• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Catalogue values
 Correspondence with Canada
 Imperial Russian experimental...
 Prussia as postal intermediary...
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The well-kept secret
 The Czechoslovak field post in...
 Mail from the Russian Empire to...
 The great dot and numeral hunt
 Ukrainian wooden churches...
 Wooden architecture of transca...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner














Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
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Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Catalogue values
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Imperial Russian experimental stationery
        Page 5
    Prussia as postal intermediary between Russia and the West in the 19th century
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The well-kept secret
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The Czechoslovak field post in the Soviet Union
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Mail from the Russian Empire to Region No. 26 of Cadiz (Spain)
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The great dot and numeral hunt
        Page 65
    Ukrainian wooden churches in philately
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Wooden architecture of transcarpathia
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Review of literature
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
Full Text

































































Poitod in Conado














THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY


P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2
"THE POST-RIDER" No. 22.


June 1988.


CONTENTS:


2 Editorial: Catalogue Values
3 Correspondence with Canada
5 Imperial Russian Experimental Stationery
6 Prussia as Postal Intermediary between
Russia and the West in the 19th. Century
22 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
33 The Well-Kept Secret
36 The Czechoslovak Field Post in the
Soviet Union
63 Mail from the Russian Empire to Region No.26
of Cadiz (Spain)
* 64 The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt
66 Ukrainian Wooden Churches in Philately
70 Wooden Architecture of Transcarpathia
72 Philatelic Shorts
77 Review of Literature
79 The Journal Fund
80 The Collectors' Corner


Michael Carson
Dr. Raymond Casey
Werner Elias

Alex Artuchov
Patrick J. Campbell
Dr. Walter J. Rauch

C. Th. J. Hooghuis

Alex Artuchov
Andrew Cronin
P. Sova


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell. Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.
SPECIAL NOTES:

Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!

The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.






















EDITORIAL
CATALOGUE VALUES

Our readers will have noticed that, for the listings in our area, some
prices in the Scott catalogue have gone down. In short, it appears that
some of our recommendations have been taken into consideration by the
catalogue publishers. It is nice to know that our voice is being
heard.

While such actions may be a cause of dismay for some collectors and
dealers, we are convinced that they represent a healthy trend. They
help to bring Scott prices more in line with those in other universal
catalogues. Auction realisations in the North American market should
now reach higher percentages of catalogue values than has hitherto been
the sorry case.

Is the downward trend in Scott catalogue values likely to continue?
Well, that depends on several economic, political and social factors.
If the U.S. dollar keeps turning into mush vis-a-vis other currencies,
then Scott prices will inevitably begin to rise again, as collectors
and dealers abroad step in to buy our stamps and covers at what they
perceive to be bargain prices.

Philosophically, it boils down to the reasons why we collect Russian-
area material. Do we do it because we love our stamps and are
fascinated by the momentous historical background behind these issues?
Or are we motivated by the general North American mania for short-term
gains? That insane attitude in trade and commerce has brought us all
to the brink of disaster and has threatened the world economic order.

If you are a true philatelist, then you are in it for the long run.
And the long run pays off in the end. Please bear in mind, dear
children, that the Soviet rouble will eventually become a convertible
currency. When that bright day comes about, Soviet collectors will
start repatriating their national philatelic treasures and prices will
go through the roof.

Yea, verily, we have spoken; it is so and not otherwise.

*








CORRESPONDENCE

WITH CANADA




"Crrespndence with Canada" is a regular feature Kaa
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerov copy of the item, alcng with scme expla-
natory text to the Editor.

A LETTER TO THE WINNIPEG POLICE
by Michael Carson





































Lii..


The featured cover is a registered letter from Gomel' to the Winnipeg
Police Headquarters. It is franked with thirty 10-kop. perforated Arms-
type definitive, used at 1 million times face value. This represents
postage paid of 3 million old roubles (or 300 roubles in the 1922
currency), which was the correct rate for a registered letter going
abroad at the time.

The letter was postmarked at Gomel' 4 November 1922. It then passed
through the Petrograd 5th. Ekspeditsiya on 8 November and also
received the Petrograd Ekspeditsiya three-triangles mark (generally
understood to be a censorship mark) on 10 November. It left the same
day via the Petrograd 1st. Ekspeditsiya. It passed through the New
York Registration Division on 1 December and was received in Winnipeg
on 4 December, exactly one month after leaving Gomel'.

The front has two interesting registration handstamps. The first is a
large "R" in an oval frame. The second has the registration number
inserted in manuscript and features the name of the city in Latin
characters as "Homel", which is the Belorussian and Ukrainian
pronunciation of the word.

The final point of interest to me is a question: why would anyone in
Gomel', USSR, write to the police in Winnipeg? The answer will most
likely remain a matter of pure speculation.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Carson is a serious collector of inflation-era
covers and perhaps fellow-enthusiasts would care to contact him at
R.R. 2, Box 27, Tuscola, Illinois 61953, USA.








IMPERIAL RUSSIAN EXPERIMENTAL STATIONERY


by Dr. Raymond Casey


"The Post-Rider" No.21 for Nov. 1987, p.74 illustrates a double
letter-card (incorrectly described as "reply paid") and the owner,
Marcel Lamoureux, asks for information about it.

The card is one of a series of experimental stationery produced by The
Imperial Russian Postal Administration in the early years of this
century. Samples were distributed for comment to postmasters
throughout the Empire. The comments were evidently unfavourable, as
they were never placed on sale to the public.

There were two basic types: (a) letter-cards with imprinted stamp. All
those that I have seen were printed in dark blue on light blue or
grey-blue and contained a detachable letter-card inside (pre-paid).
Both portions had printed horizontally across the front in bold type
the word fIPOEKT (project, draft) in red.
(b) letter-cards with a blank space for affixing stamp(s). These cards
were of various shapes and sizes, generally in dark blue on buff,
showing many variations in detail, such as the design of the Imperial
Eagle and the manner of perforation. There was inside either a
detachable letter-card or a detachable envelope.

The name of the receiving office was occasionally stamped inside (e.g.
Lodz). The red overprint on Type A prevented its postal use, but a
number of postmasters' samples of Type (b) found their way into the
post, suitably franked. An example from the Russian P.O. in Tientsin,
China is illustrated above. The proper rate of 20 k. was paid by 1 k.,
7 k. & 6 x 2 k. KITAI overprints, cancelled TIENTSIN type 5C, dated
30.11.12. Note the bilingual registration label for overseas despatch.


* *








(The article hereunder on pp.6-21 has been
reproduced from "The Postal History Journal",
No.75 for February 1987, by kind permission
of the author, to whom many thanks are due).

Prussia as Postal Intermediary Between
Russia and the West in the 19th Century

By WERNER ELIAS

Considering the complexities of rates, routes and weights, with which people
of all nations had to contend when mailing a letter abroad prior to the Universal
Postal Union, it is not surprising that for the average citizen the greatest innova-
tion offered by the U.P.U. was the introduction of one rate of postage for all
foreign mail, regardless of country of destination, provided it was a member of the
new world organization. Mailers could now affix stamps to their letters and drop
them in the nearest mail box instead of spending their time on lengthy trips to the
post office for consultation regarding appropriate rates and routings.
What made this miracle possible was the U.P.U.'s standardization of transit
charges for land as well as ocean travel. It took a number of years for the latter to
reach a low enough level to eliminate surcharges for ocean mail. On the other
hand, U.P.U. transit fees for overland travel-and those are the ones with which
we deal in this article-were uniform and low from the start, so that countries of
origin could absorb them without hardship. Transit payments thus no longer af-
fected the amount of total postage to the country of destination as had been the
case before.

Transit Charges Prior to the U.P.U.
The virtual elimination of transit charges could only be accomplished by doing
away with the age-old system of bilateral postal agreements and creating in its
stead a multilateral pact binding all signatories of the World Postal Union. As long
as the movement of foreign mail was governed by treaties between two neighboring
countries, states were bound to place their political and financial interests above
the economic wellbeing of the world.
In earlier times transit mail had indeed provided an important source of reve-
nue for which postal administrations had been fighting for centuries. Central
Europe particularly, the natural bridge for North-South and East-West communi-
cations, had been the constant battleground for postal privileges since the days of
the Thirty-Year War, with the various territorial and city posts fighting among
each other and against the imperial postal system of Thurn & Taxis for a slice of
the transit pie. Since the subject of this article is Prussia, it is worth noting that as
early as 1654, Berlin felt its post routes could be used for attracting transit mail in
addition to serving the administrative needs of the Electorate of Brandenburg. A
new road from Berlin to Hamburg enabled the country to move letters from the
port of Danzig to Hamburg twenty-four hours faster than Danzig's own messen-
gers required via the old route. Brandenburg did not rest until both Hamburg and
Danzig agreed to its handling the mail.'
In the course of the 19th century transit charges were gradually reduced, par-
ticularly after 1840 when states abandoned the fiscal principle in setting rates of
postage. The sharp increase in the flow of international mail more than compen-
sated them for the lower rates. But low as rates may have been by the 1870s, they
always remained a factor in setting foreign postage rates: One could not disregard

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987



6













them because they never went that far down and, what is more, they never reached
a uniform level.2
What efforts had countries made in previous years to attract the flov of
foreign mail if they were in the right spot geographically, and how had they
handled this mail? Little attention has been paid to this topic so far, much less
than to problems arising in connecting with ocean mail.
The aim of this article is to consider the question in connection with the move-
ment of letters between Russia and the West during the 19th century, with Prussia
acting as postal intermediary. This happens to be an instructive example for a
variety of reasons.

Prussia and the Russian Mail
To begin with, the last century -particularly the sixty-year span between the
end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the formation of the U.P.U. in 1875-
was the only period in our history that witnessed a heavy flow of mail across
national borders without regulation by a supra-national organization. Then again,
it was a time when Prussia, extending across the plains of Central Europe from
East Prussia to the Rhineland, was the natural intermediary for mail between
Russia and the West, and this over a very long stretch of territory. The Hohen-
zollern state was, on the one hand, politically and militarily powerful enough not
to be disregarded; on the other hand, it was economically less developed than
Western Europe and Northern Italy, at least until the 1850s. Since commerce and
industry accounted (then as now) for the major portion of international mail,
transit mail was bound to present a fiscally more significant share of Prussia's
foreign mail flow than that of economically more advanced countries. Finally, a
certain portion of the Russian mail might be routed by sea or through Austria, so
that a competitive element was always present.3
Being a political power, Prussia had, of course, other incentives for getting
her hands on foreign mail: to gain access to the secrets of diplomatic correspond-
ence. This investigation is not concerned with aspects of "Black Cabinets," but
solely with fiscal considerations of transit mail. In any event, postal surveillance of
foreign letters saw its high point in the 17th and 18th centuries; in the 19th it soon
became outdated by the growing employment of diplomatic couriers. Censorship
of domestic mail for detecting insurrection and treason was much more important
during the French restoration period in the 1800s.
Direct postal relations between Prussia and the Tsarist Empire date back to
1723 when, shortly after Sweden had to cede the Baltic provinces to Russia, their
foremost city, Riga, was linked with Memel, in East Prussia by a horse post. Riga
had regular mail connections with St. Petersburg and Moscow, while Memel was
the terminal of the Prussian post road to Berlin. In the early years, letters from
Riga to Memel had to travel through Polish territory; but with the Polish partition
in 1795 Russia and Prussia became neighbors, the common border running three
miles east of Memel.'
In view of its geographic location, the Hohenzollern state was the natural
transit country for mail between Russia and the West; its most important post
roads connected Berlin with both Memel in the East and Cleve in the Rhineland.'
During the 18th century, relatively little transit use had been made of this route,
except for some letters from and to both Hamburg and the Lowlands. Most of the
mail between France and Russia, and between Southern Germany and Russia, at

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL No. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987
















__ 7T h'











9i



Fig. 1. Letter from St. Petersburg to Berlin, mailed 4 June 1785, with earliest St. P.
postmark, in use from 1765.
that time had traveled through Austrian Silesia and Poland. But the Prussian con-
quest of Silesia in 1745 and the subsequent breakup of the Polish state had severely
curtailed the value of this route. By the end of the 1700s the Baltic road had become
the principal post link between the cities of Northern Russia and Western Europe.
That was an important development for Prussia because commercial ties between St.
Petersburg and the Baltic towns on one hand, and France, England and the
Lowlands on the other became unexpectedly strong after the Napoleonic Wars.
The financial gains to be derived from the growing flow in communications as
a result of this development were not overlooked by the Berlin government. With a
treasury impoverished by the long wars, the Russian transit mail was a welcome
means of subsidizing long overdue efforts to improve Prussia's net of post roads,
particularly the main artery running from East Prussia to the Rhineland. The early
conclusion of a postal treaty with Russia was essential to put Berlin's position as
postal intermediary on a firm foundation. Berlin lost no time to fight for this goal.
Roads over which Russian mail had to travel in both directions, especially
those from Berlin to Memel and from Glatz in Silesia to Tilsit in East Prussia,
were repaired and widened so that letters from France, the Lowlands and Southern
Germany now reached St. Petersburg several days earlier than heretofore.' New
postal agreements with these countries included provisions for accommodating
mail from and to Russia. Most of all, diplomatic efforts in St. Petersburg were
given high priority. After protracted negotiations, a Russo-Prussian postal treaty
was signed in December 1821.1

The 1821 Treaty
Compared with the average bilateral agreement of this kind, this one was a
unique document. Apart from regulating the exchange of letters between the
border districts and setting reduced rates for them, the treaty was much less con-

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987





































Fig. 2. Letter from St. Petersburg (16 Jan. 1832, 28 Jan. Gregorian calendar) to
Bordeaux (15 Feb.), sent prepaid. "P. MEMEL" appears to be earliest Prussian
entry mark for Russian mail. It was used on prepaid letters from 1818 to 1833, when
Tilsit became the border office. "P.P." indicates prepaid. The oval "4/A.E.D." is
from the 4th border office (Forbach) of France and signifies "affranchie de
I'6tranger jusqu'A destination," i.e., postpaid from abroad to destination. The
framed "Prusse par Forbach" is the French entry mark. The endorsement on top,
"Ohne versiegelte Einlage," means without sealed contents. Note also written "fr."
at bottom left, meaning franco.
cerned with postal exchange between the two countries than with matters pertain-
ing to transit of letters from and to Russia through Prussia. In Article III it
specified:

Russia will continue to transmit (through Prussia) the correspondence
shipped heretofore through Memel and Tilsit to the post offices ... in the
following states: the Prussian Monarchy ., Saxony, Hesse, Wuert-
temberg, Bavaria, Baden, Switzerland, France and her colonies, Spain and
her colonies, Portugal and her colonies, the Netherlands and their
colonies, Brazil, North and South America, Oldenburg, Bremen, Ham-
burg, Frankfurt, Luebeck, Mecklenburg, Brunswick, Hanover, Denmark,
Norway, England and her colonies.

In other words, Prussia was recognized as the postal intermediary for all European
countries and their dependencies plus the American continent, except for the Haps-
burg Monarchy, Italy, the Balkans and Sweden. Berlin undertook to construct a
better and shorter road from East Prussia to the capital in order to facilitate the

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL No. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987












flow of mail, while Russia promised to arrange for prompt departure of its posts
connecting with those operated by Prussia.
In common with other postal pacts of this period, the treaty did not set com-
bined postage rates for the two countries; each of them would continue to apply its
own domestic tariff with its own weights and weight progressions. On the part of
Russia, this meant that the special surcharges applying to mail from abroad would
continue to be imposed, causing postage on incoming letters to be much higher
than that on outgoing mail. On the other hand, letters traveling between Russia
and Western Europe were subject to a Prussian postage of 18 to 19 Silbergroschen
(sgr.) for the single weight of 3/ Prussian lot--about 113/4 grams. Prepayment of
letters was permitted. In regard to third countries, both postal rates and mode of
payment depended on the terms agreed upon in treaties concluded between Prussia
and the particular state because Russia had no direct postal relations with them.
That situation would remain the same until 1872, except for the German states.
Letters to some of the countries had to be prepaid to their border. Mail to France
could be prepaid either to the Russo-Prussian border or to the final destination.
The latter was a requirement for all registered mail. Letters could also be sent col-
lect to Prussia and various German states as well as to France, and vice-versa.
However, for Russian writers, the term "collect" was limited to foreign postage:
They still had to prepay their letters to the border, a requirement on which Russia
would insist for the next twenty years.
The 1820s saw the construction of many improved roads in both countries.
These paved roads, called "chaussdes" in French and "Kunststrassen" in German,
permitted a gradual reduction in transit times for passengers as well as for mail.
The Koenigsberg-Berlin coach, for instance, needed six days for its run in 1820; in
1834 this time had been cut to 3V/2 days. New roads also led eventually to a change
of the route over which mail traveled from and to the West: Toward the end of
the 1820s Prussia extended a new Koenigsberg-Tilsit road to a point near Taurog-





---- I' --
> .- r








.. .- "

Fig. 3. Letter sent towards end of 1825 from Riga to Bordeaux, went by boat to
Luebeck, then overland to Hamburg. Endorsed by hand at Altona on 10 January
1826 by forwarder Johann Julius Reincke, it then went by Thurn & Taxis mail and
entered France at Givet, arriving 21 days after posting. Hamburg-Bordeaux postage
of 38 d6cimes was collected from recipient.

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987












gen across the border where it linked with the new road from Warsaw to St.
Petersburg. Service over this new route was inaugurated in November 1833. Tilsit
now replaced Memel as the main border point toward the East; letters from Riga
reached Bordeaux in about 17 days as against 21-23 days in previous years. Also,
through-carriage service could be operated between the two countries for the first
time, permitting mail handling of money (coins) and merchandise.'
During the 1820s and 1830s, by far the major portion of Russia's foreign mail
originated in, or was addressed to, the Baltic ports, St. Petersburg and Moscow.
As long as this mail was moved overland, Prussia's role as an intermediary was as-
sured. However, far from all of it traveled that way; a good many letters went by
boat through the Baltic Sea,' and the 1821 treaty had explicitly exempted this route
from Prussian transit privileges. Trading firms in St. Petersburg and the Baltic
ports shipped and received their products by boat, and they were accustomed to
send and receive their business correspondence in the same manner. If mailed on
sailing days, boat service was, by and large, not slower than overland mail. Despite
all improvements, roads were still subject to the hazards of weather, especially in
winter time, during the first half of the 19th century.

*i 21--


WW- MR =


Fig. 4. Oldest Prussian RPO carriage, 1845.

On the other hand, boat service was substantially cheaper: ship captains
would accept parcels of letters for a small fee or at no cost at all. Upon arrival at
the foreign port, especially Hamburg, Altona and Amsterdam, the mail would be
handed to the senders' business associates for forwarding and distribution. 0 As a
rule, letters carried by sailing ships along the coasts of the Baltic under Russian
control were not subject to postal regulations until about 1835 when an imperial
decree required foreign mail entering the Empire to be handed to the post office in
port for collection of postage from the recipient. A similar regulation concerning
outgoing letters became effective in 1839. By that time, however, most sea mail
was carried by steam ships which had been subject to postal control in both direc-
tions from the beginning.
Steam vessels were first introduced in Russian ports toward the end of the
1820s with a service between St. Petersburg and London; they soon began to affect

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987













Prussian interests. In 1829 a Russian company was formed for the purpose of
carrying people, mail and goods by steamers under government privilege between
St. Petersburg and ports in the Baltic Sea. Since boats under foreign flags were
excluded, Prussia's first response was to deny the new carrier docking rights in all
her ports. However, the Russian company selected the port of the Free City of
Luebeck, located a short distance by coach from Hamburg, as the loading and
unloading place for its boats. The time saving offered by the new service was sub-
stantial, especially for letters between London and St. Petersburg. Prussian
reprisals would have created a most undesirable reaction in the western countries.
Berlin therefore decided to make the best of an unfortunate situation; with St.
Petersburg's tacit approval, it prevailed upon Luebeck to permit the opening of a
Prussian postal agency in its port and to authorize this agency to move mail
between the Russian boats and the Prussian post office in Hamburg for further
handling. The Luebeck arrangement covered all Russian letters to and from the
West, but in reality those from and to France and the Lowlands continued to be
carried overland or by boat as heretofore. Mail to England-and thus all mail for
the United States and other overseas countries customarily routed through Lon-
don-was, however, deeply affected by the new arrangement which provided a size-
able gain in time: St. Petersburg letters now arrived in London within 14 days.






















I i
Fig. 5. 1841 letter from St. Petersburg to London endorsed "(via) Libeck Steamer"
and thus sent to Hamburg, then via British paquet to London, 14 days transit. The
oval "T" (taxe) stamp with English date was applied at Hamburg city p.o., indicat-
ing 2 Schilling (= 2 pence) transit fee due under British-Hamburg agreement of
January 1841. It is included in the 1/8 collected at London.

The 1843 and 1852 Treaties
The Luebeck solution saved Prussia at least a portion of her postal revenues,
but it was not ideal. Berlin continued its efforts to obtain a steamer service be-

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987


-1













tween the Baltic ports and one of its own, preferably Stettin, but was not success-
ful. In fact, the mail privileges of the Russian line were extended by the Tsarist
government until 1846. Long before that date, however, new circumstances made
St. Petersburg not only willing but anxious to enter into new negotiations with Ber-
lin. They began in 1842.
The preceding twenty years had witnessed a remarkable increase in trade be-
tween Russia and the West. In many instances, steamer routes to the British Isles,
France and the Lowlands provided faster and/or cheaper mail carriage than exist-
ing arrangements offered. Also, commercial developments in the Black Sea called
for postal accommodations with Austria. For these and other reasons the Tsarist
government felt the generous treatment accorded Prussia in the 1821 pact in regard
to foreign mail was no longer appropriate.




















Fig. 6. Letter sent 1845 from Moscow to Bordeaux, 17 days transit. The written
"porto 10 kopekss)" was later replaced by a handstamp. "C.R.p.P." (Correspond-
ance Russe pariPusse) is Prussian stamp to show letter was sent collect.

The new treaty of 1843-technically it was considered an amendment to the
1821 pact, but in actual fact it created an entirely new situation for both coun-
tries-put an end to Prussia's virtual monopoly over Russian mail to the West.
While it repeated pretty much the same list of states whose mail St. Petersburg had
agreed to have handled by Prussia as an intermediary in 1821, it now contained the
important stipulation ". .. as long as such mail cannot be transported faster and
more economically via other routes." To meet this requirement, Prussia agreed to
set transit fees for each third country: 10 silbergroschen for Belgium, Holland,
France, the Iberian countries; 9 sgr. for Switzerland, Great Britain, U.S.A., Baden
and Oldenburg; 8 sgr. for Denmark, Bavaria, Hanover, Brunswick and Thurn &
Taxis; 7 sgr. for Saxony. These rates were substantially lower than those pre-
viously charged and were pretty much in line with Prussia's reduced domestic rate
structure. The treaty also permitted Russia to have the mail carried by steamboats
to the same countries if this resulted in faster service or if the sender had requested

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987


L













this mode of transportation. Prussia would have no financial benefit from such
carriage.
On her part, Russia agreed to a number of concessions: she relinquished the
steep special charges levied on incoming foreign letters, so that for the first time a
reciprocal tariff could be put into effect by the two countries. Russia also re-
scinded her regulation requiring prepayment of postage to the border on outgoing
collect mail. Finally-although this was not part of the treaty-the St. Petersburg
government introduced on January 1, 1844 a uniform low domestic postage rate of
10 kopeks per letter.
These steps were bound to help the growth of transit mail, but Berlin's chief
attainment was St. Petersburg's agreement to a common steamship line that was to
carry mail as well as passengers between Kronstadt (outside St. Petersburg) and
Stettin. The cost of the enterprise was to be shared evenly by the two states, and
postal rates were to be the same as for overland carriage. A protocol establishing
the new line was signed a few months later, and sailings began in 1845. In conjunc-
tion with the Stettin-Berlin railroad, completed in 1843, this new route resulted in
time savings of about seven days over the land journey, and letters between St.
Petersburg and Bordeaux now reached their destination within 8-9 days. Both
governments derived a sizeable net gain from this venture.
Some other terms of the 1843 pact are worth noting: According to senders'
wishes letters between Russia and the following countries could now be sent col-
lect, prepaid or partially prepaid: Prussia, Russia, German States except Austria,
France, Switzerland and Denmark. Mail for Great Britain and countries beyond
still had to be prepaid to the continental port. Letters to Spain and Portugal
required prepayment to the French/Spanish border, and those to Belgium and
Holland had to be at least partially prepaid until such time as those countries
would agree to collect mail.
The 1840s saw a further increase in mail between Russia and the western coun-
tries. Prussia as intermediary was especially advantaged by the extension, in
October 1846, of the Berlin-Breslau railroad to Myslowitz across the Polish border
where it linked with the recently built RR line from Warsaw to Cracow. Mail origi-
nating in Poland, Central and Southern Russia could now travel much faster to the
West than over the old Austrian route through Southern Germany. Transit time
between Odessa and Marseilles, for instance, was reduced to 10-12 days. Use of
this new line increased during the War of the Crimea 1854-56: Austria, while not
an active belligerent, had nevertheless sided with France and England, whereas
Prussia had remained neutral. Letters to Southern France, ordinarily routed
through Austria and Northern Italy, now traveled via the Wilhelmsbahn. Not long
thereafter, the Italian War of Independence broke out in 1859. It ended Austria's
rule over Lombardy, and the traditional post route via Milan and Sardinia became
defunct, restricting Austria's direct postal exchange with the West to her closed
mails through Southern Germany.
Toward the end of the 1840s, a number of events made it advisable for both
governments to submit their postal relations to another review. Russia had finally
decided to incorporate Poland in her postal system, a step that took legal effect on
January 1, 1851. Up to that time, Poland, unlike Finland, had been permitted to
maintain her own postal administration, and Prussia had dealt in postal matters
direct with Warsaw. The change in status required treaty adjustments. On her side,

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL No. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987





















POST- DAMPFSCHIFF-FAHRT

zwisehen

STETTIN uND KRONSTADT (ST. PETERSBURG).


Die m etot e.smu Dampfchiffe der Ka oilicb Preufoishe.n und der Ksertech Runistche Post.Verwultag:
,,Preussischer Adler"
yefphrt son den Kdnfl. Preufrithen st-Steliffecapfitain Barandon,
e nd
,,Wladimir"
e/Tlkrt "on dem Kalaert. Rauutashen FiUten-Caeptain- Ieutmlnt DBuAl,
jd4u mit tidsehn oen i lOfelher Prtreekrlft wersben, nad rar beqremen Aiufuhme rn ma era ote Is P e
agtIeve, so wie ur Befnrdenag siner tedmetode GiterldnMt eingerichtet, warden in Jabre tS n redapmfhtig
wfehentlUehe Verbindung awimtben Stettln mnd IKreatadt (St. Petembrsur) matetiaken. Die Atenirdtig rfeidt
ans Stettin Sonnabend ll9ttagS,
ans Kronstadt Sonnabend Abendl.
Bei g~Gstigr Wianemg wird dii Utberfahrt in 6-70 Stuaden wriickgeletp Die RaIte olp, in Wedtlr die Sc&i
fhrea, it folpude:
Abfahrt aue Stettin. Abfahrt sue Rronatadt.
Tag I I. Tag Trt. W T t Ta T- ?ut
m etL naIttt s L t atuS D L sum. ,m aMyL

din 1a. Mi .. PreufAAdler. do 12. A.ust Wldimii ladir. dn .L M adir. d I. Ant Preaf.Adler.
* s0. .: Wladimir. 19. Preufs.Adler. so. Preuts.Adler. 1. Widimir.
S. ..Prenut.Adler . Wladimir. s. W-idimir. .s. Preaf.Adler.
.Jali.. Wladimir. 2.Sepbr. Preufs.Adler. &. a.i. PreuaAdler. S.Septr. Wiadimr.
1. ..PreufAdler. Wladimir. 1. .. Wladimir. Preu.Ader.
.. Wladimir, ,. Preuf.Adler 1 .. Prenu.Adler. 1. Wladimir.
St4. .. Preufs.Adler. .. Wladimir. l. .. Wladimir. U. Preuf.Adler.
S1. Jl.. Wiadimir. go. Preuo.Adler. 1. j Preats.Adler. so. Wladimir.
S. .. Preua.Adler. 7.br. Wladimir. 8. Wladimir. I7.Oer. PreukAdler.
1- .. W dimir. Pr.der. .. P .. Prefst.Adler. Wi. a Wimir.
IS. .PreufsAdler. S. Wladimir. -. .. Wladimir. PgeufAdler.
o. .. Wladimir. L Preus.Adler. 2. .. Preufs.Adler t. IWhdimir.
S. .ugiut PreaAdler. t4Nvr. Wladimir. .Aug Wlidimir. t?.ok, PreuAdler.

Fig. 7. 1848 Mail schedule Kornstadt-Stettin via alternate Russian and Prussian
steamers. This connection lasted from 1848 to 1862, interrupted by the Crimean
War 1853-56. A trip took about 3 days.

Prussia had, in December 1849, introduced a new domestic tariff providing for
substantially lower postage rates that were based on three distances: ten German
miles, twenty miles, and above. The transit charges of the 1843 agreement had to
be adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, Berlin was required by the German-
Austrian Postal Union, established in April 1850, to renegotiate her postal treaties

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987
































Fig. 8. 1852 Letter from Odessa to Marseilles, via the recently completed Prussian
Silesian RR, the railway from Myslowitz via Breslau to Berlin. Letter took only 12
days. "AUS RUSSLAND" is one of many Prussian entry marks for Russian mail
used between 1840 and 1872, probably the first to appear on letters taken by train.

with outside states with the goal of having postal rates that were accorded to her,
extended to all members of the new Postal Union."
All these matters were covered by a new amendment to the Russo-Prussian
postal pact of 1821, which became effective in April 1852. Poland was now
included in all terms of the treaty. Rates of postage between the two states were
lowered, and the cost of a letter over the longest distance was now six sgr. or 20
kopeks. The largest transit fee to be charged by Prussia was three sgr. and this
was also the highest amount to be paid for a single letter between Russia and any
member of the German Postal Union. Postage rates agreed upon between Postal
Union members and third countries would be extended to Russia whenever they
resulted in a reduction of over-all cost.
The amendment furthermore confirmed officially the previously mentioned
routing of Russian mail via Myslowitz-Breslau-Berlin: It provided specifically for
the exchange of closed mail between Prussia and Russia carried over Austrian ter-
ritory to and from the Szczakowo-Myslowitz railroad.
On the other hand the December 1851 amendment gave Russia the possibility
to route her mail for Sweden/Norway through Prussia under the regular rules
governing transit through that country. Some letters for these countries had no
doubt been carried this way before, but up to the 1840s the bulk had traveled
through Finland which had been part of Sweden until 1809. In fact, the Finland-
Sweden route had been used for the mail between Russia and England for centuries
and notably during the Napoleonic Wars.'" However, after Sweden's postal agree-
ment with Prussia in April 1852, establishing frequent and fast steamship service
between Stettin and Stockholm (later Malmii) and between Stralsund and Ystad,
Prussian transit apparently was quicker than the old connection and St. Petersburg
used it more and more frequently.

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987



























Fig. 9. 1862 Letter from Odessa to Paris took 9 days via Silesian RR. ."AUS
RUSSLAND/EISENB. POST BUR. V/23.7." is the first of a group of Prussian hand-
stamps used on the Silesian railway for both TPO and entry marking. "P. 33." is an
accountancy mark provided by the Franco-Prussian postal treaty for mail entering
France, this one for letters from Russia via Prussia during 1/1/1862 to the last day
of 1865.


cAdei;' S~/;


Fig. 10. 1868 Letter from St. Petersburg to Yverdon (Switzerland), franked at the
new rate of 18 kopeks (50 Swiss Rappen), in accord with that year's agreement be-
tween German States and Switzerland. "AUS RUSSLAND iOber BUR. XI EDK.BRG."
(from Russia via bureau XI Eydtkuhnen-lnsterburg-Bromberg) is Prussian TPO
stamp of their Eastern Railway (Ostbahn) as well as entry mark. It had a slot for
interchangeable FRANCO and PORTO, to be applied to prepaid or collect letters.
POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL No. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987


(~cc~P/












Rapid expansion of the European railroad net in the following years had its
effect on the speed with which letters could be transported. The Berlin-Koenigs-
berg line was extended in 1860 via Eydtkuhnen on the Russian border to a place
near Kovno in Lithuania so that it could link with the St. Petersburg-Warsaw rail-
road. Rail connections between Berlin and Aachen on the Belgian border had pre-
viously been completed, and mail could now travel through Prussia by rail without
interruption, cutting the transit time between St. Petersburg/ Riga and Paris/
Bordeaux to four or five days, the shortest time reached during the 19th century.
One of the side-effects of the new train between Eydtkuhnen and Berlin, the so-
called "Ostbahn," was the discontinuance of the St. Petersburg-Stettin steam line
in 1861; it had outlived its usefulness.

The Period From 1865 to 1875
The increasing industrialization of Europe in the course of the 1850s led to a
corresponding growth in international correspondence, both among the European
countries and to overseas. Existing modes of handling international mail proved to
be increasingly inadequate. The Paris Conference of 1863, convened upon the
initiative of U.S. Postmaster General Montgomery Blair, provided a first effort on
the part of governments to bring some semblance of order and system into the
manner in which international mail was administered."
The conference recognized high transit charges as one of the outstanding
hindrances to any improvement. It was not empowered to pass binding rules; but
among its recommendations to the participating governments for consideration in
concluding bilateral postal agreements was the following article 25:

Since high transit charges upon correspondence present an unsurmount-
able hindrance to the establishment of an international system of corres-
pondence at favorable conditions, each' country's transit charge must, in
the public interest, never be higher than half its domestic postage; and for
countries of small size, this charge should be even less.
In August 1865, Russia and Prussia concluded a new postal treaty. It con-
tained several provisions typical for bilateral pacts of this period: a common rate
of postage between the two countries, based on a single weight expressed in metric
units-in this case, 15 g-and to be shared on a certain percentage basis by the
two partners-in this case, evenly. Postage was to be prepaid by means of postage
stamps, if possible. While prepayment remained optional, its preference was
brought home by setting higher rates for mail not prepaid. Postage between Russia
and Prussia as well as all members of the German Postal Union was fixed, accord-
ing to distance, at 2, 3, and 4 sgr. (7, 10, and 14 kopeks) if prepaid, and at 3, 4,
and 6 sgr. (10, 14 and 20 kops.) if collect. Prussia's transit fee was reduced to its
share in the combined postage between the two countries, i.e., 2 sgr. per letter. The
treaty also provided for special transit rates for closed mails between Russia and
certain countries, namely 8 sgr. per 30 g net in the case of France, 4 sgr. for
Holland, and 3 sgr. for Denmark; but these closed mails became a reality only
after the Franco-German War of 1870/71 during which letters from and to Russia
traveled either through the Baltic and the Atlantic via England or through Austria
and Italy.
The 1865 treaty became effective in January 1866. It remained in force after
Prussia evolved into the North German Confederation and continued through the
beginning of the German Empire in 1871.

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987








































(instead of "PRUSSiE") indicates that letter went by closed mail.

We now come to the last bilateral postal treaty between St. Petersburg and
Berlin, concluded in May 1872. By that time, closed mails through the territory of
Germany were the rule; her fee for this accommodation was reduced to two
groschen per thirty grams net for letters from and to all countries in correspond-
ence with Russia, to be paid by the sender administration. This fee included transit
through Austria in those instances where mall had to travel through both states, as
in the case of some regions in Southern Russia. The transit charge for
Sweden/Norway amounted to only f 1 groschen; that for Great Britain was
further cut to one groschen in January 1873, but notif letters had to pass through
Austria as well. As for the two treaty partners, a single rate of 3 gr. or 10 kopeks
for prepaid, and 5 gr. or 16 kops. for collect letters between them was set, to be
evenly divided by the two administrations.
On the basis of the greatly reduced transit charges, Russia now felt the time
had finally come to conclude direct postal agreements with states previously dealt
with only through the intermediary of Prussia. In the course of 1872, she entered
into such agreements with Italy, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, France and)
Switzerland, setting direct and mutual rates of postage that included the German
transit fee. Closed mails with these countries now became the rule-at least for
properly prepaid letters with the di iiisatininitration assuming responsi-
bility for the transit charge.
Shortly thereafter, the General Postal Union was formed at the Berne Con-
gress in 1874. It put an end to all bilateral arrangements concerning rates among

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987


I

































Fig. 12. Prussian rail lines over which mail between Russia and Western Europe
traveled around 1860-1870. Map adapted by Stanley J. Luft from Cyril Kidd, "Coeln-
Verviers 1852-1870," The Philatelist 26, #5 (Feb. 1960) p. 127.

members except those that were even lower than those set by the Postal Union.
The overland transit fee for letter mail was fixed at 2.00 francs per kilogram net
weight for all member states acting as intermediaries.4" Applied to mail moving
from and to Russia through Germany, this signified a 75% reduction from the rate
established by the 1872 treaty. Transit charges had truly ceased to be a factor in
setting rates.
Russia was one of the original signatories of the Berne Convention. At that
time she agreed to a rate of 8 kopecks for letters up to 15 grams to other Union
members, and to a 4-kop. rate for postcards. By the time the Paris Congress
convened in 1878-at which the organization's name was changed to Universal
Postal Union-Russia was willing to have her rates reduced to 7 and 3 kops.,
which was more in line with the standard rates of 25 and 10 centimes suggested by
the U.P.U. Later on the ruble was devalued and the 1885 Congress of Lisbon
authorized Russia to raise her postage to 10 and 4 kops. The new rates were put
into effect on April 1, 1889.

Notes
1. See Ludwig Kalmus: Weltgeschichte der Post (World History of the Mails), Vienna,
1937, for details of the postal controversies in Central Europe from the 16th century on.
2. C.J. Beelenkamp: Les Lois Postales Universelles (The Universal Postal Laws), The
Hague, 1910. See page 10 for an illuminating example of the transit-fee chaos in 1873: A
table of such charges on Switzerland's foreign mail reveals that they not only varied
from one transit country to the other but differed for the same transit country depend-
ing on the country of destination.
3. Austria as intermediary for Russian mail will be the subject of a separate article.
4. Throughout this article the term 'mile' signifies the old German 'Postmeile', the equiva-
lent of approximately 4.7 statute miles. A listing of measures and currencies with their
equivalents is provided at the end of the notes.

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987














5. Since Prussia had developed out of separate territories in the middle, the east and the
west of the Central European plain, roads connecting the various provinces of the mon-
archy had from early days been one of the main tools of forging them into a politically
and administratively viable entity. This consideration applied especially to the road from
Memel in East Prussia via Berlin to Cleve in the Rhinelands.
6. Prussia's postal relations with Russia are recorded in detail in H. von Stephan:
Geschichte der Preussischen Post (History of the Prussian Mails), revised by K. Sauter,
Berlin, 1926, pp. 423-434 and 616-620. Stephan's work remains the best source on the
subject; but it is silent on some important aspects of the history.
7. Most of the important postal treaties are now made available in Consolidated Treaty
Series, edited by Clive Parry. Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., a library of over
200 volumes. Reprinted therein are the agreements between Russia and Prussia or Ger-
many of 1821 (Vol. 72), 1843 (Vol. 95) and 1872 (Vol. 144). For the agreements of 1852
and 1865, the author consulted German sources: Amtsblatt des K. Post-Departments
(Official Paper of the Royal Post Office), Berlin.
8. While this article confines itself to the handling of letters, readers should be aware that
postal operations through Prussia included the carriage of parcels, printed matter and
sample mail as well as passengers.
9. A subject completely ignored by Stephan. See Elmar Ojaste: 'Ship's Mail and Mail on
the High Seas' in The Estonian Philatelist, No. 30, 1984, pp. 159-171, and N.I.
Sokolov: 'The Transmission of Mails on Steamships in Russia' in Bulletin of the Rossica
Society, Nos. 66 (1963) pp. 5-10, 67 (1964) pp. 13-18, 68 (1965) pp. 48-52, 69 (1965) pp.
22-28, 70 (1966) pp. 36-42.
10. V. Denis Vandervelde: 'The Role of the Forwarding Agent' in British Journal of Rus-
sian Philately, No. 48, March 1973, pp. 3-10, and No. 49, December 1973, pp. 30-31.
Mr. Vandervelde has done pioneering work in this field, and the writer is indebted to
him for many valuable suggestions.
11. For a description of this Postal Union and its influence on international postal relations
see Werner. Elias: 'A Model for the U.P.U.: The German-Austrian Postal Union' in
Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 61, No. 6, November 1982, pp. 329-339.
12. Eric Glasgow: 'Russo-Finnish Postal Relations' in Postal History Society Bulletin No.
72 (Jan/Feb. 1954) pp. 14-16 and No. 73 (Mar/Apr 1954) pp. 29-31.
13. For the history of the Paris Conference and text of its recommendations, see
Beelenkamp, op. cit. pp. 531-541. The conference was attended by Prussia but not by
Russia.
14. The Rome U.P.U. Congress of 1906 approved a further reduction to 1.50 francs per kg.


DISTANCES: The 'miles' in this article are the old German Postmeilen, equal to about
7.5 kilometers or 42/ of our (statute) miles, used until the 1870s when the
metric system was adopted and kilometers became the road measure.
WEIGHTS: The Prussian 'lot,' to which the Russo-Prussian pacts up to 1865 refer,
was the equivalent of a little over 15 grams. It was considered equal to 1
Russian lot and interchangeable with /2 oz., although this was not strictly
correct, the ounce weighing 28 grams. The Prussian lot was gradually re-
placed by the 'Zollot,' which had an exact metric standard, being the
thirtieth part of a 'Zoll Pfund' of 500 grams. From the early 1870s on,
postal weights were expressed in grams.
CURRENCIES: From 1822 on the Prussian Thaler was divided into thirty Silbergroschen
(sgr.). Ten sgr. equaled one British shilling or 24 U.S.C. The value of one
sgr. varied from 3 4 to 3 /3 Russian kopeks; in practice 10 kopeks were
considered the equivalent of three sgr. The sgr. became the Groschen of
the German Empire, divided into ten Pfennig.

POSTAL HISTORY JOURNAL NO. 75 : FEBRUARY 1987











PO5TRGE STRAPS ISSUED BY THE ZEmSTVOS
by Riex Rrtuchov


CHISTOPOL
1ICTOnOJb
VWZAN PROVINCE

Chistopol is located in the eastern portion of Kazan
province about 65 miles from the provincial capital. Its
population grew from 20,161 in 1897 to 27,000 in 1900.

Chistopol was a river port and exported grain, honey and
tallow.

Chistopol issued stamps between 1906 and 1911.


Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Silver background and green grass with a silver black
dragon with a golden crown and red wings beak and feet.
Bottom: Green background and a golden bucket.
------ -~-'--- --------------------


1906 1907
Lithographed on white paper, shiny white gum, frame in light
rose, green background, perforated 11.5, 2 editions.


I














First Edition (1906, Jan. 1)
19 x 23.5 mm, paper 0.1 mm thick, sheet of 10 x 10 with the
last 2 stamps on the 2nd to 7th horizontal rows inverted.


1. 2 kop. black, green and yellow rose


1.00


Second Edition (1907)
Similar to first edition but with outside frameline, 21.5 x
26.5 mm, paper 0.07 mm thick.


2. 2 kop. black, light or dark green and
yellowish rose (unused)


(used)


RRRR
(1 known)
RRR
(7 known)


1907 1915
Printed by State Printing Office in St. Petersburg,
typoqraphed on yellowish white paper 0.07 mm thick, white
gum, perforated 13.25, 4 editions of which 3 can be
separated, total number of stamps printed for all 4 editions
was 534,500.


First Edition (1907) and Second Edition (1909)
Sheet of 5 x 5, 116,500 stamps issued in 1907 and 100,000 in
1909, both printings were in the same colour and are
accordingly indistinguishable, perforated 13.25 with small
perforation holes.


3. 2 kop. dark brown


0.35


Third Edition (1911)
Sheet of 10 x 10 in 4 panes of 25(5 x 5), space between
panes is 10.5 mm horizontally and 11.5 mm vertically,
218,000 stamps were printed, perforated 13.25 with small
perforation holes.


4. 2 kop. black brown


I


0.35














Fourth Edition (1915)
Similar to 3rd edition but with large perforation holes with
pointed teeth, 100,000 stamps were printed.


5. 2 kop. black brown


1911
The late delivery of the third edition forced zemstvo
authorities to print stamps locally, design similar to
previous issues, corner numerals are slightly smaller, bird
is shaped differently, pail in the coat of arms is without a
dot, 19.5 x 26.5 mm, lithographed on grayish white paper
0.07 .m thick, perforated 11.5


6. 2 kop. gray brown


RR
(9? known)


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalocue Cross-Reference:


Sch
Ch


1 2
1 2


3 4 5 6
3&3a 3&3a 3&3a 4&4a


DANKOV
XRAHKOB
RYAZAN PROVINCE


Dankov is located in the extreme southwestern portion of
Ryazan province a few miles from the Don river. Its
population in 1900 was 5,000.

Dankov was situated along a railway line used for the
shipment of grain.

Dankov issued stamps between 1873 and 1916.


0.35














Coat of Arms Colours:
Top: Gold background with black and red cap, sword with
silver blade and golden handle and a gold and brown
sheath.
Bottom: Green Background with a white horse.
-`-` ----~- -'----'-----~`--------~---~-----------------

1873
23.5 x 31.25 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.08 0.1 mm
thick, white gum, inscriptions around oval in the centre of
ithei stamp are rounded, thin separating lines between stamps,
sheet of 5 x 8 with stamps placed with their right bottom
side on the bottom, stamps show minor plate flaws and could
be plated, imperforate.


a. 3 kF. black and green 5.00
- the blue green shade is the result of a chemical colour
cha'-ige.


E877
iir.ilar to 1873 issue, larger size of 25.5 x 32.5 mm, the
inscription lines are straight and parallel with the outside
framelines, no separating lines between stamps, lithographed
or: white paper 0.12 mm thick, 6 x 8, imperforate.


2. 3 kop. black and green


10.00














1882 (June)
Similar to issue of 1879, oval and coat of arms are shorter
and wider, numerals of value are wider, stamp size is 26 x
35 mm, lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum,
sheet unknown, imperforate.


3. 3 kop. black and green 7.50



1883 1901
Lithographed in 2 or 3 colours on white paper, 8 editions,
16.5 x 22.75 mm













First Edition (1883, Aug.)
Lithographed on papers of various thickness with print that
is permeating at times, white or brownish gum, space between
stamps is 2 2.25 mm sheet of 10 x 10 and a transfer
block of 3 x 2 and 6 types, perforated 12.5 13.5 in all
possible combinations.


4. 3 kop. black and light or olive green 1.00
(on thick white paper: 0.12 mm)


5. 3 kop. black and light, yellow or blue green 1.00
(on thin white paper: 0.07 0.08 mm)
known imperforate, imperforate vertically and
with diamond shaped perforations.

6. 3 kop. black and bright, yellow or olive
green or green i.00
(on very thick paper: 0.13 0.14 mm)


Plate Flaw Varieties of No. 6
A) Second K in gAHKOBCKO has a long and defective leg.
(41st stamp on sheet)
B) A retouch under EM in 3EMCKO .













C) Broken oval under 3 of 3EMCKOt .


A B







The First Edition Sheet

1 231231 232
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 5
1231231231
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4


4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 5
1 2 31 23 1 2 33
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 6
123 1 2 31233
4564564566
45 64 564 5 66


The 6 Types
Type i The ball under the hat is
large, there is a black line across
the white oval under the M of
3EMCKOH a black spot connects
the 2 inner framelines of the oval
under the horse's front leg.
Type 2 The ball under the hat is
very small and oval shaped, 2 black
spots on oval outlines above AP of
MAPKA.
Type 3 A tiny black dot on A of
MAPKA, a slight bulge lin K of KOH
Type 4 A black line is across the
outer white oval above EM of 3EMCKO!
white oval under same letters is
damaged.
Type 5 A black line is across the
outer white oval under the M of
MAPKA, 2 tiny black dots on K of
AAHKOBCKOR .
Type 6 2 nicks and a tiny black
dot on 0 of AAHKOBCKOR, nick on
left side of I of 3EMCKOR .


Type1./


Type 3.


Type 4.


Type 5. Type 6.


I














Second Edition (1892 ?)
Similar to first edition, lithographed on white paper 0.08
mm thick, only a few used copies known, perforated 11.5 .


7. 3 kop. black and green


(? known)


Third Edition (1892)
On white paper 0.08 mm thick, white gum, without the white
horizontal line in the coat of arms, space between stamps is
3.75 4.5 mm perforated 11.5, sheet of 10 x 10 .


8. 3 kop. black and green


5.00


Fourth Edition (1894)
On white paper 0.09 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, without
the white horizontal line in the coat of arms and without
the green frameline around the oval, space between stamps
is 4.75 mm sheet probably 10 ; 10 with transfer block of
3 x 2 and 6 types, known perforated vertically and with
green background shifted, perforated 11.5


9. 3 kop. black and dull green 3.00

Reprints:
Reprints were made in Moscow by Neuburger on white paper
with a thick brownish yellow gum, imperforate.

- 3 kop. blue green
- 3 kop. carmine red


A Partial Sheet

1 2 3 1 2 3 2


4 5 6 4 5 6 5


1 2 3 1 2 3 3


4 5 6 4 5 6 6


2 3 1 2 3 2












The 6 Types of the Fourth Edition
Type 1 White dot between letters M and A in MAPKA.
Type 2 Black dot on right upper arm of letter K of
3EMCKOR .
Type 3 Black dot above the right vertical stroke of H of
9AHKOBCKOn .
Type 4 Dent in the black background under the letter A of
MAPKA.
Type 5 Broken sword blade in the coat of arms.
Type 6 Right vertical stroke of letter n in the word KO0
with serif like extension at the bottom.







Type 2 Type 3.
Type 1.



/ E R/

Type 5 Type 4" Type 6


Fifth Edition (1896)
On paper 0.1 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, with a green
horse in the coat of arms, stamps spaced 3.5 4.25 mm
apart, sheet of 10 x 10, perforated 11.5 .

10. 3 kop. black and light or dark gray green
or yellow green or olive green 1.00


Sixth Edition (1397, May?)
Cn white paper 0.12 mm thick, thickly applied yellowish gum,
space between stamps 2 mm similar to 5th edition, sheet of
10 x(10?) with a transfer block of 3 x 2 and 6 types,
perforated 11.5 .

11. 3 kop. black and bright green 0.75


The Six Types of the Sixth Edition
Type 1 Spot on second 0 of ZAHKOBCKOR bottom of
connected to white oval underneath.
Type 2 Dot under 10 of HORTb bottom of A does not
touch the white oval.













Type 3 C shaped spot instead of dot under the hat, right
leg of H is double, bottom of J does not touch
oval.
Type 4 Black spot on H of RAHKOBCKO .
Type 5 Black line under MC of 3EMCKOm left leg of A
touches white oval.
Type 6 White dot between K and A of MAPKA, Bottom of f is
evenly shaped and has a black area underneath it
extending into the white oval.


Type 3. Type 4.


Type 5.


A Partial Sheet of the Sixth Edition


1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 65
12 3 1 2 3 1 233


Type 6.


Seventh Edition (1899, Feb.)
Similar to previous editions, lithographed in 3 colours on
white paper 0.1 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet of 10 x
10 with a transfer block of 4 x 2 and 8 types with very
insignificant differences, stamps spaced 3.25 3.75 mm
apart, perforated 11.5 with clean cut and rough cut holes.


12. 3 kop. black, blue and green


0.75


Eighth Editiorn (1901. May 26)
Printed in 3 changed colours on white paper 0.08 mm thick,
white gum, space between stamps 4.25 4.75 mm, sheet of 10


Type 1.











x 10 with a 2 x 2 transfer block and 4 types which are
distinguished by the shape of the letter of the word
perforated 11.5 .


13. 3 kop. black red and green


The Seventh Edition Sheet

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
5 6 T 8 5 6 7 6 5 6
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 12
5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 412
5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6


0.75


The Eighth Edition Sheet

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
34 3 43 4 34 34

S2 12 2 12 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4


The Four Types of the Eighth Edition


Type 1. Type 2.


3 M
Type 3. Type 4.
1904 1916
Typographed by the Government Printing Office in St.
Petersburg, on white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, sheet
of 5 x 5. perforated 13.25, 5 editions.














First Edition (1904, October)
White gum, perforated 13.25 with small holes, 10,000 stamps
issued.


14. 3 kop. yellow green


0.75


Second Edition (1907)
Yellowish white gum, perforated 13.25 with large holes,
11,000 stamps issued.


15. 3 kop. green


0.50


Third Edition (1910)
Change of colour, 14,000 stamps issued.


16. 3 kop. rose red



Fourth Edition (1914)
Change of colour, 6,000 stamps issued.


17. 3 kop. red lilac


0.50


Fifth Edition (1915 and 1916)
Change of colour, 5,000 stamps issued in 1915 and 700 stamps
were issued in 1916.


18. 3 kop. dark blue


0. 50


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference:


Sch Ch


Sch Ch


Sch Ch
11 11
12 12
13 13
14 14


Sch Ch
15 14
16 15
17 16
18 17


10 10


__








THE WELL-KEPT SECRET


by P. J. Campbell.

To keep a secret is very difficult and, when hundreds of people are
parties to the deception, it would seem to be impossible. Yet such a
secret was kept for many years at a small town south of Moscow for, in
the town of Lipetsk were sown the seeds which considerably affected
what would become two of the largest air forces in history.

In the years after the First World War, Germany and Russia were
outcasts from the European community and they drew together to solve a
common problem. Both wanted to build their own air forces, but neither
had the capability to proceed alone. The Air Clauses of the Treaty of
Versailles, signed in June 1919, required surrender of some 20,000
aircraft and 27,000 aero-engines to the Allied Powers and prohibited
the development and manufacture of new military, but not civil,
aircraft. Russia, on the other hand, had suffered from the heavy
losses of a world war, revolution, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and then
a crippling civil war. By 1920, the Soviet aircraft industry was in
ruins, the officer class had been decimated and the Red Air Fleet was
down to about 300 obsolete aircraft and critically short of trained
personnel.

To solve their mutual problems, Russia and Germany signed a trade
agreement in May 1921 and the Treaty of Rapallo in April 1922. One of
the first results of this collaboration was the erection of an
*aircraft factory (GAZ-22) in Moscow-Fili, where some hundreds of
German engineers and technical workers set up manufacture of the all-
metal Junkers F.13 aircraft, to be followed by other types of aircraft
as time went on. Another plant, GAZ-4, was set up to build aero-engines.

With production sources established, it was now necessary to begin the
training of pilots, observers and mechanics and a site was selected
near Lipetsk, north of Voronezh. This was the first such training base.
Others were later set up at Kazan' for the Tank Corps and at Tomba
near Saratov for gas warfare.

Reference to Lipetsk can be found in the 1914 Baedeker guide book for
Russia, where a journey is described from Moscow via Tula and Orel to
Kursk. At Orel, the guide suggests a side trip via Yelets and Lipetsk.
It describes Lipetsk as a district town in the government (gubernia)
of Tambov, with a population of 23,500, situated on the lofty right
bank of the Voronezh River. The only local attraction was in the way
of mineral springs (mineralnye vody), containing iron and said to
have been discovered by Tsar Peter I in 1700.

One of the first requirements was to obtain aircraft and the type
selected was the Fokker DXIII, a derivative of the wartime DVIII
fighter. A total of 50 of these aircraft was purchased in Holland and
loaded on the freighter "Edmund Hugo Stinnes" in Stettin on 28 May
1925, en route to Leningrad and then on by railway to Lipetsk; see
the map on p. 35.

Previously, as early as 1924, German construction personnel had
arrived at Lipetsk to begin construction of the airfield. As time went
on, a large base was built some distance from the town and sealed off
from the outside world. Upon arrival of the aircraft, resplendent in







green and gold paint, work began on assembly and test flying, then on
the training of instructors. Ex-wartime pilots in civilian clothes
filtered in by railway, until a total of about 200 German personnel
was assembled. All incoming mail was brought in by a circuitous route
from a Berlin box number and then channelled through the German
Embassy in Moscow.

The German pilots, apart from the ex-wartime contingent, were the
cream of the students from the German Commercial Flying Academy at
Schleissheim, near Munich. The first training course at Lipetsk
started in the early summer of 1925 with Fokker DVII and Fokker DXI
aircraft, pending availability of the DXIIIs. The Lipetsk base had
trained some 100 pilots and 120 air observers for the German Air
Force before it was closed in September 1933, in addition to training
ground staff, test personnel and instructors to staff the Luftwaffe,
when it moved into the open on 1 March 1935, in defiance of the terms
of the Treaty of Versailles.

During the operational period, many German aircraft were built
secretly in Germany and flown from Rechlin or Travemunde via East
Prussia, Lithuania and Latvia, then via Velikie Luki to Lipetsk.
These aircraft, including new fighters, reconnaissance aircraft and
bombers, underwent their development testing and armament trials at
Lipetsk, while the Allied Control Commission was unaware of the
construction work in Germany or the existence of the clandestine base.

Throughout all this period of over eight years, aircraft parts,
armaments and personnel were smuggled back and forth via the Baltic,
with the connivance of customs and border police all along the route.
It is said that even the bodies of three pilots killed in training
were shipped back in boxes described as machine parts! Before overhaul
facilities had been developed, the Napier "Lion" engines of the Fokker
DXIIIs were shipped back to Holland, then sent to the Napier factory
in England for overhaul, all with no one suspecting what was going on!
As a personal note, the writer of this article served his
apprenticeship with Napier's and saw the "Lion" engine still in
production for motor torpedo boats well into World War II

Now, is it possible that there is no philatelic record of this
extensive operation? There must have been a considerable body of
correspondence going back and forth. Was there a military post office
number assigned,or was all the mail brought to Berlin and mailed out
as standard commercial or private mail, with no clues on the envelopes?
Any German mail going to Lipetsk would have had to have some common
address known to the families of the personnel, perhaps an APO or Post
Office Box, where mail could be collected for forwarding. Apparently,
all cross-border traffic was handled by two institutions camouflaged as
as registered trading companies. Their names, if discovered, could
perhaps serve as clues. If the mail was all transferred by diplomatic
bag, then it may be indistinguishable from normal mail, having only
a common mailing point (probably in Berlin) outgoing and only an
ordinary address and a definitive stamp coming into Germany.

From the Russian point of view, apart from the training opportunities
for both pilots and ground crew, they were able to study the whole
development process of the German Air Force and even had the chance to
fly some of the new fighters and bombers themselves, as well as
assessing the performance and armament trials.











MOSCOW


to Rzhev









to Smolensk,
SVienna,
Berlin.


Orel


Location of Lipetsk
in Tambov Gubernia
52.37N 39.35E


Ryazan


Tula


Route to Samara


Uzlovaya


Route
43-44


Route
35-36


to Tzaritsin


Kursk


Route
1-18


to Rostov-on Don


to Kharkov







The Russian mail would have been normal military mail, which would have
most likely gone by rail on Line 107-108 (Orel-Stalingrad) to Gryazi,
then on Line 13-14 north to Moscow, or south to Voronezh. The mail for
Germany would have gone either to Moscow, via the German Embassy as
described above, or could have gone west through Orel to Smolensk and
into Germany that way. One other possibility would be in the form of
picture postcards of any local sights, particularly those sent to
Germany with innocuous messages and German senders. Any dates between
mid-1924 and September 1933 would be feasible, with greater
probability towards the end of the period as the need for security grew
less.

While we are unlikely to locate any of the alumni from the Soviet side,
there must surely still be some living in West Germany, who could
describe the mail routing and perhaps some covers still exist, so that
we would know what to look for.

When the base was finally closed in 1933, the Germans withdrew their
experimental aircraft and the Russians inherited the facilities and
the surviving Fokkers, a satisfactory deal for both sides. By a quirk
of fate, the Luftwaffe would be back in Voronezh a mere ten years
later, in the opening battle of a series that culminated at Stalingrad,
which marked the beginning of the end for both the Luftwaffe and the
Wehrmacht.

A great number of books was researched for material for this article,
with the following being particularly informative:-

A. Boyd: "The Soviet Air Force" Macdonald & Jane's, London).
H. M. Mason: "The Rise of the Luftwaffe" (Cassell, London).
H. J. Nowarra and G. R. Duval: "Russian Civil and Military Aircraft"
(Fountain Press, London).
H. Schliephake: "The Birth of the Luftwaffe" (Henry Regnery, Chicago).
*

THE CZECHOSLOVAK FIELD POST IN THE SOVIET UNION

by Dr. Walter J. Rauch

(Editorial Note: An important part of this collection was exhibited
by Dr. Rauch at CAPEX-87, to gain a well-deserved large vermeil medal.
Thanks are due to him for sending details of all his holdings in this
little-known area of postal history, of great interest to Polish,
Czechoslovak, Russian and Ukrainian specialists).

With the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia & Moravia on
15 March 1939, the Czechoslovak Armed Forces lost their homeland and
many servicemen fled across the border into Poland. The consulate in
Krak6w became on 30 April 1939 the germinating cell for a Czechoslovak
Volunteer Corps, with a training camp established at Lesna koao
Baranowicz (then in the wojew6dstwo of Nowogr6dek, now Leshnya in the
Minsk province of the Belorussian SSR, postal code 223931). This Corps
took part in the aerial defence of Tarnopol during the final stage of
the Polish Campaign in September 1939. On the 18th. of that month, the W
1000-man strong Czechoslovak "Polish Legion" came into contact with
the advancing Soviet forces and was temporarily interned in camps at
Oranka and Suzdal.








/. The 20-kop.
S.. Soviet card
... : .:'.: "I' .shown here was
T .O nOH'TOBAR A"APTO^K A'i sent by Jaroslav
Frantisek Hala
i. -CARTE POSTALE from Suzdal,
P.O.Box 5 on
30 July 1940 to
Hlynsk Cheshskii
"Kyda ...... Rivne Province,
",/ 7- / ,; .. .,;., Western Ukraine
..... ... ..............d .. ..., ... to sl Olga
.. Oliova. The
....... '.... ..... abbreviation
"sl." stands
Korl "" for "sleana",
.. -- ..... ....." 144 1 ... ..... ... ... .. ... ... f 4s le *na ,
/l/ lI P oe7 .. the Czech word
... .. ..... .... ..fo r "M iss ".

"-'Aapec Le** \ f4
Somllpasumein
de l exp diteur j .... .. ..

Upon the initiative of the Czechoslovak Government-in-exile in London,
the Czechoslovak refugees were evacuated from the Soviet Union in
1940-41 in 12 transports, partly to France but mainly to the Near East.
Upon the outbreak of war against the USSR, there were still 93 men
stationed there, mainly at Kvasyliv, Rivne Prov., Western Ukraine.

The post office box No. 11/I-60 at the Moscow GPO was assigned in the
spring of 1940 as a central address for the Czechoslovak military
refugees in the Soviet Union. There was also a rectangular marking
applied there, reading in Russian POCHTOVYI YASHCHIK No.11 (P.O.Box 11).
,, It was applied
: '. "', :. .- '. at upper left
"' .:" t ". "" "' on the card
.. '- O-ITOQBAFR APTO'MKA-A : shown here,
S-again sent by
AR E OS Jaroslav Hala
and addressed
S: this time to
.KyadA pu li.ova in
S.. -. ..., Hlynsk
..... .. .. .... .... ...... ........... ........ .... ., Ioot
.. ....... ..... nhk k ... M

.. .8 H .. .o., .
...... .... ... .. ..... Cheshskii. It
..- "- .- --. .....o .nuo. ....-- was posted at
.. : Y...... ,, -,.. .. .: Moscow GPO
,',"'. O ^. tV .".:.. .v....:. -. " '_.- 26 Dec 1940
I.:XPAHTE :CBOH. 'AHbrH B. CEPErATEJIbH O :KACCE! .,^ and passed
through
A pe. : Zdolbuniv in
S' mnpa e ......... ...... ......... .. ..... Rivne Prov.
delex r esse .. :.' ..... three days
de .... ... ...... ............ .... ........ .....
..later.

37







After an agreement concluded on 18 June 1941 between the USSR and the
Czechoslovak Government-in-exile in London, the remaining Czechoslovak
soldiers transferred from the former Eastern Poland to Oranka and
Suzdal were to be officially reorganised. Dr. Eduard Benes was still
leaning towards a mere "symbolic" unit in the East, while the
Czechoslovak Communists in Moscow were pushing for an Independent
Corps. Its establishment finally took place in February 1942 at the
military camp in Buzuluk (see the book by Ludvik Svoboda: "From
Buzuluk to Prague", Army Publishing House, Prague 1963).
This 20-k. Z.. *
Soviet card .' .. ,.
was sent ,vnOqTO6BA FKAPTQL A`
from Moscow CA ~ O STA.
9 P.O. in .
1942 by 4
Franti ek 4.f ~
Perny .8..-
(Cerny?) to ~ .......R
Vladimir :
Pern -. .'. ---- -- -
(Cerny?) ? )-. .7. .:
Buzuluk, 7 .. .......
Chkalov ""''' .
Provincenume. .... .





applied in .d .eTexpd r... -
th c tr. 2. .. ..... .:. ... '.. .* ,
Note the aOTIPABJrHTE CBOIO *PPECIIOHDEKRIHH C YBE.O ,EHH M :- ..
censorship m g N. 71 of C v on t b .
Aaic
marking omnpa ume"i ...... ... ".
No. 15251 Ad esse I :::
applied in i'e di r .. .... ...... ...
the centre .. .* .
of the card,, ..;::: ..: .
Directly below, we see the front and back of one of the few surviving
covers from the Czechoslovak Training Base Camp at Buzuluk, sent on
11 Sept. 1942 to Moscow, where it was received five days later. Note
the censorship marking No. 71 of Chkalov on the back.









AA".'-
;- -s, +- ,....-,..:.- '' ,. s.,, ".
': ":" / '-""'







PHILATELIC ITEMS RELATING TO THE FIRST CZECHOSLOVAK SEPARATE INFANTRY
BATTALION IN THE USSR


IA


CESKOSLOVENSKOV



SSOKOLOVOi
~.~~L~L~L8 (3 943 '


At left is a pair of one of the two values (20h. & 2k6s.) issued by
by Czechoslovakia on 18 August 1945 to honour Snr.-Lt. Otakar Jaros,
posthumously promoted to Captain, Hero of the Soviet Union and
awarded the Order of the Golden Star. He was killed at the battle of
Sokolovo on 8 March 1943; see the Czechoslovak stamp at centre, which
commemorated the 25th. anniversary of that event. At right is a 4-kop.
Soviet stamp honouring Snr.-Lt. Jaros and issued on 9 May 1969.


EDITORIAL COMMENT: Above is a cover sent through the diplomatic pouch
with a pair of the 2kcs Jaros stamp by L.A. Steinhardt, the American
Ambassador in Prague and received in Washington on 14 March 1946.

Illustrated overleaf is a registered cover, sent to Dr. Rauch on 3 Nov.
1976 and franked with a 10k6s miniature sheet, issued on 5 May 1975 to
commemorate the 30th. anniversary of the liberation of Czechoslovakia.
It shows Lt-Col. Ludvik Svoboda (1895-1979), later promoted to General
and becoming President of the country, against a background of the
march from Buzuluk to Prague. Below his bust there is a Czech
quotation from him, saying: "We should never forget how easily we lost
our freedom and with what difficulty and at the price of great effort
* and great sacrifices by our and especially the Soviet people we got it
back again "


I ]SESZSTAGG 96



















He r mn M c.-i i* *.* i',t I K LEHCE ]SME
SVOBODU ZTRATILI A JAK TE2CE A ZA
Dr Walter Rauch CENU 'VELIEHO LCLi A.ELIKYCH OBETI
NASEHO A ZEJMNENA SOVETSKEHO LIDU
Knippraatherstr. 19 JSME II1 OBYVALI ZPET!
Monheim Rhein
DBR B R

Praha 012
1826




t E S K 0 S L 0 V E N S K 0 th st oNf h o
PRESKOSLOVENSKO *1
















eealla l he ehla arda ehs
Schweiz.

PRAPOR PRVNI CESKOSLOVENSK t
Vof the First CzechoslK EDNOTvak MilitaryY V SSin the USSR and is inscrR.
BAT.VTLRO BITVY U SOKOLOVA 8. III. 1948"III. 1948

The first body of Czechoslovak troops was deployed along the front on
30 Jan. 1943 and went through its probationary test in the battle
against the 4th. SS-Panzer Division to the south of Khar'kov and
especially at Sokolovo. The Czechoslovak card above shows the banner
of the First Czechoslovak Military Unit in the USSR and is inscribed
VERNI ZUSTANEME(WE SHALL.REMAIN FAITHFUL)and "5TH. ANNIVERSARY OF THE
BATTLE AT SOKOLOVO 8. III. 1948".








There are less than 1000 surviving field post letters in triangular
form (satecek) from the Czechoslovak Corps in the Soviet Army. They
are almost always from the mail of the Czechs in Volhynia who,
together with deserters from the two Slovak divisions deployed
against the Soviet Union and Carpatho-Ukrainians, for the most part
deserters from Hungarian army units, made up the bulk of the Svoboda
Army. Examples of such mail are now given, as well as the cachets
found on official documents, since the latter could also have been
applied on military mail.2\


We see here an
example of an
opened out
"satecek" or
triangular
letter. This
word is derived
from the Czech
"stek" =
handkerchief,
and is in the
diminutive
form"hankie" =
something that
is folded. It
was sent on
2.8.1944 from
Field post No.
93442 G of the
3rd. CzSl. Tank
Battalion by
Vladimir
Dolezan to his
brother in
Novosibirsk.
Letter written
in Czech.








The Second Czechoslovak Parachute Brigade was formed in January 1944
at Efremov, mainly from deserters from the Slovak divisions deployed
on the Eastern Front. It took part in the Slovak Uprising of the
spring of 1944 with a landing at Tri Duby and battles on the Hron and
around Zvolen in Slovakia and got back to Soviet territory on 25.10.44.

S j, The Soviet field post
Letter suffixes was
assigned to this
Parachute Brigade.
That also applied to
the letter shown
S here, backstamped at
Zdolbunovo in the
Western Ukraine in
April 1945 and with a
notation giving
another field post
Number.



















.... '
-.,. ... .......






__ ,J __ ,__-_'_


post No. 39242-K, the Intelligence Unit of the 2nd. Cz.-Sl.Parachute
Brigade on 5.5.1945 to Ljubov Novotna in Zdolbunovo, Rivne province
in the Western Ukraine.

A training camp for the Czechoslovak forces in the USSR was set up at
Divovoe, Ryazan' province and two examples of mail from that camp are
shown on the opposite page, sent on 17 & 21 July 1944 to two different
~:$


..


4~4S 4e~eAee

,-~2r2,jQ3,
7f"3 ,i 2L/ ?%<'-~*
-z~.,

















shown on the opposite page, sent on 17 & 21 July 1944 to two different


I


















persons at Straklov
Cheshskii, via the
post office at
Dubno in the Western
Ukraine, showing how
quickly Soviet posts
were restored in
areas newly freed
from the Nazi
occupation. Note
the Soviet postfree
triangular military
marking applied in
violet on both
items, also the
military censorship
No.00024 mark struck
on the letter sheet.


- .. .


-06 4 .......... ......... ....

to


a
.......-........................ ....



d;


.............................


o.. .y ....... .. .....-.................. --



B E TBYonAPM'H ... i ............... ;;
B ,EICTBY ." E APMHH. Am pau.m j ..
OpyAH.HbIA paccOeT BeAOT oroHb / ., /
. p no iaWUHCTCKHM TaRKaM. .. ..... .. ...


_A. v- _--A -----. _--. us T --T M--_^-- -M- r<--_ ^.- l *


II


-I--~----- -~ ~-rr- ~_~__I~..__ _1.1._~___~ ~


/ .. .....
ON-











.J..... B, ..,........ ............. _.....
S, .
. .. ....A M ......


.... .............. .....*-...* ...... .....*..........

......... ..................................... .... .. .. ..*.. .. .. .. .. .


" '"' --


Has. Xya.-apsur.-otops, s s.





















































The letter above was written in Czech by Josef 9tenc at Field Post
The letter above was written in Czech by Josef Stenc at Field Post
No. 38032-I (1st. Czechoslovak Infantry Battalion) and bears a Soviet
field post marking dated 10.8.44. It is addressed to his wife Anna
Stenc in the village of Kupychiv, Turiisk district, Volyn' province in
the Western Ukraine.

The suffix lU = I in the field post number was assigned to the
Veterinary Hospital attached to the 1st. Infantry Battalion.












Padora awtmfIw


&pup TV e O aX s O n a
.. .. a..... PI a a a

IFurse IHpaIe g1 4 u paonopa-
OTKYJA-EKAA I ----- Ze eUx-
&ac. xIH. Rac. ln:i QM .i !Am
.- ...- .


* 0

' I

E


an BCIpn ~Iia pa=apme
,hIN^rm rM i1 B J1GT 194 r.
I-(ax --p s-t U H. in -- K.

5 /f Ha .KilU

C- 4 / d


Hax naeaosa cO aeeRRE 4QaMHAHa BOAHTeas
I., I
Sea AeopaxeHae ..l




b s e cTo 6 eo6caymiHBsaHHH MamnHM

Buxann roplorero copra COr. ---- Ma.aa..44.copraP_ xr
cAah sanpaKi Hn AO sanpaBin mamngH copTa Kxt.
47 IX94/r. HaqaAbUK CKAaa________
___(noAtc)
I MamnaHa o6cayxceHa a nocTaBenae B napK w > v qac. c-.-M. N.
4

A (nOMHucb) -





The above is a marching order, issued on 5 September 1944 to Josef
Zi:ka and authorising him to proceed in a Studebaker car No. 3058,
bears the cachet of the Czechoslovak Military Unit in the USSR. This

theoretically have been used also on military mail sent during the
Czechoslovak presence on the Eastern Front during WWII.


[


s








- H -E 'a.
~4W4ROMY T


'~~~F; I'~ 7' r ( r Ii ~cr


VZJSL T"" g4~"--

it i..'


." 11 K piNj




.7 EPBOMAtC nP BE. ... ...... ..
PO 4T .

.. .-- r 15.3.44. 3-n rwan. KpacHba npojnerasph*, MocKaa. 3Ka3 U 146.
T l t shee ;,g n. ... .... .. .... :..:s .


r)(, 7V


--, -

U'r'a n y M r h "c ',"a" Miroh "' .e." ha The


thr adfuhln o-f t wrten msg stt that "yesterday
''... .,e a .... .'........ a ..s.... .-.. --'? -s ... -

,. ..,, ,j ..:. ...-. ,. ;.;.- .-. ^_ ,.7. .'. .^... .<. ....... .. ..-.-. -

*. .- ,.- .,,

pe fom .... h e n m n s.cr -' ..,_ e NoepTe He .Hm n a.r i.-.. ._ .t p l


The letter sheet shown above is going in the opposite direction; from a
civilian woman in the Czech-speaking area in Rivne province, Western
Ukraine, namely from Mirohoshcha (nowadays Mirohoshcha Persha). The
third and fourth lines of the written message state that "yesterday
Comrade Kurasov arrived with Czech fighters". This was a newly-
liberated area and Mirohoshcha had not yet received new Soviet
postmarkers or registration cachets, so these functions have been
performed here in manuscript. Note the transit marking at top left,
dated 27.9.44 and reading MILITARY POSTAL SORTING POINT No. 21 (?),
with code letter "e". The letter-sheet is addressed to Field Post
No. 38032 K, assigned to the Armoured Defence Regiment of the First
Czechoslovak Brigade.


1








Here we have an opened-out satecek or triangular letter, sent
on 10.11.44 by Jaroslav Lipovsky at Field Post No. 12037 Ts
* (Intelligence Battalion) to Vladimir Fil6ek at the Town
Council in Noviny 6esk4, Mlyniv District of Rivne Province
in the Western Ukraine. This was just after the heavy
fighting that took place in crossing the Carpathians
through the Dukla Pass, with the Czechoslovak border
being reached near Vysni Komarnlk on 6 October 1944.
This drive was coordinated with a projected Slovak /. ..
uprising, which failed because of lack of local
support, resulting in serious casualties for 4 .
the Soviet Army and Svoboda Army units as the A. o
Germans were able to rush reinforcements to "
the mountains. .".' o "


OdparaD-, IlII.z'L4
foaesaeA notima .
as(gxaxmboA, noaneR tEiI

r:r
-C UIcoaxott r-124;44, 2J*M Ue"a.10z.: ~ A
r ~ ~ .'' *'























































from Field Post No. 01387 Ts (Third Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade)
.',.j .- -. _



The military letter-sheet above commemorates the liberation of the
Crimea from the enemy and was sent by Vjaceslav Ko6ina on 25.10.44
from Field Post No. 01387 Ts (Third Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade)
to Olga Kocina in the village of Dubrovka, Rivne Province in the
Western Ukraine.


1




























'. 0?. I ../


This is a remarkable Ste6ek, addressed in Czech and sent by Vlastimil
Benes at Field Post No. 38032 I (First Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade)
to Vaclav Loudos (?) at Field Post No. 93442 A (Command Post of the Cz.
Armoured Brigade). The Soviet field post marking with code letter "i"
at bottom right is dated 15.12.44.


The interesting opened-out satecek here
was sent by Anton Hokes at the Smolensk
Artillery School in the city of Irbit,
Sverdlovsk Province and addressed
to the village of Budky Hubin'ski,
Senkevichivka District in Volyn'
Province of the Western
Ukraine, where it was
received on 27.12.44. Note '
the 10-kop. gold
currency Soviet stamp
affixed ()






Patriotic
military card
sent on 20 Dec
1944 by Josef
Vesely at F-P
No.01387 G
(3rd. Cz.-Sl.
Inf. Brigade)
to a relative
in the village
of Hrushvitsa,
Rivne Province
in the
Western
Ukraine. This
3rd. Brigade
was formed in
June 1944 from
Czechs in the
Rivne & Volyn'
Provinces.


AD.. M ap.mmia:


rAe aRAeTe MeTKHR Haul cnapRA,
Tam onepTr HaAAeT iaWHnoT.
B nodeAmbiA doR c nexoToR B PNA
HAeT apTHnnejpHoT.


JloAemx lowUa,
f m IL m --i .
(YiR&amOasp MOmAon nMwXMW
)A^tfi^/ JHrlt^^/>


.Tx f .w ..- -_ -- *


( rwMum.. M U *am mmJ /


U-o 10 lK.


HfAWuw.Auro. J.S.-m uNro io .4o CCCP
. yRt Yi. Pe.sos B. damnUrm. Aammow A. CGl


I

Pt

p I


e0 ot
'2 ^ I-i
u4t9L( I


^?44Ct


,4 .A89a


47

AV.
^'^r^^


t ~ J--y 'LS1


?4&wA?( [


- hA4_M'Zo


This is a certificate testifying that Vladimir Loskot, born in Hulcha
Cheshska, Zdolbuniv District, had been awarded two Orders. Note the
cachet of the Czechoslovak Military Unit in the USSR*lst. Independent
Brigade 1st. Field Battalion, which may also have cancelled mail.
50


;>M~d


-WLoio 7


-lZe


/~,/7


ttu-




























/ I


There were Polish units that took part in the liberation of
Czechoslovakia and, while the above cover may not be from such a unit,
it shows Polish "Wojskowy" and censorship markings, being sent through
Soviet F-P No.31911 T by Stanislaw Kucharski to the village of Dorostai
Cheshskie, Mlyniv District, Rivne Province of the Western Ukraine.


1


This is a packet card sent by Marja Sirc, a Czechoslovak nursing
sister in Kiev, to herself at the village of Dorostai Cheshskie.








This
satecek was
sent by Josef
Vesely through
F-P No. 01387 G //1
on 18.1.45 to his \ fo -4 47l f L
namesake at the Town
Council at Hrusvica
Ceska (now Hrushvitsa
Druha), Rivne District 1 v tAt W /
in the Western Ukraine. &














^*Atncrix ixBATn .mo,











M. OTANH fnlOTOBA "APTO4CKA
A7





AA @0 OTJ atamuweAse







This is a military patriotic card sent by Josef A. Hofman on 17..1.45
from Field Post No. 38032 Ud (originally First Czechoslovak Infantry
Brigade, but from 1.8.44 it was assigned to the First Czechoslovak
Artillery Regiment). Addressed to a relative in the village of
Moskovshchina, Mlyniv District, Rivne Province of the Western Ukraine
and passing through Mlyniv on 11,2.45,

52
52





























There were Ukrainians serving in the Polish Legion formed in the USSR,
including some from the Czech-speaking areas of Rivne and Volyn'-
Provinces. The above item addressed a packet and was sent by N.
Mikhalyuk through Soviet F-P No. 63409 (serving a Polish unit)to Josef
Sirc at the village of Dorostai Cheshski, Mlyniv District, Rivne
Province in the Western Ukraine. Note the Polish Military Censorship
No. 123 marking.


Another packet address item, with the same sender, addressee and Soviet
F-P number (but different handwriting !), together with Polish postage
of 3 zloty and examined by the Polish Military Censorship No. 525.


.__ 4Et'a0 "-
"^**."^^-_. ;4f


_i i_












FTOHTOBAR KAPTO'

CARTE POStALE


.. .. ....... T ..... ..... ..... .
/lY- .}(} (.y q ,. I /


Yla 'l, AoJ a ulepsxp .

z. zt .-IC A 4. ........... .....-.... ..............


S ..,r lloApoOBoe amueoneafiApecSa.

-':"", ... -........... ...... .... .......... r -.,
Kox


nlOIb>3Y0 TECb AAPECHOf0 n 080TBO4 HAPT04kOi RPH HABEAEHMiH AAPECHblX C-PABOK


Adbres-se,
de l'exiptditeur


Here we have a 20-kop. Soviet card, sent by a civilian in the
of Mirohoshcha, via Dubno P.O. 2.2.45 to Field Post No. 38032
(First Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade).


SOB~H 00BETOEOrO C0018A
W'ekCm c mrea UMXAXA~nA it3SWOCEEA.
Coudo -ipymri kall pdcayun? z bodoiAbHt
CnAoma.a naaekn BeAkan 'Pycb.
As 3Apaecmnyemn co3Aaabal soAeR napoAoD,
.EAaitbfi, nory ,fa Cqaemito)fi Civ3O
CAbnbe OmeeaiB# aambe CsooAtnoe
Apy*kBh waanatof ^etlfn .oftoAon
3tiam to i.mckor., Butan n pDOAOC
Ilvcmt boij ocjlett. no6eAe eApc l
CkaOb rtWoi. 6t ena; cX n e CatotfoAi d
H ACuti aeAsRnP ap lo oymb apMPII
Hac ,ibpacmrA (maatA-tna acJnDdinb sanoAy,
1Ha uOpyA I naM ROAsnr XF aSgAPWuoO.
tAaa~c.*AOm4epo*Doamofle pBd0oAnce
Ctac a .n neasft a0*4ne shal oeWoat-
.S3asm necmckti0...,aisan ooAP ''.
lycmb on nBoloCAh.k npdeAe neAeml
j Saxpammtkon noAAbix c AOpori Cnmel
,Mb a dimnax pemaem cyAb6y nokoxend.i,
M1I k CAeBC Omanany C3omo noseUeMl
CAabcau. Opneqecono name caoooAnoe,
CAabIn MapuAu HaAe)WSl OanAom;
3nana couemckoe, 3HaMa napoAnoe
nlycmo om nodeAbi k nodeAe seAemt


KAPTO 9





Kywa




,.. .4.. ....... ...... .5.. ........-..-..
(o,"y^.*^e- --- -

^aioy .... .^ ^ <^..............


Aepee


4/I1 1944 r03osx s944; Tip. 2o.000.000 e*0. 349


Another 20-kop. card sent by a civilian to the front, this time from
Rovno/Rivne in the Western Ukraine 25.3.45 to Field Post No. 53230
(First Czechoslovak Army Corps).


KQMZ5,


village
K


_ _I __ __


~od3~i~B~ ~~~t;,~


I


-. ---- .- ,.^^-Fas--- +- 2.".- -- ---,.. .. .,--


... -- --- ---








9mrt vetretcbm brk idC#m


STREDNi DENiK 1. CESKOSLOVENSKiHO SBORU V SSSR
[K 2. STIEDI, 4. D)UBNA.1945 f8SLO 89
_I -- I II I II 1


PRESIDENT BENES VE LVOVE
iident republiky dr. E. Bene dorazil s pani BeneSorvo na rv
do vlasti do Lvova. President doprovAzeli sef prookolu komisariatu
iti MoloEkov a gen. mjr, Kutuzov. Na I vskem nadrafi pfi-
presidenta BenD.e zAstupci mistnich diadfi.
.ident republiky uninil krAtky projev, ve kterei pravil: ,Na cest&.,
Jsem Jel a kterd spojuje ob'. nage zemr,. budb brzy zahajena Eiva
Eni doprava. NArody m6 zeme budou neustAle posilovat plAtelstvi
mi velkymi sousedy a po dosaieni vitkzstvi budou budovat stastoou
ngst

Videniske Nove Mesto'vzato
J Stalin vydal vera rozkaz adresovany veliteli 3. ukrajin-
onty, margAlu Tolbuchinovi u nOieloikovi Stabu front gen.
vanovovi. Pravi v nim:
ska 3. ukrajinsk6 front zmocnila se v disledku ofensivy
Ich jednotek a pechoty 3. dubna, na lizemi Rakouska, prfimy-
Smesta a velkd leeznoini kciiovatky Videfiskeho Noveho Mes-
mist Eisenstadt, Neunkirchen- a-ioggnit.- dfei4itych
:h bodi n6imecki obrany na pftstupech k Vidni.
)tky, kter6 se nejvice zaslouily, byly navrieny k vyznamenani iAdy.
va vzdala o 21. hod. sviij hold viteznym vojskim 12salvami ze 124 del.

(REMNICA OSVOBOZENA


Iniciativa
a vojenska bystrosf
B.- Na svojej bojovej ceste na-
li vojaci zocelili sa v bojoch. Na-
utili sa drvit nepriatera a zvifazit.
Vojaci a d6stojoici brigdy pplk. S.
v poslednach bojoch ukazali, ie ve-
dia nepriatera bit podfa vietkech
prAvidiel' dteisuolo- voj6nsk4ho ume-
nia. Posueni bohatlmi bojovlmi
skUsenostami vedia riefif naj-
komplikovanejlie bojov tilohy a
sp6sobujd nepriaterovi smrteroD lide-
ry, 6im pribliiujd hodiuu jeho i-
plnoho rozdrvenia.
V rieserii boJovych dloh niet
sabl6ny. Verky. vyzoam, naJma pri
nasich pddmienkach horsk'ho terinu,
mA inicrativa a voJenski bystrost
vojaka.
Jeden nAs prApor viedol urputay
boj s hitlerovcami. Ked prerazil
obranu nepriat'ra, razne itoAil na
k6tu .0. Arsak s pravej stray ne-


The above is an excerpt from the central daily newspaper "For a Free
Czechoslovakia" of the First Czechoslovak Army Corps in the USSR, issue
No. 89 for Wednesday, 4 April 1945. The slogan at top right reads:
"Death to the invaders and traitors". It has notes about the arrival of
the Czechoslovak president Dr. Eduard Benes in L'vov/L'viv, the capture
of Wiener Neustadt, the liberation of Kremnica (all in the left column
and in Czech), while the column at right is in Slovak and deals with
initiative and military acumen.





































A military patriotic card, sent towards the end of March 1945 by
Vjaceslav Danda through Field Post No. 52081 (Artillery Workshops
attached to the Fifth Czechoslovak Artillery Regiment) to a relative
in the village of HulTa 6esska, Zdolbuniv District, Rivne Province in
the Western Ukraine.












.ep oxeew MTX o auam. YBiIII
n.." "' .n .. a'8. Li eneam25 es ml0 Ias.
BOMHCKOE .






















A military patriotic letter-sheet from the same correspondence, which
went through the field post service on 4.4.45 and Zdolbuniv on 17.4.45.
56
AA







*X .' MWr. Rome, kTX so van. yBnn.'
KVt Dnams lax, 25%1. Up= lOr w.


A military patriotic letter-sheet from the same correspondence, which
went through the field post service on 4.4.45 and Zdolbuniv on 17.4.45.
56







































The text of the card above was written entirely in Czech and sent by
Vja6eslav Linga on 8.4.45 through Field Post No. 52040 (Czechoslovak
Pioneer Battalion)addressed to his grandmother in the village of
Krupa-Hranytsa, Teremno District, Volyn' Province, Western Ukraine.


ri
*;*~~; .j
1' ,<* -
.,,.: ,:
-C~- '. J r-J' -- -. .e


"E : c p "' J X,
- *
if'" /c .-*-<">. ./ *: 7 .) / .*'
-'-' -- "
-* '-V -' *^ r C.* ^ .t,-^ .L ^ *c





**- *, '" : -. ,,-. :- '. 'c =: .-*, t:'^/ .. .. ".
ft -. .
/ .
1*'* 1' / '.c t> ..- ;? .. /<- '-




~- :p *"<'-'> ^ -
'. !Cc- Ar r -/*' e,
'^ 'l -''' ft^^ ^ f c ^ '3 f ^ / l


,* ^i a .^ -,^ ;^ -;^ ^ *-
*< A^' ..c ?c 4'; Z*'-o- .^ -.Lg ; j "-*


-,6 --

i -. ... ...; .... ... 1 .







'' *'-/ -f"V^*^ n -/^


Another card, this time from a civilian and sent through Dubno-2 P.O.
26.4.45, via the Soviet Military Postal Sorting Point No.38 (?) on
29.4.45 to Field Post No. 38032 K (First Czechoslovak Infantry
Brigade, Armoured Defence Regiment).


I
































We now enter the post-war period and have here a card sent from Prague
23.5.45 through Field Post No. 38032 Uc (First Czechoslovak Army
Brigade) to a relative in Mirohosca-6eskr, Dubno District, Rivne
Province in the Western Ukraine. The message is in Czech.


Another card, this time sent on 24.5.45 from Tur6iansky Svaty Martin by
Josef Novak through Field Post No. 38032 Ub to his parents in the
village of Moskovshchina, Mlyniv District, Rivne Province of the
Western Ukraine.








80EHatyp3 qaciPmRSw
APME~fRt;orO KOPnYCA


.t.


m 8 B.E M E H E.
r_ __


.~l~JAAA 4


*A oroajs v dt w orocomBa4noro Apmetlcoro Kptyoa z C.C:

om s3a IP3A ypBepalt somiuvoI pnIsFpoB3 repoacsBO x ivYecaTBO

iB166"j __1944j. ryo-aeoPO__ponei c oee Ae BQo
.x notecmet


Ra, Ko1eiarpHu qecioaoan-oro


A~ c~iilc


'I GC2 .


Tmon./CTPKCOL./


The above is an official announcement from the Command of the
Czechoslovak Army Corps in the USSR, under No. 364 and dated June 1945,
advising Antonin Krbec in the village of Kvasilov desk', Rivne Province
in the Western Ukraine that his son Vladimir, a soldier in the
Czechoslovak Army Corps in the USSR had fallen on 23 November 1944 and
was buried at the Dukla Pass. The advice was signed in Czech by Sub-Lt.
Stransky and a cachet inscribed in Russian CZECHOSLOVAK MILITARY UNIT
IN THE USSR was also applied. This latter cachet could also have been
possibly applied to military mail to denote free franking.


- ---- ---


fSB~1P~I~L~L3


ABe -IL


T10 11 eI/g=O/ rtA C


---- -----r --- -r- -- --


~"


4I1of rp. Si{t)O


J-P-". I ""a 063__ Tj 961A40


&tAA W aULo









I.Tr.CL Y.A.. IL~. U-
e^.row. y<<- Y^-

;~oQC~ ~ie'5~


* 7" '^.
*-/> IA.


It cfI


C4 aV4, &u(az~S~g,7ak
e/.AO^- cu'^ .o


fo L ./L V


S'. X
S^,i.. .. .
... *. ,.-,.. .. ... ;S, .,


Here we see the front and back of an unusual military cover from the
immediate post-war period, posted by a Czech serviceman at Slovice,
Western Bohemia on 12.6.45 and addressed to Private Jindrich Sedlacek.
The latter's field post number was filled in as 93442 (Armoured Brigade)
and it went to Military Postal Sorting Point No.1 in Moscow (!). It is
marked at front centre "Unknown at the 5th.Company" in Czech. Nice item!
60


S


__


~ --I---


LYU-L Y .... .. ....... -LA l ... .....lJ


1






























With the end of WWII, many of the Volhynian Czechs and members of the
Svoboda Army were settled in the Zatec district of North-West Bohemia
(in the former Sudetenland). We have here a card sent by Emiljan gebek
on 18.6.45 through F-P No.38032 B(lst. Cz. Inf. Brigade) and the P. O.
at Kadai to his parents in Zdolbuniv, Rivne Province, Western Ukraine.


A final card now, sent from Knyahynyno, Volyn' Province 3.8.45 to F-P
No. 53230 (Cz. Army Corps Staff) and with decoding in Czech "Hlavni Stab/
Akpt. Mesner" (General Staff, Staff Captain Mesner).
*







EDITORIAL COMMENT: Quite apart from his main theme, Dr. Rauch's study
has raised other aspects that merit further investigation by our
readers. For example, a full classification remains to be done of the
Soviet military patriotic cards and letter-sheets issued during WWII.
Also, more work needs to be done on the postal history of the Czech
minority in the Rivne and Volyn' Provinces of the Western Ukraine.


For instance,
we see here
the front &
back of a
reply card,
sent almost
on the eve
of the Nazi
attack on
the USSR
from Dubno,'
Rivne Prov.
26.4.41/b
to Kazimir
Oremba,POW
from the
former
Polish Army
at Stalag
IX C in
Germany.
When we
turn the
card over,
we find that
the message
from his
relatives
Vera and
Milenka is
in Czech !

We would
be pleased
to hear
details from
our readers
of further
discoveries
in this
unusual
field for
future
publication
in "The
Post-Rider".
* *i


Krieg gtahgenen]
- Urv


)0st (Gbmfhrenfrei)


Antwort aostkarte


An den Kriegsgefangenen


Gefangenennummer: '


Lager-Bezeldnung: Stalag IX C

Deutsch n l; mn)
Deutschhnn(AlIemanel )


I -- -- b7 I

Dime Sefs Ist far dle .AalebhM gen di *' st frona JItprzeznaocbna dia krewnyc "
KrIegstelangen*e bestlmt. Deutuchd a j jiea wojeanego. Pia6 tylke ol6wkiem,
lt Bleistilt ani die Zeilen schrelbenl wyratnie i nad lnlamil
., r. -0 a


A V9 \ t+A? k'M v vdM


vUA. hCJ_ C$ AVA A L

,'" L I-V AC /VU r -.



0 3- .. iy ". r Lf^/
-O \ 7nh A 'IAr (b ) At




\ C 7 t /


0


- __~_~_ ~LIL--- 1_ ~__L1.1~-;-- __I~ --CYj ---Y;I. 111_1---i


t\ nZIA k~ n ~






MAIL FROM THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE TO REGION No.26 OF CADIZ (SPAIN)


by C. Th. J. HOOGHUIS

SThe following notes expand on the reference on p.68 of "The Post-Rider"
No.21 about my two prephilatelic letters shown at ESPAMER-87 in La
Corufa, Spain.
The first letter
S'was sent from St.
S*' Petersburg 23 Aug.
1823 O.S.(see top
S:* right) and passed
"through Memel on
/ / : .. 8 Sept.N.S. (top
.. right).Note French
PP in red at top
centre= Port Paye,
alsorA V
in frame
in red to
signify
Affranchissement
/0/1 V4rifie =
Franking Verified.
At bottom centre
c / ~there is an MS.
note in red "f 21h(?)
> ^-- Bu.",which may have
) ( been the prepaid
Russian rate. The
Sfee to be paid on
arrival at Cadix (sic)
Jwas 10 reales (in red).

/' The second item was sent
P y ^? from Moscow 19 Feb.1849 OS
t (2-line mark at top front),
was endorsed frco=franco
and received the Prussian
AUS RUSSLAND/FRANCO mark
in black. Passed through
) Berlin 14/3 NS and was
/ -. Ij. also struck with faint
FRANCO in red(bottom left).
/1 Note the French entry mark
S.. PRUSSE-VALENCIENNES c.d.s.
at centre right and black
"P.D." mark meaning
Paid to the Destination.
Note the Spanish fee of
"loR*" just below in
Sred. Backstamped BAEZA
JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA
type 4-GyT Spanish
Ps* .- marking.

A Such letters are always
/ ,/ / interesting, as each one
S is different!







EDITORIAL COMMENT: To
round off this
interesting .
discussion, please
note the item shown -.
here and originally
offered by Messrs
Stanley Gibbons Ltd.
It was described as a ,
large part O.L.S. / /
from RIGA 16 Aug.1852
O.S., with boxed AUS //
RUSSLAND/FRANCO and W s r
PRUSSE, all in black.
On the back BROMBERG/
BERLIN and BERLIN/ /
MINDEN TPOs/RPOs and "-r a .
Rivadeo arrival c.d.s. -- .___
in red. Endorsed
"franco" at front bottom left and with red Spanish "4R" rate mark.Lovely!









Ojf







by ALEX ARTUCHOV
Vol. I: Akhtyrke- Byezhetsk



I n-m n- FIIBiLci W i 7- c
PO5TPRID.
DEALER TERmS rREi RVRILBLE.

EDfl ORDERS TO RLEX RRTUEHOV
RT THE SOCIETY ADDRESS.
=uu~c.,RDDRE55








THE GREAT DOT AND NUMERAL HUNT
by Alex Ar'tuchov


The author is grateful to a number of readers for their
comments and new information in response to the proceeding
portion of this ongoing article, featured in No. 21 of this
journal. They convey the following information:
John D. Myke Ottawa. Ontario
The previously unrecorded numbers of: 896, 1187, 1196, 1268,
1368 and 1451 exist on single stamps in Mr. Myke's
collection. This demonstrates that these numbers were all
allocated to active post offices, the locations of which we
are as yet still unsure.
Alex Sadovnikov San Francisco. California
Mr. baaovniKov has performed some extensive research and has
been kind enough to provide a number of corrections and
other additional information. Mr. Sadovnikov suggests some
slight corrections to the names of some of the known
locations. He also suggests that some of the locations were
situated in provinces other than the ones listed. Mr.
Sadovnikov's conclusions are based upon his perusal of
listings of Post Offices for the years 1871, 1875 and 1881.
It would be difficult to agree or refute the corrections
suggested without reviewing each and every one of the ten
or so names. This author will certainly undertake to bring
Mr. Sadovnikov's suggestions to a conclusion prior to the
publication of an updated, comprehensive list of locations,
such as was featured in No. 21.
Sven Kraul Hamburg. West Germany
ierr Kraul was Kind enough to provide us with the
illustration shown below conclusively demonstrating that
1364 was Lemzal, Lifland.


S FRONT.
. I f





^7 I













REVERSE


-. i



a*. :*. .,. ,. \ .. : .. .. .. ,






I 2






THE UKRAINIAN CORNER


This corner will be a
regular feature in
tribute to the many
thousands of Ukrainian
immigrants who, by their
hard work, have enriched
their country of adoption,
namely Canada. As most of
them came from the western
provinces of the Ukraine, we
will be featuring items from
Bukovina, Carpatho-Ukraine & Galicia.

UKRAINIAN WOODEN CHURCHES IN PHILATELY

by Andrew Cronin

These distinctive churches are mainly to be found in the Western and
Carpatho-Ukraine, but also in different styles as far east as
Mezhyrichka in Kharkiv Province. They are all marvels of folk
architecture. The oldest example for which the present writer has
records is the church of St. Mykola in the village of Serednye Vodyane,
Rakhiv Region of the Carpatho-Ukraine, which was built in 1428 (!).
That same village has another wooden church, which is a mere 212 years
old. There is even a fine example in the city of L'viv/L'vov, vulatsya
Krivchytska, having been moved to there in 1930 from the village of
Krivky, where it was originally built in 1763. Many such churches have
now been declared "architectural monuments" and are under the
protection of the State.

Most of the philatelic material about this theme has been issued by pre-
WWII Czechoslovakia and features churches in the Carpatho-Ukraine, e.g.:

B (a) The 60-haleru value in vermilion of the set issued on
S*:22 Oct. 1928 for the 10th. anniversary of the Republic,
showing the wooden church and chapel at Yasinya. Note
*the plate number in Fig.l. The die was engraved by Prof.
:Karel Seizinger and die proofs exist in various colours.

1,1928, (b) The Czechoslovak Posts issued a series of 8 stamped
.cards on 1 June 1934, inscribed in Czech and Russian to
Fig. 1. commemorate the incorporation of Subcarpathian Rus'
(Carpatho-Ukraine) into the Republic, 8 May 1919-1934. One of these
cards shows the wooden church of the Holy Ghost and adjacent chapel at
Huklyvyj, Volovets' Region, which was built in the 1700s. There were
only 20,000 complete sets printed of these cards on two types of paper
stock and they are therefore rare. See Fig. 2 on the next page. These
cards were beautifully produced by photogravure in dark green colour.


I










(c) This same
card for POZNEITE SVOJI LAST -PROPAGUJTE IEJI KRASY POSTOU
Huklyvyj was
reissued on $ .. .
1 July 1936
re ud No 3 in : o
with new stamp .
imprinted and
just the name.
HUKLIVY -
GUKLIVOE in -----
Czech and
Russian. It is
also rare.
Please see
Fig. 3 on the
previous page.

(d) The same
scene was AS
repeated on 28
May 1937 as
card No.303 in 4 60ah
a tourist POZNE TE S.VOJI VLAST- R .PAGU TE JE KRASY PO TOU
propaganda
series with Fig. 5.
the slogan:
GET ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR COUNTRY-PUBLICISE ITS BEAUTIES THROUGH THE MAILS,
in Czech and Slovak. See Fig. 4 on the previous page. Also a rare item.

(e) No.304 in this same series shows the church and chapel at Yasinya,
but taken from a different angle. It is shown in Fig.5 above and is rare.
All the cards in (c), (d) and (e) were beautifully printed in dark green
by photogravure, the last two being sold for 60 hal ffi each.

(f) We now come to the famous 3 k. stamp in blue, the die for which was
modified from that of the 60 h. stamp of 1928, showing the church and
chapel at Yasinya and additional Ukrainian inscriptions CARPATHO-UKRAINE
and FIRST PARLIAMENT 2.III.1939. There were 900,000 copies printed from
two electros "l" and "lA", both with a vertical row of 16 stamps at far
left, followed by 6 vertical rows of 14 stamps, six blank coupons at top,
five blank coupons at bottom and the electro number at bottom right. The
stamp went on sale at llam on Wednesday, 15 March so as to prepare items
for the opening of parliament at 3pm. The stamp had validity until 4.30pm
the next day when the Hungarian army occupied the post office in Chust
and its Czech postmaster, Mr. Pisek was killed. The author has not seen
this stamp postmarked on 16 March, but three examples of its usage are
shown in Figs.6 to 8 on the next page. The first cover shows a rare
cachet in honour of the first session of parliament, originally set for
2nd. March, the card in Fig.7 has an illustration matching that on the
stamp and the registered cover No.1384 was personally prepared in Chust
by the well-known Ukrainian philatelist Jevhen Vyrovyj, who had a suit-
case full of covers serviced for him there and handed back to him, i.e.
none of them, including the registered item here in Fig.8 went through
the mails. Mr. Vyrovyj tragically committed suicide in 1945 after the
liberation of Prague. The stamp had no validity in the Czech lands but
usages are known there by oversight during the Protectorate period,
which began on 15 March 1939. A printer named Kominek in Dolany near
Olomouc in Moravia sold 200 copies of a bogus souvenir sheet of this
stamp in March 1939 before being arrested by the Protectorate police.






















Fig. 6.























.ACiJAA1nAfIIEPJuoro coflMF ;r
:5 JtAPnATL'L013 yIPAIHlP
'., -, r '.




|^', I X. .






*' .. ." / -q
44 *. .,- .

*, ,

," .: 1


j -
.. .X Y. 9' .' _. 'P it











*'






Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 69
~I 69


I







(g) The final item to be
0r X considered is part of a
Srare unissued set of five
S.stamps for the General-
Government, designed by
MiProf. E. Puchinger and
engraved by Prof. Karel
h Seizinger. They were printed
Fig. 9. in Vienna in 1944 and show
scenes from "Distrikt
Galizien",i.e. the Western Ukraine,
which then formed part of the General-
Government under German occupation.
The 40-groszy value in blue, with a
IEPKBA XYIII CT Y C. TATAPIB, proof in Russian green, both recess-
nOB. HArBIPHA printed, shows a typical Western
Ukrainian wooden church. Reference to the authoritative booklet
"Derev'yani Tserkvy v Ukrayini"("Wooden Churches in the Ukraine", edited
by the late M. Koljankiws'kyj, "My i Svit" Publishers, Toronto, undated;
long out of print and kindly loaned by Mr. Yaroslav Semotiuk of Toronto)
has enabled the present author to establish that this is the 18th.
century wooden church in the village of Tatariv, Nadvirna District,
Ivano-Frankivs'k Province. See Fig. 9 above & JOURNAL FUND p.79.

The author would appreciate details from our readers of other
philatelic material dealing with this theme. To round out the picture,
a translation is given below of an article originally published in the
book "Pam'yatnyky Zakarpattya" ("Monuments of Transcarpathia"), Karpaty
Publishing House, Uzhhorod, 1972, pp.66-69.



WOODEN ARCHITECTURE OF TRANSCARPATHIA

by P. Sova.

(Chief of the Civilian Inspectorate of the Transcarpathian Provincial
Organisation of the Ukrainian Society for the Preservation of
Historical and Cultural Monuments).

The architectural creative genius of the Transcarpathian Ukrainians who,
over the course of the centuries, lived under foreign domination, may
best be observed in the construction of wooden church buildings, where
there was a minimal amount of foreign influence. Here, the creative
forces, which did not come up against other restrictions, manifested
themselves to their fullest extent. That led to the construction of
highly valuable monuments of folk architecture, with which all of
Transcarpathia (Carpatho-Ukraine) is dotted, especially in its
mountainous part the Verkhovyna district. There are more than 50 such
monuments to be found here. They were built for the most part by
unknown master carpenters, without the usage of saws and iron nails.

Because of the unfavourable historical conditions, the wooden
architecture of Transcarpathia could not, as a rule, fully escape the
influence of foreign cultures. On the other hand, the various foreign
elements could not erase the national traits and forms of folk
architecture. In combining their native aptitude for building churches
with distinctive traits, the national craftsmen created new examples of
wooden church architecture.






Quite apart from the great variety of its forms, the wooden
architecture of Transcarpathia may be divided into four basic styles
or types: (1) tent-shaped, with three frames (2) tent-shaped, with
five frames (3) Baroque and (4) Gothic (pseudo-Gothic). All wooden
churches, even if they are not noteworthy as examples (especially in
their external ornamentation), basically have a rectangular frame of
logs or fitted squared beams of fir wood (in the Verkhovyna), or of
oak (in the lowlands and foothills). The wood of the ash tree was
utilised less often as a building material. The structure was composed
of horizontally placed squared beams or sometimes of logs. The logs
were generally placed lengthwise, with the ends jutting out and joined
with incisions at the crown of each frame. A row of crowns, placed one
after the other, would build up the frames and the building would be
composed of frames of beams.

The outside of the church is normally faced with shingles. The frame
in the middle of the church is honed to a smooth surface. The tent-
shaped three-frame multi-tiered type is preponderant in the
Uzhanshchyna district. It may be assumed that this type is the oldest,
most original, exclusively native and therefore all the more precious
to us. The tent-shaped three-frame type demonstrates a combination of
three frames arranged on one axis, going from the east from the main
central section of the altar area and from the west from the
rectangular "pryrub" or "babynets'" (special place in the church where
the women worshippers stand). Successive frames are placed above the
individual lower frames, which taper off with consecutive tiers. Each
frame is provided with a separate overhead covering. This results in a
multi-tiered and graduated overhead ceiling for the church and is one
of the main elements of its architectural composition. The central
cupola is generally to be found at the highest point.

Rich examples of this type are the church in the village of Sukhyj in
the Velikyj Bereznyj Region and the church of St. Mykola in the village
of Verkhnyj Studenyj in the Mizhhir'ya Region, as one would expect to
find in the full and representative examples in the tent-shaped three-
cupola type of churches in Transcarpathia. There are similar tent-
shaped churches in the villages of Husnyj, Kostryna, Uzhok and Vyshka
in the Velikyj Bereznyj Region.

There are few five-frame churches in Transcarpathia and they are to be
found only in the upper reaches of the Tysa River. A wonderful and
representative example to the highest degree of this type of church is
the so-called Strukiv church in Yasinya(18th. century). It was named
after Ivan Struk, an emigrant from the village of Zelenyj in the
Carpathian foothills (now in the Ivano-Frankivs'k Province) and who,
according to legend, founded Yasinya in 1537. A precious monument of
this type is also the Pletiv church at Lazeshchyna, a dependent hamlet
of the village of Yasinya.

The Baroque style in Transcarpathian wooden architecture began to
spread in the 17th. century under the influence of militant
Catholicism, which became stronger with the implementation of the
Uniate Church. This foreign style in wooden architecture was modified
as a general rule. The Baroque style became widespread mainly in the
Latorytsa valley and the upper reaches of the Rika, as well as partly
in some villages of the Uzhanshchyna district. The best example of
this style is the St. Michael church of the 16th. century at Bystryj,
a dependent village of the town of Svalyava. With its harmonious
proportions and artistic composition, it is a real masterpiece of
wooden architecture.







There is a whole range of types between the Tent-shaped and Baroque
styles. A classic example of the fusion of two types is the church in
the village of Shelestove. Built in 1777, it was moved in 1927 to
Mukacheve. The central and altar frames of the church still preserve
completely the simple tent-shaped and tiered form of ceiling and only
the tower, which rises above the "babynets'" and also the gallery which
holds up the eaves around the church, have a Baroque form. There is a
similar church at Kanora, a dependent village of Volovets'. Both styles
are fused in complete harmony in the two churches.

The Gothic (pseudo-Gothic) style is preponderant in the eastern half of
the province. Some Gothic-style stone churches of the Maramarosh
valley, for example at Tyachiv, undoubtedly served as a prototype for
this type of church. However, the Gothic style, as applied to the
building of wooden churches, was notably mixed. Such churches were
built in completely different proportions and were extended upwards
with sharp spires, as if to pierce the sky.

The most representative Gothic wooden churches for their style are those
to be found in the Khust and part of the Tyachiv Regions. The church of
St. Michael, built in 1668 in the village of Krajnykove, Khust Region
is notable for especially refined and harmonic proportions. To it may
be added the churches in the villages of Danylove (1779), Sokyrnytsya
(17th. century) and Steblivka (1643), all in the Khust Region; Dibrove
and Novoselytsya (17th. century) in the Tyachiv Region and Serednye
Vodyane (18th. century) in the Rakhiv Region. A small but very pretty
wooden church (1658) is also to be found in the village of Ivashkovytsya
in the Irshava Region.

Transcarpathia holds one of the first places in the Soviet Union for the
quality and variety of monuments of wooden architecture.
*




PHILATELIC SHORTS ,

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting /
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there 00 e 0
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 0 o 00o
newly acquired item ? 0o~0o *

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers '


Dr. Hans Krensler, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Re the article in "The Post-Rider" No. 21 about the Helsinki-St.
Petersburg Railway, I believe that I have found some items which will
stretch the dates a little, as follow:

1. Mail Van No.2 with station number 20 in the Third Period (Pulsa) on
72






a card from Willmanstrand to Helsinki with the date 15.3.85 (latest
date previously found: 20.10.83).
2. Mail Van No.5 with station number 34 in the Third Period (Riihim&ki) on
a card to Helsinki with the date 21.8.88 (latest previous date 10.8.77).
* 3. Re the H:FORS-ST P.BURG Mail Van No.1 types, I have found the
night train designation used from Helsinki 1.XI.06 to Berlin,
arriving on 4 Nov. The N of No. is 3mm. high, the hyphen = 2mm.
long and the night dot has a diameter of 3 mm.(see the
illustration just below at left).
4. An even later marking is to be found, dated 7.VI.07 with the
night designation on the 2-kop. stamp shown here at right.
Same measurements as for the preceding example.

FINLAND .PIAN E 5UOMI
,. :.,G RA, -D
AX 1EBAG IBGAOR .










S -- ...,'rL -


Rev. L.L. Tann, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.

(a) Re the H:FORS-ST P.BURG Mail Van No.l markings, I can extend the
latest date for the night service at least until 23.1.11, as can be seen
for the cover just above at right, addressed to Cambridge, England. The
N of No. is 3 mm. high, the hyphen = 2 mm. long and the night dot has a
diameter of 3 mm.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Judging from the measurements given above, it appears
that the examples held both by Dr. Krensler and Rev. Tann are strikes
from one and the same canceller.
S(b) This is a
greeting card
S. ..with the words
-"Pozdrowienie
R PO TALE POCZTOWKA z Brod6w-Gruss
aus Brody" and
Town view from
SADRs Brody, Eastern
Galicia, which
had just been
"I liberated from
the Austrians
.... ..... .. ..... ........by the Imperial
Russian Army.
S ..... ... ......... .... ....... The message on

p headed "22.1.15,
S........Brody" (now in
the Western
Ukraine).







We see on the front at top right the violet diamond-shaped cachet of the
ALL-RUSSIAN ZEMSTVO UNION*SANITARY TRAIN 196, over which there is struck
a black postmark of Kiev, dated 23.1.15. The card was received in
Serpukhov two days later. Andrew Cronin has in his collection two covers
of the same period from the liberation by the Imperial Russian Army of
the city of L'viv/L'vov/Lemberg/Lwow, in which the Russian postage was
cancelled in transit at Khar'kov and Kiev respectively. It seems that my
card falls into the same category; it was posted at Brody, but did not
receive a postmark until it got to Kiev.

(c) My third item is a strip of three of the 3k.
Arms type, with two lovely strikes of a marking
reading VIL'NA*APT. MAG. A.N. TARASHKEVICHA*
30.11.10 (VIL'NA/WILNO/VILNIUS*PHARMACY OF A.N.
TARASHKEVICH). This postmark is therefore of
interest also to Lithuanian and Polish postal
historians, as well as to collectors of the
theme of pharmacy. So far as I know, there was only one other postal
agency in a pharmacy during the Imperial period, i.e. at Simbirsk.

Dr. Peter Michalove, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

WAR DIPARTtU.1 TPenNl1 for private use to- aoid
Public Relations Office, payeont of postage, S00
ZAST3U CO uai, --
U.S. STi.XMGIC AIR. MOROit n7T 1tIOP.J
OITgICL. BUs8TJS.s

UnLITAX'r XDITOt,
THE HERALD TzIBUN,
Sw YOR,







There is a short reference in BJRP No.37, p.30 to the U.S. air bases in
the Ukraine during World War II. I have seen a cover from APO 798
(Poltava), so such material is around, but I was surprised to find the
cover illustrated here. Endorsed "FROM RUSSIA"at bottom left, it is a
penalty envelope from the Public Relations Office, Eastern Command, U.S.
Strategic Air Forces in Europe. The cover was evidently handed to
someone returning to the United States and, once in that country, the
courier simply dropped the letter into the Federal mail system. It is
backstamped New York, July 15, 1944.

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

(a) A regummed copy of the first telegraph stamp of the
Russian Empire was offered as Lot No.4569 in the Heinrich
SKhler auction of 10-13.2.88 at Wiesbaden in the Federal
SRepublic of Germany. It realized full Michel catalogue
Value at DM 4000,- or roughly US $2450.00, plus VAT etc.
t That is a graphic indication of just how rare this stamp is,
typographed in brown and black in 1865 and line-
perforated 12. Reprints exist in shiny ink and are worth
much less.









S, -.



aBHORoiTact 'noUTa-c. 0
(b) Copies keep popping up
at international auctions
of pairs of the 10-kop. on
unwatermarked paper in the .........
1934 set to commemorate the
10th. anniversary of Soviet
Civil Aviation Service, c.t.o.
LENINGRAD-2,1.4.34, purporting
to be imperforate. Readers are 1
warned once again that such ........ ......... .........
"varieties" have been concocted i
by trimming pairs originally
imperforate-between, thus destroying what was a fine item in its own right.

(c) We now have in philately a stamp booklet with a Finnish 5-markkaa
value in honour of that great collector in our field, the late Agathon
Faberge. On sale from 2 May to 12 June 1988 at 30 Finnish markkaa (about
US $7.50), the booklet cover includes a detachable entry ticket for the
FINLANDIA-88 International Philatelic Exhibition, held in Helsinki from
1 to 12 June 1988. Please see the illustration above at upper right.

Robert Taylor, Malibu, California, USA.


~Y~j. CAPATOB
--------------------a

pr'4 4.


1-~,~zw 1 cepocceacgmy Koo nePaTHE'"o~ ~'E
Aar LB1 ;3 r
A.:


. -.. ; ,, '-.. ., : '.'-, : i;.;:*. .. : .-
., 2 :. -,I.. A -.' "-
Archangel X'-: ..
2.9.1929. N"

.,." '
CO. I v I






fi l .."
rf y ^.Z <." :'"
,l' iiA p: ,, ,, -, .
-..


-' .~.;
,'' *P4 :
J' ?'.'4;*k


Ufa....1929
Note Bashkir
equivalent
at bottom:
eF8 = t56F6 ,
pp ,'*' '" ~ '~: : ~ -'-


, 4'


A9~







'"OCCHiRCKHAI KoonepaTHBHi 50H K:K'
.' '. .


; EJ! L E H : "1.... -

1.- O.,
'r '. '


Novosibirsk
24.7.29


Nizhnii Novgor,
26.9.29.


~ ~ ^^^^^^ I


A .


Llj~pc~Ue-~3UO~A4A19


i ^,-.' .'"KPeAmlIbui I(oonepam, Co~i,' ,


I recently came across the four covers shown here on pp.75-76, which have
no franking but special cancels incorporating in the outer rim a Russian
inscription reading FEE EXACTED BY CALCULATION. They are all mail of the
All-Russian Cooperative Bank, addressed to Saratov in 1929. It appears
that, for a given period of time, postage was paid by an accounting or
bookkeeping entry and authorised cancellers individually prepared for
this purpose, going by the variety of styles. Does anybody have any other
details about their authorisation and usage ?

*


I II








REVIEW OF /














ROSSICA No.110 for 1987. The journal of The Rossica Society of Russian
Philately. A magazine of 96 pages, obtainable from the secretary, Dr.
Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice St., Falls Church, Va., U.S.A. 22043.

This issue starts with Life of the Society & Minutes, followed by:
The Soviet Union in Space (comprehensive), by A. McKenzie; Stampless
Military Mail, by V. Sinegubov, trans. M. Carson; Soviet Field Post
Procedures 1941-1945 (excellent!), by P. Michalove; The Spreading Vine
(fine analysis of TPOs/RPOs), by P.J. Campbell; Delayed by Military
Censor, by D. Jay; Divergence in Russian Postal Rates 1917-23 (a thorny
* problem), by I. Steyn; Members' Adlets; Notes from Collectors and
finally The Rossica Bookshelf. A meaty issue, as always.

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No.64 for 1987. A 72-page
magazine, edited by R. Joseph and published by The British Society of
Russian Philately. All enquiries to the secretary, N.J.D. Ames,
Freefold Priory, Freefolk, Whitchurch, Hants RG28 7NL, England.

This issue features an 1884 Essay of 3r. 50k.; Handbook of Imperial
Russian Post Office; Early Postal Charge Marks to the West, by various
authors; Earliest Items of Mail from Odessa, by I. Baillie; Postal
Registration Machines in Russia 1912-1916, by H. von Hofmann; ROPiT
1856-1920, by I. Roberts; WWI Censor Markings of Minsk, by N. Banfield;
Exiled Doukhobors & Their Mail, by P. Robinson; Batum Postmaster
Provisional: New Info. by G. Werbizky; More Additions to Forbin Revenue
Catalogue, by J. Moyes; Speshnaya Pochta 1922-26, by R. Knighton;
Italian Navy in Black Sea 1942-44, by L. Buzzetti; Skobelev Committee
Ephemera, by J. Moyes; More Maps for Russian Specialists, by the Editor;
Notes from W. Frauenlob; Literature Reviews and Forthcoming Literature.
Authoritative articles in an authoritative publication!

IIO1TA No. 3 for December 1987. The journal of the Australia & New
Zealand Society of Russian Philately. A magazine of 62 pages,
obtainable from the secretary, T. Archer, 313 Mahurangi East Road,
Snells Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand. Total subscription NZ $30.00.

SThis journal is getting better as it goes along. This time we have an
Editorial; Correspondence Russia-Australasia; Readers' Pages (incl.
excellent notes on Experimental Stationery); Further Data on the A.R.A. &
1921 Volga Famine Issue, both by Dr. A.R. Marshall; Krag Machine
Cancels, by Ivo Steyn; Russian Military Censor Marks 1914-20, by N.







Banfield; Collecting Holes, by P. Eppel; New Issues; Russian Briefs and
finally Literature Reviews. Looking over the contents, we wish our
colleagues Down Under all the best in their future endeavours.

THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA 1917-1923, by Dr. R.J. Ceresa. An ongoing
series of comprehensive parts of the philately of a cataclysmic period
in Soviet history. Armenia has been covered in 13 parts, the Ukraine in
26 parts, the Armies and Post Offices in 5 parts. Volumes on Azerbaijan,
Batum, Georgia and the RSFSR issues are in course of preparation. Full
details from the author at Pepys Cottage, 13 High St., Cottenham, Cambs.,
CB4 4SA, England.

Parts 24/26 are devoted to the Shahiv, Hryven & Vienna issues of the
Ukraine in great detail, including details of the forgeries, usages etc.
The price is US $29.00 for these three parts, plus $6.00 air postage.
Parts 3/5 in The Armies series deal with Siberia, Far East and related
issues, shedding valuable light on some very murky material indeed. The
price is $19.00, plus $6.00 air postage.
All the above parts are copiously illustrated with enlarged plates. Dr.
Ceresa is the leading expert on forgeries in our field and has
classified thousands of them. His work is worth its weight in gold!

EESTI FILATELIST (THE ESTONIAN PHILATELIST) No.31 for 1987. A paperback
of 272 pages, published by The Estonian Philatelic Society in Sweden &
The Estonian Philatelic Society of New York on high quality paper. All
enquiries to the Editor, Elmar Ojaste, A.I.J.P., Mandolingatan 17,
S-421 45, VXSTRA FROLUNDA, Sweden.

Once again we have a magnificent issue, covering The Jaan Lubi Forgeries,
by E. Sj8gren; Notes by & about Julius Bleyer; Rural Mail in Estonia,
Rakvere Postal History, Soviet Estonian Commem. Cancels & Book Reviews,
all by E. Ojaste; Estonian Discography, by R. Sepp; Early Estonian Temp.
Paper Money, by T. Triumph; Warning !, by V. Hurt; Kalevala theme, by S.
Kasvandik & B-E. Saarinen; Estonian Excise Stamps & Labels, by A. Pilv;
Faleristica, by H. Rffitel; Woldemar J1rgens, by A. Lepph; Estonica, by
E. Raid; Estonian cover to the Faroes, by S. Vinther and terminating
with Additions & Corrections, Exhibition Notes etc. Wonderful!

IIOITA (POCHTA) No. 44 for January 1988. A 48-page journal of the Russia/
USSR Study Group in the Federal Republic of Germany. Edited by Pierre
Aerni. All enquiries to the president, Wolfgang Nietsch, Spessartstr. 5,
D-5300 BONN-1, Federal Republic of Germany.

This fine publication, which obtained a vermeil medal at PHILIBRI '87,
has in this issue messages from the President and Editor; Society News;
Cholera Mail from Russia to Prussia, by J. van der Linden; Helsinki-SPB
TPO/RPO by K. Hellman & J. Itkonen, well translated from the FINLANDIA
Bulletin; Swiss Air Mail to USSR & Latvia, by R. Kohl; Soviet Stationery
with Railway Theme, by K. Schauritsch; Queries from Collectors; Russian
Postal Service, from German Postal Archives, Berlin 1890; Book Review
and Collectors' Adlets. Great information for German-speaking readers!

SCHWEIZER BRIEFMARKEN-ZEITUNG. The trilingual organ (celebrating its
centenary this year) of the Union of Swiss Philatelic Societies.
Published monthly. All enquiries to the Secretariat, Postfach 462,
CH-8034, Zurich, Switzerland.

The Jan'y 1988 issue features Swiss Air Mail to German FPOs WWII incl.
Eastern Front, by R. Kohl and the April number has a fine two-page
article on Tannu Tuva by our subscriber Helmut Weikard. Well done!
78






LETTLAND: Handbuch/Philatelie und Postgeschichte (LATVIA: Handbook/
Philately and Postal History). Issued on the instructions of the Latvian
Study Group in the Federal Republic of Germany by Harry von Hofmann,
* with the collaboration of numerous philatelists.

This monumental work, which has required tremendous effort on the part
of Harry von Hofmann and his helpers, will be the standard reference for
years to come when it has been completed. Issued in sturdy paperback
format 16.6 x 24 cm., it is divided into two sections (a) the postage
stamps and (b) the postal markings. Section (a) covering the adhesives
will be in three parts, each costing DM 48,- and of which Part I has
already appeared. Its 192 pages contain a most comprehensive
introduction on all aspects of stamp production and cover in greatest
detail the stamps of 1918 to the Red Cross issue of 1920, with clear and
numerous illustrations. Section (b) on the postal history is a complete
book on its own of 320 pages, with more than 680 illustrations and
including all the known markings from 1918 to 1945. The total amount of
information given in this section is incredible and must have entailed
many hours of arduous work to put together. The price is DM 42,-.

The text throughout is in German and those who do not have the language
will find it easy to follow because of the excellent tabulations,
classifications and figures. All orders with payments should be sent to
HARRY v. HOFMANN VERLAG, Postfach 52 05 18, D-2000 HAMBURG 52 / BRD.

*

THE JOURNAL FUND

* Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto,
Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

DEREV'YANI TSERKVYV UKRAYINI(WOODEN CHURCHES IN THE UKRAINE). Charming
48-page booklet compiled by M. Koljankiws'kyj & long out of print. Text
in Ukrainian with many illustrations. Few only! Price postpaid US $6.00.

TANNU TUVA CATALOGUE, compiled in 1977 by Richard Kanak and including
unknown non-Scott issues. Long out of print and first come, first served.
Invaluable for the Tuva specialist. Price postpaid US $5.00.

THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by Rev. L.L. Tann. We have a couple left of
this standard work now out of print with a corrective page pasted in.
First come, first served. Price postpaid US$15.00.

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of Dec. 1918, embodying the latest facts by four noted
researchers and a great subject for study. Price postpaid US $5.50.

CATALOGUE OF THE FRG-USSR BILATERAL PHILATELIC EXHIBITION 10-12 Oct. 1986
in Bochum. A 62-page booklet in German and Russian. Contains a fine ten-
page article by H. Meyer on the first Soviet airmail stamp, plus
"Collecting Russia" by Prof. Richard Zimmerl and an insert of the J. S.
Bach Soviet souvenir sheet. Interesting! Price postpaid US $3.00.

LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow State
* University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian grammar, many
phrases and sentences for home study. Price postpaid US $2.50.








THE COLLECTORS' CORNER '
DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or /
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your r
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 250 / line *
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise T
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.
FOR a history of the Battle of Moscow (October 1941 to February 1942),
I would appreciate hearing from Russian and German participants, or from
anyone who has diaries, letters or photographs of this battle.
DAVID COOK, 943 Center Street, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 53147.
MUTE CANCELLATIONS of Russia WWI. Information and listings required. Can
spare many duplicates in exchange for this knowledge.
JONAS MICHELSON, P.O. Box 9314, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.
WANTED: Russian revenues,fiscals,vignettes,labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper,paper seals, bill of exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial,
Civil War or Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI,21 West 12 St., Huntington Station, N.Y.,U.S.A. 11746.
WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A., 95051.
VAMBOLA HURT ELMAR OJASTE



EESTI


ESTONIA ESTLAND
PHILATELY & POSTAL HISTORY 86 PHILATELIE & POSTGESCHICHTE
HANDBOOK CATALOGUE HANDBUCH KATALOG

JUST PUBLISHED Advance payment only to our Postal Account in Sweden
SOEBEN ERSCHIENEN Stockholm 487 55 32-6
SUPPLEMENT / NACHTRAG 1988
80 sidor / pages / Seiten EFUR HANDBOOK
Ortagirdsvagen 9,
Price / Preis SEK 120 S-133 00 SALTSJOBADEN
o80 _m Sweden Schweden
80


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