Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Correspondence with Canada
 Around the exhibitions
 A brief military and postal history...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 Mail to the Empire: Early Bulgarian...
 What is the date? - 1916 surcharge...
 Russian charity stamps used...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 "Ukrainpex fall" - Journal...
 The collectors' corner

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00023
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00023 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Around the exhibitions
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    A brief military and postal history of the Spanish Blue Division (Div. 250)
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Mail to the Empire: Early Bulgarian covers to the Grand Duchy of Finland
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    What is the date? - 1916 surcharge varieties
        Page 68
    Russian charity stamps used abroad
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Review of literature
        Page 77
        Page 78
    "Ukrainpex fall" - Journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
Full Text

Printed hI Canada



P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,


December 1988.


2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Around the Exhibitions
10 A Brief Military and Postal History of the
Spanish Blue Division (Div. 250)
55 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
65 Mail to the Empire: Early Bulgarian Covers
to the Grand Duchy of Finland
68 What is the Date ?
1916 Surcharge Varieties
69 Russian Charity Stamps Used Abroad
* 73 Philatelic Shorts
77 Review of Literature
Journal Fund
80 The Collectors' Corner

Ivo Steyn
Andrew Cronin
Salvador Bofarull Planas
Alex Artuchov
Andrew Cronin
Rev. L.L. Tann
Rev. L.L. Tann
Andrew Cronin

COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.
NOTICE OF ERRATUM: Our subscriber Dr. T.T. Rutkowska rightfully points
an incorrect translation of the certificate shown on p.50 of "The Post-
Rider" No.22. It was the Czechoslovak Brigade in the USSR which had
been awarded the two orders and Vladimir Loskot had, in fact, been
rejected as unfit for military service! The confusion arose because
the illustration was not complete.










It is notable that some Russian words have been taken into the English
language. Ukase, knout and sputnik are just three of them that come to
mind. Now we have two new additions: glasnost (openness) and
perestroika (restructuring), which refer to unbelievable changes
currently taking place in Soviet society as a whole.

It may still be too early to predict whether or not these two new
trends will permanently take hold, but it would also be valid to argue
that the momentum caused by these changes is irreversible and cannot
be stopped. Let us hope that they will also affect the Soviet
philatelic scene, as then all collectors will benefit, both within and
without the USSR.

Things philatelic had slowly been improving even before the advent of
Mikhail Gorbachev and his reforms. The pricing in Soviet catalogues
had been for years deliberately kept artificially low in order to
discourage "speculation". Your editor then pointed out in the
philatelic press that such a policy only encouraged cheating by sharp-
witted persons, who bought up such material from unsuspecting vendors
going by the official price-lists. Catalogue prices in Soviet currency
have since been adjusted to such levels that they often make those in
the universal catalogues look like absolute bargains. Moreover, stamp
fairs have been permitted to operate under the aegis of local clubs
for some time past where individual dealers may offer their wares.

Two further initiatives have now been noted in the Soviet monthly
journal "Philately of the USSR". The first is a proposal to simplify
and ameliorate the strict rules governing exchanges with philatelists
abroad. The second is the announcement that the Moscow Section of The
All-Union Society of Philatelists will start holding philatelic
auctions as of November 1988. Such auctions have been a regular part
of the philatelic scene in neighboring Socialist countries for some
time, but this is the first occasion upon which they have been
permitted in the USSR.

Such trends should be encouraged by all of us and, in addition, it is
hoped that further improvements would take place in the near future.





"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xercoc copy of the item, along with same expla-
natory text to the Editor.

: e ..-- e o-.--- ----


by Ivo Steyn

The registered letter illustrated on the previous page was sent by Baron
W. Uxkill from Reval (Tallinn, now the capital of Estonia) 25 Oct./7 Nov.
1910, via Montr6al 21 Nov. to the offices of The Alberta Herald in
Edmonton, where it was received on 25 November.

There are several features worth noting about this cover. First of all,
it is addressed in German. Also, is not the year 1910 an awfully late
date of usage for the cross-style single circle postmarker? It also
looks a little worse for wear. In addition, what is the significance of
that hammer-shaped marking in mauve with the number 436, struck over the
Russian registration label, reading REVEL gare (Tallinn Railway Station)
in French? (EDITORIAL COMMENT: That was apparently applied in Canada.
See the similar marking on the reg. letter from Kharbin shown on p.71).
The dark shadow on the front of the cover has been caused by some
sellotape that a very unwise previous owner had used to repair a tear.


by Andrew Cronin


The author did not attend this international philatelic exhibition, which
was held in Helsinki from 1 to 12 June 1988. From all accounts, it was
poorly attended (40,000), as the local population took full advantage of
the truly excellent summer weather at that time. The catalogue is a thick
and ornate production, with an interesting but tendentious article in
several languages including Russian, about Agathon Faberge. It implies,
incorrectly in the view of this writer, that he was somehow cheated out
of the full value of his famous collections. He knew exactly what he was
doing in trying to sell his material in the depression years of the 1930s
and their final disposal at Harmer's of London in 1939-1940 was in full
accordance with accepted commercial and legal practice. Our subscriber
M.V. Liphschutz of France was on the international jury and the results
in our areas of collecting were as follow:-

George B. Lindberg: German Occupation of Lithuania 1941-1944.
Michel V. Liphschutz: Russian Charity Advt. Sheets 1898-1901.
Viktor Sinegubov: Seaman in Struggle for Soviet Power.
Jussi Tuori: Serpentine Rouletted Issues of Finland 1860 & 1866.
Dr. Raymond Casey: The Russian Post in the Far East.
Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski:The Kingdom of Poland 1858-1870.
Boris Stenshinskii: Russia.

Ing. Sven Kraul: Latvian Forerunners.

Manfred Dobin: St. Petersburg Postal History.
Shifara Hindrekson: Estland & Livonia Postal History 1636-1800.
Leonid Melnikov: USSR Airmails.

Per-Anders Erixon: Russia 1812-1875.
V. Hurt and E. Ojaste: Estonia Handbook (Literature).

Ingvar Petterson:
Vsevolod Pritula:
Nerva Tirnaveanu:
Igor Verdysh:

Vladlen Anan'ev:
Stig Andersen:
Lennart Gullander:
Kaj Hellman:
Martin Holmsten:
Juris Mors:
Eino N&rhi:
Kirill Osyatinskii:
Kari Robert Rahiala:
Moshe Shmuely:
Klaus Stoelger:
Teuvo Ternionen:
Denis Vandervelde:

Torben Adamsson:
Aleksei Borodin:
Andrew Cronin:
F. Warren Dickson:
Hannu Elo:
Arnold Engel:
Aleksandr Gdalin:
Anatolii Georg'evskii:
Thomas Gobby:
Antti Arvid Haggren:
VAino Karmi:
Olli Kivinen:
Nikolai Mandrovskii:
Esa Mattila:
Jaako Antero Ossa:
Agnar Presterud:
Juoko Uolevi Punnonen:
Bror-Erik Sahlstedt:
Yevsei Shamis:
Joseph Taylor:
Timo Verho:

D. Iain Fraser:
Albert Johansson:
Valter V. Johansson:
Robin L. Joseph:
Seppo Kalevi Kaila:
Vladimir Kalmykov:
Risto-Matti Kauhanen:
Lauri Armas Konu:
Olavi Koponen:
Sergei Kozhevnikov:
Aimo August Leppd:
* Liya Levina:
Jarl Wilhelm Lybeck:
Yurii Myakota:
Ensio Nousiainen:

Estland and Livonia 1637-1840.
Soviet ODVF Postage & Charity Labels (+SP)
Austrian Posts in Bukovina.
Stamps of Soviet Russia.

The Great Patriotic War.
Russian Empire to 1909.
Baltic Sea Mail.
St. Petersburg Postmarks 1776-1914.
Russian Maritime Mail 1714-1927.
Tsarist & Independent periods of Latvia.
300 Years of Finnish Military History.
On the Roads of Russia.
Finnish Postal Stationery of 1891.
RSFSR 1917-1923 Postage Stamps and Rates.
Russia-Prussia Cross-Border Mail.
Postal Censorship in Finland 1893-1920.
Russia and the Forwarding Agents.

Russia 1845-1884.
Winged Dynasties.
Postal History of the Ukraine.
Estonia 1918-1940.
Finnish Numeral Cancels.
Livonia and Kurland Postal History.
Pushkin theme.
Postage and Charity Stamps of the USSR.
The Polish-Soviet War 1918-1921.
Finland 1644-1882.
Estonia 1918-1940.
Aunus, North Ingermanland & Karelia.
Russia, Revolution, Lenin.
Estonian Postal Stationery (Independent).
Finland 1885-1901.
Russia 1857-1933.
Finland 1856-1885.
Russian Post in Estonia before 1918.
From the History of Russian Navigation.
Allied Intervention in Russia.
Postal Markings and Cancels of Estonia.

The 38 Stations Helsinki to St. Petersburg.
Finland 1889-1901 Coat of Arms Issue.
Russian Stamps in Finnish Postal History.
British Journal of Russian Philately.
Finland 1891.
Russian Numeral Postmarks 1858-1905.
Finland 1875-1884.
Finland Eagle Stamps 1901-1911.
Finland 1856-1884.
History of Russian Printing.
Estonian Postal History 1711-1944.
Moscow theme.
Finland 1856-1885.
Soviet Publicity Postcards.
Finland 1640-1901.

Reijo Olavi Nummela:
Olavu Nupponen:
Elmar Ojaste:
Juha Pf&ffli:
Algis Preiksa:
Philip Robinson:
Harri Jukka Sihtola:
Antoine Speeckaert:
Ludmilla Sushchenko:
Alan Warren:

Vladimir Bernikov:
Gerhard Halme:
Artur Menzen:
Matti Poutvaara:
Harry von Hofmann:
Harry von Hofmann:
Kennedy L. Wilson:

Sergei Chebanenko:
Phil. Fedn. of Finland:
Inmer Ramos Reyes:

Finland 1885-1917.
Finland 1891 Stamps and Postal Stationery.
Estonia 1917-1920.
Finnish Postcards 1871-1900.
Lithuanian Airmails.
Siberia Postmarks and Postal History (Lit.).
First Postcards of Finland.
Russische Postcensuur (Literature).
Russian and Soviet Painting.
Serpentine Rouletted Stamps of Finland.

Lenin theme.
Central Lithuania.
Finnish Mail during Years of Oppression.
Baltische Postorte 1856-1916 (Literature).
Philatelia Baltica (Literature).
Journal of Rossica Society of Russian Philately.

From Helsinki to Moscow Olympics.
Estonian Soldiers' Mail in German Army (Lit.).
USSR in Space.


The author of these lines was the Canadian commissioner for this
international show, regularly held at 10-year intervals in the capital
of Czechoslovakia. In contrast to FINLANDIA-88, this exhibition was
extremely well attended from 26 August to 4 September, with more than
300,000 visitors! The writer found it useful to have a knowledge of
Czech, but it is a confusing language for other Slavs, as it violates
some of the basic grammatical rules common to the other languages in
the group and has wandered off on its own path. On the other hand,
Slovak is more in the mainstream of the Slav family and more readily
understandable, especially by Ukrainians. The big surprise for
collectors in our sphere was the presence of SIX exhibits of Carpatho-
Ukrainian postal history, the first such time in international
philately. All six of us were there personally at one time or another,
resulting in a seminar on Carpatho-Ukrainian philately, hosted by Dr.
Dominick Riccio at his suite in the Alcron Hotel on Wednesday evening,
31 August 1988 and where much valuable ground was covered. It was
wonderful to be able to meet personally at the show old friends and/or
experts such as Miroslav Blaha, Ivan Bulat, Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski,
Vojtech Maxa, Dr. B4la Simady, Joseph Taylor,Dr.G.Torrey & RNDr.M.Zika,
just to name a few. We even had visiting Ukrainians from next door in
the Transcarpathian Province and the exchange of opinions was
invaluable. Philately is well organised in Czechoslovakia, the national
magazine "Filatelie" appearing 24 times per year and the Union of
Slovak Philatelists publishing important collections of articles. There
is serious research on Carpatho-Ukrainian postal history currently
being done by Czechoslovak philatelists and we hope to publish the
results in future issues of "The Post-Rider".
The exhibition awards in our spheres of collecting were as follow:-

Michel V. Liphschutz:

Zemstvos of Russia.


Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski:

SIng. Zbigniew Mikulski:

Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski:

Leonid Melnikov:
Meiso Mizuhara:

Manfred Dobin:
V. Hurt and E. Ojaste:
Nikolajs Jakimovs:
Dr. B4la Simady:
Jaroslav Verner:
B8rje Wallberg:

G. Adolph Ackerman:
Miroslav Blaha:
Andrew Cronin:
Rudolfs Dedzis:
Per-Anders Erixon:
Zdenek Mekyna:

Boris Evgrafov:
Vambola Hurt:
Lyudmila Kabardintseva:
Grigorii Malakhov:
Veslav Savin:
Aleksei Shvedov:

Alex Artuchov:
Aleksandr Galileev:
Anatolii Guba:
Hans Klein:
Anatolii Osyatinskii:
Arkadii Pevzner:
Dr. Dominick J. Riccio:
David Slomka:
Joseph Taylor:

Anatolii Bogdanovskii:
Andrew Cronin:
Vsevolod Furman:
Taisya Golovanova:
Aleksandr Golovshchinskii:
Viktor Gurskii:
Robin L. Joseph:
Pravlenie VOF:
Vladimir Shtemberg:
Viktor Sinegubov:

Imperial Russia.

USSR 1918-1938.

(Cobalt Glass Vase)
Kingdom of Poland 1858-1870.

USSR Airmails.
Mongolian Postal History 1877-1935.

Postal Markings of Russia.
Estonian Handbook (Literature).
Prephilately of Latvia.
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History.
Czechoslovak Siberian Field Post 1914-1921.

Soviet Airmails The Early Years.
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History (+SP).
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History.
Postal Markings of Riga 1770-1920 (+SP).
Russia 1812-1875.
RSFSR-USSR 1917-1923.

Postage Stamps of RSFSR-USSR 1918-1964.
Estonian Airmails 1920-1940.
Soviet Airmails.
For Life on Earth (thematic).
Red Cross 1878-1917 (thematic).
Postal Rates of the RSFSR 1917-1923.

Zemstvo Postage Stamps of Imperial Russia(Lit.)
Russian Postmarks 1708-1860.
Lenin theme.
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History.
Soviet Field Posts 1941-1943.
Soviet Definitives 7th. to 12th. Issues.
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History.
Estonian Airmail Stamps.
Allied Intervention in Russia 1918-1920.
The Congress Kingdom of Poland 1815-1860.

Lenin Theme.
Russian and Soviet Postal History.
Moscow Olympics of 1980.
Hymn to Womanhood (thematic).
Years of Travail and Victories.
Advertising Postcards 1927-1934.
British Journal of Russian Philately (Lit.).
Sovetskii Kollektsioner (Literature).
Sailors defending October (thematic). 7

Aleksandr Ilyushin:
Yosif Y. Levitas:
Mieczyslaw Lubinski:
Vladimir Markov:
Valentina Minenkova:
Janis Ozoliis:
Juan E.Page de la Vega
Pravlenie VOF:
Dr. Walter J. Rauch:
Valentin Vinogradov:
V. Yakobs & M. Levin:

Lev Kolosov:

Russian Postal Stationery 1872-1917.
Animals on Asian Postage Stamps (catalogue).
With Stamps in Field of Knowledge (Literature).
Imperial Russian Censorship 1914-1917.
For the Glory of the Motherland (catalogue).
Astronomy theme.
The Beginning of a New Era theme.
:Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History.
"Philately of the USSR" monthly magazine.
Czechoslovakian Field Posts 1914-1920.
V.I. Lenin on Foreign Stamps (catalogue).
Postal Roads of Russia.
The 22nd. Olympics in Philately (Literature).

Belorussia in Philately (Literature).

The listing of the exhibits as shown above does not really give an
adequate idea of the astounding material that was on display. For example,
the A.S. Popov Museum of Communications in Leningrad had a magnificent
exhibit of RSFSR items 1917-1923, including 1-rouble essays in orange-
yellow, ultramarine and green of the 1917-1921 set, an official cover
from NARKOMPROS, Commission for Foreign Purchases, Berlin W15,
Lietzenburgerstr. 11, franked with a pen-cancelled copy of the 12-mark
Consular Airmail surcharge and addressed to a private person, Boris Ruvin
in Moscow; a label with No. 15771 had also been affixed! There was a
large block of the 35-kop. sword cutting chain stamp imperforate, but
none of the 70-kop., which was significant. The 70r. error in the pane
of 100r. IMPERFORATE was there; this is a proof of which about ten
copies exist, all in Soviet collections. Finally, there were essays of
1923 with portraits of Marx and Lenin and using frames of the Romanov
Tercentenary issue; six items in all with values of 2r. and 5r., being
printed in shades of grey-green.

The award of the International Grand Prize to Ing. Zbigniew Mikulski
for his Imperial Russia was richly deserved, as he must have had close
to two millions of dollars of rare material in his exhibit. He
postulated that there were two plates for No. 1 of Russia, with the Dr.
Fulpius retouch being a plate variety of Plate No. 1. There were TWO
copies of the Tiflis Town Post stamp, which is possibly half the
available supply for that item. Russia Nos. 2 to 4 mint were shown in a
strip of three and two blocks of four, respectively. The wonderful 20k.
bisect from Berdichev on letter ex Faberge was there, as well as a
fabulous letter from Ovruch 21.4.1858 to St. Petersburg, franked with a
No.l and three copies of No.4 to make up the 1-rouble rate. Also, a
strip of three of No.l pen-cancelled on letter; SEVEN covers of the St.
Petersburg local stamp, used in the proper period and two others, posted
later in 1868 and 1881; a bisect on cover of the 20 kop., used from
Zarki 15.1.1869 to Breslau (Wroclaw); many essays; the Perm watermark
error; the no-thunderbolts high values in complete mint sheets, etc. etc.
His Kingdom of Poland 1858-1870 now included the greatest collection of
Poland No.l in existence, featuring the famous block of six.

In his exhibit of RSFSR-USSR 1917-1923, Zdenek Mekyna of Czechoslovakia
showed an imperf. die proof of the 20-kop. essay in grey-brown of the
sword cutting chain design. He also had the issued 70-kop. value: a mint
single with margin at left, as well as a mint pair, both apparently
imperforate. Your editor is still not convinced, as the comb perforator

may have missed doing either the top or bottom row of the sheet and the
bottom or top strip could easily have been trimmed. The controversy will
only be stilled if we ever see an imperforate black of four. Mr. Mekyna
* also had a 5-kop. Imperial postcard with four of the 20-kop. Arms and
Postmaster Provisional marking, reading, reading RABOCH'E-KRESTYANSKOE
BELORUSSII, sent from Minsk 6.10.21 with the Minsk three-triangles
censor marking to Brno. Among other nice items, he showed two covers
with the Ukrainian SSR Famine Charities, making up the proper rate in
both cases.

Joseph Taylor of the U.S. featured a most comprehensive coverage of the
Allied Intervention in Russia and his personal presence at the show
turned out to be very productive, as he was able to pick up some fine
Czechoslovak Legion in Siberia items at a local bourse, which operated a
few blocks away during the show in the national currency.

On a final note, the president of the All-Union Society of Philatelists
(USSR) was also present at the exhibition. He is Pilot-Cosmonaut V. V.
Gorbatko, a Hero of the Soviet Union twice over. A modest and
unassuming man, he participated with Yu.N. Glazkov in the second
expedition of the Soyuz 24-Salyut 5 Space Project. A 10-kopek stamp with
portraits of both men was issued on 16 May 1977 in black, red and violet-
blue (see Scott No.4570, Gibbons 4637). It is indeed rare to meet in
person someone who has been portrayed on a postage stamp!


The name is the telescopic abbreviation for the national philatelic
exhibition held annually in a different Spanish city under the Presidency
of Honour of H.M. Juan Carlos I and the regulations of FESOFI (Spanish
Federation of Philatelic Societies). It was staged this year by the Los
Amigos del Sello Philatelic Society in Pamplona 25 June to 3 July, with a
splendid programme of philatelic and social activities. Our Spanish
subscriber Sr. Salvador Bofarull Planas entered two exhibits in our
sphere: (a) Russia in WWI and (b) Foreign Military Intervention in Russia.
The jury combined the two exhibits to give him a large gold medal and the
CSRP congratulates him heartily on the award. A plush multi-coloured
catalogue and palmarks were produced and the interesting thing about the
latter is that it not only lists the awards, but also the points gained
by each exhibitor (91 for Sr. Bofarull). This marking system is probably
based on that used by the FIP and may be broken down as follows:-

Diploma up to 49 points Vermeil Medal 75 to 79 points
Bronze Medal 50 to 59 points Large Vermeil 80 to 84 points
Silver-Bronze Medal 60 to 64 points Gold Medal 85 to 89 points
Silver Medal 65 to 69 points Large Gold 90 to 94 points
Large Silver Medal 70 to 74 points Grand Awards 95 to 100 points


This was an exhibition of modern philately, held in Madrid from 16 to 24
September 1988, with one Portuguese and eight Spanish judges. Once again
* our Spanish subscriber Sr. Bofarull collared two of the higher awards:
a large vermeil for The Postal History of the Blue Division and a gold
for his USSR in WWII. In addition, Sr. Jose Freijanes Dominguez got a
silver for his USSR (Traditional philately) and Sr. Jose Fano Valdez a
bronze for his USSR in Outer Space.


This was a non-competitive show, held from 27 Sept. to 2 Oct. 1988 in
Madrid and with the best collections in the country on display. The
beautiful multi-coloured catalogue carried articles by the exhibitors and
Sr. Bofarull wrote about the Foreign Military Intervention in Russia
1918-1921, with a listing of the possible material that should be
collected. He illustrated a nice Canadian Siberian Expedition cover used
used by a member of the A.E.F. on 13 June 1919 and an Irkutsk POW Russian
card used by a Japanese serviceman during the intervention. Great stuff!
It can be seen from all the foregoing that philately is very well
organised in Spain.


by Salvador Bofarull Planas

1. From the Spanish Civil War to World War Two.

Spanish involvement in WWII and in the invasion by Nazi Germany of the
Soviet Union stem from the outcome of the Spanish Civil War. Spain had
in July 1936 a republican, democratic regime of the Western type, with a
representative parliament and political parties. Civil war broke out on
18th. July with a military uprising backed by the Falange Fascist Party
and the most conservative elements of the upper classes and the Catholic
Church. The expectations of the insurgents for a quick victory were
frustrated by strong popular resistance, such that General Franco and
his supporters turned to Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy for large-scale
military support, which was promptly and eagerly provided. Franco was
appointed, or rather self-appointed, Head of State and of the Falange
Party, which was made the one and only official party in Spain. The
military contributions of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy are still
remembered today in Spain, i.e. the Nazi bombing of the civilian
population in Guernica, the rout of the Italian Fascists at Guadalajara,
etc. Only a few months elapsed between the end of the Civil War and the
beginning of World War Two.

2. Spain and World War Two.

Franco's regime formalised its moral links with the Axis Powers by its
accession to the Anti-Comintern Pact on 26 March 1939, an agreement
ratified shortly after the war broke out (29 November 1939) and it was
supplemented by a secret pact, which gave Germany the use of naval
facilities in Spanish ports and a "cooperative" role in relation to the
Spanish police, press and propaganda (see: Herbert Feis, "The Spanish
Story: Franco and the Nations at War", New York: Knopf, 1948, p.19). As
a token of that cooperation, Nazi leader and Gestapo boss Heinrich
Himmler paid a discreet visit to Spain, where he was awarded one of the
highest Spanish decorations. The author became acquainted with him on
that occasion.

The commitment of Franco Spain and its aid to the Axis were not a secret.
In many of his speeches, Franco spoke of the "blood debt" and the "moral
debt"to the Axis. In 1946, the U.S. Department of State published a
White Paper on Spain (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, 1946):
"The Spanish Government and the Axis", made up chiefly of captured
German documents and showing the extent of that involvement. Trains full

of supplies were flowing from poverty-stricken Spain to Germany in
payment of the military aid bill.

. 3. The Birth of The Blue Division.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union and Franco's
exultation reached its climax. On 17 July, he warned the United States to
"stay out of the war if it wished to avoid a catastrophe...The Allies
have lost the war...in which the blood of our youth is going to be
mingled with that of our comrades of the Axis..."(see: E.J. Huges:"Report
from Spain", New York, Holt, 1947). Shortly thereafter, Serrano Suner
took steps to organise a fighting unit to be sent to the Russian Front
(He was Franco's brother-in-law and the "strong man" in Spain after him.
Suner was Minister of the Interior, then Foreign Minister and, most of
all, President of the Political Junta of the Falange. Since Franco was a
self-appointed Generalissimo, people used to call Serrano Suner
"Cunadisimo", i.e. brother-in-law-issimo). Facing a crowd of followers,
he appeared on the balcony of the Falange H.Q. and delivered an explosive
speech, abusing the Soviet Union. "Russia is guilty ", he yelled,
"guilty of the Spanish Civil War, guilty of the death of Jose Antonio,
Russia is guilty I" (Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera was the son of a former
Spanish dictator and founder of the Falange. He was tried and executed
during the Civil War, Franco having refused to exchange him for other
political prisoners). He then announced the creation of a voluntary unit
to assist Nazi Germany in its aggression against the Soviet Union.

As a consequence, offices of enlistment were promptly set up all over
Spain by the Falange, while the Army cooperated in the recruitment of
* professional officers. At that time, all army officers were automatically
party members. The size of the unit was decided to be that of a division,
some 18,000 men and it was named "Blue" after the symbolic colour of the
Falange Party.

General A. Munoz Grandes was appointed Commander-in-Chief. He was a
capable general, completely loyal to the Party (He had even been
Secretary-General of the Falange until 1940. In command of the Blue
Division until December 1942, he was replaced by General Esteban Infantes,
who returned to Spain after the Division was withdrawn and dissolved in
December 1943. Years after his return to Spain, General Munoz Grandes was
appointed by Franco as his successor as Head of State, but Franco
outlived him !). Also assigned by the Army were five colonels and the
requisite numbers of lieutenant-colonels, majors, captains etc needed by
the Division.

Once formed, the Division left Madrid by train on 13 July 1941, with a
big political fanfare attended by strong man Serrano Suner and top party,
government and army officials. General Munoz Grandes flew to Berlin on
the next day. From the 15th. July onwards, three special trains were
dispatched to the French border, where the troops changed trains on
account of the different rail gauge and, proceeding through France, where
some of the trains were stoned by French patriots, crossed the German
border and, after four days of journey, the first train reached
Grafenw6hr in Bavaria on 18 July. In the days that followed came the rest of
the Division, with a total of some 17,000 men. The airmen were sent to a
I different training area, near Berlin.

4. The Division in Germany and on its way to the front.

The military training area assigned to the Spanish division was spread
over an area of some 200 square kilometers west of the town of
Grafenw8hr. Once settled there, the first organisational changes were
introduced. The unit was not called "Blue" by the Germans, being
instead defined as "The Wehrmacht 250. Division" and the number of
regiments was cut from four to three (in the Spanish military
organisation, a division has four regiments, whereas in Germany only
three). All corresponding ranks had to be reassigned and the final
organisation is shown in Table I.

In the days that followed, the soldiers were vaccinated, uniforms and
equipment distributed and the Spaniards took their oath of fidelity to
the Fthrer Adolf Hitler. Intensive military training immediately began
and, by 20 August, the Division was ready to leave for the front. A
small Spanish office was set up in Hof near the Czech border, which was
to continue as the Division Representation in Germany.

As for the Spanish aviation forces, commonly designated as The Blue
Squadron (Escuadrilla Azul), they were recruited by the Spanish Air
Force, not by the Party, from among its pilots and personnel. They
reached Berlin on 27 July, commanded by Major Salas Larrazabal.
Assigned to the Military Flying School at Werneuchen, east of Berlin,
the Spaniards underwent intensive training to get acquainted with the
aircraft and equipment they were soon to use. After a month of training,
"Squadron I", the first unit,was assigned to the "Luftwaffe 27 Combat
Group",its manpower consisting of a flying force and ground crew. The
former included 15 men (pilots, mechanics, radio-operators etc) and the
latter 2 majors, 4 captains, 12 lieutenants, 6 technicians, 1 chaplain,
1 surgeon, 1 quartermaster and 102 soldiers and corporals. The air
squadrons were constantly being replaced and, at different periods, four
different air squadrons served as The Blue Squadron.

Meanwhile, with the purpose of acquainting the Spanish Command with real
warfare and the theatre of war, a group of Spanish officers headed by
Lieutenant-Colonel Zan6n was sent to the Ukrainian Front, where they
spent some time observing military action and the countryside to which
they understood the Division would soon be assigned. The Division was
set to leave Grafenw8hr on 20 August. All men boarded the military
trains and were carried for a distance of 1200 km.(750 miles) to SuwaTki
on the Polish-Lithuanian border.

On their way across Poland, a short halt was scheduled in Warsaw, where
one prophylactic per person was distributed, allowing the Spaniards to
visit the specially organised brothels. A prompt counter-order was
delivered when the Germans "found out" that the Spaniards belonged to
an "inferior race" and, as such, were not entitled to these facilities.
This measure caused more surprise than anger, since the proud Fascist
Spaniards had been taught since the cradle that they belonged to a
"superior race" (a Spanish national holiday was officially called "Dia
de la Raza" or "Day of the Race" and General Franco's only excursion
into the motion picture industry was a movie entitled "Race"). The
Spanish reaction was described by Mussolini's son-in-law Count Ciano:
"The Spaniards in protest inflated the condoms and attached them to the
tops of their rifles, parading 15,000 of them in the suburbs of Warsaw"
(see: "The Ciano Diaries 1939-43", entry of 25-26 Nov. 1941. The same
incident was reported to the author of these lines shortly after it
happened, by a soldier of the Division, home on leave).

Upon arriving in Suwalki, the Spaniards were ordered to leave the train
and proceed on foot to the front, some 1000 km. (625 miles) away. They
marched eastwards through the Lithuanian and Belorussian regions. This
march took almost a month and a half and cost the Spaniards their first
casualties. Marching all day long in compact columns, some soldiers felt
the urgent need to leave the column in search of some bushes in order to
perform a physiological act. Partisans were silently watching the
columns and snipers caused the death, in not too glorious position, of
the first Spanish heroes on the Eastern Front. More disappointments
awaited the Spaniards on their way to the front. When they passed
through Orsha on the Dnieper on the way to Smolensk and were already
marching along the road in that direction, a counter-order was received
that they should turn back to Orsha and take the road northwards to
Vitebsk. They were to be transported further north from there by train
to Novgorod, instead of going to the Ukraine, as they had expected.

5. The Division on the Volkhov Front.

The newly assigned sector was spread over a front line of some 50 km.
(31 miles), half of which on the north-west shores of Lake Ilmen and
the other half along the banks of the Volkhov river, which linked Lakes
Ilmen and Ladoga, with Novgorod the only important town in the area by
far. The Division was deployed as follows:-

Division High Command at Grigorovo village, a few km. NW of Novgorod.
Sub-sector North: Infantry Regiment 269, with H.O. at Poberez'ye.
Sub-sector Centre: Infantry Regiment 263, with H.Q. at Derevenitsy.
Sub-sector Novgorod: Infantry Regiment 262, with H.Q. at Novgorod.
Sub-sector South: Anti-Tank Group & Exploration Group, on the north-
west shore of Lake Ilmen.
The Artillery Regiment was split into three parts: North, Centre and on
the island formed at the mouth of the Volkhov river.
Field hospitals were established at Novgorod and Grigorovo and First
Aid Centres were established along the front line.

Between October 12th. (Spanish national holiday of the Day of the Race)
and 16th., the deployment of the Spanish troops was completed, occupying
positions formerly held by Wehrmacht Divisions 18 and 126. The Spanish
H.Q. repeatedly insisted to the German High Command that The Blue
Squadron be assigned to the same sector as the Spanish ground forces;
such requests were always turned down and the squadron was dispatched
some thousand km. (625 miles) south. Furthermore, the Spanish Division
had no ant-aircraft weapons remaining, being thus vulnerable to air
attacks. Another adverse factor was the extremely low temperature,
causing many frozen limbs and a low performance from soldiers used to a
mild Mediterranean climate. It has been reported that some Spaniards
traded their brand-new winter boots for bottles of vodka.

The first minor combats took place immediately upon arrival, with the
intention of advancing eastwards from the Volkhov river. Minor actions
were launched, encountering mild resistance and the Spanish troops
occupied new positions on the eastern shores of the northern sub-sectors.
The rest of the other sub-sectors were at a standstill most of the time.
A bridgehead was soon established by Regiment 269 and was extended
O through continuous fighting, capturing the positions of Smeisko, Russo,
Sitno, Tigoda, Dubrovka, Nitlikino etc (see the map on p. 20). Meanwhile,
the German Division 18, deployed north of the Spanish Division, also
attacked and advanced eastwards, crossing the river at Kussino. German

troops, in their advance to the south-east, captured Posad and the
neighboring villages of Otenski and Poselok, twelve km. east of the
Spanish lines. The Spanish Command was informed that they should man the
newly occupied positions, so that the German soldiers there could return
to their sector. Captain Garzon, Commander of the llth. Company of the
269th. Regiment, was assigned to contact the new outposts and fresh
Spanish reinforcements were brought,namely the 1st. Battalion and llth.
Company of Regiment 269 and, later on, three companies from Regiments
262 and 263 and a company of sappers. There were strong Soviet counter-
attacks from 8 November onwards, resulting in the Spanish positions
being almost encircled. After a month of intensive fighting, the Spanish
troops retreated west of the river, along a narrow frozen forest track,
suffering heavy losses in men (600 casualties) and material.

At the same time, north of the Spanish sector of the front, German
Panzer armoured units pierced the Russian defenses and captured Tikhvin,
almost 100 km. (62.5 miles) east of the Volkhov river. This was called
the "Tikhvin salient", forming a triangular bulge between Ladoga, Tikhvin
and Malaya Vichera and was held by the Germans from 8 November until the
end of the year, when Soviet troops pushed them back to the Volkhov
area. Up to the end of 1941, there were only minor local actions along
the Spanish front, even though some of them developed into intensive
fighting. In time the northern boundaries of the Division were
readjusted, being taken over by German units from Gorka northwards (see
the map on page 19).

The first important action at the beginning of 1942 was launched in the
quietest sub-sector, Lake Ilmen. A German request was received to relieve
a German outpost which had become isolated. Spanish formations left
Spaspikolez (Spasskaya Palist in the Novgorod region?) on the west shores
of the lake and marched on its frozen waters for some 30 km.(19 miles),
encountering wind storms at -400C (-400F), ice crevasses, Siberian skiers,
etc. The first casualties, with frozen limbs, were registered before any
shooting took place. Out of 206 men, only 12 returned safely, but they
reached VSVAD.

The Soviet Army gathered large reinforcements at the end of 1941, to try
to break the German defences west of the Volkhov river, in order to
advance westwards and relieve besieged Leningrad. A large bridgehead was
thus formed and, through a narrow entrance, the Soviet Army poured in
huge contingents, among them the Second Assault Army under General Vlasov.
Owing to the narrow outlet and under strong German pressure, all these
troops were mortally trapped in what has been called "The Volkhov Pocket".
After months of desperate fighting, only a few units succeeded in
breaking out of the encirclement. The final German attack was launched in
June 1942, with two Spanish units from the 250th. Division taking part,
under the direct command of SS Colonel Hoppe. By the second half of June,
the final blow was delivered with a great gathering of air force, tanks,
artillery and ground troops. The attack ended with the full annihilation
of the surrounded forces. According to official figures, the two Spanish
units alone captured more than 5000 prisoners. A Spanish veteran of the
battle reported to the author that no prisoners were taken by his unit.
All the Soviet soldiers who had surrendered were immediately massacred.

Meanwhile, new contingents of volunteers were sent from Spain and the
same number of veterans prepared to return home, a complete renewal of
the Division having been intended. However, some volunteered to remain
for a second term. The newcomers were not supposed to undergo a long

training period in Germany. Instead, they stopped on their way at Hof
near the Czech border, where a medical examination was done at the
Spanish Medical Centre and they then proceeded directly to the front.
The operation of renewal was gradual, so that the newcomers could receive
some "training on the spot", being advised and coached by veterans before
their departure. The renewal was practically completed by June 1942.
Also, the top echelon of the Division was changed and General Esteban
Infantes arrived in August as Second-in-Command. He was to organise not
only the change of personnel (which was practically over before his
arrival) but also, most importantly, the change of front sector and the
relocation of the whole division to new positions. He took over the
command of the Division on 13 December and General Munoz Grandes
returned to Spain.

By the end of August and the first week of September, the Spanish
positions on the Volkhov Front were handed over to German units and,
finally, the Spanish Division marched, this time westward towards newly
assigned positions on the Leningrad Front. They left behind 1400 dead and
many wounded in hospitals at Vilnius/Wilno, K8nigsberg, Hof, etc.

6. The Division on the Leningrad Front.

The new theatre of war was situated south of Leningrad. The Division
occupied positions at first that were readjusted and the final sector was
established around the Ishora River, just south of Kolpino, with the main
towns of the sector being at Krasnyi Bor, Pushkin (formerly Tsarskoe
Selo), Slutsk (formerly Pavlovsk) and Aleksandrovka. Other places were
Mestelevo, where the Field Hospital 250 was established and Pokrovskaya,
* the seat of the High Command of the Division. Fighting conditions were
completely different from at Volkhov. The Soviets were now well fortified
and at a very close distance to the Spanish lines. The front line on both
sides was manned with a great density of units and weapons and continuous
networks of trenches stretched all along the front.

Nazi propaganda still proclaimed the imminent capture of Leningrad, but
nobody believed it. The "Operation Barbarossa", "Blitzkrieg" and other
objectives were a far cry from the present defensive situation. The
Soviets had the initiative and the Spanish troops were always on the
alert, expecting enemy attacks. In one of the first actions in the new
sector, the German forces requested that a Spanish battalion join them in
an attack in the Lake Ladoga sector. The 2nd. Battalion of the 269th.
Regiment was assigned to the mission, marching at temperatures below
-400C (-400F) towards Lake Ladoga. They were stopped by heavy artillery
and infantry fire and were subjected to heavy counter-attacks. Only one
officer, six sergeants and twenty soldiers survived the battle.

This was only the prelude to the fiercest battle the Spanish Division was
called upon to endure: the Battle of Krasnyi Bor. The Soviet attack, long
expected, was launched on 10 February 1943 and it went through two phases.
In the first phase, two Soviet divisions, with important artillery forces
and tanks, gathered in and around Kolpino. After unusually intensive
artillery bombardments, Soviet tanks breached the deep and strongly
fortified Spanish defences and reached Krasnyi Bor, where reinforcements
from the 263rd. & 269th. Regiments were rushed in. In defending Krasnyi
Bor since the attack began, the 262nd. Regiment and 250th. Battalion
sustained heavy losses. The anti-tank group was literally annihilated.
The 250th. Artillery Regiment lost most of its guns and the remaining
ones were destroyed, to prevent the Soviets from capturing them.

The front line of the Division extended along some 30 km. (19 miles),
where three Soviet divisions were deployed. Temperatures between -300C &
-400C were an additional difficulty. On 12 February 1943, German
reinforcements succeeded in stopping the Soviet advance. Fighting
subsided and, after consolidating their positions, the Soviet forces
initiated the second phase of the battle, which was to last until 20th.
March. In the first few days of the battle, Spanish casualties amounted
to most of the 4000 sustained during the whole length of this Soviet

Official claims that the Soviets had failed to pierce the Spanish front
line must be confronted with the fact that the Spanish Division was put
out of combat and, after this action, only minor engagements dotted the
life of the Division before its withdrawal. That started on 7 October
1943 and was completed on the 12th. German units were deployed in the
sector, while the Spanish forces were gathered in the area of Volosov,
from where the return journey began. Arrival in Spain was discrete. No

7. The Spanish Legion.

The negotiations between high Spanish and German officials about the
repatriation of the 250th. Spanish Division called for some kind of a
Spanish unit to remain at the front. The creation of a Spanish Legion of
1500 men was agreed upon. The Legion, under Colonel Garcia Navarro, was
made up of veterans volunteering to remain under arms. It fought in the
areas of Luga, Narva etc. and took part in a hasty retreat, caused by the
Soviet advances. It was dissolved in March 1944.

After the Legion was withdrawn, another still smaller group was formed,
this time without any official Spanish sponsorship. That was the "Spanish
Waffen SS", under the command of a former Spanish officer and made up
mainly of new recruits. This unit, composed of two companies, fought in
the Battle of Berlin, where it was disbanded. See the book by Miguel
Ezquerra: "Berlin a vida o muerte", Ed. Acerbo, Barcelona, 1975.

8. Spanish losses.

Spanish casualties during 1941 were 2416
in 1942 4032
and in 1943 6278, totalling 12,726 men.
These figures include dead, wounded (almost double the figure for the dead)
and 326 men missing. There were 8466 Spanish wounded during the campaign,
treated in Spanish military hospitals in Grigorovo, Riga, Vilnius/Wilno,
Mestelevo, Berlin and Hof. There were also many cases of frostbite and
sickness. The Spanish wounded were also treated in various German
military hospitals, both at the front and in the rear.

(La Divisi6n Azul Die Blaue Division The Blue Division).
Units No.of No. of No. of
men horses vehicles
High Command of the Division.
Commander: General Munoz Grandes 189 68
Second Commander: Colonel Rodrigo

Infantry Regiment 262 3012 712 16
Commander: Colonel Pimentel
3 Battalions(12 Companies);3 H.Q. Companies


Infantry Regiment 263
Commander: Colonel Vierna
3 Battalions (12 Companies);3 H.Q. Companies

Infantry Regiment 269
Commander; Colonel Esparza
3 Battalions (12 Companies) 3 H.Q. Companies

Anti-Tank Gun Group
H.Q.; 3 Companies; 36 guns of 37 mm. bore

Gun Exploration Group
H.Q.; 2 Squads; 1 Anti-tank Section

Artillery Regiment 250
Commander: Colonel Badillo
H.Q.; 3 groups of 105mm. Howitzers;
1 group of 150mm. Howitzers

Depot Battalion 250
H.Q.; 3 Companies

Transmission Group
H.Q.; 2 Companies; Light Column

Sapper Battalion
H.Q.; 3 Companies; Light Column

Transport Service
H.Q.; Heavy Column; Light Column;
Horse-drawn Waggons; Repair Section

Army Supply Service
Quartermaster General; 2 Companies

Medical Service
Chief Surgeon; 2 Companies; Field Hospital;

Veterinary Service
Chief Veterinary Surgeon; 1 Company

Military Police Service
Chief of Military Police; 1 Platoon

Postal Service: 1 Field Post Office



No. of




No. of



2793 2392









Totals: 17.045








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individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
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of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!
The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
the Society or its coordinators.
Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.


DIVISION 250 Journey from Training to deployment areas in the front.
Travel by train -I 1 (1.600 Km.)
Travel on foot ( 900 Km;)
Combined travel____
(train/truck/foot) ( 350 km.)
Deployment Areas : Training fields Grafenw8hr : 1 ; Volkhov front: 2
S. of Leningrad: 3 ; Repatriation.area : 4

1S.. Oraistzrw


From Grl. Esteban Infantes :"La Division Azul"

1. Organisation

Mail to and from "The Blue Division of Spanish Volunteers", as it was
called in the Postal Regulations, enjoyed postal franchise, according to
a decision adopted by the Spanish Council of Ministers on 2 August 1941.
It was limited to postcards, letters or parcels below 100 grammes (0.22
lb.) in weight; registered mail was limited to Official Military Mail.
Correspondence could be posted in any mail box or post office throughout
Spain. In some cases, such as in Madrid, special letter boxes were set
up and inscribed in large letters: CORRESPONDENCIA PARA LOS VOLUNTARIOS

ESPANOLES EN ALEMANIA (see page 37). Special instructions were given as
to the way the address had to be written, so as to read as follows:-
On the front of the item: CORREO MILITARY ALEMAN

(Name and surname)
(Field Post Number in five digits)

On the back of the item : Name and address of the sender.
However, that was not always observed, especially in the first few weeks
or in remote towns, when and/or where the senders were not informed of

these rules. Some people franked their mail with ordinary postage stamps
or addressed their correspondence in such terms as "Divisi6n Azul" or
"Division Espanola de Voluntarios" etc., which were expressly forbidden.
However, such mail usually reached the addressee.
From : Grl Estebn Infantes :"La Divisi(mn Azul"

Mail to and from "The Blue Division of Spanish Volunteers", as it was

It was limited to postcards, letters or parcels below 100 grammes (0.22

Correspondence could be posted in any mail box or post office throughout
Spain. In some cases, such as in Madrid, special letter boxes were set
up and inscribed in large letters: CORRESPONDENCIA PArA LOS VOLUNTARIES
ESPANOLES EN ALEMANIA (see page 37). Special instructions were given as

On the front of the item: CORuEO MILITAR ALEMAN
al (Military rank)
(Name and surname)
(Field Post Number in five digits)
On the back of the item Name and address of the sender.
However, that was not always observed, especially in the first few weeks
or in remote towns, when and/or where the senders were not informed of
these rules. Some people franked their mail with ordinary postage stamps 0
or addressed their correspondence in such terms as "Divisi6n Azul" or
"Division Espanola de Voluntarios" etc., which were expressly forbidden.
However, such mail usually reached the addressee.

Village with position
Village without position

Regimental H.Q.


,' o

Initial deployment after
arrival in October 1941.


From: Grl .EstebiflTJnfante-:

"La Divisi6n Azul" :

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*^ "w o -""* --.t. .. ?h

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-i I
,. -: .-.. ,*.. '

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,... ....;- ,;. / #

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-owe;t~t~i, ::

,i on. ~il ?

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V I .I a

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MAP. 3



Winter 1941 / 1942




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,. lt 41.
' < A,,, g ." ,, ',. ..... .

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n. ~ )L~_ 4; '9 :j

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;: 25. (' -." "5 (^.-

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From : Gri.

Esteban Infantes:
Division Azul" 0


MAP. 4

--- i..- .. "" .- :."

S ----63 i:,

A? J
K &tj

ncare r a erPdz


llyu V '',,, ** ,"a **'*'
", c/o N^ \" L-... l' .
/1 9 ., -,., tf .. :. ., : :
'5:(;' "',

,c .
, *, '' / 'r ',i ,*h* ,* .*.V .. .

U3 e,' '2,.;3
.^~~~ ~~~ ..''W .*;* .'^^-^?"

.^7"' '' :-**'v.*^ Y ^

v.^ "^. .: ,_. *' ,'"* ,
S \ Genewal -'steban In-fantes'
"La Division Azul"

September 1942 December 1943
Soviet front line X C K- -
Spanish front line -I---- --

* C.'

., '

As the military situation deteriorated for Germany, the need was felt to
reduce the flow of mail and German franchise stamps were used as
rationing devices (see Fig. 1). As of April 1942, soldiers serving in the
German Army (including The Blue Division) each received four stamps per
month, with one stamp to be affixed to each letter or postcard. From May
1943 onwards, each piece of mail required two stamps, with the same also
applying for mail from Spain to the Division. In that way, only one
letter per month could be sent by the soldier or officer, with one reply
per month being received from home. The same applied to soldier inmates
of field hospitals and those persons specially assigned to the Spanish
Division in Vilnius, Riga etc. It did not apply to Spanish wounded in
ordinary German military or civilian hospitals, who had to pay the
normal franking rates. By the end of 1943, postcards and letters
received from the Division were sometimes franked with German postage
stamps, or those together with German military franchise stamps. When
"The Blue Division" was dissolved in December 1943, the same system
applied to its successor "The Spanish Legion".

Internal instructions were given to Spanish post offices as to how to
deal with this mail. Postal officials collected the mail and sent it to
one of the main post offices: Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, San Sebastian,
Seville, Valencia or Vigo. Once censored, the mail was placed in special
de (Post office seal with the name of the town)
Such bags were sent to the Spanish-French border at Irun-Hendaye and
delivered there to German postal officials. They forwarded them through
intermediate post offices and censorship centres and finally to the
Spanish Field Post Office 250 at Grigorovo during the time the Division
was assigned to the Volkhov sector, or to Mestelevo in the Leningrad
sector, from September 1942 onwards. The Spanish FPO No.250 was staffed
with 46 officials and clerks, including postmen. Military censors were
also active in the same premises.

Soldiers' mail was sent through FPO No.250 to Spain by way of the German
military mail services, going through the German military censorship.
Upon reaching Spain, mail was centralised in one of the seven post
offices according to destination and forwarded from there to the
addressees. The German military and postal authorities were quite
exacting in the observance of regulations regarding mail. However,
during the first few weeks and especially during their stay in
Grafenw8hr and the Werneuchen training grounds, many exceptions occurred
with many Spaniards writing on their covers or postcards the name of
their military unit. The 3rd. Company of the Anti-Tank Group even had
its own rubber stamp with the name and symbol of the unit. This was
promptly confiscated by the German officials, but some items with this
mark slipped through the fingers of the censor (see Fig. 2).

The Spanish Air Squadron, assigned to another sector of the Eastern
Front, did not belong tactically to the Infantry Division No.250 and,
while also enjoying military franchise, had an altogether different
mailing system. A Junkers aircraft was assigned to the squadron for
liaison with Berlin, making the round trip once a week. Mail was
delivered to the pilot, who handed it in to the office of the Spanish
Military Attache in Berlin and who, in turn, sent it on to the Spanish
post office at the Air Ministry in Madrid. A franchise mark was struck
there on the piece of mail (see Fig. 3) and it was then forwarded to the
addressee through ordinary Spanish postal channels.

M1 22 i.

FIG. 1
German stamp of Air
Field Post Franchise.
Blue. Size: 27 x 33
mm.Used to ration
mail from and to the
front.Issued in 1942.

Current German Field
Post Postmark used
in Blue Division mail
to Spain. Letter"a".

OMilitary Mark of
Grafenw8hr Training
Camp, used as franch-
ise and control mark.

FIG. 2
Spanish Military
Mark. 3rd Company
Anti-Tank Group.
Used for a short
time in Training
Camp of Grafen-
w6hr ( Germany )

Same as FIG 4.
but with letter
b "1

Military mark of
Werneuchen Air
Training Field
used for franchise
and control.1941

FIG. 3
Spanish Air Ministry
Franchise Mark. Used
to forward mail from
Blue Squadron sent
by Diplomatic Pouch.

FIG. 6
Rubber stamp from the
Military Attache at the
Spanish Embassy. Berlin.
Used with mail sent to
Spain by Diplomatic Pouch
Violet ink. Size:38 mm.

FIG. 9
Military mark used by
Spanish Air Squadron
Field Post No. L 26252
for franchise and control. 23

In addition, ground forces, especially during their Volkhov period, were
in the habit of giving their mail to personnel going to Berlin on
liaison missions or on leave, so as to be sent to Spain through the
Official Pouch. That was the common method by which high Party officials W
serving with the Division communicated with Party offices or relatives
in Spain. In special cases, strong man Serrano Suner included with the
letter received from the
Division a complimentary slip,
as shown in Fig.10. Such a
document is extremely rare, as
it was only sent to top Party
members and high-ranking
officials. Note that the Party
rank came before the title of
Foreign Minister! Also, the
0 Q /, insignia of the Falange Party
with the arrows and yoke were
Used instead of the customary
/a e e d national coat of arms. The
size of the slip is 23 x 17 cm.
,'ee ~aea y ft o G. and it is dated 20 March 1942.

S A Io W 0411A. ; edlvje, 2. Postmarks.
Mail sent from the Division was
postmarked with the current
German military field post
markings, reading at top
FELDPOST, then a serial letter
"a" or "b", with the date in
the centre and in the lower
part the German eagle with
a la Sata. Maria XXXXXXXXXX Nazi symbol. Struck in black,
e .. ,. lereIen.l with an outside diameter of
S en n / 29 mm. See Figs. 4 & 5. When
_'e, 4 iaA sle the mail was sent from towns or
villages near the front or when
the soldiers were on leave,
-,d.> /e ry r2c~ mute cancellations were
e generally used, being of the
normal circular datestamp kind
without the town name.

The mail sometimes went through
ace aad. without a postal marking of any
Qg la 20 /e Marzo A /92. kind, but instead with a
circular rubber stamp (0=38mm.)
in the upper middle part the
official coat of arms of Spain (see Fig. 6). This meant that the piece
of mail had been sent by diplomatic pouch to Spain and, since that seal
had franchise value, it had been forwarded postfree through ordinary
Spanish mail channels to the addressee.

3. Military Franchise Markings.
Since postal franchise was generally granted to all units serving in the
German Wehrmacht, no specific franchise marks were needed. Nevertheless,
some of these markings were applied to mail, more as a method of control
than of franchise.

CoAL MiitaN

FIG. 11
German Military Mark
used on cover sent by
Spanish Officer during
journey from Training
Camp to the Front.

G9 Yr

*ilark used to indicate
country of destination.
Red pencil handwriting.
Scribbled by Field Post
Office 250 or during
mail transport to Spain
Small size :approximat.
15 x 15 mm.

Mute cancelation
used on mail sent
through non military
post offices by
Division's soldiers.
1941,1942, 1943.

k-p-. /

Same as FIG.14
Larger size,
between 25 x 35
and 35 x 55 mm.
Red pencil.

Spanish Rubber Stamp
used on mail sent from
Spain to the Oivision.
Probably of private origin.
Size: 35 x 25 mm. Violet.


Boxed Sp mark
Type I : 13 x 19 mm.
Type II: 15 x 19 mm.
Used by F.P.O.No250
Red ink.


Loxed "Sp". Large size.
33 x 37 mm. Red ink.

FIG. 18
Spanish mark
Boxed "F", used
on Spanish mail to
the Division.Small
size : 13 x 19 mm.
Red ink. leaning
of "F" unclear :

Spanish Mark
Boxed "F".
Same as Fig.18
Large size:
33 x 37 mm.


During the Spaniards' stay at the training grounds, some of the mail was
stamped with a circular military mark (0=35mm.) reading "Ausbildungsstab
Foerlich / Briefstempel", with the current Nazi emblem in the centre
(Fig. 7), this being used at the training camp for ground forces at
Grafenw8hr. The Air Training Camp in Werneuchen used a similar, but
slightly smaller, handstamp (0=32mm.), reading "Fliegerhorst Kommandantur/
Briefstempel/Werneuchen" and, in the centre, the usual Nazi eagle (Fig. 8).
In mail sent by the "Blue Squadron" flying in action at the front, the
current military marking found is a circular one (0=35mm.), reading
"Feldpost-Nummer L 26 252/Lgpa. Posen". The usual Nazi eagle in the
middle (see Fig. 9).
EDITORIAL COMMENT: The abbreviation "Lgpa" stands for Luftgaupostamt
Air District Post Office. Posen is the German name for the Polish city of
Poznan, which had been incorporated into Greater Germany during WWII.

4. Forwarding marks.
In order to facilitate the transport and sorting of mail from the Spanish
Field Post Office 250, some markings were put on the mail in order to
indicate the country of destination. Thus, at first, the postal clerks
wrote in red pencil the abbreviation "Sp" for Spanien (=Spain) on the
covers and postcards. This handwritten mark comes in many sizes, but they
may be reduced to small (about 15mm. high) and large (40 to 50mm. high) -
see Figs. 14 & 15. A small framed rubber stamp with the same abbreviation
was used later on, being known in two varieties of the small size: I =
13 x 19mm. and II = 15 x 19mm. It was always applied in red ink.
Apparently some problems arose in that this marking was not clear enough
to be seen and it was decided to reintroduce it in "king size". So a new
"Leitvermerk", as the Germans called it, was put into use, not only at
FPO 250 (first at Novgorod and then at Mestelevo), but also on mail from
a Spanish inmate at a German hospital at Aachen (Aquisgran) near the
Belgian border. See Figs. 16 & 17.

In mail from Spain to the Division, some markings somehow related to the
"Sp" types occasionally appear on letters sent from Madrid and other
cities. Some times the letter "F" is handwritten in red pencil, then a
rubber stamp with a boxed "F" of small size appears (Fig. 18) and later
on the same in a larger size (33 x 37mm.;see Fig. 19). However, these
markings are rather uncommon and very little is known about them. The "F"
could possibly stand for Feldpost, but it could also have other meanings.
Always applied in red ink.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Is it possible that the initial "F" stood for either
the Spanish or German word for France (Francia or Frankreich respectively)
since we know that mail from Spain to The Blue Division went by way of
France, then under German occupation or even F for Frankfurt, as the
"Oficina Colectora"?
5. Censorship marks.
The mail regulations granting franchise to correspondence with The Blue
Division stipulated that mail going to Spain from that unit was "exempted
from censorship" in Spain, since it had already been censored at its
origin. As a consequence, some letters were so marked "Exenta de Censura"
but this was rather the exception. Practically all mail incoming from the
Division was censored in Spain and all kinds of censor marks can be found
on Division covers and cards.

The German censor marks also came in great variety, but the most
prevalent were the "A" circular markings. The cachet "Ab" was stamped on
mail censored in Berlin (Fig.20), "Ad" on mail censored at Munich (Figs.
21 & 22) and "Ae" at Frankfurt/Main (Fig.23). All of them may be found

FIG. 20
German military
Censorship Mark
from Berlin
Ab inside
circle of 20 mm
Colours: black
violet, red.

FIG. 23
German Military
Censorship Mar'k
from Frankfurt
"A i inside
circle of 20 mm
Colours: black

FIG. 26
German Military Mark
Reserve Military
Hospital at Heidel-
berg. Spanish wound-
ed were attended there

FIG. 21
German Military
Censorship Mark
from MUnchen
Ad" inside
oval of 20 x 23

German Military
Mark. Spanish
Military Hospital
No. IV at Koenigs-
berg. Only Hilitary
German Mark in which
the word "Spanish"
ever appeared.

FIG. 27
German n1 Titary Mark
Reserve Military
Hospital at Aachen.
Spanish wounded were
attended there

FIG. 22
German Military
Censorship Mark
from Minchen
Ad inside
circle of 20 mm
Colours: black
Violet, red
-also mechanical-

FIG. 25
German Military
Mark. Spanish
Military Hospital
at Riga. F.P.No.
14 105. with Nazi
emblem inside circ-
le of 33.5 mm.

German Military
Censorship Mark
currently found
on Blue Division



mostly in violet ink, but also in black, red and sometimes blue. All
other standard censorship marks may also be found on mail from and to
the Division.

During training at Grafenw8hr and Werneuchen, all the mail was censored
thoroughly, but the censors were not very exacting about any information
contained therein about the unit to which the writer belonged or the
details about their training. However, none of these references are to
be found in correspondence sent from the front, especially the Volkhov
sector. Some blurring with indelible pencil is to be found there in some
letters and all mention of units are no longer seen. By the end of the
Division's stay in Russia (on the Southern Leningrad Front), such
controls were weakening and one could read in letters complaints by
Spanish military nurses against Party nurses and one Spanish professional
officer even roundly abused in his letter the SS and the Spanish Falange
Party (see Fig. 29 immediately below).

Fig.29: Letter card sent from the Spanish Military Hospital
of RIGA to the General Inspector of Spanish Army Nurses
by the Head Nurse in which she complains of the arrogant
attitude of Party ( Falange ) Nurses. German Military mark
of Riga Hospital (F.P. 47 279 ), violet. Riga mechanical
Pmk, black. Censor closing strip,black, and Censor circular
marks from Wehrmacht High Command, in red. February 1942.

Fig. 30.

6. Postal Stationery. I
During their stay in Grafenw8hr, members of The Blue Division were given
abundant supplies of "Feldpostkarte" of the current German types.
Propaganda cards were also handed out with Nazi emblems and even
commemorative postcards, i.e. for the "Tag der Wehrmacht", as shown above
in Fig.30. Normal German postcards with views of Grafenw8hr were also
extensively used. The Propaganda Department of the Division issued a
series of 12 postcards with views of the front, emblems, portrait of its
commander General Munoz Grandes etc (Fig. 31). However, they were seldom
used at the front, since most of them were sold in Spain as a means of
obtaining funds and for propaganda purposes. They were printed in
different colours and in unused state they are still relatively easy to
obtain today.

German military letter cards were also distributed and used, mainly at
the Spanish hospitals in Novgorod, Grigorovo, Vilnius, Riga etc. They are
to be found as mail from nurses and also, to a lesser degree, from
wounded soldiers and those on convalescent leave. In the last months that
the Division operated on the front and when ordinary German stamps had to
be affixed to mail in addition to the compulsory "Feldpost" stamp, some
non-military German postal stationery with imprinted stamps were also
used ("Ganzsachen"). Normal envelopes were mostly used by soldiers and


officers, being opened and reopened by the German and Spanish censors and
they were provided by the families. One often comes across this kind of
request, when reading mail from the front to the families of the soldiers.

7. Epilogue.
As stated before, the Wehrmacht 250 Division or Spanish Division was
dissolved in October 1943. The Spanish Legion was then created and served
until it was, in turn, dissolved at K8nigsberg in March 1944, its
survivors being repatriated to Spain in April of the same year. Two
companies were then created (Reserve Companies 101 and 102) and attached
to the German SS. They were made up of veterans from "Division" and
"Legion" units, together with new recruits, chiefly Spanish civilian
workers who had been cut off in several German and Eastern regions by the
swiftly advancing Allied forces. By then, the Spanish Field Post Office
No.250 was dissolved in its turn, its functions being taken over by the
German Feldpostamt No.1416. However, mail from Spanish volunteers from
this period is still not known so far.

The Spaniards taken prisoner amounted to some 300 men and they were
interned in several POW Camps all over the Soviet Union (Krasnoyarsk,
Karaganda, Chernyakhovsk, Potma etc.), where they remained for some eight
years. In the meantime, POWs from Germany and its satellites (Hungary,
Roumania etc.) were allowed to maintain correspondence with their
families. However, since there never was a formal Spanish declaration of
war on the Soviet Union, the Spanish prisoners were not considered POWs,
but simply mercenaries and, as such, they were not entitled to maintain
correspondence with their native countries.

It is known that mail to Spanish prisoners reached one of the camps
(Borovichi), but it was retained in the offices and not distributed. One
Spanish captain relates in his memoirs (see: Palacios, Tomas & Luca de
Lena, Torcuato, "Embajador en el Infierno", Madrid, 1955) that, after
some quarrelling with Soviet office clerks, the mail was taken by the
prisoners and that, subsequently, several requests and reminders were
sent to the Soviet authorities, asking for permission to correspond.
That permission was not granted and not a single piece of mail is known
to exist up to now.

On 2 April 1954, the ship "Semiramis" under a Red Cross flag arrived at
Barcelona from Odessa with 248 prisoners from the Division.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Issues Nos. 162, 163 & 165 of July & Sept. 1985 and
Jan. 1986 of "Philatelie", the official organ of the Federation of
German Philatelists in the Federal Republic carry an article by Martin
Schr8ter, a former POW in the USSR, about "The Mail of the German POWs
in the USSR and of their relatives 1945-1956". Herr Schr8ter was in a
camp at Cherepovets in the Vologda Province and recalled in his last
installment that there were numerous prisoners from The Blue Division
held there. He could not recall if they were allowed to write home, but
he remembered that when they asked the camp commandant when they would
be permitted to return to Spain, he told them that that would only
happen after General Franco had been overthrown!

Readers will recall from the description of the ESPAMER-87 philatelic
exhibition given by your editor in "The Post-Rider" No.21 that a leading
collector in La Coruna, Spain, Sr. Armando Fernandez-Xesta, showed in
his exhibit of Spanish military postal history a letter-card inscribed
in Spanish and German and repeating the original Croatian design and

^ft w ,,a.,J T#A *j I '*/
L(UU "1
'. QEA tZ <^ol?:s^^ *--h'].!
"dz Fcldpo^.-*:''-^,^1^^ ^i

Fig. 32.

Sres Bofarull and Fernandez-Xesta have since personally met in Pamplona
at the recent EXFILNA-88 philatelic exhibition and the latter kindly
allowed Sr. Bofarull to take a photograph of his extraordinary and very
rare letter-card. It is shown above in Fig.32 at left, while the original
Croatian version is given at right for the sake of comparison. It was
sent by a lieutenant in the 3rd. Battalion("Bandera Mixta" or "Mixed
Flag") of The Spanish Legion, as it went through Field Post No. 26 611D;
Sthe letter "D" after the FPO number referred to the 4th. Company of that
Battalion. Sr. Bofarull believes that this piece of postal stationery is
of German SS origin, especially since The Spanish Legion was under the SS
and the slogan does not conform to Spanish usage at that time, since the
word "Bolshevism", much employed by the Nazis, was practically never used
in Spain.


Feldpost Nr.
00 198
43 700







& 23 980

Division High Command and Cartography Service
German Staff Liaison Office with Field Post Office 250
(Estado Mayor Aleman de Enlace y Dep6sito con Feldpost-
amt 250)
Military Police of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
Reserve Battalion of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
Newspaper "Hoja de Campaia"

Infantry Regiment
if if
if it

Infantry Regiment
11 ii

262 Headquarters
" 1st. Battalion
" 2nd. Battalion
" 3rd. Battalion
" 13th. Company
" 14th. Company

263 Headquarters
" 1st. Battalion
" 2nd. Battalion
"3rd. Battalion
13th. Company
14th. Company

Feldpost Nr.
16 379 Infantry
18 125
18 880
19 101
16 943
17 451


269 Headquarters
" 1st. Battalion
" 2nd. Battalion
"3rd. Battalion
13th. Company
"14th. Company

Artillery Regiment

Exploration Group
In It

Anti-Tank Group
it "i

Sapper Battalion
11 11
II 11
11 11

250 Headquarters
" 1st. Battalion
" 2nd. Battalion
" 3rd. Battalion
" 4th. Battalion

250 Headquarters
" 1.
" 2.

250 Headquarters
" 1.
" 2.
" 3.

250 Headquarters
" 1st. Company
" 2nd. Company
" 3rd. Company

Sapper Column of the Wehrmacht 250 Division

Transmission Group 250 Headquarters
1st. Company
2nd. Company
Transmission Column of the Wehrmacht 250 Division

Military Transport
II 1i

Service 250 Headquarters
" 1. Heavy Column
" 2. Heavy Column
" 3. Heavy Column
" 4. Light Column
"5. Light Column
" 6. Light Column
"7. Light Column
" 8. Light Column
"9. Light Column
" 10.Light Column








19 798
20 045
20 796

Army Supplies Company of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
Commissariat (in Spanish "Servicio de Intendencia")
Bakery Company of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
Butchery Company of the Wehrmacht 250 Division

Medical Service of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
1st. Company
2nd. Company
Field Hospital of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
1. Ambulance Platoon
2. Ambulance Platoon
Spanish Military Hospital at Riga
If It ii I II1

Feldpost Nr. Unit
46 630 Spanish Military Hospital at Vilnius
38 396 Convalescence Hospital

* 40 883 Veterinary Company

03 901 Repatriation Services; Headquarters
39 502 Reserve Department; Headquarters
40 545 Finance Office
41 317 Butchery Company
42 413 Verpflegungsamt = Victualling Office
43 700 Field Post Office of the Wehrmacht 250 Division
45 903 Advisory Office

The Spanish Air Squadron ("Escuadrilla Azul"), attached to Luftwaffe
Fighting Group 27.

L 26 252 The Spanish Air Squadron (independent of the 250 Division)

The Spanish Legion

04 368 The Spanish Legion; 1st. Battalion ("Bandera"), as of Dec.43
04 016 2nd. Battalion ("Bandera"), "
26 611 3rd. Battalion ("Bandera Mixta") "
59 053 German Staff Liaison Office attached to the Field Post
Office of The Spanish Legion, as of January 1944.

Capital letters preceding a field post number have a special meaning,
with the letter "L" standing for "Luftwaffe" (Air Force), as in the case
of the Spanish Air Squadron. Capital letters after a field post number
refer to the subordinate groups into which the main unit is divided. If
the number corresponds to a Battalion, then letter "A" means the Ist.
Company, "B" = the 2nd., "C" = the 3rd., etc. The letters are most often
omitted. Two field post numbers are sometimes expressed on a cover. A
wounded soldier writing from a field hospital would state his unit number
and also that of the hospital.

Sources and Bibliography.
INFANTES, ESTEBAN, Lieut.-General: "La Divisi6n Azul (Donde Asia Empieza)"
Ed. AHR, Barcelona, 1956.
"HOJA DE CAMPANA": Newspaper published by the Propaganda Unit of the
Blue Division on the Russian Front.
VADILLO, Fernando: "Orillas del Voljov", "Arrabales de Leningrado",
"Y lucharon en Krasny Bor", Ediciones Marte, Barcelona.
MINASSIAN;R6dacteur-en-Chef: "La Grande Guerre Nationale de 1'Union
Sovietique 1941-1945; Apercu Historique", Editions du
Progres, Moscou, 1974.
MAZZUCCHETTI, E. & GIANNETTO, C.: "Gli Stranieri Volontari nella Guerra
del Terzo Reich", C.F.I., Milan.
SCHMITT, Bruno & GERICKE, Bodo: "Die Deutsche Feldpost im Osten und der
Luftpostdienst im Zweiten Weltkrieg", Archiv fur
Deutsche Postgeschichte, 1969.
MINISTERIO DE DEFENSA, Madrid, Spain: Servicio Historico Militar.
VARIOUS Spanish newspapers and magazines, among them "Ya" of Madrid, 24
May 1978, "El Pais Semanal": "La Divisi6n Azul" in the 28 June 1981 issue.

PERSONAL INTERVIEWS with a great number of Division veterans of all
ranks: generals, officers, soldiers, pilots etc. during a period of over
forty years.
Illustrations of items in the author's collection now follow overleaf.

The first group 1'-_- t e-Q r----
arrived at the
Grafenw8hr Camp TiPlpo0thbOtt
on 18 July 1941.
This card with Bri0tw inii
reference to the
Iron Cross was
sent on 21 July
to Madrid. Note
the violet free .....
frank marking at
bottom centre:
Foerlich -
(Training Staff

Dlu ), ophrtul (mit golbenptt ......-. .-..-........-- ...
foalung), bas nut (Or hamplent- .
idtln0e Toten o0illtltn ilrD.


/9- : /

Letter from a Sergeant from 3rd.Company Anti-tank group to Madrid.
Mute cancelation, circular, black. Circular mark upside down -
reading :"3rd Company Anti-tank group. Spanish Division" and unit
emblem in centre, blue. Spanish San Sebastian Censor mark, oval,
violet, and circular German Military mark "Ausbildungsstab Foerlich"
34 from Grafenw6hr Training Camp. 3 August 1941. Extremely rare item.

Alfere 8 Bandera.' ,del Teroer To.iode e
S. .

departure. Field Post No. 19 101 A. Two blurred German Military

marks "Ausbidunsstab Fo erich" (Grafenwhr Camp), violet. German

pencil. Posted on 9 August 1941.
acl Armdt


in 'eSprez8.Brfandeira iel"u TernoeiT hTeoi'ode

n RIdentity card
marks." "-. -. ..:: .a' .. .-L . ... V ,,-. .. ..... )..... ..- v l nurae Gse md
also u.psid ..... r:r:r, "i h m is l av )i'e

pencil Posteon 3.9.41 and
ge::en am ... ... in .... .. J..... si d

Idnity card l

tvirb aufd)er.ll4 m Ganitt enft ber .et"rmabt a 'nSe. -r.g ee. ber Keitel Chie-f
Gretivi en rantenpfege orenbet. *

t(Fe) ift bere tigt, baO f enfer o bgelfen (peftiempete twelet lrmbinbe of the High
Sc u) u tragen unb ftet unter bem ut ber rtilet 9, 12, 13 Command of

n Rimentr 9 bllontmend aom 27. n3un 1929. the Wehrmacht
depature Fieler P N cf bA W Oberfommanbod (German Army).
as u d r,-ed-'-eow, U rber P.efr mad)t
pni. Pse o Au g. ust 1941
Letter s-en-to an Officer oi the Sopanish Legion (Colonial Troops)

ion. Regiment 269, still in Grafenwshr training camp a week before
departure. Field Post No. 19 101 A. Two blurred German Military
marks "Ausbildunsstab Foerlich" (Grafenwnhr Camp), violet. German

also upside down, red. Upper part, right "Permiso" (beave) in red
pencil. Posted on 9 August 1941t

St(to1ttlGtt 1e oGeim

Letter from a soldier in the 2nd.
Anti-Tank Group at the sub-
sector of Lake Ilmen, sent
through FPO 22 800 to a
sergeant in the 2nd.Comp. p4"
of Infantry Regiment *
262, then in Novgorod
at FPO 11 371C. /
Note the German

FELDPOST marking
serial letter
"b" dated

/8~ a

""' *. L ** -- ><,.'; ---
EL .

CO~lllEO MILITrAn ALEMAN \ ^t'^^

Juan M Gutierrez y G. del


FELD PB03T n II+- 3 7 I 4-- 0

1 i




0 1

IP ^ !' -S5

^J d



_d "

Letter sent by a soldier at 3rd.Company,I Battalion,Regiment 262.
to Merida,Spain. The date, 22.9.41 corresponds to the journey from
Training camp to the Volkhov front. Military German Pmk Feldpost.
Opened and closed by Germen Military Censorship. Strip and handstamp,
36 both reading "Wehrmacht High Command. Censored", in violet and red.





tL~ A-/C6l.

f 0 d
JGA~4o~aLcez1 ~
rr :r
I :-

I-. .



ii :..
/1 ~
- :

I, .7 t* ,,, !: ,, .'';l,:.
,* ^ :""' .
- -,. r ,
~ '' 5

Above: A field post letter from a White
Russian interpreter Ensign Constantino
Goncharenco, sent through FPO No.12 747 of
the H.Q. of Infantry Regiment 263 on 20.10.41
and censored at Frankfurt/Main (Ae) en route
to Larache in the then Spanish Morocco.
Ensign Goncharenco later died in action.

At left: One of the special letter boxes
set up in the main cities of Spain to accept
"Mail for the Spanish Volunteers in


_ ~ -I m-E L-; i-l~-;. l_-~- Lil- I__ ~ -M

. .

.:.'- .'

:;:~:-4 3 i~c~L

Fzte a.



Ntiunero 1 Editor: Compa a de propaganda t.Nouembre 191

La Capital de Crimea conquistadaSebastopol amcnazado
La Division espaiiol en accin Grand s xitos de la campafa submarine
Dease el Cuartel general del FUhrer, 2 de Neviaebre. 1 Alto La Infanteria eapaiiolal
Mando aloman eeoaniea: Aproveehando eoa deoisi6n nuestra victo- El part de guerra aleman do
5o de oetubre comunio ,entre
ria en Crime so persiaue ooa inpetu al *nemigo derrotado. So ha etrts cosas: 'En el sector Norn
aloanzadoten un anoho sootor, la vertiente norte de la oordillers la "Divisi6n azul" espaiola en
un ataque envolvente ha tomato
Jaila. Treopa alemanas y rumanas han oonquistado Siteropoi.oapi- varita posiciones capturando,ds
tal de Criawt y v ontinan avanmando inoesantemento hacia Sobasto- nuevo,nuaerooos prisioneros".
l.* [ Cherson Berajansk
En la euanee del Doaets i, fuersas alemanas e italianao, a pe- ~ we
"Hoja de Campaia" (Field sheet) Division newspaper s ,_
First number,dated November 4, 1941. At left, Division s 7
Emblem : Shield of Arms with Spanish Colours, top .
inscription "ESPAiA" (Spain) and Falange symbol
arrows and yoke. The paper's Field Post Nos. were
17 007 and 23 980. Sheet size : 29. x 42.5 cm.
Printed at German "Armeekartenstelle 536" on the




ii i ^NUMIERO. 18125 G.

A letter, censored in Madrid and sent to a
sergeant at FPO 18 125 of the 1st. Battalion of
Infantry Regiment 269. Also censored en route by
the Germans in Frankfurt:Ae.Note the MSS,note
"Hospital" in red, as the addressee had been
hospitalized in the interim.

A card written in
Madrid 30.10.41
to a sergeant at
FPO 22 379 of the
1st. Company of
the 250th. Anti-
Tank Group, which
covered the zone
of Lake Ilmen, in
the southern
sector of the
Volkhov Front.
Handed over to a
volunteer who, on
arrival, put it
through the
German Field Post
on 10.12.41 !

.)o .

,' _,_ __.',__'. y *_" -_ _'_" '_"-'*', ,_ _ii_ i, *.
V ; '' '" ''* r;'' ".' "'.

Sn Juan Maa Gutierrez Go 1 "

t 1, ,, ,. .
,., '' "., -, .
,,.. ) t/- ''

Letter sent to a Staff Officer at 1st.Company,III Battalion,Regim-
ent 262 Volkhov front All address is printed, as well as ins-
cription on upper part "CORREO MILITAR ALEMAN". Privately printed.
Sent by Diplomatic Pouch. Circular mark : Military Attache. Spanish
Embassy. Berlin, violet. Sent by Pouch it eluded Censorship.

Through FPO 24 101B

-. i at_ bi .250, stationed a few
bpotkms. wst of Novgorod
SOn 2.1.42. Addressed
S to Madrid and with the
........ German censor marking
sealing tape without
Sl-{i "i' inscriptions.
'z C -

4\0_l- .... .......................... ....... ................ .... ..........................

a b c. H d t e n .d .eci o "En Espa .*a" (in. ,- .pi)

0, ^ ^" ^ 0'. "

ent 262. Volkhov front and received when he was already on his
S" i e"d p lc t S
way back home. Handwritten, in red pencil, "En Espaha" (in Spain),
and a large "d" for return, and rectangular r mark "Retour", violet.
In lower left corner, forwarding mark, small "Sp"1942.in red pencil.

br ci e ^ eLpsrMm^

February 1942.A
iS- fi ^.,IU~ ..^./z^^i^^^^^^^....,............

l CAICNT tEL URK ^ ^ "
Sbr c c >ro d gll

Postcard sent to a Spanish nurse in Kfnigsberg Military
Hospital (" Herzog Karl Kaserne. Reserve Lazaret III") from
a German Restaurant in ...Madrid. Large handwritten forwarding
mark "S", in red pencil, rectangular Spanish Censor mark.Madrid, 41
violet, and circular German Military Censorship, in red ink.
February 1942.

Express letter
sent from Paris
18.3.42 to a
interpreter at
the Division
hospital at
FPO 46 630.
German censor
markings on
the back.

Jos6 Carlos L E N Z E.

Spanisches Kriegslazarett




Reverse of cover sent to Madrid by a pilot of the "Blue Squadron"
while in Verneuchen Air Training Field. Large rectangular red
mark "Ministry of Foreign Affairs- Diplomatic Pouch Service /
20 March 1942" Also red circular mark Ministry of Foreign
Affairs. Private Secretary of the Minister" In upper part
sender's name and "Escuadrilla Azul Berlin".
This letter was accompanied by Serrano Suier Compliment(F.10)


? a0l 9ZZecL n


A nder:.... ...... ........................
. ........... .... ...............
Wohnort, a7AZurlmi oder LeItpnCtant .4 I
S,........... Ha:..lu. StoVw.L.. ....~ .
StraBe, Hausnummer, GCinudeteil, Stockwerk oder PostschlleBfachnumnler


Shae, Haugnummer, Gebmudetclli Stodwcik oder PostsdlIe indmumnmr

NO" -1U

'~"'~ ednte"-L

German civilian
card with 15Pf.
stamp sent on
20.3.42 thro'
FPO 40 159 of
2nd. Ambulance
Platoon on the
Volkhov Front.
forwarding mark
"Sp" in red and
German circular
censor stamp in

y Airmail
letter from
a wounded
captain at
.the Military
Hospital in
Aachen with

Ab censor
mark of
Large "Sp"
cachet in
red and the
free frank
stamp of the
Hospital in

I d

aht A:^j~y^'^ e:7 Qy?(.^C p

'4, @: I r-_/ 20

m t --- IL-
racmL \
f- ?A / ^ ^ 9Q /^

^ .7--(9

41L 67


Letter from
a Spanish
Air Force
office in
"The Blue
sent thro'
FP..L26 252.
Notice at
bottom left
the note
"Por Valija
(Per pouch).
On arrival
in Spain,
the Air
applied its
own Free
Frank mark.
Despite a
the sender
gave his
unit (Blue
and origin


Letter from Torrelavega, Santander,
25.4.42 toa soldier in the 269th. Regt.,
with the mysterious large "F"
forwarding mark in red and also
Ab censorship cachet of Berlin.

-IrJ 77

- ..--.4

- I -- I --


;i.'-'~i ~:. :.,-.
:: -::


* '4


Letter from a V I

wounded Spanish
officer at the
German Military
Reserve Hospital

marking and r .
boxed "Sp" mark
in small size. /
Sent on 3.5.42.

a r A

Ii l -'
.i n:.' D LAS ]./ O. N. ,.2. -

by the Sevilla "Falange" Provincial Office, with Party symbol print-
ed on left lower corner. In lower centre, handwritten in red pencil,
fowaing mark "F. Higher cenre, rectangular Seville Censor mark, 45
Sin b M c 21 May.1942.
.. .. ,,: .,,

,* .- -*. 'A

LE sn to LA .ode o I n R m 2ht,
e o ef lowe ;cn, I l c h i r p cl
forwarding mark "F". Higher cenre, rectangu S C mark, 45

S SEVILLA : c n a .ci Se vi 21 .94. *
Letter sent to a soldier of Infantry Regiment 269, Volkhov front,
by the Sevilla "Falange" Provincial Office, with Party symbol print-
ed on left lower corner. In lower centre, handwritten in red pencil,
forwarding mark "F". Higher cenre, rectangular Seville Censor mark, 45
in dark blue. Mechanical cancelation from Sevilla. 21 May.1942.

-_~n/bg4aA: 1AtAZ%

........t. .r .... .
brMd'f Siug.

,,Was die Front opfert, das kann Oiberhaupt durch nichts
vergolten werden. Aber auch das, was die Heimat opfert,
mul vor der Geschichte dereinst bestehen kannen."
(Der Fhrr am 3. 10. 1941)

' (10. -1)
/1; *?- f {*- ^ .

A Fp60 DinA6

Card from a captain in Ist,Coy Sappers Battalion just a few days before
killed in action. Sent throw' FPO 27 303, censored and with "Sp" cachet.

.. .. ". .' ,' .-.' ..,' -

'' : .... ,. .. ,. ,
I. I *

Letter from the Blue (Air.) Squadron, sent thro' FPO L 26 252 and the
airmail franking stamp cancelled BERLIN 18.8.42. Also censored on
46 arrival at Seville in Spain.

. .

,in.. .B .................

Straot, I)jatsmmer. 6ibabettll, stofdwert obet' Pefl4dlit~fd(nta1MM


(-P b

L Letter from Barcelona to a soldier from Regiment 269. Spanish
Pmk Barcelona. Forwarding mark small boxed "F" in red, and
German Censor circular mark "Ab" (Berlin) in dark blue.
June 1942. Volkhov front.

i AI I1 I II\ ^ ii ^i I -

F.P. No. 31 194 B. German franchise stamp. German Field Post Pmk.
July 1942. On reverse German Censorship closing strip and handstamps
"Wehrmacht High Command / Censored" in grey and red.


)?^ y Jif g / f

Letter sent
by Lt.
Gonzalez of
1st. Battn.
advising a
mother of
her son's
death. Note
that the
18 125 is
given as
The letter
shows many
errors due
to defective
state of the

cavpab a 15 deO ctubre 1.942

Sra, Dna IDercedes brti'inez,
CY de la F -num 13.L

Muy Sxa. mia
Sm oQm es stacih a su caarta fec hapr iex. de Ios
co r4ettas, tenii e2 s e~mttuneto de mnuif estexra que el so 1&ado
Nimuel Garci a Baxrevo Y pexiemeviente a 3J Se~unda Ccpafa del
F e).lepoat 38.125. fa1eoi[ om accia in de guexr& f ret e al eremrrd'
e02 dia 21 de .Abxi 1 ael co rierute aiim, 6m ocasia z de arn g-b io w
ohac, J2l*vado a ca1 vo2 x1a Umidad. Su co-Itxcet'a eai-rnpI,dtci-
p Iina y arLir al serviscln -le grarjeaxo n 2A estimacid m y carlb dt
sus st?erijres, siezdo adcem-s z -*I)d-ado edemnploar y uum esfo raio
falamogmst a.
Su- c3a &3:iahzaa de co ucoa. mas Diarca ujn ej emp 30 a
.~~gu3ir eni*1a liioha conmira e3.. con mswta y temnga pxzeserre gue Jra
mrYeirte d t&an valiernte W 1uxtaR-ioM.o s er-A estxi.il
Th~ciba laz~ ires1 a s::ckrxa de nis se&timierto s
y sabe queda sie=. re a/M d su 0fn:m. s~sj s fj Sa

4. '.i;/yr.

S... .-.-! ...... ........ --. -. .

ergoten warden. Aber uh ds was die 1 .top ).......

,. ... e --cFblr e 3.f.fff
,. ......I... .. ............... .................. ..... ..... 0...... .......
e. -+ 1 It.... l .'.: : ...... ,,_ _

,. ,.. ,f ,.' .,1 ;.o.. n....,..,., of i .... ......... .............. ........ ........ .
:, .. ^ ./.. I . ... ..

vergolen warden. Aber auch das, was die l leima opflert,
(Voeor r cic e. 10.Mrb) ((, t 0. 4) A Fp60 DInA6
4German Military Field Post card sent to a town in N.Spain by a
48 Lieutenant from the 5th.Company. II Battalion. Regiment 262. German
Field Post Pmk, circular, black, German Censorship mark, mechanical,
red, small(sizexboedm Sp"' forwarding mark, red. November 1942.

.5'.'.* -5. -4.
I:" .

Letter card from Spanish Military Hospital in Riga 31.12.42 FPNo.14 105
Inspector General of Spanish Army Nurses. Note mute machine canceller,
Wirmail free frank stamp and German censorship tape and markings.
umk eb e n


" -*

... i/ .-, ./ .- -i

|V Ij VC4o % "'i

CaR I I I1I, C I

,Airmail letter
from Madrid
13.1.43 with
an added German
Airmail Free
Frank stamp,
essential by
that time, as
it was
distributed in
quantities to
curtail the
given the
situation of
the invaders.
Addressed to
FPO 00 198
(Division High
Command and



--~- --~-




~> ZAxia

,c- e~


-. 7


i ~



Letter sent on 22.1.43 by an infantry lieutenant through FPO 43 700 in
the Ishora River sector. Note the mute postmark, airmail free frank stamp,
German military censor marking Ab of Berlin and Spanish censorship on
arrival at Palma de Mallorca.
I II I 111 iII

-9tbjenber: ..C.. ......:............

..../ .. c ..... ................

e2/f 44^/ f 4 .

A / I C.VC-1' -' .*

A field postcard sent by a Spanish nursing sister from the
Spanish Reserve Hospital No.IV at K8nigsberg in East
Prussia on 28.2.43. Note the mute postmark, hospital
cachet and Wehrmacht censorship mark with letter "b".






Letter from Madrid,
25.6.43 to a
lieutenant at FP No.
19 798 (Exploration
Group HQ 250th.Regt).
Censored in Madrid
and also in Berlin
(A) In spite of
a formal
prohibition, the
formed part of the

An airmail
letter from a
lieutenant in
the 1st.
Battalion, 262nd
Regt.on the
Front, sent
with mute
German marking,
dated 7.4.43.
Note the Airmail
Free Frank
stamp, German
Ab cachet of
Berlin, violet
"548" censor
number and
Bilbao censor,


Cover from FPO 14 105 (Spanish Hospital at Riga) with two German Airmail
Free Frank stamps tied by a defaced Soviet canceller "ch" on 18.7.43.
Diagonal red pencil cross, meaning "registered", also LUFTFELDPOST in
red pencil. .Sent by a wounded Spanish lieutenant.

fliT;-~' -.
"*" -* BV"'-

i I ; -, ,. .; ,

...... 4 ~,
4Ze ofT1
with two reFn adal
130. ~ Y;- iP41
~ ',~~ ~~c~ I :.:C1,4

S~ r :i ..1 I~~j?~:~;~ ~ FV-kr

~ ncl~~:. .e~r~~jS i~11

with two Free Franks and a 10-Pf, adhesive to Palma de Mallorca.




_ i


SLetter sent through FPO 40 159 from 2nd. Ambulance Platoon of the 250th.
Regt. in Sept. 1943 and received in Madrid on 2 Oct. Note the Spanish
slogan at bottom back:"Long Live the Blue Division "(withdrawn in Oct.1943!)

Card sent on 30 Nov.43 from the newly formed "Spanish Legion" and with
new FPO No.26 611A from a re-enlisted Spanish lieutenant. 53




r 1 ~

\ .- (

i r ^ ** -* '"'' '"* -- **

I.f / ,,'r ." 1 ."


* "' /

*-''" : '. '.



4 r




Another letter
sent from FP No.
26 611E Spanish
Legion on
17.2.44 and
again requiring
two Free Franks
and a 10-Pf.
adhesive, being
censored "Ab"
at Berlin and
at Bilbao, on
arrival in

(o. .'* ...
-4 '-491 ,,

67 P ~ l~Q

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Captain (now General) Garz6n, at present retired, is a
keen philatelist, as was also the late General Munoz Grandes, although the
latter's collection consisted of an accumulation of used material of no
great value. Your editor wrote to General Munoz Grandes from Sydney,
Australia in 1952 in the hope of getting some Blue Division postal history
material. Needless to say, a reply was never received.

There is another Russo-Spanish connection that needs to be investigated:
Soviet aid to the Spanish Republic during the Civil War of 1936-1939.
Despite the great distance then involved, such aid was extensive and
substantial, including the participation of at least 900 Soviet personnel.
Your editor has never seen any postal history relating to such involvement,.
presumably because it all took place at the height of the Great Purge in
the USSR. Does anyone have any material, or was it all destroyed for fear
of incrimination ?


by Alex Artuchov

Perm Province

Irbit is located in the northeast portion of Perm.
Its significance as a centre of commerce grew
rapidly due to its location on the eastern slopes
of the Urals and strategic positioning between
European Russian and Siberia, in the ninteenth
century. The population expanded from 3,408 in
1860 to 20,064 in 1897.

Active trade of material, leather, fur, leather,
hides, metalware and tea was carried on in Irbit.
An annual fair held in the month of February was
started in 1643 and grew to a size and significance
where it was second to only Nizhnii Novgorod.

Irbit issued stamps between 1874 and 1912.

Top: Silver background with a blue cross of St. Andrew.
Bottom: Maroon background with a golden sword and staff
of Mercury and black serpents.

1874 (May,15)
There are conflicting reports of the actual date of this
issue. According to one source, these stamps were put on
sale on the date indicated above, while an official Zemstvo
communication suggests that the actual date of issue was
Jan. 1, 1875.

23.75 x 21.5 mm, type-set and typographed in black on
coloured paper 0.08 mm thick, without gum, sheet of 10 xiO
in groups of 5 x 2 with the right half of the sheet

inverted, 10 types, thin lines frame each stamp and thick
lines separate them from one another, imperforate.

ABenxe* U
6;~Fsas f .

1. 2 kop. black on lilac rose paper


1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

OT 6 8 L 9



The thick separating lines between stamps identifies the
position of several stamps within the 5 x 2 blocks. The four
stamps (T1,T5,T6,TO0) are distinguished by separating lines
only, as illustrated on the diagram below. Other minor
differences in the thick frame line assist with the
identification of the other types.

Type 2 -

Type 3 -

The top frameline consists of 3 parts, there is a
short centre part over the letters MCK.
The top frameline jogs up slightly ahead of the
letter a. The bottom frameline is broken just ahead
of the letter o. The letter R of 3EMCKAI is

Type 4 The bottom frameline has a break just ahead of the
Type 7 There breaks in the thick separating lines at the
sides of the stamp on the right near the bottom and
the left near the top.
Type 8 The breaks in the separating lines are the opposite
of Type 7.
Type 9 The breaks in the separating lines at the right and
left are both at the top. The bottom frameline is
broken just ahead of the letter t .





T. I0

| T.4 4

T.9N 1;



1880 (Jan. 1)
22-23.25 x 33-34 mm, typographed on coloured paper 0.07 mm
thick (Nos. 2&3) and 0.12 mm thick (No. 4), without gum,
sheet of 10 x 10 with the lower half of the sheet inverted
and 10 types placed in a horizontal row, imperforate. Since
stamps of this issue were made with a movable type, many
varieties exist.


Type A

Type B

Type B

2. 2 kop. black on lilac rose paper

3. 4 kop. black on grey green paper

4. 8 kop. black on yellow paper







Type A


I IT. 0

Type 1 Centre design A, large inscription.
Type 2 Centre design A, large inscription, right frameline
broken into 2 parts, which are not aligned, only 2
crosses on the right.
Type 3 Centre design A, large inscription, the crosses are
placed irregularly.

Type 4 -

Type 5 -
Type 6 -

on the
on the

design B, block letters, the
left is broken.
design B, large inscription.
design B, block letters, the
right is broken.

2nd wavy line

2nd wavy line

Type 7 -

Type 8 -

Type 9 -
Type 10-

Centre design A, large inscription, letter B
instead of B inHPBHTCKO%, there are 2 breaks in
the bottom wavy line.

Centre design A, small inscription, break in the
bottom wavy line.

Centre design B, small inscription.
Centre design A, no breaks in the bottom wavy line
but with an extra dash on the left, small


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0T 6 L 9 S V E Z T

01 6 8 L 9 G V E Z T

0T 6 9 L 9 S V E Z T

OT 6 9 L 9 S V C Z I




15 x 24.25 mm, typographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick,
sheet of 2 x 1 with each pair tete beche, imperforate, with
a wavy line under the word IIOTA

.4 R'.L

5. 2 kop. black and brown rose

(6 pairs known)

14.75 -15 x 24 mm, similar in design to the previous issue
but with the word IOTTA in small type, the numerals of
value are slightly larger, the stamps are separated by
dotted lines, typographed on smooth white paper 0.01 mm
thick, no gum, sheet of 10 x 2 in 2 groups of 5 x 2 and 10
types, imperforate.

'n lru"f"
aL. :.iil
ni-B if~l


6. 2 kop. black and red or bright red


...- .------ -- -.- -- ------------,

OT 6 9 L 9 1 2 3 4 5

S t Z T 6 7 8 9 10

L------------------ -----



Type 3 Parts of the black frameline are not aligned, red
spot under TA of IHOTA .
Type 4 The bottom section of the frameline is bent
Type 5 Wide gaps in the frameline on the left side, spots
of red after A of HPBHTCKA5 and 3 of 3EMCKA~
Type 6 Centre portion of frameline on right side is not
Type 8 Right portion of top frameline is low.
Type 9 Similar to type 5, narrow breaks in the left
frameline, no red spots in the background.
Type 10- Numerous breaks in the top left frameline.

I K F--I i I 7 I
7I I I I 1 I

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5

1 I I I I I i- I
I I I I I<: I I I I

L iI I I A K_ I
Type 6 Type 7 Type 8 Type 9 Type 10

1885 (May 1)
Similar to the previous issue but with a thick straight line
under the word IHOTA typographed on smooth white paper 0.1
mm thick, without gum, printed in sheets of 30 in three
groups of 5 x 2 and 10 types, the top group of 10 is
inverted, the three blocks of 5 x 2 are printed in 3
different colours, the top is brick red, the middle is lilac
red and the bottom is light red, imperforate.

7. 2 kop. black and brick, lilac or light red 0.50
A. Without 3 in 3EMCKAq (TI of centre block of 5 x 2)
B. Background printed on both front and back.

Type 1 in the inverted group at the top of the sheet has a
wide space between the letters A and A of 3EMCKA .a
Type 1 in the centre group is without the letter 3 of
In the bottom group of 5 x 2 there a is wide space between
the letters M and C.
The 10 types can be identified through differences in the
framelines and the position of the wavy lines in the
There are no dotted lines framing the left side of any of
the groups of 5 x 2.

OT 6 8 L 9

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

1890 (Oct. 11)
Similar to previous issues but with double framelines and a
background of overlapping circles instead of wavy lines, the
inscriptions are in larger type, each stamp and group of 5 x
2 are separated by a frame of dotted lines, 15 x 24.5 mm,
typographed on smooth white paper 0.06 mm thick, without
gum, sheet of 10 x 2 in 2 groups of 5 x 2 with the right
group inverted, imperforate.


8. 2 kop. black and lilac rose 1.50


Types 1 5 :

Types 6 10:

1 2 3 4 5 OT 6 9 L 9

6 7 8 9 10 PV E Z T

The thick outer framelines have bevelled ends
in the corners, all framelines have breaks in
various places.
The thick outer framelines have straight ends,
both thick and thin and top and bottom
framelines extend above the side framelines.

Type 1 The word HOqTA is widely spaced.
Type 2 The top framelines consist of 2 unaligned parts.
Type 3 The bottom framelines consists of 3 broken parts.
Type 4 A black spot is located between the thick and thin
framelines near the NW corner, the thin frameline
on the top side is wavy under the left break.
Type 5 There is a dent in the thin frameline on the top in
in the centre, the letter T of HPBHTCKAR is
00 000000 00000 0 000000
-ooo ooo

Type 1.


Type 6

Type 2.

Type 3.

Type 4.

Type 5.

000000 2 H 2


Type 7

Type 8

Type 9

Type 10

Type 6 The letter R of the word XjBf is without a left
Type 7 The thick frameline is damaged at the top in the NW
Type 8 The numeral 2 in the NW corner has a poorly rounded
top, there is a dent in the top thin frameline
above it, the vertical strokes of the first letter
of the word HPBHTCXKA are connected by a black
Type 9 The letter n of KOH is without a horizontal
stroke at the top and the vertical strokes are


short on the bottom, the letter H is the same as
in type 8.
Type 10 The numeral 2 in the NW corner has a break in the
top curve, the left thin frameline left of the
letter 3 bulges out.

Similar to previous issue except that the word 3EMCKAH is
in thinner block letters, typographed on greyish white paper
0.09 mm thick, dirty grey-brown gum, sheet of 40 in 2 groups
of 10 x 2 with the bottom half inverted, 20 types differing
in the framelines and lettering, each group of 20 is
separated by a frame of dotted lines, the dots are smaller
and closer together than on the 1890 issue, imperforate,
issue of 31,439 stamps.

9. 2 kop. black and lilac rose 1.50


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


OT 6 9 L 9 S G Z T

1893 (Jan.)
Unlike the previous issues which were printed locally in
Irbit at the printing shop of Mrs. E.S. Khitrova this issue
was printed in Moscow by Kushnerev, 18 x 22.5 mm ,
lithographed on white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet
unknown, perforated 11.75, number of stamps issued: 2 kop. -
302,778 and 10 kop. 105,024.

10. 2 kop. mauve, light or dark

11. 10 kop. red

Proofs of this issue are known. They are
white chalky paper. The 2 kop. proof is
and the 10 kop. is imperforate.

21.25 x 27.5 mm lithographed in colour
0.08 mm thick, white gum, sheet unknown,
and also known imperforate.

printed in black on
perforated 11.75

on a coloured paper
perforated 11.25

12. 2 kop. blue or light blue on a green-blue paper


Proofs of this issue are known in an emerald green colour.
They are perforated 11.25 and are also known imperforate and
are without gum.
------- TO BE CONTINUED ----

Large Silver Medal
Praga 1988 VO&TWe "030S

Copies are available
$20.00 (US) Postpaid M 433L tlAm
Dealer Terms Available

Send orders to Alex Artuchov
at the Society address

Vol.1: Akhtyrk- Byezhetsk





Russian philatelists in the Western
World have many examples of Imperial
mail directed abroad and have, in I /
fact, ensured the survival and l.mepio '
loving preservation of practically 'J
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is \
a horse of another colour, as \
terrible things have happened since
the collapse of that Empire and
many magnificent philatelic items --
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.

by Andrew Cronin

There are many links, cultural, historical and philatelic between
Bulgaria and Russia. The two languages are closely related and Bulgarian
may be regarded as a simplified form of Russian, or Russian as a
complicated form of Bulgarian. It all depends on one's point of view.

*The main result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 was the liberation of
Bulgaria from the Ottoman yoke. The new independent administration
obviously needed its own postage stamps and five values were issued on
1 May 1879. They were manufactured at the State Printing Works in St.
Petersburg, with the same sheet layout and watermark as for the concurrent
Russian issues. Since the names of the currency for the new principality
had not yet been decided, the stamps were denominated in the French units:
centimes and francs. Native names were determined by 1881 for the new
Bulgarian money: stotinkaa" (literally "one hundredth") and "lev", from
the lion rampant displayed on the national coat of arms. Six stamps in
the new currency were also prepared in St. Petersburg and issued in
Bulgaria on 10 June 1881.

Mail bearing either of these two issues is among the classic rarities of
international philately, as the volume was still very small. Much of it
went to the Russian Empire and it is proposed here to examine one
particular correspondence, addressed to Madame Florence de Schantz,
Runalinna, Wiborg (Viipuri), Grand Duchy of Finland. Each of the
envelopes from this mail was numbered at top left and it would seem that
at least 13 letters were posted from various towns in Bulgaria in the
period from August to November 1881. The rates both within and without the
country were 25 centimes/stotinki for letters weighing 15 grammes (ozj or
fraction. All the examples in this correspondence were double or triple
weight letters. All the dates were Old Style, except on arrival in Wiborg/
Viipuri. They apparently went overland via Ruschuk (Ruse) and Roumania to
Ithe Russian border office at Ungeni, Bessarabia, then on to St. Petersburg
and Finland. Data about each letter have been summarised overleaf.



New Style


4 Sofia 1 x 25 cent. ? 20.9.81 H.K8hler
30.8.81 1 x 15 stot. 10.2.84
2 x 5 stot. Lot 5596
One stamp
6 Sevlievo 1 x 10 stot. Sevlievo 6.10.81 G.Alevizos
15.9.81 1 x 15 stot. 17.9.81 17.12.85
pair 25cent. Ruschuk Lot 908
See Fig.l Wonderful 18.9.81
mixed Ungeni
franking 19 & 20
St. Pet.
22 & 23
7 Ruschuk pair 25cent. Ungeni 13.10.81 G.Alevizos
25.9.81 26 & 27 17.12.85
Sept.81 Lot 909
St. Pet.
30.9 &
8 Lovech 2 x 25 cent. Lovech 23.10.81 H.K8hler
2.10.81 1 x 25 stot. 4.10.81 6.10.83
Wonderful Ruschuk Lot 3672
See Fig.2 mixed 5.10.81
franking Ungeni
6 & 7
St. Pet.
_10 & 11_


3 x 25 stot.

17 & 18
St. Pet.
22 10 n R1


Lot 518

11 Lovech pair 25cent. Lovech 20.11.81 H.K8hler
29.10.81 1.11.81 7.2.85
Ruschuk Lot 4072
3 & 4
St. Pet.
-----___________. 7&8 _________-------_


2 x 25 cent.

20 & 21
St. Pet.
23 & 24


Lot 5595

All the items noted above, with the exception of letter No. 4, are in the
collection of a U.S. philatelist, who prefers to remain anonymous. It can
be seen from the listing that the various covers have popped up over a
period of time and that Nos. 1 to 3, 5, 10 and 12 have still to come to
light. The possibility cannot be excluded that the missing letters may
have, in fact,been posted in a neighboring country. Can anyone give
further information ?






by Rev. L.L. Tann

One Sunday afternoon, I trotted along to the stamp fair at
Altrincham here in England to pass an hour or so, to size up W
the place and with a small hope of finding something nice. Of course, 98%
GB and Commonwealth, all pretty stamps of modern type, no style or
lineage! One dealer had a few old albums he let me flick through and I
found some Arms stamps, perf. and imperf., thoughtfully stuck to the page
by their own gum!

And then I spotted this one. A very ordinary 1916 surcharge 10 kop./7 k.
blue. Just like millions of others, except for the date: an off the edge
but clear "..3.16". It was a small-lettered TIFLIS postmark. In the
chapter on the 1916 surcharge in the Arms book (pp.82-88), the
crystallised view on when these stamps appeared was given, based on
earlier discussions in The British Journal of Russian Philately. Dr. H.
Weinert, Eric Peel and myself came to the agreed conclusion that the
10 kop./7 k. blue was issued in December 1916. That was based upon some
usage as we had observed and also from copies of the contemporary Russian
journal FILATELIYA, which stated that this value had appeared in late 1916.

Yet here is a copy postmarked in March 1916. I have tried to read the
apparent figure "3" differently, but it cannot be done. The fragment of a
mark just on the very edge of a perforation tooth turns out to be the stop
before the month figure, just as there is a full stop separating it from
the year. This cannot be read as anything other than "..3.16", since the
bulk of the word TIFLIS indicates the right way up of the cancellation.

Is it conceivable that these stamps were issued much earlier than hitherto
supposed? Or do we fall back on the hoary excuse that the clerk changed
the wrong slug in the canceller after a late night with too much vodka?
It is not an "8", but even if it were, discounting the flattened top of
the figure, that would still put it five months earlier than the date of
issue accepted up till now. Any suggestions, please?

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Examination of the back of this particular copy shows
it to bear a complete and unblemished coat of gum. In short, the stamp has
been cancelled to order. One should furthermore bear in mind that some
postmarkers of the Imperial period ended up in private hands during the
turmoil of the Civil War. Perhaps Mr. Transcaucasia (Peter Ashford of
Ashton, Chester, England) can enlighten us about the bona fides of this
particular marking, which is shown in exact size at the top of this
article. Over to you, Peter!

In addition to the catalogued varieties of the
Surcharge: inverted, double, shifted, offset etc.,
there are varieties caused by wearing plates. The
Arms handbook refers to the known variety of the
fractured "k" on the 20/14 k. Arms stamp.
SWhen looking at a page of mint and used surcharged
...... stamps at a dealer's recently, I saw the two items
shown here. Both are the 10 kop./7 k. blue Arms. The first shows a very
weak Cyrillic "P" in the word KOP preceding the figure "10". On the secondW
stamp, the second word KOP shows an extremely weak printing of the KO. No
abrasions on the face of the stamps to indicate damage to the paper. These
varieties result from worn plates during late printings.


by Andrew Cronin

* By the term "charity stamps" is meant postage stamp
is collected for a charitable purpose. The American
ambiguous, since these are postage stamps in the fu

s with a surtax, which
word "semi-postal" is
llest sense of the
word. There
are only two
sets of
Russia that
we have to
consider as
being on
sale also
purposes at
Russian post
abroad, i.e.

fr .7.7

*. ~ -~ .o !z el


I -'A. -A N

-~ '.L.;- J. -.


d '-'I I't


V 70-
Pa, k L_ .6_

(A) The 1905
set of four
values, in
aid of
orphans of
the Russo-
Japanese War
of 1904-05.

By the way,
does anyone
know the
first day of
issue for
these stamps?
they should
have been
sold at all
post offices
abroad, but
the writer
only has two
examples of

(1) A reg.
letter with
the correct
rate of 20k.,
made up of
10+3k. on the
front and
7+3k. & 3+3k.
sealing the

.1;^ ; a i ^ i" -
-: -C ,: : ; -" ^ -.; ; -.

registration fee. Addressed in Russian and German from Urga, Mongolia
oFiug. 2at the bo m (e Fp.6).

Russian as "From G. Leder, in Urga (Mongolia)". Two copies of the 5+3k.


stamp sealed the flap and paid the foreign letter rate of 10k. Posted on
26 April 1905 0.S. and received at Katherein bei Troppau (Kater andky
Opareceivedy, now in WeKatern Silesia, Czechoslovakia) on 24on 31 May NS.S. This time, 21 days on the way(Fig.2).
day The let190 appears to be scace se aboa oments, a a oene
roughly atB) The WWI set of four values, first issued on 26 November 1914.

(1) A registered letterback from the same correspondence, with the sending data given in
RuMeshchsian skaya 745 in Kharb, in Urga (Mongolia)". Two copies of the 5+3k.utsk

26and Petrograd, passing., to pas through Montreal 9 Dec. N.S.k three and received in
Waterloo, Ont. two days lateron 31. Thus 39 days timen route. Correct fore way(Fign2).

Thand 1905 issue appeharities on white scpaper (sed abroad. Comments, anyoneFig.3).
Another two examples, as follow:-

(2) A registered letter from the Russian Legation in Peking, with theNo9
Waterloo, Ont. two days later. Thus 39 days en route. Correct foreign

correct 20k. rate paid in part with the 1+lk. and 3(3+lk.) charities on
white paper. Sent on 24.3.17 0.S. and received in London on 26 May N.S.,
with a transit time of 50 days (see Fig.4 on p.72). Note that the letter
was addressed to L. Zarine (L. Zari.), obviously a Latvian and possibly
related to the famous Latvian artist and stamp designer Richards ZariI.

Does anyone have further usages abroad of these Russian charity stamps?



-f~i A 05
1 O L 1 J ) A. LI I)

A t C, -;E B %
4'A"f fl il 16X ,F

Note the
with No.750,
applied on
arrival in
with the
one shown
on page 3


-, .-. _- -1. -- W .ifJ






Fig. 4.


-- .-.. .-~-----*-----~- ,-',----_:--- ~ ~__


Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some
newly acquired item ?

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !
Rev. L.L. Tann, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.

, -, .* ".
O"TKpbITOe nlCbMO Poczit'

P/ Rb aTb \

..... .. ......... ... ..


I am showing here
two field post
cards from the
liberation of
the capital of
what is now the
Western Ukraine,
by the Imperial
Russian Army in
WWI. The first item
was apparently sent
by a nurse, Magda,
on 4.2.15, wishing
her father a happy
birthday. Note the
mauve cachet at top
Temporary Military
Hospital No. l/Seal
for packets. Her
father,L.Gauer, was
obviously a German!

The second card was
from one serviceman
to another, written
on 21.5.15 O.S.,
passing through FPO
No.24 on 30.5, Field
Control P.O. No.12?
on 31.5 and received
1.6.15. I have never
seen that last mark
before. Note that
L'vov was retaken by
the Austro-Hung./
German forces on
9 June O.S., i.e.
22 June N.S., so
this item is a late
Russian usage.

le, 44
u ~~e ~wU~ .


Wydawnictwo kart artystycznych. Nr.
D. Grunda, Lw6w. Nailadownictwo zastrz. II ................. ........ ............................. ....
Ooz*olono cenzurl woJennj.
DOarumANI* JAKUSoWILCO I *P. Wt Lwowi,

Socrates Bozovitch, Athens, Greece.

This is the ,
back of a
cover from
the Russian
hermitage of
St. Andrew,
sent from
Mt. Athos on '
2.8.04 O.S.
and picked i
up by the 1,
Customs, who (.
applied a
cachet in
matter in
the Russian iV
language-it :
is being
returned by ^
the Odessa
Customs .'j
House", in /.

Mr. Cronin
has a
item, sent
on 19.9.04
O.S., also
picked up
by the
but with a
cachet in
violet in
FOUR lines:
"Opened by
the Odessa
House and

matter in
the Russian
language, it
is being
sent back
abroad". Can
anyone give
the full text?

:I'\ /

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Ont., Canada.

(a) A recent auction of the Kronenberg firm in Basle, ,
Switzerland featured a striking usage of a 1-rouble stamp
*of the Grand Duchy of Finland and thereby hangs a tale.
That particular value was part of a set of 13 stamps in
the Russian kopek and rouble system, printed in Saint
Petersburg and issued in Finland on 1 May 1891 N.S. They
were replaced on 1 Jan. 1901 O.S.(14 Jan.N.S.) by the normal Russian Empire
stamps required for Finnish mail being sent abroad. The 1891 set
had characteristic circles incorporated in the designs to distinguish
them from the Russian issues and we have here a Finnish stamp, cancelled
after it was supposed to be taken off issue with the marking:
6 SEVASTOPOL' TAVRICH.G. 6 POCHT.TEL.KONT. 15.X.19-02 It appears to
have been used by oversight in the Crimea, having been easily mistaken
for the normal Russian 1-rouble stamp. Who has other such usages ?

(b) The two beautiful Soviet I EiI l,.A irr' 'IpT i l..- ;
f r-. _nOWA _@__ : 15 x u,,;4r,'^ -A1 1141 no3r ,A
stamps for the First All-Union -7 o 70
Philatelic Exhibition, held in "---- '-
Moscow as from 5 Dec. 1932, were 0I li
reissued in Leningrad on 30 Mar. ..". ,,,,, ., ,..
1933 with an appropriate .. ........... .. ..* .............
overprint. There were 100,000 ,.'i r ,,,,iiiiir,,,,u n: 1iir r 0 no4
copies surcharged of the 15+30k. To. -o0
and 50,000 of the 35+70k. It is H1 ii
not generally known that there "F Mli Lp
exists an overprint variety on I '.IA? '; 'laI)
both values, apparently once -----.......... -- .......
on the overprinting plate, with the dot missing after the "r" of"1933 r."
It may clearly be seen on the bottom left stamp in the block shown above.
Does anyone know the position of this variety on the overprinted stamps ?

+ -c.) .---------------'-------~ ---C. .... ^ -


World Expo '88 was held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 April
to 30 October inclusive and Australia Post applied a special postmark on
12 May 1988 for the Day of the USSR at the exhibition. An example is
shown above on the special cover supplied by Australia Post. It will be
of especial interest to thematic collectors, as it encompasses a variety
of themes. 75

Anton Welvaart, Maarssen, Holland.

..,. ,.

P. P. T. T. (X-1938) 20.000.000.

The above Polish card, utilised during the Soviet administration of what
was formerly Eastern Polish territory in the Sept.1939 to June 1941
period, demonstrates some interesting features. First of all, the
imprinted Polish stamp design of 15 groszy was no longer valid by 1940,
when the card was posted. The Soviet rate, which was covered by a pair
of the 10-kop. definitive, sent the card from the Olyka No.2 post office
on 29 April. This is a Ukrainian town in the province of Volhynia, about
14 km./9 miles NWW of Rivne/R6wne/Rovno. The card was addressed in
Russian to W. Wojciechowicz at the town of August6w/Avgustov, near
Suwalki, where it was received on 1 May. Note that, in that period,
August6w was in the Belorussian SSR, as stated in the postmark, while the
town of Suwalki,just to the north of it,had been incorporated by the
Germans into East Prussia. Both August6w and Suwalki, together with the
Bialystok area, were returned to the jurisdiction of the Polish Republic
after WWII. In short, we have a card here that, in its time, went from
the Western Ukraine to Western Belorussia and is also of interest to
Polish postal historians.


This is a 55-minute video documentary produced by the Ukrainian
Philatelic and Numismatic Society of Toronto in celebration of the
1000th. anniversary of Christianity in the Ukraine. Narrator Nicholas
Hawrysch guides viewers through the Ukrainian postal service, starting
from the 1720s and up to 1945. He examines actual stamps, letters and
stock film footage throughout the video. Produced by Peter Palijenko,
the video features the artful direction and camera work of Ihor Lomaga
with musical arrangements by Oksana Bryzhun-Sokolyk. Available in
Ukrainian or English, VHS or Beta at Can.$33.00 or US $29.00, plus $3.00
postage from The Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic Society of Toronto,
120 South Drive, TORONTO, Ontario, Canada M4W 1R8.





page magazine issued by The British Society of Russian Philately.
Enquiries to the Hon. Secretary, H.J.D. Ames, Freefolk Priory, Freefolk,
Whitchurch, Hants. RG28 7NL, England.

This is the first number to be issued by the new editor, Ivo Steyn of
Amsterdam, Holland and with a striking new cover. It is hoped to bring
out the journal twice yearly in the future. The subjects treated
comprehensively in the present number are Volunteer Fleet Emergency
Cancellers, by Dr.R.Casey; Riga Krag Machine Postmarks, by V.Marcilger;
Imperial Russian Currency Tokens 1914-17, by Rev. L.L.Tann; British and
Indian FPOs in Transcaucasis & Transcaspia 1918-20, by P.T.Ashford (most
timely, in view of the current ethnic unrest!); Reviews and Society
SMatters.A professional job of work under the new editorship!

IOIOTA No.4 for June 1988. A 55-page magazine issued by The Australia &
New Zealand Society of Russian Philately. Enquiries to the Hon.Secretary,
Terry Archer, 313 Mahurangi East Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, N.Z.

This journal is getting better as it goes along and the present issue
has an excellent mix of articles by various authors, as follows:
Editorial; Correspondence Russia-Australia/N.Z.; Follow-Up Notes;
Letter Postage Rates New Zealand-Russia 1842-1891 (excellent!), Nansen
Relief Mission 1922, EXPO '88 Brisbane-Australia and Soviet Medium and
Heavy Tanks of WWII, all by the editor Dr.A.R.Marshall; More about Krag
Machine Cancels & Petrograd-Helsinki Feb.1917, both by N. Banfield; Krag
Markings of Imperial Russia, by Ivo Steyn; Readers' Page; WWII FPO
Sortirovka Markings, by P.A.Michalove; Romanov Jubilee, by Rev.L.L.Tann;
1921 250r. Definitive Revalued 1922, by H.Irmann-Jacobsen, to finish
with New Issues and Literature Review. Keep up the good work!

IIOTTA No.45 for August 1988. A 44-page journal of the Russia-USSR Study
Group in the Federal Republic of Germany. Enquiries to Herr Wolfgang
Nietsch, Spessartstr.5, D-5300 BONN 1, Federal Republic of Germany.

The Study Group, as presently constituted, has been in existence for 15
years and has covered a lot of ground, both on the national and
international level. This particular issue has a message from the
President; Society News; Editorial; Reports on the Bilateral FRG-USSR
Philatelic Exhibition held in Donetsk/Stalino/Yuzovka; Baikonur and Chess
Postmark forgeries; Moscow-Kabul Flight of 11.7.28, by H.Dietrich;
DERULUFT Winter Flights 1922-23, by H.Kupec; Notes on Astrophilately, by
B. Kantemirov, L.Kloz & Nina Aerni; Collectors' Queries; Soviet Postal

Stationery-Railways Theme, by K.Schauritsch; Oval Characteristics of the
1857-81 Issues & Notes on the Levant Romanov Issue, by J.Freese;
Classification of the Kopek Definitives 1909-1922, by W.Hermann; Notes
from Collectors; Vil'na Censorship 1914-22, by G. Hahne (comprehensive!);
Literature Notes, including about a Danish Zemstvo Catalogue by N.W.
Jensen and, finally, adlets. Varied fare, indeed!

Postage Stamps-Parts II & III), by Harry von Hofmann and numerous
collaborators. A 260-page stout paperback, issued by the Latvian Study
Group in the Federal Republic of Germany and available at DM 68,- post
paid from Harry von Hofmann Verlag, D-2000 HAMBURG 52, Postfach 52 05 18.

These two parts cover in the greatest possible detail the postal issues
of Latvia from 1 Sept.1920 to 4 Dec.1940, as well as local issues, essays,
booklets, railway newspaper stamps; TB seals and bogus issues. Copiously
illustrated throughout the book, very well set up and very easy to follow
for those who do not have German. This study is the final result of many
hours of work on the part of the author, who is one of the foremost
experts on Latvian philately in the world and also has many professional
responsibilities to bear. Very strongly recommended.

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (The Baltic Area). The organ printed in Dutch of the
study group in Holland with the same name. Enquiries to the secretary, W.
R. Muller, Einsteinlaan 23, NL 2641 ZL PIJNACKER, Holland.

No.11 for Jan.1988 contains 49 pages and includes an editorial; financial
statement; membership list; aldets; data on the German Dienstpost in Riga;
Mail of the Poles interned in Lithuania 1939-40, by J.Kucharski & R.M.
Lapas; Soviet Latvian Postal History 1940-41 (unsigned); Lithuanian
Postal Rates, by P. Kazlauskas; Marijampole Printing of the First Kaunas
Issue & German Field Post in Lithuania during WWII, both by Andre de
Bruin. A lot of solid information here.

No.12 for July 1988 has 27 pages, with library notes and announcement of
a comprehensive Memel Handbook in Dutch put together by M. Zuijdwegt;
North-West Army Issues, by W. Muller and finishing with a thorough study
of Latvian Postal Rates by R.W. van Wijnen and Nikolajs Jakimovs. Thus,
a useful issue.

OOST EUROPA FILATELIE (Eastern Europe Philately) The organ printed in
Dutch and issued four times yearly by the Vereniging "Filatelistische
Contactgroep Oost Europa" (need we translate?). Enquiries to the Hon.
Secretary, Anton Welvaart, Boomstede 424, NL 3608 BE MAARSSEN, Holland.

The editor of this live-wire group is our friend Ivo Steyn of Amsterdam.
How he manages to turn out this journal, also edit The British Journal of
Russian Philately and shoulder heavy responsibilities at the University of
Amsterdam is beyond the understanding of this reviewer. Magazine No.2 for
April 1988 has 24 pages and the articles in our area deal with a puzzling
Soviet 20-kop. card sent registered (extra 30k. stamp affixed) from the
Moscow-10 post office with a printed Georgian address and two despatching
postmarks, both reading GOSSHTAMPSVYAZ' OBRAZETS-a (State Stamping
Communications Specimen) and dated &; presumably a
trial for a registered postcard and advised by Ivo Steyn. He also does a
fine study of Parcel Cards in Russia 1904-17. G.C. Maarleveld looks at
Polish military units in WWI and shows a reg. card from the 1st. Polish
Corps, sent from Bobruisk 15.5.18 to Poznan, which probably never got
there. A nice review of the CSRP Zemstvo Vol.I work is also included.

Magazine No.3 for September 1988 contains 24 pages and has Edmond
Rombaut looking at the Soviet Philatelic Association and the mysterious
2 & 3-triangle markings; Bas van der Plas does Tuvan issues; Marcel de
Jong has an unissued Hungarian 1 Ft. design of 1952 by Legrady Sandor
for the 35th. anniversary of the October Revolution and showing the
"Aurora"; Ivo Steyn gives a detailed treatment of the 1909-1920 Arms
issues and literature reviews bring up the rear. Both issues include
comprehensive mail auctions, with some delectable material in our area
and that feature alone is sufficient reason for joining this Eastern
Europe Contact Group (annual subscription 22,50 guilders or US $12.00).


This exhibition of The Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic Society
with its Toronto counterpart was held on 25-26 November 1988 at the
Harbour Castle Westin Hotel in our fair city on the
occasion of the Millenium of Christianity in the .r
Ukraine. There were 200 frames of 6 pages each on
display at the show and your editor had the honour to
be one of the judges, together with Drs. Mieczyslaw
Kamiefski of Toronto and Dominick Riccio of New York (UKRANPEX88
City. The overall standard of the exhibits was high, 8t25
with great historical and philatelic interest. Your
editor was especially pleased to be able to meet in
person some of our CSRP subscribers, in particular
Paul Spiwak of New Hartford and Bohdan Pauk of Chicago. The great help
given by the parent organisation and its president Val Zabijaka cannot
be overemphasised. A tasteful catalogue and interesting philatelic
* souvenirs were prepared; they are now obtainable from The Ukrainian
Philatelic and Numismatic Society of Toronto, 120 South Drive, TORONTO,
Ontario, Canada M4W 1R8.


Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto,
Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

WRAPPERS), compiled in 1889 and issued in Russian by I.I. Kreving in
St. Petersburg. A photo-lithographic reprint of 32 pages and of great
bibliographic interest. Passed by SPB Censor. Price postpaid US $ 3.00

PLUTO'S CHAIN, by E.K. Markhinin. An English translation by Progress
Publishers of Moscow about volcanic activity in the Kamchatka Peninsula
and Kuril Islands. Non-philatelic, but with valuable maps and data for
the postal historian. VERY LIMITED SUPPLY! Price postpaid US $ 5.00

48-page booklet compiled by M. Koljankiws'kyj & long out of print. Text
in Ukrainian with many illustrations. Few only!Price postpaid US $ 6.00

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of Dec. 1918, embodying the latest facts by four noted
researchers and a great subject for study. Price postpaid US $ 5.50

in Bochum. A 62-page booklet in German and Russian. Contains a fine ten-
page airmail article etc. Interesting! Price postpaid US $ 3.00


Are you still missing that elusive item in your 1
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your /
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line V
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a book of reminiscences by American prisoners of war in Europe during
WWII, I would like to hear from surviving prisoners of war with personal
knowledge of Americans released from German control at the end of the war
who became prisoners of the Russians.
JOHN R. CASHMAN, R.D.2, Box 4339, Barre, Vermont, U.S.A. 05641.

FOR a "St.George & the Dragon" topic, I need the following material:
Armenia Scott 265; Russian R.O.N.D.D. private issues; Wrangel overprinted
Denikin issues on cover; Russia St.George semi-postals used outside
Russia; Arms type covers in combination with stamps of other countries;
Georgia & South Russia Denikins on cover; Savings and Control stamps
postally used on cover; Errors; Varieties; Forgeries; Essays etc.
GEORGE B. LOAN M.D.,1306 South Barclay St.,Bay City,Michigan,U.S.A.48706.

WANTED: Russian revenues,fiscals,vignettes,labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper,paper seals,bill of exchange cut-outs and any
revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil War
or Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI, 21 West 12th.St., Huntington Station,N.Y.,U.S.A. 11746.

MUTE CANCELLATIONS of Russia WWI. Information and listings required. Can
spare many duplicates in exchange for this knowledge.
JONAS MICHELSON, P.O. Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

WANTED:I. Auction catalogues containing specialised and/or unlisted
Russian or related area material.2. Back issues of FRANCE-URSS
PHILATELIE(Journal of Cercle Philatelique France-URSS);good quality
photo or xerox copies acceptable.3. Back issues of RUSSISCHE /
SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE(Journal of BAG Russland/UdSSR); good quality
or xerox copies acceptable.4. Russian philatelic literature,preferably
in English. For any items 1-4 above, please write first, listing
material you have available and your asking price. Would also like to
correspond with English reading/writing member of Cercle Philatelique
and/or BAG Russland-UdSSR.
PAT EPPEL, 108 Pinewood Circle, Apple Valley, MN, 55124, U.S.A.

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