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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Exhibiting internat...
 Correspondence with Canada
 East of Russia, west of Japan:...
 "AUS Russland"
 "AUS Russland" entry markings
 Accountancy markings on pre-UPU...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 The presence of the Italian navy...
 Warsaw-St. Petersburg railway...
 The "Holy War" update
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner














Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Exhibiting internationally
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 4
        Page 5
    East of Russia, west of Japan: The Far Eastern Republic, an overview
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    "AUS Russland"
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    "AUS Russland" entry markings
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Accountancy markings on pre-UPU mail
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The presence of the Italian navy in the Black Sea 1942-1944
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Warsaw-St. Petersburg railway cancellations
        Page 66
        Page 67
    The "Holy War" update
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Review of literature
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    The journal fund
        Page 75
    The collectors' corner
        Page 76
Full Text























WST- R IEi


Nv N o. 19 9
Nov., 19BS


.K --.


Printed in Canada


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lvMkiIHK

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER" No. 19.


NOVEMBER 1986.


CONTENTS:


Editorial: Exhibiting Internationally
Correspondence with Canada
East of Russia, West of Japan: The Far
Eastern Republic, an Overview
"AUS RUSSLAND"
"AUS RUSSLAND" Entry Markings
Accountancy Markings on pre-UPU Mail
Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
The Presence of the Italian Navy in the
Black Sea 1942-1944
Warsaw-St. Petersburg Railway Cancellations
The "Holy War" Update
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner.


David Jay
Ivo Steyn
Leo De Clercq
James Van der Linden
James Van der Linden
Alex. Artuchov
Luciano Buzzetti
Dr. James Mazepa
Various authors


There are, in addition, special announcements on pp. 4, 20, 22, 69
and at the bottom of p. 75.
COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY; Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom.

The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.


TOST-RIDIEKR


'I \





















EDITORIAL
EXHIBITING INTERNATIONALLY

The display of collections in our area at the international level has
been rather spotty lately and on a limited scale. Of course, the current
international political situation has not helped. For instance, there
were no exhibits from Soviet philatelists at AMERIPEX-86, but we will be
having some for CAPEX-87, to be held here next year in Toronto. If it
were not for recent displays by outstanding specialists such as Eng.
Zbigniew Mikulski of Switzerland, Michel Liphschutz of France and Dr.
Richard Casey of England, the picture would have been bleak indeed.

Not only that, but many of the areas in our sphere of collecting are
hardly, if ever, entered. When the late Yevhen Kobylanskyj was still
alive, he could be depended upon to exhibit Ukrainian tridents and gain
worthy awards. There should be no fear that the material may not be
appreciated, as modern international juries contain specialists with a
very wide range of interests and knowledge.

Specialised studies of the stamps and postal history of Armenia, Georgia,
Azerbaijan and the Transcaucasian Federation, the Far Eastern Republic,
the many foreign occupations of Russia, the Postmaster Provisionals, the
Inflation Period, Russian and Soviet Airmails, just to name a few areas,
would all be suitable subjects for international display.

An important point is to write up one's exhibit in at least two languages,
so as to maximise comprehension by the international jury. In the case of
your editor's Postal History of the Carpatho-Ukraine, shown recently at
STOCKHOLMIA-86, it was described in Czech, German, Hungarian, Russian and
Ukrainian (not all on each page!). That was probably overkill and he will
tone it down for another Ukrainian entry at a future international show.

In short, it is up to our subscribers to make the effort. We know that
many of them possess material of international calibre and they should
let the philatelic world know about it! The philately of our areas would
benefit greatly thereby.
*

STOCKHOLMIA-86.

Several of our subscribers participated in this international exhibition,
held from 28.8 to 7.9.1986 and the pertinent results are now given here:-





LARGE GOLD


Eng. S. Kraul:
Eng. Z. Mikulski:
B. Stenshinskii:


GOLD:

A. Cronin:


M. Dobin:
V. Hurt:
N. Jakimovs:
B. Kaminskii:
A. Linnard:
H. von Hofmann:
I, Pettersson:

LARGE VERMEIL:
S. Andersen:
A. Levin:
Dr. G. Torrey:


Latvian Forerunners.
The Polish Kingdom 1857-1870 (+ Felicitations).
The Post in Russia.


Postal History of the Carpatho-Ukraine
(+ Felicitations).
SPB Postal History (+ Special Prize).
Estonian Prephilately and Postmarks.
Riga Prephilatelic Markings.
Russia 1808-1883.
Estonia 17th. to 19th. Centuries.
Latvian Forerunners.
Livonia & Estonia.


Russia Specialised.
WWI Mute Cancellations (+ Felicitations).
Russian Used Abroads.


SVERMEIL:


A. Gdalin:
M. Kabanov:
V. Kent:
N. Mandrovskii:
A. Wasastjerna:
LARGE SILVER:

1J. Mors:
M. Shmuely:
"Zbigniew":


Pushkin theme.
Russia 1921-1928.
180 years of Wenden and District.
Lenin theme.
Russia 1857-1917.


Latvia: Tsarist, Independent & Occupation Eras.
Russian Civil War.
Congress Kingdom of Poland.


SILVER:


E. Ojaste:


Censored Mail of Estonia.


SILVER-BRONZE:

A. Presterud:


Russia 1857-1933.


Two noted specialists were on the International Jury: Per-Anders
Erixon and Michel Liphschutz, who showed "Russia 1812-1912" and
"First Issues of Russia 1858" respectively in the Jury Collections
(non-competitive).
SPECIAL NOTES:

Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are fully
engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have time to answer
individual requests or queries. Where such questions are of general
interest to the readership, they will be taken up in subsequent issues
of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us!

*The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The Post-
Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily those of
the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.






CORRESPONDENCE

WITH CANADA
r*



"Corresprdenoe with Canada" is a regular feature KaH Z>
of this journal. Anye possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerao copy of the itnm, along with sare expla-
natory text to the Editor.


TWO INTERESTING COVERS SENT TO CANADA

by David Jay

The illustrations on the opposite page refer firstly to a cover with
21-kop. postage (Editorial Comment: possibly registered?), sent to the
well-known dealer Henry Hechler in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It left St.
Petersburg on 16/28 June 1884, passed through New York PAID ALL on 11
July and arrived in Halifax on 14 July. It appears that all the St.
Petersburg cancels are of the 5th. Expeditsiya, but with sizes and
series numbers differing for the double circles from those described
by Heinrich Imhof. The lower right cancel is in red, but may not be
from the same office.
The second item is an 1894 10-kop. franking to Andreas Lilge at the
Dominion Immigration Officein Winnipeg, Manitoba (blue seal on the
front). It left the post office in Goroshki, Volyn province in the
Ukraine on 11/23 February 94,passed through New York on 9 March and
reached Winnipeg on the 13th. The recipient or someone else wrote the
date of receipt on the back in German.

OBITUARY
MIROSLAW BOJANOWICZ, an outstanding expert of the stamps and postal
history of Poland, passed away on 9 May 1986, after a long and
seriously incapacitating illness. He served with distinction as a.
judge and commissioner for the United Kingdom at several international
exhibitions, was invited to sign the Roll of Distinguished
Philatelists in 1966 and awarded the Medal of the Philatelic Congress
of Great Britain in 1975. To collectors in our sphere, he was known as
the author of the monumental work "The Kingdom of Poland: Poland No. 1
and associated Postal History". In spite of the polonised version of
his name, he was originally Miroslav Bojanovic, a Bosnian from
Yugoslavia, who had migrated to Poland. He was in Warsaw when the
Germans struck on 1 September 1939. Your editor knew him personally
and always found him to be a gracious and helpful philatelist. His
presence in Polish and Russian philately will be sorely missed.







TWO INTE STING COVERS SENT TO CANADA.


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EAST OF RUSSIA, WEST OF JAPAN: THE FAR EASTERN REPUBLIC, AN OVERVIEW

by Ivo Steyn.

1. INTRODUCTION

I have often heard the year 1920 mentioned as when the Russian Civil War
came to an end. Certainly, that was the year that saw the final defeat
of the Wrangelian remnants of the Volunteer Army, undoubtedly the most
dangerous threat to the new-born Soviet state.But,if we define the Civil
War as the struggle between the Red Army and the various White Armies,
supported by the Interventionist forces, then the war did not end until
October 1922, with the evacuation of the last White forces and their
Japanese sponsors from the port of Vladivostok. Curiously enough, this
event heralded both the reunification and dissolution of a state: The
Far Eastern Republic finally regained its unity with the eviction of the
Whites and the Japanese, but the reason for its existence had left with
the Japanese as well. And so, the most obscure of the Secessionist
States dissolved itself into the RSFSR in November 1922.

What first attracted me to the FER was that enormous obscurity; indeed,
very few people outside the well-informed circle of Russophile
philatelists have heard of this state. In fact, when I spoke to the dean
of the Contemporrary History Department of a Dutch university, he
confessed that he had never heard of it. Of course, the near total lack
of literature about this subject is the culprit here. Apart from a rare
book by H.K. Norton (published in 1923 and quite useless to a historian)
and the odd brief mention in general in works about the Russian Civil
War, the subject has lain dormant for decades. The Vladivostok side of
things was examined exhaustively and excellently in 1975 by C.F. Smith
in his book "Vladivostok under Red and White Rule" (still available, I
think), but most of the events in Chita are shrouded in mystery.

An indication of the obscurity of the FER is the fact that most major
catalogues print slightly, mostly or completely incorrect summaries of
this period in history to liven up the listings. The Michel catalogue
must be the worst offender, but even the respectable Stanley Gibbons
publication has let a few errors slip through. This article is an
attempt to set the record straight on a few historical matters, to
connect history to philately a little more intimately and to highlight
areas where more information is desperately needed.

2. 1918-1920: KOLCHAK AND THE CIVIL WAR

Socialism initially got off to a running start in Siberia after the 1917
revolutions. Soviets sprang up in all the major cities and the future of
Communism in Eastern Siberia looked rosy. Then, in a matter of months,
the Soviets were dissolved, the Bolsheviks, SRs and Mensheviks banished
to a partisan existence in the taiga and a number of reactionary cut-
throats put in control of the area. The reason for this political U-
turn: the Czechoslovak coup along the Trans-Siberian Railway, which
triggered the landing of the Entente (mostly Japanese) interventionist
armies. While a small American force guarded the Chinese Eastern
Railway, the Japanese and their henchmen controlled most of the rest of
Eastern Siberia.

And those henchmen were a nasty bunch. A murderer called Grigorii
Seminov exercised a reign of terror in the Chita area between the
summer of 1918 and his final eviction from Chita in October 1920.
6







Supported by the Japanese at every turn, he refused to acknowledge
anyone's authority and his strategic position athwart the railway
allowed him to exact a heavy toll on all cargo transported to the White
armies in Central Siberia. Semenov escaped to Manchuria in 1920, where he
was not caught by the Soviet Army until 1945. The Soviet government gave
him a trial in Moscow and hanged him in 1946.

Ivan Kalmykov terrorised and murdered in Khabarovsk until his downfall in
February 1920. He was shot trying to escape from his Chinese captors.
Dauria had Baron Roman von Ungern-Shternberg to worry about. And, in most
of the rest of Eastern Siberia, hundreds of partisan and bandit bands
made life difficult and cheap. While this area fell under the rule of
Kolchak, his representatives did his cause more harm than good. His first
choice, Pavel Ivanov-Rinov, had to be recalled in May 1919 due to
"excessive cruelty", but his successor, General Rozanov, was no
improvement. Incidentally, Semenov, Kalmykov and Ivanov-Rinov all held
the title of Ataman of the Trans-Baikal, Ussuri and Siberian Cossacks
respectively.

The only philatelic trace of the Kolchak period is, of course, the set of
ten stamps, usually described as the "Kolchak Surcharges". I have my
doubts about this designation. Let us summarise the facts:-

1. The Kolchak surcharges first appeared in 1919, probably late in spring.
2. The kopek values were the first to appear. My guess would be that the
perforated 35/2 kop. surcharge was the first to come out.
3. The high values did not appear until much later. Used copies all have
1920 dates.

* I now want to draw your attention to another phenomenon:-

4. The high values never reached Eastern Siberia. The 50-kop. stamps
probably never got there as well.

I base this assumption on the lack of rouble values with Eastern Siberian
postmarks, the fact that they were not around when the FER started
surcharging every stamp in sight and the indirect evidence of some of the
covers illustrated at the end of this article, which seem to indicate
that postal rates were often in round figures (2 roubles for an ordinary
letter going abroad and 4 roubles for a registered letter?) and a
distressing lack of suitable stamps. These four points lead me to another
supposition: the "Kolchak" rouble surcharges did not appear until 1920
and are thus not Kolchak issues, but issues of the Soviet government,
which had ousted Kolchak from Omsk on 14 November 1919, although the
issue may have been prepared by the Kolchak government.

(EDITORIAL COMMENT: Issues of the White or nationalist governments, which
continued to be used in the early Soviet period, have been given the apt
name of "trophy stamps" by Soviet philatelists).

As for the Kolchak surcharges themselves, I can add the 3r./7k. in a
horizontal pair, with the stamp at right lacking the surcharge, to the
list of varieties in the brilliant book by Dr. Ray Ceresa. Also, on the
5-kop. surcharge, position No. 36 on the sheet has a constant flaw: a
triangular chunk missing from the right side of the "O".

O 3. 1920: AFTER KOLCHAK

With the collapse of the Kolchak army in late 1919 and his execution on
7







6 February 1920, the Far East reverted to its socialist state again.
General Rozanov was run out of Vladivostok on 31 January and, in late
February, White authority had been dismantled all over Eastern Siberia,
with the notable exception of Chita, where Semenov continued to lurk.
Many governments sprang up to take control. A government of sorts
evolved out of the local Zemstvo Board in Vladivostok and environs.
This caretaker government under S.A. Medvedev was heavily influenced by
the Bolsheviks, but the continuing occupation of this area by the
Japanese ensured that it trod very lightly! Khabarovsk also became
Socialist after the downfall of Kalmykov and an openly Bolshevik
government ruled in Blagoveshchensk under M.A. Trilisser (you may
remember him as Dzerzhinskii's sinister aide in the book "Reilly, Ace of
Spies" !). Chita had Sem&nov, but the Japanese were already thinking of
withdrawing support. Finally, a congress of partisans convened in
Verkhne-Udinsk to decide the fate of Eastern Siberia.

Around this time, a young Bolshevik named Krasnoshchekov (a pseudonym
meaning"red-cheeked"; his real name was Tobelson !) suggested that a
democratic buffer state be formed in Eastern Siberia, to prevent open
conflict between the Soviet state and the Japanese forces. He managed to
get Lenin's approval for this scheme and also, with considerable
difficulty,the approval of the partisan congress in Verkhne-
Udinsk. And so, the Far Eastern Republic was proclaimed on 6 April 1920,

It was then only one of the many governments claiming authority over
Eastern Siberia, but the fact that it had the approval of Moscow, not to
mention a sizeable partisan army, soon assured its success. Both
Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk acknowledged FER authority during the
summer of 1920 and, after the removal of Sem&nov from Chita in October,
most of Eastern Siberia was united under the FER flag. The exception, of
course, was Vladivostok. During a conference in Chita in October and
November 1920, representatives of the Medvedev government quarrelled,
argued, negotiated and whined about the terms of the incorporation of
Vladivostok. After many false starts, an agreement was signed on 12
December: Vladivostok would acknowledge FER authority, the Medvedev
government would be dissolved, but the city would retain a local
government to allow it to deal with the Japanese. "Mistakes made in
Chita will have to be paid for in Vladivostok" was the reason for this
arrangement. And so the FER was united. The Medvedev government was
dissolved and a Bolshevik government under Antonov succeeded it.

Philatelically, the incorporation of Vladivostok was signalled by the
so-called DVR surcharges. But, before I address the question of where
and when these were used, it is necessary to talk about the matter of
currencies. The Civil War did not do the rouble any good. The process of
inflation is visible in the Kolchak surcharges and in the Semenov
surcharges of 1920, as well as in the Blagoveshchensk issue. Many kinds
of bank notes were in circulation: rare Kerenskii notes, virtually
worthless Kolchak money, local currencies, the odd Soviet rouble and the
new FER rouble which, equal in value to the plummetting Soviet rouble
by treaty, was not very stable.

The Medvedev government in Vladivostok decided on a currency reform
early in the summer of 1920. All the old notes were redeemable for new
ones, apparently printed by the American Bank Note Company, at a rate of
200 to 1, putting the new currency on a gold rouble basis. Alas, due to
Japanese sabotage and general lack of confidence, the new rouble was
soon as worthless as the old. But I suspect that the postal rates were








kept in this new stable currency, even after it had degenerated into yet
another inflated rouble. Perhaps the various "rotten roubles" (to use a
phrase of Keynes) were exchanged at daily rates when a piece of mail was
* sent. I have not seen covers from Vladivostok with dates between July
and December 1920, so I cannot give an answer here. However, it is
worth noting that the FER government in Chita did not switch to a gold
rouble basis until 16 May 1921.

Back to the DVR surcharges, which were produced in Vladivostok. If we
realise that Vladivostok did not end its vicious quarrel with the FER
government in Chita until 12 December 1920, then it becomes obvious that
these surcharges cannot have appeared before that date. A recent Swiss
auction featured a reliable looking cover with a 5 January 1921 date,
neatly confining the span of issue to a three-week period in December
1920. The only trouble with this reasoning is that there is a recorded
strike of the Vladivostok "g" canceller on a DVR surcharge with a 28
November date. However, this canceller (along with the Vladivostok
Telegraph "d" cancel) has been seen as an obvious backdated cancellation
by favour, so I think we should calmly ignore this example. Sorry, Ray!

As to the exact area of use, I have never seen or heard of DVR surcharges
surcharges used outside the immediate environs of Vladivostok. In the
rest of the FER area, people were obviously still using inflated
roubles, as testified by the rare entire of the Blagoveshchensk issue
illustrated in Ray Ceresa's book. After the gold rouble had made headway
in the rest of the FER, things became somewhat less clear. More about
this later. There is another reason why the DVR surcharges could not
have been distributed very far: the railway network in the Far East was
as good as shattered. In an FER government survey in October 1920, no
less than 400 destroyed bridges and tunnels were noted, the most
important being the large steel bridge over the Amur at Khabarovsk.
Under such conditions, the distribution of surcharged stamps must have
been almost impossible.

4. 1921: PVP vs. FER

The fall of Semenov's White enclave in the Trans-Baikal oblast' had
unforeseen consequences. Apart from Sem&nov's own men, Chita had also
harboured the remnants of Kolchak's most dangerous army group, that of
General Vladimir Kappel, who had died of frostbite during the long
retreat of his troops across Siberia. The "Kappelites" mostly came from
the Ufa area and could best be described as moderate liberals. After
the fall of Chita, these men fled to Manchuria and from there, after
much political confusion about their entry, to the Vladivostok area,
concentrating in various camps in and around Vladivostok and Nikol'sk-
Ussuriisk. The political climate in that area thus slid rather sharply
to the right early in 1921 and the Antonov government was anathema to
many of these men. A coup was only a matter of time. It came on 26 May
1921.

Before the coup, another philatelic event took place. That was the issue
of what I call the Vladivostok Arms stamps, four look-alikes of the old
Imperial stamps, with the Romanov eagle replaced by the Kerenskii eagle
and the text FAR EASTERN REPUBLIC inscribed around the coat of arms.
From the cover illustrated at the end of this article, it seems that
these stamps were issued no later then 31 March 1921. And, as I have
said elsewhere, that is rather puzzling. The date means that these
stamps were issued by the Antonov government, a virtually Bolshevik








organisation. Bolsheviks issuing stamps with the Kerenskii eagle?
Look-alikes of the Tsarist Arms stamps? Something is wrong here. Perhaps
the stamps were approved by the Medvedev government, which considered
itself a mere caretaker of the only legal government and its Constituent
Assembly. Perhaps the FAR EASTERN REPUBLIC text was added later, as Ray
Ceresa has described essays without this text. I really do not know the
answer. Does anyone? The region in which these stamps were used was
again the Vladivostok area. The coup of May 1921 certainly prevented
their distribution across the rest of the FER. And the fact that they
were stamps in gold kopeks, at a time when the rest of the FER was still
using "rotten roubles", seems to imply that they were actually meant to
be local stamps, for use only in the Vladivostok gold rouble area.

With a little aid from the Japanese and using to good effect the threat
of a Sem&nov coup, that was the way by which the Merkulov brothers,
Spiridon and Nikolai, seized control of the Vladivostok area on 26 May
1921. A new governmental set-up was organised along Imperial Russian
lines, with a virtually powerless parliament. Spiridon Merkulov became
head of state and Nikolai Minister of Foreign Affairs. The new
government assumed the name of "Provisional Government of the Priamur",
or PVP for short. The army was placed in Kappelite hands and Semenov was
kept at a safe distance.

How much area did this PVP control? That is a question which has
generated some wildly incorrect answers. The Michel catalogue mentions
"two provinces" and even implies that the whole of the FER was overrun!
In reality, as shown by C.F. Smith, the PVP controlled the extreme south
of the Primorskaya Oblast' (Vladivostok and Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk),
stretches of the coastline to the north and south of Vladivostok, as
well as the Ussuri railway, but only as far north as Spassk! A tiny
state indeed! Even in nearby Ugol'naya, PVP authority was feeble and, in
the Suchan mining district, it was virtually non-existent. As a result,
the use of the Vladivostok Arms stamps outside the city itself is rare;
Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk, a few places along the southern coast such as
Barabash and Novokievsk and that is about all the cancels you are liable
to find on these stamps. Since the numbers issued run into the hundreds
of thousands, covers franked with DVR surcharges must be relatively rare
by comparison: the Vladivostok Arms stamps were the "workhorses" of the
PVP.

The reign-of the Merkulovs was not very popular. They were frequently
accused of, and occasionally caught at, pocketing government funds.
Also, the partisans made life in the cities far from easy by regularly
dynamiting the railway. It was decided in late 1921 that something
should be done to curtail partisan activity and, in a series of brisk
military operations, the area south of Lake Khanka and the Suchan
mining district were cleared of partisans. The momentum of this clean-
up operation was such that it was decided to carry the struggle to the
north. They attacked the area north of Spassk in December, which was
held by troops of the FER government in Chita. The Far Eastern Republic
now had its very own Civil War. With surprising ease, the PVP troops
took Ussuri Station, Iman and, on 22 December, Khabarovsk. It was not
to be a lasting achievement. The People's Revolutionary Army of the
FER, reinforced with units of the Red Army, counter-attacked on 28
December. Khabarovsk fell again into FER hands on 14 February. The PVP
troops tried to make a stand at Bikin Station, but were defeated on 27
February. They hurriedly retreated to their original domain and the
Japanese prevented the FER troops from following them. Thus ended the
Winter Offensive of the PVP.
10








Another doomed operation was the seizure of Kamchatka by a Cossack band
in September. The Whites and their leader Bochkarev made so many
enemies among the population that they were driven out the following
* summer. Theoretically, both the Winter Offensive and the Kamchatka
Operation may have left philatelic traces in the form of Vladivostok
Arms stamps (or even DVR surcharges), with postmarks from the
appropriate places and times but, if they exist, they must be very rare
indeed.

5. 1921-1922: MEANWHILE, BACK IN CHITA

The secession of the PVP was viewed as being fairly convenient. It
confined the continuing problem of the Japanese occupation to that area.
Incidentally, our knowledge of the goings-on in Chita is very
incomplete. We only know that Krasnoshchekov, after a 1-year period as
president, was recalled to Moscow late in 1921, possibly due to
dictatorial tendencies. He does not figure in the remaining history of
the FER and was to die during the great purges of the 30's, after a
succession of minor jobs.

Since the Chita government now needed new stamps in gold kopeks after
the return to the gold rouble standard in May 1921, a new issue was
prepared. In spite of an alleged issue date of December 1921, the
earliest known used copies are dated April 1922.:It is obvious that
there is something of a gap in FER philately. While we are reasonably
certain of what one stuck on one's envelope if one lived in
Vladivostok,(with the exception of the "mystery period" of July-
November 1920), no such certainty exists when it comes to the Chita
area, before the issue of the Chita Arms stamps in April(?) 1922. The
previouslymentioned Semenov surcharges may have been used to make up
the inflationary postal rates and, in the Amur Oblast', the
Blagoveshchensk issue saw some use. Other than that, little is known.
The problem is compounded by the relative scarcity of covers from this
area. Vladivostok has generated lots of covers as an international port,
some of which survive in our collections, but how many entire from
Nerchinsk, Darasun or Verkhne-Udinsk have reached us? Incidentally, it
will be obvious that the so-called Pribaikal overprints must be bogus.
I have seen two covers with these stamps, both postmarked Chita in
1921! An obvious political impossibility.

In any case, the Chita Arms stamps came into general use in the FER
area during 1922. It is possible to find'these stamps with postmarks of
tiny places, so distribution must have been excellent. This is in many
ways my favourite set of FER stamps. The stamps are reasonably easy to
find, although it took me 8 months to get the set completed! I have
already mentioned the many possible cancellations and the stamps
themselves also make interesting objects for study. For instance, the
20-kop. value occurs both with red centre and value, as well as with
the more common orange shade. Plating the bicoloured stamps is
probably possible, but the monochrome stamps are interesting too. The
six copies of the 15-kop. stamp that I have show vast differences in
the shape of the "15", so identification of subtypes may be possible.
Of course, covers are rare.

S On 24 June 1922, the Japanese government announced its plans for
withdrawing all their forces from Siberian territory by the end of
October. The Intervention had never been popular with the Japanese
government and the election of a new prime minister triggered the end


I







of the Siberian adventure. Of course, the Merkulovs and the rest of the
PVP leadership were less than pleased with the prospect of their
sponsors' departure. And, in the FER, the People's Revolutionary Army
prepared for the reconquest of the PVP area.

6. 1922: THE END OF THE MERKULOVS

Let us look at 26 May 1922, the first anniversary of the Merkulov coup:
"On May 26, the military forces under Generals G.A. Verzhbitskii and
V.M. Molchanov staged a parade with Spiridon and Nikolai Merkulov, but
a meeting of the non-Socialist organizations the same day represented a
truer picture of the spirit of that occasion. Chairman K.T. Likhoidov
refused to permit a representative of the government to greet the
gathering. Spiridon Merkulov, sufficiently inebriated so that his eyes
were bright, his voice loud and his steps uncertain, gave a speech
which was met by hisses and jeers. He in turn attacked his audience and,
at the end, declared that all who favoured the national idea should
rise and follow him. No one moved. He then ordered the militia to
disperse the meeting"(from C.F. Smith: "Vladivostok under Red and White
rule"). It was obvious that the Merkulov regime could not last. But who
or what should replace them? In view of the desperate military
situation, a military genius as dictator would have been convenient,
but the choice of candidates was limited. Semdnov was unacceptable, the
Kappelite generals controversial and, in the end, after considerable
hesitation, Kolchak's old chief of staff, General Diterikhs, was
invited to come out of retirement at Kharbin and become ruler of the
PVP area.

The last philatelic gasp of the Merkulov regime and their PVP was the
Merkulov anniversary set, issued on that same 26 May 1922. These stamps
are very difficult to find, due to their tiny print-run of some 1800
sets. Used copies are virtually non-existent, although I possess a 2-
kopek stamp stuck on the front of a nice Vladivostok view-card and
cancelled by favour with the Vladivostok "g" cancel, dated 26.5.22 (the
first day of issue). Other than that, what else? In his classic
article in 1970, Chenakalo described inverted overprints on the 2 & 4-
kopek stamps and I have since found this variety on a 10-kopek stamp,
but the overprint is very probably forged. Incidentally, Spiridon
Merkulov left the country around this time and was last seen heading
for Canada.

7. 1922: DITERIKHS AND THE END OF THE WHITES

"He would have made a better archbishop than a general!" This rather
caustic comment about General Mikhail Diterikhs was something of an
exaggeration, but there was a grain of truth in it. He was a
reasonably capable strategist he has been called "brilliant" by at
least two writers but he was also a religious fanatic and his
politics were dinosaurian in their uselessness. On 8 August 1922,
Diterikhs was installed as "pravitel'", an archaic term meaning "ruler"
or "military dictator". The small territory held by the Whites was now
renamed the Zemskii Priamurskii Krai or ZPK (sometimes also called PZK)
and the first order of Diterikh's business was to convene a "Zemskii
Sobor" or Land Parliament, an institution last seen in the sixteenth
century. Diterikhs probably thought of it as a return to the good old
days, but the population did not understand the strange and archaic
names for unfamiliar government organs and so a White exodus slowly
started. There was a parliament of sorts, members being selected from








such organizations as the League of House-Owners! Religion was the
criterion for citizenship and the local unit of government was the
* parish. Attempts were made to interest the surviving members of the
Romanov family in assuming the throne of this pathetic remnant,
understandably with no success!

A.change of government could hardly go by without some philatelic
activities to jolly up the proceedings! Every stamp in sight (including
mysterious stocks of unoverprinted Arms stamps overlooked during the
DVR operation) was overprinted with the new name of the government and,
in the case of the 2 & 4-kopek Vladivostok Arms stamps, with a new
value as well. No less than 34 different stamps were thus created, some
in tiny print runs of a few sheets. I suspect that some speculator
supplied some of the Arms issues from his stock,but the stamps are
nevertheless quite legitimate. Entires are known, but they are, of
course, very rare: these stamps were in use from early in September to
late in October 1922!

Fans of von Clausewitz and his dictum that the best defence is offense
would have applauded the PZK's reaction to the imminent departure of
their Japanese protectors: the second White offensive started at the end
of August. Again, it went fairly well at first, with General Nikitin's
force occupying Ussuri Station but, by 11 September, he was back in
Spassk. The battle of Spassk, as the bloody encounter between the PZK
and the FER was called, ended on 9 October with Spassk falling to the
FER forces. The last White stand took place between Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk
and Spassk in the next few days, but it achieved nothing more than an
* increased body-count. After that, the Whites evacuated the PZK area in a
hurry, fleeing to Posyet or Pogranichnaya and from there to Manchuria or
Japan. Diterikhs left on 19 October. A Siberian regionalist party under
the 80-year old Sazonov then hoisted the green and white flag over the
Zolotoi Rog theatre and announced that they would carry on the struggle
against the Reds but, two days later, Sazonov and his colleagues had
left Vladivostok as well. The last White and Japanese forces left the
city on the morning of 25 October and, on the evening of the same day,
the first units of the FER army entered the city. The FER was reunited
and the Russian Civil War was finally over.

Along with the FER army came the Chita issue. The earliest cover from
Vladivostok with Chita stamps that I know of is in the collection of Mr.
E. Rombaut of Sint-Niklaas, Belgium. It is dated 29.11.22. It seems
likely that the PZK and PVP issues were declared invalid for postage
when the Chita issue became available, possibly with a brief period
when all issues were valid for postage at the same time. The last day
of 1922 seems like a logical end-point for PZK/PVP validity.

The final issue of stamps of the FER appeared on 7 November 1922. In
order to celebrate the fifth anniversary of the October Revolution (and
the downfall of the last White government, no doubt!), 10.000 sets of
the Vladivostok Arms issue were overprinted "1919-XI-1922" in red (!).
These stamps are difficult to find and are, of course, rare on cover,
although some philatelic productions have been seen, usually cancelled
with the Vladivostok "g" canceller.

* Three covers exist which are the perfect philatelic illustration of the
history of the Far Eastern Republic. One is in the collection of Mr.
Irmann-Jacobsen of Oslo, Norway, a second was recently auctioned in
Zurich and the third resides in my own collection. All three were sent








by S. Pappadopoulo, the stamp dealer/speculator who was the origin of
many of the FER covers in Western collections. All three are franked
with a bizarre mix of Vladivostok Arms stamps, Chita stamps and "1917-
1922" overprints. Mine is franked with 34 gold kopeks in Arms stamps
(3 x 10 + 2 x 2), 2 gold kopeks in the Chita issue (2 x 1) and 4 gold
kopeks in the red overprints (2 x 2), to make up the 40 gold-kopek rate,
probably for a heavy registered letter abroad. It has departure cancels
of Vladivostok "m" 20.12.22, a transit marking of Kobe, Japan 23.12.22
and a Sydney, Australia arrival marking of 21.1.23. This shows that at
least one person was able to use "White" stamps as late as 20.12.22 and
it is the last such usage known to me.

8. EPILOGUE

As will be obvious from all this, there are large gaps in my knowledge
of Far Eastern Republican history and philately. Many basic questions
concerning matters such as dates of issue and areas of use can only be
answered approximately, or not at all. I have tried on several
occasions to formulate hypotheses about the answers, but I would love
to be proved wrong by new information. My address is:-
Ivo Steyn, Loosdrechtseweg 4, NL 1215 JW Hilversum, The Netherlands.
Telephone 035-49030 (evenings).
If you can demolish my reasoning, please drop me a line. Nothing
would please me more than a future update of this article in which all
my tentative answers have been blown out of the water and replaced by
real answers.

There remains one final question: why does FER philately fascinate me
so? I would be the first to admit that certain issues were undoubtedly
contaminated by speculation. The case of the PZK surcharges has already
been mentioned, but the DVR set also has a few patently useless values
in it, while the Merkulov Anniversary issue is another dubious set. As
you will have noticed, I have refused even to discuss the Nikolaevsk-
on-Amur overprints and the Czechoslovak Legion issues. In those cases,
my revulsion of their dubiousness was stronger than my urge to write a
complete overview of Siberian philately. I can defend my ignoring the
later issues for the Far East (such as the Vladivostok Airmail issue
and the gold kopek surcharges of Jan. 1923) by saying that they do not
belong to a Far Eastern Republic article. Responding to a jerk of the
puppet strings from Moscow, the FER government voted itself out of
existence on 10 November 1922 and the incorporation into the RSFSR was
made formal five days later. I recently discovered how it was possible
that this vote was unanimous; after all, the FER government contained a
number of SRs and Mensheviks who were quite devoted to their new-born
state. Well, it seems that, on the day before the vote, all the non-
Bolshevik members of the FER parliament and government were arrested...
I guess I just like a good story.

LITERATURE:

CERESA, Dr. R.J.: "The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923", vol. 3,
parts 3-5; "Siberia, Far East and Related Issues", Cambridge, 1983.
CHENAKALO, F.I.: "The Stamps of the Far Eastern Republic", Rossica
Journal No. 79, 1970.
NORTON, H.K.: "The Far Eastern Republic of Siberia", London, 1923.
SMITH, C.F.: "Vladivostok under Red and White Rule: Revolution and
Counter-Revolution in the Far East", Washington, 1975.
STEYN, I.J.: "A Date in Vladivostok", BJRP No. 63, 1986.


1







Front and Back of a registered letter from KANSK(2 9 19) via LONDON(6-11-19) to BERN(10-11-19).
Franked with 20 x 2 kopek perf. and a 1 Rouble imperf stamp of the Arms issue. Since this is a rather silly way to make
up the 1.40 Rouble rate we may conclude the Kolchak issue had not reached Kansk by this date...On the front, apart from
the.Cyrillic registration tag(naughty, naughty), a magnificent purple censor mark, possibly affixed in Vladivostok








L "^ ..' l,

-,, ,
h~i ct4TP
r .T&S
M R b s


crJI r4






























Don't blame this card for its less-than-pristine condition. It travelled from TAIGA
(near Tomsk, 30-10-19) to OMSK(3-?-?), along a completely congested railway, going
west while everyone and his uncle was trying to flee east, to reach a city that had
already fallen to the Red Army. Franked with a 50 kopek Arms stamp and a 35/2 perf
Kolchak stamp to make up a rather odd rate of 85 kopeks, possibly an attempt to
make up 75 kopeks? Why no 50 kopek Kolchak stamp was used, don't ask me...


Letter from NIKOLSK-USSURIISK(26-2-20) via KHARBIN(28-2-20, where it was transferred
to the Chinese Post) to PEKING. Franked with 2 x 5 and a 50 kopek Arms stamp, and
2 x 70/1 imperf. Kolchak issue, a strange way to make up 2 Roubles. Apparently
the Kolchak Rouble values(or even the 50 kopek surcharge) had not yet reached
Nikolsk-Ussuriisk...






























Letter from NIKOLSK-USSURIISK(17-5-20, year missing in cancel, replaced by short
horizontal bar) via KHARBIN(where it was transferred to the Chinese Post) to
TIENTSIN(23-5-20). Here eight 25 kopek Arms stamps have been used for that same
2 Rouble rate. Three months later and still no Rouble values. The political situation
makes it unlikely that any Rouble values reached this area after this date...













ell


i ^.^ ?-'= ^Y3
*4 ,!,
**JF2ih~~ ,l:?L~r^


Registered Letter from NIKOLSK-USSURIISK(29-5-20) via LONDON(9-7-20) to
COPENHAGEN(12-7-20). Franked with perf. 15 kopek and 3.50 Rouble Arms issues and a
35/2 kopek perf. Kolchak surcharge, a strange way to make up a 4 Rouble rate...
17

































Registered letter from VLADIVOSTOK(31-3-21) via LONDON(2-5-21) to ZEHSIS, LATVIA
(14-5-21). Franked with 10 and 5 kopeks in Vladivostok Arms stamps and 3 and 2
kopeks(perf) in DVR surcharges, this cover is proof that the Vladivostok Arms issues
were issued no later than March 31st(or at least, the 5 and 10 kopek values were).


FIOHTOBA KAPTOHI
C'b On]AqEHHbM'b OTB-bTOMb


I, I
\"^r^ ^ ----- -^- s


A rare used example of the DVR surcharge on a piece of postal stationery, in this
case half of a Reply Paid card of the Kerensky issue. There is some evidence that
all Reply Paid cards were split up and each half sold separately. Additional
franking of a 2 kopek Arms issue, date of cancel 19-5-22.
18



































Registered letter from Okeanskaya(12-9-21) via LONDON(23-10-21) to
ZEHSIS, LATVIA(30-10-21). Franked with 4 x 5 kopek Vladivostok Arms issue to make
up the 20 Gold Kopek rate. Note the very unusual registration cachet.
Okeanskaya is a tiny station, some 20 versts north of Vladivostok along the railway.


with the slightly shady Vladivostok "g" canceller, purportedly on the first

day of issue, 26-5-22.































Registered letter from Vladivostok(20-12-22) via KOBE, JAPAN(23-12-22) to
Sydney(23-1-23). Franked with 3 x 10, 2 x 2 kopek Vladivostok Arms issue,
2 x 2 kopek "1917-1922" surcharges and 2 x 1 kopek Chita issue, for a total of
40 Gold Kopeks.


XXXXXXXXXX

EESTI
ESTONIA ESTLAND

PHILATELY & POSTAL HISTORY
HANDBOOK CATALOGUE

VAMBOLA HURT ELMAR OJASTE

This unique handbook-catalogue has now appeared with 768 pages in
hardbound format and it is the most comprehensive study of
Estonian philately and postal history 1632-1944 ever published.
The pricing is in US dollars, including for paid-in-cash covers,
meter markings, airmails, ship mail, field post, TPOs/RPOs, censor
markings, slogans, foreign occupations, etc.Parallel text in
English and German and with thousands of clear illustrations. It
will be the standard reference for years to come. This
indispensable guide for the Estonian philatelist is now available
for US $75.00 postpaid from:-

Mr Rudolf Hamar EFUR- HANDBOOK
31 Addison Terrace Ortagardsvagen 9
Old Tappan NJ 07675 or/oder S-133 00 SALTSJOBADEN
USA Sweden
Make your check payable to Estonian Bitte richten Sie Ihren Check an die Est-
Philatelic Society. nische Philatelistische Gesellschaft.


IF NOT DELIVERED IN FIVE DAYS RETURN TO
S. A.PAPPADOPULO
45. IfT KAMAROVSKAYA
VLADIVOSTOK
(SIBERIA)


I


\e
;3;
v
j t,
i i







AUS RUSSLAND


by LEO DE CLERCQ


The transfer of Russian mail bags on the border with Prussia. Fr. Huysmans
collection.








AUS RUSSLAND

by Leo De Clercq

(the author is a member of the Belgian Academy for Philately and of the
Royal Philatelic Society of the Waas Region in Sint-Niklaas, Belgium.
He is also the Secretary of the Postal History Section of the FIP (The
International Federation of Philately),while your editor is the
Canadian delegate for this section. The study set out here was published
by the author in 1975 and has been translated from the Flemish by his
kind permission, for which many thanks are due to him).

PREFACE

Postal articles, sent from Russia and destined for Western Europe and
beyond, generally bore varied indications of origin. These were mostly
applied in Prussia or Austria. Many foreign philatelists have already
written important articles on this subject.

The details of such material, taken from the collections of our members
Messrs Fr. Huysmans, James Van der Linden and myself, have been
assembled here, together with some supplementary data from other
holdings, thus making possible the expanded study given here.

The pre-philatelic and "AUS RUSSLAND" postal markings have been
classified according to the office of application. These were sedentary
or railway post offices. In an attempt to suggest a scale of rarity, the
approximate present-day worth (=W) has been given for each item. By
using this point system, future requirements may also be taken into
account.

Any further information would be thankfully received by the author at
Zamanstraat 2, B-2700 SINT-NIKLAAS, Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgi& / Belgium.




SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT

Our readers will, no doubt, be interested to know that a new Society
catering to our collecting sphere had just been formed in the Antipodes
(New Zealand and Australia). Two Russian Philatelic Newsletters have
already been issued (June & October 1986) and the name of the enterprise
is THE ANZAC SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY.

It has been decided to run this society on a streamlined model, based on
that of the CSRP and to produce a journal on a twice-yearly basis. It
will contain articles on all aspects of Russian philately, from both
local and overseas contributors. It is proposed to call this publication
nIOTA The Journal of the ANZAC Society of Russian Philately. The first
issue is planned to appear in December 1986 and dues are NZ$10 for
subscribers in New Zealand and Australia and NZ$15 (=US$7.50) for those
further afield. Please write for further details to the Secretary: Mr.
T.F.R. Archer, 313 Mahurangi East Road, Snells Beach, Warkworth, New
Zealand.
We in the CSRP wish this new Society all the very best. The more the
merrier, we say and Russian philately will be all the better for it.






I. SEDENTARY OFFICES


AACHEN

C.R.p.P. :
Correspondance
Russe par Prusse
Fig. 1
Black
1844/1847
W = 750


Fig. 1 14-6-1846 Collection De Clercq


Fig. 2 11~-5-13ColcinHyms


BERLIN

R : Russland
Fig. 2
Black
1834/1838
Verso: C dst. Berlin
W: 1.500


/-


%.


/


C / ..-






-I
' -*,-



/ ^ t^T M

/ .^j~f^\.\.\ i-



/1. ^^ ^^JF^


Fig. 2 11-5-1836


J


Collection Huysmans








BERLIN


FRANCO/
AUS RUSSLAND
AUS:smaller
Fig. 3
Black
1840/1841
Verso : L -dst. Berlin
W : 2.000


BERLIN
Previous
marking with
FRANCO removed.
Aus RUSSLAND
Aus: smaller
Fig. 1
Black
1845/1853
Verso: L.-dst. Berlin
W :600


i ~T-"! N


2004*~7 3-z4


x's


* -


Si


t

9.

<^1,'


Ii
K 'A


r
id.'f ~-4-


9'i


;r-


AP


S. q / '/ -
/ e Pt P


tJAI L & 0 .L s
. i


- f-fl-.- -


ci c



rn--A- t


Fig.~~~ 401614 olcinHymn


Fig. 3 2-5-1841
Collection Huysmans













BERLIN


AUS RUSSLAND /
FRANCO
Fig. 4
Black
1845/1851
Verso : L dst. Berlin
W:1.200


Collection Huysmans


t
. __--


~ L.


I
'L /~~A~ 3L


i


Fig.


4 11-6-1848


d b









BERLIN


FRANCO/
POLN : PRESS : GRZ
Fig. 5
Black
1839/1848
Verso : C dst. or
L dst. Berlin
W: 800
i


O ia;


.r
..d
~' 2~r?
1. 63)1 u
r


~. /




/kt




/ 6r


K


Fig. 5 5-12-1848


Collection Huysmans


BERLIN


C.R.P.F.:
Correspondance Russe
Paye Frontibre
Fig. 6.
Black
1847
Verso: C dst. Berlin
W : 3.000


Bulang Collection
West Germany.


47*'. -.


Fig. 6 13-12-1847


- --















BRODY


RUSSIE
H: 5 mm
Fig. 7
Black
1862
Verso: L dst. Brody
W: 1.500


'Uhf V ,IL
&(J UL .~'


.? 7


-t p- *
_/ .. ,"


f


A/'


/

I)


7-~~
V 1
*


~~1 1-'


Fig. 7 30-4-1862


Fig. 8 20-6-1876


Collection Huysmans


BRODY


RUSSIE
Fig. 8
Black
1876
Verso: C dst.
Brody- Railway station
W: 1.500


Dr. Jacques Stibbe
Collection


4: -.
i .. -. -.


Sr.. .". i

-- a H .. v ." ."",..- -
.- .7. -&,., .'il"" -,. ii. -




S' -. '


N ", .


.


Z ~nrt




















EYDTKUHNEN


AUS RUSSLAND
PTO. v. EYDTKUHNEN
Fia, 9
Black
1867
Verso : C-dst. Eydtkuhnen
W: 5.000


I *-. V
2- -, 7
-~ --I.'~sL


'9 ;i ~'




/' ye;; ,


I.


-II
t*I .r rt l.


'' E

A3T~


mIo Q w2%7YM
^lsZ", /f *'^,~~L~-fY*^ /y
^^^^y^^^^r^^ ^^


Fig. 9 20-6-1867


Collection De Clercq





EYDTKUHNEN


AUS RUSSLAND
FRANCO-TOUT
Fig, 10
Black
1871
Verso : C-dst. Eydtkuhnen
W : 3.000


Fig. 10 27-10-1871 CollectionHuysmans


/.
.-#d?, ~j


iee- r,7 e



^^^ I


`---~ -~--


I.'
VerY~~


/-,--


-~LC.


;rFI ~
r,


- / ... '
: 2




















EYDTKUHNEN


AUS RUSSLAND "
FRANCO-TOUT
Fig. 11
Black
1873/1882
Verso: C-dst. Eydtkuhnen Fig. 11
W : 3.000
In this self-same lettering
there also exists:
AUS RUSSLAND
PTO. V. EYDTKUHNEN
1873
W: 5.000


r


L -r' -

.-------


t ,.


I'. W:: 4k


LAUGSZARGEN


AUS RUSSLAND
PTO. V. LAUGSZARGEN
Same type as for Fig,
Seen in black,
details unknown.
W: 5.000













LEMBERG


RUSSIE
H:4mm
Fig. 12
Black
1865/1868
Verso : C-dst. Lemberg
W : 2.000


:i I



I. (>: I
I *Kf('t.


~Fkl


'Q


" t


Fig. 12 14-5-1865


Collection Rombaut










I MEMEL


P. MEMEL
9 MAI.
Lst. M with straight legs
2nd. M with sloping legs
Fig. 13
Black
1823/1830
W :700


MEMEL


R : Russland
Fig. 14
Black
1833
plus L-dst. MEMEL
W: 3.500


______________________-----------------__-----------I


1\ I



L2 -


69%


Fig. 1520-6-1827


f-


'F.-





sr-tt-.t
S


1*
t~X


-. s*


U A


*- j

7. '
T )rY
~/%llM;~
101


000"


Collection De Clercq


Fig. 13 9-5-1827
De Clercq
Collection


MEMEL


MEMEL
5 SEPT.
Both Ms
sloping
Fig. 14
Black
1818/1833
W :400


legs


Fig. 14 24-4-1833
Huysmans Collection,


NIEM NIEL


MEMEL
20 JUNI
Both Ms
Fig. 15
Black
1824/1827
W: 400


straight legs


The setting of the date in
this marking leads us to
assume that MEMEL was
originally preceded by the
letter P.


-A/
A
edtr~-* 7


i


ft


/ /



















MEMEL


Aus Russland
framed cachet
Fig. 16
Black
1851/1870
Verso C-dst. or
L-dst. Memel
W: 700


(i..


Fig. 16 10-5-1851


\%%\ oiS


* 'V


1i- aLnd.1


Of
/ >-;


Collection Van derLinden


OSTROWO


Aus Polen
framed cachet
Fig. 17
Black
1872/1880
W: 1.200


''
- 4
i


.


cda~-~-~


Ilr
~~C~~L~j~r-~p~~~
/ -----------












O TILSIT


TILSIT
8. MAI
Fig. 2
Black
1836/1837

W :400
as above o:
date first

TILSIT


AUS RUSSLAND -' .
FRANCO-TOUT '
TOUT: 14 mm J
Fig. 18
Black
1841
Verso: C-dts. or .4j
L-dst. Tilsit
W: 1.500
2)TOUT: 16 mm Fig. 18 17-12-1841 Collection De Clercq
Black
S1843/1844
Verso : C-dst. Tilsit
W : 1.500


I.._


* ~. 1-
C..


3 ...-*


. l 1


I. '


7)crd.


7 C


Fig.~~~~~~~ 1945129CletonHymn


L L. aU


Russie.
Fig. 19
Black
1826/1837
W: 800


- I .


-- -


Fig. 19 4-5-1829


Collection Huysmans






II. RAILWAY POST OFFICES


A. Eisenbahn Post-Bureau V



AUS RUSSLAND -,
framed cachet
Fig. 20
1) letters 4 1/2 mm h.
Black
1853/1860

Breslau BerUin S RUSSLA Ni
W: 400 *
2) letters 4 mm h.. -
a)Black
1854/5-3 1865 ..
Verso:
Breslau- Berlin ,
Black !^ **
W: 400 I l--
b) Blue
22-1-1866/ 20-4-1869 -
Verso:-
Breslau Berlin
Blue
W:500
c)Black again
18-7-1869
W: 500
Fig. 2018-7-1869 Collection Huysmans

\ [ ,

;, AUS
SRUSSLAND
S, i framed cachet
Fig. 21
1) RUSSLAND : 26 mm
Blue
S' 7-1-1866/1868
S4 l- eVerso: Breslau Berlin
S. Blue
S'':. i W' : 1.000

2) RUSSLAND : 28 mm
0?-- --'---- Black
22-5-1869
Verso: Breslau Berlin
Black
W: 1.500

Fig. 21 22-5-1869 Collection Huysmans
In comparing the data on the
use of blue ink for the
preceding postmarks, we get:
Initial blue: between 5-3-1865 &. 7-1-1866
Final blue; between 20-4-1869 & 22-5-1869









AUS RUSSLAND *Z T '
FRANCO
framed cachet
Fig. 22
1) FRANCO : 19 mm -
Black
1853/1873
Verso: Breslau- Berlin r
W:1.000
2) FRANCO: 17,5 mm [ j rof ., _.
a) Black
1865
Verso: Breslau Berlin .
Black., '
W: 2.000
b) Blue
1867 -
Verso: Breslau Berlin '
Blue
W : 2.000
Fig. 22 20-7-1873 Collection Huysmans

AUS RUSSLAND

SS Saw-tooth frame
t. 1- Fig. 23
"-',\ 1)Internal height 9mm.
a) Red
/ I '1852/1853
Verso : Myslowitz Breslau
Black, or
K. PR. POST-SPED.
BUREAU Nr V
S. framed in red
W: 700
b)Black
1859/1860
v verso : Breslau -
Myslowitz/Retour
Black
S" W: 700
// 2)Internal height 11.5
/ .~e -, a)Red & 10mm.
,r-. 1856/ 1857
.{ Verso : Myslowitz Kandrzin
W : 700
al b)Black
\ '. 1860
Verso : Myslowitz Kandrzin
W: 700
f 3)Internal height 10mm.
Black
1864/1869
W : 700
., 2a comes together with
Fig. 23 12-9-1856 Collection Huiimans FRANCO; see Fig. 23.









AUS RUSSLAND
EIS: POST-BUREAU V
framed
Fig. 24
Black
1863/1873
W: 400
AUS RUSSLAND
EISENB.: POST-BUR V
1) AUS RUSSLAND : 27 mm
Black
1861/1863
W: 400
2) AUS RUSSLAND : 29 mm
Black
1865
W: 800


B. Eisenbahn Post Bureau X


Fig. 24 29-7-1865 Collection De Clercq


\ \






Fg- 25 -8 C
". '!"
>. o.."




-.. / : .-f :- : :i



'/ / j
/I 'i \



,

i y/'/'r (< n ^ -f


Aus Russland
framed
Fig. 25
Red
1853/1857
Verso : Coeln Verviers
Red
W: 500


0


Collection De Clercq


Fig. 25 20-8-1853














Aus Russland
Fig. 26
Red
1857
W : 2.000
Black
1863
Verso : Coeln Verviers
Black
W : 2.000


.ji il,'
a!, Qn


iLZ N
Kd~3; g


*,t~


L'..


'' N


kAus flas sIa$.


-, -. -


Collection


16 11-1863
Van der Linden


C. Eisenbahn Post Bureau XI


AUS
RUSSLAND
framed
Fig. 27
Black
1852
Verso Ostbahn
W : 2.000


Collection Van der Linden


t i '*. )
I,., j


,,~ (2


;/I


A ( t / /, e ( 0


*1'
'


LT


t~


'9. 0


L


: '
r


--~~3
._.e
~??I r'
:I: r
I r


















AUS RUSSLAND
FRANCO
framed
Fig. 28
R of FRANCO
under R of RUSSLAND
Black
1852
Verso : Ostbahn or
Bromberg Berlin
W:1.500


^'.T
1%Ii'









'^ .
-4' i;
A ;y"


AUS RUSSLAND
FRANCO

framed
Fig. 29 R of
FRANCO before
R of RUSSLAND
Red
1857/1860
Verso: Hamburg Berlin
CSslin Berlin
W : 2.000
36


a. t .. -/ ,



/ .. -
i. ~'-_--~~"L"--
-67


%,,~S~dLJ


@1


Collection De Clercq


Fig. 29 27-9-1857


Letters with this postmark went by ship along the Baltic
Sea, via Libeck or Stettin to Berlin for onward
transmission. Letters that went via Hamburg to Belgium,
Great Britain or The Netherlands do not bear this
marking. It is possible that this postmark was applied
in Berlin.


. L

vvr.k


-.9 .7 1
10 g'"^ /- :?". -^







These postal markings, as well as those in Figs. 31 & 32 would have been
struck by the Prussian border post offices before they received the
railway line
indication on the i '
backs. -, a *


Aus Russland
framed
Fig. 30
a) A -d: 31mm
Red
1862/1864
Verso : Konigsberg Bromberg
W : 700


b) A d : 29 3/4 mm.
Red
1865
Verso : Eydtkuhnen
W : 1.000


Bromberg


* .


4-


< 1/ *


A/V


r- i'
I
i
1


r-
"' .2


4


.-.


/%


2


/'
(i


1-~


Fig. 30 13-4-1864
De Clereq
Collection





Aus Russland
Franco

framed
Fig. 31
a) F under R
Red
1858
Verso: K6nigsberg-
Bromberg
W: 1.750
b)F before R
Red
1863/1864
Verso: Eydtkuhnen -
Bromberg of
Kbnigsberg Bromberg
W: 1.500


Fig. 3 123-8-1858 Collection Van der Linden


.
.


I


"I


Collection Vander Linden


Fig. 3123-8-1858


`c"~I .as\fr


~c~t;r R~~Bp~:li:~rlInrj
'I
Il








Aus Russland


Fig. 32
Red
1855/1856
Verso : K6nigsberg -
Marienburg
W: 700

idem plus FRANCO
Red
1855 / 1856
Verso : Konigsberg -
Marienburg
W: 750


Date stamps of
this line


Fig. 32 11-8-1855
(Eisenbahn Post-Bureau XI)


Collection Huysmans


1) AUS RUSSLAND / iiber
BUR. XI EDK. BRG
a) PORTO
Fig. 33
Red
1865/1867
W: 300


?C


Fig, 335-11-1865


pp*..



-- *..
Ci 3 -


Collection De Clercq


i ~ ~ .
P -I

( i-.' -- /.~


S .,-


/ 1 i / -

~ ric!~i~lrn~l irt~-' 'I


.7


* S


IA
,A2 1


PP'
P. 1

P.1.
)/


.-. -


b) FRANCO
Afb. 34
Red
1865/1873
W: 300
c)in combination
with Recofiiandirt.
1865
W: 1.500


Fig. 34 7-9-1865 Collection De Clercq


C...................?,a j.P

'I~L ~ V: Y .


1,
,qW


----
-^1^ '-.- '.- -I


/ I..


L~~iI. P


I


P


p4~-~:
I


%~ ..,...


I


3-./ c'u.~-.~













2) AUS RUSSLAND iiber
EISENB. POST-BUR. XI
a) PORTO
Fig. 35
Red
1865/1867
W: 300


Fig. 35 19-3-1867 Collection Huysmans


b) FRANCO
Fig. 36
Red
1867/1872
W: 300


Fig. 36 25-11-1869


3) AUS POLEN iiber
EISENB. POST-BUR. XI
a) PORTO
Fig. 37
Red
1865
W: 1.000

b) FRANCO

not yet seen


(RU nef


(.


a..~r1L- t


Fig. 3725-4-1865 Collection Huysmans


V"b 4%"!






III.GERMAN REGISTRATION LABELS ON MAIL EXCHANGES FROM RUSSIA.


Vom Ausland iiber
(handwritten)
Berlin 8.
Fig. 38
3-5-1921
W: 500


Fig. 38 3-5-1921


'.


Fabri'"






.a4 z


-'


* AASIiOZ~


3C L 'V Ki
SCC itqT
f1~rC^T/


rei'ienstueprcwoo meina-



l'i:CL jJ Ko.
TaMil0' Qi-PlRKSj







6.ntcb ie!re;/ihmepr2.

CTrC.P.PeHTrI'e A,-:axgeumi

.2 l hK ,' ,, Iit"hDifCKfl rA .

E jl l-l~~


Fig. 392-1192uxcinHymn


Vom Ausland
fiber
Kbnigsberg Pr. 1
Fig. 39
27-11-1922
W: 500


0


I


OJJLlection Huysmans


Fig. 39 27-11-1922















Vom Auslande
uber Bahnpost 18
Eingeschrieben
Fig. 40
31-5-1895
W: 600


Vumr Arisilnnol
icir Babinpost IN1
|,;/m.,',-Abrih4i^ ]


V ,>r I,


-3-

J/ /'


A.
--. Vt


1 r j


ih l hnnlist IS.
AJlesandrawo Berlin.
rEinf-Schr-f lj-bn.




i-
I .-
/^./ ^^0


,~/1i *.j 3,


., '" /"r ./ -



Fig. 4127-8-1879 Hiuysmans
Collection







Vom Auslande
uber Bahnpost
Salzburg Munchen
Eingeschrieben
Fig. 42
4-7-1879
W: 600


'.
-'I


.*K-' dI C


--'ft
9-..,--
-C ;: ..* I.- ~ La--1.-T~l--U
I


)


/






I .7,
'* ,"'/ !


Fig. 40 31-5-1895
Huysmans
Collection



Vom Auslande
Uber Bahnpost 18.
Alexandrowo Berlin.
Eingeschrieben
Fig. 41
27-8-1879
W :600


3.


4

S.Z \ 11879


2I.L /0


Collection Huysmans


Collection Huysmans
41


Fig. 42 4-7-1879


(jj"j* jj


,' a


V i ni h Li II 11 *
S Ilt.,II l'; llii t,, IIn


3.

/


~flflh


,


i 4

~ ,FJA^


'11 4


%j


%i


* -r It





i BELCICA 82 *


COLLOQUE


COLLOQUY


COLLOQUIUM


AUS RUSSLAND 4
(reproduced from BIOPOST No. 10 for November 1982, by kind permission of
the editor,Mr. Leo De Clercq,Zamanstraat 2,B-2700 SINT-NIKLAAS,Belgium).










_, 4.


i 'd P
0-7A




-41 fill


COMPOSITION
ly Iame.s Van den Linden


ZUSAHMEMSTELLUN C




AUIS RUISSL\IIr)


MAROUES D'ENTREE


POSTVERTR ACSSTEMPEL


ENTRY MARKINIGS


I. Bureaux prussiens s6dentaires Prussian border offices
Preussische Grenzoostamter


1. AACHEN
1.1.1.1.

1,1.1 .2.

2. BERLIN
1.1.2.1.


1.1.2.2.

1 .1 .2.3.

3. EYDTKUHIEN
1.1.3.2.

1.1.3.3.


1.1 .3.4.



1.1.3.5.

4. KATTOWITZ
1 .1 ..1.

5. KRAKAU
1.1.5.1.
6. MEMEL
1.1.7.1.

1.1.7.2.

1.1.7.3.

7. SAARRROCKFt
1.1 .2.
5. 1. LAUGSZARGENi
1.1.6.1.


P-F 82 C.R.pP. 1845 1847

P-F83 C.R.P.E



1833

R-P1io1 lAUSRUSSLAND 1843 1851

R-P102 AUS RUSSLAND
FRANCO 1844 1870 N/S
1871 B/ 1.1.3.1.

AUS RUSSLAND 3
-P FRANCO-TOUT 9- 1871






FRANCO -TOUT


S10 AUS RUSSLAND
PTO.V.EYDTKUHNEN 1879


R-P 10 Aus Russland 1872
per Katlowitz

R-P115 RUS 1541


R-P 116 1333 1835
1.1.7.2.1
1Aus Russland. 1S39 1842 FBtANco
R-P 125
FRANCO(
R-P100 AuRUSSLAND 1851 1870


AUS RUSSLAND
C. AU.p SARGEN 4
C.R.P.F i8 7

AUS RUSSLAND
P T Q.v. LAUSZARGEN" 43






$. STALLUPOENEN
1.1.9.1.

9. STETTINI
1.1.10.1.

10. TILSIT
1.1.11.1.


1.1.11.2.

1.1.11.3.


1857 1859


R-P 130 US AND. 1857 1859


R-P135 Russland, 1859


R-P 150 R 1836 1861


R-P151 AUS IUSSLAND 1840
HRANCO-TOUT
A1}S RUSS LAND
R-P152 JSRANCO-OUT 1840 1843
FRKANCO-TOU


II. Bureaux prussiens ambulants


1. EISENBAHNPOSTAMT V.


Prussian TPO


Breslau-Berlin


Preuss. Eisenb.Postamter.

RAILWAY POST OFFICE V


1.2.1.1-1. / 1.2.1.L.2.
1.2.1.1. AUSRUSSLAND BRESLAU
R-P 1 9 31 IV 1870 N/S
FRANCO BERLIN
1.2.1.2 1.2.1.2.1. / 1.2.1.3.1.
R-P 2 1852 N/S
I.-- S ..1 k N-l 1867 B


1.2.1.3,2. / 1.2.1.3.1.
R-P3 AUS RUSSLAN BESLA 1859-1865 N/S
1.2.1.3. FRANCO 1 BE 11RN 18
+ERLIN

1.2.1.4. ,BRESLAU
R-P4 US USSLAND. 2 I 1856 N/S
u USSLD 2, 1.2.1.4.1.


1.2.1.5. AUSRUSSL. BRE AU 1873 N/S
R-P5 5 i 0I 65 "V: 2.1873 NS
L:AiL. TAN BERLIN

BRESLAU
1.2.1.6. -AUS 1 RESLAU
R-.2 P R.S LAN BE 1 1866-1868 B
R-P15 RUSSLAND BERLIN 1.2.1.6.1 t.


I







EIS.POSTAMT V sem.' ~.C~ao-




WARSZAWA



PRsE5EA




R-P o20 A DXPO SST-SPjED( R

R-P 20BUREAU 1852 R
1872 N/S
1.2.1.7. 1.2.1.7.1

BRESLAU
ATITOW TZ. 1.2.1.7.2.
1D-0 retour

DR ES LAU
MYS LOWITZ
I 12* lr ,ozr 1.2.1.7.3.
MYS Y W 1TZ 1856 R
R-P 21 AS RUSSLND 1859 N/S
KA N~ ) 1.2.1. 8.1.
1.2.1.8.



134 !:7 1.2.1.8.2.

R-P 22 OSWIECIM 1867
R-P22 USSLAND BRESLA
15 8 oir 1870 N/S
1.2.1.9. 1.2.1.9.1,

R- AUS RUOSLAND 1862 R
R-P 23 A 'IS ENRU5SLN DSRUV.
R8P 1863 N/S
1.2.1.10. 1

AUS RUSSLAND
RP 24 .E!S:POST BUREAU. 1863-1865 N/S
1.2.1.11. 10 9


AUS RUssLA1ND
R-P 25 ESENU. POST-BOR.N. 1865 N!S
1.2.1. 12. 11 11


I






RAILWAY POST OFFICE VIII


3. EISENBAHNPOSTAMT X


4. EISENBAHNPOSTAMT XI


Coeln-Verviers RAILW
1.2.3.1.2. / 1.2.3.1.3.


Ostbahn


RAILWAY


0


1.2.2.1. 1856Man.
R-P 30 W-41 Hdschr.
MINDEN 1.2.2.2.2.
P As uZ 11 8 11
%i-2 1AsR ussland DEUTZ 1856 N/S


POST OFFICE XI
EASTERN
RAILWAY


1.2.2.2.1. :
R-P31 FRANCO
AY POST OFFICE X

P.D.
1.2.3.1.1.


1.2.3.1. Coeli. 1852-1853 N/S
AC 55 Aus jssland 1i 3 1853-1865 R
Verviers'. 1864 V
1.2.3.2. Coeln. 1.2.3.2.1.
AC 56 AusRussland
Verviers. 1863 N/S


1.2.4.1. 1.2.4. 1. 1851-1852 N/S
AUS RUSSIAND OSTBAHN 1857-1859 R
R-P 0 FRANCO 30 6 Ul IL. I R
1.2.4.1.2.
1.2.4.2. U BROMBERG. 1.2.4.2.1.
A I 1 1 1851/52 N/S
R-P 51 USSLAND BER/UN. 1858 R

BROM BERG.
1.2.4.2.2. 81711 1863
BERLIN.

CUSLIN
1.2.4.2.3. 5 )10 1859
BERLIN

1.2.4.3. STETTIN. 1.2.4.3.1.
R-P15 RUSSLAND BE 1 1853 N/S
L i: L ABND BERLIN.

STETTIN.
1.2.4.3.2. 10 91 ) II s1857-s58
BERLIN. 1.2.4.3.3.
HAN BURG.
1.2.L.3.4. 4 .9 1 1859
BERLIN.

1.2.4.4. -- ROMBERG 1.2.4.4.1.
R-P 52 SRUSSLAND 17 4 11 1857 N/S
BERLIN


2. EISEHBAHNPOSTAMT


VIII


Minden-Deutz






EISE BAHHPOSTAMT


R-P6 AusRusslaIc KOENICB 1856 N/S
-4 us s51awl2G 7 ,. ] 1. 1854-1856 R
1.2.4.5. MARIENBgG.
1.2.4.5.2. / 1.2.4.5.3.
II- //


'kbtnI458te4-


JS211ecdAc /


1.2.4.5.1. :
.R-Po FRANCO


Aus Russ) and
Franco
t


1.2.4.6.1. / 1.2.4.6.2.
KONIGSBERG Pr.
216 IT i 1857-1862 R
BROMBERG


1.2.4.7 AUfUSlaid 1.2.4.7.1
AusRussland
R-P66 Fran co EYDKUHNEN
t 26 8 II
1.2. 4.8 I BROMBERKC


AIsT Rusland


Aus Busslan
___-_j
*


/ 1.2.4.7.2.

1858-1860 R
J 1864 N/S

1857 N/S
1858-1859 R

1859-1863 R


1.2.4.6
R-P 65


R-P 67

1-2-4-9
R-P 68


-- --------------,







EISENBAHNPOSTAMT


1.2.4.9.

R-P 70


1.2.4.9.1.


FRANCO
1l 6 11
66


1.2.4.10.1.


1.2.4.10.

R-P 71


FRANCO
31 12 ii
71


1866 R
1866-1873 N/S


-- 1.2.4.11.1.
1.2.4.11. Els

PORTO I FRANCO
R-P 72 ( 25 18 1 1864-1867 R
67 71


1865 R
1866 N/S


I





III. Bureaux front res autrichiens
Grenzpostimter in Osterreich


Austrian border offices


1. BELZEC

2. BRODY





3. CZERNOWITZ



4. HUSSIATIN


5. 3AROSLAW



6. KRAKAU


7. LEMBERG


8. RAWARUSKA


9. SZCZAKOWA

10. WIEN (VIENNAl


IV. Bureaux non identifies ( autr. ou italiens) Non identified offices
(Austria or Italy) Nicht identifizierbare Postamter ( bsterraich


oder Italie

1.(FLORENCED


i1 II


3. .. .
4*


n).
1.4.1.1.
7 f 1841 1853
R-A40 (Austrian Transit
Southern Russia)

1.4.1.2. (Austrian Transit
R-A 41 Northern Russia)
1842 1854


1.4.1.3. 1837
iyG;lhi rsi 1837


r1 .4


1.3.1.1.

RA, RUS. 1.3.2.1. 1833 1837

R-A 8 SS 1.3.2.2. 1832

R-A9 RUSSIE 1.3.2.3. 1862

R-AS RUSSIE 1.3.3.1.
1858


1857 B/
RUSSIE) 1.3.4.1. 1860 N/S
1861 R/

1.3.5.1.


R-A20 Russie. 1.3.6.1. 1828 1835

RUS 1.3.7.1. 1841
IW S5'8 g 1.3.7.2. 1843
R-A12 P jSSIE. 1.3.7.3. 1872

RUS 1.3.8.1. 1841 1842


S1.3.9.1. 1854


1.3.10.1.


1.4.1.4.


(?)


49






V. Bureau frontiere Hamburg Hamburg border office Crenzpostamt
Hamburg


1.5.1.


RUSSIE..P 1811
HAMBURG


VI. Belgique bureau ambulant Est II
Eis.bahnpostamt Est II



1.6.1.


Belgium TPO Est II Belgien


VII. France


Frankrelch
Bureaux ambulants


Travelling post offices


1.7.1.1.

1.7.1.2.






BIBLIOGRAPHY:


Leo De Clercq:
Denis Vandervelde:
James Van der Linden:

W. Kobsch&tzky:


"Aus Russland", Sint-Niklaas, 1975.
"Aus Russland". D.A.S.V., 1969.
"Catalogue de marques de passage",
Editions Baeten & Cie, Brussels, 1977.
"Streckenatlas der Deutschen Eisenbahnen".


ACCOUNTANCY MARKINGS ON


PRE-UPU MAIL


We will now view under this heading the handstruck markings
classified under this heading in"BIOPOST", issue No.10 by Mr. James
Van der Linden and pertaining to our spheres of collecting. Before
the formation of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, the exchange
of mail was regulated by postal conventions between,two countries or
groups of countries and "article markings" were used to.group the
letters destined for a specific country under a certain convention
article number.

(a) French Accountancy Markings under the Convention of 1.1.1857.


s 1874 1875 B/
d q2 1879 N/S
SFE YR



RUSSIE AMB. ERQUELINES A 1874 R/

RUSSIE AMB. LIL. CAL. A


--







Article 36: Letters from Moldavia, Wallachia, European Turkey
(via Austria), Sweden, Norway, Russia & Poland, passing
through France and addressed to Great Britain.
Article 74: Letters as above, passing through France and.
going to the island of Malta.
Article 74: Modified on 1 July 1860 for letters from the above
countries and passing through France.
(b) Additional new articles of 25 Nov.1861 (London) and 27 Nov.
1861 (Paris), which went into force as of 1 Jan. 1862.
FR.
Article 44: Letters as above, also from the Ionian Islands and
passing through France.
(c) Postal Convention between France and Austria of 1.1. 1858.

Article 28: Mail from France via Austria to Russia and Poland.
Known applied from 1862 to 1870.
(d) Postal Convention between France and Prussia of 1.7. 1858.
Modified subsequently on 1.1.1862 and 1.1.1866 for unpaid mail
from France, passing through Prussia, for Norway & Sweden, Poland
and Russia.

1.1. 1858 1.1. 1862 1.1. 1866
F./33 F/33 (2 types) F./42
I F. 0 42)&


(e) Postal Convention between France and Brazil of 1.10. 1860.

Article 22: Letters from Papal States, Malta, Greece, Two
Sicilies, Denmark, Norway & Sweden, Ionian Islands, Egypt,
Turkey, French Colonies, Russia and Poland.
(f) Postal Convention between France and Switzerland of 1.10.1865.
Article 31: Letters from Norway & Sweden, Russia and Poland.

(g) Postal Convention between France and Portugal of 1.9.1866.
Article 45: Lettersfrom the Papal States, Greece, Malta, F I 45 j
Norway & Sweden, Russia and Poland.
(h) Prussian P-Numeral Markings applied on unpaid mail passing through
Prussia to France and originating from Russia and Poland.
1.7. 1858 1.1. 1862 1.1. 1866

* P.35. P. 33. P. 38.

Unpaid mail, passing through Prussia and France to countries beyond:

P. 41. P 38 45. 51








POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS


by Alex Artuchov

As many of you have already guessed this serialized article
is leading up to a new zemstvo catalogue. The format featuring
the zemstvo herald, descriptive facts relating to the district
as based on Speer's Zemstvo Gazetteer and a table relating
Schmidt to Chuchin catalogue numbers will be the one in the
new catalogue.

The first volume of some 200-250 pages could be ready as
early as this spring. Since a limited printing of 250-300
copies is anticipated interested parties are invited to
reserve copies. Advance notice will be given on this basis.
Otherwise, further notice will be published in subsequent
issues of the Post-Rider.

BOROVICHY/BOPOBHMH
(Novgorod Prov.)
!*SiIII 1Iiii i EIIIgoIii Roij lo III IIUII IIII IEU 3hi l iii go$ INi ll I Ei EgiEiiiiEii WEi iiiii lgoiiiiE iEiiiEi iEiEii L

Borovichy is located in the south central portion
of Novgorod Province. In 1900 its population was
9,400.

The local soil was poor for agriculture and coal
mining was a major activity. The area became
quite well known in the late 19th century for the
production of excellent accordions.
Left bkgrd-
Borovichy issued stamps between 1868 and 1911. blue
blue
Sun- gold
:Rt. 1 bkgrd.-
silver
:Rudder- wood
111 I lll614llllllllllllllllll lll l I IN I I I is is i I 1111111111111 111 fi i ll is;

1868 (?)

Lithographed in black and colour on smooth white paper, brownish
gum, 20 x 24 mm, imperforate, sheet of 32 (8 x 4), used stamps
are usually cancelled with pen and ink with what appears to be
the initials of the postal clerk.










1. 5 kop. black and brown or lilac red 25.00










Varieties
a) The 5 in the SW corner has no end ball at the bottom.
(8th stamp on the sheet)

b) The 5 in the SW corner has half of the end ball at the
bottom. (28th stamp in the sheet)


1872

Diamond shaped, lithographed in black and colour on smooth
white paper, white gum, 17 x 22 mm, stamps separated by
thin lines, imperforate, known in single copies only, used
stamps cancelled in pen and ink.


2. 5 kop. black and brown red


75.00


1874

Lithographed,in black and colour on yellow paper, brown-yellow
gum, 18 x 26 mm, imperforate, sheet of 36 (6 x 6), used
stamps cancelled with pen and ink.


3. 5 kop. black and red on yellow paper


5.00


Plate Flaws
Through a partial sheet reconstruction the following constant
flaws are known:

Stamp 1 A short yellow line extends from the right leg of the
letter A in BOPOBHqCKAH.
Stamp 5 There is a yellow dot under the xJ of the word on
the left.


53











Stamp 6 There is a small yellow line attached to the bottom
of the C in the word on the left.
Stamp 10 -There is a yellow dot in the NW corner.
Stamp 11 -The black spot in the head of the A in the word at
the top is only half of the normal size and irregular.
Stamp 13 -There is a yellow dot next to the q of nHOTOBAH.
Stamp 16 -There is a yellow spot over the K of 3EMCKAH.
Stamp 17 -A thin red line connects the K in the word at the
bottom to the red field in the centre.
Stamp 18 -There is a break in the thin left frame line next
to the top left corner. A yellow line on the yellow
top frame line above the K in 3EMCKAH. There is a
black dot over the T of nHTb. The letter 5 of IO7TOBAH
has a serif like extension at the top right.
Stamp 20 -There are yellow dots in the NW corner, over the E
of the top word and another under the first 0 of the
left word.
Stamp 25 -There is a comma shaped spot next to the last A and
a dot under the first A in the word at the bottom.
Stamp 26 -There is a comma shaped dot next to the second A
of the bottom word.
Stamp 32 -There is a yellow dot in the NW corner.


1876
Provisional Issue (March 10 to April 15)

Due to the change of the postage rate from 5 to 3 kop, a provisional
issue was introduced while the new 3 kop. issue was in preparation.
This stamp with a rather primitive design was designed by Eduard
Daulberg the Zemstvo land surveyor.
Lithographed in bronze on smooth white paper, white gum, sheet of 25
(5 x 5) with 25 types, imperforate, 1570 stamps issued.










4. 3 kop. bronze 350.00


Forgeries
Dangerous forgeries exist. They are often found pasted on old
letters from which the dates have been carefully cut away. They
can be identified by comparison to genuine stamps and do not
resemble any of the known types.


0









1876 (April 15)

Similar in design to the issue of 1874 but with value changed
from 5 kop. to 3, lithographed in black and colour on yellow
paper, brownish gum, imperforate, sheet of 60 (10 x 6) with 2
types.


5. 3 kop. black and blue on yellow paper

6. 3 kop. black and blue green on yellow paper


6.00

60.00


The Two Types

T.1 The letter P in the word TPH is 1i mm from the top frame
line and the letter H is small.

T. 2- The letter P in the word TPH is 3/4 mm from the frame
line and the letter H is larger.

Sheet Layout


Minor Constant Varieties
The study of sheet material has revealed
of the minor constant varieties:


7th stamp


16th stamp


Bth stamp


the following as some





P


45th stamp


55th stamp


52nd stamp


1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2

1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2

1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1

1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2








1878 (end)
similar to the issue of 1876, the word TPH is in block letters,
the centre circle was a thin line outside the circle and not
inside.
Lithographed in black and colour on yellow paper, white gum,
sheet of 300 (25 x 12) with 9 transfer blocks of 3 x 3 with
differences between them as shown below on a diagram of a
reconstructed sheet, the print in general is poorer than for
the previous issues particularly on the late printings, used
stamps are cancelled with pen and ink.

The Sheet Layout

2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 .1 2 3 1 2 3
5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6
8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9

4 5 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6
7 8 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9
2 2 9 L 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
5 5 S P 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6
8 8 7 T 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9
1 1 2 3 1 23 1 2 3 12 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
4 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6
77 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 978 9


7. 3 kop. black and green


0.75


Shades : yellow green, gray green, olive green and brown green.
Varieties: green overprint shifted
break in centre circle
left frame line strongly retouched
spot over AH of 3EMCKAH.
double background
various plate flaws

The Nine Types


Type 1. White spot
under H in H0O-
ITOBA5


a


Type 2. Bump over
3 in 3EMCKA .
Dot in circle under
T in nOqTO-
BA .



m)u


Type 3. Breaks in
right outer frame.

I







Type 4. Nick in I
in the word nH- -
qTOBAH Breaks
in frame line over
H in InqTO-
BAH R




Tyvoe 5. Dot on left
frame line, SW cor-
ner. Dot on B in
HOqTOBAH Spot
under n in HO--
qTOBAH




Type 6. A spot out-
side outer frame
line at left, over
BO


Type 7. A deformed
B in inscription
at left.




Type 8, Dot on top
outer frame line,
NW corner. Dot over
M in MAPKA .




Type 9. Dot on K
and dot on O in
inscription at left
Two dots inside
outer bottom frame
line, SW corner.

fll4~-E


1886-1891
Lithographed on various papers, 18 x 24 3/4 mm, two editions.

1st Edition (1886, Oct. 16)
Lithographed on smooth grayish white paper, yellowish gray
gum, sheet of 100 (10 x 10) with 6 types and a transfer block
of 3 x 2, some of the horizontal rows are printed inverted as
shown below, the 10th horizontal row was apparently added to
the sheet after it was printed which accounts for inconsistent
spacing between the 9th and 10th rows and a difference in the
shade of the stamps on the same sheet, perforated 13s x 13,
known imperforate and imperforate horizontally or vertically.


8.3 kop. yellowish rose
imperforate


0.50
5.00


.I








The Sheet Layout


1 12 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 6
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1
4 5 6 6 1 6 4 5 6 4
4564564564
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2
4 5 6 4 *5 6 4 5 6 5
1 2 3 9 S 1 2 3 3
4 5 6 E T 4 5 6 6
C Z T Z CT Z T


Second Edition (1891, Jan.)
Similar to the first edition but without the little circle in
the centre of the arms, slightly brighter and cleaner print,
white paper, brownish yellow gum, sheet unknown, perforated 11i.


9. 3 kop. carmine rose


0.50


1893-1894
Similar to previous issue, thicker letters, the 3 of value
is slightly smaller, two semi-circular lines under the 3
while there were three in the previous issue, finer network
in the background, lithographed on smooth white paper, white
gum, perforated 11i, two editions, sheet unknown.


1st Edition (1893, Aug.)
Perforated 11 both fine and coarse, also known perforated
through the middle both vertically and horizontally.


10. 3 kop. carmine red


1.00


2nd Edition (1894, June)
Similar to first edition with name of printer at the bottom
(JHT. M. KO3JIOBA), 6 types in a transfer block of 3 x 2.


11. 3 kop. carmine red


0.50







The Six Types


n


Type 1. Type 2. Type 3.




0 M3 3

Type 4. Type 5. Type 6.



1898-1909
Design similar to the 4 kop. Imperial issue of 1889,
lithographed on white paper, perforated 11, 7 editions.

1st Edition (1898)
Stamps spaced 4-4mm apart horizontally, on smooth yellowish white
paper, shiny yellowish gum, double impressions are known.






12. 3 kop. lilac brown 1.50

2nd Edition (1900 ?)
Similar to first edition, Slightly redder colour, the three
small dots in the centre of the oval are clearly seen, the outer
line of the shield is broken in the left bottom corner, the
stamps are spaced as in the first edition, sheet unknown.

13. 3 kop. reddish lilac brown 1.50








3rd Edition (1901)
Similar to previous editions, with three vertical lines across
the sun, stamps spaced 5 mm apart, sheet unknown.


14. 3 kop. brown or dark brown


2.00


4th Edition (1903)
Stamps are spaced 6 mm apart, without the dot on the vertical
line dividing the coat of arms, three of the sun's rays are
connected by a horizontal line, lightly toned paper, brown
yellow gum, sheet of 100 (10 x 10) with a transfer block of
5 x 2.


15. 3 kop. yellow brown or chestnut brown


5.00


5th Edition (1906)
Stamps are spaced 6 mm apart, two of the upper rays at the
right are connected by a horizontal line, there is a colour
spot between 3 and 0 of KOn., all thin frame lines extend
beyond the corner semi circles, sheet of 130 (10 x 13) with
a transfer block of 10 x 2 repeated six times and with an
additional row of 10 containing stamps 11 to 20, smooth white
paper, white gum, perforated 11.


16. 3 kop. gray brown


0.50








6th Edition (1908)
Stamps spaced 3 3/4 4 mm apart, the vertical line across
the sun's surface has been removed,as has the spot under the
3 on most stamps, the sheet has been rearranged to contain
154 stamps (11 x14) with a transfer block of 3 x 5, the
differences between the stamps in the transfer block are
insignificant, the paper gum and perforations are the same a!
for the proceeding editions, known vertically imperforate.

Sheet Layout


17. 3 kop. lilac brown


0.50


7th Edition (1911)
Stamps are spaced 4--5 mm apart, there is a dot under the 3,
sheet unknown, transfer block of 4 x 3, perforated 11i, the
sheet margins are imperforate.


18 3 kop. gray brown


1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5

7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8

10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11

13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5

7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8

10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11

13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2

4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5

7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8

10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11


0.50









Schmidt/Chuchin Catalogue Cross-Reference


Sch- Schmidt Catalogue Numbers
Ch- Chuchin Catalogue Numbers

Sch Ch Sch Ch Sch Ch Sch Ch
1 1 4 4 7 7 10 10

2 2 5 5 8 8 11 11

3 3 6 6 9 9 12-18 12





THE RUSSIAN PHILATELIST

Eleven issues of the "Russian Philatelist" were published by
the late A.M. Rosselevitch between 1961 and 1969. The remainder
of the stock containing many very interesting and highly
informative articles has been turned over to the C.S.R.P. for
distribution by Mrs. E.A. Rosselevitch. All proceeds are to
be donated to charity.

Limited Quantities of the following issues are available:

In Russian: Nos. 5,7,8,9,10,11

In English: Nos. 5,7,10,11

All issues are $5.00 US postpaid. Remittance is payable to the
Canadian Society of Russian Philately.

WWWWWW*********WW**WWWWW********WWWW**************WWW*** w***







MIAMI V I S E

MIAMI M I C E

M I A M I N I C E



15 DIFFERENT RUSSIA STAMPS 25

with RUSSIA APPROVALS


Ya. Pehr P.O. Box 3012, Ocean View Branch, Miami Beach,
Florida, 33140, U S A



Ei 1111 iiiil I i i i iiiii iiiIiini l ii niiiiii in I iulill lliili


__








THE PRESENCE OF THE ITALIAN NAVY IN THE BLACK SEA 1942-44


i by Luciano Buzzetti

(translated from "La Posta Militare" No.47 for June 1986,pp.11-15, by
kind permission of the author).

On 14 January 1942, probably after the wave of successful actions by
Italian naval attack units at Gibraltar and Alexandria, Egypt, Germany
officially asked the Italian Navy to send assault units to the Black
Sea, where the presence of the Roumanian Navy was not sufficient to
prevent the operations of reinforcement by sea carried out by the
Soviet Navy to the stronghold of Sevatopol', which was completely
besieged by land. The Italian government adhered to the request of
its ally and the Navy decided on the despatch of the following units:-

(a) A squadron of 35-ton submarines (mini-submarines with a crew of 4
men), comprising 6 units with identification numbers CB1 to CB6.
(b) A squadron of 4 units of 20-ton MAS, numbered MAS 570 to 573.
(c) A squadron of 5 motor torpedo boats, numbered MTSM 204, 206, 208,
210 & 216 and 5 MTM vessels.

The MAS left Venezia on 22 April 1942 and went via Vienna to Constanta
Roumania, arriving there on 4 May. The submarines went by rail on 25
April from La Spezia and arrived in Constanta on 2 May. The special
units left La Spezia in a truck column on 6 May, arriving in Vienna
the same day, in L'viv/L'vov on the 8th., Simferopol' on the 10th. and
Getting to Foros on the night of 22/23 May 1942.

The Italian Navy organised its own base at Constanya, dealing with
administrative issues directly with the Roumanians and another base
was set up at Yalta in the Crimea. Constanta was the main base, where
all the units were repaired and the submarines stationed. The MAS were
stationed mainly at Yalta, to where the submarines were transferred, as
the point of departure for war missions. The submarines arrived there
on 1 June (CB1-3) and 9 June (CB4-6). The CB6 was sunk on 13 June in a
Soviet air raid. The MAS arrived at Yalta between 27 May (571-3) and 6
June (570-72).

The arrival of the Italian naval units reduced notably the possibility
of reinforcing the Sevastopol' stronghold, which the Italian sailors
helped to make it capitulate on 2 July 1942. On the same day, Italian
MTSM's entered the harbour at Balaklava, being gladly received by
Roumanian troops, who had taken it. The Italian submarines then
returned to Constanta,' while the MAS's remained at Yalta and the
assault units at Foros.

Another two MAS (Nos. 568-69) left La Spezia on 18 April 1942,
followed at brief intervals by MAS Nos. 574-76. These units took about
15 days to get to Yalta. The submarines CB1,2,3 & 6 also re-entered
Yalta on 18 April, from where the CB Nos. 2 & 3 proceeded to Burgas
(Bulgaria) on 13 Sept. and re-entered Constanta on 20 Sept. 1942.

* Again because of an air raid on Yalta on 9 Sept., the MAS Nos. 571 &
573 were lost, while the MAS Nos. 567, 569 & 572 were badly damaged.
The MAS Nos. 566, 568, 570, 572 and the special units proceeded to
Mariupol' on 6 October, where the latter remained all winter, while the
MAS's went back to Yalta and Sevastopol'. The base at Yalta was








abandoned on 2 Feb. 1943 and the MAS's were transferred to Feodosia and
then to Anapa.

Meanwhile, the Italian government had decided to withdraw its men from
the Black Sea. The MAS's returned to Yalta on 13 May 1943 and were
consigned to the German Navy on 20 May in a solemn ceremony. The
Moccagatta column of special units was the first to begin the return to
the homeland. Moving from Sevastopol' on 24/25 February 1943 to
Constanfa, it arrived in Udine on 16 March. The submarines remained in
the Black Sea, as the Italian Navy did not think it opportune to turn
them over to Roumania, nor did it accept their being used by the
Germans with Croatian crews.

Thus, there still remained about 100 Italian servicemen stationed on
the Black Sea, at Constanta, or with the CB submarines at Sevastopol',
to where the latter had been transferred and had continued to operate,
sinking another Soviet vessel. These units joined the Italian Social
Republic (the pro-German Italian government formed in Northern Italy
on 28 Sept. 1943, as a counterpart to the Badoglio government, which
had joined the Allies) and continued to fight until 23 August 1944,
when Roumania signed an armistice with the USSR, forcing its allies to
leave its territory within 24 hours.

Scuttling their vessels, the Italians constituted a small column of 59
men, 6 labourers and 4 women, going via Varna and Sofia (Bulgaria had
already passed over to the side of the victors), Nish, Belgrade and
Vienna, succeeding to arrive in Vicenza on 16 Sept. 1944, with the loss
of only one person.

Postal Services

The Italian naval units sent to the Black Sea maintained administrative
independence, as we have already shown. The postal service was
therefore staffed with Italian personnel and, with the exception of the
very first days, the mail leaving Constanta had as an indication of the
sender Feldpost Nr.12965 (MAS-Schnellbootsbegleitschiff "Karl Peters")
and Feldpost Nr.23493 (submarines: Italianische Marine-Verb&nde -
Schwarzes Meer), bearing only Italian censorship marks and cachets
allocated to the units. I have determined that the mail leaving Yalta
was serviced by Feldpost Nr.25091 (Batterie Jalta-Marine).

In the period after 8 September 1943, I have found mail originating
from Feldpost Nr.13144 (Hafenkdt. Sewastopol u. Hafentiberw.-stelle
Sewastopol = 13144B) and Feldpost Nr.06946 (Stab Marine-Artillerie
Abteilung 601) and there naturally did not exist any longer any trace
of Italian markings. It is now certain that the only Italian postal
markings used at the base in Constanta were those of the "IV FLOTTIGLIA
MAS-BO" (2 types) and "SQUADRIGLIA SOMERGIBILI C.B." (for the Submarine
Squadron), while cachets of the separate units have not yet been seen.

Bibliography

(a) C. Balestra & A. Cecchi:"I servizi postal della Marina Italiana
nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale" (The Postal Services of the Italian
Navy in the Second World War), published in 1974 by G. Orlandini.
(b) Ufficio Storico della Marina Militare:"Attivita della Marina in
Mar Nero e sul Lago Ladoga" (Official History of the Fighting Navy:
The Activities of the Navy in the Black Sea and on Lake Ladoga),
Vol. XI, Rome, 1962.
64






























One of the first letters sent by Italian
sailors, who had just arrived at the
Black Sea. The Italian postal service had
not yet functioned and the letter went
through the German Feldpost.
SZona sprovvsta dl francoboll I


--5 -- 5,ctL


JY l/t a Q7 C^^rr *' 3L





One of the two postal markings used by
a the Italian Navy on the Black Sea.
(n


Sf2 -3-43
Ns























7 -
'; Q :* 7
C2


COMMANDO IV FLOTTIGLIA M.A.S. and IV
FLOTTIGLIA M.A.S.-DETTAGLIO are the two
cachets most frequently found on mail of-
Italian sailors. The Guard Marine Majno,
sender of these cards, was in command of
the M.A.S. 568, which sank a 5000-ton
steamer near Novorossiisk on 5 Sept.1942.

Zona sprovvista di francobolli = Zone
deprived of postage stamps.


_ ---- 7








~ -i ~-~




d.7





-----* -I -
HT:L. 1 C

-...3c~r45
c -c -~
-_II

'1' = Ie -t::3-3. LC;


-~ .-. 'a


A- t: $JW1h skUL41
.aiOb 9416 :


" .Q
Ir :---- ^ ^


[ ^ .i ^~
.1. -H -


WARSAW-ST. PETERSBURG


RAILWAY CANCELLATIONS


by Dr. James Mazepa.

The late Miroslaw Bojanowicz in his book THE KINGDOM OF POLAND has
supplied us with the most up-to-date listing of the numerals and stop
numbers used for the stations on the Warsaw-St. Petersburg railway line.
However, many gaps exist in our knowledge of this route. Examples of the
numerals in hexagons of dots can be found on Poland No.l and on Russian
stamps and stationery of the period. Examples should exist on Polish
stationery, but I have not seen any. Two interesting examples of Russian
postal stationery are shown opposite, both posted on Mail Coach No.2.

The first was mailed on 21 Feb. 1863 at station No.24 (unidentified) and
arrived at St. Petersburg two days later. The stamp die is cancelled
No. 15 in the hexagon of dots. The second example is quite interesting.
It was posted on 21 April 1863 at station No.37, well known to be
WIERZBOLOW and addressed to Riga. The die is cancelled with No.16 in the
hexagon of dots. It is quite unusual to find the cds of the mail coach
applied to the front of an envelope. Also, this seems to be an un-
authorised usage of Russian stationery in the Kingdom of Poland, as the
postal directives clearly stated that only the Polish 10-kop. stamp and
Polish stationery were permitted within the Kingdom and to Russia. I
might add that I have seen several examples of the Russian 10-kopek
stamp, perf. 12%, used from No.282 (Kibarty) during this period, but
this is the first example of stationery I have seen used in this manner.

In a recent issue of the BJRP, an author claims to have Nos. 10 & 13 in
the hexagons of dots and assigns their use to the Warsaw-St. Petersburg
line. I would be grateful if readers would confirm this and any other
information from items in their collections which document the
combinations of mail coach numbers and numerals in the hexagons of dots,
as I am very skeptical of Nos. 10 & 13. If they can be documented with
letters, itwould indeed be a significant new discovery.


Een 1-_

-P Lin 4 4
.IPcN 4iJ
0)



0) 4 -M

(n a) P-
0)0)4 r ) 4-4
4 rot~ ro 10)

o W 0)LW


En a) P0I

t20) C



rH 0) Md L
H 4 0) %dI4
0)?) J0)
Q) a IX a)lc







H M M H 4
H2 CdCH-


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C)
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L








THE "HOLY WAR" UPDATE


by various authors.

The original article by Ya. Afangulskii in "The Post-Rider"No.18. pp.
36-66 sparked quite a lot of comment from our readers. It was meant so
to do. In spite of the unpleasant subject, most of the response was very
appreciative and the new information is given hereunder, as follows:-

G.G. Verbizky, Vestal, N.Y., USA.

Here are a few comments re Section 19: The Vlasov Army. In addition to
the cancellation dates cited, I have the 4r. value postmarked ST.O.K./
20 SEP.43/SLOBODA, as well as the 10r. with the STADTSORTSKOMMANDANTUR
marking and the same date. I can also refer you to the magazine DEUTSCHE
ZEITUNG FOR BRIEFMARKENKUNDE, No.22 for 1959, p.1499, containing a short
article by Fischer & Sanwald about this issue. It was apparently
ordered by the Propaganda Department W of the Ministry of Posts in
Berlin from the Malz firm. The 50k., 1 & 2r. were printed in sheets of
50, the 4r. in sheets of 35 and the 10r. in sheets of 30 and the maximum
number of complete sets that could exist was 16,300. The 4r. value was
printed in violet-brown and measured 32.5 x 27.5mm. The stamps were
delivered to the Propaganda Department W on 12 July 1943. The five
values are also known printed together in an imperforate specimen sheet,
measuring 11.3 x 22 cm. in the five different colours, as colour trials.



Re the Vlasov Army issue,I can advise the 10r. stamp
cancelled ST.O.K./15 SEP.43/SLOBODA, as shown.
Turning now to Section 15 about the Serbian anti-
Bolshevik label,I can illustrate here a postcard
sent from Pogarevac 22.10.43 to Beograd (Belgrade).
It can be seen that the label was NOT affixed by the
sender, as it was
stuck OVER the 77
postmark,probably
by the German
censorship in ..
Belgrade. That 7 4
seems to
confirm that
there was no
sympathyere in _
occupied Serbia
for the German
attack on the
USSR. u-

Stalin's comment A
that the USSR Tp IV
was not
interested in a -
postal service f,,
for Germans was o-t;
not quite .
correct. The
Soviet Army had taken 93,000 Germans prisoner in the Stalingrad
68


I







disaster and, as with earlier German POWs who had fallen into Soviet
hands, they were instructed to write cards to their relatives, telling
them that they were in good health and treated well. Such cards are
known dated as early as 28.10.42 and sent via Ankara, Turkey and
Switzerland to Germany. They were all impounded by the German censors
and never delivered to the addressees, as the authorities realized that
the propaganda effect on the German civilian population would have been
devastating. One such card was illustrated in a 1960 issue of the
magazine SAMMLER-EXPRESS, published in East Berlin. Any surviving cards
must therefore be great rarities, as none got through while WWII was
still on. The earliest known usage of Soviet Red Cross & Red Crescent
postcards issued to German POWs is dated 4.7.1945 and sent from Camp
No.57, in the Memel/Klaipeda-Heydekrug area. In other words, the USSR
not only won the military war with the Third Reich, it also won the
propaganda war, as the continued silence only served to increase the
anxiety among the German civilian population.

Coming now to Section 8: The French
Volunteers, we can see at left what is
-'I.apparently a philatelic cover, addressed
'- in German to Lance-Corporal (Private
-i~ First Class) Peter Schmitz and showing
Item No.8 (artillery at Borodino) used
-, As pointed out by Mr. Afangulskii, Radom
Swas near the French training camp at Dqba.



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT

BALTIC MAIL AUCTION.

I have decided to continue the BALTIC MAIL AUCTION, following upon the
tragic accidental death early in September 1986 of my friend and
compatriot Vello M&ndvere. Like Vello, I have been a collector all my
life and, for the past 25 years, have been the chairman of the
Estonian Philatelic Club in Canada. During the past 20 years, I have
also been working closely with other Baltic philatelic clubs and have
been president of BALTPEX exhibitions or have worked as a member of
their executive committees.

I recognize the need for a specialised Baltic Auction, where collectors
of the Baltic area can obtain the elusive items which they seek and
also to dispose of their unwanted material in the Imperial Russian,
independent and occupation fields.

The closing date for the upcoming BALTIC MAIL AUCTION is 2 DECEMBER
1986. Please write in immediately for a free copy of the catalogue.

The next auction is scheduled for March 1987. I would appreciate it if
you would write to me first in English, Estonian or German, describing
what you have to offer, so as to avoid excessive duplication of the
material to be offered.
HENN MAESTE,
91 Old Mill Drive,
TORONTO, Ontario, Canada M6S 4K2.

L Telephone: (416) 763-2933.










PHILATELIC SHORTS ,

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that o*
could use some clarifying information, or might there j oo00 o
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 0
newly acquired item ? 0 ~~o a0

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers s

G. Adolph Ackerman, Worthington, Ohio, USA.















several feaure ta bert e xiai n ing. oIBa tA H is ap a phltlTaj with
e o .a... '.. f a*asc*-- -











-the 30-kop. imprinted stamp and the 20-kop. airmail handstamped with a
Nazi eagle-with-swastika marking and two 6-Pfg. Hitler head adhesives
,, '4 1.,. H... e'aoA pr








added to the envelope. All four items have been cancelled with a
captured Soviet military cancelled, reading SSSR/VOEN. POCHTO/VAYA BAZA

S-iita ta ae epit it apaa the covr

















is not an airmail item, the Soviet postage definitely invalid during
.... ,... .. .. ....: ... .. .. ....








Th e Soviet 3kop. postal stationeryThe envelope showwas addressed "Postlagernd" i.e. Poste Remonstante





or General Delivery that beKhar'kov examining. the Ukraine apparently may philor may not have
gonthe thr30-kop. imprinted the postampl service during the Nazi occupation, as it has
Nazi eagle-with-swas a m. ngA and w H r hd


8.11.41 (USSR-Military Postal Base). Despite its appearance, the cover
is not an airmail item, the Soviet postage definitely invalid during


that time. The envelope was addressed "Postlagernd" i.e. Poste Restante
or General Delivery at Khar'kov in the Ukraine and may or may not have




gone through the postal service during the Nazi occupation, as it has
NOT been censored. A









]


I J- ..~'- .A
I .' ..
Z--


Oi / ..'t'' *
I 'A, ~ r


- A' -7 ALn.'A-4;- -


Marcel Lamoureux,
Providence, Rhode Island, USA.


The illustrations just above are of the front and back of the first two
receipts in two vertical strips of 5 that I possess. The text on the back
reads:"TO WHERE AND TO WHOM THE PARCEL IS ADDRESSED/WITHOUT VALUE/
REGISTERED/No./C.O.D. to the amount of r. k./With the weight of lbs./
Paid in stamps r. k."The nice part about all these receipts is that
they were used in the PETROGRAD-5 post office on 10 July 1919. Any usage
in that year is always very worthwhile, as it was at the height of the
Civil War. The first receipt bore stamps to the value of 19r. 25k. and
the second 44r. 65k. Does anyone else have similar examples?

EDITORIAL COMMENT: These receipts were obviously "liberated" from the
post office parcel receipt books and are occasionally found on the
philatelic market. The examples so far seen have all come from Petrograd
and should always be examined for the postage, as they are often a
fertile source for usages of the 35k. & 70k. Sword-cutting-chain stamps.
Those two stamps have always been hard to find postally used, although
distribution was quite wide until the chaos of the Civil War intervened.
SDesigned and engraved by the noted Latvian artist Richards Zarips, they
were even on sale in Riga during the short tenure of the First Latvian
Soviet Republic (January to May 1919) and mostly used philatelically.


-~~~~~~ol Ali)"iI 11' ,1EC)IIUI I)tlbJIAV
K04) ifh 1

jVj-A ~
SaoIt
73*
FE-U1Ih V








0 ttn tg-jt!

BAR
AP .,-~
M- .. -

'N N2 fO 2





REVIEW OF




LITERATURE








STANLEY GIBBONS STAMP CATALOGUE, PART 10: RUSSIA. The third edition of
this soft-bound catalogue, now comprising 350 pages and published by
Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd., 5 Parkside, Christchurch Road,
Ringwood, Hampshire BH24 3SH, England. Retail price in the U.K. = 13.50.

As has been previously stated, this is the finest catalogue in the
English language about our spheres of collecting. The third edition,
which appeared in September 1986, contains contributions of information
from the Canadian Society of Russian Philately, as well as CSRP members
E.G. Peel & Rev. L.L. Tann, who are also BSRP members, together with
L.A. Kolot. The pricing is realistic, the listings semi-specialised and
Poland No.l, the "Lone Adhesive" of 2 Jan. 1860, has rightly been
included in this edition, as the Kingdom of Poland was part of the
Russian Empire at the time. Many new varieties have been added this
time and the catalogue is available at a special price for CSRP members.
Please mention our Society, when writing to the publishers.
IMPERIAL RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA, PART VIII: BAKU & BAKU
GUBERNIA, by P.T. Ashford. A 94-page booklet, issued softbound by the
author and available from him for US $5.00 in banknotes, postpaid, at
9 Pentre Close, Ashton, Chester CH3 8BR, England.
Continuing in the well known format by the leading specialist in the
field, this part covers the Russian Imperial postal markings applied in
the city and the six uyezdy or subdivisions of the province of Baku in
Azerbaijan. With the help of other enthusiasts, Mr. Ashford has been
able in these pages to marshal an impressive array of data and rare
usages. If ever there were an area that could be exhibited effectively
at an international show, then this is it.
The previous seven parts of this standard work are still available from
the author at US $5.00 each, postpaid. A real bargain and now is the
time to complete one's file of this wonderful series!
FILATELIAI SZEMLE (Philatelic Review), the monthly magazine of MABEOSZ,
the Federation of Hungarian Stamp Collectors and available from
Postafi6k 4 sz., H-1387, Budapest, Hungary.

In the issues for December 1985 and January 1986, Dr. Bela Simady
continues his thorough study of the"Stamps overprinted in the Carpatho-
Ukraine in 1945"and also gives valuable information on the postal rates
which were fixed in the Hungarian pengo" currency and matched the values
shown on the surcharged stamps. Notes are included on the postal







cancellations, censorship marks and the forgeries. We hope to include
all this valuable information in a future issue of "The Post-Rider".

*OOST EUROPA FILATELIE (The
Philately of Eastern Europe), y
organ of the Dutch Society x
FILATELISTISCHE CONTACTGROEP
OOST-EUROPA, appearing four
times yearly as a 24-page
booklet. Subscription 22.50 ,
gulden per year from the __
Secretary, A. Welvaart, /V
Boomstede 424, NL 3608 BE
MAARSEN, Holland.

This is a very ambitious
undertaking, as just any one
of the countries covered
would justify a magazine in
its own right! The editor is
Ivo Steyn, whose magnificent O
FER article appears elsewhere
in this issue of "The Post-
Rider". Number 2 for 20 September 1986 of OOST EUROPA FILATELIE is of
especial interest to collectors in our sphere, as Mr. Steyn has written
notes on SPECIAL RUSSIAN MARKINGS and in particular about the postal
functions of Russian telegraph offices. Many of us have seen registered
items from telegraph offices in Moscow, Riga and St. Petersburg, but Mr.
Steyn has now floored us by showing an absolutely lovely registered
example, sent on 29 March 1889 from Rovnoin the Volyn province of the
Ukraine. Such an unusual item would appeal to various classes of
collectors: postal historians, Imperial Russian and Ukrainian
philatelists, not to mention anyone interested in the telegraph system.
The same issue of this magazine also contains two articles by our
subscriber August LeppA of J&rvenp&&, Finland, about the Russian FPO No.
114, which operated in L'viv/L'vov/Lemberg in 1915, as well as writing
about transit markings of Riga in the Russian and independent eras.Great!

SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER-23 (The Soviet Collector No.23). A 152-page
paperback "sbornik" or collection of articles, issued by the All-Union
Society of Philatelists and published by "Radio i svyaz'" in an edition
of 40,000 copies. Price 95 kop. Printed in Moscow in 1985.

This issue contains Postal Tarifs of Pre-Revolutionary Russia, by B.
Kaminskii; WWI Mutes, by A. Levin; Classification of Russian Pre-Stamp
Markings, by M. Dobin; Estonian Pre-Stamp Markings, by A. Linnard; Penza
Zemstvo Post, by M. Minskii; The 1928 & 1932 Olympics, by V. Furman; The
Victory Theme on Postcards, by M. Zabochen'; Pushkin on Medals, by A.
Gdalin & D. Robinson; Mysterious Mint Marks, by V. Krivchenko; Moscow
Olympic Coins, by N. Dashevskii; Soviet Medals, by A. Shaten; Forgotten
Order of Merit, by E. Lozovskii; Soviet War Bonds, by D. Senkevich;
Yenisei Cooperative Vouchers 1922-23, by A. Stepanov & S. Dogadin;
Kazakhstan Currency in the Civil War, by V. Globenko; Maritime Badges,
by M. Forafonov; Lenin Badges & Labels for the Air Force, by I. Sud and
Riddles in Badges, by B. Litvinov.

In writing about the Estonian Pre-Stamp Period, Ants Linnard sets the
philatelic tone of this issue by saying that "published studies,








especially those from abroad, suffer from basic deficiencies. They have
a purely descriptive character and are based on a small amount of actual
material, thus demonstrating omissions, inaccuracies and sometimes even
mistakes". As there is an appeal published elsewhere in this number from
the Editorial Board for a proposed catalogue of Imperial pre-stamp
markings, based on internal and foreign findings, Comrade Linnard's
remarks are highly unhelpful to say the least. Ya. Afangulskii.

SIBERIA: POSTMARKS AND POSTAL HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE PERIOD, by
P.E. Robinson. A 156-page softbound book in large format,spiral-bound
and issued by the author in Sheffield, England in September 1986.

By the time the first reviews will have appeared in the philatelic press,
the entire printing of 300 copies of this wonderful work will have been
sold out. Quite a tribute to the tremendous amount of work done by the
author and his 31 collaborators, a good 8 of whom are in the USSR; much
of the local research was done by Anatolii Kiryushkin of Minsk. This is
the first book to attempt to list and illustrate purely Siberian
postmarks and the bibliographic sources are impressive; 9 official P.O.
lists alone between 1805 & 1916 have been consulted, the names given in
alphabetic order in the old spelling, followed by transliteration into
English, location by province, status and lengths of operation. All that
followed by illustrations of at least 1400 postmarks, several clear and
detailed maps, railway, steamship and "to pay" marks, comparison of the
Julian and Gregorian calendars, etc., etc. This work cannot be praised
too highly and the CSRP has been able to obtain a supply of the last
remaining copies. Ordering details are given in the Journal Fund (p.75).

ZEITSCHRIFT FOR RUSSISCHE/SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE (Magazine for Russian &
Soviet Philately). The official journal of the Russia-USSR Study Group
in the Federal Republic of Germany. All enquiries to Herr Wolfgang
Nietsch, Spessartstr. 5, D-5300 BONN, Federal Republic of Germany.

No.40 for July 1986 contains Society Notes; extracts from official
German P & T journals 1884 & 1888; Russian WWI Censorship, by B. Pritt;
Czechoslovak Legion, by H. Teitl; Sven Hedin Covers, by H. Dietrich;
Russian Watermarks, from the DBZ 1909; Railway Theme, by K. Schauritsch;
Soviet Postal Coding, by K.W. Geier; K8nigsberg 1946-47, by W. Strobel;
Soviet Posts in Estonia 1940-41, by M. Shmuely; Forgeries from the USSR,
by J. Schneider; DERULUFT, by H. Kupec; Wrangel Army articles by K.W.
Geier & J. Schneider; Extracts from RADIO DE FILINTERN 1928; Literature
Reviews and ending with Questions & Answers and Advertisements.

No. 41 for September 1986 features The Soviet Arctic & Karelia, by F.
L8hrich; Russian Post in China, by A. Rosselevitch; Soviet Special
Cancels, from Philately of the USSR; German, Austrian & Hungarian
Soldiers' Council in Moscow, by H. Teitl; Un-numbered TPO/RPO Routes,
by Dr. E. Kossoy; Polar Philately, by E. Saschenkov; Soviet Outer Space
Theme, by D. Falk; Baltic Soviet Republics 1940-41, by K.W. Geier;
Railway Theme cont'd, by K. Schauritsch; Soviet Sheetlets 1981-86, from
"Die Briefmarke"; Literature Offers; Book Review, by K. Schauritsch and
ending with Questions and Answers and Society Notes. Excellent issues!

SCHWEIZER BRIEFMARKEN-ZEITUNG ::Official monthly organ of the Federation
of Swiss Philatelic Societies. Our subscriber Helmut Weikard keeps up
his fine publicity work with Finnish WWI Red Cross Marking (April 1986)
and describing a Soviet envelope showing the Thomas Mann Museum in
Neringa-Nida in the Klaipdda district of Lithuania (May 1986). Very well
written and great stuff!
74






The Journal Fund
All sales benefit the Society and orders should be made payable to the
CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous
Titles have unfortunately been sold out.

SIBERIA: POSTMARKS AND POSTAL HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE PERIOD, by
P.E. Robinson. A 156-page spiral bound book in large format, copiously
illustrated and a magnificent work of reference. Already sold out from
the publisher AND WE HAVE THE LAST FEW COPIES.Price postpaid US$13.00.

BALTISCHE POSTORTE 1858-1916;(BALTIC POSTAL POINTS 1858-1916), by Harry
von Hofmann. Locations, status & current equivalents of all Russian POs
& agencies in Baltic area, with 2-page preface in German,French,English,
Estonian,Latvian,Lithuanian,Polish & Russian. 286 pages,incl. indices in
Latin & Russian alphabets. A MAGNIFICENT WORK! New supply just in, at an
increased price due to the fall of the dollar, but still a bargain.
Price postpaid US$ 16.00.

A few copies of THE RUSSIAN PHILATELIST NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CSRP:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos 5, 7, 10, 11
All Issues US $5.00 each postpaid.

FORGERY AND REPRINT GUIDE No. 3:(Armenia, 1922 Pictorials), No. 4:
(Armenia, 1923 Pictorials) & No. ll:(Azerbaijan). All illustrations are
double-size and the differences clearly tabulated. Invaluable for the
collectors of Transcaucasia. Set of three booklets: Postpaid US$ 6.50.

CATALOGUE OF THE FRG-USSR BILATERAL PHILATELIC EXHIBITION 19-22 Febr.
1981 in Essen. A 38-page booklet, mostly in German and with a greeting
letter in Russian. Notable for a seminal article by Herr Heinrich Imhof
on the circular suburban train postal markings of Saint-Petersburg,
with latest findings. Price postpaid US$ 2.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR, unless you
read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library series by
one of the world's great humourists. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.

LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow State
University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian grammar, many
phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual for "us monolingual
slobs" as one of our readers put it. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.

SOVIET 4-KOPEK STAMPED ENVELOPE COMMEMORATING "CAPEX-78" HERE IN TORONTO,
CANADA AND WITH SPECIAL EXHIBITION CANCEL IN RUSSIAN. An interesting
souvenir, of which we now have a new supply and which will be mailed
flat anywhere in the world by airmail for US$ 2.00.


ADDITION TO THE ARTICLE "MORE ABOUT THE AUS", BY DR. GEORGE MURDOCH.
Please insert the following acknowledgement before my last paragraph on
p.33 of THE POST-RIDER No.18:-
"The above information also supplements that given by Patrick Campbell in
his 'Back to the Ice Island' article on pages 83-86 of the ROSSICA
JOURNAL, Nos.102-103 of 1982".









THE COLLECTOR ORS CORNER .

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise 1
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a book about the 14-month survival of 10 Jews in the sewers beneath
L'viv/L'vov/Lemberg, until that city was liberated by the Soviet Army
in July 1944, I would appreciate hearing from anyone with information.
DAVID LEE PRESTON, 2611 Swain Street, Philadelphia, Pa., USA 19130.

TSARIST, Denikin & Odessa 1917 paper money available for exchange or
sale. Please write in French or English to: A. MECKEL, Residence Le Clos
d'Alengon, Batiment C4, F-91120, VILLEBONNE-sur-YVETTE, France.

INFORMATION sought concerning periods of usage of laid paper variants of
Russia Scott 19c-28a & 39a and Off. in Turkey 12a-22a. Please send dates,
PO of origin etc. Will also buy or trade other classical material.
Mainly interested in covers, cancels and used blocks.
DAVID JAY, 7206 Sixth Ave. NW, Seattle, Washington. U.S.A. 98117.

WANTED: Russian revenues, fiscal, vignettes, labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bill-of-exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil
War or Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI, 90 Third Ave., Huntington Station, N.Y., U.S.A. 11746.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover: buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

WANTED: Russia 1915-1925 errors, off centre, off colour, inverted
surcharges etc., in singles or blocks. Condition important.
OLEG PANTUHOFF, Jr.,86 Durand Rd., Maplewood, New Jersey, U.S.A. 07040.


SPECIAL NOTE: WE HAVE COMPLETELY SOLD OUT OF ALL PARTS OF "IMPERIAL
RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA". ALL FUTURE ORDERS SHOULD GO
DIRECTLY TO P.T. ASHFORD, 9 PENTRE CLOSE, ASHTON, CHESTER, ENGLAND
CH3 8 BR. PRICE PER PART US$5.00 POSTPAID. CASH WITH ORDER, PLEASE.




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