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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Guest editorial: Collecting in...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Siberia: Postmarks and postal history...
 Collecting holes
 The Helsinki-St. Petersburg railway...
 The great dot and numeral hunt
 Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
 The 7-kopek arms type
 Cash frankings in white Siberi...
 Around the international philatelic...
 Three hundred year calendar - 1753...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner














Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Guest editorial: Collecting in our sphere
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Siberia: Postmarks and postal history of the Russian Empire period
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Collecting holes
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    The Helsinki-St. Petersburg railway & the first Finnish postal compartment cancels
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The great dot and numeral hunt
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Postage stamps of the Zemstvos
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The 7-kopek arms type
        Page 59
    Cash frankings in white Siberia
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Around the international philatelic exhibitions
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Three hundred year calendar - 1753 to 2052
        Page 71
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Review of literature
        Page 75
        Page 76
    The journal fund
        Page 77
    The collectors' corner
        Page 78
Full Text

































































Printed in Canada








K


THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER No. 21.


November 1987.


CONTENTS:


2 Guest Editorial:Collecting in Our Sphere
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 Siberia: Postmarks & Postal History of
the Russian Empire Period
6 Collecting Holes
24 The Helsinki-St.Petersburg Railway & the
First Finnish Postal Compartment Cancels
40 The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt
47 Postage Stamps of the Zemstvos
59 The 7-kopek Arms Type
60 Cash Frankings in White Siberia
64 Around the International Philatelic
Exhibitions
71 Three Hundred Year Calendar: supplied by
72 Philatelic Shorts
75 Review of Literature
77 The Journal Fund
78 The Collectors' Corner


Patrick J. Campbell
Michael Renfro
Philip E. Robinson
Patrick J. Eppel
Kaj Hellman &
Jussi Etkonen
Alex Artuchov
Alex Artuchov
Rev. L. L. Tann
Ivo Steyn
Andrew Cronin
Dr. D. J. Voaden


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.


T"fST- RIDER


IMK


H


D


le
















H c ( GUEST EDITORIAL
H > COLLECTING IN OUR SPHERE

by P.J. Campbell.

One of the most pleasant aspects of philately, normally a solitary
hobby, is the more social aspect of meeting fellow-enthusiasts at club
meetings, generally local affairs and then the widening horizons when
one meets collectors at the national or even international level. Such
an affair was CAPEX-87 where Canadians, together with visitors and
guests, spent several days examining a mind-boggling 4100 frames,
checking the stocks of over 100 dealers and making, or renewing
acquaintances with a few of the myriad participants.

In essence, our hobby consists of an attempt to put together a
meaningful collection of postage stamps or covers in one or more of a
series of specific areas; in our case of Imperial Russia and/or the
Soviet Union. There are two basic sorts of collecting, which are quite
different in nature. The first is the collecting of classic material:
no new stamps or covers are being created in that category and those
that exist are gradually becoming fewer through fire, floods or natural
attrition. The second category is the modern, where an ever-increasing
flood of new material is the joy of some and the despair of others.

All collecting would be meaningless, however, but for the detailed and
unceasing study of philately going on all over the world. Such research
would, of course, be futile unless the results are published, read,
discussed and revised. We all build on the work of others and all
information becomes dated with time. Looking back to early days,
perhaps from 1850 to 1920, there was a relatively limited amount of
literature, mostly general in nature. In the thirties and forties of
this century, such publications as Archangelsky's Rossica Journal, the
BJRP, Prigara and The Russian-American Philatelist began offering more
sophisticated material. By the late fifties and thereafter, a virtual
flood of high quality literature became available, with the Rossica
Journal reborn, the short-lived Russian Philatelist, followed by
Philately of the USSR, the Soviet Collector annual issues and Canada's
Yamshchik (The Post-Rider).A plethora of fine specialised books was
published in Britain, the USA and Canada. In such publications, the
English-speaking portion of the philatelic fraternity is probably
equalling or exceeding the output of the rest of the world, including
the Soviet Union.

Some of the happiest memories of CAPEX-87 are of the meetings between
Canadian collectors of Russian material and some of the stalwarts from
Rossica. New contacts were made, old contacts renewed and, hopefully,
new joint efforts and accomplishments planned for the future. May both
Societies continue to flourish and publish, publish, publish.
2 *







CORRESPONDENCE


WITH CANADA


"Correspadence with Canada" is a regular feature Kaa-
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerox copy of the item, alcng with sane expla-
natory text to the Editor.


TWO DIFFERENT CALENDARS USED AT SHANGHAI


by Michael Renfro.


The letter shown above was sent from an insurance company in Shanghai,
China to another in Toronto, Canada. The ink splotches obscure the
company name at top left, but on the actual cover it is The China
Mutual Insurance Co. Ltd., Shanghai (partly overlapped by the
* registration labels). The franking consists of a pair of the 10-kop.
CHINA issue, postmarked with the small Cyrillic canceller, index
letter "b" (T&S Type 5B) and dated 7 April 1912 Old Style. The Cyrillic
registration label is covered by an unnumbered Latin text equivalent,







to meet international requirements. An additional datestamp with French
text (T&S Type 6A) and applied at bottom left used the New Style date
(20 April 1912). I had thought that all Shanghai cancellers were using
the Gregorian calendar at that time, but apparently not the Cyrillic
devices. The letter was backstamped at Toronto on 16 May 1912.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: We need to see more examples before arriving at a
definite conclusion but, on the face of it, it seems that the Cyrillic
type was to have been applied at that time on mail from Shanghai and
addressed to the Russian Empire, where the Julian calendar was the only
one in use. Comments from our readers would be most welcome.
*

SIBERIA: POSTMARKS AND POSTAL HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE PERIOD

by P. E. Robinson

New Discoveries and New Questions


The above book was published in September 1986, and it is gratifying to note that it has
been quite well received, a reprint being necessary in January 1987. The strong demand for
the book and the large number of letters which I have received from readers show that
Siberian postal history is a much more popular field than one might have supposed before
the book appeared.
The original work contained details of over 1,400 postmarks, but I have been very
fortunate in that many users of the book have provided me with details and/or photocopies
of unlisted postmarks, with the result that several hundred new postmarks are now on file.
Some of these were included in the reprint, but despite the continuing demand for the book,
the growing number of newly-recorded postmarks means that a full second edition is now a
more sensible proposition than a further reprint. However, the newly-recorded postmarks do
not only fill gaps, many of them also raise questions and this shows that postal history is
a never-ending study rather than simply a matter of accumulating data.
I hope and trust that a second edition will follow in due course, but in the meantime I can
give details here of some of the more significant postmarks which have been recorded since
the book went to press.
In the case of numeral cancellations, it was stated in the book that some of the
illustrations had been drawn on the basis of conjecture, as no actual examples of Siberian
numeral cancellations of certain types had been seen. Thanks to Mr I. Maslowski of Paris,I
am now able to give the following examples of Siberian numeral cancellations.
pool

.*o: ****. *:*. .*.*.*.* .

*ee*,** *.*e .
Type I Type V Type VI
50 = Tobolsk 16 = Nakhtuysk 145 = Cheremkhovskaya
The more significant examples of other newly-recorded postmarks are given below. In
each case there is an illustration of the postmark, followed by a line of postmark data,
given in the same manner as in the original book. Relevant comments are given below each
entry.







1 %. 1\ 0 e
19-03 X ~ MAPR 1 135.17 c-i 10916 rn


50.1 1 ANNENSKIYA MINERAL.VODI PRIM.OB./ P.T.O. 29 27.8.03 E
This postmark was used at the summer spa resort of Annenskiya Mineralniya Vodi in the
Primorsk district, which was open between March and September. During the whole period of
its existence it was recorded in P.O. lists as a Temporary Post & Telegraph Office. One
would therefore expect to see, in the lower part of the postmark, an abbreviated form of
the words "BpeMeHHoe fnowroBo-Tenerpa4Hoe O-rAAeHte", but in this case no mention is made
of the office's temporary status. The easiest way to explain this is by an error when the
handstamp was ordered or produced. On the other hand, we do not have detailed knowledge
of the rules governing the introduction of "crossed date" postmarks, and it could be that
the changes were interpreted as referring only to the style of the date, and that
everything else was left as it had been before 1884, when the amalgamation of the Post and
Telegraph Departments made it necessary for an office's status to be indicated on its
postmarks.
268.01 VLADIVOSTOK NA R.AM. 26 14.3.71 14.2.72 G
This postmark, from the collection of Mr Oleg A. Fabergd is rather unusual, both in its
wording and in the fact that it dates from 1871, that is, five years before the developing
port of Vladivostok became a town. The abbreviation "NA R.AM" is evidently short for "NA
REKE AMURE" or "ON THE RIVER AMUR". Vladivostok, of course, is not on the River Amur, but
at this time it was in the Amur Territory, and it might have been thought appropriate to
give an indication of its location in the wording of the postmark. Otherwise it could be
that this postmark was used at a different place of the same name, established on the Amur
River during the Russian invasion of the area, and which was later abandoned or renamed.
1006D.1 b OMSK-VYSTAVKA 28 19.7.11 1.8.11 H
Another example of this very rare postmark has now been recorded, this time a full strike
enabling a complete illustration to be given. The previous illustration was based on
incomplete strikes of the postmark on a card illustrated in OHJIATEJIH51 CCCP issue 1/1973.
1560.01 CHELYABA. 25 10.7.84 E
This postmark was used at Chelyabinsk, but was inscribed "CHELYABA." as this was an
alternative name for the town. It was in fact the name of the original Bashkir settlement
at which the town of Chelyabinsk was founded.
R290.1 6 SURGUT 290 KROTOVKA 30 x 26 13.5.17 E
The TPO routes 289-290 operated along the branch line from Krotovka to Surgut. This
opened shortly before the revolution, and in the absence of any relevant data the route was
not mentioned in the book.
S2A.1 b BLAGOVESHCHENSK-ZEYA / PAROKH. 32 x 28 10.9.16 G
This very rare postmark was used on one of the four routes which are mentioned in the
book, but from which no postmarks had been recorded.
The above postmarks are among the more significant of the newly-recorded ones; space does
not permit more of these to be given here. I would be very pleased to have details of any
postmarks which are not in the original book, and acknowledgment of the sources of these
will of course be given in the second edition. Examples of postmarks which are known to
exist, but of which no examples have yet been seen are the oval BLAGOVESHCHENSK VOKZAL and
KETRITSEVO VOKZAL postmarks, also the "post 1860" circular datestamps of such towns as
* BIYSK, VERKHNEUDINSK, VITIM, ENISEYSK, KANSK, KURGAN, MARIYNSK (Tomsk Gub.), NERCHINSK,
NIZHNEUDINSK, NIKOLAEVSK (Primorsk Gub.), OKHOTSK, STRETENSK, TURINSK and KHABAROVSK. In the
case of TPO routes, no examples have yet been seen of postmarks from route numbers 81,
289, 329 and 331, or from the un-numbered routes listed on Page 128 in the book. Any new
data may be sent to me at 2 Rydalhurst Avenue, Sheffield S6 4BG, England.









COLLECTING HOLES
Part 1
Partially Imperforate Errors

by
Pat Eppel


SCOPE

This article deals with perforation errors that leave one or more, but
not all, sides of a stamp imperforate. The most common of these errors
are the imperf.-between pairs and the fantailss'. 'Fantail' refers to
stamps imperforate between the stamp and an adjoining sheet margin.

These perforation errors have not enjoyed the same stature with the
catalog publishers as other types of errors. A color omitted error,
for example, is usually listed at a price far exceeding that for the
normal stamp. But perforation errors, unless totally imperforate,
are rarely listed at all. But make no mistake, the inadvertent
omission of a row or two of perforations is as much an error as the
omission of a color.


BACKGROUND

A basic understanding of the methods used to perforate sheets of stamps
is necessary to the understanding of partially imperforate errors.

Sheets of stamps are perforated by three basic methods: Harrow, Comb
and Line. A Harrow perforator applies all perforations to a sheet in
one operation. That is, all four sides of a stamp are perforated.
This method of perforating does not give rise to the creation of
partially imperforate errors although total imperfs can be created.
Comb perforators perforate three sides of a stamp in one operation and
line perforators apply only one row of perforations at a time. Both
of these methods give rise to the production of partially imperf. errors.

Fantails can occur on stamps perforated either by a comb or line
perforator. Imperf.-between pairs, however, can only occur when the
stamps are line perforated. In fact, the line perforator is capable
of producing all sorts of perforation errors.


CONCEPTS

How does one describe these perforation errors? At first glance, it
seems simple. But you only have to read thru a couple of auction
catalogs to realize that simple means different things to different
people. Simple to me means 'clear, concise, and consistent': the
three C's. None are more important than the others.

My system works like this: First, define the piece; then, describe
the piece; and last, describe the error.








Definition of the piece is often different for a catalog type listing
as we are attempting here, than it would be for your personal inventory
listing for the insurance company. For instance, in your inventory
list you may have something like:

#907 Upper left corner block of four with full sheet margin
at top and left. Very Fine. Used. Comprises two
horizontal pairs, imperforate-between.
Replacement value $75.00.

However, for a catalog type listing the item is simply listed as:

#907 Horizontal pair, Imperf.-Between. Used.

Usually, though not always, the perforations which are present on the
item will define the piece. As in the above, the perforations
surrounding the imperf.-between pairs defined the piece. A problem
arises when you don't have the entire piece. For instance, you have
a horizontal strip of three stamps which is totally imperforate
vertically. No extra margin at either end. Now, how do you define
the piece? The problem is that you don't have the entire piece.
If you had the sheet from which this item has been cut, you would
be able to determine the proper piece description. Let us assume
that this strip of three came from a sheet of 50 stamps--10 x 5.
By examining the sheet, you could plainly see that the left side
of the sheet ( columns 1 thru 5 ) are imperforate. So the proper
piece definition is:

#907 Strip of 5, Imperf.-between and fantail left

However, you end up having to list your item as:

#907 Strip of 3, Imperf. Vertically

Note the basic difference in the description. This type of
variation of description shows up with uncanny regularity in all
types of reference sources. It complicates the job at hand.

Description of the piece should easily follow the proper definition
of the piece. Be precise. A description of 'pair' is ambiguous.
Although 'pair' is usually meant to refer to 'horizontal pair', why
make a reader guess? 'Pair' always leaves me wondering if a word
was left out.

Describing the error is generally the easiest part. After all, you
need only ask the question, 'where is it imperforate?' If you properly
answer the question, then you have properly described the error. And
the possibilities are very limited. It's either imperforate between
two stamps ( possibly between several successive pairs of stamps
as in the strip of 5 above ) or between the stamp and the sheet margin
( i.e., a fantail ). Possibly more than one applies. If so, specify
all of them.

Two special situations which exist are: Imperforate between a stamp








and a 'label', and imperf. between two different stamps ( when printed
se tenant ). As should be obvious, these do not occur with all
stamps but should be properly handled when they do occur.

Another infrequently met with error is imperforate between the stamp
and a sheet gutter ( blank space separating panes of stamps ). I have
dubbed this item a 'gutter fantail'. Gutter fantails can usually be
distinguished by a row of perforations at the outer most edge of the
gutter. The only exception to this is a fantail bottom variety of
the 5R value of the 1906 issue ( Scott #71 ). These stamps were
printed in sheets of 25 with huge sheet margins. To prevent forgers
from using the sheet margins, an extra row of perforations was added
in the margins. On at least one sheet, the row of perforations at
the bottom of the bottom row of stamps was omitted thus producing a
fantail bottom which is imperforate down to that extra row of perfs
in the lower margin. Although I do not have one for measurement, I
understand it is a distance of about 21mm.


ABOUT THE LISTING:

Only one attempt to list these partially imperforate errors has
previously appeared in the literature. The British Journal of
Russian Philately ran a fine series which began in their Journal #31
and concluded in #40. This was a particularly fine series as nearly
all of the items were illustrated. Based on that series which listed
about 250 items, and hearsay from other collectors who speak of large
collections of these items with less than 200 pieces, I had formed
the opinion that probably 300 or so items existed. Little did I
realize that before I was finished with my research, I would accumulate
references to more than 800 items!

Errors and vagueries in the references are inevitable. Some of the
easiest vagaries o illustrate are the items listed in the Cercle Phi
lat6lique catalogs. Some are priced either mint or used but not the
other. The implication is that the unpriced condition doesn't exist.
However, several are listed but not priced in either condition. What
are we to conclude from a listing like that?

The other problem is simple errors. Unillustrated lots in an auction
can easily list the wrong catalog number or incorrectly describe the
error. I have taken the liberty of correcting descriptions or catalog
numbers where it was possible ( i.e., where the item is illustrated or
where I purchased the item ).


AUTHOR'S NOTE:

I consider this project to be in the first phase: survey. I'm trying
simply to compile a list of what exists. To those ends, I would dearly
love to be deluged with letters from collectors who can supply proof of
existence of either some of the unconfirmed items in the list or totally
new items from their collections.

I'm fairly picky as to what I consider proof of existence. Obviously,







the actual stamp would be best. However, I will happily settle for a
clear photocopy. Modern copy machines work just fine for this purpose.
Sending me a list of the items in your collection simply does not satisfy
my criteria for confirmation of existence. ( I know, call me a snob )


My address is:


Pat Eppel
108 Pinewood Circle
Apple Valley, MN 55124
U.S.A.


I will publish updates to the list periodically and ultimately, perhaps,
a separate publication which would list only the material confirmed to
exist. Other topics to be covered in this series on 'Collecting Holes'
are planned to be: Compound Perforations, Imperforates, Annulling Perfs,
Double Perforations, Specimen Perforations,.....and so on. As you can
see, collecting holes can be much ado over nothing.





EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATIONS:(Please refer to page 10 overleaf):-

From Top to Bottom, Left to Right:


Scott No.:
1
1
1




1
1


811 Fantail Top
662 Fantail Right
006 Fantail Bottom
245 Fantail Left
675 Horizontal Pair, Imperf Between
340 Horizontal Pair, Imperf Between and Fantail Right
758 Vertical Pair, Imperf Between
831 Gutter Fantail Left
132 Vertical Pair, Imperf Between and Fantail Right
161 Horizontal Strip of 3, Imperf Between
and Fantail Left
520 Vertical Pair, Imperf Between and Fantail Top


ADDITIONAL NOTES;


This article is being simultaneously submitted to the ANZAC Society
of Russian Philately in New Zealand, with the hope of covering
collectors in both hemispheres. It will appear in rIOYTA No. 3, due
out in December 1987.

I plan more writing in the future. I was thinking along the lines of
a regular (or semi-regular) series, perhaps entitled "Remember the
Stamps". It goes along with a contention of mine that there are too
many articles on postal history and not enough on just stamps. My
theory is that new serious collectors will be attracted, first by
information on the stamps and then later to postal history.








































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Key to the Listing


--1-- ( --2-- ) ------------3----------------
4 ----------5-------------- --6-- --7--

where: 1 = Scott catalog number ( 1987 )
The number to which these varieties apply.
Usually a major number but can be a minor
number like 589a. If Scott lists the error,
like C46a, my listing is under C46 and not
under C46a. I list under a minor number
when Scott's minor number has nothing to
do with the error--like 589a.
2 = Stanley Gibbons Catalog Number
3 = Brief description of stamp
4 = Error designator ( a, b, c, etc.
The six basic partially imperf errors are
always listed as a f. Other errors use
the next available letter.

a d = Fantails ( Top, Right, Bottom, Left )
e f = Imperf Between Pairs ( Hor., Vert. )
g z = Other errors or multiple errors.

5 = Error description
Abbreviations used here are:

Hor = Horizontal
Vert = Vertical
Imp = Imperforate
Pr = Pair
St = Strip
Bet = Between
Bot = Bottom
Fan = Fantail

6 = Number of references in mint condition
The format here is:

99XXX

where: 99 = number of references
XXX = can be:
(blank) if existence confirmed
-? if it probably exists, but
is not confirmed
-?? if it probably doesn't exist,
despite references to it
-!! if should exist despite no
references to it

7 = Number of references in used condition
The format is same as 7 Number of references
in mint condition.






Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used

40 ( 48 ) 7r Arms
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-??
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-??
45 ( 61 ) ir Arms
a Fantail Top 3 1-??
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-??
d Fantail Left 1-7 1-??
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 14 6-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 9 5
g Hor Pr Imp Vert 0 1-??
h Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail 1-? 0
( Fantail position not specified-
probably top or bottom )
68 ( 78 ) Ir Arms
a Fantail Top 5 1-??
c Fantail Bottom 2-7 1-7
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 6 4-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 10 2-?
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 5 0
69 ( 79 ) 3r50k Arms
a Fantail Top 0 1-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-7 1-?
g Imp Bor 1-77 3
70 ( 80 ) 7r Arms
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 11 5-7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-7 3
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 3 1-??
71 ( 90 ) Sr Arms
c Fantail Bottom 4 1-??
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 3-? 3
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-?? 2-7
g Fantail Bottom ending in a row
of perfs 21mm from stamp 2 5
87 ( 121A ) Ir Arms
a Fantail Top 5-7 1-7
b Fantail Right 1-7 0
c Fantail Bottom 7-? 1-?
d Fantail Left 3-? 0
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 9 8-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3-7 3-7
g Nor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 3 1-??
h Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 3 1-??
87b ( 183 ) Ir Arms ( Pert 12.5 )
d Fantail Left 1-? 0
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
90 ( 128 ) 3k Romanov
a Fantail Top 1-7 1-?
105 ( 165 ) 10k Money Stamp
g Hor Pr Imp Vert 2-7 1-?
108 ( 123A ) 5r Arms
a Fantail Top 2-? 1-??
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 13 1-??
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 1 0
h Imp Vert 1-?? 1-??
i Imp Bor 1-?? 0
108 ( 185b ) 5r Arms ( Pert 11.5 )
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0
108 ( NL ) 5r Arms ( Pert 11.5 x 13.5 )
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2 0
109 ( 125A ) 10r Arms
a Fantail Top 8-? 2-7
c Fantail Bottom 5 1-?
d Fantail Left 2-? 0
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 3-? 2-??
137 ( 122A ) 3r50k Arms
a Fantail Top 2-? 0
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
c Fantail Bottom 2-7 0
d Fantail Left 5-? 3-??
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 10 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3 0
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 1 0
h Hor Pr (Stamp & Label) Imp Bet 4 0
137a ( 184 ) 3r50k Arms ( Perf 12.5 )
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 3 1-77
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 2 0


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used
- - - - --------.-..... .. . .. .-- _- ---
138 ( 124A ) 7r Arms
a Fantail Top 5 1-??
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 0
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
e Nor Pr Imp Bet 8 2-??
149 ( 187 ) 35k Chainbreaker
a Fantail Top 10 2-??
150 ( 188 ) 70k Chainbreaker
a Fantail Top 4 1-??
( Often found trimmed to
resemble an imperf stamp )
211 ( 279 ) Sr 5th Anniv. Oct Revolution
g Imp Vert 1-7 0
( Privately perfed Horizontally )
234 ( 311 ) 1Or Soldier
d Fantail Left 5 0
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Gutter
Fantail Bottom 1 0
h Imp Bor 1-77 1-??
i Imp Vert 1-?? 0
235 ( 308 ) SOr Soldier
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
g Imp Vert 0 2-?
236 ( 309 ) 70r Soldier
g Imp Vert 1-? 0
236 ( 310 ) 1OOr Soldier
g Imp Vert 0 1-?
246 ( 332 ) lr Agricultural Exhibition
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-7
d Fantail Left 1-7 1
e Nor Pr Imp Bet 1-7 1-?
g Imp Vert 1-? 1-?
247 ( 329 ) 2r Agricultural Exhibition
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-7
b Fantail Right 1-7 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-7
d Fantail Left 1-7 1-7
e Nor Pr Imp Bet 1-7 0
g Imp Vert 1-? 1-?
248 ( 330 ) 5r Agricultural Exhibition
b Fantail Right 3-? 1-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-? 0
f Bor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 1 0
g Imp Vert 1-? 1-?
248a ( 333 ) 5r Agricultural Exhibition
b Fantail Right 1-7 1-7
g Imp vert 1-? 1-7
249 ( 334 ) 7r Agricultural Exhibition
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-? 1-7
292 ( 392 ) 3r Soldier
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 4-? 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 1-?
293 ( 393 ) 5r Worker
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-?
d Fantail Left 0 1-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-7 0
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 0 1
h Imp Hor 1-7 1-?
302 ( 454 ) 5r Lenin
a Fantail Top 1 0
c Fantail Bottom 0 1
326 ( 456 ) 3k Lomonosov
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 2-? 1-?
340 ( 464b ) 7k Revolution of 1905
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 4-? 1-7
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 2 0
340a ( 464 ) 7k Revolution of 1905
e Nor Pr Imp Bet 4-? 3-7
342 ( 451 ) Ir Lenin
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
( Descepancy in text--could be
Fantail Right )
343 ( 452 ) 2r Lenin
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0






Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used

344 ( 453 ) 3r Lenin
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 0 5
373 ( 498B ) 14k Zamenhof ( wtmk )
d Fantail Left 0 1-7
374 ( 498A ) 14k Zamenhof ( no wtmk )
a Fantail Top 1-7 1-?
d Fantail Left 0 2-?
e Her Pr Imp Bet 2-7 2-7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 5 0
380 ( 506 ) 18k October Revolution
a Fantail Top 2-? 1-?
b Fantail Right 2-? 1-?
c Fantail Bottom- 1-7 1-7
d Fantail Left 2-7 1-7
404 ( 531 ) 18k Soviet Army
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-7
406 ( 533 ) 3r Lenin
a Fantail Top 1 0
408 ( 535 ) 10r Lenin
b Fantail Right 6 1-?
413a ( 541C ) 1k Definitive
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
415 ( 543 ) 3k Definitive
b Fantail Right 1 0
417 ( 545 ) 5k Definitive
d Fantail Left 1 0
494 ( 613 ) 6k Peoples
a Fantail Top 1-7 1-7
495 ( 614 ) 7k Peoples
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
503 ( 625 ) 15k Peoples
d Fantail Left 2-? 5
519 ( 638 ) 4k 26 Commissars
a Fantail Top 0 3
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an Impert Stamp )
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-7 0
520 ( 639 ) 5k 26 Commissars
a Fantail Top 0 1
b Fantail Right 0 1-?
d Fantail Left 2-7 1-7
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 2-? 1-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-7
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Top 4 0
h Imp Hor 1-? 1-7
i Imp Vert 2-? 1-?
521 ( 640 ) 20k 26 Commissars
c Fantail Bottom 2-7 3-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 6 1-7


f Vert Pr Imp Bet
522 ( 641 ) 35k 26 Corm
a Fantail Top
523 ( 642 ) 40k 26 ComI
d Fantail Left
g Imp Hor
530 ( 654 ) 40k Fedorov
b Fantail Right
553 ( 690 ) 15k Subway
b Fantail Right
573 ( 711 ) 3k Kalinin


a ssars

Sssars





Station


e Hor Pr Imp Bet
577 ( 715B ) 3k Tolstoy ( Pert 14 )
b Fantail Right
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
f Vert Pr Imp Bet
577a ( 715A ) 3k Tolstoy ( Pert 11 )
b Fantail Right
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
578 ( 716B ) 10k Tolstoy ( Pert 14 )
a Fantail Top
578a ( 716A ) 10k Tolstoy ( Pert 11 )
d Fantail Left
579 ( 717B ) 20k Tolstoy ( Pert 14 )
b Fantail Right
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an Imperf Stamp )
d Fantail Left


1-? 1-?

1-? 1-?


1-? 2-?

1-7 1-7
1-? 1-?

1-? 1-?








1-? 2
5 0

1-? 1-?

1-? 1-7

1 7


3 0


Scott No. of Rets
No. Description Mint Used


I


579a





581a

582

582a


583







583a

584






584a





585







585a






586





587

587a



589

589a


590


590



590



590

590


f Vert Pr Imp Bet
( 717A ) 20k Tolstoy ( Pert 11 )
a Fantail Top
b Fantail Right
d Fantail Left
f Vert Pr Imp Bet
( 719A ) 4k Bauman ( Pert 14 )
d Fantail Left
( 720A ) 40k Kirov ( Pert 11 )
b Fantail Right
( 720B ) 40k Kirov ( Perf 14 )
b Fantail Right
c Fantail Bottom
( 7218 ) 1k Pioneers ( Pert 14 )
a Fantail Top


( Exists trimmed to resemble
an i mperf stamp )
c Fantail Bottom 1-7
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0
( 721A ) 1k Pioneers ( Pert 11 )
b Fantail Right 1-?
( 722B ) 2k Pioneers ( Pert 14 )
a Fantail Top 1-?
( Exists trimmed to resemble


b
c

a
b
c
f

a
b
c


an imperf stamp )
Fantail Right
Fantail Bottom
( 722A ) 2k Pioneers ( Pert 11 )
Fantail Top
Fantail Right
Fantail Bottom
Vert Pr Imp Bet
( 723B ) 3k Pioneers ( Pert 14 )
Fantail Top
Fantail Right
Fantail Bottom


2-7
1-?

0
1-7
1-?
1-7


1-7
1-?
2

2

2-?


7
1-7

1
3
1-?
2


1-? 0
2-7 2-?
0 1-7


g Perfs absent for 8mm on Top 1-7 1-?
h Perfs absent for 8mm on Right 1-? 1-?
i Perfs absent for 8mm on Left 1-? 1-7
( 723A ) 3k Pioneers ( Pert 11 )
a Fantail Top 2-7 1-?
b Fantail Right 1-? 2
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-? 2
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 1-? 1-7
( 724B ) 5k Pioneers ( Pert 14 )
a Fantail Top 1-? 3
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 2
( 725B ) 10k Pioneers ( Pert 14 )
d Fantail Left 1-7 2
( 725A ) 10k Pioneers ( Pert 11 )
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-7
d Fantail Left 1-? 1-7
e nor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-?
( 727A ) 10k Dubrolyubov ( Pert 11 )
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-7 1-7
( 727B ) 10k Dubrolyubov ( Pert 14 )
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-?
d Fantail Left 1-7 1-?
( 728 ) 10k Pushkin ( Pert 12.5 )
a Fantail Top 2-? 4
c Fantail Bottom 4-? 8-7
( 728 ) 10k Pushkin ( Pert 14 x 12.5 )
a Fantail Top 1-7 0
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 1-7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
( 728 ) 10k Pushkin ( Pert 14 )
b Fantail Right 2-7 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 4-? 1-?
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
( 728 ) 10k Pushkin ( Pert 11 )
b Fantail Right 2-? 1-?
( 728 ) 10k Pushkin ( Pert 11 x 12.5 )
b Fantail Right 1-? 0


L


0 4

1-7 1-7
3 3-?
3-? 1-7
3-?? 7

2-? 2-?

0 1-7

1-7 2-7
1-7 1-?






Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mi nt Used

f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-7 3
593 ( 731 ) 50k Pushkin ( Perf 12.5 )
a Fantail Top 2-? 1-?
593 ( 731 ) 50k Pushkin ( Perf 11 x 12.5 )
a Fantail Top 0 1
594 ( 732 ) 80k Pushkin ( Perf 14 x 12.5 )
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 0
597 ( 734 ) 3k Architects
a Fantail Top 1-? 2
b Fantail Right 2-7 2-7
d Fantail Left 2-? 2-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-? 2-?
598 ( 735 ) 5k Architects
a Fantail Top 2-? 1-?
601 ( 738 ) 20k Architects
b Fantail Right 1-7 1-7
606 ( 742 ) 10k Dzerzhinski
a Fantail Top 0 2
b Fantail Right 1-?? 8
c Fantail Bottom 0 1
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-? 1-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3-?? 12
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 0 1
h Imp Hor 1-? 1-?
i Imp Vert 1-? 1-?
j Imp
607 ( 743 ) 20k Dzerzhinski
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-7
b Fantail Right 1-?? 9
610 ( 768 ) 20k Rustaveli
d Fantail Left 1-?? 9
613 ( 767 ) 50k Paris Exposition
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
615 ( 727c ) 4k Definitive
b Fantail Right 0 1
616B ( 1214b ) 10k Black Definitive
b Fantail Right 3 0
620 ( 850 ) 3r Lenin
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 2-7
d Fantail Left 3 0
621 ( 854 ) 5r Lenin
d Fantail Left 3 0
622 ( 855 ) 10r Lenin
d Fantail Left 3 0
629 ( 773 ) 10k Red Army
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-7
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
d Fantail Left 1-? 1-?
631 ( 775 ) 30k Red Army
b Fantail Right 2 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-?? 5
632 ( 776 ) 40k Red Army
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-?
633 ( 777 ) 50k Red Army
a Fantail Top ( see 633h ) 0 0-!!
b Fantail Right 2-? 9
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-? 2
g Imp Hor 2 1-?
h Fantail Top & Fantail Right 0 1-?
634 ( 778 ) 80k Red Army
c Fantail Bottom 6 7
636 ( 780 ) 10k Transpolar Vancouver
a Fantail Top 0 1
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 1
637 ( 781 ) 20k Transpolar Vancouver
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-?? 22
641 ( 785 ) 20k Transpolar San Jacinto
a Fantail Top 0 1
645 ( 789 ) 30k Papanin
d Fantail Left 1-7 1-?
666 ( 799 ) 5k Views Yalta
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
675 ( 807 ) 50k Views Gursuf
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 0 4
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-?? 1-??
678 ( 810 ) 5k Aerial Sports


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used


d Fantail Left
( 819 ) 10k Moscow Subway
a Fantail Top
d Fantail Left
e Hor Pr Imp Bet


714

724


( 822 )
d Fantail
( 833 )
d Fantail
( 834 )
a Fantail
c Fantai 1
( 848 )


e


725
d
727
g
729
f
730
c
732


733


c

a
b
c


30k Moscow Subway
Left
20k Motorcycl i sts
Left
30k Skier
Top
Bottom
30k N.Y. Worlds Fair


Bor Pr Imp Bet
( 856 ) 10k Agricultural Fair
Fantail Top
Fantail Left
( 857 ) 15k Agricultural Fair
Fantail Left
( 859 ) 30k Fair Pavillion
Gutter Fantail Bottom


( 861 )
Vert Pr
( 862 )
Fantail
( 864 )
Fantail
( 865 )
Fantail
Fantail
Fantail


45k Harvest
Imp Bet
50k Agricultural Fair
Bottom
80k Agricultural Fair
Bottom
ir Agricultural Fair
Top
Right
Bottom


e Hor Pr Imp Bet
f Vert Pr Imp Bet
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom
h Imp Hor
( 847a ) 5k Worker
d Fantail Left
( 847C ) 15k Soldier
b Fantail Right
d Fantail Left
( 847d ) 30k Aviator
a Fantail Top
b Fantail Right
c Fantail Bottom
d Fantail Left
g Bor Strip of 3 Imp Bet
h Imp Vert
i Hor Pr Imp Bet & Imp Left
( Apparently not Fantail Left
j Imp Hor
k Gutter Fantail Left
( 847e ) 60k Arms
b Fantail Right
( 876 ) 5k Sanatorium
b Fantail Right
c Fantail Bottom
d Fantail Left
( 877 ) 10k Sanatorium
a Fantail Top
( 878 ) 15k Sanatorium
b Fantail Right
c Fantail Bottom
d Fantail Left
( 879 ) 20k Sanatorium
c Fantail Bottom
d Fantail Left
( 881 ) 50k Sanatorium
a Fantail Top
( 882 ) 60k Sanatorium
c Fantail Bottom
( 884 ) 15k Lermontov
a Fantail Top
f Vert Pr Imp Bet
( 885 ) 30k Lermontov
a Fantail Top
c Fantail Bottom
d Fantail Left


)


2-7 2-?

1-7? 4
1-? 1-7
0 1

2 1-??

0 3

0 2
0 1-?


0

4
1-??


1-?? 2

1 0

3 0

6 2-7

3 3

1-? 1-7
1-7 1-?
1-7 2
1-?? 8
1-? 1-7
1-? 0
1-? 1-7

3 1-??

0 1
11 1-??

2 0
2 0
2 0
10 3-?
0 1-?
1-? 1-?
2 0


1-? 1-?
1 0


0

1-7
1-?
1-?77
1-??


1-?? 3

1-?? 4
1-? 1-7
1-? 2


5
1-??

3


1-? 1-7

3 2-7
1-? 1-?

1-? 1-?
1-7 1-?
0 3





Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used

f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-?? 4
g Vert Pr Dbl Pert Bet & Fan Bot 0 3
h Imp Vert 1-? 1-7
759 ( 886 ) 45k Lermontov
a Fantail Top 0 1-?
760 ( 887 ) 15k Chernyshevski
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
763 ( 890 ) 10k Chekhov
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
764 ( 891 ) 15k Chekhov
a Fantail Top 1 0
765 ( 892 ) 20k Chekhov
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-7
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-?
767 ( 893a ) 10k Liberation
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-?
768 ( 894 ) 30k Liberation
a Fantail Top 2-? 1-?
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-?
d Fantail Left 1-? 3
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-?
g Vert Pr Imp Halfway Bet 1 0
770 ( 896 ) 60k Liberation
a Fantail Top 0 4
b Fantail Right 1-7 2
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 0 1-?
771 ( 897 ) Ir Liberation
c Fantail Bottom 0 3-7
775 ( 901 ) Ir George Sedov
a Fantail Top 2-? 2-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-7 1-?
779 ( 905 ) 80k Mayakovsky
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
780 ( 906 ) 10k Ti mi ryasev
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
b Fantail Right 1-? 3
781 ( 907 ) 15k Timiryasev
a Fantail Top 1-? 4
783 ( 909 ) 60k Timiryasev
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
784 ( 910 ) 15k Physical Culture Day
d Fantail Left 1-? 1-?
787 ( 913 ) 60k Physical Culture Day
b Fantail Right 3 1-?
( Exists trimmed to resemble


an imperf stamp )
789 ( 915 ) 15k Tchaikovsky
b Fantail Right
791 ( 917 ) 30k Tchaikovsky
c Fantail Bottom
793 ( 919 ) 60k Tchaikovsky
c Fantail Bottom
794 ( 920 ) 10k Pavillion
c Fantail Bottom
797 ( 923 ) 30k Pavillion Central
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
f Vert Pr Imp Bet
801 ( 927 ) 30k Pavillion Georgian
a Fantail Top
803 ( 929 ) 30k Pavillion Uzbek
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
g Bor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right
h Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left
811 ( 937 ) 10k Perekop
a Fantail Top
c Fantail Bottom
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
814 ( 940 ) 50k Perekop
a Fantail Top
819 ( 945 ) 20k Industries
a Fantail Top
820 ( 946 ) 30k Industries
b Fantail Right
821 ( 947 ) 50k Industries
b Fantail Right


1-? 1-?

3 5

4 2-?

1-? 1-?
Region
1-? 0
2-? 0

0 10

2-? 0
0 1
4 0

1-? 3
1-? 2-?
0 1-?

1-? 3

0 2-?

1-? 1-?

1-? 2


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used


823

824

831

831.

833


834

838

846

858


863

864

864,

869

871

872

873



874

875

876





877


c
d
f
878
b
880
b
885
b


Fantail Bottom 0
Fantail Left 1
Vert Pr Imp Bet 0
( 1005 ) 5k 25 Years of Revolution
Fantail Right 1'
( 1007 ) 15k Fighters
Fantail Right 0
( 1012 ) 2r 25 Years of Revolution
Fantail Right 0


886 ( 1018 ) 30k Mt St. Elias
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
891 ( 1013 ) 30k Trench Mortar
d Fantail Left
893 ( 1016 ) 60k Panfilovs Guard
b Fantail Right
896 ( 1023 ) 60k Gorki
c Fantail Bottom
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )
d Fantail Left
e Hor Pr Imp Bet
897 ( 1024 ) lr Patriotic War Medal
b Fantail Right
d Fantail Left
901 ( 1030 ) 60k Red Army & Navy
b Fantail Right
d Fantail Left
902 ( 1031 ) 3r Sailors
f vert Pr Imp Bet
906 ( 1039 ) 60k Mayakovsky
f Vert Pr Imp Bet


4

1-


( 949 ) lr Industries
d Fantail Left 1-7
( 950 ) 5k Troops on Skies
b Fantail Right 1-??
( 957 ) Ir Marshall's Star
g Gutter Fantail Left 1
A ( 957b ) 3r Marshall's Star
a Fantail Top 1-?
( 966 ) 15k Tchaikovsky
a Fantail Top 4
b Fantail Right 1-?
( 967 ) 30k Suvorov
b Fantail Right 0
( 958 ) 15k Zhukovski
a Fantail Top 1-?
( 973 ) 30k Surikov
a Fantail Top 1-?
( 986 ) 1r Alishe Navoi
d Fantail Left 1-?
g Gutter Fantail Left 2
( 990 ) 30k Shura
b Fantail Right 0
( 991 ) 30k Zoya
b Fantail Right 1-?
A ( 1048f ) 30k Zoya
b Fantail Right 2-?
( 996 ) 30k Partisans
d Fantail Left 1-?
( 998 ) 60k Defense of Leningrad
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 1-?
( 999 ) 1r Army Scouts
b Fantail Right 0
( 1000 ) 20k Women Workers
b Fantail Right 2-?
d Fantail Left 0
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-?
( 1001 ) 20k Flaming Tank
d Fantail Left 7-?
( 1002 ) 30k Preparing Food Shipment
c Fantail Bottom 0
( 1003 ) 45k Sewing Uniforms
c Fantail Bottom 1-7
d Fantail Left 1-?
g Hor Pr Double Perf Bet &
Fantail Right 1-?
( 1004 ) 45k Anti-Aircraft Battery


1
-? 1-?
1

-? 7-?

2

3

0

-?? 9


1-7 3
8 0

0 2
0 1

1-?? 11
1-? 1-?

2 0

1-? 0


13
1-?
4


F






Scott
No.


N


Description


907 ( 1040 ) 30k Teheran Conference
c Fantail Bottom
d Fantail Left
e Nor Pr Imp Bet
913 ( 1047 ) 30k Defenders of Leningi
f Vert Pr Imp Bet
918 ( 1035 ) 30k Soldier
g Gutter Fantail Right
921 ( 1066 ) 60k U.N. Day
b Fantail Right
923 ( 1051 ) 15k Medals
e Bor Pr Imp Bet
924 ( 1052 ) 20k Nevsky Medal
g Imp Vert ( Hor Pr )
925 ( 1053 ) 30k Medals Suvorov
a Fantail Top
926 ( 1054 ) 60k Medal
a Fantail Top
c Fantail Bottom
927 ( 1055 ) ir Order of Patriotic W:
a Fantail Top
b Fantail Right
928 ( 1056 ) 3r Nevsky Order
b Fantail Right
931 ( 1060 ) 30k Lenin and Stalin
c Fantail Bottom
932 ( 1059 ) 30k Lenin
b Fantail Right
933 ( 1061 ) 45k Lenin
b Fantail Right
934 ( 1062 ) 50k Lenin in Mi ddle Age
b Fantail Right
e Bor Pr Imp Bet


o.
M:


1
0
1
ra
1I

0

1

1

1

0

0
1.
ar
0
1.

1.

5

5

0

1
13


938 ( 1068B ) 30k Rimski-Korsakov
d Fantail Left 1
942 ( 1080 ) 30k Shors
a Fantail Top 0
944 ( 1081 ) 30k Lazho
d Fantail Left 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3
945 ( 1077 ) 30k Chapygin
c Fantail Bottom 0
948 ( 1073 ) 60k Matrosov
c Fantail Bottom 0
955 ( 1085 ) ir Repin
d Fantail Left 1*
957 ( 1087 ) 30k Krylov
d Fantail Left 1
960 ( 1089 ) 15k Partisan Medal
a Fantail Top 1
961 ( 1090 ) 30k Bravery Medal
a Fantail Top 1
962 ( 1091 ) 45k Medals
b Fantail Right 1.
963 ( 1092 ) 60k Order of Victory Medal
d Fantail Left 1
964 ( 1093 ) ir Ushakov Medal
a Fantail Top 1
967 ( 1096 ) 60k Griboedov
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 9
969 ( 1101 ) 3r Stalingrad
b Fantail Right 0
c Fantail Bottom 1
d Fantail Left 0
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-
971 ( 1120 ) ir Medals
d Fantail Left 1-
974 ( 1102 ) 20k Success of Red Army
a Fantail Top 1-
975 ( 1103 ) 30k Soviet Army Victories
b Fantail Right 3
976 ( 1105 ) 30k Success of Red Army
d Fantail Left 1-
979 ( 1107 ) ir Success of Red Army
c Fantail Bottom 1
981 ( 1110 ) 60k Moscow Victory
a Fantail Top 3


of Refs
nt Used


0
1
-? 8
d
-7 0

1-?
1-7

1-?

0

0

1

1
-7 2-?

1-?
-7 1-?

-? 0

0

0

1

1-?
0

-7 1-?

3

3
0

3

1-?

-7 0

-? 2-?

0

0

-? 1-7

0

0

0


0
9
0
1-?
-? 0

-? 1-?

-7 2-?

2-?

-? 1-7

0

0


Scott
No.


No. of Refs
Mint Used


Description


986 ( 1119 ) 60k Motherhood Medals
a Fantail Top 4-? 1-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 11 0
986A ( 1120 ) ir Medals
b Fantail Right 2-7 0
987 ( 1112 ) 30k Academy Building
b Fantail Right 3 0
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 14 0
988 ( 1113 ) 2r Lomonosov
a Fantail Top 0 5
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )
989 ( 1114 ) 30k Popov
a Fantail Top 1 0
992A ( 1163 ) 5k Planes
a Fantail Top 2 2
992C ( 1165 ) 15k Planes
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
992D ( 1166 ) 15k Planes
d Fantail Left 2 0
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 2-7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-7 2-7
9928 ( 1170 ) 50k Planes
b Fantail Right 2-7 0
9921 ( 1171 ) 60k lakovlev Fighter
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
993 ( 1129 ) ir Planes
b Fantail Right 0 1
c Fantail Bottom 0 1
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-?? 7
994 ( 1131 ) ir Planes
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
995 ( 1130 ) Ir Planes
a Fantail Top 3 0
1000 ( 1123 ) Ir Planes
b Fantail Right 1-7 0
1001 ( 1127 ) Ir Turpolev-2 Bombers
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 1-7
1002 ( 1133 ) 30k Lenin
b Fantail Right 0 1-?
1003 ( 1134 ) 50k Lenin
b Fantail Right 4 4
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
1006 ( 1137 ) 3r Lenin
c Fantail Bottom 3 0
1007 ( 1138 ) 30k Prince Kutozov
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 4 0
1008 ( 1139 ) 60k Prince Kutozov
b Fantail Right 2 0
1014 ( 1145 ) 60k Engels
c Fantail Bottom 2 0
1015 ( 1148 ) 20k Tank Leaving Assembly Line
d Fantail Left 0 1
1018 ( 1151 ) lr Moscow Fireworks
b Fantail Right 1-7 1-?
d Fantail Left 0 8
1019 ( 1146 ) 30k Artillery Day
b Fantail Right 4 0
1023 ( 1154 ) 60k Victory Medal
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-?
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1 0
1024 ( 1155 ) 60k Victory Medal
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 4
f vert Pr Imp Bet 2 0
g Imp nor ( Vert Pr ) 0 2-?
1025 ( 1156 ) 60k Victory
b Fantail Right 3 1-7
1027 ( 1158 ) 45k Elections
b Fantail Right 3 1
1028 ( 1159 ) 60k Elections
d Fantail Left 1 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 4
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Top 0 6
1030 ( 1161 ) 2r Victory Parade
a Fantail Top 1 0
1031 ( 1162 ) 3r Victory Parade






Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used

c Fantail Bottom 0 2
1038 ( 1180 ) 60k Medal
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
1047 ( 1190 ) 30k Gorky
a Fantail. Top 0 1-?
1048 ( 1191 ) 60k Gorky
b Fantail Right 0 5
1049 ( 1189 ) 20k Kalinin
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 0
1052 ( 1192 ) 15k Sukhumi
d Fantail Left 1-? 1-?
1053 ( 1193 ) 30k Gagri
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-7
1054 ( 1194 ) 30k Sotchi
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 0 4
d Fantail Left 0 2
1055 ( 1195 ) 45k Sanatorium
b Fantail Right 3 0
d Fantail Left 1 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 10 0
g Vert Strip of 3 Top Pr Dbl
Pert Bet Bottom Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
1058 ( 1214 ) 60k Soviet Tankmen
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
1059 ( 1205 ) 5k Moscow Views
a Fantail Top 3 0
1060 ( 1206 ) 10k Grand Theater-Moscow
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 0
1062 ( 1208 ) 20k Grand Theater-Sverdlov Palace
d Fantail Left 1-? 3
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 1-? 0
h Hor St of 3 Imp Bet & Fan Left 2 1
1063 ( 1209 ) 45k Moscow Views
b Fantail Right 0 2
1065 ( 1211 ) 60k Red Square
b Fantail Right 4 0
1066 ( 1212 ) Ir Spasski Tower
a Fantail Top 1 1
d Fantail Left 3 0
1068 ( 1204 ) lr Medal
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-7
1075 ( 1215 ) 5k Agriculture
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 8 1-?
1076 ( 1216 ) 10k Oil
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 5
1078 ( 1218 ) 20k Industrial Plan
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 10 0
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 1-? 0
1079 ( 1219 ) 30k Five Year Plan
a Fantail Top 0 5
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 1 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
g vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 1-? 0
1080 ( 1220 ) 15k First Soviet Stamps
b Fantail Right 1-?? 4-?
d Fantail Left 1 0
1081 ( 1221 ) 30k First Soviet Stamps
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 0
d Fantail Left 3-? 0
1082 ( 1222 ) 60k First Soviet Stamps
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 2
d Fantail Left 1-? 0
1084 ( 1224 ) 30k Lenin and Stalin
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Top 1-? 0
1085 ( 1228 ) 30k Dneiperprostoi Dam
a Fantail Top 0 4
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 7 2-??
1087 ( 1230 ) 30k Karpinsky
c Fantail Bottom 2 0
1089 ( 1225 ) 30k Nekrasov
g Fantail Side not specified 0 1-7
1090 ( 1226 ) 60k Nekrasov
g Imp Hor 1 0
1091 ( 1235 ) 30k Lenin Mausoleum


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used

c Fantail Bottom 2 0
1092 ( 1234 ) 30k Lenin Mausoleum
d Fantail Left 2 0
1096 ( 1239 ) 60k Geographical Society
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-?
1097 ( 1240 ) 60k Przhevalski
b Fantail Right 0 1-7
1098 ( 1232 ) 30k Zhukovski
b Fantail Right 1-?? 8
1099 ( 1233 ) 60k Zhukovski
b Fantail Right 1 8
d Fantail Left 2-? 2-?
1102 ( 1259 ) 30k Military Instruction
d Fantail Left 1 0
1103 ( 1260 ) 30k Soviet Army
c Fantail Bottom 3-? 0
1104 ( 1241 ) 30k Arms RSFSR
f vert Pr Imp Bet 4 1-??
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 2 0
h Imp Hor 2-? 1-?
1107 ( 1244 ) 30k Arms Byelorussian
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 5
1108 ( 1245 ) 30k Arms Estonia
d Fantail Left 1-? 2-7
1111 ( 1248 ) 30k Arms Kazakh
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
1113 ( 1250 ) 30k Arms Latvia
d Fantail Left 2 1-7
1115 ( 1252 ) 30k Arms Moldavia
a Fantail Top 4 0


e
1117
a
1118
d
1119
c
1121
c
1125
f
1126
f
1129
e
1131
b
1132
c
e
f
g
1133
c
e
1140
c
1142
f
1143
a
1144
C
1147
b
1148
b

g
1150
e
1156
e


( Exist trimmed to resemble an
imperf stamp and trimmed on the
right and left sides leaving
perfs at the bottom only )
Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-??
( 1254 ) 30k Arms Turkmen
Fantail Top 1-71
( 1255 ) 30k Arms Ukraine
Fantail Left 1
( 1256 ) 30k Arms Uzbek
Fantail Bottom 2-7
( 1261 ) 30k Pushkin
Fantail Bottom 2-?
( 1265 ) 30k Moscow Council Building
Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-?
( 1266 ) 30k May Day Parade
Vert Pr Imp Bet 3
( 1293 ) 50k 800 Years Moscow
Hor Pr Imp Bet 6
( 1296 ) Ir 800 Years Moscow
Fantail Right 1
( 1286 ) 5k Moscow Founding
Fantail Bottom 1-?
Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-7
Vert Pr Imp Bet 9
vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 3
( 1287 ) 10k Moscow Founding
Fantail Bottom 0
Hor Pr Imp Bet 6
( 1295 ) 60k Moscow Founding
Fantail Bottom 1-7
( 1296 ) ir Moscow Founding
Vert Pr Imp Bet 5
( 1297 ) lr Moscow Founding
Fantail Top 1-?
( 1298 ) 2r Moscow Founding
Fantail Bottom 1-7
( 1270 ) 30k Karamyshevsky Dam
Fantail Right 1-7
( 1271 ) 30k Volga Canal
Fantail Right 0
( Exists with top margin trimmed )
Fantail Top & Fantail Left 1-?
( 1273 ) 50k Volga Canal
Hor Pr Imp Bet 9
( 1283 ) 45k Stalinsky Station
Hor Pr Imp Bet 5


12

6

0

0


0

0

0


1-?
0

1

2-7

1-?

1-7

0

7-?

0

0

0

17







Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mi nt Used

1157 ( 1285 ) 60k Mayakovsky Station
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 9 0
1158 ( 1284 ) 60k Kiev Station
a Fantail Top 12 8
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )
1159 ( 1268 ) 30k Air Force Day
d Fantail Left 5 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-7
1160 ( 1269 ) Ir Air Plane
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
1161 ( 1328 ) 60k Spasski Tower
g Nor St of 3 Imp Bet & Fan Left 2 0
1162 ( 1302 ) 30k Sukhumi
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
1165 ( 1304 ) 30k New Rivera
g Imp Hor 1-? 0
h Imp Vert 1-7 0
1166 ( 1308 ) 30k Abkhasi a, Novy Afon
e Nor Pr Imp Bet 8-? 1-7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 4-? 1-7
g Imp Hor 12 0
h Imp Vert 17 1-?
1167 ( 1307 ) 30k Kemeri
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
1168 ( 1308 ) 30k Kirov Sanatorium
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 6 0
g Bor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 6 0
1169 ( 1305 ) 30k Voroshilov Memorial
a Fantail Top 0 2-7
c Fantail Bottom 0 7
d Fantail Left 2 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 10 0
1171 ( 1303 ) 30k Zapadugol
a Fantail Top 1-?? 7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-7 0
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 1 o
1175 ( 1320 ) 30k Agricultural Machine Plant


b
1178
d
1180
d
e
1181
d
e
1190
c
1192
b
1193
a
1201
a
1205
c
1208
a
1210
c
1217
c
1218
b
1220
b
1222
f
1227
d
1231
b
1235
C


Fantail Right 0
( 1324 ) 60k Stalingrad
Fantail Left 2
( 1325 ) Ir Kirov Factory
Fantail Left 0
Hor Pr Imp Bet 9
( 1326 ) lr Kharkov Tractor Works
Fantail Left 0
Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-?
( 1332 ) 50k Peter I Monument
Fantail Bottom 0
( 1333 ) Ir Leningrad Liberation
Fantail Right 2-?
( 1337 ) 30k Government Building Ki
Fantail Top 0
( 1341 ) 30k Surikov
Fantail Top 8
( 1345 ) 30k Soldier & Artillery
Fantail Bottom 0
( 1348 ) 60k Military Class
Fantail Top 0
( 1349 ) 60k Chapayev
Fantail Bottom 1-?
( 1357 ) 20k Woman Farmer
Fantail Bottom 6
( 1358 ) 30k Arms
Fantail Right 1-?
( 1360 ) 50k Spasski Tower
Fantail Right 2-?
( 1362 ) 30k May Day Parade
Vert Pr Imp Bet 3
( 1367A ) 30k Ostrovski
Fantail Left 1-?
( 1371 ) 50k Shishkin
Fantail Right 1-?
( 1375 ) 30k Public Gathering
Fantail Bottom 1-?


1244 ( 1377 ) 30k Arms and Citizens


5-7

1-?

5
0

4-7
0

2

1-?
ev
1

3

2

1

0

1-?

0

1-?

0

1-?

0

0


Sg Fantail ( Side not specified )


1-? 1-?


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used
--------------------------------------------------
b Fantail Right 1-? 1
1245 ( 1378 ) 60k Arms and Citizens
d Fantail Left 3 0
1254 ( 1394 ) 15k Footrace
a Fantail Top 2 11
d Fantail Left 1 0
1255 ( 1395 ) 30k Football
e Nor Pr Imp Bet 12 0
1256 ( 1396 ) 45k Motorboat Race
a Fantail Top 1-?? 5
1259 ( 1399 ) lr Day of Tankmen
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 0 4
1265 ( 1400 ) 30k Horses
a Fantail Top 2-7 0
1268 ( 1407 ) 30k Foundry
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0
1272 ( 1408 ) 30k Heavy Machinery
a Fantail Top 1-7? 4
c Fantail Bottom 2 0
1295 ( 1434 ) 40k Moscow Art Theater
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-7 0
1310 ( 1452 ) 40k Swallows Nest
a Fantail Top 4 0
1315 ( 1454 ) 40k Stalin Highway, Sochi
g Fantail ( Side not specified ) 1-? 1-?
1317 ( 1456 ) 40k Seascape, Gagri
b Fantail Right 1-?? 5
1320 ( 1459 ) 40k Lomonosov
a Fantail Top 0 1-7
c Fantail Bottom 0 6
1336 ( 1468 ) 40k Womens Day
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
1337 ( 1469 ) 50k School Teaching
g Fantail ( Side not specified ) 0 1-?
1341A ( 1098a ) 2r Medals
b Fantail Right 0 3
1382 ( 1503 ) lr Parachuting
a Fantail Top 0 5
1401 ( 1535 ) 50k Mali Theater
d Fantail Left 1-? 1-?
1402 ( 1536 ) 1r Mali Theater
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
1403 ( 1531 ) 40k Chapayev
a Fantail Top 5 2-?
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-7
1405 ( 1533 ) Ir Nikitin
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
1406 ( 1537 ) 40k October Rev.-32nd Anniv.
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
1413 ( 1556 ) 50k Locomotives
d Fantail Left 1 0
1418 ( 1552 ) Ir Weight Lifter
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
b Fantail Right 3 0
1419 ( 1553 ) 2r Wolf Hunt
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-?
1421 ( 1560 ) 25k Irrigation

b Fantail Right 1-? 0
1423 ( 1562 ) 50k Tadjik Republic
b Fantail Right 0 1
1425 ( 1566 ) 40k Peace Propaganda
a Fantail Top 1 0
1429 ( 1568 ) 20k Uzbekistan
c Fantail Bottom 0 1
1435 ( 1578 ) 40k Lenin
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-7
1437 ( 1577 ) Ir Lenin
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 14 0
1445 ( 1584 ) 40k Morozov
a Fantail Top 0 1-7
1448 ( 1596 ) 50k Communications
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
1450 ( 1593 ) 40k Museums
d Fantail Left 0 1-?
1476 ( 1615 ) Ir Stalin Ave., Baku
b Fantail Right 0 1-7






Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Hint Used
--------------------------------------------------
1482 ( 1620 ) 40k Kaluzskaya Station
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
1483 ( 1622 ) ir Taganskaya Station
a Fantail Top 0 1
1486 ( 1625 ) ir Park of Culture
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2 0
1496 ( 1635 ) 2r Latvian Academy of Science
a Fantail Top 2 1-?
1504 ( 1643 ) 40k Signing for Peace
b Fantail Right 0 1-?
1507 ( 1646 ) Ir Signing for Peace
a Fantail Top 0 1
1560 ( 1699 ) 40k Apiary
a Fantail Top 1-7 0
1563 ( 1702 ) 20k Kalinin Museum
g Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fan Bottom 0 2
1569 ( 1719 ) 40k Kovalevski
a Fantail Top 1-? 0
1571 ( 1707 ) 40k Kozlov
a Fantail Top 1-7 0
1573 ( 1712 ) 40k Kurnakov
a Fantail Top 1-7 0
1594 ( 1729 ) 40k Vasnetsov
c Fantail Bottom 0 5-7
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 1
1595 ( 1730 ) Ir Vasnetsov
a Fantail Top 0 1
1599 ( 1734 ) 30k Volga Dam
b Fantail Right 0 1
1610 ( 1745 ) 40k Volkhovski
b Fantail Right 0 1-?
1617 ( 1751 ) 40k Sports
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
1642 ( 1782 ) 40k Radishchev
b Fantail Right 2 0
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )
1648 ( 1788 ) 40k Odoyevski
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-7
1651 ( 1777 ) 2r Definitive
b Fantail Right 0 1
1662 ( 1797 ) 40k Stalin Peace Medal
b Fantail Right 2 0
g Fantail ( Side not specified ) 0 1-7
1666 ( 1802 ) 40k Volga Dam
a Fantail Top 0 2
1673 ( 1808 ) Ir Tolstoy
d Fantail Left 3 0
1693 ( 1827 ) ir Chakalov
b Fantail Right 1 0
1701 ( 1837 ) 40k University in Kiev
g Fantail ( Side not Specified ) 0 1-7
1702 ( 1836 ) 40k Opera, Kiev
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
1704 ( 1841 ) 40k Shevchenko Statue
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
1710 ( 1845 ) 40k Sailboat Race
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 9 0
g Imp Vert 1 0
1717 ( 1851 ) Ir Basketball
d Fantail Left 2-? 0
1723 ( 1857 ) 40k Glinka
a Fantail Top 0 10
d Fantail Left 3 0
1730 ( 1860 ) 40k Agricultural Pavillion
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0
1737 ( 1871 ) 60k Kazan University
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 0
g Fantail ( Side not Specified ) 1-7 0
1757 ( 1955 ) 1r Venezianov
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3 0
1764 ( 1923 ) 40k Magnitogorsk
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3 0
1807 ( 1960 ) Ir Painting
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
1811 ( 1943 ) Ir Pavillion-Cen BIk Earth Reg
b Fantail Right 2 0


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used
--------------------------------------------------
1861A ( 2002 ) 40k Burns
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
( Fake Fantail Bottom exist
from sheets with bottom
perfs misplaced down )
1888 ( 2031 ) 40k Suvorov
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
1890 ( 2033 ) 3r Suvorov
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-7
1948 ( 2075 ) 40k Balakirev
b Fantail Right 1-7 0
1964 ( 2097 ) 25k Sports
b Fantail Lower Right 4 0
( Diamond shaped stamp )
1967 ( 2100 ) 60k Sports
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
( Diamond shaped Stamp )
1978 ( 2110 ) Ir Bolshoi Theater
a Fantail Top 2 0
1992 ( 2147 ) 40k Sputnik I
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
1997 ( 2146 ) 60k 40 Years of Revolution
a Fantail Top 1 0
b Fantail Right 0 2-7
2000 ( 2128 ) 40k 40th Anniv of Oct Rev
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1 0
2026 ( 2159 ) 40k Ermolova
a Fantail Top 0 5
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
2038 ( 2178 ) 40k Charenze
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2 1-7
2047 ( 2184 ) 40k Rudnev
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2 0
2054 ( 2192 ) 60k Lenin
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 0 1
2058 ( 2199 ) lr Karl Marx
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
2091 ( 2095a ) 40k Weather Balloon
c Fantail Bottom 2-7 0
2092 ( 2232 ) 40k Crimea Observatory
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-7 0
2126 ( 2265 ) 40k Views Latvia
a Fantail Top 2 0
d Fantail Left 2 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2 0
2134 ( 2266 ) 40k View of Vilna
a Fantail Top 0 1
2142 ( 2286 ) Ir Lenin
a Fantail Top 1-7 0
2148 ( 2225 ) 40k Turbo Jet-T.U. 104
d Fantail Left 1 0
2216 ( 2063a ) 40k Red Squirrel
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
2218 ( 2063c ) 60k Hazel Hen
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
2261 ( 2388 ) 60k Visit to USA
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
2273 ( 2400 ) 10k Lake Ritza
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1 0
2280 ( 2407 ) lr Crimea
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 0
2288 ( 2252 ) 60k Definitive
a Fantail Top 3 0
2334 ( 2446 ) 40k October Street
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?
2342 ( 2590 ) 4k Nakhitchevan
a Fantail Top 1 0
2533 ( 2635 ) Ir Rocket and Stars
d Fantail Left 1 0
g Gutter Fantail Right 1 0
2582 ( 2679 ) 10k Lenin
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 0 3
2631A ( 2776 ) Ir Cosmonaut
b Fantail Right 1 0
d Fantail Left 2-? 0
2990 ( 3083 ) 12k Gold Ladle
c Fantail Bottom 0 1-?






Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used
----------------------------------------------. ----.
3022 ( 3117 ) 20k Cosmonauts Day
c Fantail Bottom 1 0
3058 ( 3149 ) 6k Feodor Chaliapin
d Fantail Left 2 0
3146 ( 3239 ) 16k P. Fedotov
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0 2-7
3194 ( 3285 ) 12k Cosmonauts Day
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 1-7
3260 ( 3350 ) 4k Flag
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0
3421 ( 3509 ) 4k Paintings
c Fantail Bottom 0 3
3424 ( 3512 ) 6k Alexander Nevsky
d Fantail Left 1 0
3426 ( 3514 ) 10k Swam Maiden
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 3-7 0
3662 ( 3750 ) 6k Fairy Tales
a Fantail Top 2 0
d Fantail Left 2-? 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2 0
3663 ( 3751 ) 10k Fairy Tales
a Fantail Top 2 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2 0
3664 ( 3752 ) 16k Fairy Tales
b Fantail Right 3 0
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 2 0
3665 ( 3753 ) 20k Fairy Tales
a Fantail Top 2 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2 0
3665/3666 ( 3753/3754 ) 20k/50k Fairy Tales
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-7 1-77
3666 ( 3754 ) 50k Fairy Tales
a Fantail Top 3 0
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2 0
3824 ( 3908 ) 10k Feodosia
b Fantail Right 0 2-7
4403/4404 ( 4475/4476 ) 16k/20 Art
g Bor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 1-7 0
4404 ( 4476 ) 20k Art
d Fantail Left 3 0
4520 ( 4536 ) 4k Definitive
d Fantail Left 1-7 0
Bl ( 88 ) 3k War Charity ( Perf 11.5 )
d Fantail Left 1 0
B5 ( 143 ) 1k War Charity ( Perf ??? )
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 1-? 0
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3-7 0
B5 ( 143 ) 1k War Charity ( Pert 11.5 )
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-??
B5 ( 147 ) Ik War Charity ( Perf 12.5 )
c Fantail Bottom 3-7 1-??
d Fantail Left 3-? 1-??
B5a ( 151 ) lk War Charity ( Perf 13.5 )
a Fantail Top 3 1-??
b Fantail Right 1-7 1-??
c Fantail Bottom 2-? 1-??
g Imp Vert ( Hor Pr ) 1-7 1-??
B6 ( 144 ) 3k War Charity ( Pert 11.5 )
b Fantail Right 1-7 1-??
d Fantail Left 4-? 3-??
B6 ( 148 ) 3k War Charity ( Perf 12.5 )
b Fantail Right 1-? 1-??
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 1-??
d Fantail Left 1-? 1-??
B6a ( 152 ) 3k War Charity ( Perf 13.5 )
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-??
B7 ( 145 ) 7k War Charity ( Pert 11.5 )
b Fantail Right 1-?? 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 1-? 1-?
B7 ( 149 ) 7k War Charity ( Pert 12.5 )
a Fantail Top 3 2-?
b Fantail Right 1-? 0
c Fantail Bottom 1-7 0
B7a ( 153 ) 7k War Charity ( Perf 13.5 )
a Fantail Top 1-? 1-??
B8 ( 146 ) 10k War Charity ( Perf 11.5 )


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mint Used
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ------------ -.-... .. .. .---... ..- ----


B8






B8a

B9

B9


B10


h


Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Top 1-?
( 156 ) 3k War Charity ( Perf 12.5 )
Fantail Right 2-?
Fantail Bottom 1-7
Fantail Left 3
Vert Pr Imp Bet 3-7
Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Top 1-?
Fantail Left & Fantail Bottom 1-7
Imp nor ( Vert Pr ) 1-?
Imp Vert ( nor Pr ) 1-7
( 163 ) 3k War Charity ( Perf 13.5 )
Fantail Top 3-?
Fantail Right 2
Fantail Bottom 1-7
Fantail Left 2-7


Hor Pr Imp Bet
Vert Pr Imp Bet
Bor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right
Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left
Bor St of 4 Imp Bet & Fan Right
Vert Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Top
Imp Hor ( Vert Pr )
Imp Vert ( Hor Pr )


B56

B57

Cll




C20

C23

C24






C30


C37


C38


c
d

a

b

b

c

a


( 158 )
Fantai I
Fantai I
( 245 )
Fantai 1
( 567 )
Fantai I
( 536 )
Fantai I
( 568 )
Fantai I
( 500 )
Fantai I


10k War Charity ( Perf
Bottom
Left
'100r + 10Or' on 70k -
Top
10k + 2k Child Welfare
Right
20k + 2k Child Welfare
Ri ght
20k + 2k Child Welfare
Bottom
15k Air Post Congress
Top


( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )
( 579B ) 10k Airship
b Fantail Right 1
( 582B ) 50k Airship
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 6
( 583B ) Ir Airship
b Fantail Right 1.
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 4
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 3
g Hor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Bottom 2
h Hor St of 3 Imp Bet 4
( 584B ) 30k North Pole
c Fantail Bottom 0
d Fantail Left 10
( 634 ) 5k Stratostat Balloon
e nor Pr Imp Bet 5
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 0
( 635 ) 10k Stratostat Balloon
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 5.


C46 ( 644 ) 10k Civil Aviation


b Fantail Right 2-7
d Fantail Left 1-7
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 2-7
g Imp Vert ( Bor Pr ) 1-7
( 150 ) 10k War Charity ( Perf 12.5 )
b Fantail Right 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 2-?
d Fantail Left 1-7
e Bor Pr Imp Bet 1-7
g Imp Vert ( Hor Pr ) 1-?
( 154 ) 10k War Charity ( Perf 13.5 )
c Fantail Bottom 1-?
( 155 ) 1k War Charity ( Pert 12.5 )
g Bor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Right 1-7
( 162 ) 1k War Charity ( Perf 13.5 )
a Fantail Top 2-?
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 0
( 160 ) 3k War Charity ( Pert 11.5 )
d Fantail Left 1-7
g nor Pr Imp Bet & Fantail Left 1-7


17 0
2 1-??
1-? 1-??
3 1-??
2 0
1-? 1-??
1-7 1-??
1-? 1-??
12.5 )
1-7 1-??
1-? 1-??
Blue ovpt
1-? 1-?

1-? 1-?

1-7 1-?

1-? 1-?

0-!! 1


0

0


1-??
2-?

-? 13
3-??

-7 7


2-?
1-??
2-?
1-??

1-?
1-77
1-??
1-?
1-??

1-77

1-??


1-??
1-??


1-77
1-??
0


1-??
1-??
1-??
1-??
2-7
1-??
1-??
1-??
1-??

0
1-??
1-??
1-??





Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mi nt Used
-- -- -- -- ----------'" -- --- -- -- -- --
e Hor Pr Imp Bet 18 43
( Exists trimmed to resemble
i mperf pai r )
C50 ( 659A ) Sk Aviators
a Fantail Top 0 1-?
c Fantail Bottom 0 2
C70 ( 747 ) 20k Jubilee Aviation Exhibition
d Fantail Left 0 1
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 2-? 2-?
C71 ( 748 ) 30k Jubilee Aviation Exhibition
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 1-?? 11
C72 ( 749 ) 40k Jubilee Aviation Exhibition
f vert Pr Imp Bet 9 12
C73 ( 750 ) 50k Jubilee Aviation Exhibition
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 4-?? 33


Scott No. of Refs
No. Description Mi nt Used
-------------------------"---'---"" "


( 1445 ) Ir Aircraft
b Fantail Right 2-?
( 1542 ) 60k Planes
d Fantail Left 5
( 1543 ) Ir Sochi
f Vert Pr Imp Bet 4
( 1882 ) 2r Plane & Mountain Stream
b Fantail Right 1-?
( D402 ) 3k on 35k Postage Due
a Fantail Top 1-?
( D403 ) 5k on 35k Postage Due
a Fantail Top 4
( Exists trimmed to resemble
an imperf stamp )


REFERENCES:
Catalogues
Cercle Philatelique France-URSS, Catalogue Special de Timbres-
PosteEmpire Russe et Union Sovi6tique, Paris, 1956, (F)
------, Le Timbres-Poste de La Russie Imp4riale, Paris, 1964, (F)
------, Timbres-Poste Union des Republiques Socialistes
Sovietiques Period de 1917 a 1941, Paris, 1969, (F)
Michel, Europa Katalog 1984 Ost, Munich, 1983, (G)
Minkus Publications, Inc, Minkus Stamp Catalog Russia, 1981-82
edition, New York, 1981
Sanabria, The World Airmail Catalog 1966, Ridgefield, CN, 1966
Scott Publishing Co., Standard Postage Stamp Catalog 1987,
Vol 4, New York, 1986
Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd, Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue
Part 10 Russia ( 3rd Edition ), London, 1986
Handbooks
Lobachevski, V. V., Postage Stamps of Imperial Russia, Four
Parts: 1857-1879, 1884-1906, 1904-1917, 1914-1923
Originally published in Soviet Collector No. 14 thru 17.
Translated to English by George Shalimoff & Alex Sadovnikov
and published in four parts between 1976 and 1979. Also,
reprinted in English in the Rossica Journals 94/95 thru
100/101 ( 1978-81 ). Errata appeared in Rossica Journal
104/105 ( 1984 ).
Lukanc, I., Zeppelinpost und Luftschiffbriefmarken der UdSSR,
Zurich, 1975 (G)
Tann, L. L., The Imperial Romanovs A Philatelic Study of the
1913 Jubilee Issue, England, 1977.
------, The Arms Issues of 1902-20, Toronto, 1980
( Published by the Canadian Society of Russian Philately )

Auction Catalogs ( Dates given are first day of sale )


Alevizos, George, Santa Monica, CA, USA
11/23/81
08/25/82
Charles Russ, Inc., New York, NY, USA
04/12/76
Cherrystone Stamp Center, Inc, New York, NY,
03/27/72 10/06/76 01/09/80 03/10/82
07/20/72 04/27/77 06/25/80 05/19/82
11/20/72 09/29/77 10/08/80 10/27/82
04/25/73 01/12/78 12/17/80 03/23/83
06/06/73 04/12/78 03/18/81 06/08/83
12/04/74 12/09/78 06/17/81 08/10/83
11/12/75 02/28/79 10/06/81 10/19/83
06/08/76 09/19/79 12/16/81 04/04/84


USA
06/19/84
08/15/84
10/10/84
03/06/85
05/08/85
07/24/85
10/02/85
05/07/86


06/25/86
09/17/86
02/18/87
05/20/87
08/12/87


0
0

1-??

0

0

0







Christies Robson Lowe, London, England
05/06/86-Norman Epstein Air Mails
Collectors Auction Service, Burbank, CA, USA
10/27/81
Danam Stamp Company, Springfield, PA, USA
06/24/74
Harmers of New York, New York, NY, USA
12/10/74-Frederick T. Small
11/25/75-Maklakoff
03/09/79
10/15/85-Norman Epstein Imperial Russia
Kohler, Heinrich, Weisbaden, Germany
02/08/84
Kronenberg AG, Oberwil, Switzerland
03/28/85 05/26/87
Koerber, Roger, Southfield, MI, USA
03/05/76 09/09/82 01/17/85 04/04/86
11/05/76 02/17/84 09/06/85 07/23/87
03/11/82 07/11/84 12/27/85 09/11/87
Mercuphilia, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
05/05/82 11/18/82 05/13/86
de Nederlandsche Postzegelveilung, Amsterdam, Netherlands
06/05/86
Robson Lowe International, Ltd, London, England
10/02/57-Charles Stibbe
02/19/58-H. C. Goss
11/19/58-H. C. Goss
10/25/77-C. B. Handford
Rossica Society of Russian Philately, New York, NY, USA
11/20/71
11/19/83-Charles S. Rand
S & A Auctions, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA
08/19/78
Siegel, Robert A., New York, NY, USA
01/09/65
03/24/71-Robert W. Baughman
08/14/74-Kurt Adler
11/20/75-Donald F. Polon
08/25/78
Southeastern Stamp Co., Inc., Hollywood, FL, USA
04/10/86
Stanley Gibbons Merkur GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, W. Germany
06/20/78
10/30/79
03/27/80
10/29/80
Superior Stamp & Coin Co., Los Angeles, CA, USA
10/08/73
Wolfers, Richard, San Francisco, CA, USA
04/22/76

Articles in Philatelic Journals

(No Author Listed), "Auction Notes", CSRP, 16:62-65, June, 1985
---, "The Auctioneer", RJRP, 46/47:70-74, 1955
---, "Fraudulent Soviet Varities", RJRP, 74:52-3, 1968
Adler, Kurt, "The Regular Postage Stamp Issue of the USSR",
RJRP, 49/50:14-22, 1956
-----, "Soviet Airmails", RJRP, 52/53:35, 1957

22








Adler, K. & Cronin, A., "The Lenin Ruble Stamps", RJRP,
79:31-41, 1970
-----, "The 26 Commissars of Baku", RJRP, 83:15-16, 1972
Aronson, H. L., "The Small Head Types of 1923-7", RP, 2:12-16,
March, 1962
Chudoba, J. F., "Unlisted Discoveries in my Collection", RJRP,
63:10-11, 1962
Cronin, Andrew, "Editorial Comment", CSRP, 12:24, May, 1983
-----, "Warning--Fraudulent Varieties", CSRP, 20:68-9, June, 1987
Faberge, O., "Additional Data on the Russian Charity Issues",
RJRP, 62:12-13, 1962
-----, "Imperforate", RJRP, 66:12-15, 1964
Kodin, Stanley, "Notes from Collectors", RJRP, 76/77:100, 1969
Medwid, Andrew, "Printing Varieties of Soviet Stamps", RJRP,
94/95:118-123, 1978
Prado, A., "Notes on Modern Russian Stamps", RJRP, 64:31, 1963
-----, "The Small Current Stamps", RJRP, 66:27-30, 1964
Rosselevitch, A., "The Pushkin Issue of 1937", RP, 11:24-8,
May, 1969
Shalimoff, George V., "The Best of the Worst; The 1927 Issue
Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the October
Revolution", RJRP, 108/109:17-29, 1986
-----, "Fantail Warning", RJRP, 104/105:117, 1984
-----, "The 1937 Issue Commemorating A. S. Pushkin", RJRP,
108/109:94-109, 1986
Sklarevski, R., "Charity or Semi-Postal Issues of Imperial and
Soviet Russia", RJRP, 44:13-19, 1954
----, "Addenda to Charity or Semi-Postal Issues of Imperial and
Soviet Russia", RJRP, 46/47:23-30, 1955
Speers, Fred W., "Notes on Soviet Air Mail Stamps, 1922-44",
RJRP, 71:10-31, 1966
Stackelberg, Dr. C. de, "A New Check List of the Arms Type Issue
of 1909-1923", RJRP, 61:39-44, 1961
-----, "A New Check List of the Arms Type Issue of 1909-1923",
RJRP, 62:54-57, 1962
----, "A New Check List of the Arms Type Issue of 1909-1923",
RJRP, 63:56-59, 1962
-----, "Perforations on Russian Stamps", RJRP, 86/87:16-42, 1975
Tann, L. L., "The One-Ruble Stamp, 1910-17", RJRP, 83:32-4, 1972
Waugh, A. S., "Soviet Perforation Variety", BJRP, 31:22, October,
1962
-----, "Modern Soviet Perforation Varieties", BJRP, 32:21, March,
1962
----, "More Modern Soviet Perforation Varieties", BJRP, 34:19,
March, 1964
-----, "Modern Soviet Perforation Varieties (III)", BJRP, 35:26-7,
October, 1964
-----, "Modern Soviet Perforation Varieties (IV)", BJRP, 37:27-8,
October, 1965
-----, "Modern Soviet Varieties (V)", BJRP, 37:27-8, March, 1966
----, "Modern Soviet Perforation Varieties (VI)", BJRP, 40:26,
March, 1967
Zaikowski, Leo J., ( Dealer Price List ), RJRP, 45:39, 1955
-----, ( Dealer Price List ), RJRP, 46/47:30, 1955


I







THE HELSINKI-ST. PETERSBURG RAILWAY AND THE FIRST FINNISH POSTAL
COMPARTMENT CANCELLATIONS

by Kaj Hellman and JussiEtkonen

(reprinted by kind permission from Bulletin No. 2 of the FINLANDIA-88
Philatelic Exhibition, with many thanks due to the Exhibition Committee
and the authors).

In 1987 it will be 125 years since the first Finnish railway was opened
for traffic. This was the line between HAmeenlinna, which was completed
on 17 March 1862 and was soon to revolutionise the postal service.

But this was just the beginning. To connect Helsinki and St. Petersburg
by rail, an imperial edict was issued on 29 November 1867 concerning
the building of a new line from Riihim&ki via Viipuri (Wiborg) to the
imperial capital. The work was started in February 1868 and progressed
so rapidly that the Riihimaki-Lahti section was completed on 1 November
1869 and the Viipuri-St. Petersburg section on 13 February 1870. The
new railway was opened on 11 September 1870. It had taken less than
three years to complete this considerable piece of construction work,
with 35 kilometres of line being on the Russian side of the border.

Introducing postal compartments.

Special postal compartments were to added on the Viipuri-St. Petersburg
section in the summer of 1870, but this came to nothing. The mail
travelled in sealed bags in the guard's van (caboose), attended by a
mail carrier. When the railway was officially opened, there were still
no mail compartments. The Railway Board had ordered three mail vans to
be built at the Pori Engineering Works, but not until 23 September 1870
could the Board make it known that "the mail vans to be used between
Helsinki and St. Petersburg are awaiting the pleasure of the Postmaster"
(1). However, the matter did not advance very rapidly; as late as 18th.
October, the Postmaster was forced to report that the vans had no
facilities for heating. Not until 7 November 1870 did the Director of
Railways inform the Board that repairs had been made and that the mail
vans had been in service since 1 November 1870. However, that was only
between Helsinki avd Viipuri, at the request of the Postmaster. In his
letter (2), he adds that the travelling (mail) clerks had no complaints
against the fittings of the compartments.

The necessary equipment for the vans had already been purchased,
including four cancellers among other things. Payment for the cancellers
had been made on 14 May 1870 (3) and for four seals on 15 July 1870. The
payment for the receipt books used in the mail vans was entered into the
books as late as 7 December 1870, but this was not necessarily the date
of purchase.

Mr. C.L. Masalin, the clerk of the Viipuri post office, was appointed
senior travelling clerk on 15 September 1870. His work consisted mainly
of organising and management. When the mail vans were put into service
on 1 November, Messrs A.F. Scheele, G. Stahlberg and U. Godenhjelm were
appointed travelling clerks. These jobs were evidently not much sought
after, as the appointments were left so late.

In November, when the mail vans ran only between Helsinki and Viipuri,
there were always two vans in use. The nights were spent in Viipuri.
The third crew was always off duty.
























The earliest known postal compartment cancel
15.11.1870 on cover to Helsinki. J. Itkonen
Collection.
E


P& denna sida tecknan endast adressen och adress-orten. Till Ryssland p& ryska.
tl puelUBIa irjoltasa nlastansa BvastanottliJan almloulteJa asuntopalika. WeniUlS UieBnikstl.
Ha wroi cropofa mmeraOT TOzrKO aapeci. Bi PocciD na pyc(roaHl abmhi.


It is exceptionally rare to find the station number appearing alone on a postal item without the
mail van stamp. The 8-penny stationery card shown here was dated and dispatched from Rii-
n himaki on 2 January 1874. It has been stamped on the front in the lower left-hand corner with
station number 30, which is exactly right for Riihimaki. There is a Turku (Abo) ANK
postmark for 3.1 on the front too.


, J. ". '



I I
I i I LAND.






I J r d rr *. .6' d
El Ahdamn nr J rythrlad ait am.rllra ei


This item shows in the cancellation. The
that errors can be found card was sent from
in cancellations. The Kymmene station. The
year should be 1871 (as station number 21 was
written on the back side of stamped up in the middle
the card) and not 1870 as of the card.


First type of stamp using Roman-style letters. The most common station number during the
first period was 35, Helsinki. This picture shows the number 35 in the 5.8.1874 postmark of
mail van No. 5. From the writer of the card's own stamp, printed on the lower left corner, can
be seen where the card was dispatched from. Loviisa ANK arrival stampfor 5.8. on the front.


KORRESPONDENSKORT FOR FINLAND.
Kirjevaihtokortti Suomenmaassa.

OTKpHT08 HIClO. Allm 1HIIH mI.


%-


0, -


1u-


~ ~~~~~~_~_~~_~_I


I

14







The mail vans reach St. Petersburg.

In a letter dated 26 November 1870 (4), the Post Office Administration
Department informed the Postal Compartment Office that the mail van
service would be extended to St. Petersburg as of 30 November 1870. The
return trip lasted for three days. The mail van crew got on the train
in Helsinki on the morning of the first day. They arrived at Viipuri in
the evening,where they spent the night. On the second day, they
continued on to St. Petersburg and back again to spend the night in
Viipuri. They returned from Viipuri to Helsinki on the third day and
then had an off duty period. Three crews and three vans were thus
always in use. A substitute crew was also needed for holidays.

The 1870 financial statement (5) of the Post Office shows that mail
vans Nos. 1, 2 & 4 had accounted for the stamps they sold and thus been
operational.

More mail vans acquired.

On the last day of 1870, the railway manager Str8mberg inspected a
number of new vans, two newly built mail vans being among them. On 25
January 1871, he ordered (6) that they should be put into service.
These vans became mail vans Nos. 2 & 5.

However, this could not be done without staff. The Postmaster
appointed O.L. JArnefelt to the office of junior travelling clerk on
6 February 1871 and he was to manage mail van No. 2. A canceller and a
receipt book were ready, as they had been purchased with the other mail
van cancellers the year before. Van No. 5 could not start at the same
time, as there was neither a canceller nor a receipt book. The Post
Office Accounts Department paid for the canceller on 4 March 1871 and
for the receipt book on 13 March 1871. A letter has also been found
wherein the Post Office Administration Department asked the Accounts
Department to pay the travel bill which the junior travelling clerk
J.W. StenbAck had run up when he served in mail van No. 5 from 9 March
to 1 July 1871. We may thus conclude that the No. 5 van started on 9th.
March and the No. 2 van on 6 February 1871.

The first postal compartment cancellations.

The first cancellers were double-circle types with a diameter of 28mm.
Between the circles was the text FINSKA JERNVAGENS POST KUPE EXPED: in
decorative Roman type. The postmarks are found in black and blue. There
is a number at top centre of the postmark, of which more later. Under
that is the number of the van (1,2,3,4 or 5) and under that again the
day and month flanked by the year. The centre is sometimes reversed,
but this is only a variation, to which too much importance should not
be attached.

The postmarks show the station of departure.

The Post Office had prepared instructions for the postal compartments
as early as 1869 (7). These instructions said, among other things, that
"all letters and packages shall be marked with the canceller of the
postal compartment and that the station where the letter has been
received shall be indicated by a separate number, according to the
order of stations". These instructions incorporated the generally
prevailing principle that the postmark should indicate the route of the
postal item.
26







0


... .__ _- Folded letter from Riga, 25. Aug. 1875. On the reverse, Russian mail van stamp No. 9-10, 25.
Aug. 1875. Arrived St.Petersburg 26. Aug., sent on from there 27. Aug. (8 Sep. according to
First type of stamp using Roman-style letters. Mail van No. 2 cancellation, 18.7.1875, where the Western calendar). On the front a blue mail van stamp type 1, FINSKA JERNVAGENS
the station number is 24 (Lahti). The card is dated Lahti 18.Juli.1875. Helsinki ANK arrival POST KUPE EXPED: 1 No. 2, 8.9.1875. Station number I means that the point of dispatch
stamp, also for 18 July, on the front. (in this case the transit point) was St.Petersburg.


Blue UDELNA IA station
postmark on cover with
address Nikolaistad (later
renamed Vaasa), Finland.
The Russian 8-copeck
stamp has also been
cancelled with the FINSKA
JERNVAGENS POST
KUPE EXPED: No. 2
stamp for 12.5.1877.
Station number 3 can be
seen on the address side of
the cover.


RI. s


Violet WALKEASAARI station postmark
on a Russian 7-copeck stamp from 1879.
(Beloostrov)


I_ __ _


~7/yr a_~~~7







There were 35 stations in 1870 between Helsinki and St. Petersburg and
they were numbered starting with No. 1 for St. Petersburg and No. 35
for Helsinki, which latter was the other terminus. This was the top
figure in the centre of the postmark. No. 35 is by far the most frequent
number on Finnish items, with No. 14 for Viipuri being common too. No. 1
for St. Petersburg is found almost only on Russian items. Particularly
rare are Nos.2 to 7, i.e. the small stations on the Russian side.

STATION NUMBERS ON THE HELSINKI-ST. PETERSBURG RAILWAY 1870-1889


Station

St. Petersburg
Lanskaya
Udelnaya
Shuvalovo
Pargala
Levashovo
Beloostrov
Terijoki
Raivola
MustamAki
Nykyrka
PerkjArvi
Galitsino
Kamnara
SAini8
Wiborg
Howinmaa
Nurmis
Simola
Pulsa
Davidstad
Kaipiais
Uttis
Kouvola
Kymmene
Kausala
Nyby
Lahtis
Herrala
Jarvela
Lappila
Ois
Hikie
Riihimaki
Hyvinge
Jokela
Tr&skanda
Kervo
Dickursby
Malm
Helsingfors

First Period:
Second Period:
Third Period:


Finnish name

Pietari





Valkeasaari
Terijoki
Raivola
Mustamaki
Uusikirkko
Perkjarvi

Kamara
Sainib
Viipuri
Hovinmaa
Nurmi
Simola
Pulsa
Taavetti
Kaipiainen
Utti
Kouvola
Kymi
Kausala
Uusikyla
Lahti
Herrala
Jarvel1
Lappila
Oitti
Hikid
Riihim&ki
Hyvinkg&
Jokela
Jarvenp&&
Kerava
Tikkurila
Malmi
Helsinki


1 November
1 November
9 November


1870 to
1875 to
1881 to


First
Period


Second
Period


12 October 1875.
7 November 1881.
15 August 1889.


Third
Period

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41








Mail vans 11 and 12
travelled between Helsin-
ki and St.Petersburg
between 1889 and 1894.
Mail van No. 13 went
to St.Petersburg in 1889.
The mail van No. 12
cancellation shown in this
picture is of particular
interest. Its station
number (in this case, 1,
St.Petersburg) is at
bottom centre. Above it
is the number of the
month, 8, in a horizontal
position, and of the day,
4, above the month in a
normal position. The
cover is addressed to von
Freymann in Ratkkyla.
On the reverse a transit
stamp FREDRIKSHAMN
5.8.89.


The KPXP cancellation shown above was in use in the mail van Helsinki-St.Petersburg only
during the year 1894. The latest found usages are 9.XI.94 (no.l) and 24.X.94 (no.2).
Towards the end of 1894 they were replaced with new cancellations with a text H:FORS-
S.P.BURG. Earliest found usages are 18.XI.94 (no.1) and 30.XI.94 (no.2) There are several
o types of these new cancellations, two of which are illustrated -- Black dot indicates the
night train.


An inaccurately addressed National Post Office stationery card from Riihimaki to Helsinki
has been forwarded to the correct address and postage has been paid using a 1883 Helsinki
Mail Service stamp. National Post Office postal compartment cancellation and Helsinki
stamp of destination 30.4.1886 and Helsinki Mail Service cancellation HELSINGFORS 1.5.86
and time stamp KI 12.
(Coll. Granberg in the Posts and Telecommunications Museum, Helsinki)


_ __






The postal compartment cancellations were not, however, always provided
with a station number. There was naturally little mail taken aboard
from the very small stations and the clerk did not insert the proper
station number in the canceller,postmarking the postcards and letters
without a station number and applying the station number separately and
close to the postmark. Sometimes there is no station number at all. The
numbers of stations close to Helsinki are also very rare. The reason
is probably that there was so much mail from Helsinki that there was
no time to process and cancel all the items until the train was already
well on its way. The mail taken aboard at the stations near to Helsinki
may have been mixed up with the mail from Helsinki and thus not
stamped with separate station numbers.

A new type of postmark and new station numbers.

In the autumn of 1875, two important changes were made. The numbering
of the stations had remained unchanged, but now three new stations had
been opened and a change was necessary. The number for Helsinki went
from 35 to 38. The new stations were Kouvola, Jokela and Malmi, the
last being the station next to Helsinki. The first time the new
numbers were in use as shown by extant items was on 1 November 1875,
while the latest finding using the old numbers was postmarked 12 Oct.
We may thus conclude that the numbers on the Helsinki-St. Petersburg
line were changed in the latter half of October 1875.

New cancelling devices were also introduced about this time. The old
cancellers were very worn and the postmark impressions were blurred.
The new cancellers differed from the previous ones only where the
style of type was concerned. The letters were less ornamental. These
postmarks are also found with reversed centres. On the other hand,
blue is a very rare colour. There are two subtypes of the canceller
used in mail van No. 1.

Further changing of station numbers.

The traffic on the line continued to grow and old station buildings
were enlarged. New junction lines were also built. The station numbers
were changed once again in the autumn of 1881. All the new stations
were in Karelia: Mustam&ki, Kdmdr& and Howinmaa. Helsinki now became
station No. 41 and the other numbers were adjusted correspondingly.
Postmarks show that the old No. 38 for Helsinki was in use on 7th.
November and the new No. 41 on 9 November 1881.

Several types of postmarks in use.

The Helsinki-St. Petersburg line has much material to offer collectors
in the shape of various postmarks and, later on, also labels for
registered mail. Up to 1894, the postmarks were in Swedish. In 1894,
Russian was incorporated in the cancellers. At that time, K.P.X.P.
(KUPE POST EXPEDITION) cancellers were used for a short period. They
were replaced for the first time in November 1894 by postmarks
bearing the text H:FORS-StP.BURG (Helsinki-St. Petersburg). These
cancellers were used until 1915. The name of St. Petersburg was
changed to Petrograd and consequently H:FOBS-P.GRAD cancellers were
introduced. They were in use until 1918, after which Finnish mail vans
no longer crossed the border into Russia.

Special thanks are due to Messrs Paavo Korhonen, D. Iain Fraser and
Olavi Koponen. All illustrated items are from the Kaj Hellman
Collection unless otherwise stated.
30















Type no. 1 of postal compartment
cancellations.







18 75 m



Type no. 2 of postal compartment
cancellations.


FIRST AND SECOND TYPE OF MAIL VAN CANCELLATIONS

type no.1 type no.2

mail earliest date latest date earliest date latest date
van found found found found

no. 1 10.7.71 12.10.75 4.1.76 11.7.80

no. 2 2.7.71 3.11.75 25.12.75 20.10.83

no. 3 15.11.70 1.9.75 22.10.75 2.11.79

no. 4 25.1.71 24.10.75 5.11.75 2.12.78

no. 5 17.7.71 23.10.75 1.11.75 10.8.77

Earliest and latest dates known to the authors.
Cancellation No. 2 with a date 22.11.70 has been found on a stamp, but there must be an error
in the year, since the mail van no. 2 was taken in use on 6th February 1871.


It is relative rare to come across registered mail labels for mail vans. These labels are of a later
type and bilingual, Finnish and Swedish. The letters P (Finnish "paivii") and D (Swedish
"dag") denote the registered mail label of the day train and the letters Y (Finnish "y6") and
N (Swedish "natt") of the night train mail van. The label on the right is from the period when
St. Petersburg had already changed its name to Petrograd.


For a brief period (1893-1896) rare, undated cancellations WIBORG- WALKEASAARI and
WIBORG-St:PETERSBURG were in use. The upper post card in the picture is dated 24.6.
1895 at Uusikirkko, destination SainiO. Where the cover in the picture was dispatched from is
not clear; probably St.Petersburg. This author has in his own collection a post card with this
same cancellation, dated 22. VI.1893 Raivola, and dispatched to Lembois. The card was
stamped WIBORG 22.6.93 in Vyborg.


1








































Two registered letters, both with the special registered mail labels of the Helsinki-St.Peters-
burg mail van. Upper letter with label H.fors-St.P.burg.D., where the letter D signifies the
day train. The postmark is dated 8. V.99. The label on the lower letter has the text H:fors-
St.P.burg.N., where Nsignifies the night train. The postmark is dated 13.11.03. The charge on
both letters is 14 copecks, of which 7 copecks is the basic letter rate and 7 copecks the
registered mail fee.






















[1'-TOBA5I KAPTOIKA


..-.-.. ^ -..-.... ......- ..---......... ..... .....
.- .......-.--*- -.-. .-'. ...... ... .......... ......- .. -..... .. .

.... .. .. ..... ... ...... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ..... .


When mail vans I and 2 travelled the Helsinki-St.Petersburg (later Petrograd) route, mail vans
Ibis and 2bis travelled only part of this route. At first in 1914 Vyborg-St.Petersburg, and in
1918 Helsinki-Vyborg. It is rare to come across these cancellations for 1914-1918. Two
different cancellations are encountered for each of the mail vans. They can be distinguished
from one another by the number of stars embellishing them between the texts, either 1 or 3.


Postal compartment no. 9950 in Railway
Museum. Built in 1901. (Photo by Mikko
Alameri).


The old Railway Station of Helsinki. (Helsinki City Museum).


;~~~ "~_T~3S~A~ Iud-'~~'r,~r_ SCh"~iS~T~ir~-~'l~~ 'p ;~r~c-~L~-ii~':
1- .4- -' r~"e
L'~~r4LI
~ac -, --1L~.
--


_ __ __ ___ L_


0,































The post card shown here has been stamped 18.1.17 with a BYELOOSTROV-PETROGRAD
cancellation, which was only in use for a short period. Despite the cancellation being
completely in Russian, it is nevertheless a Finnish one. Even the date on the cancellation is
according to the Gregorian calendar, rather than the Julian calendar in use in Russia at that
time. This use of Russian is understandable as the stamp was used only on that section of the
line that was actually inside the Russian empire. The card itself was dispatched from
Levaschovo station. On the front, a Helsinki machine cancellation for the arrival stamp, and
a red Helsinki censor's stamp.


Sources.

(1) Postijohtokunnan saap.kirjeiden diaari
1870 n:o 38 s. 299
(2) Rautatiepaallikon kirjekonseptit 1870 II
(Dbf 8) n:o 1459 7.11.1870
(3) Postikamarikonttorin kirjekonseptit 1870
n:o 691 14.5.1870
(4) Postijohtokunnan kirjekonseptit n:ot
3322 ja 3323 1870
(5) Postikamarikonttori, tilinpaatos 1870
(6) Rautatiepaillikon kirjekonseptit 1871 I
(Dbf 9) n:o 207 25.1.1871
(7) Postin kansliaosaston kirjekonseptit n:o
2128 1.10.1869


Interesting 10-penny stationery card, to which an additional 10-penny stamp has had to be
added to make up the 20 penny post card rate. The cancellation is the H.-FORS-P-GRAD No.
1 stamp, from which the Russian-language part has been removed. This cancellation, which
has vertical bars below the date, is noticably rarer than others of its type.


Interior of a mail van.
Year 1915. (Postal Museum)


I







EDITORIAL COMMENT: We will now proceed to show additional material
linked with this fascinating subject.





ffPr^< fs ,a nu-
C ATALA.













RE T PENTBU INTRFBUIN'C'AREA OAB'f LOB POSTAL. (
1. Ci stale vind rtlcularilor la liu 3. Aureasa uirmeazi a fl crisB8 exactly 1 lainuritA gi -
ro8s r talet y area lor nominal. pe cat possible complecti.
2. P i n ete .a se sort de cat nu 4. Nu se platesco nimicl. aducltorlul.
real a reservat pentra corres- 6. CArile lPoetale se pot. reco.manda ca escriaso-
ponden .W rile plMtmduso dreptul do inregiatrare.
STiraju-1878

The Roumanian card shown above was written at IaSi (Jassy) on 19 Aug.
1878 N.S. and left there the next day. It was backstamped that same
Sday at Station No. 13 of Russian TPO/RPO No.49-50, Crew No.2 (8 Aug.
O.S.). That station was possibly the border town of Ungeni in
Bessarabia, as we know that the line, around the turn of the century,
ran from Ungeni to Odessa. It was then handled on the front by
Station No.7 of Russian TPO/RPO No.5-6, Crew No. unreadable, on 12th.
Aug. O.S. It was in St. Petersburg the next day (13 Aug. O.S. = 25th.
Aug. N.S.) and arrived in Helsinki on 26 Aug. N.S. This last leg of
the journey must have been on the rail link between St. Petersburg
and Helsinki, although no Finnish mail van marking was applied.

........ ...... UNION POSTAL UNIVERSELLE. _ii.ii
FINLAN6E (CARTE POSTALE.

SISTKORT-FRAN FINLAND. POSTIKORTTI SU
.. OTKPIhTOE IIHIICMO Ha' OHHIIJH~nAIl I

e Till. (a) '. "' .



Adres cotens bostad: '
S Vo.tnnottllojan asunto: .
Adresse du destinutaire:
BLsiemin d e orlen:
S|. Mer, poikin:
Lieu de dlestinalion: I
S; | "[ ;Adrecltidet :-_

.- ... .. ......r. .







The Finnish card at the bottom of the previous page was cancelled in
blue by the oval company stamp of KARL BOSTROM/HANG8 (Hanko) and the
date 18 18/1 83 (18 January 1883) added in ink. It shows the second
type of Finnish mail van postmark, applied the same day as an arrival
marking, with Station No.35 = Helsinki according to the first period
assignment of numbers that ended on 12 October 1875! Moreover, on
referring to the map shown by the authors on p.32, Hang8/Hanko was NOT
on the Helsinki-St. Petersburg line, but the terminus of a branch line
well to the west of Helsinki. This point needs clearing up, as there
do not appear to have been 35 stations between Hanko and Helsinki.

S:' M........- ..u UNION POSTAL UNIVERSELLE. .
FINLANDE(CARTE PObTALE).


| I'KPNTOE IIIHChMO H0 l,HilAHA'flH.






V;NLANDE(CARTE POSTALE)4. i 1
TK FRA NFINA1ID. POSTIKORTTI SIOMES

S OTKPMTOE nllCbMO ,31 *HIII4IHAIH.




The two Finnish cards above show mail van markings, with Station 41 =
Helsinki in the third period, the upper one with inverted centre for
mail van No.l1, dated 22.6.1884 and the lower one with normal centre
for mail van No.4 and dated 11.8.1885.

uNION O STALE UNIVERSELLE.r "
.INILANDE (CARTE POSTALE. r
fOSTiKOR FRAN F1NLAiW. F POSTIKORTTI SOME
OTKPJTOE nIICbMOH.' '.llH H; H



I i, ,.. =..:.. .... ..: ', ....; .... ... ....
i



I Vatan imta unto:i i
Adirese du esi elatire
Btaidmmlcte orl/n: I "
Afen paikka:
Zieu de destinalin:
S Adresisand et: "
Afeno maa:
Pay de detinalhon: .
iajjaiSiigORjiffl |IIA aPSIOTI- SOE ';~k


--'-- `--~ ~ --~ ~-' ~ ~"Y





The Finnish card at the bottom of p.36 has a new double-circle marking
reading POSTKUPEN No.2 FINLAND SUOMI 28-XII/88, with a figure "1"
directly above the hyphen in the date. It was sent from Terijoki to
Wiborg (Viipuri), where it was received the same day. Terijoki was
Station No.8 from St. Petersburg to Helsinki, but in this particular
marking it may have been reckoned as the first station inside the
Grand Duchy of Finland, or the "1" should have been "18" for 18-88.

A tentative classification of the familiar H:FORS ST P:BURG/P'-GRAD
postmarks now follows. All the markings have an external diameter of
28 mm. and measurements are given of the height of the "N" in No.l and
No.2, the length of the hyphen between the two terminals and the
diameters of the day and night indications. The height of the letters
in the inscriptions between the two circles is 3 mm. unless otherwise
stated. Allowances have been made for uneven or overinked strikes.

Mail Van No.l; 20.IX.96.
POSIALE UNIVERSELLE. "N" height = 3 mm.
SPOSTALE. Hyphen = 2 mm.
FIXLANDE. Day diam. = 3 mm.
T. T. POSTIKO]
SUOM
MPhlTOE HiCbMO. oiJ
IHJIflHJIIH.
Mail Van No.l; 2.V.98.
S" "N" height = 2.5 mm.
ITOE IIHO Hyphen = 1.5 mm.
'S" Blank indication = day service.


........... .............. .. .






hE N4M0 0 "N" height = 3 mm.
Hyphen = 2.5 mm.
Blank indication= day service.
..t .... .................


union postal univo
CIRTE POSTfL Mail Van No.l; 1.VIII.02.
"N" height = 2 mm.
Hyphen = 2 mm.
SAV Day diam. = 2.5 mm.



C Mail Van No.l; 21.III.05.
S"N" height = 2.5 mm.
Hyphen = 2 mm.
4 b Night diam.= 2.5 mm. 37
/l y t4






Mail Van No.l,
"N" height
Hyphen
Night diameter



Mail Van No.2,
"N" height
Hyphen
Night diameter


Mail Van No.2,
"N" height
Hyphen
Night diameter
Letters height


15.V.05.
= 3 mm.
= 2.25 mm.
= 3 mm.


4.XII.94.
= 2.5 mm.
= 1.5 mm.
= 2.5 mm.


11.I.95.
= 2.5 mm.
= 1.5 mm.
= 2.5 mm.
= 3.5 mm.


Mail Van No.2, 9.V.99.
"N" height = 2.5 mm.
Hyphen = ?
Blank indication= day service.


Mail Van No.2,
"N" height
Hyphen
Night diameter
Letters height


Mail Van No.2,
"N" height
Hyphen
Night diameter
Letters height


24.1.01.
= 2.75 mm.
= 1.5 mm.
= 2.5 mm.
= 3.5 mm.


1.XII.12.
= 2.5 mm.
= 1.5 mm.
= 2.5 mm.
= 2.75 mm.








*" "^ I ,. .$ ^,' ^'::






Monsieur le Professeur E.MICHAUD ,

I |

17,Rue d' !rlach





BERNE



( Sutsse)
Mail Van No.2, 8.IX.14. "N" height = 2.5 mm; Hyphen = 1.5 mm; Blank
indication = day service. Letters' height = 3.5 mm.


POCCII RUSSIE
,flOTOBA5 KAPTOrqK- CARTE POST





........... .... ............ ...













Some final comments. A lot of work still remains to be done in these
markings and, re the H:FORS-SN P:BURG types, we have not seen mail van
No.l in use after 15 May 1905. Furthur data are welcome from our readers.

Please note that the card shown on p.29 with the Helsinki Local Post 10-
pennia affixed has been taken from the same Finlandia-88 Bulletin No. 2
but from an article on the Helsinki City Post 1866-91 by Harri Sihtola.
*








THE GREAT DOT AND NUMERAL HUNT


by Alex Artuchov

The author has long considered a supplement and update to an
article with the same title, featured in N0.4 of this Journal
(April, 1979), to be long overdue.

As readers will recall, the truncated triangle type of dot and
numeral cancellation was supposed to have had 1700 postal locations
assigned to it. The first 847 locations are known but the remainder
were never revealed by the Imperial Post Office. The objective of
this article was to identify these locations. In cases where a
number is listed under the category of "Known", existing cancellations
prove that a post office actually functioned. In other cases,
where a name of the location of that post office is also given;
cover material with both the dot and numeral and a manuscript
cancellation identifying the location is known.

The author has accumulated a total of 218 locations. In No.4 of
this Journal only 130 were listed. The new information has come
from an almost ten year vigil including new material found by the
author, items offered in auction catalogues and information
from other collectors. With regard to the latter source the
author is particularly indebted to Igor Maslowski of Paris and
Oleg Faberg6 of Helsinki for their contributions. Mr. Faberg6 was
also kind enough to provide a number of illustrations which are
featured below.

Collectors with any additional information are encouraged to
contact the author at the address of the Society. New information
will be published when quantity warrants.







Fig. 1 1097
Szydlowiec, Radom
(Coll. of A. Artuchov) a


















40 In!] : n








Known Location Known Locat nI ------


849
852
854
856
857
858

860
869
870
874
879
880
883
884
886
889
895
899
900
904
908
909
911
912
913
915
916
918
922
924
925
929
932
936
937
940
943
944
951
957
962
964
968
970
979
981
985
986
987
988
989
993
997
998
1000
1004


Krasnoyarskoi, Samara


St. Khimenki (or Fimenki)
Vladimir

Bryn, Kaluga
Tabriz, Persia (?)








Chutovo, Poltava

Novoselitsy, Bessarabia















Klyuchishenskaya, Sinbirsk








Parisi, Minsk
Dzhulek, Syrdar











Brzesc Kujawski, Warsaw




Osieciny, Warsaw


1005
1006
1010
1011
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1019
1020
1021
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1034
1036
1037
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1057
1058
1059
1062
1063
1064
1065
1067
1070
1071
1075
1078
1080
1081
1082
1089
1090
1091
1097
1098
1099
1100


I


Radziej6w, Warsaw


Sanniki, Warsaw




Ciechocinek, Warsaw
Jablon, Warsaw
Baldrikow, Kalisz (?)
Blaszki, Kalisz
Warta, Kalisz

Dabie, Kalisz
Zdunska Wola, Kalisz


Kleczanow, Kalisz
Klodawa, Kalisz
Ozork6w, Kalisz


Turek, Piotrk6w

Sompolno, Kalisz

Uniej6w, Kalisz


Aleksandr6w, Piotrk6w
Zawierce, Piotrk6w
Gorszkowice, Piotrk6w
Zarki, Piotrk6w
Ozorkow, Kalisz
Zielen, Piotrk6w

Klomnice, Cze stochowa






Rokiciny, Piotrkow

Tomaszow (Rawski), Piotrkow (?)
Orlovo, ?
Zlotoria, Lomza
Zwolen, Radom


Klimont6w, Radom

Przysuchi, Radom
Szydlowiec, Radom


I Location


Known


Known


Location










1101
1103
1105
1106
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1115
1116
1117
1121
1122
1124
1127
1128
1130
1133
1135
1136
1140
1142
1143
1144
1154
1162
1173
1178
1180
1185
1188
1193
1195
1199
1201
1202
1203
1204
1208
1219
1221
1225
1227
1228
1229
1231
1234
1244
1248
1250
1255
1256
1265


Known


Wolbrom, Kielce
Dzialoszyce, E6di

Koszyce, Kielce
Pilitsa, Kielce





Chmielnik, Kielce
Tomasz6w (Zamojski), Zamos









Opole, Lublin


Frampol, Lublin







Malkin, Warsaw






Seini, Suwalki (?)
Sereye, Suwalki (?)
Spotskin, Suwalki (?)
Suwalki, Suwalki
Wysokie Mazowieckie, Lomia





Narmanskaya, Kazan'


Palekh, Vladimir




Gorodsk, Minsk
Dunaevtsy, Podolsk


Location


I Novocherkutino, (Tambov ?)


V K t .y ,


1267
1270
1272
1273
1277
1280
1284
1286
1287
1288
1289
1291
1296
1300

1305
1306
1307
1308
1314
1324
1325
1329
1334
1335
1342
1345
1347
1351
1352
1361
1362
1363
1365
1382
1385
1390
1393
1396
1400
1402
1406
1409
1410
1415
1434
1444
1445
1467
1481
1507
1663


noV w Tv-u n-i o


Myagushev, Novgorod

Gonczyce, Siedlce

Bogorodsk, Nizhnii
Novgorod (?)








Edintsi, Bessarabia



Ekaterinenshtadt, Samara

Glowno, Piotrkow
St. Borokhudzirsk, (?)


Faleshty, Bessarabia
Schlok, Livonia














Glubokoe, Vilna


Location






















Fig 2 964
Dzhulek, Syrdar
(Coll. A. Faberg4)


Fig. 3 1080
Zwolen, Radom
(Coll. A. Faberg6)


"AE
1%s^^ 1









6U6R ONTraTO DOIwTOMIaul XmuX I oTDNmUR sBAO e0 tC DO1TOIU


L


360AfL









Figs. 4 and 5 represent an
interesting dilemma. Both
covers bear the number 1109.
The location of 1109 is taken
from Fig. 5 only because this
cover contains a full name.
One can only conclude that
1109 was shifted in location
at some point in time. It
would also be reasonable to
assume that this was also the
case for other numerals.


.' "- -I.t
rrrr 4 "-J'


I ~ i'~'* -&


Lam


C.
* ./, / -/
F, __L


* .


.Fig. 4 1109 Sel---aya St.,(?)
(Coll. M. Liphschutz)


Fig. 5 1109 Pilitsa, Kielce
(Coll. A. Faberge)


I I





i
`" F
Ja::t: rr
'' I
/ :i.
J ."Zlr
i


HAPMAHCK Oi5
19,E.P, .i77.


U


-J


Fig. 6 1228 Narmanskaya, Kazan'
(Coll. A. Faberg4)


UftO'iPP*YTXM ?rT/
2 c i.! Ir














Reverse
Side


^2/*7> ^-^^.-- I *
/re~c f


K1c J6 ;CC/t~CCcL~ io cr~


Fig. 7 1270 Novocherkutino, (?)
(Coll. A. Faberge)


--- --


- -- -


4-


*'*







'U


FfOL&' & 1 -t-aieA, 0e, 0<^





Fig. 8 1352 St. Borokhudzirsk, (?)
(Coll. A. Faberge)













wr(opozyamspessa 14
29otra6pal874"o,i


'^yyy~Cy3n r


Reverse Side


CTA4L50P?\yCr 3np f PCK

Le44lnkiAA %^A oy'


- -- ~--~---~--







POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS


by Alex Artuchov

















CHERDYN/qEP)0bl1Hb

Perm Province
Cherdyn is located in pine forested area of
northwestern Perm, on the western slopes of the
Urals, some 170 miles north of the provincial
capital. In 1900, the population was 9,500.

Timber cutting and potassium and salt mining
were major occupations.

Cherdyn issued stamps between 1888 and 1918.

1888 (October)
16.3 x 24.5 mm, lithographed on coloured paper 0.08 mm thick,
shiny brownish yellow gum, sheet unknown, perforated 11 and known
imperforate vertically.












1. 2 kop. black on rose paper 5.00

1889 (January 1)
17 x 23.75 mm, similar to No. 1, inscription in oval smaller and
there is a figure of value "2" in the centre of the oval, lithographed
on coloured paper o.11 mm thick, shiny yellow gum, sheet of 100
(10 x 10), perforated 11i and known double perforated horizontally.



















2. 2 kop. dark blue on rose paper 1.00


1890
19 x 261 mm, lithographed on coloured paper, yellowish gum, sheet
of 100 (10 x 10), perforated 12h, tablet with word MAPKA at the
bottom is joined to the outer frameline (see illustration below),
2 editions.


=P KAI


First Edition (1890)
(on paper 0.09 mm thick)

3. 2 kop. red on light yellow paper or on 1.00
ivory coloured paper

Second Edition (1890, end of)
( on paper 0.1 mm thick)

4. 2 kop. red on light lilac paper 1.00


Proofs
A. Printed in black on various papers, imperforate, with gum.

- 2 kop. black on white chalky paper, no gum, paper 0.08 mm thick
- 2 kop. black on salmon coloured paper, paper 0.07 mm thick
- 2 kop. black on light yellow paper, paper 0.08 mm thick
- 2 kop. black on light gray green paper 0.06 mm thick
- 2 kop. black on blue lilac, verically laid paper 0.09 mm thick

B. Printed on coloured paper, white gum.

- 2 kop. red on brownish yellow paper 0.07mm thick
- 2 kop. red on salmon coloured paper 0.08 mm thick
- 2 kop. red on gray white paper 0.07 mm thick
- 2 kop. blue on brownish yellow paper 0.08 mm thick
- 2 kop. blue on light gray green paper 0.06 mm thick
- 2 kop. blue on gray white paper 0.07 mm thick


~








1891-95
21.75 x 29mm, lithographed on white paper, similar to previous
issues, tablet with word MAPKA is not joined to the bottom
frameline, thin framelines around stamps, perforated 11, nine
editions.

First Edition (1891, Feb.)
Thin and thick paper, brownish yellow gum, the stamps are
spaced 3-3 mm apart, sheet unknown, largest known multiple is
8 x 5 and has no margins.

5. 2 kop. carmine, carmine rose on thin paper 1.50

6. 2 kop. carmine, carmine rose on thick paper 1.75


Second Edition (1892, June ?)
Thick paper 0.13 mm, yellow gum, sheet unknown, largest known
multiple is 8 x 5 and has no margins, the stamps are spaced
3-35 mm apart.

7. 2 kop. blue,light and dark 0.75

Third Edition (1893)
Similar to first edition, on paper 0.08 mm thick, dot over the
right numeral 2 and a spot of colour in the background just above
the upper left corner of the shield (see illustration below),
yellowish brown gum, sheet unknown, stamps spaced 3.75 4.25 mm
apart.

8. 2 kop. carmine rose 0.75








Fourth Edition (1893)
Soft paper 0.08 mm thick, shiny gum, sheet of 8(?) x 4 with no
margins on the right, dot over numeral 2.
9. 2 kop. bright green 1.00


Fifth Edition (1893, Dec. 7)
Thin paper 0.06 mm thick, yellowish white gum, sheet unknown, the
stamp is known to be bisected in Sept. 1894, dot over numeral 2.

10. 2 kop. gray 2.00


Sixth Edition (1894, Feb. 8)
Similar to previous issues but without dot over numeral 2, on thick
paper 0.13 mm, shiny brownish yellow gum, sheet of 8(?) x 10
without margins, stamps spaced 5.33 mm apart, known used bisected
in Sept. 1894.

11. 2 kop. yellow light and dark 2.00 AQ








Seventh Edition (1894, Sept.)
On thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, perforated 11 and
also known perforated vertically through the middle, sheet of
8 x 8 (?), known used bisected in 1395.


12. 2 kop. mauve


1.00


Eighth Edition (1895)
On thin white paper 0.07 mm thick, perforated 11 and also known
imperforate vertically, double perforated and horizontally and
vertically perforated through the middle, sheet of 8 x 8, stamps
spaced 4.75-5.5 mm apart.


13. 2 kop. violet


1.00


Ninth Edition (1895 July ?)
On paper 0.08 mm thick, brownish yellow streaky gum, 2 kop.
sheet of 10 x 10, 3 kop. sheet of 10 x 6, transfer block of 4 x 1
with 4 types, perforated 11 which is often incomplete on the
2 kop. stamps.


14. 2 kop. yellow rose

15. 3 kop. yellow green


The 3 Kop. Sheet


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 3 4
1 23 4 1 2 3 4 12
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 3 4


1.00

1.00


The Four Types of No. 15
Type 1 Tiny dot between
upper framelines over b1
of 'EP)bIHCKAH. Dot under
bottom spiral ornament
on the right.
Type 2 Dot under TP
of TPH.
Type 3 Letter A of
MAPKA is poorly formed.
Type 4 The left stroke
of q of qEPXIbHCKAR is
short with horizontal
lines near its end
broken to form a white
spot.


buKg

Type 1.







Type 3.


Proof
Imperforate and without gum
- 3 kop. yellow green (colour of issued stamp)


TP
---0..

.Type 2.







Type 4.








1894-1895
Similar to previous issue; each value of a different size:l kop. -
20% x 26, 3 kop.- 23.75 x 30.75, 10 kop.- 26 x 35.33 mm; new values
with the 1 kop. used for printed matter and the 10 kop. used for
money orders; lithographed; perforated 11i; two editions.
First Edition
1894 (September)
White paper 0.07 mm thick; Sheets of: 1 kop.- 11 x 7 with 2 types,
3 kop.- unknown, l0kop.- 7 x 7; 10 kop. known perforated double
and triple vertically.


16. 1 kop. yellow brown light and dark 0.50

The Sheet The 2 Types


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 I 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 ?


Type 1- Right numeral
1 tips forward.
Type 2- Right numeral
1 is thinner and tips
backwards.


17. 3 kop. blue light and dark 5.00

18. 10 kop. rose light and dark 3.00

Variety: 10 kop.- top frameline is broken (10th stamp on the sheet).

Second Edition
1895 (beginning)
White paper 0.07 mm thick, brownish yellow gum, 1 kop. sheet of
10 x 7 with 3 types, 3 kop sheet unknown, perforated 11i.

19. 1 kop. yellow brown light and dark 1.00

The 3 Type of No. 19
Type 1- Right numeral 1 is thin and exactly in the centre of the
circle. Left numeral has a thin serif at the bottom. Both numerals
are blunt at the top.
Type 2- Right numeral 1 is slightly tipped and touches the top of
the circle.
Type 3- Right numeral 1 is straight and thin.








The No. 19 Sheet


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


20. 3 kop. rose, yellow rose


1.00


1895 (March?)
Similar to the 3 kop. stamp of Sert. 1394 but slightly larger in
size: 24.75 x 31.75 mm, the deer in the coat of arms is not as
clearly striped and the two spiral ornaments in the corners are
not as clearly defined, the numerals 3 are differently shaped,
lithographed on thin white paper 0.05 mm thick, sheet of 8 x 7,
perforated 11.


21. 3 kop. blue, light blue


1.00


Shades: Both colours of the stamp can be found on the same sheet.


1897-1900
Lithographed on white paper,similar to previous issues but with
larger inscriptions and smaller numerals of value, perforated 11,
3 editions.

First Edition (1897, October)
On white paper 0.08 nm except for No. 25 which is 0.1mm thick,
shiny brownish yellow gum, perforated 11i, the 1 kop. stamp is
known imperforate horizontally, sheet of 9 x 6 except for 10 kop.
value which is unknown, 3 types for the 1 kop. and possibly the
2 kop. stamp.


22. 1 kop. orange


5.00


23. 2 kop. carmine red

24. 3 kop. green, yellow green, blue green,
olive green

25. 10 kop. brown red
(this stamp was probably not issued for use)


50.00

1.00


RRR
6 known ?








The 1 KOP. Sheet


1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 2 3 1 2 3 11213
12 3 12 3 1 23
1231123123


The Three Types of the 1 KOP Stamp
Type 1 Left 1 of value is nearer
to bottom of circle than on other
types, right 1 of value centered
slightly to right.
Type 2 Right 1 of value tips
back slightly and is nearer to
top of circle.
Type 3 Left 1 of value is not as
close to the bottom of circle, the
right of value is in the centre of
the circle.


Second Edition (1899, beginning)
Change of colour, white paper, brownish gum, sheet unknown,
3 types in 3 x 1 format, paper 0.12 mm thick.


26. 2 kop. rose


2.00


Third Edition (1899, end of ?)
Change of colour, white paper 0.08 mm thick, brownish yellow gum,
sheet unknown, 3 types.


27. 2 koo. red


5.00


1902 (April)
Due to an insufficient supply of the 2 kop. stamps the 3 and 10
kop. stamps of Oct. 1897 were handstamped with a 2 surcharge in
greenish blue or lilac blue.


28. 2 kop. in blue on 10 kop. rose


29. 2 kop. in blue on 3 kop. green

30. 2 kop. in blue on 10 kop. brown red


RRRR
(2 known?)


25.00


RRR
(7 known?)


1899-1901
Lithographed on white paper 0.03 mm thick, white gum, sheet of
10 x 10, perforated llband issued imperforate in June of 1900,
2 editions.










First Edition (1899, December)


31. 2 kop. lilac blue


1.00








Second Edition (1900, June)
At first this was a rush issue and was issued imperforate, later
in 1901 it was issued perforated 11.

32. 2 kop. blue 0.50

Proofs
These proofs are of the first edition stamps.

A. Printed in black on coloured paper (0.06 mm thick)

2 kop. black on carmine rose paper
2 kop. black on green paper
2 kop. black on gray-blue paper

B. Printed in black on coloured paper (0.14 mm thick)

2 kop. black on gray, granite paper


1902-1916
Typographed by the State Printing Office in St. Petersburg, on
white paper 0.07 mm thick, 19h x 26' mm white gum, sheet of
5 x 5, perforated 13h with large and small holes, 3 editions,
in total 618025 stamps were issued.









First Edition (1902)
Perforated 13' with small or large perforation holes.

33. 2 kop. red, rose red 0.50
Variety: white part of shield near bear bulges upward,
deer without tail.

Second Edition (1909)
Similar to previous issue, perforated 13, 100,000 issued, the
4 kop. stamp is known used bisected in July of 1910 in the post
office in Nirob.

34. 2 kop. dull rose 0.35

35. 4 kop. brown 0.75

Third Edition (1915)
Similar to previous issues, perforated 121.

36. 2 kop. rose red 5.00








1907-1912
Local printing, similar to the previous issues printed in St.
Petersburg, coarse and unclear printing, lithographed, this
issue can be considered to be provisional since these stamps
were issued because stamps printed in St. Petersburg were late
in arriving, 3 editions.

First Edition (1907, September)
19 x 26 mm yellowish white paper 0.1 mm thick, dull brownish
gum, sheet of 5 x 2, perforated 11.









37. 2 kop. red dull or dark 0.50

These stamps show many defects and plate flaws making plating
quite simple. The framelines are broken,bent and damaged. The
most noteworthy are the following:

Stamp 1 The bottom part of the thin outer frameline on the
right is incomplete, there is a break in the thin left outer
frameline near the top corner.
Stamp 3 The entire thin outer top frameline is bent out of
shape with a break on the right, a red spot between above frameline
and the inner frameline on the left.
Stamp 6 Smudged red spots on the left bottom corner circle to
the left of and above the numeral 2.
Stamp 7 The left half of the thin outer bottom frameline is
bent and damaged.
Stamp 8 There is a break in the centre of the thin outer bottom
frameline, the outlines of the circle above the numeral 2 in the
bottom left corner are incomplete, the raised foreleg of the deer
touches the outline of the shield.
Stamp 9 The thin outer frameline at the bottom is badly bent
and touches the inner frame above it.


Second Edition (1910, August?)
Similar to first edition, letters and numerals are smaller, deer
faces left, lithographed on white paper 0.09 mm thick, white gum,
sheet unknown, perforated 11 and often poorly done.

38. 2 kop. bright rose 0.50


Third Edition (1912, May?)
Similar to previous editions, the bear is white and without the
lines of shading, the corner numerals of value are smaller,
lithographed on white paper 0.07 mm thick, white gum, perforated
11 with most of holes incomplete, few unused copies known, only
single copies are known.









39. 2 kop. carmine rose 100.00
45.00

1913 (May)
21.5-21.75 x 32-32.25 mm typographed, on white paper 0.09 mm
thick, white gum, sheet of 12 x 5 in several groups of 4 x 1,
4 types, because of the moveable type used the stamps vary a
great deal, the position and distance between letters may differ
from stamp to stamp, perforated 11

40. 2 kop. dark blue 0.50





H. 2 .




Variations of the Sheet
1 2 3' 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 V C Z T Z T
V Z T V C T V, C Z T
T C ZT T P C Z T P C T
TTTT~I TTTTT


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
7 C Z T P C Z T 1 2 3 4
V C Z T V C Z T P C Z T
9 C Z T E C T C Z T


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 34


The 4 Types
Type 1 All corner ornaments have 8 bars, right letter k of k 2 k
is placed higher than the left k.
Type 2 All corner ornaments have 8 bars, both letters of k 2 k
are aligned, damaged letter A in fOITOBAI.
Type 3 Upper left ornament with 8 bars, the upper right has 7
and the bottom ornaments have 6 bars.
Type 4 All corner ornaments have 6 bars, numeral of value 2 is
much smaller than on the other types.


1918
Typographed in colour on grayish white paper 0.08 mm thick, yellow
white gum, perforated ll,sheet unknown, 3 types differing by the
position of the spiral ornaments which frame the numeral 20 in the
centre of the stamp.



















41. 20 kop. greenish blue

The Three Types
There are 18 spiral ornaments forming the frame around the
numeral 20 in the centre of the stamp. The ornaments are found in
8 different positions as shown on the diagrams below.


(96 D O- P) S(5 ?i) a


1 2 4 3 3 3
2 5
5 Type 1 2
6 4
8 7 5 4 63


8 5 4 3 3 4 2 3 2 7 6 3
5 2 2 2
2 Type 2 7 8 Type 3 2
7 3 8 6
6 3 8 2 7 4 1 4 4 4 4 3


1919 ?
Very little is known about this
paper perforated 11.


issue, typographed on white


42. 10 kop. green


Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue


Cross-Reference


Sch Ch
10 8
11 9
12 11
13 lla
14 12
15 15
16 10
17 13
18 14


Sch
1
2
3
4
5
6
7


Ch
1
2
3
4
5
5a
6


Sch
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27


Ch
17
16

19
20a
21&21a
22
20
20c


Sfch
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36


Sch
37
38
39
40
41
42


Ch
30
31
32
33


I





























NOW
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately
is pleased to announce the pending publication
of THE ZEMSTVO POSTAGE STAMPS OF IMPERIAL
RUSSIA by Alex Artuchov, in August of 1987.
This is the first of four volumes dealing
dealing comprehensively with zemstvo stamps.
Orders are invited at US $20.-, postpaid,
by writing to the Society address.
Dealer terms are available.

AVALABE


Of


by ALEX ARTUCHOV
Vol.1: Akhtyrka-Byezhetsk


~uotn~~R~P ~i~x~s~u~







THE 7-KOPEK ARMS TYPE


by Rev. L. L. Tann.
The final printings of the Imperial Arms stamps spanning the years 1917-
1922 did not include the 7-kopek blue value. All students of these
issues agree that the last printings of the 7-kop. blue were in 1916 or
early 1917, at the very latest. With the rise of postal rates and the
surcharging in late 1916/early 1917 of the 7-kop. with a 10-kop. value,
there was no point in using valuable paper to print a value that served
no purpose. Indeed, the surcharging was probably adopted to use up
considerable supplies of the 7-kop. stamps (and the 14k. values of both
the Arms and Romanov issues), which would have otherwise lain dormant.

Considerable numbers of the 10k./7k. blue are known and many varieties
of shifts and inversions; far more than on the other three surcharged
stamps. It is my opinion that there were far more quantities of the 7k.
blue stacked in the State Printing Office than of the other values,
since it paid the standard inland rate until mid-war. In my book on the
Arms issue (p.85), it is mentioned that contemporary philatelic
journals quoting the numbers issued of the surcharged stamps give no
figure for the 10k./7k. value. The figure could have been 80 millions
or more. This surcharge continued to be affixed during the period of
the Duma government (March to October 1917), such were the quantities
held of the 7 kop. value. This value was never reprinted. The
imperforate varieties are from a genuine perf. error of the original
1909 printing. No imperforate issue was made of the 7-kop. stamp. It is
found used in the 1917-1918 period and occasionally after that, but
* these items were from the earlier printings that were being used up in
the cascade of stamps affixed in the inflationary period.

The illustration here shows a block of four of the 7-kop. value,
perforated of course, from the centre of the sheet (stamps 19, 20, 24 &
25 from the top left pane of the sheet), together with imperforate
items, a 2-kop. and a pair of the 4-kop. They all have identical oval
postmarks, reading PETROGRAD/NIKOL.VOKZ./10.8.22 in purple, suggesting
that they had franked the same cover, probably with other stamps. The
block shows a rust-red portion of a London, England arrival postmark,
so it was from a cover going abroad. The stamps in the August 1922
period were used at 1000 times face value and, as the items here had a
total face value of 38 kop., they passed for 3800 roubles. According to
the France-URSS catalogue (p.28), the rate in this period for a letter
abroad was 450,000 roubles, with a supplementary cost of 450,000r. for
registration. The fragment of the London receiving postmark shows an
"R", which was the beginning of the word "Registered". There must have
been many more Arms stamps on this cover!

The Arms stamps served
Russia well in this
period. These must have
been among the latest
usages of the old 7k.
value, which had not
been printed for more
than five years when
this cover passed
through Petrograd's
Nikolai Railway Post
Office. 59
*k







CASH FRANKINGS IN WHITE SIBERIA


by Ivo Steyn.

(translated from the magazine "Oost Europa Filatelie", No.3 for
September 1987, edited by Mr. Steyn and by kind permission of the
author).

Cash frankings in Russia during the 20th. century are mainly known from
the so-called Hyper-Inflation Period of 1921-1923. Because of the
disruption of the economy after the Civil War, prices shot up and the
postal rates quickly went into the thousands and hundreds of thousands
of roubles. Because of temporary shortages of postage stamps, it came
about that mail would be exclusively provided with a marking or
annotation that the rate had been paid.

However, the item shown here is a horse of quite another colour. It is
a registered letter, sent from the second branch post office in Perm
(in the Ural Mountains) on 3 June 1919, much too early for the hyper-
inflation. Still, the rate of Ir. 20k. for an inland registered letter
to Vladivostok has not been paid in stamps, but the fee levied has been
noted on the back with a cachet at top right. The complete text of this
cachet reads: "Post. rate in the sum of (1.20) paid in cash. The
receiver" and initials. What is this all about?

The Civil War broke out in Siberia with the revolt of the Czech Legion
at the end of May 1918. After six months of confusion, the so-called
Whites (anti-Communists) grouped themselves around Admiral Kolchak and
the White Army began its long trek towards Moscow. Perm was taken on
24 December 1918.

However, it is unlikely that the city had received many stamps from
Petrograd after the revolution in November 1917. That also applied to
all of Siberia and is the most important reason for the various
overprints that were issued there. There arose shortages in specific
values and contact was broken with Petrograd. It is apparent that, by
the middle of 1919, Perm was also out of stamps and the mail was
provided with similar cash franking cachets as an emergency measure.

But here the story of this piece of mail begins to go awry. Upon
arrival at the destination of Vladivostok on 20 June 1919, the letter
was deemed to be undeliverable. It is not clear if the addressee, the
commercial firm of the Yanushev Brothers, had refused the letter or
that the addressee could no longer be found. Whatever the case, the
postal authorities gave up and the letter was provided with a new
marking on the back at upper left unfortunately barely readable, on
2 September. What can be deciphered from the text makes one guess at
the following message: "To Perm, 2/IX.19, with the expiration of the
waiting period and non-appearance of the addressee. P.-T. Official"
and signature.

A new problem now arose here. Kolchak's offensive had bogged in the
meantime and the Red Army had recaptured Perm on 15 June 1919. As there
were no postal links with Red Russia, the return of the letter was thus
impossible. It was struck with a Vladivostok marking on 8 September
1919. It is likely that, on that date, the letter had entered into the
section for "undeliverable mail" (Dead Letter Office). I dare not
speculate as to how the cover found its way into my collection after





























































That, but I have no complaints. The letter has a number of further
interesting aspects, as follow:

1. The rate. The rates that had been fixed by the government in
61







Petrograd were adhered to in Siberia until quite late in 1918. As the
economy of the White government, with its capital in Omsk, was not
exactly healthy, inflation quickly set in and the postal rates shot up
in 1919. Unfortunately, most of the mail that I have seen so far has
been in the form of letters or cards sent abroad, which is not
completely illogical and even the rates for foreign letters are far
from clear. So far, I have been able to establish that the rate for a
letter going abroad was 70 kopeks, with a further 70 kopeks for the
registration fee. However, letters with a franking of 50 kopeks are
also known. The mixing up of inland and foreign rates was a known
complaint against Russian post offices and I therefore suspect that the
internal rate for a letter was 50 kopeks. With the registration fee of
70 kop., we also come to Ir. 20k. for the letter shown on p.59.

2. The sender. The city of Perm also has an interesting historical
background. After the Tsar and his family were murdered in July 1918
in Yekaterinburg, as has been generally assumed, there remained
persistent rumours that a number of members of the Imperial Family had
been carried off by the Reds and were still alive. The White general
Diterikhs, who had investigated the murder, did not want to know
anything about such rumours, as the White movement was more interested
in martyrs than in survivors. However, the Czech general Rudolf Gajda
decided to conduct an independent enquiry. He discovered that, around
the period of the murder, a train had set out for Perm. His commission
of investigation followed the scent to Perm, which was in White hands
in the meantime and found a number of intriguing indications that,
after the date of the murder, the female members of the Imperial
Family had been placed as prisoners in Perm. However, the quickly
worsening military situation prevented further investigation and the
White Army had to give up Perm in the middle of June 1919.

The sender of this letter (he provided the letter with a three-line
cachet on the front at bottom left and a circular marking on the back)
was the director of the prison (literally "house of correction") in
Perm, in the Department of Investigations Outstanding. Although there
is no single visible connection with Gajda's Commission of Enquiry, it
is interesting to speculate. What did it say in the letter? (I fear
that it could have been something quite ordinary; perhaps an order for
a large pair of handcuffs....).

3. The arrival postmark of Vladivostok. The Russian cancellers of this
period were generally provided with a serial letter. Postmarkers with
a fixed serial letter were mainly used for specific purposes, but this
rule was not strictly adhered to. It often happened that, in his haste,
a postal official would grab the first canceller that he saw.

The canceller with serial letter "ts" (Robinson 268.4 "ts", hitherto
recorded from 1923-1926) we only know of from two letters that are
quite special: an airmail letter with the 1923 Vladivostok air stamps
and a 1926 letter with control stamps. Apparently this canceller was
only used very rarely.

Are there still more of these White cash frankings known?

EDITORIAL COMMENT: There are several points that come to mind as a
result of Mr. Steyn's article. As the year 1919 saw the height of the
Civil War and the disruption of mail was most severe, any 1919 letter,
Red or White, may be regarded as something of a rarity. They should be






listed and treasured, especially if they show evidence of payment in
cash. It should also be remembered that, while we have details of the
postal rates in Red Russia during the Civil War, that is certainly not
the case for the various White areas, especially from the beginning of
1919. A lot of work needs to be done in that area and, to start the
ball rolling, a remarkable cover from the Kolchak era is shown here.



.I




: l r | t'" ".













IaeAeOiAuKpae'HbiATfje3l
i,.",,* :",?. ,v ^j(so^^ / 438
M, 4). ...








A
!w '' -'\










t pacHsItr OCTa
/, '' 4,. 63I
.' '. .









I -3 ,6








Quite apart from making Arms enthusiasts drool (are you there, Rev.
Tann?), the cover has features that would appeal to other collectors
also. Franked with 15 copies of the 10-kop./7 kop. surcharge on the
back for a total rate of Ir. 50k., it was postmarked IRKUTSK shch
22.11.19 and also backstamped on arrival with CHITA g 25.11.19. It
bears on the front at top the cachet in violet of the Swedish Red Cross/
Myl'nikovskaya 36 and the word Irkutsk added by typewriter. It
contained letter No. 2979 and was addressed by typewriter in Russian to
Chita, To the Chita Aid Committee of the Swedish Red Cross. It would
seem that that the Swedish Red Cross had established agencies in both
cities as a possible liaison with the numerous Austro-Hungarian and
German POWs in the camps nearby. Both dates are well within the Kolchak
period, as it was not until early in the following year that he was
captured by the advancing Red forces and executed in Irkutsk on 7th.
February 1920. We thus see that this cover would be of interest to
Civil War collectors, Red Cross thematelists, Russian postal historians
and rate researchers and philatelists concerned with "Suedica" (items
pertaining to Sweden and its people). Our Swedish subscribers are
invited to come forth with further details of the activities of the
Swedish Red Cross in Siberia. It should be an enthralling story!

That the postal rates in the White areas would be most varied becomes
evident when one looks at the numerous issues of paper money that
circulated during the Civil War period. In referring to this
bewildering array of currency, the noted British agent Robert Bruce
Lockhart stated that there were cases where each side forged the other's
money and, in one hilarious instance, the forger changed the customary
panel that warned of the legal penalties for forgery and inserted the
statement "Ours are as good as yours". Does anyone among our readers
have such a banknote, or details of it?
*

AROUND THE INTERNATIONAL PHILATELIC EXHIBITIONS

by Andrew Cronin.

This has been a busy year with three important international shows, of
which details are given below.

CAPEX-87.

Your editor was heavily involved in this event, held in Toronto on
13-21 June 1987, as a volunteer, general helper and judge before,
during and after the show. It was an exhausting experience, as the hall
was about 400 metres long and when one walked to the other end and back,
it was about mile on a stressed concrete floor. There were 4100
frames. The other two CSRP coordinators Alex Artuchov and Pat Campbell
were also present on the first two days and were able to meet Adolph
Ackerman, Dr. F. Bean, Joseph Taylor, Dragan Udovici6, Dr. Gordon
Torrey, Barry Hong, Robert Lyman and other friends. The results in our
areas of interest were as follow:-

GOLD:
Emile Antonini: Ship markings on rivers & lakes of the world.
V. Hurt & E. Ojaste: Estonia Handbook (Literature).
Arnold Nyman: Finland 1856-1875.







LARGE VERMEIL:
G. Adolph Ackerman:
Per-Anders Erixon :
* Boris Evgrafov:
Lee Jong-Koo:

Dr. W.J. Rauch:
Moshe Shmuely:
Dr. B. Simady:

VERMEIL;
Eivind Evensen:

LARGE SILVER:
Arnold Engel:
Mieczyslaw Lubinski:
Vsevolod Pritula:

SILVER;
A. Berdichevskii:
F. Warren Dickson:
Evgenii Sashenkov:

SILVER BRONZE:
Viktoriya Perugina:
Dr. Robert Smith:

BRONZE:
Elena Mamaeva:
Fddor Teplukhin:


Soviet Airmails the early years.
Russia 1812-1912.
Postage Stamps of Soviet Russia and the USSR.
Japanese & Chinese POs in Korea & Russian
Paquebots.
Czechoslovak Field Post 1936-1946 incl. USSR.
Around the Russian Borders 1911-1922 (+SP).
Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History (+SP).


Grand Duchy of Finland 1809-1882.


Postal History of Latvia 1780-1915.
Imperial Russian Censorship (+ Felicitations).
The Letter in Flight.


Young Pioneers (Thematic exhibit).
Estonia 1918-1940.
From the History of the Polar Posts.


Animals of USSR Reservations (Thematic exhibit).
A Canadian in Siberia 1918-1921.


Flowers in Legends (Thematic exhibit).
Animals and Sport (Thematic exhibit).


Now for some comments. The questionable Nikolaevsk-on-Amur cover
described on pp.66-67 of "The Post-Rider" No.20 turned up in one of
the exhibits and your editor was able to pass on a suitable warning to
the owner. He enjoyed Adolph Ackerman's early Soviet flown covers,
intelligently written up and with the rates all worked out. Dr. Rauch
showed rare Soviet field post material from the First Czechoslovak
Separate Infantry Battalion and Moshe Shmuely has finally come into
his own internationally with his Civil War display, including an
Austrian FPO card from Batum 6.7.18,English ditto using a Greek
military card postmarked FPO 80, 26 Feb. 19, full sheet of the 2-kop.
postmaster provisional cancelled MINSK-b 21.2.22 etc. etc. Dr. Simady
showed beautiful Carpatho-Ukrainian material and Arnold Engel had
interesting Latvian postal history, including Wenden cards and covers.

Two of the Soviet exhibits presented problems that need to be solved.
Boris Evgrafov began by showing the top row of a sheet of the 70-kop.
sword cutter stamp where the comb perforator, moving up the sheet, had
missed finishing off the top margin and thus creating fantails for all
the stamps in that row. Directly above this strip, he had a single
"imperforate" 70-kop. with margin at top, apparently trimmed from such
a fantail variety. Your editor has NEVER seen an imperf. 70-kop. that
could not have been produced by trimming off the perforations. He also
showed the 1932 Philatelic Exhibition presentation sheet on ungummed
* carton paper, of which 500 were printed and the same card with a
Russian overprint in the top margin reading in two lines "Luchshemu
udarniku/Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva Filatelistov" ("To the best shock
worker of the All-Russian Society of Philatelists"; 25 copies only


I








were so produced). Please see the illustrations immediately below.


"A .... .'.4 1




ir. t. i" Ab rA MOC bBA uOTAbkAIU MOC














Hapoi3iAIt NhoMIIC3pHaT CBR13 CCCP Cornni, arifal du PeupIle dIs c.m-
Iuniationi r postal s Lt dlctirlques





4Ayue1My y.4apHUKy
Bcepoccuacmaw 06ecmea WDamme.cmos



cc 101&CCP 1 A I



W flqrE P ;P O~AL LC P L Ii.. I 0.qR0plp












Hapommaih Komnccapa C CCCP Comm nrla t d Peaple des corn-
-multiconr postales ct lecttiqques


While both items are obviously rare and bring high prices at auction,
it should be stressed that neither block had franking power. The
Stanley Gibbons catalogue makes that clear and the exhibitor should
also have said so in his write-up. Your editor has seen a cancelled







copy of the overprinted sheet, but with a postmark
applied elsewhere in one of the margins, NOT ON THE
STAMP IMPRESSIONS. In short, the postal officials
* must have been instructed not to cancel the stamps
on the sheets. Incidentally, the Ministry of
Communications of the USSR sent a supply of the
original sheet to a UPU congress for presentation
to other delegates, which is the main reason why
they have eventually come onto the philatelic
market.

On the positive side, Comrade Evgrafov showed a
lovely commercially used cover with a pair of the
Tambov "15k." provisional surcharge in violet on
the 10-kop. Worker definitive, cancelled TAMBOV
VOKZAL-a 7.8.31 and thus within the right period.
Such an item is probably unique and this provision:
Goreloe, Kozlov, Tambov and Tulinovka. In addition I
copy of the rare 20-kop. Red Banner stamp of 1933 p
had the same variety in a mint block of four with ar
OBRAZETS (=SPECIMEN) overprint in red on each stamp
claimed to be unique, has since surfaced in a recent
auction and may have come from the same collection.
illustration above. Comrade Evgrafov also had a lit]
usage of a pair of the prov. postage due stamp, hanc
1 kop. and together with a 12-kop. on the 70-kop. s\
cover postmarked MOSCOW 2.11.23. This showed the co3
of double the deficiency and was a mixed franking tc
* and second issues of postage due stamps. A lovely ii

Evgenii Sashenkov's Polar exhibit was entered in thE
section, which was incorrect as he had many mint st<
standpoint of traditional philately, it had no rhymE
To be shown in the thematic section, he would have 1
how he was developing his theme. Furthermore, in di
of the 50-kop. Dirigible Construction stamp in the
colour, he said that one was perforated 12 and the
fact, BOTH copies were perforated 10 x 12! If Comr<
to exhibit as postal history in future international
well advised to take out ALL the mint stamps and lal
concentrate on the postal markings and usages. He h
of bilingual Yakut ASSR postmarks of the 1930s, whi
expanded to take in all the Soviet post offices witi
Circle. He seems to have have recognized the problem
recently had an advt. in "Philately of the USSR", s
markings.

ESPAMER-87


... ... .. %.. ...... ..








1 is known used at
to having a mint
erf. 9, he also
n unrecorded
. A similar block,
t West German
See the
tle known rare
stamped DOPLATA
wordcutter on a
rrect collection
o boot of the first
tem.


Postal history
amps! Even from the
e or reason to it.
iad to demonstrate
splaying his copies
issued brown
other 10 x 12. In
ade Sashenkov wants
Ls, he would be
bels and to
as a fine showing
ch needs to be
Ain the Arctic
n somewhat, as he
seeking Yakut ASSR


The name stands for Spain, Portugal and the Americas and is by
tradition held in one of those countries every two years. It was
staged this time on 2 to 12 October 1987 in La Coruia, Spain, a truly
lovely and well-run city and port on the north-west tip of the
country. Frame fees were very reasonable (only US$5.00 each),
S resulting also in strong participation from Western European and
Soviet collectors. In fact, the Soviet exhibits were more interesting
than those shown at CAPEX-87. There was a Soviet judge listed for the
jury, V.V. Pritula,but he was not present as he was also scheduled
67






as a judge for HAFNIA-87, following on the heels of ESPAMER-87. Your
editor was the Canadian commissioner for the Spanish show and had a
wonderful and very instructive time. The results were as follow:-

GOLD:
Andrew Cronin: Postal History of the Carpatho-Ukraine.
Hendrika de Korver- Cadiz Region Prephilately.
de Hooghuis
LARGE VERMEIL:
Bernard Jimenez: The Bee (Thematic with many Zemstvos).
Laszl6 Suranyi: Newspaper stamp usages in Hungary
Armando Fernandez Xesta:Spanish Military Mail incl. Blue Legion.

VERMEIL:
Mieczyslaw Lubinski: Imperial Russian Censorship 1914-1917.
V. Ya. Shtemberg: Zemstvos.

LARGE SILVER:
Lyudmila Kabardintseva: Soviet Airmails.
Wieslaw Lewicki: Russia and Territories 1857-1865.
Laszl6 Molnar: Hungarian Postal History 1728-1858.
Roger Rivat: Russian Postal History 1914-1924.
A.A. Shvedov: Early Soviet Postal History.
V. Voishko: Chess theme.

SILVER:
T. Golovanova: Ode to Womankind.
A.V. Lin'kov: WWII theme.
E.E. Shamis: Russian Maritime Mail.

SILVER-BRONZE:
A. Bogdanovskii: V.I. Lenin theme.

BRONZE:
Yu. Vznuzdaev: Life theme.

Mevrouw Hendrika de Korver-de Hooghuis had a St. Petersburg 1823 letter
to the Russian Consul in CAdiz and a Moscow 1849 letter to J6rez de la
Frontera, both with an array of interesting markings, of which it is
hoped to get illustrations for "The Post Rider". Laszlo Suranyi showed
Austrian and Hungarian fiscal applied to the newspapers "Ung" (=Ui) &
"Ungviri K6zlbny"(= Uzhorod Journal) in May & July 1868 prior to
printing and thus utilised as journal tax stamps, which were
automatically cancelled upon being printed. Sr. Armando Fernandez Xesta
had a field post letter form from the Blue Legion (linked with the Blue
Division on the Eastern Front) which had the same design as the Croatian
one illustrated by Ya. Afangulskii in "The Post-Rider", No.18, top
right of p.49 and the same inscription word for word but now reading in
Spanish: EUROPA CONOCE AL BOLCHEVISMO Y LO COMBAT HASTA LA VICTORIA
FINAL. Lyudmila Kabardinsteva had rare Soviet airmails and, for
comparison purposes, very dangerous forgeries of the 1930 Zeppelin
imperforates with sheet margins. Wiesiaw Lewicki had 8 Russia No.ls on
letters, 24 singles incl. plate varieties and used in the Polish
Kingdom, not to mention the first 20k. & 30k. with numeral watermarks
used on covers. It appears that he lost points because he had four
"unused" Russia No.ls which seemed to have had the pen cancellations
washed off, while careful examination of his 20k. & 30k. showed that,
although the stamps were genuine, they did NOT belong to the covers
upon which they had been affixed. He would have been further ahead if





he had carefully removed both stamps from the covers. Laszld Molnar
displayed an 1837 prephilatelic letter with postmark N. SZdLLO (no
final "S", now Vynohradiv in the Carpatho-Ukraine) and notation "4"
(krajczAr), fully prepaid and addressed to Ivan Churhovych in Uihorod.
Roger Rivat had a 20-Pf. Germania type on a commercial letter which
was cancelled in two lines: "Deutsche Kommandantur/Kiew" in 1918, six
PZK overprints on a reg. letter from Vladivostok 17.10.22 to New York
City and a card & cover from 1920 with stamps of the Belorussian
National Republic used at the field post office in Latvia. A.A. Shvedov
had a 5-kop. Denikin used as a "trophy" stamp on a parcel card from
Rudnik, Yekaterinoslav prov. on 21.7.20 and postal forgeries of the
Soviet "star" surcharge 200r/40k. on a local Petrograd cover dated
2.5.23, bisects on cover, etc. A.V. Lin'kov exhibited two rare reg.
covers of the Roumanian occupation of Transnistria from Ananiev
3 Feb. 42 and Birzula 29 Sep. 42, as well as German occupation material
from Latvia, Ostland (Minsk) and a card from a Soviet POW in Lunenburg
26.8.43 with patriotic contents to his relatives in Simferopol', all
of which would have been taboo material for Soviet collectors up to now.
Finally, E.E. Shamis had a stunning Greek postcard, sent from Piraeus
27.12.1903 O.S. to St. Petersburg 2.1.1904 O.S. from the commander of
the now famous cruiser "Aurora" to Sof'ya Aleksandrovna Tarenetskaya.

HAFNIA-87.

Your editor was not present at this international exhibition, held in
Copenhagen, Denmark 16-25 October 1987, but the results were as follow:-


LARGE GOLD:
M.V. Liphschutz:
Leonid Mel'nikov:

GOLD:
V. Hurt and E. Ojaste:

LARGE VERMEIL:
Torben Adamsson:
Per-Anders Erixon:
Harry von Hofmann:
Zdenek Mekyna:
Vladimir Snegirdv:
Igor Verdysh:

VERMEIL:
Rudolfs Dedzis:
Dmitrii Galishnikov:
Olli Kivinen:
Dr. A.R. Marshall:
Elmar Ojaste:
Matti Sipari:

LARGE SILVER:
Anatolii Guba:
Jzrgen Jensen:
Lev Kolosov:
Vladimir Sadovnikov:
* Paul Sch&fer-Wegert:
Kai Stolzenbach:
Yurii Vasyuta:
Timo Verho:
Vieno Vihanto:


Russian Postal Stationery 1845-1883 (+SP).
Soviet Airmails.


Estonian Handbook (+SP; Literature).


Russia 1845-1884.
Russia 1812-1912.
Imperial Russia.
Soviet Russia & RSFSR 1917-1923.
Soviet Foreign Policy (+SP).
Stamps of Soviet Russia.


Riga Postal History 1770-1920.
Soviet Military Censorship 1941-1945.
Aunus/Olonets.
Russian Foreign Letter Rates 1916-1924.
Estonian Postal Censorship.
Finnish Registered Mail 1806-1931.


Peace theme.
Russia 1810-1917.
Postal History of Belorussia.
V.I. Lenin theme.
Memel-Klaipeda 1920-1925.
Estonia 1800-1945.
Cactus theme.
Estonian Postal Markings.
Finnish Ship Mail from 1798.


69








SILVER:
Mikhail Dlugokanskii: Earth theme.
Vambola Hurt: German Occupations of Estonia WWI & WWII.
Valentina Minenkova: Astronomy theme.
Stanley Gibbons Publicns:Russia Part 10 Stamp Catalogue.

SILVER-BRONZE:
Arakelov & Manukyan: Philately for the Young (Literature).
Andrew Cronin: Postal History of Bessarabia.
Dmitrii Duka: Poet theme.
Gurevich & Shcherbakov: Space Philately (Literature).
Harry von Hofmann: Baltische Postorte (Literature).

BRONZE:
August Leppa: Estonian Field Post in the German Army (Lit.).
Nina Martishina: Soviet Children theme.
Aleksei Mikhin: Sky Bodies theme.

Special congratulations are in order for their awards to our subscribers
Messrs Per-Anders Erixon, Harry von Hofmann, Vambola Hurt, August Leppa,
Michel Liphschutz, Dr. A.R. Marshall, Elmar Ojaste and Stanley Gibbons
Publications Ltd. Dr. Raymond Casey obtained a special award in the FIP
Championship Class for his "The Russian Post in the Far East".

Now for some general comments from your editor on international
exhibitions in his capacity as an international judge. When the results
of the judging at CAPEX-87 came out, it was seen that the number of
large golds was down sharply, in comparison with the two previous shows
of AMERIPEX-86 and STOCKHOLMIA-86. One of the reactions was a storm of
comment, particularly in the American philatelic press, that was very
long on emotion and very short on rationality. HAFNIA-87 has since then
come and gone; it was an exhibition of equivalent size to CAPEX-87 and
the number of large golds awarded was approximately the same: 32 at
CAPEX-87 and 29 at HAFNIA-87. In short, one has to work very hard to
get a large gold. Rightly so, otherwise the prestige of such an award
is seriously diminished.

The writer sees no reason why a collection of, say, first day covers
should not receive a large gold award, but for that to happen, he would
like to see the exhibit contain the first two stamps of the world (Penny
Black and Twopence Blue) used on letters on 6 May 1840, the 3-pfennig of
Saxony used on 29 June 1850 (it exists), Russia No.l postmarked prior to
1 Jan. 1858 on a letter rumouredd to exist) etc. etc. He is also not
against the idea of a judges' critique at international shows. However,
that can be a double-edged weapon; not only would exhibitors have the
opportunity to cross-examine the judges but they might also hear some
home truths about their exhibits. Your editor has seen that happen.

Entries in the classes of traditional philately, postal history,
airmails, literature and postal stationery require substantial
disbursements of money in order to gain a high award. However, thematic
philately seems to march to a different drummer, as the main emphasis
is on the development of one's theme. Your editor helped to take down
the collections at the close of business for CAPEX-87 and, on going
through the thematic section, he noticed one exhibit on which the owner
could not have spent more than US$500.00. That display received a large
vermeil award from the thematic judges. There is a moral there
somewhere
*









THREE HUNDRED YEAR CALENDAR
1753 to 2052


To find the day of the week:-First find the year in the table and then in the same
horizontal column to the right find the month where the number is given which
refers to the corresponding column of days in the table which follows.
Example:-To find the day of the week corresponding to Armistice Day, Novem-
ber 11, 1918 find the year 1918 and in the horizontal column to the right under
November is the figure 5 which refers to column 5 which is the calendar for November
of 1918 which shows that November 11, 1918 was on Monday.



8 4; ; l

1761 17671778178917951801 18071818 182918351846 4 7 7 3 5 1 3 6 2 4 7 2
1857 1863 1874 1885 1891 1903 1914 1925 1931 1942 1953
1959 1970 1981 1987 1998 2009 2015 2026 2037 2043

1762 1773 1779 1790 1802 1813 1819 1830 1841 18471858 5 1 1 4 6 2 4 7 3 5 1 3
1869 1875 1886 1897 1909 1915 1926 1937 1943 1954 1965 1
1971 1982 1993 1999 2010 2021 2027 2038 2049

1757 1763 1774 1785 1791 1803 1814 1825 1831 1842 1853 6 2 2 5 7 3 5 1 4 6 2 4
1859 1870 1881 1887 1898 1910 1921 1927 1938 1949 1955
1966 1977 1983 1994 2005 2011 2022 2033 2039 2050

17541765177117821793179918051811182218331839 2 5 5 1 3 6 1 4 7 2 5 7
1850 1861 1867 1878 1889 1895 1901 1907 1918 1929 1935
1946 1957 1963 1974 1985 1991 2002 2013 2019 2030 2041
2047

17551766177717831794180018061817182318341845 3 6 6 2 4 7 2 5 1 3 6 '1
1851 1862 1873 1879 1890 1902 1913 1919 1930 1941 1947
1958 1969 1975 1986 1997 2003 2014 2025 2031 2042

1758 1769 177517861797 1809181518261837 1843 1854 7 3 3 6 1 4 6 2 5 7 3 5
1865 1871 1882 1893 1899 1905 1911 1922 1933 1939 1950
1961 1967 1978 1989 1995 2006 2017 2023 2034 2045 2051

1753175917701781 1787 1798 1810 1821 1827 1838 1849 1 4 4 7 2 5 7 3 6 1 4 6
1855 1866 1877 1883 1894 1900 1906 1917 1923 1934 1945
1951 1962 1973 1979 1990 2001 2007 2018 2029 2035 2046

Leap Years
17641792180418321860188819281956198420122040 7 3 4 7 2 5 7 3 6 1 4 6

1768179618081836186418921904193219601988 2016 1 2 5 7 3 5 1 4 6 2 4
2044

17721812184018681896190819361964199220202048 3 6 7 3 5 1 3 6 2 4 7 2

1776181618441872191219401968199620242052 1 4 5 1 3 6 1 4 7 2 5 7

178018201848 1876 1916 1944 1972 20002028 6 2 3 6 1 4 6 2 5 7 3 5

1756178418241852188019201948197620042032 4 7 1 4 6 2 4 7 3 5 1 3

1760178818281856188419241952198020082036 2 5 6 2 4 7 2 5 1 3 6 1


(supplied by Dr. Denys J. Voaden and taken
from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry).


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Monday 1 Tuesday 1 Wednesday 1 Thursday I Friday I Saturday 1 SUNDAY 1
Tuesday 2 Wednesday 2 Thursday 2 Friday 2 Saturday 2 SUNDAY 2 Monday 2
Wednesday 3 Thursday 3 Friday 3 Saturday 3 SUNDAY 3 Monday 3 Tuesday 3
Thursday 4 Friday 4 Saturday 4 SUNDAY 4 Monday 4 Tuesday 4 Wednesday4
Friday 5 Saturday 5 SUNDAY 5 Monday 5 Tuesday 5 Wednesday5 Thursday 5
Saturday 6 SUNDAY 6 Monday 6 Tuesday 6 Wednesday6 Thursday 6 Friday 8
SUNDAY 7 Monday 7 Tuesday 7 Wednesday7 Thursday 7 Friday 7 Saturday 7
Monday 8 Tuesday 8 Wednesday 8 Thursday 8 Friday 8 Saturday 8 SUNDAY 8
Tuesday 9 Wednesday 9 Thursday 9 Friday 9 Saturday 9 SUNDAY 9 Monday 9
Wednesd. 10 Thursday 10 Friday 10 Saturday 10 SUNDAY 10 Monday 10 Tuesday 10
Thursday 11 Friday 11 Saturday 11 SUNDAY 11 Monday 11 Tuesday 11 Wednesd. 11
Friday 12 Saturday 12 SUNDAY 12 Monday 12 Tuesday 12 Wednesd. 12 Thursday 12
Saturday 13 SUNDAY 13 Monday 13 Tuesday 13 Wednesd. 13 Thursday13 Friday 13
SUNDAY 14 Monday 14 Tuesday 14 Wednesd. 14 Thursday 14 Friday 14 Saturday 14
Monday 15 Tuesday 15 Wednesd. 15 Thursday 15 Friday 15 Saturday 15 SUNDAY 15
Tuesday 16 Wednesd. 16 Thursday 16 Friday 16 Saturday 16 SUNDAY16 Monday 16'
Wednesd. 17 Thursday 17 Friday 17 Saturday 17 SUNDAY 17 Monday 17 Tuesday 17
Thursday 18 Friday 18 Saturday 18 SUNDAY 18 Monday 18 Tuesday 18 Wedneed. 1B
Friday 19 Saturday 19 SUNDAY 19 Monday 19 Tuesday 19 Wednesd. 19 Thursday19
Saturday 20 SUNDAY 20 Monday 20 Tues Wednesd. 20 Thursday 20 Friday 20
SUNDAY 21 Monday 21 Tuesday 21 Wednesd. 21 Thursday 21 Friday 21 Saturday 21
Monday 22 Tuesday 22 Wednesd. 22 Thursday 22 Friday 22 Saturday 22 SUNDAY22
Tuesday 23 Wednesd. 23 Thursday 23 Friday 23 Saturday 23 SUNDAY23 Monday 23
Wednesd. 24 Thursday 24 Friday 24 Saturday 24 SUNDAY 24 Monday 24 Tuesday 24
Thursday 25 Friday 25 Saturday 25 SUNDAY25 Monday 25 Tuesday 25 Wednesd. 25
Friday 26 Saturday 26 SUNDAY 26 Monday 26 Tuesday 26 Wednesd. 26 Thursday 26
Saturday 27 SUNDAY 27 Monday 27 Tuesday 27 Wednesd. 27 Thursday 27 Friday 27
SUNDAY 28 Monday 28 Tuesday 28 Wednesd. 28 Thursday 28 Friday 28 Saturday 28
Monday 29 Tuesday 29 Wednesd. 29 Thursday 29 Friday 29 Saturday 29 SUNDAY29
Tuesday 30 Wednesd. 30 Thursday 30 Friday 30 Saturday 30 SUNDAY30 Monday 30
Wednesd. 31 Thursday 31 Friday 31 Saturday 31 SUNDAY 31 Monday 31 Tuesday 31



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT


POSTAL CENSORSHIP IN IMPERIAL RUSSIA, by Dr.
Peter A:.Michalove and David M. Skipton. Pre-
publication price for this outstanding two-
volume, hardcover, cased limited edition is
US$ 73.49 for U.S. subscribers and US$ 83.49
all others for cash orders postmarked no
later than 31 December 1987 and sent to:


JOHN H. OTTEN, Publisher,
1107 West University Avenue,
URBANA, Illinois 61801-2499,
United States of America.


- 1 ,-- --1 --~ L ___








PHILATELIC SHORTS


DEAR READER: V
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there Io00o *2
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some o .o0
newly acquired item ? o */

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !
i Ar. i- -T, ---- 11 -- -"_- ______
Ah .mndw'- /' ,' i p-', "
Rev. L.L. Tann, a '
Edgbaston, t- dptko enz
Poiiljatlj: .
Birmingham, 1 .'La.
England. k
The illustrat- ..
ions here are .an ."i ... ....."
of an Austrian W "
WWI field post ; .. ;
card, showing
the head of.
Emperor Franz '. -
Josef I at top ''
right and used. .? :7- ./-, "
in an unusual ^ .1,-v-
way. It was ', ir '
addressed by '. ..' ,
Orderly Lindl .
"To the Honour- ..
able Gymnastic
Club 'Jesu',
Vienna 18, ./pii4 ,.: /, '
17 Cottage St." ., :" ".
At top right on the front there is ;L.0- .- -
the official seal in Russian of the -
Station Master at Minsk and, just './/'"/.
to its left, the oval marking of /
the Aleksandrov railway station in .'. ., / /,, '
Minsk, serial letter A and dated
12 May 1915 O.S. Just below that, .
the marking of the Minsk Military -
Censor N.N. Matveev, Finally, at ''-' ---
top left, the censorship cachet of .
the Austro-Hungarian Red Cross in -- /..:",
Vienna. The message in German on. o
the back explains it all:-
"Russland, 24/5. 1915. *
Heil zuvor! Liebe Turnbruder! .
Teilen Euch mit, dass wir drei
Turnbruder am 16/5 bei dem Gefecht ..'''.'.";.- .-:-. ,
72 e
S. _







von Opadow in russische Gefangenenschaft geraten sind und uns jetzt auf
der Fahrt (wahrscheinlich nach Siberien befinden).
Kleghans ist leider bei einer anderen Partie. Die Behandlung and
SVerpflegung ist gut. Mit den herzlichsten Heilgrtssen,
Eure getreuen, Lindl, Schuller."
( Russia, 24 May 1915 N.S.
Hail, already, dear gymnastic brethren!
We three gymnastic brothers inform you that we were taken prisoners of
war by the Russians on 16 May in the fight at Opat6w and we are now
probably on the way to Siberia.
Kleghans is unfortunately in another group. The treatment and food are
good. With heartiest greetings, Your loyal
Lindl, Schuller :two signatures:).
An interesting item, methinks!


Arnold Meckel, VILLEBONNE-sur-YVE'


-C--...






~" *


By the way, the two 10-kopek
Arms type stamps are in the
light blue shade and
cancelled at the Petrograd
First Despatch Office on
2 April 1915 O.S.


The registered letter
shown here has a superb
wax seal in perfect
condition and inscribed
"Petrograd Military
Censorship". The sender
was Prince Shcherbatov,
at the Mytnaya (Toll)
Embankment in Petrograd.
One may wonder what
connection there was
between a Russian prince
and the ordinary
French soldier Charles
Godard in Montelimar.


. ,
,. .*, .*
- *1.- i 9


























F4

E-4
-0
t9





..... ..


Marcel Lamoureux, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A.


The illustration above is of an unusual Double Letter Card with Reply
Paid (!) that I have recently acquired. It is printed in dark blue on
buff stock and, as it also incorporates the Imperial Russian double-
headed eagle on the faces of both parts of the card, it must have
issued by authority of some postal district in the Empire. Note the
special boxes on the fronts for affixing the requisite postage. Does
anyone know from where this double letter card originates and do used
copies exist?


G.G. Werbizky, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A.

---- The enlarged illustration here is of an
08AR listed variety of SIBERIA during the Civil War.
It consists of the "3/rublya" surcharge on the
7-kop. Arms type stamp in the Admiral Kolchak
issue, but with the numeral "3" missing! It has
been authenticated by Dr. R.J. Ceresa, who states
.that "I have a reference to a missing '3', but
9 had presumed that it was the variety from the
I -bottom of the sheet, with the surcharge displaced
'.upwards, i.e. 'rublya' at top and no '3'. It is
definitely the equivalent of the missing '5' of
'35'. This raises the point as to whether the '1
SProuble' exists similarly and was this a deliberate
0 er r error formation which was later corrected. The
:missing '3' must have been corrected, as I am
-, sure the missing '5' was"

7A *


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7.77777717 7






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REVIEW OF





LITERATURE









ROSSICA 108/109 for 1986. The journal of The Rossica Society of Russian
Philately. A magazine of 160 pages, obtainable from the secretary, Dr.
Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice St., Falls Church, Va., U.S.A. 22043.

This large double issue contains an obituary of John Lloyd by Prof. H.
L. Weinert; Life of the Society and its "Colonies"; Life of the
Ukrainian Philatelic & Numismatic Society; 10th. Anniversary Set of
1927 and 1937 Pushkin Set, both excellent articles by G. Shalimoff;
Riding the Post Roads in 19th. Century Russia, by P. Shott; Private
Registry Books, Soviet R.R. Mailcar Routes, Imperial Russia's
Temporary POs Addendum IV and Rossica Library Acquisitions, all by D.
Skipton; Early Russian Philatelic Journals and Writers & 19th. Century
Russian Postal Ministers and Officials, by Ian Roberts; From the History
of Philately in the USSR & The Latest Rossica Journal, both by R.
Polchaninov; Collecting Russian Railway Mail, by P.J. Campbell; Origin
of Airmail in Russia, by A. Shabunin; Corrections, by K.L. Wilson;
Member-to-Member Adlets; Notes from Collectors and The Rossica
Bookshelf. There are also various interesting snippets, translated by
D. Skipton from the Russian and scattered through this fine issue.

IIORTA(POCHTA), Issue No. 2 for June 1987. A 50-page journal of .The
Australia and New Zealand Society of Russian Philately, edited by Dr.
A.R. Marshall and obtainable from the secretary, Terry Archer, 313
Mahurangi East Road, Snell's Beach, Warkworth, New Zealand. The annual
subscription, including membership in the Society, is NZ$30.00.

This issue contains an Editorial; Correspondence Russia to Australasia;
American Relief to Russia 1922-1923 (the best treatment we have ever
seen of this subject), Russian Battleships & Russian Foreign Letter
Postal Rates 1916-1924, all by A.R. Marshall; 1909-1920 Arms Types on
Wove Paper, by Diana Johnson; New Issue Chronicle and finishing with
Literature Reviews and a note on the St. Petersburg Poste Restante
service (General Delivery) in 1856. All in all, a distinct improvement
on their first journal and a first class effort by our colleagues Down
Under. Keep up the good work!

riOYTA(POCHTA); the same title but this time the journal of the Russia/
USSR Study Group in the Federal Republic of Germany. Issued in a new
* format, with the 7-rouble definitive with thunderbolts, enlarged and in
natural colours on the front cover. Now edited by Pierre Aerni, Burgstr.
4, CH-8604 VOLKETSWIL, Switzerland, who apparently has a Russian wife,
Nina. All enquiries to the president, Wolfgang Nietsch, Spessartstr. 5,






D-5300 BONN-1, Federal Republic of Germany.


No.42 for March 1987 has 48 pages and contains a message from the
president; Society report & announcements; A Chat about Soviet
Envelopes, by J. Schneider; Soviet Field Post Markings in WWIr, by V.
Pantyukhin, trans. by Nina Aerni; Druzhnaya, by the late E.S. Anasir;
Rescue of the "Mikhail Somov", by G. Tr8gel; AEF in Siberia 1918-1920,
by H. Taitl; Russian Postal Service from German Archive for Posts and
Telegraphs in 1890; Unofficial Postmaster Perforations, trans. by
Pierre Aerni and adlets.

No.43 for August 1987 contains 44 pages, with a presidential message,
Society report & announcements, incl. for a Bilateral Exhibition with
the USSR at Donetsk in the Ukraine 22 May to 5 June 1988; Soviet Ship
Mail, by A. Gottspen; DERULUFT, by Hans Kupec; Estonian Mail in Summer
of 1941, by A. Lepp&; Enquiries from Collectors; Note on a Soviet
Miniature Sheet, by W. Nagl; Follow-Up on Soviet Envelopes, by K.W.
Geier; Railway Theme on Soviet Postal Stationery, by K. Schauritsch;
Notes on FDCs; Russian WWI Mutes on Polish Territory, by S. Petriuk;
German Consular Mail from Tiflis in 1911, by H. Kupec; Further extract
from the German Archive for Posts & Telegraphs in 1890; Literature
Reviews and finishing with adlets.
A very professional job has been done on both issues, reflecting great
credit on the editor and his wife.

SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER (SOVIET COLLECTOR) No.24. A 168-page "sbornik"
or collection of articles in paperback format, edited by the All-Union
Society of Philatelists and issued by "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers in
Moscow in an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 1 rouble.

This number caters to philatelists, card collectors, numismatists,
badge and currency enthusiasts and closes with book reviews. The
subjects covered are Soviet Field Post Markings, by M. Kabanov;
Imperial Russian Postal Rates, by B. Kaminskii; Russian Steamship Posts
(excellent!), by N. Mandrovskii; WWI Mute Markings, by A. Levin; SPB
WWI Censor Markings, by M. Kosoi; First Soviet Airmail Stamp, by H-J.
Meyer; Tuvan Postal History, incl. a garbled reference to your editor,
by 0. Sel'nikov; 1940 & 1948 Olympics, by V. Furman; Bolshevik Labels,
by B. Chernyakov; Pyatigorsk on Cards, by L. Pol'skoi; Pushkin on
Medals, by A. Gdalin & D. Robinson; Russian Coins of Middle Ages, by A.
Mel'nikova; Soviet Commem. Medals, by A. Shaten; Pre-War Badges, by M.
Gleizer; Best Shock Worker Badge, by V. Shcherbakov; Factory School
Badge, by M. Saukke; Air Fleet Labels, by Yu. Krasin & Yu. Turchinskii;
Two Proof Tokens of Revolutionary Period, by A. Shishkin and An Aborted
Philatelic Lottery, by V. Terebov. Some useful information in this
issue, but the half-tone illustrations could stand improvement.

OOST EUROPA FILATELIE (EASTERN EUROPE PHILATELY). The quarterly organ
of the Filatelistische Contactgroep Oost Europa, printed in Dutch and
edited by our subscriber, Ivo Steyn. All enquiries to the secretary,
A. Welvaart, Boomstede 424, NL 3608 BE MARSEN, Holland.

The January 1987 issue has C.C.A. van der Wilde describing a WWI card
from Roumania with a transit postmark of SPB 4.12.16 and Addenda &
Errata to Krag Machine Postmarks of Russia, compared by the editor.
The March 1987 number details the finding by R. Hillesum of an SPB 4th.
Despatch Office marking. The Sept. 1987 issue has the 1918 Chain
Breakers & Romanov Ship Letter to Helsinki, off-loaded at Stettin
20.7.14, both by Rev. Tann; Postal History of Tuva, by Bas van der Plas
and Cash Frankings in White Siberia by Ivo Steyn (trans. on pp.60-62).
76





These issues are highly interesting for those who read Dutch & German!

HET BALTISCHE GEBIED (THE BALTIC AREA) Double No.9-10 for July 1987 and
the organ of the Dutch philatelic group of the same name. A spiral-
bound journal of 62 pages, available from the secretary of the group:
W.R. MULLER, Einsteinlaan 23, NL 2641 ZL PIJNACKER, Holland.

This double issue contains Latvian Machine Postmarks, by N. Jakimovs;
Latvian Postal Rates, by Joop van Heeswijk; Avalov-Bermondt Stamps, by
Wim Muller magnificentt!); Latvian Soviet Republic 1940-1941, Riga-
Ddnaburg Railway Timetable & Firewood Freight Notice 1861-62, all by
Ruud W. van Wijnen; Notes on 1919 Bogus Talsi Postmark of Estonia and
Substituted Stamp on 1939 Latvian Card, to finish with Interned Polish
Soldiers' Mail in Lithuania 1939-40, by J. Kucharski and R.M. Lapas.
Once again, very interesting for those who can read Dutch and German!

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS, published by John Barefoot Ltd.,York, England, with
research contributions by A. Hall, J. Michelson, B.K. Snell & V. Tufts.
This is the second (1987) edition of 36 pages and is now available from
the CSRP Journal Fund, as listed immediately below.

The unusual first stamps of Latvia, the 5-kop. perf. & imperf. of 1918
have always been popular, as they were printed from lithographic stones
on the backs of German General Staff maps. All facets are covered:
proofs, varieties, plating, map types, listing of map numbers, marginal
inscriptions, cancels, covers, reprints and forgeries. What more could
one want when excellent illustrations accompany the text?
*

THE JOURNAL FUND

Orders should be made payable to the CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto,
Ont. Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles are unfortunately sold out.

RUSSISCHE POSTCENSUUR 1914-1918 (Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918),
by Antoine Speeckaert. Fascinating and easy to follow, with many facts.
Only 100 copies printed. VERY LIMITED SUPPLY! Price postpaid US$ 17.00.

SIBERIA: POSTMARKS AND POSTAL HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE PERIOD, by
P.E. Robinson. a 156-page spiral-bound book in large format, copiously
illustrated and a magnificent work of reference. Already sold out from
the publisher and WE HAVE THE LAST FEW COPIES.Price postpaid US$ 13.00.

LATVIAN MAP STAMPS of December 1918, embodying the latest facts by
four noted researchers and a great subject. Price postpaid US$ 5.50.

CATALOGUE OF THE FRG-USSR BILATERIAL PHILATELIC EXHIBITION 10-12 Oct.
1986 in Bochum. A 62-page booklet in German and Russian. Contains a
fine 10-page article by H. Meyer on the first Soviet airmail stamp,
plus "Collecting Russia" by Prof. Richard Zimmerl and an insert of the
J.S. Bach Soviet souvenir sheet. Interesting! Price postpaid US$ 3.00.
LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow State
University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian grammar, many
phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual for "us monolingual
slobs" as one of our readers put it. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.

SOVIET 4-KOPEK STAMPED ENVELOPE COMMEMORATING "CAPEX-78" HERE IN TORONTO,
CANADA AND WITH SPECIAL EXHIBITION CANCEL IN RUSSIAN. An interesting
souvenir, of which we now have a new supply and which will be mailed
flat anywhere in the world by airmail for US$ 2.00.
77








THE COLLECTORS' CORNER

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or -
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your a
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line '2
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.
FOR a book on Aleksandr Siloti (1863-1945), the Russian pianist,
conductor and composer, I would appreciate hearing from anyone who
studied with him privately or at Juilliard School, heard him play or
conduct in concert, or owns any piano rolls he made in the early 1930s.
CHARLES BARBER, Music Department, Stanford University, Calif.94305 USA.

NEED following Soviet stamps for Judaica theme: Scott 373-4 Zamenhoff;
515 Volodarskii;516 Uritskii; 531 Sverdlov; 588 Khaledskaya; 862
Dovator; 1011-12 Mechnikov; 1745 Rubinstein; 1880 Heine; 2028 Rosa
Luxemburg; 2606 Yaskin; 2803 Mechnikov; 2815 Steklov; 2893 Gamarnik;
2971A Shternberg; 3045 Sverdlov; 3187 Yakir; 3388-89 Sverdlov; 3510
Zevin; 3557 Uritskii; 3571 Volynov; 4870 Yoffe. Outright purchase or
in exchange for commercially used Soviet covers of 1950s-1960s.
SIDNEY MICHAELSON, 3425 Mountain View Ave.,Los Angeles,Calif.90066 USA.

WANTED: Used Abroads and Dotted Numerals on cover. Buy or trade.
Send description.
M.R. RENFRO, P.O. Box 2268, Santa Clara, California 95055, USA.

WANTED: Russian revenues, fiscal, vignettes, labels or Cinderella
stamps, plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bill-of-exchange cut-
outs and any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods:
Imperial, Civil War or Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI, 21 W.12th.St., Huntington Station,N.Y.,11746, USA.


SPECIAL NOTES:

Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!

The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.




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