" e St
SUngeny 'Bykove'ts u ubossary Hydroelectric Power Station
VrASSYto1 \ e I Grigoriopol
Strasheny udesty/ -
Nispo reny \ KISHINEV 47
47 -h-Te0its aeshty P
S i \ Z o ,rakia o ,.'
Placi A Porkny ,
S0Lapushn Bulboki irosp I
Kotovskoye Bendery po
Re enyO Kirkaeshty OSlobod eya
Minzhir I noye
Gertop ok Nezovertai lovk.
Raskoetsy Belyaevr.
SLeovo himishlia \ Oloneshty
( 1 Xa* Volontiro~va'j
Y o m n V C o sa r
Komrot O Bess r
I hiuAvdarma o
V I B maklilgorod-Dniestrovsk


Zerneshty OCh r-Lungo 46
Mo kovei

27 ul 'Tarklia











Taken from the book "Across olavia" FLPH, Mosco, 1iroklia959.
Vulkoneshty airok


Ren i
Galatz ~


-Doube.-- 30
27 28 29

Taken from the book "Across Moldavia", FLPH, Moscow,-1959.


TO KIEV 28


TO PROSKUROV







Notice that, due to the ravages of WWII, the number of post offices
for the whole of Soviet Moldavia i.e. 151 in 1951, was 52 less than
for the Moldavian ASSR (203 offices in 1937), although the latter had
a much smaller area. However, when we let at least one generation go
by and then consult the 1977 edition of the "Nomenclature
International des bureaux de poste", published by the UPU, we see
that a great expansion has taken place, with the total now coming up
to 787 offices with their associated postal codes, as follow:-(the
raion or district is given in brackets for offices with same names):-
Abakliya 278661 Bessarabka 278660
Alava 278175 Biruintsa 279244
Albina 278633 Bleshteny 279571
Alchedary 279775 Blizhnii Khutor 278038
Aleksandreny 279570 Bobeika 278503
Aleksandreshty 279306 Bogicheny 278523
Aleksandrovka 279731 Bokany 279156
Alekseevka(Edinetskii r)279575 Bolboaka 279644
Alekseevka(Ungenskii r.)279136 Bolchany 278542
Aluat 278742 Boldureshty 278384
Alunish 279323 Bologany 278416
Andreevka 279708 Bolotino 279296
Aneny 278541 Bol'shaya Kiseliya 278714
Antonovka 278592 Bol'shie Asnasheny 279414
Arioneshty 279512 Bol'shoi Molokish 279715
Ataki 279500 Borogany 278722
Avdarma 278716 Botushany 279705
Bachoi 278222 Bozieny 278504
Badichany 279944 Braneshty (Orgeevskii raion) 278421
Badiku-Moldavskoe 278864 Braneshty (Ryshkanskii raion)279344
Baimakliya(Kagulskii r.)278854 Bratuleny 278385
Baimakliya(Kaushanskii) 278144 Bratushany 279564
Bakchaliya 278125 Bravicheny 278445
Bakhmut-Stantsiya 279004 Bravichi 279022
Baksany 279903 Brezoaia 278178
Balan 279301 Brichany (Brichanskii raion) 279620
Balaneshty 278382 Brichany (Dondyushanskii r.) 279504
Ealasineshty 279610 Bricheva 279461
Balaureshty 278393 Brushteny 279729
Balkautsy 279633 Breyna 278827
Baneshty 279257 Brypzeny 279572
Baraboi 279313 Bubbech 278275
Bardar 278514 Budeshty 278353
Baroncha 279411 Bukuriya 278847
Bashkaliya 278717 Bulaeshty 278411
Bashkany 278332 Bulboaka 278230
Batyr 278607 Bumbota 279102
Baurchi 278702 Burlacheny 278808
Baurchi-Moldovan 278851 Burlaki 278845
Bayush 278581 Burlaneshty 279584
Belochi 279721 Bushovka 279763
Beltsy 279200 Butory 278034
Beidery 278100 Butseny 278511
Belyavintsy 279611 Buzhory 278525
Berezlozhi 278418 Bychok 278030
Perlintsy 279612 Bykovets 279032
Beshalma 278712 Byrladyany 279555
Besh-Gioz 278705 Byrnovo 279540
Beshtemak 278572 Chadyr-Lunga 278700







Chebolakchiya 278852 Feteshty
Chekolteny 278447 Filipeny
Chekur-Menzhyr 278630 Floreshty
Chenak 278631 Frasin
Chepeleutsy 279635 Frumishika
Cherepkovo 279804 Frunze
Chernolevka 279507 Fundu-Galben
Chetyreny 279134 Fuzovka
Chimishleny 278359 Fyntynitsa
Chimishliya 278620 Gaidary
Chinisheutsy 279750 Gangura
Chishmikioi 278814 Garaba
Chobruchi (Slobodzeiskii r)278014 Garmatskoe
Chobruchi (Suvorovskii r.) 278154 Gauzeny
Chok-Maidan 278718 Gavanoasa
Chopleny 278333 Geltossy
Choreshty 278371 Getlovo
Chuchuleny 278376 Gidigich
Chuchuleshty 279814 Gidirim
Chuchulya 279293 Giduleny
Danul 279282 Gilicheny
Delakeu (Grigoriopolskii r)278307 Ginkautsy
Delakeu (Novoanenskii r.) 278235 Gircheshty
Derenev 279015 Girovo
Derkautsy 279945 Gizhdieny
Dezginzhe 278721 Glavan
Dnestrovsk 278019 Glinka
Dobrusha 279821 Glinzheny
Doibany 278322 Glodyany
Dominteny 279413 Godzhineshty
Dondyushany 279450 Golerkany
Dorotskoe 278306 Gordineshty
Dragoneshty 279214 Gordineshty
Draslicheny 278266 Goreshty (Fa
Drepkautsy 279602 Goreshty (No
Drokiya 279400 Gorodishche
Dubno 279921 Gorodishche
Dubossary 278300 Goteshty
Dubovo 278323 Goyany (Dubo
Dumbravitsa 279236 Goyany (Kriu
Dynzhany 279534 Gradeshty
Dzhamana 278247 Gratieshty
Dzholtai 278706 Gribovo
Dzhurdzhurleshty 278815 Grigor'evka
Edintsy 279550 Grigoriopol'
Egorovka 279906 Grigorovka
Ekaterinovka 278638 Grimankautsy
Ekimoutsy 279752 Grinautsy
Elenovka 279161 Grinautsy-Ra
Elizavetovka 279454 Grozeshty
Enikioi 278855 Grushka
Ermokliya 278173 Gura Bykului
Erzhovo 279720 Gura Galbene
Etuliya 278812 Gura-Kainary
Faleshty 279150 Gura-Kamenka
Farladyany 278111 Gyrbovets
Ferapontevka 278715 Gyrbovo
Feshtelitsa 278174 Gyrtop (Flor


279585
278594
279800
279462
279845
279546
278510
279798
279404
278703
278215
279727
278325
279754
278820
278866
278437
278262
279701
279764
279253
279553
279112
279254
279290
279402
279617
279173
279280
279038
278341
(Edinetskii r.) 279580
(Rezinskii r.) 279754
leshtskii raion) 279195
voanenskii raion)278223
(Dondyushanskii) 279520
(Kalarashskii r.)279039
278865
ssarskii raion) 278326
lyanskii raion) 278335
278639
278265
279412
278124
278310
279226
279621
279535
ya 279556
278391
279733
278244
278634
279840
279803
278240
279541
eshtskii raion) 279815







Gyrtop (Chimishliiskii r.)
Gyrtop Mare
Gyrzhavka
Gyska
Ignatsei
Il'ichevka
Ineshty
Isakovo
Iserliya
Ishkalev
Ishnovets
Ivancha
Izbeshty
Izvory (Faleshtskii raion)
Izvory (Floreshtskii raion)
Izvory (Orgeevskii raion)
Kagul
Kainarii Vek
Kainary-Selo
Kairakliya
Kalarash
Kalarashovka
Kalfa
Kalikautsy
Kalineshty
Kalmatsui
Kaluger
Kamenka
Kaniya
Kantemir
Kapakliya
Kaplany
Kapriyany
Karabetovka
Karagasany
Karakui
Karbuna
Karmanovo
Karpeshty
Karpineny
Kashkaliya
Kashtangalia
Katerinovka
Katranyk
Kaushany
Kazakliya
Kazaneshty
Kazanzhik
Kazhba
Ketros
Ketrosy
Khadzhimus
Khankautsy
Khilyutsy
Khodoroutsy
Khristichi
Khrustovaya
Kipercheny
62


278311
278347
279012
278110
279795
279844
279260
278432
278609
279171
278423
278420
278346
279194
279846
278406
278830
279437
278132
278801
279000
279510
278241
279630
279182
278554
279190
279730
278590
278597
278724
278165
278253
278623
278163
278577
278650
278313
278591
278545
278135
278614
279723
279170
278120
278746
279275
278571
279291
278220
279410
278113
279573
279333
279641
279932
279736
278403


Kipeshka 279793
Kirileny 279124
Kirkaeshty(Kaushanskii r.) 278114
Kirkaeshty-1(Kaushanskii r.) 278605
Kirsovo 278711
Kiryanka 278257
Kiryet-Lunga 278707
Kiryutnya 278701
Kiseliya 278856
Kishin8v 277000
Kishtelnitsa 279270
Kislitsa-Prut 278816
Kitskany 278023
Klimautsy 279506
Klishovo 278448
Klokushna 279642
Kobylnya 279783
Kochuliya 278723
Kodryany 279502
Kogylnicheny 279760
Kokoara 278862
Kolbasna 279714
Kolibabovka 278579
Kolibash 278826
Kolosovo 278314
Komrat 278710
Kondrateshty 279113
Kongaz 278713
Kongazchik-Verkhnii 278728
Konstantinovka (Edinetskii r)279583
Konstantinovka (Kaushanskii) 278134
Kopacheny 279225
Kopanka 278024
Kopchak (Suvorovskii raion) 278179
Kopchak (Chadyr-Lungskii r.) 278741
Korbul 279455
Korestoutsy 279640
Korneshty 279105
Kornovo 279115
Korotnoe 278017
Korpach 279594
Korzheutsy 279624
Korzhevo 278357
Kosheny 279103
Koshernitsa (Floreshtskii r.)279816
Koshernitsa (Kryulyanskii r.)278331
Koshkodeny 279235
Koshnitsa 278304
Kosoutsy 279905
Kosteshty (Kotovskii raion) 278513
Kosteshty (Ryshkanskii raion)279346
Kostuleny 279132
Kotovo 279432
Kotovsk (Kotovskii raion) 278500
Kotovsk (Sorokskii raion) 279907
Kotu-Morii 278533
Kotyuzhany (Brichanskii r.) 279613
Kotyuzhany (Floreshtskii r.) 279823







Kovyrlui 278565
Kozhushna 278260
Krasnaya Gorka 278308
Krasnenkoe 279726
Krasnoarmeiskoe 278555
Krasnoe 278016
Krasnogorka 278031
Krasnosheny 279256
Kremenchug (Slobodzeiskii) 278025
Kremenchug (Sorokskii r.) 279951
Krikovo 278336
Krishkautsy 279521
Kriva 279603
Kruglik 278345
Kryulyany 278330
Kuban 279297
Kubolta 279247
Kuchiery 278301
Kuizovka 279761
Kukhneshty 279251
Kunicha 279825
Kupkui 278566
Kuratura 279777
Kureshnitsa 279942
Kurki 278434
Kurleny 278402
Kushmirka 279782
Kuz'min 279732
Kympen 278822
Kyrnatseny 278122
Lalovo 279766
Lapushna 278520
Larga (Brichanskii raion) 279614
Larga (Kaushanskii raion) 278246
Largutsa 278585
Lazo (Lazovskii raion) 279234
Lazo (Orgeevskii raion) 278417
Lazovsk 279210
Lebedenko 278832
Lenino 279712
Leninskii 279820
Lenkautsy 279542
Leovo 278560
Leusheny (Kotovskii raion) 278535
Leusheny (Teleneshtskii r.)279261
Lipcheny 279772
Lipkany 279600
Lipnik 279531
Lipoveny 278635
Liveden 279422
Loganeshty 278501
Lopatnik 279590
Lopatsika 278841
Lozovo 278374
Lunga 279831
Makareshty 279133
Maksimovka 278355
Malaeshty (Kryulyanskii r.)278356


Malaeshty (Orgeevskii raion) 278419
Malaeshty (Ryshkanskii raion)279341
Malovata 278415
Malovatoe 278302
Malye Kotyuzhany 279220
Malye Mileshty 278273
Malyi Molokish 279716
Manta 278824
Maramonovka 279423
Marandeny 279163
Marinich 278394
Markautsy 279634
Markuleshty 279830
Mashkautsy 278342
Mateutsy 279743
Medvezha 279615
Melesheny 279021
Mereny 278212
Meresheny 278505
Mereshovka 279543
Michurino 279405
Miguleny 279773
Mikhailovka (Chimishliiskii) 278600
Mikhailovka (Rybnitskii r.) 279707
Mikhailyany (Brichanskii r.) 279632
Mikhailyany (Ryshkanskii r.) 279312
Mikleusheny 278373
Mileshty 278383
Minzhir 278550
Moara-de-Piatre 279415
Mokra 279710
Moleshty 278512
Morozeny 278435
Moshany 279307
Moskovei 278840
Musaid 278804
Myndreshty 279251
Napadeny 279114
Naslavcha 279545
Navyrnets 279184
Negrya 278544
Negureny 279273
Nemirovka 279925
Nemtseny 278532
Nezavertailovka 278018
Nikolaevka 279289
Nikoreny 279310
Niorkany 279523
Nisporeny 278360
Nizhnie Klimautsy 279785
Nizhnie Kugureshty 278818
Nizhnyaya Albota 278843
Nizhnyaya Mariyanovka 278176
Novaya Andriyashevka 278003
Novaya Chelakovka 279115
Novaya Ketroshika 279565
Novaya Kobuska 278216
Novaya Larga 278863







Novaya Saratsika 278574
Novaya Synzhereya 279211
Novo-Dnestrovsk 275025
Novo-Komissarovka 278321
Novo-Kotovsk 278004
Novo-Troitskoe 278248
Novye Aneny 278210
Novye Asnasheny 279241
Novye Bedrazhi 279592
Novye Bilicheny 279240
Novye Bogeny 279110
Novye Boroseny 279311
Novye Brynzeny 279276
Novye Choropkany 279144
Novye Flaeshty 279152
Novye Fundury 279284
Novye Ganaseny 278593
Novye Kukoneshty 279597
Novye Raskaitsy 278152
Novye Ruseshty 278515
Novye Varzareshty 279031
Novyi Tomai 278575
Obileny 278534
Oklanda 279952
Oknitsa (Kamenskii raion) 279734
Oknitsa (Oknitskii raion) 279530
Okolina 279930
Oksentiya 278414
Oktyabrskoe 279292
Okyul Alb 279311
Olishkany 279790
Oloneshty 278164
Oneshty 278530
Onishkany 279014
Onitskany 278351
Opach 278141
Orak 278578
Ordashei 279278
Orqeev 278400
Otaki 279762
Palanka (Drokievskii raion) 279430
Palanka (Suvorovskii raion) 278168
Panasheshty 278252
Parkany (Rezinskii raion) 279771
Parkany (Sorokskii raion) 279917
Parkovo 279561
Pashkany 278823
Pauleshty 279006
Pecheshtiya 279797
Peleniya 279325
Pelinei 278834
Pepeny 279222
Pereny 278521
Pereryta 279627
Pererytoe 278305
Peresechino 278424
Pervomaiskoe (Drokievskii r.) 279403
Pervomaiskoe (Kotovskii raion)278524


Pervomaiskoe(Slobodzeiskii)278005
Petreshty 279141
Petrushany 279342
Pivnichany 279456
Plesheny 278583
Plopy 279453
Plot 279728
Pobeda 278551
Podoimitsa 279725
Poganeshty 278552
Pogorna 279824
Pogrebeny 278405
Pogreby 278303
Pokrovka 279525
Popenki 279704
Popoutsy 279742
Popovka (Faleshtskii r.) 279167
Popovka (Suvorovskii r.) 278170
Prazhila 279832
Prepelitsa 279224
Pridnestrovskoe 279923
Pripicheny-Rezesh 279755
Proskuryany 279345
Protyagailovka 278242
Pugacheny 278234
Pugoi 278213
Purkary 278161
Pushkino 278372
Putineshty 279841
Pynzareny 279157
Pyrlitsa (Faleshtskii r.) 279166
Pyrlitsa (Sorokskii raion) 279931
Pyrlitsa (Ungenskii raion) 279120
Pyrzholteny 279036
Pyrzhota 279330
Rakovets 279914
Rashkov 279724
Raskaitsy 278155
Raspopeny 279792
Recha (Ryshkanskii raion) 279320
Recha (Strashenskii raion) 278254
Rechula 279010
Redeny (Kalarashskii r.) 279016
Redeny (Orgeevskii raion) 278427
Redyu Mare 279457
Redyu Mare Stantsiya 279557
Reutsel 279165
Rezeny 278224
Rezina 279740
Roshietichi 279812
Roshu 278860
Rosipeny 279193
Rotunda 279552
Rublenitsa 279901
Rud 279524
Ruslanovka 279911
Russka 278540
Rusyany 279554







Rybnitsa
Ryshkany
Sadakliya
Sadova
Sadyk
Sagaidak
Saitsy
Sakharna
Salkutsa
Samashkany
Sanatorii Sovetskaya
Moldaviya


279700
279300
278622
279035
278727
278603
278149
279741
278142
279791
279011


Sarata Galbene 278506
Sarata Noue 278567
Sarata-Rezesh 278563
Sarateny 278579
Satu Nou 278602
Savka 279503
Selishte 278380
Sem&novka 278177
Semeny 279140
Senatovka 279826
Seseny 279023
Severinovka 279735
Sevirovo 279842
Shamaliya 278726
Shepte Ban 279340
Sheptelichi 279940
Sherpeny 278233
Shestachi 279780
Shibka 278316
Shishkany 278395
Shipka 279781
Shireutsy 279629
Shofrynkany 279562
Sholdaneshty 279770
Sholkany 279902
Shtefaneshty 279811
Shury 279420
Sineshty .279111
Sipoteny 279001
Sirets 278263
Skayany 279463
Skoreny 278251
Skortseny 279271
Skulyany 279142
Skumpiya 279192
Slobodka-Shireutsy 279628
Slobodzeya (Slobodzeiskii r)278012
Slobodzeya (Suvorovskii r.) 278153
Slobodzeya-Dushka 278350
Slobodzeya-Kremen 279928
Slobodzeya Mare 278817
Sofiya (Drokievskii raion) 279401
Sofiya (Kotovskii raion) 278543
Soloncheny 279744
Solonets 279922
Soroki 279900


Speya
Srednie ZJ
Staraya B'
Staraya Di
Staraya 0O
Staraya S
Staraya T
Staraya Ti
Starye Be'
Starye Bi
Starye Dul
Starye Ez.
Starye Fu
Starye Ka:
Starye Ki
Starye Kr
Starye Ku:
Starye Li
Starye Ne
Starye Ra'
Starye Re'
Starye Sa:
Starye Sh.
Staryi Al
Stepanovk
Step-Soch
Stoikany
Stolniche:
Stolnichel
Stoyanovk
Strasheny
Stroentsy
Sturdzeny
Sturzovka
Sudarka
Sukhuluch
Sukleya
Surucheny
Susleny
Suvorovo
Suvorovo
Svetlyi
Synzhera
Syrkovo
Syrma
Tab any
Taksobeny
Talmazy
Tanatary
Tarakliya
Tarakliya
Tarakliya
Tarakliya
Tartaul
Tashlyk
Tataresht
Teleshovk
Teleshovo


278033
hory 278412
ogdanovka 278621
obrudzha 279242
brezha 279162
arata 279154
atarovka 279954
eura 279233
drazhi 279593
licheny 279230
bossary 278358
areny 279237
ndury 279285
rakushany 279623
tskany 279274
igany 278831
koneshty 279578
mbeny 279281
gureny 279123
dulyany 279802
deny 279122
rateny 279267
alviry 279424
binets 279180
a 278151
278401
279920
ny (Edinetskii r.) 279563
ny (Kotovskii r.) 278502
a 278867
278250
279722
279332
279286
279513
eny 279265
278010
278271
278410
(Suvorovskii r.) 278150
(Vulkaneshtskii r.)278811
278744
278221
279751
278561
279622
279162
278171
278121
(Chadyr-Lunqskii) 278740
(Kagulskii raion) 278868
(Kaushanskii r.) 278143
-de-Salche 278844
278853
278035
y 278846
a 279522
278425





Teleneshty 279250
Telitsa 278231
Temeleutsy (Kalarashskii r.) 279003
Temeleutsy (Kamenskii r.) 279805
Terebno 279576
Ternovka 278020
Teshkureny 279104
Tetskany 279625
Tigech 278582
Tiraspol' 278000
Todoreshty 279125
Togatino 278354
Tokile-Radukany 278562
Tokmazeya 278032
Tokuz 278146
Tomai (Chadyr-Lungskii r.) 278704
Tomai (Leovskii raion) 278564
Trebisoutsy 279643
Trebuzheny 278422
Trifaneshty 279843
Trifautsy 279913
Trifeshty 279753
Trinka 279582
Troitskoe 278608
Trusheny 278261
Tsambula 279163
Tsarevka 279745
Tsaul 279452
Tsybulevka 278324
Tsyntsareny (Novoanenskii r.)278211
Tsyntsareny (Teleneshtskii r)279272
Tsypala 278214
Tudorovo 278167
Tvarditsa 278708
Tyrnovo (Dondyushanskii r.) 279460
Tyrnovo (Edinetskii raion) 279581
Tyrshitsei 279277
Ukrainka 278148
Ulmu 278517
Ungeny 279100
Ungry 279511
Ursoaia 278833
Ust'e 279281
Vadul-lui-Vode 278352
Vadu-lui-Isak 278825
Vadu-Rashkov 279784
Valeny 278828
Valya-Adynke 279719
Valya Mare 279131
Valya Norokului 279213
Valea-Perzhii(Chadyr-Lungsk.)278709
Valya-Perzhii(Chimishliisk.) 278637
Varatik 279336
Varzareshty 278370
Vasieny (Kotovskii raion). 278516


Vasieny (Teleneshtskii r.)
Vasileutsy
Vasilkovo
Verkhnie Andrushi
Verkhnie Kholokhory
Verkhnie Kugureshty
Verkhnie Popeshty
Verkhnyaya Albota
Verkhnyaya Maryanovka
Vertyuzhany
Viishora (Edinetskii raion)
Viishora(Glodyanskii raion)
Viishora(Suvorovskii raion)
Vinogradnoe
Vinogradovka
Vishnevka
Visoka
Vladimirovka
Vodyany
Voinovo
Volchinets (Kalarashskii r.)
Volchinets (Oknitskii raion)
Volontirovka
Volovitsa
Vornicheny
Voronkovo (Rybnitskii raion)
Voronkovo (Sorokskii raion)
Vorotets
Vozneseny
Vulkaneshty
Vykhvatintsy
yypravo
Vyshkautsy
Yablona
Yaloveny
Yargara
Yarovo
Yurcheny
Yurevka
Zabrichany
Zagaikany (Kryulyanskii r.)
Zagaikany (Teleneshtskii r.)
Zaikany
Zaim
Zberoaia
Zerneshty
Zgo'deshty
Zguritsa
Zhabka
Zheureny
Zhura
Zioti Stantsiya
Zorile
Zozulyany
Zubreshty


279262
279302
279912
278850
279631
279817
279433
278842
278126
279806
279591
279294
278160
278036
278803
278725
279955
278821
279934
278258
279002
279501
278179
279910
279034
279711
279927
278404
278573
278810
279702
278436
278413
279283
278272
278580
279953
278363
278611
279574
278334
279264
279334
278140
278392
278861
279252
278431
279827
278344
279706
278604
278442
279703
278259







NOTES:
(1) As expected, many of the offices have been named in the Moldavian/
Roumanian language. Some examples: gura=mouth; mare=big; moara-de-
* piatre=stone mill; okyul alb=the white eye; roshu=red; satu nou= new
village; valya norokului=the valley of happiness. Other names are of
Gagauz or Turkish origin, such as besh alma=five apples; eni kioi=new
village, etc.
(2) The names Stoyanovka, Tvarditsa and Tyrnovo are of Bulgarian
origin, the last two referring to towns in Bulgaria from which the
original settlers came. Izvory means "water springs" in Bulgarian.

The above exhaustive treatment shows what can be accomplished by
studying the postal history of just one small area of the USSR. Now
that the Soviet Union has opened up, conditions are ripe for obtaining
all sorts of fascinating material with which to form an extensive and
interesting collection of one's choice. Further republics in the USSR
will be treated in the same comprehensive manner in forthcoming issues
of "The Post-Rider". Meanwhile, happy hunting!
. . & . ... . . .


"Miorita a pastoral ballad and the pearl of
Moldavian folklore. It arose in the early
feudal period and is permeated with humanist
protest against the vices of feudal society.
The basic theme of the ballad is the love of
nature and work as the source of joy and
blessings". One of four 10-kop. stamps about
epic poems of the Soviet peoples, issued on
12 July 1989.

* *


WARNING FORGERIES!


Caution should be
exercised about several
items which have turned
up both on this
continent and in Europe
in recent auctions. The
details are as follow:-


O (a) "Imperforate" copies
of the 1+1 k. and 3+1 k. War Charity stamps, issued by Imperial Russia
in 1915. It is the considered opinion of your editor that the two
examples shown above at left were originally perforated copies with
fantail margins and subsequently trimmed to give an imperforate


*tUnwn anoxy
u nrpom.Nma ,
Ocno Not meMMO 6OMOAOIIn
r oX .uc r:w y
Iw~mrf u idf1.


IO,,IACCCP:


I- | ---- ..... .. .. .... ....


I


.o Mi H..OIECIKO







appearance. Pairs imperforate between also exist, some of which could
have been "converted" into imperforate pairs by trimming. While genuine
imperforates have been recorded in these issues, the only way one can
be sure is by collecting such varieties in intact strips of three or
in blocks of four and larger multiples.

(b) The cover shown on the previous page with the first Soviet.
airmail stamp has popped up twice in the past year and appears to be
forged for the following reasons:-
(1)' The "PAR AVION" marking at top left is not of a type known to have
been applied in Moscow at that time. Moscow applied a boxed "Mit
Luftpost" cachet in 1922.
(2) The MOCKBA-A-19 postmark dated 15.11.22 is not of a type so far
seen on other pieces of mail, although your editor has a similar type
cancelling the Volga Relief charity stamps of 1921 to order.
(3) While the circular cachet of the BERLIN C2 Airmail Post Office
placed at left centre appears to be genuine, its usage has been known
to this writer only from the early 1930s. In 1922, the BERLIN C2
LUFTPOST office used a typical German circular datestamp; there was
also a boxed two-line marking, reading "Mit Luftpost bef8rdert /
Briefpostamt Berlin" applied during that early period. The cover has
been described as being backstamped in Berlin on 19th. November, but no
opinion can be passed on that marking until the actual cover has been
examined.
(4) Last, but not least, the rate purporting to have been paid for this
cover (45r.) is completely wrong. By 7th. November 1922 when this air
stamp first went on sale in Moscow, the rate for an ordinary letter to
Germany was 150r. with a surtax of 75r. for airmail. Even when taking
into account the confusion prevalent among postal employees during
those inflationary times, there is no way that such a letter could have
slipped through unnoticed with an underpayment of 180r. i

*
HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF

by Andrew Cronin

The recent bloody events in Azerbaijan have been featured on T.V. and
in the press, with the emergence of an Azerbaijani Social Democratic
Group, a local Popular Front, an Equality Party and other power-
seeking groups. The publication on 16 January 1990 in Toronto of the
photograph shown at the top of the next page about a local seizure of
power in Lenkoran also included a familiar flag, 70 years after it had
been rendered obsolete by the advent of Soviet power.

The flag was that of the secessionist Mtsavat (= Equality) Government,
which functioned in Azerbaisan during the Civil War from 27 May 1918
to 28 April 1920. We see that self-same flag featured on the first two
stamps of 10 and 20 kopeks, issued by the Mgsavat Government in 1919;
the flags match exactly. Actually, the complete set of the first ten
stamps can be collected in three different ways: (a) the original 1919
printing on white paper with large gum bubbles (b) later printing on
poorer quality cream or brownish paper, with or without gum and still
on sale in the first few months of the Soviet administration and
(c) forgeries on white paper with small gum bubbles. Examples of
original and forged stamps are also shown at the top of the next
page.




























scarce and worth much more than the genuine stamps. They can easily
other differences. The original stamps on white paper are scarce, but








still cheap today, but are rare and very desirable when properly
**! & ', i ., 1s
f a. I --'---- '-- -'.* ." ."" r,^'' 1\~-
Original Forgery [;.
One should not turn up one's nose at the forgeries. They are very
scarce and worth much more than the genuine stamps They can easily
be recognized by the irregularity of the French inscriptions, among
other differences. The original stamps on white paper are scarce, but
the later printings were extensively remaindered and wholesaled for
many years by the Soviet Philatelic Association at very low prices.
Your editor remembers buying the first 25 stamps of Azerbaijan as a
boy in the 1930s in a packet for the equivalent of 10v a They are
still cheap today, bu are rare and very. desirable whenaproperly
used on mail of the period. They were lithographed by Demidov in
Baku and it is interesting to work out the transfer types, but sheet
material has long since disappeared. For the 5r. and 10r. values,
the 1919 and 1920 printings may also be distinguished by the
directions of the black ornaments in the side panels at left. There
is even a great rarity in these humble but colourful stamps: a
25r. transfer in one positiooonon the stone for the 50r. value. A
mere six copies are known of that error.

The native language written in Arabic script on these stamps was
practically the same as Ottoman Turkish. The Arabic alphabet is too
ambiguous a medium for any of the Turki languages and much has
changed in Azerbaijan in the years since 1920. The language has been
written in a modified Cyrillic alphabet since the year 1940, a Soviet
Azerbaijanian encyclopaedia has appeared in 1978 ijnten volumes and,
rather than with Turkey, the people have much more in common with
their brethren immediately to the south in Iran (see the article
"The Postage Stamps oL Southern Azerbaijan" in "The Post-Rider"
No.6, pp.42-47). The situation is complicated by the fact that the
national language of Iran is Farsi, which belongs to the Indo-European
group and totally unrelated to Azerbaijani. Also, the present regime
in Iran is not exactly a model that would appeal to the Azerbaijani
people, nor would Iran ever cede Southern Azerbaijan for reunification.

It will be interesting to see whether further parallels will pop up
in the future in the areas we collect, which can be linked with
postal issues of the past.
S* 69










PHILATELIC SHORTS


DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some
newly acquired item ?

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !


John Bodnar, Adelaide, South Australia.


(a) The above cover was posted from Petrograd 2.4.15 to Switzerland (?)
I am not certain, as the name and address have been cut out, but it is
backstamped ZURICH 26.IV.15 7AM LETTER CARRIERS. It was passed by the
Russian censorship; note the D.TS. in violet on the back. There is a
suggestion of the cover being philatelically inspired, as it has been
overfranked by 1k.; possibly to get the whole set of stamps on cover.
The rate at that time was 10k. for a letter going abroad, plus another
10k. registration fee. The registration label is the reason that I am
bringing it to your attention. Note the incorrect spelling: Petrorgrad
for Petrograd. I have examined a number of covers hoping to find
another example, but without success to date. Can anyone provide any
additional information?
(b) In answer to the query by Arnold Meckel in "The Post-Rider" No.24,







p.77, I can provide the
following information. The A5 AIR POST *
black cancellation shown here C.C.C.R C.C.C.P.
was used from 1929 to 1938 at 0,
the Leningrad Airport Post Office (BI-PLANE)
on mail posted from there, or on DATE adjustable
mail received from aircraft LENINGRAD BELI
flying on the special air route LENINGR
Leningrad to Berlin. The above
information has come from V.A. Yakobs' book "Special Postal
Cancellations of the USSR 1922-1972", Svyaz', Moscow 1976 (in Russian).


EDITORIAL
COMMENT: A
typical flown
example is
shown here,
sent from
Leningrad on
26 May 1936 by
registered air
mail to
Evanston, USA.
The rate paid
was correct:
50k. for a
letter going
abroad, Ir.
. surcharge for
airmail and
80k. for the
registration
fee. It was
backstamped at
the Berlin
Central
Airport on 28
May, arrived in
New York on 4th.
June and
received in
Evanston the
next day. The
total time
taken was ten
days; excellent
for those days
of slow
aircraft! Note
the distinctive
boxed Par Avionq
cachet at top
right in violet.


1L~~2A/6t~ ft-- .t.~





~~few
dWA



e n
~ enfifgrad r-
Na- 15


P.T. Ashford, Chester, England.

I am rising to your bait in "The Post-Rider" No.23, p.68 re the TIFLIS
"g" cancellation of ...3.16 on 10/7k. Arms Type reported by the Rev.








L.L. Tann. In the booklet "Imperial Russian Stamps Used in Transcaucasia"
Part II (1975) pp.104-107, I went into this little problem. My feelings
were-and are unchanged-that somebody used this (genuine) canceller
to datestamp a goodly number of imperf. and perf. Arms type adhesives,
probably in 1919, but changing the year date back to 1914, 1916, 1917
and even 1918. Consequently, one can find, for example, imperf. Arms
types dated 1916, apart from the item Leonard notes. The "g" canceller
was in use on the counter at Tiflis G.P.O. in 1919. Some of the covers
of the "Tiflis Roulette" sent by Major J.J. Darlow have stamps
cancelled by this datestamp, which he registered to himself in Tiflis
in March/April 1919.

Igor Jascolt, Ottawa, Canada.

The 3-kop.
card shown
here has the
OTKPblTOE nHMCbMO I correct rate
for an item
Going abroad
on 3.6.09 0.S.
from Saint
Petersburg by
.... ....... ................................... ... a d d i n g an
extra 1-kop.
c stamp with
................ ......................................................... s t a m p w i t h
vertical
varnish lines
... ............... .. ......................... .......... ........ .. ..... .._.......... a n d i t i s
'. clearly
IMPERFORATE!
..... .................................................. .......... ... .. .......... ................................................... ..I M E s s A T E
The message
on the back
.................................................is en tire ly
r7 non-philatelic,
Swith no
reference to
this variety. Does anyone have any further information about this
unlisted stamp, which is from the first printing with varnish lines?

Bohdan Pauk, Chicago, U.S.A.

I just thought I would like to share with the readers some details of
a free frank cover of the Spanish "Blue Division" in my collection, as
shown at the top of the next page. Note that it received at top right
the "b" datestamp 25.2.42 of the Wehrmacht Field Post service. The
item is endorsed at top "Feldpost / Correo Militar Aleman" (Field Post /
German Military Post" and addressed from the front to Barcelona.It was
censored en route in Berlin, as we can see from the encircled Ab
marking applied at bottom centre and the destination was specified by
a German sorter immediately to the left of the circle by the
handwritten abbreviation "Sp" = Spanien (Spain). We can see from the
above details, based on the excellent study of the postal history of
the Blue Divison which Sr. Salvador Bofarull gave us in "The Post-
Rider" No.23, pp.10-54 that such a cover has quite a story to tell!









7












Further to the article "The













Lithuanian Posts in Western
Belorussia in 1919", published in
.






















"The Post-Rider" No.24, pp.49-54,
Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada. iB^3PQ0000i

Further to the article "The
Lithuanian Posts in Western :'FU *'* 'L A
Belorussia in 1919", published in A
"The Post-Rider" No.24, pp.49-54, Qt
I am showing here for the benefit
of the readers enlarged and -
clearer illustrations of the
first and second types of the | tI
cancellations applied at Grodno ttyo
(Gardinas) in Latin letters and
in Russian and of the distinctive ,k L
marking utilised in Lunna with P akat k
the inscription in Russian. I ata
,..?2 jk W ...." ,f ,r ....




*

IOSIF VISSARIONOVICH, WHERE ARE YOU NOW THAT WE NEED YOU?!

Watch for the forthcoming article on "Staliniana", by Ya.
Afangulskii, now being prepared for "The Post-Rider" No.26. It will
present an array of very interesting material about one of the most
outstanding and reviled figures of the 20th. century.

*







REVIEW OF















THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY organ in A4 format of The
British Society of Russian Philately. Copies are available from the
Hon. Treasurer, A.T. Blunt, 27 Newlands, Langton Green, Tunbridge
Wells, Kent TN3 ODB, England.

No.66 for March 1989 contains 52 pages and looks at How Many Moscow
Termini and Marks (answered in part in "The Post-Rider" No.24,p.36-38)
and Octagonal Pochtovyi Vagon Marks, both by I.L.G. Baillie;
Temporary Postal Wagon Datestamp, by P.T. Ashford; Some Ephemera from
Charity Committees under Royal Patronage, by J.G. Moyes; First Finnish
Mail Flight, by E. Ritaranta; Unusual TPO Marking, by Rev. L.L. Tann;
1920 Harbin Surcharges, by E.M. Osborn; Unusual Reply Card from
Petrograd to Portugal, by G. Henderson; FPOs in Transcaucasia and Trans-
caspia-Correction; USSR Icebreaker Cover, by J.B. Holland; Finlandia-88
Report, by Dr. R. Casey, to finish with Society news and book reviews.

No.67 for September 1989 also has 52 pages and contains an Editorial and
Non-Notification of Receipt, both by Ivo Steyn; Imperial Russian Postal
Treaties, trans. by C. Leonard; Lyaoyang F.P. & Telegraph Cancels and A
New Volunteer Fleet Route Vladivostok-Kolyma (a remarkable Arctic Circle
find), both by Dr. R. Casey; SPB Red Triangles, by D. Skipton & I. Steyn
(where does Ivo find the time for all this extra work?); Baltic
Provincial Branch-Line Postmark, by Rev. L.L. Tann; Postcards from
Siberia, by P. Robinson; Soviet Occupation of Baltic States 1940-1941,
(very useful), by Dr.P.A. Michalove; Chelyabinsk Provisional Overprints
1983, by A.V. Kiryushkin; Perestroika Item, by Dr. T.T. Rutkowska, to
end with a Batum Postscript by P.T. Ashford and Book Reviews.
Both issues are eminently satisfying!

TIOqTA. The journal of The Australia and New Zealand Society of Russian
Philately in. A4 format. All enquiries to the Secretary/Treasurer, Terry
Archer, 313 Mahurangi East Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand.
The annual subscription for membership, newsletter and journal is NZ$30-00.

No.6 for June 1989 contains 50 pages and includes an Editorial,
Correspondence Australasia-Russia, Readers' Pages, NZ National
Literature Exhibition, Report on Bulgaria '89, Returned Mail from USSR,
Russian Postal Services in Bulgaria, Soviet Antarctic Exhibition
Stationery, EXPO '88, Stamp Collecting in USSR, Armenian Earthquake
Relief, Disaster Mail Markings, Antarctic Ski Journey and Soviet New
Issues, all covered by Dr.A.R. Marshall (phew!); 1935 Air "Chelyuskin"







Rescue, New Zealand to Finland via Russia 1882 & Bilingual Russo-Persian
Censor Mark 1917, all by N. Banfield; Comments on Expertising Marks, by
G.G. Werbizky; Chronicle of the Times, by M.J. Carson; Leningrad Siege
Covers, by Dr.P.A. Michalove and Lower Inflation Postal Charges, by Dr.
A. Stolberg, trans. by M. Board. Quite a lot of ground covered here!

RUSSIAN POSTMARKS AN INTRODUCTION AND GUIDE, by A.V. Kiryushkin and
P. Robinson. A 110-page ring-bound publication in A4 format with soft
covers, printed and published by John Barefoot Ltd., P.O.Box 8, York,
Y03 7BE England, from whom it is available postpaid for US $18.00 or
equivalent in other convertible currencies.

For someone starting to collect Imperial Russian postal history, this
book is the ideal guide as it contains all the basic information,
including an updated listing of the "dots" numerals, TPO/RPO routes
with terminal changes, a survey of pre-stamp markings, numeral cancels
in general, machine, telegraph, steamship, FPO, mute, "To Pay" and
Special Purpose markings, plus nine appendices and a bibliography. The
book is by no means exhaustive, as that would take many volumes, but
there are hundreds of well-drawn and clear illustrations of postmarks
throughout the text, plus seven maps. All the information had been
computerised, with the added ability of spellings in the Russian
alphabet, old and new orthography. That is especially handy for
someone who is monolingual.
We understand that these two authors have planned further projects
and, if this present work is any guide, then we are in for additional
treats in the future.

THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA 1917-1923, Vol.3, The Armies & Post
Offices, Parts 13-15: RUSSIAN POST OFFICES IN CHINA, by Dr.R.J. Ceresa.
A 46+100-page softbound publication in A4 format, available from the
author at "Fairview Cottage", Quarry Lane, Gorsley, Ross-on-Wye,
Hereford HR9 7SJ, England at US $30.00 postpaid.

Some pretty murky things went on in the complex period covered by the
author, who furnishes a great deal of information, especially on the
100 plates included in this part. Two excerpts are included from "The
Post-Rider", Nos.15 & 23. The reproduction of the illustrations and
portions of the text leave something to be desired. However, the
author hopes to produce volumes IV & V entirely on the Apple McIntosh
system, thus improving the clarity of the finished work.

ITO4TA. Organ of the Russia-USSR Study Group in the Federal Republic
of Germany and published in soft covers in A4 format. All enquiries
to Wolfgang Nietsch, Spessartstr. 5, D-5300 BONN-1, Federal Republic
of Germany.

No.48 for September 1989 contains 44 pages and covers Society Notes;
Russian Postal Service in Bulgaria, by W. Hermann; First Air Service
in Azerbaijan (unsigned); Advertising Postal Stationery 1927-19.34
usefulll, by K. Schauritsch; Dudinka-Northernmost City in World, by
H.Tobler-Sommerfeld; Last voyage of Icebreaker "Lenin", by N. Aerni;
Construction of Murman Railway 1915-1916, by R. Kardel; Mysterious
Grodno 1919 Surcharges, Design Errors, 1931 Bisects of Eastern
Siberia, all by N. Vladinets; Golden Surprise & Law and Philately
(Western Ukrainian Postal History 1940-1941), both by P. Aerni; Soviet
8-kop. Surcharges, by G. Shalimoff; Official or Field Post (in Karelia),
by A. Leppa; Wrangel Army Post in Gallipoli, by J. Freese; Stamp









Varieties, by W. Frauenlob, R. Schlabs & K. Grube, to terminate with
Readers' Queries, Literature Reviews and Adlets. Something for
everyone here.

SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER (The Soviet Collector). An annual collection of
articles in paperback A5 format, issued by the All-Union Society of
Philatelists and published by "Radio i Svyaz'", Moscow, USSR.

No.25 for 1987 costs 95 kop., has 168 pages and covers Postal History
of Petrograd-Leningrad 1914-1943, by L. Ratner; Postal Tariffs of Pre-
Revolutionary Russia, by B. Kaminskii; ROPiT Postal History, by V.
Mogil'nyi; WWI Mute Cancels, by A. Levin (mostly from the Ukraine);
Latvian Pre-Stamp Markings (very detailed), by N. Jakimovs; Petrograd
Illustrated Cards of 1917, by M. Zabochen'; Pushkiniana on Medals, by
A. Gdalin & D. Robinson; Order of Red Banner of Armenian SSR, by G.
Sarkisian; Coin Attributions End 16th.-Beg.l7th. Centuries, by A.
Kolyzin; Soviet Commemorative Medals, by A. Shaten; Pre-War Badges of
Leningrad Mint, by M. Gleizer; Loan Bonds of 1930s, by V. Terebov; Air
Fund Labels 1923-1936, by Yu. Krasin & Yu. Turchinskii; Minin Banknotes
of Tsaritsyn, by V. Malyshev, to terminate with book reviews. A helpful
list of contents in English is also appended.

No.26 for 1988 costs 2r. 30k. (quite a jump), has 192 pages and looks
at Postal Tariffs 1905-1909, by B. Kaminskii; Numbered Russian
Postmarks 1858-1905, by V. Kalmykov; WWI Mute Cancels, by A. Levin;
1952 & 1956 Olympics, by V. Furman; Czechoslovak Airmail Stamps, by J.
Frolik; Krylov Postcards by S. Babintsev; Order of Red Banner of the
Georgian SSR, by V. Durov; Pushkiniana on Medals, by A. Gdalin and D.
Robinson; Russian Copper Coins of Non-Standard Mass, by V. Uzdenikov;
Ancient Bosphorus Commemorative Coin, by A. Molchanov; Private Moscow
& SPB Mints of 19th.-early 20th. Centuries, by A. Shishkin; Soviet
Commemorative Medals, by A. Shaten; Pre-War Badges of Leningrad Mint,
by M. Gleizer; Recent Finds of Pre-War Air Badges, by I. Sud; Unknown
Badges, by K. Musatov; Paper Money and the Struggle against Alcoholism,
by V. Rakhilin; Museum Coin Exhibit, by S. Rosinskii; Air Fund Labels,
by Yu. Krasin & Yu. Turchinskii; 19th. Century Paper Money of Urals,
by V. Terebov, to end with Book Reviews. The English list of contents
leaves something to be desired.
A tremendous amount of data has been set out in these two collections
of articles.

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area). The organ in A4 format of the
Study Group of the same name and issued in Dutch. All enquiries to the
Secretary, W.R. Muller, Einsteinlaan 23, NL 2641 ZL PIJNACKER, Holland.

No.14 for July 1989 contains 20 plus an extra four double-size pages,
showing the composition of Printing Stone I for the famous first stamp
of Latvia. The subjects covered include Adlets; Society Information;
Mail from the Baltic States Censored in K8nigsberg 1939-1941 (unsigned);
Postal Rates for Letters from Lithuania to Germany, by R.W. van Wijnen
and, finally, Latvia No.l New Facts concerning the Composition of
Printing Stone I (very comprehensive), by N. Jakimovs.

This is an ideal journal for the Baltic collector and, as stated before,
Dutch is not hard to read for anyone who already has a prior knowledge
of the German language.






HISTOIRE POSTAL DES LACS ET RIVIERES DU MONDE (Postal History of the
Lakes and Rivers of the World), by E. Antonini and Dr. J. Grasset. A
hardbound book of 164 pages, printed on high-quality coated paper and
published by David Feldman S.A., Case Postale 81, 1213 Onex, Geneva,
Switzerland, from whom it is available for 67 Swiss francs postpaid.

This is an opulent book and superbly produced. The publication of
this remarkable work has been made possible by the research conducted
by E. Antonini and Dr. J. Grasset, the latter being a corresponding
member of the Acad4mies de Philatl4ie both in France and Belgium.
Extensive bibliographies are given by the authors at the end of each
section that they cover.

The areas of interest to us are the markings of the Russian ships
plying the Danube and those for lakes and rivers within the Russian
Empire, Manchuria and Mongolia. In the Danube section, it includes an
illustration of a questionable marking for the steamer BESSARABE (?),
about which nothing concrete is known, while the figures for markings
applied with Russia proper show numerous mistakes in the Cyrillic
inscriptions. They could have been avoided with a little care, as
the authors were able to do with practically all the Bulgarian
inscriptions which they inserted carefully in the text.
*


JOURNAL FUND

Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto,
Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

1911 TIMETABLES OF "SAMOLET" POSTAL & PASSENGER STEAMSHIP CO. ALONG
ENTIRE VOLGA FROM TVER TO ASTRAKHAN. A photo-lithographic reprint of
84 pages, all in Russian, with many advts, ship's menu, illustrations,
schedules etc. Very nostalgic. Few only! Price postpaid US $ 5.50

KATALOG RUSSKIKH ZEMSKIKH POCHTOVYKH MAROK, KONVERTOV I BANDEROLEI
(CATALOGUE OF RUSSIAN ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS, ENVELOPES & NEWSPAPER
WRAPPERS), compiled in 1889 and issued in Russian by I.I. Kreving in
St. Petersburg. A photo-lithographic reprint of 32 pages and of great
bibliographic interest. Passed by SPB Censor. Price postpaid US $ 3.00

DEREV'YANI TSERKVY V UKRAYINI (WOODEN CHURCHES IN THE UKRAINE). Lovely
48-page booklet compiled by M. Koljankiws'kyj & long out of print. Text
in Ukrainian with many illustrations. Few Only!Price postpaid US $ 6.00

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of Dec. 1918, embodying the latest facts by four
noted researchers. A great subject for study. Price postpaid US $ 5.50

CATALOGUE OF THE FRG-USSR BILATERAL PHILATELIC EXHIBITION 10-12 Oct.88
in Bochum. A 62-page booklet in German & Russian. Contains a fine ten-
page article by H. Meyer on the 1st. Soviet airmail stamp, plus
"Collecting Russia" by Prof. Richard Zimmerl and an insert of the J.S.
Bach Soviet souvenir sheet. Interesting! Price postpaid US $ 3.00

SOVIET 4-K. STAMPED ENVELOPE COMMEMORATING "CAPEX-78". HERE IN TORONTO
AND WITH SPECIAL EXHIBITION CANCEL IN RUSSIAN. An interesting souvenir,
mailed flat by air anywhere in the world. Price postpaid US $ 2.00








THE COLLECTORS"' CRNER

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or Z
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a biography of Elsa Triolet (1896-1970), the Russian-born
heroine of the French Resistance and leftist writer, I would
appreciate hearing from anyone who knew her or knows the
whereabouts of papers or letters. (Centre for European Studies)
HELENA LEWIS,Harvard University,5 Bryant St.,Cambridge,Mass.02138,USA.

LITERATURE WANTED. Collector seeking to purchase back issues of THE
POST-RIDER Nos.l-6 and Rev. L.L. Tann's THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920
(1980). Please write first
PETER BYLEN, P.O.Box 411238, Chicago, Illinois 60641-1238, USA.

FOR a "St.George & the Dragon" topic, I need the following material:
Armenia Scott 265; Russian R.O.N.D.D. private issues; Wrangel overprinted
Denikin issues on cover; Russia St.George semi-postals used outside
Russia; Arms type covers in combination with stamps of other countries;
Georgia & South Russia Denikins on cover; Savings and Control stamps'
postally used on cover; Errors; Varieties; Forgeries; Essays etc.
GEORGE B. LOAN M.D.,1306 South Barclay St.,Bay City,Michigan,U.S.A.48706.

MUTE CANCELLATIONS of Russia WWI. Information and listings required. Can
spare many duplicates in exchange for this knowledge.
JONAS MICHELSON, P.O. Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

WANTED:1. Auction catalogues containing specialised and/or unlisted
Russian or related area material.2. Back issues of FRANCE-URSS
PHILATELIE(Journal of Cercle Philatelique France-URSS);good quality
photo or xerox copies acceptable.3. Back issues of RUSSISCHE /
SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE(Journal of BAG Russland/UdSSR); good quality
or xerox copies acceptable.4. Russian philatelic literature,preferably
in English. For any items 1-4 above, please write first, listing
material you have available and your asking price. Would also like to
correspond with English reading/writing member of Cercle Philatelique
and/or BAG Russland-UdSSR.
PAT EPPEL, 108 Pinewood Circle, Apple Valley, MN, 55124, U.S.A.




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