Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Presenting a bouque...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Mail from the Karelo-Finnish SSR...
 First steps of Soviet airmail service...
 The Soviet airmail in 1923
 More about the AUS (Amigos de la...
 The holy war against Bolshevis...
 Manuscript cancellations on Russian...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner

Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00018
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

00018 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Presenting a bouquet
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Mail from the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1940-1941
        Page 20
        Page 21
    First steps of Soviet airmail service 1922
        Page 22
    The Soviet airmail in 1923
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    More about the AUS (Amigos de la Unión Soviética)
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The holy war against Bolshevism
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Manuscript cancellations on Russian mail
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Review of literature
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The journal fund
        Page 79
    The collectors' corner
        Page 80
Full Text

The Holy War Against Bolshevism

Printed in Cupaod


P.O. BOX 5722 Station'A', TORONTO,


JUNE 1986.


Editorial: Presenting a Bouquet
Correspondence with Canada
The Riga-Dinaburg-Or8~ Railway 1861-1917
Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
Mail from the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1940-1941
First Steps of Soviet Airmail Service 1922
The Soviet Airmail in 1923
More about the Amigos de la Uni6n Sovietica
The Holy War against Bolshevism
Manuscript Cancellations on Russian Mail
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner

Patrick J. Campbell
Ruud W. van Wijnen
Alex. Artuchov
Dr. Peter Michalove
Robert Taylor
Robert Taylor
Dr. George Murdoch
Ya. Afangulskii
Dr. A. R. Marshall

COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
Rev.L.L. Tann, CSRP Representative in
the United Kingdom.
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.






1 (i


We have a special occasion for the subject of our editorial this time:
the Golden Jubilee of a fraternal organisation, The British Society of
Russian Philately.

The story of its foundation is especially linked with the eminent
expert in Russian philately, the late Dr. A.H. Wortman, F.R.P.S.,L.
(1898-1983). Together with Vivian G. Pickering, he founded the Russian
Study Circle as the result of a letter in the English philatelic press,
published on 3 May 1936. The first official meeting of the Circle took
place in London on 31 October 1936, when Dr. Wortman was elected the
first President.

The name of the Circle was changed to The British Society of Russian
Philately on 27 October 1945 and its first journal appeared in
December 1946. A total of 61 numbers have appeared since then,
covering many aspects in our collecting spheres.

The other publishing activities of the BSRP have also been very
helpful in furthering the popularity and prestige of Russian philately.
The list of contributors is long and impressive: W.E. Hughes, P.T.
Ashford & S.D. Tchilinghirian on Transcaucasia; W.E. Stephen & S.D.
Tchilinghirian on Russian Used Abroads; W.E.C. Kethro, P.T. Ashford &
I.L.G. Baillie on the Wrangel Overprints; C.W. Roberts & I.L.G.
Baillie on the Ukraine; Dr. R. Ceresa on the Civil War Issues, etc,
etc, to mention only a few. Just another reminder that the bulk of
serious research in Russian philately has been done outside the
country of origin.

Some events have been arranged to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of the
Society. A composite display of 52 frames by BSRP members has been
presented at The Royal Philatelic Society in London on Thursday, 20
February 1986 and there is also to be a special issue of The British
Journal of Russian Philately to mark the occasion.

We in The Canadian Society of Russian Philately also wish to extend
our heartfelt congratulations on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee
of a fraternal society and to wish it continued good health, so as to
celebrate eventually its centenary of existence.




"Correspaidence with Canada" is a regular feature a v t
of this journal. Anyne possessing interesting -- J
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph .
or xercz copy of the item, along with sane expla-\ '
natory text to the Editor.

by P. J. Campbell.

-2 IV iI 3 --21,913
. ... .. ..

W H. Rowley, Esquire, J.P.,

The E. A. Eddy Co, Limited.

Hull, Canada

'or Mr. ROWLEY -


The illustrations on the previous page show the front and back of a 2
Canadian King George V envelope, with the printed address of the E.B.
Eddy Company, Limited in Hull. This town in the province of Quebec is
just across the Ottawa River from the national capital.

For some reason, this 2 envelope was used for posting a letter to the
president of the company from the Riga-l post office in Latvia on 2/15
April 1913, the required postage from the Russian Empire being paid with
a 10-kop. blue Romanov issue stuck over the oval King George V
impression in red. The letter was received in Hull on 25 April 1913.

Two interesting points can be made about this item. First of all, Tsar
Nicholas II of the Romanov Dynasty and King George V of Saxe-Coburg-
Gotha were first cousins, as both their mothers were Danish
princesses and sisters. The resemblance between the two men was striking.
Quite a combination to have on this envelope.

Secondly, it took only ten days for the letter to go by surface mail
from Riga to Hull. You could not get a letter these days to go that
distance in that length of time by AIRMAIL, let alone by surface !



by Ruud W. van Wijnen

(Translated with grateful thanks and credit to the Dutch monthly journal
"Philatelie", issue for October 1985 and with revisions by the author).

The station markings of Riga.

The first marking that was used in the post office at the Dunaburg
railway station in Riga was the dot canceller with the number 700 (see
Fig. Rl). This type of marking (triangular, with truncated corners) was
applied in Russia at post offices of various categories and thus not
especially at stations. The dot canceller was only to be applied on the
postage stamp; a second marking had to be used to show the date and
place-name. This double operation was rather impractical.

Riga Station received the number 700 on 14 June 1862. According to a
circular of 20 October 1877, the dot markings were no longer to be used,
but it is not known how much longer they were applied. A provisional
two-line marking was used at the Dinaburg station in Riga in 1865 and
is known in two different types (see R2 & R3). The earliest circular
marking is known from 29 June 1868; it has at the bottom a reference to
the Riga-Vitebsk Railway Line, which went into use on 10 Oct. 1866 (R4).

For the extension of the railway to Or8l, there was no Riga station
marking provided, so far as is known, with the text therein referring
to the Riga-Orel Railway Line. Such postmarks are well-known from
Danaburg/Daugavpils, Bal'binovo/Indra and Vitebsk, amongst others. It
is notable that markings came into use from 1873 onwards with a
reference to the Riga-Danaburg-Railway Line (R5,R6,R7).

The marking that was placed in use after the establishment of the
separate Railway Post is as noted earlier in "The Post-Rider" No.17,
p.10 (R8). With the introduction of a new type of marking in 1890, the
line indication disappears (R9,R10).

Earliest & latest
known dates.
Russian text.
English text.

RI e a
e60 21.12.1862- 15.9.1864
'7V0V0'0 700

aT pXwx2 XU LOP 5.8.1865-17.9.1865
I 'ceWTs6 18655roAa CT PMXCK AEA. AOP.
Stn. of the Riga rail/line.
R3 p cr C A.oporx 9.11.1865
SoaR6 1965 rqa P K CT W AoPorW.
Riga stn. of the railway line.
29.6.1868 26.7.1872
27 *PM rA
OKT. P ur. SBT ;K. .4
\ 1868 Riga
B'T Riga-Witebsk railway line.

;I .1.2.1873-24.6.1881
P 3 w P cK. n.o.
AB. F PufKco A4MM4A JPYPrcK W* A
1877 L Riga Postal Station
Riga-Diinaburg rail/line.

R6 RN 30.11.1884-4.8.1899
6, PurA n.o.
F Riga-Dinaburg rail/line.

R7 31.8.1880 -3.9. I- 4
I PMXCkcoE n.0. I
PLro -AHA6yYPrcIK .A.4
1 Riga Postal Stn. 1
Riga-Dtnaburg railway line.

R8 6.10.1888-12.5.1897
:/ *
fIf rA,
HB. 6Cr oTAtAA A,4
8 Riga
J\f' 6th. Office of the Railway Line.

%A r 1.6.1899-7.10.1905
S17 1 2 A oOP n. O
1C C I Riga I
J 0 Q Railway line postal

RI1 \A \ F30.9.1906- 24.2.1910 letter a
R12 1.7.1906- 10.1.1916 letter
R13 906 6.7.1911 -9.8.1917 letter$
P rfrA BOK3AJ 1,
0 IY 3 Riga station
Used until 1920 by
the Latvian Posts.

RIGA Station Markings.


Three varieties of code letters are known: "4", "N" and "" for the oval
markings, which were officially introduced on 3 February 1903 (Rll, R12,
R13). The last two postmark types were probably used at the two station
post offices in Riga. From 1872 the Tukkum station, for destinations in
Tukkum and Mitau/Jelgava, was located next to the Dunaburg station. This
last link was made possible after the completion of the railway bridge
over the Daugava river.
The station markings of the Riga-Orel Railway Line.
Apart from Riga, there were still markings of two station post offices
known from within the Baltic area, with a reference therein to the Riga-
Orel Railway Line, or a portion thereof. These came from Dinaburg
(Dvinsk/Daugavpils) and Bal'binovo (Balbina). The illustrations are
given herewith.
This article could only have been written because of the collaboration
of Messrs Nikolajs Jakimovs, Sven Kraul, V. Marcilger, W.J. Pfeiffer
and M. Zuijdwegt, to all of whom many thanks are extended.

3.5.1868. Dl


1878-1892. D3


2 282

A i

S19. 2.14


Perhaps the type
with cross date.

1913-1914. D6

1907 Bl



I PK c'
~aLE -1~E~tsc

---------------------- I

9. Types of the Russian Mail Coach Markings.

Straight-line markings Dots Markings

*. *' 0 *
5on 1865roaa :: ..

1. Circular date stamps with place names. T

1879 <$

2. Circular date stamps with double mail j fArt
coach numbers. 3
2a. with station number., I VlO
2b. without station number. IIOH K
1874 1683

3. Circular date stamps with one mail B /0
coach number. 20 3
3a. with station number.
3b. without station number. 1887 o
3a. 6

4. Circular date stamps with cross date. *TBArp %AA
4a. with place names. 2 18 7 0 -
4b. with mail coach number. co 1 01 1s1

5. Oval markings. 0. M .0

5a. number & places.6.11
5b. places only.
5c. with train number. y A
Sa. 02 S c

6. Octagonal markings.
S24 .
*(^1891 ^
v 1

( Concluded ).


by Alex Artuchov

(continued from No. 16)

Plate Flaws of the Jan. 1,1895 Issue

No. 116
Stamp No. 2: There is a tiny white dot between the 0 and Y of the
words BOrOPOJCKArO and Yrb3RA.

Stamp No. 4: There is a slight bulge in the oval frameline at the
right, over the A of Yf 3fA.

Stamp No. 8: There is a large irregular white spot in the SE
corner, extending towards the corner numeral.

Stamp No. 13:There are colour spots in the SE corner in the square
surrounding the numeral 2.

Stamp No. 14:The solid blue at the bottom of the design extends
into the square surrounding the SW corner numeral.

Stamp No. 15:A white spot connects the letters I1

Stamp 2

Stamp 4

and JI of the

Stamp 13

Stamp 14

No. 117
Stamp No. 1:

Stamp No. 8:

Stamp 15

The letter A of the word 3EMCKAR has a double
horizontal bar.

There is a white gash across the letter B of the
word BOrOPOPOCKArO, which makes it resemble the letter

Stamp No. 16:In the word YVb3RA there is a white line across the )
and a white spot attached to the bottom of the left
leg of the letter A.

No. 120
Stamp No. 2: There is a bump on the r of the word BOFOPOPCKAPO.

Stamp No. 5: There is a white dash over the first 0 of OJIFOBAH.

Stamp 2

Stamp 5

Proofs: There are proofs of No. 119. They have no gum and are

1895 (March)
This issue is identical to the proceeding one except that the
1894 date under the coat of arms is missing and the colours are
changed. Lithographed on smooth white paper, yellowish gum,
perforated 11 and on a sheet of 18 (6x3).

Inscribed OnIJIOEHAH

123. 2 kop. dark blue, indigo blue


124. 3 kop. blue, light blue, dull blue 2.00
This stamp was made from the 8 kop. value by removing a portion
of the numeral 8. There is an 8 in the right bottom corner of
the 5th stamp. The 7th through the 10th stamps contain 3's in
the upper corners that are almost 8's.

125. 4 kop. emerald green, dull green

126. 8 kop. emerald green, light green

127. 20 kop. lilac blue




Plate Flaws:
Stamp 3

Stamp 9
NW corner

Stamp 11



Inscribed OFirPOBAq

128. 3 kop. violet rose, violet red (P) 1.00

129. 4 kop. brown, light or dark (P) 2.00 4

Imperforate: Nos. 123-129 are all known imperforate and are all
valued at 25.00.


The proofs of this issue can be distinguished into two categories.
The first relates to proofs that were not known to have been used
as postage while, the second category consists of proofs that were.

Category 1:
These proofs are printed on the same paper as the original issues.
They contain no gum and are either perforated 11 or come imperforate.
They are printed in black and come in miniature sheets of 8 (4x2).
The top row is inscribed ROJiOBAH and the botton row OnJIOIEHA5.
Both rows contain the following values in the following order:
20, 8, 4, 2. The 3 kop. value was printed on sheets of 18 (6x3).
These proofs are as follows:

2 kop. imperf. and perf. 11

3 kop. imperf.

4 kop. imperf. and perf.ll

8 kop. imperf.

20 kop. perf. 11

Category 2:
The following proofs were apparently postally used and are accordingly
listed by Schmidt as Nos. 130-138. All values were printed in yellow-
green and with the exception of the 8 kop. value are also known in
dark and lilac blue. The flour paste that was used to adhere these
proofs on to covers reacted on the yellow colour often changing it
to pale green or light olive green.

Schmidt lists more than one stamp under Nos. 135 and 136. The reason
for doing so is quite unclear.

130. 2 kop. yellow green R
(on cover)
131. 3 kop. yellow green R
(on cover)
132. 4 kop. yellow green R
(on cover)
133. 8 kop. yellow green R
(on cover)
134. 20 kop. yellow green RRR
(4 known)

135. 2 kop. dark blue

3 kop. dark blue

136. 4 kop. dark blue

20 kop. dark blue
(perf. 11)
2 kop. lilac blue

3 kop. lilac blue

(on cover)

(on cover)

137. 4 kop. lilac blue

138. 20 kop. lilac blue
(perf. 11)

* Unless otherwise noted Nos. 130-138 are imperforate.

(on cover)

(5 known)

1895 (Oct. 1)

Inscribed OnIJIOEHA
Similar to previous issues, printed from new plates in new colours,
lithographed on white paper, white gum, perforated 11 and imperf.
as noted below, sheet of 15 (5x3) for all values except 20 kop.
which was on a sheet of 10 (5x2).

139. 2 kop. lilac, dark lilac

140. 3 kop. indigo blue

141. 4 kop. blue, light blue

142. 8 kop. bright blue green






143. 20 kop. lilac blue, dark lilac blue

Plate Flaws
2 kop. Issue :

3 kop. Issue :

The 4th stamp on the sheet has a tiny white dot
under the rosette at the bottom of the stamp.

Stamp 5- In the SE corner a thin blue line cuts
across the ? shaped ornament and the background
to the left of it.
Stamp 7- In the SW corner the top of the 3 is
connected to the white circle by a small white

Stamp 9- There is a tiny white dot to the left of
the rosette.
Stamp 12- There is a white spot under the circle in
the SW corner.
Stamp 14- There is a blue spot on the network
background on the right side just above the letters

Proofs of this issue inscribed OIIJIOqEHAH are known in the colours of
the original issues as well as in others. They come without gum
and are either perforated 11 or are imperforate.

All proofs are known on cover. The colours are greatly affected
by the chemical action of the flour paste used to adhere them to
the envelope.

As previously, Schmidt for reasons unknown, lists more than one
stamp for some of the numbers listed below.

144. 2 kop. blue R
(on cover)
145. 4 kop. blue

20 kop. blue
2 kop. lilac (on cover)

3 kop. lilac

146. 4 kop. lilac
20 kop. lilac (on cover)

147. 8 kop. bright blue green RR
(on cover)

Inscribed OFjirOBAR
Sheet Layout: 2 kop. 5x4; 3,4 and 8 kop. 5x3; 20 kop. 5x2.

148. 2 kop. orange, orange-yellow (P) 0.50

149. 3 kop. yellow-rose, light or dark (P) 0.50
-lilac-rose, light or dark 5.00

150. 4 kop. red brown, brown (P) 1.00

151. 8 kop. cherry red, dark cherry red (P) 2.00

152. 20 kop. brick red (P)

Plate Varieties :

2 kop.- Stamp 9 Slightly deformed circle in SW corner.

3 kop.-

8 kop. -

Stamp 9 8 in NW corner.
Stamp 11 3 in NW and SW corners is incomplete and
almost appear as 8's.
Stamp 13 3 in NW corner is incomplete and almost
appears as an 8.

Stamp 3 White spot over r of OJirOBAH
Stamp 5 White dot under the rosette and left of centre
on the coloured area at the bottom.
Stamp 7 White spot on the 2nd 0 of BOrOPOICKArO.
Stamp 11 White spot under the letter H of 3EMCKAH.

Stamp 3


Stamp 7

Stamp 11


20 kop. Stamp 3 NE corner square is incomplete on the right
Stamp 5 Letters O and q of IIOTA are damaged.

Stamp 3

Stamp 5


Printed on the same paper as the originals, without gum, perforated
11 and imperforate, same sheet sizes as originals.

These proofs were used to prepay postage and are known on covers
from October of 1895 to January of 1896. As on the previous issues
the chemical reaction from flour paste used to adhere stamps to
covers caused change of colours.

These proofs are listed by Schmidt,since they were used as postage.

153. 2 kop. orange (P)
154. 3 kop. orange (P)
perf. and imperf.

(on cover)

(on cover)


(on cover)

(on cover)

155. 4 kop. orange (P)

156. 2 kop. dark red (P)
3 kop. dark red (P)

157. 4 kop. dark red (P)
perf. and imperf.

158. 20 kop. dark red (P)
perf. and imperf.

159. 8 kop. cherry red (P)

160. 2 kop. rose (P)

161. 3 kop. rose (P)
perf. and imperf.

162. 4 kop. rose (P)
perf. and imperf.

163. 3 kop. red brown (P)
perf. and imperf.

164. 4 kop. red brown (P)
perf. and imperf.

(on cover)

(on cover)
9 known


(on cover)
(on cover)

(on cover)

(on cover)

(on cover)

1896 (Begining)

Similar to previous issue but, with date 1896 added. Lithographed
on white paper, white gum, perforated 11.

Inscribed OIJInOEHAR
Sheet of 5 x 5.

165. 2 kop. lilac blue, light or dark
165a. imperforate

166. 4 kop. dark violet
166a. "





167. 8 kop. violet, light or dark
167a. imperforate
4896 instead of 1896 (15th stamp on sheet)

165. 167. on cover

Inscribed iOJrFOBAH
The 1896 date is located within the oval except for the 20 kop.
value where it is located under the oval. A sheet of 7 x 4.

168. 2 kop. aniline red, aniline rose (P) 5.00
168 a. on cover R
imperforate R

169. 3 kop. red orange, light or dark (P) 8.00
169 a. on cover RR
imperforate R

170. 4 kop. orange, brown orange (P) 15.00
170a. on cover R
imperforate R

171. 8 kop. dark red (P) 4.00
171a. on cover RR
imperforate R

172. 20 kop. dull rose (P) 10.00


No. 169.

Stamp 27 Dot after the word Yfl3SA.

Stamp 28 As stamp 27 and with "8" in bottom
right corner.

No. 170.
Stamp 28 Dot after word YIb3JA.

No. 172.-Date barely visible.


Although the proofs of this were supposedly used for postage they
are not accounted for as part of Schmidt's numerical listings as
for previous issues. Perhaps, even Schmidt was not even sure which
stamps were actually used postally.

Printed in Black
A. With Inscription:
Inscribed on the bottom, similar to the issues of January of 1894,
with the 1896 date below the arms, printed in miniature sheets of
4 x 1 with 4 values in the same row ie. 8 + 2 + 3 + 4 kop. the
3 kop. value has the error with the "8" in the SE corner, yellowish
paper, without gum, imperforate.

B. Without Inscription:
Without an inscription as described above, with a sheet layout and
4 different stamps in a row as above, white chalky paper, without
gum and imperforate.

Printed in the Colours of the Originals:

- 2 kop. aniline red

- 3 kop. red orange

- 4 kop. orange

- 8 kop. dark red

- 20 kop. dull rose

These proofs are apparently known used on cover.


Similar to stamps of the previous issue, printed from new plates
and with different varieties, changed colours, perforated 11,
sheet of 7 x 4, inscribed OnrBOBA5.

173. 2 kop. dark red (P)

174. 3 kop. red brown (P)

175. 4 kop. brown red (P)




Proofs of this issue are known used on cover. They are printed
in the colours of the original stamps, imperforate and are without

173a. 2 kop. dark red (P)
(on cover)

174a. 3 kop. red brown (P)
(on cover)

175a. 4 kop. brown red (P)
(on cover)


No. 173: Stamp 6 Extra spot on letter A of XOirOBAH.

Stamp 8 Breaks in outer oval at top under letters FO
and on inner oval at the bottom left under the letter M.

Stamp 12 Spot of colour to the right of the circle on
the SW corner square.

Stamp 6


No. 174: Stamp 8 A of YTb3AA is open, the remainder of the A's
in this word are solid.

Stamp 27 Dot over rosette.

No. 175.

Stamp 8 Stamp 27

Solid Open "A"

Stamp 14 White spots left of the rosette and on the
back of the 3 of YTb3SA.

Stamp 20 A white spot connects the inner oval to the
rosette and another is to the right of the rosette.

Stamp 14 Stamp 20

Similar to previous issues, printed from new plates, in changed
colours, perforated 11.


Sheet of 5 x 5.

176. 2 kop. emerald green

177. 3 kop. emerald green

178. 4 kop. dark blue, slate blue

179. 8 kop. dark blue
4896 instead of 1896

180. 20 kop. light blue






Proofs of this issue are known used on cover.

177a. 3 kop. emerald green

178a. 4 kop. dark blue (on cover)

179a. 8 kop. dark blue (on cover)

180a. 20 kop. light blue

existence uncertain



existence uncertain

No. 177: Stamp 1 White spot between 3E of 3EMCKAH.

Stamp 2 Letter q of OIJIO'qEHAH is closed at the top
by a white spot.

Stamp 4 Broken outer oval under H of OHIJIOEHAH.

Stamp 15 y and Tb of YT-b3SA are connected by a white dot.

Stamp 25 White dot above JI of OHIIO'IEHAH.

Stamp 1 Stamp 2 Stamp 4 Stamp 15 Stamp 25

No. 178: Stamp 13 White scratch across 89 of date.

Stamp 15 Damaged 3 of 3EMCKAH.

Stamp 16 White scratch from rosette to A of YtEb3)A.

Stamp 15

Inscribed OflOOBAI
Sheet of 7 x 4.

181. 2 kop. yellow brown (P)

182. 3 kop. rose (P)

183. 4 kop. yellowish rose (P)

184. 8 kop. yellow brown (P)

185. 20 kop. violet rose (P)

Proofs of this issue are known used on cover.

181a. 2 kop. yellow brown (P) (on cover)

182a. 3 kop. rose (P) (on cover)

183a. 4 kop. yellowish rose (P) (on cover)






184a. 8 kop. yellow brown (P) (on cover) RR

185a. 20 kop. violet rose (P) (on cover) RR
(5 known)


No. 182: Stamp 3 Letters 3 and A of YTh3XA are connected by a
white spot.

Stamp 8 Same as stamp 8 of no. 174.

Stamp 15 Damaged A of HOITA.

Stamp 27 Same as stamp 27 of no. 174.

Stamp 15

The Bogorodsk Zemstvo postal service was discontinued at the end
of 1896 and superseded by the Imperial postal system.







Ya. Pehr P.O. Box 3012, Ocean View Branch, Miami Beach,
Florida, 33140, U S A

e IIIImIIII goI m i Iis N oi I Iii NN e n||III IesINs s1111mes "s"""111""1"""""1"1" s11m ||-"11:m1


by Dr. Peter Michalove

In "The Post-Rider" No.17 (Reference 1), August Leppa writes about the
postal history of West Karelia in the period between the Winter War and
the Finnish reoccupation and illustrates a number of covers addressed to
various points within the KFSSR. Shown here are two covers representing
mail from the republic to external destinations.

Figure 1 shows a field post cover from one of the Soviet occupying
troops, writing to his family in Khar'kov. Unfortunately, the circular
military cachet is too blurred to show which unit the letter is from.
The sender gives his address as n/R N38, JITEP "F" and misspells BhIBOPT
as BHBOPr. Such misspellings are common, as the Russians transliterated
Finnish place-names into Cyrillic, or retransliterated them back into
the Roman alphabet. There is no date of dispatch on the cover, but the
backstamp shows that it was received in Khar'kov on 3 June 1940.

Figure 2 shows an especially unusual cover to Canada. Dated 5 August
1941, the cancel reads CCCP / MATPOCb! KT.CCP MATROOS "a" 5.8.41. The
Finnish attack over the new border in the south began on 31 July 1941
and Vyborg was not taken until 29 August, so the area was still in
Soviet hands at the time of this cover.

The letter was backstamped at Leningrad on 16 August 1941. The battle of
Leningrad had begun by this time, but the blockade was not imposed until
early in September. This piece must have been among the last to leave
Leningrad before the blockade, although some mail was carried out of the
city even during the period of the blockade.

It is unclear whether this cover is civilian or military mail. The style
of the cancel, the use of postage stamps and the foreign address give
the piece the look of a civilian cover. "MaTpocuI" means "sailors" in
Russian and the Finnish equivalent is "matruusit" (slightly misspelt on
the cancel). If this were civilian mail, then Matrosy may have been a
form of Matrosovo, the name the Soviets gave to the old Finnish village
of Samola. The village is near Vyborg and thus by the sea.

On the other hand, the reference to sailors implies that this may be
ship mail. The use of postage stamps on military mail was unnecessary,
but possible. In Rossica No.106/107 (Reference 2), Lepp& contributes an
article on military mail in the Baltic and illustrates a 1950 cover,
bearing the cachet "MATPOCCKOE IHCbMO/ BECIIJATHO" (Sailor's Letter/Tax-
Free). The cover in the Rossica article is definitely naval and Leppa
suggests in personal correspondence that the present cover may be from
the same source.

Of course, by August 1941 in the westernmost areas of the Soviet Union,
the distinction between military and civilian mail may well have been
nearly meaningless. Thus, as we have seen, the usage of this material is
as remarkable as it is scarce.

I would like to thank August Leppa for his help in the preparation of
this article.


1. August Leppl'. "Old and New Cancellations in Occupied Western Karelia
1940-1941," The Post Rider 17 (1985), pp. 21-24.

2. August Leppai. "Russian Fieldposts in the Baltic States
Rossica 106/107 (1985), pp. 24-31.

3. Allan S. Waugh. "The Western Regions of the U.S.S.R.,
Journal of Russian Philately 52 (1975), pp. 21-24.


1939-1941," British

Fiq. 1.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The two covers in question are shown on the previous
page and we can make the following points about them. Re the first,
military, one, there are several grammatical peculiarities in addressing
the letter which show that the sender,.while endeavouring to write in
Russian, was in fact thinking in UKRAINIAN! The military cachet was a
franking stamp for packets and the initials at top read "HKBf-CCCP",
standing for the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR.

The second cover is even more interesting, as the sender's handwriting
shows that he/she was more at home in the Latin than in the Cyrillic
alphabet. Since we know that,when the Finns lost Western Karelia as a
result of the Winter War, practically all of the population was
evacuated back into Finland proper, it seems reasonable to assume that
MATROSY could not have been situated in the area ceded to the USSR. We
may also assume that the writer was not an ethnic Russian.

The next step would be to check and see if Matrosy were located in
Eastern Karelia, which had always been Soviet territory, except for the
Finnish occupation of 1941-1944. Reference to the "Dictionnaire des
Bureaux de Poste", published by the U.P.U. in Berne, Switzerland in
April 1937 will show that there was then a post office at Matrosy in
the Karelian ASSR. Turning now to a booklet by the Finnish philatelist
N.H. Mali, entitled "It&-Karjalan postimerkit" ("The Stamps of Eastern
Karelia", published in Helsinki but undated), we see that the Finnish
equivalent for this place-name was MATROSSA. This town is located 25 km.
(15 miles) west of the capital at Petrozavodsk/Petroskoi, which had
been renamed Aanislinna ("Castle on Lake Onega") during the Finnish
occupation. Further consultation of this booklet demonstrated that a
Finnish first-class postal station was opened at Matrossa per Circular
No. 170/43 on 16 July 1943 and it was subordinate to the main post
office at A&nislinna; it was later made subordinate to the post office
at Teru on 1 November 1943 per Circular No. 229/43. The postal station
at Matrossa was closed on 17 June 1944, so it was in operation for a
bare 11 months. Finnish postmarks from this postal station are thus
obviously very scarce.

Finally, we may also speculate that the writer of the Soviet letter
from Matrosy on 5.8.41 was a former Finnish emigrant from Canada, who
had gone to Eastern or Soviet Karelia to work during the Great
Depression and was now writing back to a Finnish friend or relative of
the Swedish ethnic group in Kirkland Lake, Ontario. This town in
Northern Ontario has an important Finnish population to this very day.
All in all, a lovely and rare cover, with the correct 50k. surface rate!
By the way, the current Soviet postal code number for Matrosy is 186121.


by Robert Taylor.

Several recently acquired early use (June & July 1922) Soviet airmail
covers have shed additional light on the early usage of the "Mit
Luftpost" cachet. My previous comments in "The Post-Rider" No.16 that
the first application of this cachet was on 28 or 29 July is now proven
to be in error. It remains true that all covers originating in Moscow
after that date do show the cachet but, prior to that date and back to
my earliest airmail cover on 13 June, there is some inconsistency in


Post lefrdcrtr J.. i
;e (Pr.) 1. I

in the use of the "Mit Luftpost" cachet. My earliest usage now is on a
26 June cover from Moscow to Munich, with the correct 60r. registered
airmail rate. This philatelically inspired cover to German dealer Otto
Edenharter has the "Mit Luftpost" cachet in a dark violet-black colour,
as well as K8nigsberg and Berlin air transit cachets in red. Part of
* the franking (600,000 old rubles) was by use of the 5r. and 25r.
control stamps, which had been revalued for postal use at 250r. each on
15 August 1921. This usage of these stamps is the latest ever noted
where control stamps have been used at their legitimate value (250 old
roubles) on a properly franked cover.

After many years of accumulating Soviet airmail covers, the recent
finds mentioned above, shedding new light on very early usage, were
most exciting acquisitions indeed. As always, I would be most
appreciative of any additional information readers might be able to
bring to the fore.


by Robert Taylor

Although the formal reopening of the Moscow-to-Berlin air route did not
take place until 1 May 1923 (according to Karlinskii), I have a number
of covers dating from mid-January to April inclusive which are
identified for airmail (see Figs. 1 & 2 on the next page), those
originating in Moscow with the boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet, those from
Petrograd with the "Envoye par la poste adrienne" etiquette and those
from other Russian cities with handwritten identification only, all
exactly similar to the arrangements that existed in 1922. I presume
that airmail markings and additional postage to cover airmail rates did
not always mean that the covers was actually flown. However, it is clear
that covers were accepted for airmail prior to 1 May, even if weather
conditions sometimes prevented the flight and some covers may actually
have been sent by rail.


S bFig. 1.
,a.--------,,--.--"------ ---'-"-"--"

Fig.1. A registered airmail letter from Moscow 1st.Despatch Office,No.2
26.3.23 to Braunschweig, Germanyr2 April with 10,500,000r. franking
(10r.50k.-1923) to cover foreign letter rate of 10r., plus 10r. reg.fee
and 50k. for airmail. With airmail rates up only 5% from their
inception in June 1922, while letter & registration rates each up over
100 times, it would seem that airmail service was quite a bargain! Note
the violet boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet on the front and the handwritten
notation at bottom back, reading "Handed in by the sender in a soiled
envelope" and with signature of the postal official.
Fig.2 (at top of next page). A registered airmail letter from Moscow 1st.
Despatch Office,No.7 on 12.4.23 to Berlin 19 April, with 16,500,000r.
franking (16r.50k.-1923), being the foreign letter fee at mid-April 1923
rates of 6r.50k., plus 6r.50k. for registration and an overfranking of
3r.50k. for airmail. Note on the front the violet boxed "Mit Luftpost" &
the red German two-line cachet "Mit Luftpost bef8rdert./K6nigsberg (Pr.)
1". This is another overfranked Brender "Centralhilfskomit6" cover with
both Soviet and German air cachets.

The Moscow boxed "Mit Luftpost" cachet continued in use throughout 1923.
I can make a case for minor changes in the cachet in May (see Fig.3 at
the bottom of the page opposite) and again in September (see Fig.4 at
the top of p.24), but I cannot be sure if these are true differences or
just the distortions mentioned in 1922. The Petrograd etiquette also
continued in use in 1923 and I have three examples of the inverted "n"
variety: one in January, another in August and one in September (see
Fig. 5 at the bottom of p.24). Muller indicates that his etiquette No.3
was issued in 1923 and that his No.4, the same etiquette on cerise,
rather than red paper, was a 1924 issue. I question the difference and
whether either was actually used in 1923.

"~ir :.


I A !M co C |0
i 1'~~-r
,: -.tel
*r .,' i---"'ss^^*^*

- ..
". LLI

Yorckstr. 84.

Fig. 2.

iT ll-
r^ "'*'' -^^^ ^cy -

.~ ~ r cm^ias
;gf ^/ ^^


Fig. 3.


Fig. 3:
A reg. airmail cover from Moscow 1st.Despatch Office-R, 2.5.23 to Riga,
SLatvia,7 May with ll,500,000r. franking (llr.50k.-1923),i.e. 6r.50k.
foreign letter rate + 5r. airmail, being 10 times the unofficial air rate
generally noted on 1923 covers before lst.May. The "Mit Luftpost" cachet
seems identical to that originally introduced in June 1922; compared with
earlier 1923 uses prior to the official opening, the waviness in the top
border is much more pronounced, but not more so than others noted in 1922.


.r, ;




_ "___Dy | i. !t'.

Fig.4. A reg. airmail cover from Moscow,lst.Despatch Office No.4,3.9.23
to Berlin 6 Sept. with franking 45,000,000r.(45r.-1923),i.e. 15r.foreign
letter rate + 15r. each for regn. & airmail. Note red-violet boxed "Mit
Luftpost" on front, which appears slightly different from the one on the
May 1 cover; measurements a bit larger & the box again very wavy at top.
Also, red German "Mit Luftpost bef8rdert./Konigsberg (Pr.)l." on front
and 250r./35k. philatelic tax stamp on back. Note Agric.Exhib. franking.

Fig.5. A reg. airmail cover from Petrograd lst.Despatch Office.z.18.9.23
to Stoke Newington 18 Sept. with 55,000,000r. franking,i.e.20r. foreign
letter rate + 20r.regn. + 15r. airmail. Rates for letters & regn.changed
1 Sept. & airmail on 4 Sept.! Note the black on cerise label with the
"airienue" error and the 3r. & 5r. War Invalids charity labels on back.

One exceptional and previously unrecorded air cachet, a "VOZDUSHNAYA"
about 50mm. in length, is noted on a cover to the Indo-European Telegraph
* Co. in Warsaw (see Fig.6 below). This cover originated in Moscow on 5th.
July and also carried the usual "Mit Luftpost" cachet, as a circular
marking on the back of "The Main Representative of the Indo-European
Telegraph Company at the People's Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs of
the RSFSR". Although the "VOZDUSHNAYA" cachet may have been applied in
the office of this particular agency, its association with the RSFSR
Commissariat of Posts & Telegraphs, as per the seal on the back, gives
the cachet some official legitimacy!

r n -23

P ta.stewart Wlfotd& Bq

Ass tSAt bagi2eer

'-I \\ "'., -4' r \! ... ,

Fig.6. An airmail cover from Moscow lst.Despatch Office No.3, 5.7.23 to
Warsaw,9 July, with 20,000,000r. franking (20r.-1923),i.e. 10r. foreign
letter rate + 10r. for airmail. Note the violet-black boxed "Mit Luftpost"
and violet "VOZDUSHNAYA" cachets. This latter type, unrecorded elsewhere,
is the only one noted on Soviet covers in 1922 or 1923, other than the
usual "Mit Luftpost" of Muscovite origin. In addition, it was the first
airmail indication, by either cachet or etiquette, in the Russian language.

According to Karlinskii, an airline route, linking Teheran and Stockholm,
was opened 31 May 1923, with stops at Tiflis, Batum, Novorissiisk, Rostov,
Khar'kov and Moscow. Internal routings thus became possible and an
internal rate of 10r.-1923 was established. I have never seen a cover
with such internal routing, but do have an airmail letter from Khar'kov,
via Moscow to London, which may well have been flown on this route from
Khar'kov to Moscow and then have been transferred to the Moscow-Berlin
route. This particular cover does carry the pKnigsberg transit air
cachet (see Fig.7 at the top next page).Sometime in July 1923, the
first entirely internal route was opened, linking Moscow with Nizhnii
SNovgorod. I have two covers from July and August, addressed to Germany
with handwritten airmail notations and the K6nigsberg air cachet, which
presumably flew over the internal route to Moscow and were then
transferred to the Moscow-Berlin route. Interestingly enough, one of
these covers has a postmark and registration handstamp of the Nizhnii
Novgorod Fair post office (see Fig.8 at the bottom of the next page).

t./ iberg (Pr.)1. t t t.

or ro ro to oo i M o
* ". ..- .-- ,- ,I .7 ^r^ '': S' '

hKo M AI4 24.
Fig.7. Reg. airmail letter from Khar'kov 23.6.23, via Moscow oval
Despatch with 3 triangles (censorship?) to London, 2? June, with franking
609,000, r.(60r.-1923), being overweight letter (perhaps 4 times) with
40r. for foreign rate + lOr. each for regn. & airmail. Red German "Mit
ALuftpost befordert./ K8nigsberg (Pr.)l." cachet applied on the front.
Interesting that this "Arcos" government authorised trading agency
correspondence should receive the Moscow oval censorship marking. This
cover, from Khar'kov to London via Moscow and Konigsberg, presumably was
flown to Moscow on an internal leg of the Teheran-Stockholm route, opened
the end of May.

Fi9T.8. Reg.t?- ari lette f *N, Fair

24.8.23, via Moscow Despatch /3 solid triangles 26 Aug. & Berlin Luftpost

i.e. 15r. foreign letter rate + 15r. each for regn. & airmail to total
A fascinating item, flown on the Nizhnii-Yarmarka (Nizhnii-Novgorod Fair) route and

with Nizhnii-Yarmarka postmarks and corresponding registration cachet.

Reynolds and Speers both identify June 1923 as the first known usage of
*the Moscow cachet applied to incoming airmail. My earliest use is July
1924 on a cover from England and the latest is a 1935 cover from
Czechoslovakia. This cachet had three lines in Russian, reading

Sometime in the latter part of 1923, a change took place in the usage
of the boxed "Mit Luftpost"cachet on airmail covers originating in
Moscow. I have an unregistered airmail cover dated 5 July 1923 and with
the usual "Mit Luftpost" cachet. My next unregistered example, dated 7
August, does not carry the "Mit Luftpost" cachet, although it
originated in Moscow and has the usual K8nigsberg air transit cachet.
Thereafter, I have a number of other unregistered airmail covers and
the "Mit Luftpost" cachet is consistently missing (see Figs. 9 and 10
hereunder and on the next page). Thus, sometime between 5 July and 7
August, a decision was made by the Moscow postal authorities no longer
to use the cachet on regular unregistered mail.
mo t Bel" i .t
S. e l i
'' I "^ ...,," m.[ ,

9r *! ,I CIT
| r --'-- "-",,'"'"
V''- '

of 38,000,000r.(38r.-1923),i.e. 20r. foreign letter rate + 15r. airmail,
to total 35r.; this item is overfranked by 3r. The K8nigsberg air transit
cachet is struck in red and this is part of the Kazakoff correspondence.

As to rates, the first official announcement was in connection with the
formal re-opening of the Moscow-Berlin air route on lst.May, when the
airmail surcharge was set at 5r.-1923. May and June covers substantiate
this rate. Prior to May, the airmail surcharges seemed to have ranged
from 40k.-1923 upwards, which approximated the 1922 rate of 45r.-1922, so
I presume the postal authorities accepted what seemed close, since no
official rate had yet been set in 1923. Airmail rates increased in late
June to 10r., apparently to 15r. in August, 30r. in September and 45r. in
October, before the international rate was set in gold kopeks at 10 kop.
Late-1923 airmail covers (the latest I have is from October) saw some
confusion in frankings, when converting the 10k. rate back to the ever
increasing inflation of the 1923 roubles, which were still the only money
and such stamps were often the only ones available. Some odd frankings
thus occurred, both in high 1923 roubles and in interesting combination
rankings, using both 1923 roubles and the new gold-kopek issue (please
see Figs. 11, 12, 13 & 14 on the following pages).

* *

Airmail cover from Moscow -
Exhib.) 14.9.23 to Berlin.
franking,i.e. 40r. for
double-weight foreign An die F 1, a^
letter + 20r.regn. & 15r.
airmail and red German ::-
cachet "Mit Luftpost .ARAG& C 92r 0 .. '.
(Pr.) .". Note the unusual ;
postmark of the temporary
post office established at w
the Moscow 1st. Agricult.
and Craftsmanship
Exhibition. I :1.:" *''4cC. n

Fig.11. Reg. airmail letter Moscow 1st.Despatch Office No.7,3.1023 to
l^Sic 4
"^,~Ei ~ .:. .... .- U- : 30.

Fig.11. Reg. airmail letter Moscow Pst.Despatch Office No.7,3.1023 to
Leysin 10 Oct. with 203,000,000r.franking (203r.-1923). The ist. Oct.
rates were 45r.+45r.+45r.,but sender based his franking on the 50 gold
kop. reg. airmail rate at 3 Oct. conversion of 415=207r.50k.(underpaid).
From 30- 1
RUSTON & HORNSBY LID.," .7 .,'.,- -.
LINCOLN, England. 7 I

rate + 45reah forregn.lirmailthu ovd by1

31 Oct. with franking 145,000,000r.(145r.-1923),i.e.45r. foreign letter
rate + 45r.each for regn.& airmail, thus overfranked by lOr. Note the
handwritten "postal station a t the exhibition" on the regn. label.

._. Fig. 3.
*. Note the handwritten, black on
S" "cerise "Envoye par la / post
Srepma_ ----S--- a aerienne" label, being an
i".'"i 72 I interesting variation, using
.i selvage from the printed sheet
: ..'--"- of labels, with identical
.- wording written by hand.

^ ^M. ri ender
.. .-

B -RLI W.8 .. 8 4.-.

.i~ -;. ,: p'* .. _. rt_ _- -- -- -*. L

Reg.airmail cover Petrograd 1st. -* Despatch Office.z.14.10.23 to :-
Berlin 20 Oct. with franking of i
135,000,000r. (135r.-1923) ,i.e.
45r. foreign letter rate + 45r.
each for regn. and airmail. Red
German "Mit Luftpost bef8rdert./: -
K8nigsberg (Pr.)l." cachet on
the front and part of the Dr. '
Brender "Centralhilfskomit"" ''''
correspondence. Note the 3r. '-
War Invalids label on the back. .


I a,., '7! .

.1 ,' ~~ '~l~~~--

A, A~1
7 K.

1,* I '

Moscow 10th.Citv P.O.,26.10.23
to Berlin with 20 gold kop. +
65r.-1923,i.e. 20 kop. foreign
*letter rate + 10 kop. airmail.
At the 26 Oct. conversion rate
10 kop.= 65r.-1923, so the
cover has been correctly paid
for. A most interesting
combination franking!

-,:5 ia


f 17' I/i'

This cover has a handwritten
airmail inscription, but no
German air cachet, so it is
impossible to tell if it was
actually flown.

(f ~~l -. -,r.d1'iT1 V


6L I!



' ^


by Dr. George Murdoch.

In the November 1982 issue No.11 of "The Post-Rider",pp.68-70, Helmut
Weikard and Andrew Cronin drew attention to Spanish Civil War pro-Russian
charity/propaganda adhesive labels of 1937 in Catalan (10 designs) and
Castilian (3 designs).
There is at least one other Catalan format (see
S" 10 Fig. 1), showing a second different-angle view
of the contemporary Paris Exhibition sculpture.
Versions exist perf. 11 and imperforate. The
perforated I have in brown on off-white paper,
the imperforate in black, red and green on pale
cream paper. The perforated version has an
u inscription on the back in carmine, part of the
HIN Catalonian Homage to the USSR Committee message
i referred to on p.69 of No.11. The imperforates
have no markings on their backs.

to Regarding the colours of the other 10 Catalan
labels illustrated on p.69 of No.11, I have
most of them in blue, brown, carmine & violet
and I do not doubt that all were produced in
those four shades. The eleventh label (Fig. 1
Here) seems not to be of the same set as the
Im I ten, as it contains no descriptive tablet, in
SI addition to differing in colours and having an
Figure 1 imperforate variety.
Figure 1.
In Castilian or standard Spanish,47 other designs were also produced and
Figure 2 on pp.32-33 herewith gives their positioning in a sheet of 50.
That sheet is in blue. I also have separate stamps in brown, dark red &
violet and have heard of green and orange singles, so it is probable
that sheets were printed monochrome in 6 colours. Confirmation would be

The great range of subjects portrayed on the Figure 2 labels reflects
the Russia of the 1930s in reality and as sympathisers wished to
advertise and emphasise its achievements and aspirations. The gamut of
topics covered makes the issue a cinderella thematic collector's
bonanza. Translations of the tablet captions speak for themselves:-

Top row, vertical: 1. linoleum manufacture; 2. group gymnastics; 3. the
great writer Maksim Gor'kii; 4. heroes of the (North) Pole; 5. a sailor
of the Red Fleet; 6. future heroes; 7. leaders of the Soviet people
(showing Stalin and Marshal Klimentii Voroshilov); 8. Moscow
parachuting tower; 9. selection of wheat for breeding; 10. warship

Second row, horizontal: 11. Kirghiz pioneers; 12. hygiene in food
processing; 13. mower-thresher combine on a collective farm; 14. tank in
Red Square; 15. parade of athletes; 16. botany class in collective farm
school; 17. heroes of the (North) Pole Expedition; 18. work break for
physical exercises; 19. preparation of grain before sowing; 20.
municipal workers club.

Third row, horizontal: 21. Soviet festival; 22. Red Army infantry;

23. Soviet children; 24. air training school graduation march past; 25.
children's party; 26. locomotives in Khar'kov station; 27. Red Fleet
Smanoeuvres; 28. Sochi sanatorium; 29. textile factory floor; 30. happy

Fourth row, horizontal: 31. arrival of Spanish children in Moscow; 32.
chemistry lab. in University City; 33. girl athletes in Red Square; 34.
mobile printing press on collective farm; 35. rowing regatta in USSR;
36. sailors discuss the new constitution; 37. Red Army sanatorium; 38.
women have equal rights; 39. young aviators; 40. harvest on coll. farm.

Bottom row, vertical: 41. Dzerzhinskii factory (Ukraine) blast furnace;
42. weighing collective farm fodder; 43. Soviet sailors; 44. Spanish
children at Artek (near Yalta); 45. celluloid factory worker; 46. the
great poet Aleksandr Pushkin; 47. leader of (North) Pole Expedition (Ivan
Papanin) with his son; 48. aboard a warship; 49. collective farm cotton
cultivation; 50. a future engineer.

Finally, some further items from my own collection (it would be
interesting to learn if others have more Spanish-Russian material). The
only labels departing from
the 10-centimos price tag
are 2 of the 3 black-on- PRO PRO PRO
dark red Pro Komsomol '-
imperforate five-pointed 0 L
stars, priced at 5 & 15
centimos. All, including
the middle 10 Cts., are 5 i 110 15 ts
depicted in Figure 3.
They are in thick paper Figure 3.
and their backs have pink gum.
I am indebted to Mike Sartori for the tale behind these stickers. The
word Komsomol does not refer to the youth organisation, but is the name
of the pictured ship. It plied between Russia and Spain, bringing the
Communists there much needed supplies. On at least one occasion when
they were desperate for food, the Komsomol docked with a cargo of ....
arms. Eventually, in 1938, while carrying provisions and clothing, it
was intercepted and sunk by Franco's naval forces.


The views expressed in the articles contained in this issue of "The
Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and not necessarily
those of the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.

Members are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are
fully engaged in earning their livings and thus cannot answer any
individual queries. Where they are of general interest to the
readership, they will be taken up in following issues of "The Post-
Rider". Please bear with us!


I- .

Figure 2.



S- _



.;.:..-.- i. ii
~.~.:: .,.,.,:,,,,,


.. ,

r~ r:1 4'i1 11'ei7 "


Figure 2.


by Ya. Afangulskii.

,.i{ #To slacken the tempo would mean falling behind. And those
who fall behind get beaten. But we do not want to be beaten.
No, we refuse to be beaten One feature of the history of old Rus-
sia was the continual beatings she suffered because of her back-
wardness. She was beaten by the Mongol khans. She was beaten
by the Turkish beys. She was beaten by the Swedish feudal lords.
She was beaten by the Polish and Lithuanian gentry. She was
beaten by the British and French capitalists. She was beaten by
the Japanese barons. All beat her-because of her backwardness;
military backwardness, cultural backwardness, political back-
Excerpts from a speech wardness, industrial backwardness, agricultural backwardness.
delivered by J.V.Stalin They beat her because to do so was profitable and could be done
at the First All-Union with impunity. Do you remember the words of the prerevolu-
Conference of Managers tionary poet: "You are poor and abundant, mighty and impotent,
of Socialist Industry Mother Russia." Those gentlemen were quite familiar with the
on 4 February 1931 in verses of the old poet. They beat her, saying: "You are abundant,"
Moscow. so one can enrich oneself at your expense. They beat her, say-
ing: "You are poor and impotent," so you can be beaten and
plundered with impunity. Such is the law of the exploiters-to
beat the backward and the weak. It is the jungle law of capital-
ism. You are backward, you are weak-therefore you are wrong;
hence, you can be beaten and enslaved. You are mighty-therefore
you are right; hence, we must be wary of you.
That is why we must no longer lag behind.......
We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced coun-
tries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we
do it, or we shall be crushed.

As the only Socialist state until after the end of WWII, the Soviet
Union has been living in a largely hostile world ever since its
inception in November 1917. Looking at the philatelic repercussions of
the October Revolution is therefore a vast subject and it is proposed
in this article to examine just one facet: the ideological and
military war waged against the USSR by the NSDAP or German National
Socialist Workers' Party, led by Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of the
Third Reich from 1933 to 1945.

The first steps in this great struggle can be found set out in the
work "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle), written by Hitler in 1925. He made no
secret of his great hatred of "the Jewish-Bolshevik conspiracy" and
revived the old dream of the "Drang nach Osten" or "Drive to the East",
at the expense of the USSR, to provide the German people with more
"Lebensraum" or "Living Space". There was a break of almost two years
in the ideological war as a result of the Treaty of Non-Aggression,
signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939. As stated previously by the
present writer in "The Post-Rider" No.9, p.6, this agreement was
clearly in the Soviet national interest. Both Hitler and Stalin
grudgingly respected each other and, despite the many crimes that the
Soviet leader committed against his own people, he was cool,
calculating and ruthlessly logical in his thinking. He ascribed the
same qualities to Hitler, knowing that it would be suicidal for the

Third Reich to attack such a huge country as the Soviet Union, which
covered one-sixth of the world's land surface. Stalin found out on 22
June 1941 that he was, in fact, dealing with a criminal maniac and the
rest, as they say, is history.

The title for this present article was not made up, but has been
translated from the Roumanian slogan "Razboiul Sfqnt contra
Bolgevismului", which appeared on a set of stamps from that country,
issued in 1941 (an example is illustrated at the head of this study).

Getting back to our historical survey, the German General Staff was, in
its heart of hearts, against "Plan Barbarossa" as they knew that, to be
successful, the German armies would have to be in Moscow no later than
six weeks after the campaign began. Despite the staggering Soviet losses
in men and territory in the first few months of this surprise attack,
that German objective was never achieved. When the Red Army stopped and
pushed back the Wehrmacht at the gates of Moscow on 5 December 1941, the
German General Staff then realized that a fatal mistake had been made in
attacking the USSR and that WWII had already been lost.

In short, Hitler had not taken into account the deep national feeling
that many Soviets, and especially the Russians, had for their country.
When the Wehrmacht waltzed through the Low Countries in May 1940,
kicked the British into the sea at Dunkirk and defeated the mighty
French Army in a matter of days, the general feeling in Western Europe
was that it was the Germans' turn to win this time. Such an attitude was
incomprehensible to the Russian mind; they were deeply outraged at the
thought of invaders violating the sacred territory of their "rodina"

This Russian tradition of intense patriotism goes back to the resistance
put up by Aleksandr Nevskii against the Teutonic Knights, the struggle
against the Mongol and Tartar overlords, the fight put up by Ivan
Susanin, Kuzma Minin and Prince Pozharskii against the Poles during the
"Likholetie" or "Troubled Years" of 1598-1613, the First Great
Patriotic War brought about by the Napoleonic invasion of 1812 and even
to WWI, where the Russian troops fought bravely but were very badly led.

The titanic struggle of 1941-1945 (The Second Great Patriotic War)
showed that the Soviet Govt. and Party were far.more efficient than any
previous Russian administration in mobilising and directing the country
against the German invaders and their allies. We only have to look at
the figures admitted by the Germans themselves. By the end of 1941, they
had close to one million casualties, including more than 200,000 dead,
with many officers lost. And, for the first time in WWII, they were on
the defensive. All this compared to the victorious 1940 campaigns, where
they lost a mere 30,000 dead.

In writing their post-WWII memoirs, the German generals have mainly
blamed the Russian winter for their misfortunes in 1941. That is a lot
of piffle and the same excuse used by Napoleon; in both cases, it did
not really get cold until December and, by that time, the Soviet
resistance before Moscow was so strong that they were ready to fight
for their capital block by block and house by house. Despite the first
spectacular German advances, due to the element of surprise and previous
battle experience in the campaigns of 1940 and early 1941, the Wehrmacht
found out that the Russians learned fast and as Major-General Reinhard
Gehlen put it: "we were up against first-class strategic brains".

The poor showing of the Red Army in the early part of the German
invasion has been blamed by many authorities on Stalin's devastating
purges in 1936-1938. That was true to much extent, but even if marshals
of the calibre of Blyukher, Tukhachevskii and Uborevich had still been
alive in 1941, it is doubtful that they would have done any better
against the Wehrmacht in the first few months of the war, as most of
the Red Army's battle experience was outdated, going back more than 20
years earlier to the Civil War. The Russian answers to the Blitzkrieg
were scorched earth and defence-in-depth and they worked.

The theory has often been put forward in the West that if the Germans
had been humane and allowed the formation of free Russian and Ukrainian
governments, most of the men in the Soviet forces would have deserted to
the invaders. The present writer does not think much of that argument;
Hitler himself must have foreseen that such governments would soon have
split into warring factions and eventually would have turned against the
Germans. It also would have run contrary to the Eastern policy of the
Third Reich, which was based on conquest and colonisation.

The hideously inhuman treatment accorded Soviet prisoners of war in 1941,
when millions were allowed by the German generals to starve to death,
rebounded on them two years later after the Stalingrad disaster. Attempts
were then made by the Third Reich through neutral channels for POW mail
exchanges, but Stalin replied that "We are not interested in a postal
service for Germans". That reply had philatelic repercussions, as the
German censor offices for foreign mail intercepted enquiries addressed
to the International Red Cross in Geneva, Switzerland about German
servicemen missing on the Eastern Front and returned the letters to the
senders. In the case of the Berlin and Munich censor offices, they
enclosed a printed insert, explaining that the Soviet Union did not
accept enquiries about POWs and missing personnel. Two types of inserts
are known from Berlin (Figs. 1 & 2) and one from Munich (Fig. 3). They
are all very rare.

Nicht befdrdert.-- Die Sowjetunion lasst erfahrungsgeiias keinerlei
Nachforschungen durch Dienststellen oder private Uittelpersonen
des neutralen Auslandes eu. Es wird anheimgestelit, falls noch nicht
geschehen, die
A n fr age
an die
Fig. 1.
fir Triegerverluste u. Kriegsgefangene
B e r l i n W 3 0 Hohengtaufenstr. 47/48
zu richten, damit Nachforschungen eingeleitct werdon kcihnei,sobald
ein 1gg hierzu often ist.
A il;nd.briefprifotelle Berlin.

nidit beffibertt bie Somietunlon Ifipt Nicht beffrdert; die Snwietunion lafit erfahrungs-
erfahrungsgemii heinerlei tadlfot- gemfli keinerlci Ns urorschungen nach Vermiblien
[d: ungen nad Dermitten burdch ienft- ldurch Dienststellen oder private Mittelspersonen dtes
telen obe private m tesperonen eutralen Auslantles n. E 4rd aneinmgestellt, falls
ellen ober private ittelsperrnen noch nicht gescehen, die Anrae an die Wehrmachts.
bes .neutraen fluslanbes 3U. auskunftstelle fitr Kriegverluste u. Kriegsgefangene.
S. Bel nadiforrdungen nadi Stalingrab- Berlin W 30, Hohenstaulenstr. 47/48 zu richten.
; kimpfern it bie finfage on has tu- damit Nachforschungen eingeleitet werden kounen,
.; .1me~east o t sobald hieru ein Weg ofTen ist.
tanbige tDellhmelbeamt ab3urlditen.
Die Prtfetelle
ttID. tKm. f .9 a.rm. Iv. U. la S. m 21Wr


38 Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

Figure 1 (Berlin) measures 210 x 95mm. and reads as follows: "Not
forwarded. On the basis of experience, the Soviet Union permits
* absolutely no enquiries through official channels or private
intermediaries in the neutral countries abroad. If not already done so,
the enquiry should be directed to the Army Information Office for Missing
Servicemen and POWs, Berlin W30, Hohenstaufenstr. 47/48, so that
investigations may be carried out as soon as a way is found open".

Figure 2 (Berlin) measures 105 x 73mm. and states: "Not forwarded; on the
basis of experience, the Soviet Union permits absolutely no enquiries
about missing personnel through official channels or private
intermediaries in the neutral countries abroad.
For investigations about servicemen who fought at Stalingrad, the enquiry
should be directed to the relevant Forces Information Office".
This leaflet has an imprint at bottom left, reading: "ABP.Form.54a.
20.000.IV.43.Q/0337.327", indicating that it was printed in April 1943,
in an edition of 20,000 copies.

Figure 3 (Munich) measures 107 x 72mm. and has wording identical to that
in the first Berlin leaflet as given in Fig. 1 and ending with the words
"Die Prifstelle" (The Censorship Office), the imprint at bottom left now
reading "N/1392".

In passing, it may be remarked here that Stalin also turned down the
repatriation of his elder'son Yakov, a Red Army officer in German
captivity, in exchange for prominent German POWs. That took iron
resolve, as Yakov died in a German camp and his father did not get the
news until after the war, in a letter sent to him by a Belgian prince,
*who had been a fellow prisoner. In his refusal, Stalin was reflecting
the Russian sense of great outrage at the German invasion.

To round off this historical outline, we all know how dearly the Soviets
bought their victory over Nazi Germany. Hitler's gamble, which began on
Sunday, 22 June 1941, turned out to be the costliest struggle in the
course of human history and had been foreseen by Stalin ten years
earlier, as shown by the excerpts at the head of this article. At least
2,750,000 Germans died on the Eastern Front (almost 90% of all German
war dead), a further 1,200,000 servicemen failed to return from the East
and about one million German civilians perished in the fighting and
subsequent expulsions. The German losses in equipment and material along
that 3200-km.(2000-mile) front were equally catastrophic. The "Drang
nach Osten" had been put to rest once and for all.

Let us now begin to examine some of the material relating to this "Holy
War", in the form of markings, postage stamps, stationery, publicity
labels, vignettes etc. All these items will be considered chronologically
under two sections: (1) those issued in the territory of the Third Reich
or Greater Germany (Grossdeutsches Reich), which included Austria
(Ostmark) and the protectorate of Bohemia & Moravia (B6hmen und MAhren),
among other areas and (2) similar material put out by the allies of the
Third Reich during the course of this great struggle.

1. GROSSDEUTSCHES REICH (Greater Germany).

(a) Grosse Antibolschewistische Ausstellung / Bolschewismus ohne Maske
( Great Anti-Bolshevik Exhibition / Bolshevism Unmasked ). Held in the
following cities:-

(i) Berlin.

S 61137-12
l1 m '

The show was staged at the Reichstag and originally intended
to run from 6 Nov. to 19 Dec. 1937, as shown herewith. There
were three markings, with code letters a,b & c. Marking "c"
was for sending by the pneumatic postal system and had
designations in minutes after the hour indications; it is
the most desirable of the three postmarks.
It was decided to extend the length of the exhibition and a
new set of three.cancellers was prepared, inscribed 20.12.37-
9.1.38. These are rarer than the three original markings.

(ii) Hamburg. Only code "a" was used and applied from 12.3. to 8.4.1938.

(iii) Vienna. Code letters

"a" & "b" were applied in machine slogan
markings, inscribed "Grosse Anti-/
NORDWESTBAHNHALLE", as shown herewith. The

li USStllULngI 'h snow ran from 10.12.38 to 28.2.39 in the
itit; hall of the North-West Railway Station.
(b) Ausstellung "Der Bolschewismus" (The Bolshevism Exhibition), held in
Wilhelmshaven from 5 to 19 May 1939, as shown hereunder.

iQ 5-391-6 <\ '-* '* L- \ V-'d j 1.bc pqlrr '" -

against Bolshevism), as shown in the central illustration directly above.
Applied only in Berlin on 25 & 26 Nov. 1941, exclusively on stamps with
surtax (semi-postals) and with a code. letter a or b; these latter appear
at the bottom right of the swastika and just above the word DEN.

(d) HAMBURG 36/Postwertzeichen-Ausstellung/Landesverband/Norddeutschland/
DEUTSCH.REICH/SOWJET RUSSLAND/"Kampf dem Bolschewismus" (Postage Stamp
Exhibition of the North German Federation/German Empire/Soviet Russia/
"Fight Bolshevism"). Applied at Hamburg from 10 to 16 Jan. 1942 (see the
illustration above at right for this unusual marking).

R L / o ,

19.5. 42.-15

(e) Ausstellung "Das Sowjet-Paradies" ("The Soviet Paradise"
Exhibition), held in the following cities (see illns. bottom p.38):-

(i) Berlin. Held from 9.5. to 21.6.1942 in the Lustgarten. Two types
seen, slightly differing from each other, including in the form of the
code letter "a" placed to the right of the man's head!

(ii) Dortmund. Held at the Westphalia Hall,30.1. to 7.3.43. No code letter.

(iii) Essen. Held at the Gruga exhibition halls,26.9. to 30.10.42. No code.

(iv) Hamburg-36. Held from 25.7. to 30.8.42 and with inscription at bottom
reading AUSST./GELANDE PLANTEN UN BLOMEN in Hamburg dialect. No code


PL, ,

(v) K8nigsberg. Held from 14.11. to 13.12.42. Three markings, each in two
types were applied, as follow. Inscribed "Ausstellung/Das/Sowjet-Paradies/
K8nigsberg (Pr)/Messehallen/14 Nov.-13 Dez.42", with code letters "bb"
(K8nigsberg-l) and "am" (K8nigsberg-5) and a third marking without code
letters or P.O. numbers. The two types have 4 or 5 fence palings
Respectively from left to right at the bottom of the cancels, as shown in
the two illustrations directly above in the centre.

(vi) Vienna. Held from 13.12.41 to 1.2.42, with code letters a or b. As
can be seen from the dates, Vienna was the first city to put on the show
and the markings were simple, compared to the ornate types applied

There were special postcards, without stamp impressions, sold in all the
cities noted above and illustrating various aspects of the woefully low
living standards in "The Paradise of the Workers and Farmers". If that
were the main reason for launching such a senseless attack on the Soviet
Union, it rebounded on all the Eastern Europeans to their great cost a
mere couple of years later. As a Soviet Army veteran bitterly remarked
to the writer:"We had fought our way back through our ruined towns and
villages and were infuriated when we entered a practically untouched
Eastern Europe, with lush fields and houses that looked like palaces to
us. They had so much and yet they attacked us, who had so little!".

(f) UNSER FHHRER BANNT DEN BOLSCHEWISMUS (Our Fthrer bans Bolshevism).
Applied only on Hitler's 54th. birthday in the following cities:-

(i) Amsterdam, Holland, with a supplemental inscription below the city
name, reading DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST NIEDERLANDE and thus a "used abroad"
* marking (see illustration at the top of the next page).

(ii) Berlin.

(iii) Braunau in Austria (Hitler's birthplace). These markings were only





Johs n Fierla
Te as c h e n;; 0.-/S.

Tiefe 'Gasse 35.

Braunau (Inn)
S78 R

supposed to be applied to the six birthday stamps with surtax, which had
been issued one week earlier, but we see here the Braunau type struck on
a registered cover sent on official post office business, which required
no postage. An unusual and scarce item.

(iv) Minchen (Munich); (v) NArnberg (Nuremberg) and (vi) Wien (Vienna).

never!, in German and Czech),applied from 21 Jan. to 4 Feb. 1945 in the


- --- -.--


Bohemian capital of Prague, then still part of Greater
Germany. This bilingual marking, applied on the stamps fafte
Sand postal stationery of Bohemia and Moravia, may be
regarded as the dying scream of the Holy War against
Bolshevism and has now become quite hard to find.

This section may now be rounded off with details of
the German propaganda forgeries, produced under the
direction of the Security Police at the Oranienburg- '
Sachsenhausen concentration camp, imitating some
English postage stamps and with anti-Bolshevik themes.

The first design, shown below at left, was modelled after the d. value
of the English 1935 Jubilee issue, but with the head of Stalin in the
centre. The inscription at bottom has the word JEWISH mispelt as JEWSH,
there is a star of David in the upper corners and topping the crown, a
hammer and sickle at right, as well as imitating the abbreviation D for
penny. Printed by offset in dark green on ungummed paper, watermarked
wavy lines and line-perforated 11. Also found postmarked with a
circular date stamp, made of steel and struck in black, or made of
rubber and struck in violet; the marking reads LONDON/AAAO/-6 JUN/44/

The second design, shown below at right, was modelled on the 1d. value
of the English 1937 Coronation stamp, with a star of David in the upper
corners, the head of Stalin at right together with a five-pointed star
enclosing the hammer and sickle and with inscriptions SSSR-BRITANNIA at
* top and TEHERAN*28.11.1943 at bottom. Same paper and perforation and
postmarks as before. Printed in dark lilac-brown.

The third issue was an imitation of six values of the current English
definitive, showing the head of King George VI, with a star of David
within the rose at top left and topping the crown, the hammer and sickle
within the thistle at top right and simulating the abbreviation D, with
the same paper, perforation and postmarks as before. The values were hd.
green, ld. red, 1d. dark lilac-brown, 2d. orange, 2d. blue and 3d.
dark violet. This same set is also known with the overprint WORLD/
BOLSHEVISM, plus a five-pointed star and hammer and sickle, all applied
diagonally in black, with a second overprint having the initials AAAO/
ON ORDER OF STALIN, while a third overprint reads ENGLAND BLEEDS ON THE
ORDER OF MOSCOW. A fourth says WORLD SLAVERY. All .unused only and all the
issues are expensive to acquire, due to strong demand from German
philatelists. ----u ....---

We will now pass on to the items put
out by the allies of the Third Reich.


N III I It 194s

Y;1 11 v)



Like Canada, this is a bilingual country, composed of Flemish (Dutch-
speaking) and Walloons (French-speaking) .and each group formed its own
Anti-Bolshevik Legion for service with the Germans on the Eastern Front.
Both legions issued adhesive labels, which were inscribed VELDPOST,
FELDPOST or POSTE DE CHAMPAGNE (field post), but such items had NO POSTAL
VALIDITY as the legionnaires enjoyed free franking privileges. The labels
were sold with a heavy surtax, the proceeds going to aid the two legions.
We will now consider the two entities separately.

(i) The Flemish Legion.

The layout and design of the first issue of field post labels was
inspired by the souvenir sheet issued on 16.7.1940 by Switzerland (!),
as can be seen from the illustration above at left. The Flemish Legion
put out;four symbolic designs in sheetlets of four stamps each on 23 Dec.
1941, harrow-perforated 12 and with a surtax of 50 francs per stamp.

1. +50 FR., carmine, black and yellow (sword design).
2. +50 RF., emerald green, black and yellow (archer).
3. +50 FR., orange, black and yellow (battle scene).
4. +50 FR., dark blue, black and yellow (mounted knight in armour).

ONES ON THE EASTERN FRONT. Stamp No. 3 is a particularly vicious design,
as it shows a Flemish swordsman swinging at a Red Army man wearing the
traditional peaked cap. A total of 30,000 sets was issued. The sheetlets
also exist imperforate, as shown below and all labels are worth a premium
with a German fieldpost cancel, but care should be taken, as forged
covers are known.


r~-~X- 7--~~i~ j 1- T~L)~

.-;.-.-.---. .--T..

i~,- -
ti~-~:- -----; -----

- 'S-

The lack of postal validity of these labels is confirmed by the Belgian
internal cover shown above, which bears the complete set of four designs
and had to have a current 1 franc Belgian definitive affixed, so as to
carry the letter through the mails from Brussels 8.1.42 to Duffel.

The second issue (Nos. 5 to 8), came out in 1943 and consists of the
previous sheetlets, overprinted with an aircraft and the year 1943, in
four different types. Needless to say, these 1943 sheetlets exist also in
imperforate condition and with inverted overprints! 3680 sets issued.

The third issue appeared on 9 Aug. 1943 and commemorated various
emperors and an empress of the Teutonic Holy Roman Empire and the
Hapsburg Dynasty. Harrow-perforated 12 and in sheetlets of four of each
* design, as before, but numbered this time in the top right margins.
Inscribed SS FELDPOST and/or WAPEN SS.

9. +5F. green (Otto the Great, 912-970 A.D.).
10. +10f. brown (Joseph II, 1741-1790).

...... ..... ..... ..... ..... .......... ..... ..... .....


50 50

LL. +15F. brown (Maria Theresa, 1717-1780).
12. +20F. red (Maximilian I, 1459-1519).
13. +50F. brown (Charlemagne, 742-814).
14. +100F. blue (Karl V, 1500-1558).
30,000 sets issued and imperforates exist. The printing sheet consisted
of nine sheetlets, as shown below.

N9 006881

L ,.

S.......... .... .................. ..F.........


The fourth set was prepared for sale, but never issued. Once again in
sheetlets, but arranged this time in blocks of four. Printed in 1944.
Inscribed SS FELDPOST and/or WAPEN SS. There were 1200 imperforate sets,
6000 perforated sets, including misperforated and partly perforated


L. NV 000001'

-A T, A

1..ii 3 I,
-~ ~ Am"up

*.. .... ..*........... *. *.................. 0
If IP ; I
.50 fr )f -FELDPOST ..DPO.t

....... : ..
*50r 74 FELDPOST a 50r -frELDPJST

W*we -11 W
* .------m I .- ---.f I

15. + 10F. brown (soldiers on guard before bomber).
16. + 15F. green (two machine gunners and fighter aircraft).
17. + 25F. violet (soldier and Stuka dive bomber).
18. + 50F. blue (soldier & pilot before fighter aircraft).
19. +100F. brown (soldier and bombers overhead).

The fifth issue consists of the + 50F. value in
blue of the previous set (No.18) overprinted ....I .
LANGEMARK in red, for the SS-Storm Brigade
Langemark. Now comb-perforated 12. A total of
3600 stamps was overprinted. Both imperforates ...
and inverted overprints exist.

20. + 50F. blue. .. .

(ii) The Wallonia Legion.

The position here was much simpler and we only have to consider one
issue, in sheetlets containing blocks of four of each value, inscribed
BOLCHEVISME (Free Frank Stamps of the Legion of Walloon Volunteers
against Bolshevism) in the top and bottom margins, with each sheetlet
numbered on the back and line-perforated 14. Issued on 10 April 1942.

S i ....... .. ..... .......................... ...... ...... ........................... ..............................

+ ," r ____

.............i................ ... ..". tiio" T. -,Lr L]oiMwt-.....r-[i TOF10'- 0Ae OIIe,


21. + 20F. green and red (mounted standard bearer).
22 + 30F brown and red (soldier bearing flag).
23. + blue and red (volunteers on parade).
24 lilac-rose and red (head of volunteer). 47
..', ..,

... ... .. ...... ... I................_-. "-. :!X "

21. + 20F. green and red (mounted standard bearer).
22. + 30F. brown and red (soldier bearing flag).
23. + 50F. blue and red (volunteers on parade).
24. +100F, lilac-rose and red (head of volunteer). 47

I oI =F^[L: ,Sl" ]
%Of, lLDF S T ; FEL.F0,'T

', I k S

"y V C 11
'5 ~ = 1A...IBA

All four values exist imperforate and an example of the
+ 30F. value is shown here. The same four values are
T B R also known printed together in an imperforate
Ministerial presentation sheet, measuring 146 x 211 mm.,
N which is very rare. All the designs carry the additional
/ inscription POSTE DE CAMPAGNE (Field Post). Forged
covers are known, bearing these free franking labels.

sbfA 1NOTE: In-addition to the 24 items listed above, there
was another set of four labels, three with a surtax of
5 F. and the last with a surtax of 10 F., bilingually inscribed BELGIQUE-
were merely charity seals in aid of Belgian POWs in Germany and never
intended to denote free franking.

3. The Bohemian Legion.

As stated previously, Bohemia & Moravia (BShmen und Mahren) officially
formed part of Greater Germany from 1939 to 1945, but with the special
status of a protectorate of the Third Reich. Among other things, that
meant that the citizens of the protectorate were not subject to military
service in the Wehrmacht. However, an attempt was made by the Germans to
recruit Czechs for an Anti-Bolshevik Bohemian Legion. The effort
apparently did not get very far, as the present writer has never found
any postal history material or labels referring to such an entity. Any
legionnaire or/or his family would undoubtedly have destroyed such
compromising material after the liberation of Prague on 9 May 1945.
Further information from the readership of "The Post-Rider" would be
greatly appreciated.

It might be noted in passing that the First Czechoslovak Separate
Infantry Battalion was formed at Buzuluk in February 1943 under Colonel
(later General) Ludvik Svoboda and fought its way, together with the
Soviet Army, right back to Prague.

4. The Croatian Legion.

Of all the German allies in WWII, the Fascist Ustasa "Independent State
of Croatia", carved out of Yugoslavia on 10 April 1941, was probably the
most loathsome, as the recent trial of Andrija Artukovic has shown. The
Croatians were one of the three Slav peoples, whose religious and racist
prejudices were manipulated by the Third Reich to slaughter their fellow
Slavs and other ethnic groups on the Eastern Front.

A 4+2 kune stamp, inscribed BORBA UDRUZENE EUROPE NA ISTOKU (The
Struggle of United Europe in the East) was issued on 3 Dec. 1941 and
remained valid until 30 Jan. 1942. Printed in 139,626 copies for an
Anti-Bolshevik exhibition in Zagreb,which ran into January 1942. A
special cancel and maximum card were also produced, as shown at the top
of the next page.

A further four stamps with surtax came out in 760,000 sets on 1 July
1943 to honour the sailors, airmen and soldiers of the Croatian Legion
on the Eastern Front, with references to the Sea of Azov, Sevastopol' &
Riev, Stalingrad and the Don. The same four stamps were printed in
changed colours in perforated and imperforate souvenir sheets (199,030
pairs) with a notation at bottom reading ZA HRVATSKE LEGIONARE (FOR THE

.:";- 1942

42OV940 Tz



I IS 1in 50


t ----- ;!I


felbpofthhrtc --2at.4f
.. .. j ......
; <,t% 7(/

......... ......-./ ^ ^ .. ..............
is. 21n -*
^1 (< ^ -

^ ~ rf>^l-7-/ .

Special Croatian field post letter forms were printed with a design on
UP TO THE FINAL VICTORY), as shown at top right. As with the other
legions on the Eastern Front, the Croatians had to use the German field
post facilities. Two examples are shown directly above, the one at left
being from a sailor at Field Post No. 23713 and the one at right from
Field Post No. 41700 D.

5. The Danish Legion.

The Danes did not get into the
act until fairly late, i.e. in
1944, with a set of three labels,
typographed, line-perforated 11
and issued in booklets with a
pane of 4 of each value.

1. +25 Ore dark green (Roskilde
2. +50 Ore Dark blue (Koldinghus)
3. + 1 krone orange-red (Kronberg)

NOTE: All three values are
also known overprinted
FELDPOST in German and
are rare thus.


An '

J O t .l :.,,....: ...... .. .. .... .. .- .

o- I ;

s-N, 3:r- ,2!
-:4... .
"D l~b



-.. >-- There were two further labels printed, with
the two designs in vertical pairs, but only
Sone of them showing a face value: 50 (Ore).
SThey portrayed C.F. v. Schalburg, commander
of the SS-Nordland Regiment. They are rare,
"B but the writer has only ever seen them
A referred to in mint condition and they lack
j : any inscription linking them with a field
post usage. Further information is
I $ Z.IIburs 1sfle requested from the readership of "The Post-
C..cBhalbnerfai o|liigaaiTtr8sitibhdiP|| Rider", so that we may determine their exact
SM status.

6. The Estonian Volunteers.

Were it not for the idiotically brutal way it was treated during the
Soviet occupation of 1940-1941, the Estonian population would never
have welcomed the German invaders. The incorporation into the USSR of
the three Baltic republics on 17-23 June 1940 was forcible, totally
against the will of the peoples concerned and a blatant violation of
international law. That incorporation has never been recognized by many
Western countries, including Canada.

So far as the writer knows, there were no Anti-Bolshevik labels, stamps
or postal stationery issued in Estonia under the German occupation, but
Estonian volunteers were at first allowed to form defence and police
battalions and, later on, air force units and SS-units at the legion,
brigade and division level. A comprehensive coverage of this subject has
been given by our subscriber August Leppd in his work EESTILXISTEN
Military Field Post in the German Army 1941-1945), published in Finnish,
with an English summary as title No. 2 of the Philatelic Federation of
Finland, Helsinki 1985. Readers are referred to this study for further
details of Estonian participation in the Holy War.

There were, of course, various local issues and overprints on Soviet
stamps in the early days of the invasion, but as far as the Estonians
were concerned, such items were liberation issues, rather than being
anti-Bolshevik in character and are thus outside the scope of this study.

N 7. The Finnish Army.

Field Marshal Baron Carl Gustaf Mannerheim and
many of his senior officers had served with
distinction in the Tsarist Army and had pleasant
Memories of their Russian experiences, but they
Certainly regarded the Stalin government as a
Bloodstained regime. The harsh Soviet terms
S imposed on Finland after the Winter War of 1939-
1940 and especially the loss of the major and
historic city of Viipuri/Vyborg caused great
Bitterness and drove the Finns into the arms of
3$ < Even so, when the German invasion began, the
SFinnish Army contented itself with winning back
Western Karelia and occupying Soviet Eastern
S Karelia for ethnic reasons. The Finnish advance


I '

then stopped and the subsequent administration of the occupied Soviet
territory was so exemplary that no official was ever accused of war crimes.

O The Finnish occupation of Eastern Karelia should be the subject of a
separate study, but there were many postcards with caricatures and/or
satiric themes, sent by members of the Puolustusvoimat (Defence Forces)
through their field post service. Some could be construed as anti-
Bolshevik in tone and a typical used example is shown at the bottom of
the previous page. The Finnish inscription reads: STALIN'S CHANNEL WAS
BLOCKED UP. The writer would be interested to hear of other designs in
this category.

8. The French volunteers.

This was one of the saddest episodes in the long history of France,
brought about by French ultra-chauvinists thirsting to avenge Napoleon's
defeat in Russia of 129 years before. Vichy France had broken off
diplomatic relations with the USSR on 29 June 1941, but the "Legion des
Volontaires Frangais centre le Bolchevisme" (LVF) was a private
undertaking in the Holy War against Bolshevism that originated in the
minds of the three D's of French Fascist demonology: Marcel Deat,
Eugene Deloncle and Jacques Doriot.

The LVF opened its first recruiting centre on 8 July 1941 at No. 12, rue
Auber, not far from the Place de l'Opera, where the Germans had their
Kommandantur. Not quite 3000 volunteers had been enlisted by 27 August,
when they reported to the Borgnis-Desbordes barracks in Versailles, in
the presence of that collaborator par excellence, Pierre Laval. At the
end of the inspection ceremony, Laval was seriously wounded by two
bullets, fired by a 21-year old French patriot, Paul-Leon Collette. The
latter was not turned over to the Germans until January 1943 and
miraculously survived to return from a concentration camp at war's end.

The first contingent of 25 officers and 830 men arrived on 8 September
at a training camp at Dgba near Radom in occupied Poland, where they were
given German uniforms and had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler on
12 October. The Legion was officially the 638th. Reinforced French
Infantry Regiment of the Wehrmacht and joined in the drive on Moscow,
with an exhortatory telegram sent by Marshal Philippe Petain. Its 1st.
Battalion was cut to pieces by the deadly Red Army artillery on 6-7 Dec.
1941 near Borodino (does that place-name sound familiar?). The 2nd.
Battalion was combined with the survivors and used with the 3rd.Battalion
in anti-partisan operations in the Bryansk, Mogil&v & Smolensk areas.

Meanwhile, Pierre Laval had recovered from his wounds and became
effective head of the Vichy govt. on 17 April 1942. He set up the "Legion
Tricolore" (the only one to have postage stamps issued in its honour),
which was to fight on the Eastern Front in German uniforms and intended
to absorb the privately organised LVF. However, both the Germans and
Italians blocked the formation of the "Legion Tricolore" and its
volunteers sent to reinforce the LVF in the East. The Vichy govt. finally
recognized the LVF officially on 9 February 1943. A total of 5800 men
joined the LVF during its existence.

SBy 22 July 1943, the Vichy govt. passed a law approving enlistment in the
French Waffen-SS "to fight Bolshevism outside the national territory".
This force in German uniform was amalgamated with the LVF on 1 September
1944 to become the 33rd. Charlemagne SS Grenadier Division and that

entity fought in the Wehrmacht in the defence of Berlin until its fall
on 2 May 1945.

In violation of the armistice signed between France and Germany on 22
June 1940 at Rethondes, the areas of Alsace and Lorraine were annexed
unilaterally by the Third Reich in August 1940. Their inhabitants were
thus now German citizens and liable for military service, including on
the Eastern Front. We thus have to consider all the following areas in
our study of the Holy War against Bolshevism:-

(a) La Legion des Volontaires Frangais centre le Bolchevisme (LVF).
(b) La Legion Tricolore.
(c) The French Waffen SS.
(d) The 33rd. Charlemagne SS Grenadier Division.
(e) Alsatians and Lorrainians serving in the Wehrmacht in the East.

We will now examine each area in turn.

(a) The LVF Labels.

None of these issues had any postal validity and they were distributed
from the Legion's offices at 12, rue Auber in Paris, as follow:-

24 Oct. 1941. Polar Bear sheetlet
measuring 95 x 135mm., designed by BLOCDEFRANCH LISE
Vinay and die engraved by Degorce, OU CORPS EXP DITIONNAIR UCOs .xir,,
typographed, poorly harrow-perf.13 .........................
and inscribed in the upper & lower
BOLCHEVISME (Franking Sheetlet of
the Expeditionary Corps of the ...................
Legion of French Volunteers 0 ....., ... ,. .. :A. ,i LG:ON [iE VON.. iAiRESFAN.A.S
against Bolshevism). ..- .. CONT.. 1i Kn. )CVsMi

1. F + 100F., in blue, with star
and inscriptions in red.

The "F" stood for "Franchise" (free franking), with the 100F.(a
considerable sum in those days) going to the Legion funds. Note the
initials LVF in the blades of the francisque (Frankish battle-axe and
the official emblem of Vichy France). 25,000 sheetlets were sold by
subscription at 100F. each on 24 Oct., with a further 5000 copies going
on sale on the 31st. The writer has never seen this sheetlet properly
used on a field post cover from the Eastern Front. They are mostly
found cancelled by favour with a common steel FELDPOST cds, of which at
least some fell into unauthorised hands at war's end, so caution is
advised. The most blatant example so far seen was a cut-down sheetlet,
cancelled with a FELDPOST cds, code letter "b" and back-dated to
22.10.41 (two days earlier than the day of issue!), as shown above.
Forgeries exist of this sheetlet, which now brings good prices; a
common forgery has whiter paper than in the originals and there is a
noticeable space between the bottom tip of the letter "V" and the
bottom edge of the francisque blade.

10 Dec. 1941. Airmail issue, recess-printed at the Institut de Gravure
in Paris and comb-perforated 12.

2. F. design in green, showing Dornier aircraft flying towards Moscow;
aircraft shadow and inscription COURRIER OFFICIEL PAR AVION at bottom
S both in red by typography. Designer: Bonhotal; engraver: Gandon.
3. F + 10f/Taxe a6rienne and inscription COURRIER SPECIAL PAR AVION at
bottom all typographed in blue; engraved red design showing aircraft
between Moscow and Paris. Designer: Vinay; engraver: Degorce.

Originally offered by subscription on 10 Dec. 1941, then in lots of 5 or
10 pairs two days later, at the Legion offices. Out of a total printing
of 450,000 pairs, 141,000 pairs were sold. The bottom margins of the
sheets were filled in with an engraved burelage below each stamp in the
bottom row, showing a francisque and a continuous band of the initials
LVF in manuscript capitals. The same treatment was given to the top
margins of the sheets, but inverted in relation to the stamps just below.
Sundry varieties exist, some of which may not have occurred at the time
of printing, but produced intentionally at some later date. Among the
more noteworthy are the F. label in green with misplaced inscription at
bottom and, for the red F + 10f Taxe aerienne label, the imperforates
and missing acute accent rto the "e" of "aerienne", as shown below. Once
again the writer has never seen either label properly used on mail. The
example shown hereunder of the F + 10f label on a postcard with BADEN
postmark is laughable. The cancel is bogus and the card, addressed to
Paris, could not have gone through as the Baden date is 11 Nov. 1944,
while Paris had been liberated on 25 August! .---.

.* ,


15 Jan. 1942. The 309,000 pairs remaining from the previous issue were
overprinted FRONT DE L'EST/OSTFRONT in two lines in black and originally
sold by subscription, then they went on open sale in pairs until 7 Feb.
A total of 137,500 pairs was sold and the balance of 171,500 pairs
burnt on 9 Feb. 1942.

4. F. design in green (shades) and red.
5. F + 10f Taxe aerienne in red and blue.

Once again, the missing acute accent 'is observed on the F + 10f stamp
(No.5) and the same stamp is shown overleaf with inverted overprint, from
the top part of the sheet, which also demonstrates the inverted state of
the burelage. An absolutely genuine cover from the Eastern Front bearing
Sa label of this issue (No.4) has been recorded by M. Camille de Rhynal in
the 8 June 1946 issue of STAMPS (also shown overleaf). It was sent on 6
March 1943 by an officer in the LVF and the cover also bore the
Dienstelle FP Nr. 03865A marking, known to have been assigned to the 1st.
Battalion. The envelope was addressed to his wife J. Simoni, formerly of


Nice and who had moved to Montpellier. He was executed by the FFI (the
French Resistance) after his return to Montpellier.

As a final note, both labels are known in pairs showing one unit without
overprint and the F + 10 with a double overprint; the status of such
varieties has not been established to the satisfaction of this author.

; -1 _).. i ..r44444444 II': i ..... ... o.1.... .....

20 Apr.1942. A set of five franking labels with a surtax of IF. each,
printed by photogravure in sheets of 25 units, ten of which were arranged
se-tenant at either left or right with an additional label showing the
insignia of the LVF, without or with an additional date:2.4.42 (coin date).
Perforated 13, with a printing of 1 million sets. Sold in Paris, Lyon &
Marseilles, originally in lots of 25 sets and then 15 sets at a time
until 30 April. Issued to commemorate the battle between the Red Army
and the legionnaires near Borodino on 6-7 December 1941.

6. F + IF.
7. F + IF.
8. F + 1F.
9. F + IF.
10.F + IF.

blue & dark red; Napoleonic soldiers and legionnaires.
brown & dark blue; tank in action.
blue-green & blue-black; artillery.
dark red & blue-green; cavalry.
dark violet & red; scout in observation before Moscow.

The complete set is also shown used on the envelope to Mme Simoni given at
the top of this page. Pairs with dated labels are hard to find;once in sheet.

The known Dienststelle Feldpost Nos. attributed to the LVF are now listed
as an aid in identifying genuine mail from the legionnaires in the East:-
Feldpost Nr. Assignment Period of usage

638th.French Regt. HQ/LVF.
13th. Company
14th. Company
638th.French Regt. HQ/LVF.
1st. Battalion; Companies 1-4


Nov.1941/June 1942.
Nov.1941/June 1942.
Nov.1941/June 1942.



Feldpost Nr. Assignment Period of usage.

03925 4th. Battalion; Companies 13-16 Apr.1943/Sept.1944.
* 04358 2nd. Battalion; Companies 5-8 Nov.1941/June 1942.
05492 3rd. Battalion; Companies 9-12 Nov.1941/Sept.1944.
06376 Artillery Unit Nov.1941/Oct. 1943.
19440 3rd. Battalion; Deba Unit Mar.1942/Sept.1944.
20919 4th. Battalion HQ Apr.1943/Sept.1944.
34206 New 2nd. Battalion Dec.1943/Sept.1944.
39630 1st. Battalion; Radom Unit Mar.1942/Sept.1944.
46795 Reserve Unit Nov.1941/Sept.1944.
47702 15th. Company Nov.1941/June 1942.
56381 New 2nd. Battalion HQ Dec.1943/Sept.1944.

In addition, the training camp at the Borgnis-Desbordes barracks in
Versailles applied to mail a double-ring cachet in violet-red, reading
between the circles and "Le Vaguemestre" (The Postal Officer) across the
centre. The application of this marking entitled the sender to have the
free franking privilege. A variant had "Le/Commandant/de/Centre" in the
centre (Reception Centre Commander) and BATAILLON is absent at the bottom.

(b) La Legion Tricolore. n*s

The two engraved postage stamps referring to this
force were officially issued on 12 Oct.1942 and became
invalid on 1 Nov.1944. Based on a poster by Eric and mfnzg
engraved by P. Gandon, both stamps had the same designs .
* and values (lf20 + 8f80) and were printed together in sheets containing
two rows of five of the blue stamps, then a single row of five of the
uninked design (blind print) which were not valid for postage, followed
by two rows of the same stamp in red, totalling 20 stamps in the sheet.
Any usage of either stamp on LVF mail would have been purely philatelic
and the author has yet to see any such examples.

(c) The French Waffen SS.

Mail from members of this force can only date from 22 July 1943 onwards
and the author has not come across any such items so far.

(d) The 33rd. Charlemagne SS Grenadier Division.

The successor to the LVF and French Waffen SS, the division came into
being on 1 Sept.1944, by which time most of France had been liberated
by the Western Allies. The Vichy govt., including Marshal Petain, had
been removed by the Germans on 20 Aug.1944 to Belfort and on 9 Sept.,
together with Pierre Laval, on to the ancestral castle of the
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, near Freiburg im Breisgau. With the absorption
of the LVF,5 of the Dienststelle Feldpost Nos. were transferred to this
division as follow, with different designations:-
02951; 03865; 05492; 19440; 46795.

None of the mail generated by the members of the division could have
gone to France, but only sent within the steadily shrinking area of the
Third Reich and especially to the Vichy govt. in exile at Sigmaringen.
Such items must be of considerable rarity, as well as POW mail from any
of the survivors after they had been captured by the Soviet Army.

(e) Alsatians and Lorrainians serving in the Wehrmacht in the East.

With the annexation of both areas by the Third Reich in August 1940,
many refugees crossed over into France, so the numbers of Alsatians and
Lorrainians conscripted into service by the Germans could not have been
high. Any field post mail, as well as from POWs in Soviet captivity,
would be rare and the author would welcome of any such items held by
readers of "The Post-Rider".

French anti-Bolshevik markings and postcards.

Following the example of Greater Germany, there were
anti-Bolshevik exhibitions in various French cities,
for which special markings were issued. Listing them
chronologically, they were as follow:-


Three of these markings are shown here at left, as
well as a VICTORIA postcard. There was at least one
other postcard issued, anti-Bolshevik in tone and
(Europe on the march against Bolshevism), with massed
flags and marching soldiers. Other cards with
,similar sentiments probably exist and details would
be welcome.


9. The Hungarian Army.

Hungary, which at the time was "a kiraly nelkUli kiralysag"(the kingless
kingdom) under the regency of Admiral HORTHY Mikl6s, had no quarrel with
the Soviet Union but, as the noted Hungarian writer ZILAHY Lajos has
related in one of his novels, Hitler arranged for German bombers with
Soviet markings to bomb the then Hungarian town of Kassa (now Kosice in
Eastern Slovakia) in August 1941. That outrage pushed the country into
the Holy War against Bolshevism and was an almost total disaster for the
Hungarians, as they lost thousands of men on the Eastern Front.

Hivatalos feljegy esek:

^. ". '* 2.'-'

A fetd6

rendfokoat. ............
A tUbo ost za ........
Ar I 1 r.




Special field post cards, costing
1 filler each, were issued for the
armed forces and often had a slogan
printed at top left. The example
here reads: A MAGYAR ELET ARA:. / A
SZOVJET HALALA! (The price of
Hungarian life is Soviet death). It
was censored on 27.6.42, went
through Main FPO No.2 on the 29th.,
to arrive at the Forces Radio
Service, FPO No.113 in Kiev,Ukraine..
Other anti-Soviet slogans probably
exist and details would be much

__ _


We may also consider under this heading the 14 Hungarian
definitive from If. to 70f., originally issued on 21 June
1939 and found with a diagonal two-line overprint in black,
* reading "Melitopol/25 NOV.1941" as shown here and
purporting to commemorate the Hungarian capture of that
comes from the same stable as the notorious four Odessa
surcharges, which appeared towards the end of 1941 in New '
York City. The Hungarian values so treated are all in filler, as follow:-
1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 16, 20, 25, 30, 32, 40, 50 & 70. They have also been
written up by Herr Peter Nema of Neuhausen, Switzerland in No. 38 of the
Zeitschrift far russiche/sowjetische Philatelie, organ of the Russian
Study Group in the Federal Republic of Germany; he rightfully regarded
this overprint with great suspicion, pointing out that in Hungarian
usage, the year should have been given first, then the month and finally
the day: 1941 NOV.25. When the perpetrator finally joins the philatelic
club down below, our own journal will publish the story of this and
others of his productions.

10. The Italian Expeditionary Force in Russia.

A comprehensive postal history of the Italians in Russia still remains
to be written, but the Italian leader Benito Mussolini felt that he had
to show solidarity with his fellow Fascist Adolf Hitler by sending an
Expeditionary Force to join in the Holy War. The results were tragic in
the extreme, as casualties were very high and many thousands failed to
return from Soviet captivity, as they could not stand the climate or
survive on the pitiful rations that were the lot of everyone in the USSR.
With the arrest of Mussolini on 25 July 1943 and the formation by
SMarshal Badoglio of an anti-Fascist government in Italy, the Wehrmacht
quickly neutralised the remaining Italians on the Eastern Front and sent
them into detention in Germany.
Let us now look at a couple of interesting items referring to this Force.

G-R1o Cnolnem.. No- de! -Iaoi.
Rcordate che oggi non c saroo marc l a CAROL E PCSTALE
Mosca. marcia che -bar. nfali lb, .. .. -tTPER LE FORZE ARMATE
r.o.a, se .. nt ann, prima non rc fo..e stata Ia PER LE FORZEc, ., -
marcia su Roma, se prtmi tra Eprm noL av: .Zp-or -
ime alzato la bard era dei a Do s.cev sm R... ....... .................... ......
o ... .. ... 0 .... .. MUSN ...... 2: ;'oE r / ... ....... .......... ........ P. .. .................. ...............

-:aio. Co ,o o o : -^(. ,, Gad Cognome e Nom e sasi esercito. Esso ha confermato, con-
C -- oltre It significato di ogni contingent
-'" vicenda, la sicura vocazione delle
Seoa o nostre armi alla victoria.
POSTA MM 7 l \ R

The card at left was printed in blue on grayish stock for the Armed
Forces, bearing a quotation at top left from a speech by Mussolini which
may be translated as follows: "Recollect that there would not be a march
now on Moscow, a march that will most certainly be victorious, if there
* had not been the march on Rome twenty years before, if we had not been
the first among the first to hoist the banner of anti-Bolshevism". Famous
last words! The card at right was printed in yellowish-green on cream
stock and the quotation at bottom left reads: "The bravery shown by the

Italian soldiers in Russia would make any army whatsoever feel proud. It
has confirmed the secure claim of our arms to victory, against an enemy
of enormously powerful means and taking into account the significance of
each contingent change".
An even more interesting card is a provisional type advised by our
Italian subscriber to "The Post-Rider", Sig. Luciano Buzzetti. It was
type-set by using captured Russian type, with unusual substitutions: the
Cyrillic H for the Latin R, inverting the Russian r for the Latin L,
using the Russian X for the Latin S, inverting the Cyrillic B to make a
lower-case Latin g, using the Russian H for the Latin N, etc., etc. as
shown directly below.




1 h


0 g
F- Ew h? y
E: s e d

xralpara dat I AilTI deL 80 coir

canaTTel niuxxi xntte nive der, IIIEPEIJ
xepTc:,iBne 1941-XIX.

The inscriptions transliterate, as follow:-
MITTENTE/Cognome/Nome/grado/Reparto/POSTA MILITARE 83-R-
stampata dai FANTI dell 80 con caratteri russi sulle rive del NIEPER
septembre 1941-XIX.
SENDER/Surname/First name/rank/Unit/ MILITARY POST OFFICE 83R.
printed by the TROOPS of the 80th. with Russian type on the banks of
the Dnieper. September 1941-XIX.

XIX refers to the 19th. anniversary of the Fascist march on Rome. This
remarkable card is rare mint and rarer still in used condition.

11. The Latvian Legion.

A total of 15 designs for labels relating to this Legion was apparently



- ii I I


prepared in 1944, but never issued. According to the September 1962
issue of the German philatelic magazine "Baltikum-Sammler", four of
these designs were by Niklaus Strunke, five by A. Apinis and six by
* R. Kasparsons. The Swedish Postal Museum had 14 of these designs.
Further data arekindly requested from our Latvian specialists.

12. The Netherlands Legion.

Two postage stamps with surtax were issued on
1 Nov. 1942, with the designs as shown here.
Inscribed LEGIOEN at top, there were B T
1,088,134 copies of the 7+2c. value and
527,532 of the 12+87c. printed, all comb-
perforated 12 x 12. In addition, the lower
stamp was issued in a souvenir sheet of ten LA
units, measuring 110 x 155mm. and the upper
value also in a souvenir sheet 97 x 96mm.
bearing a block of four;bothwith an additional inscription in the
FONDS/VAN HET NEDERLANDSCH LEGIOEN.1942(Stamp issued in aid of the
Supply Fund of the Netherlands Legion 1942). The first sheet was
printed in 131,424 copies and the second had 121,211 produced.

13. The Norwegian Legion.

The ironic thing about Vidkun
Quisling, ruler of Norway during
the German occupation and whose
surname has now passed into the
vocabularies of most languages -~'
as the epitome of treason,was that '
he himself was active in relief
in Russia after the Civil War.
A special postage stamp of 20+80
Ore value was issued on 1 AugustDA
1941 in 100,000 copies and is
now quite expensive to obtain,
especially with first day cancel
as shown. The stamp design is Alf Rn
unusual in that it shows the
flags of both Norway AND Finland. In other words, the main function of
the Norwegian Legion was to help the Finnish Army to regain the
territory lost to the USSR after the Winter War of 1939-1940, i.e. a
continuation of Scandinavian solidarity, however misguided.

14. The Roumanian Army.

It seems safe to say that, but for the abrupt Soviet 48-hour ultimatum
presented on 26 June 1940 and resulting in the cession of Bessarabia &
Northern Bukovina to the USSR, the kingdom of Roumania would never have
joined the Third Reich in the Holy War. This decision has even been
reflected on a Roumanian postage stamp with surtax (20+30 lei), part of
the set of three issued towards the end of 1942 to commemorate the first
year of liberated Bessarabia; the medallion in the top right corner has
the head of Marshal Antonescu and around it his historic command: VA
ORDON, TRECETI PRUTUL.(I order you, cross the River Pruth:!),which was
given on the same day that the Germans attacked: 22 June 1941. There were
50,000 sets issued.

The Roumanian Army reentered Cernauti (Chernivtsy, capital of Northern
Bukovina) on 5 July 1941 and Chisinau (Kishinev, capital of Bessarabia)
on 16 July 1941, resulting in the liberation overprints listed in the
catalogues. The four stamps with surtax specifically referring to the
Holy War against Bolshevism (RAZBOIUL SFANT CONTRA BOLSEVISMULUI) came
out in 100,000 copies each on 11 Oct. 1941 and remained valid for exactly
two months. The associated souvenir sheet, inscribed 22 IUNIE 1941 at top
and FRATIA DE ARME (Brotherhood in
Arms) as shown here, had a printing
U4NIE of 50,000 copies, a face value of
2 / 036 lei for the two stamps and a
MAL9 J aw, sale price of 200 lei. The four
S Holy War stamps were apparently
reprinted, as another 100,000 of
each, plus 50,000 of the sheetlet
were overprinted ODESA/16 Oct.1941
for the capture of Odessa and
presumably issued on 26 Oct., as
they remained valid until 26 Dec.41.
Ow C The set is illustrated hereunder on
piece with a violet postmark
S2OOL 41 (Kishinev Registered), obviously
with an impossible back-date.

I .. ... .. .. II.. ,; ,,- .,
77 '", Al

By the way, because of their short validity, all the Roumanian wartime
issues with surtax are much rarer postally used, especially on mail, than
in mint condition. The same also applies to the Roumanian issues and
postal stationery for Transnistria, the Soviet territory ruled by

already been treated in "The Post-Rider", No.6, pp.64-64 & No.10, pp.8-31.

Apart from two sets commemorating the first year of liberation of
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, the final issue to interest us is the
100,000 sets of 8 stamps wit h surtacame out on 10 November 1943
in honour of the centenary of Roumanian Artillery and was valid for only
twenty days. Postally used copies are therefore most desirable. The 3.50+
3.50 lei is inscribed STALINGRAD 1943, the 5+5 lei: ODESA 1941, the 6.50+
6.50 lei: CAUCAZ 1942 and the 7+7 lei: SEVASTOPOL 1942. These four stamps
remind us that participation in the Holy War was a great disaster for the
kingdom of Roumania, with many thousands of men killed just in the
Stalingrad encirclement alone. For those who can read the language, there

I -

is an excellent account of Roumanian participation in the Holy 'War,
written, by General Platon Chirnoaga:"Istoria Politica si Militara a
Razboiului Romaniei contra Rusiei Sovietice"(The Political and Mllitary
History of the War by Roumania against Soviet Russia), Carpatii
Publishers, Madrid 1965.

15. Serbia under German Occupation.

As a result of the German attack on Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941, Serbia
was separated from the rest of the country and remained under German
occupation, with a puppet administration headed by General Nedic. All
mail, both internal and addressed abroad, was censored and the
censorship tapes and markings were bilingual (German/Serbian). There
was no attempt made by the Germans to form a Serbian Legion to partake in
the Holy War on the Eastern Front, as they realized that the Eastern
Orthodox Serbs would not fight against their "pravoslavnyi" brethren.
However, there was at least one anti-Bolshevik label circulated with
inscriptions in Serbian and it may be found on mail as shown on the
internal censored cover hereunder. The frame and central design are in
grey-black, against a red background, all apparently lithographed. The
dimensions of the design are 28.5 x 39.25mm. and the label is line-
perforated 12. Ironically, while Croatia and Serbia were bitterly
opposed to each other during this period, they both used the same anti-
Bolshevik design, as can be seen by comparing the label illustrated
here with the design applied in grey-black on the back of the Croatian
field post letter form shown previously on p.47. Even the inscriptions
are similar, although the Serbian version is less enthusiastic; it just


16 n .Te Slovak

.^ 16. The Slovak Army

Slovakia, which was no more independent than Croatia, was another of
the German puppet states whose religious prejudices were manipulated by
the German puppet states whose religious prejudices were manipulated by

the Third Reich to slaughter their fellow Slavs on the Easter Front who
had never done them any harm. Readers are referred to the article .by R.
Polchaninov in "The Post-Rider" No.4, pp.45-47, describing a dubious
overprint of the Slovak coat on arms on various Soviet postage stamps,
of obvious philatelic origin and cancelled to order on unaddressed
Slovak field post cards.They are found cancelled POL. POSTA 16 and
dated 23.VII.41-. A typical example from the collection of Dr. Leonid
Kvetan-Chenakalo is shown immediately below.

In both this case and the one below again, the field post markings were
originally inscribed in Czech, but the Czech grammatical ending Nf has
been taken out, leaving the acute accent'. The C has also been taken out
of the initials CSP at bottom, so that the SP now stands for Slovenska
Posta (Slovak Post). The card below to Zvolen has been censored both by
a Slovak and the Germans; so much for Slovak independence! It was sent
through Field Post Office No.8 on 26 Oct. 1941 and the text at back reads:
CCCP (i.e. USSR), 2- October 1941.
Dear Joey,
Accept again some hearty greetings and dear remembrances,
which I am sending you from the land of moujiks and collective farms.
Your Joey."
Very funny.

I j : i

4 4 iI,,

* All^M

" Mil3

CCCP., 2f.oktobra 1941.




Prijmite zase niekolko srdenj3

pozdravov a.mil ch spormienok,kttdi~ Vani zsielam
z $raj. muzikov a kolchozov.
--... .VB :id

Dopisnica pornel potto k 1-V I
P ... ..............

J o 0 ZR A F F A Y i '.

Odbor pre udr2ovanie tra.ti.


17. The Spanish "Blue Division".

Franco's Spain was indebted to the Third Reich because of the massive aid
* received during the Spanish Civil War, especially from the German Condor
Legion. It was therefore inevitable that Spain would join in the Holy
War. However, General Franco was a shrewd Galician who never fully
trusted or believed in Hitler and the Blue Division was not much more
than a token Spanish participation in the anti-Bolshevik crusade. Indeed,
Spanish servicemen were awarded a medal if they got through a Russian
winter and it is known that the Blue Division had a field hospital in
Vilnius, the capital of occupied Lithuania. It is hoped to have the full
postal history of the Blue Division written up eventually in a future
issue of "The Post-Rider" but, in the meantime, a field post card from a
soldier in the division is shown hereunder. Note that the card is German,
as is the FELDPOST marking and the red continuous "Gepruft/Oberkommando
der Wehrmacht" designation at top. The writer, Jos4 Maria Hipola, penned
his lines "En campana" (In the field) on 20 December 1941.
J1 --


t D ..a .. ... ..'" ......................

\ Z( CBcrlfrnp a be$ Crntfnttli1 Mrbotcn. Sa J)lfnft4ttab lldTitrlt ,
tnt_ ... .. ."r; Ifu. auf.e," ufv.) ." "

'alpep~p~p~-C CA*- A i &A^I -

CT^ *** Af A ) f

Ir~ct~t "i

,,Was die Front opfert, das kann Uberhaupt durch nichts
vergotten werden. A6er auch das, was die Heimat opfert,
mup vor der Geschichte dereinst bestehen kinnen."
(Der Fimhrer m 3.10. 1941)

* .':

.AA ... .
--. -^ ,.,- f
.," :. 4. Z.. ..

^J^^ -----


Sltra 1 4inmmr, bttAtll, Sfoutrr f r potr fcfDalmnr
S10.41) T > FAp50 Din A6

18. The Ukrainians.

Ukrainian collaboration with the Third Reich has been and is a touchy
issue to this very day. However, an important distinction has to be made
between the Galicians (i.e. Western Ukrainians and not to be confused
with the Galicians of Spain), who now number about 7 millions and the
Eastern Ukrainians (about 43 millions). There are wide cultural and
linguistic differences between the two groups.

While the Galicians were justifiably alienated by brutal Soviet treatment
during 1939-1941, there were also Ukrainian pro-Nazi elements biding their
Time in the General-Government (occupied rump-Poland). When the German
forces attacked on 22 June 1941, they included a Galician sabotage
battalion named "Nachtigall" (Nightingale), commanded by an Austrian,
Brigadier Erwin Lahousen and a faction, not in uniform, of the

Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists, led by Captain Stepan Bandera.
Hitler had realized that the centre of Ukrainian nationalism was not
Kyyiv/Kiev, but L'viv/L'vov. It was for that reason that, when the
Western Ukraine was overrun in the first few days of the war, it was
renamed "Distrikt Galizien", attached to the General-Government and then
used its stamps. To add insult to injury, the postmarks gave the town-
names in the hated Polish versions. By the beginning of July 1941, the
Banderivtsy under Yaroslav Stetsko had seized a radio station in L'viv
and proclaimed the renewal of the Ukrainian State, but he and some of
his associates were arrested on 9 July and promptly jailed. So far as
the Third Reich was concerned, things had now gone too far and the
Galicians were henceforth THE UNWANTED ALLIES.

That policy did not change until after the Stalingrad disaster, when the
Germans began recruiting in April 1943 for the 14 Waffen SS Division
Galizien (the word Ukraine was not allowed to be used). A recruiting
poster was circulated as shown below and it may have also appeared in
postcard form, although not yet seen by the author. The Ukrainian
OF THE GALICIAN DIVISION. Note the German helmet and uniform.

--- -41Oi I L

BL I _3 I

'~ED .: .-" -- -~-',:_-~ ~-_ -- _

Brunec, 41 Park St. in Brze.any (Berezhany in Ternopil' county) to
Sergeant-Major Roman Brunec, 2nd. Company of the SS-Training Camp in
Trawniki near Lublin on 2 July 1943. The postal rates were the same as in
Germany proper, but calculated on the basis of 2 zloty = 1 mark,i.e.24gr.
letter rate, 60 gr. registration fee and 80 gr. for express/special
delivery service. There were also Ukrainian publicity labels for the
Galician Division, but the author has never seen them affixed to mail.
Mail relating to the division and its activities is rare, as the
recipients preferred subsequently to destroy such items for obvious

A unit of this division took part in anti-partisan actions in occupied

Poland in February 1944 and the division as such went into action against
the Soviet Army at Brody in August that year and was cut to pieces. It
was then detailed for action against Slovak and Yugoslav partisans;
another example of fellow Slavs being butchered for the benefit of the
Third Reich. On 25 April 1945, months after it became apparent that the
1000-Year Reich was doomed and 13 days before the German surrender, the
division very bravely decided to rename itself "The First Division of
the Ukrainian National Army". The survivors escaped repatriation after
WWII to the USSR, as they could claim that they had been citizens of
pre-war Poland.

19. The Vlasov Army.

General Andrei Andreevich Vlasov, commander of the 2nd. Shock Army on the
Volkhov front, was the highest ranking Soviet officer to be captured by
the Germans in July 1942. He felt that only a Russian movement could
prevail against Stalin and his policies, i.e. using Russians against
Russians to remove Stalin and then conclude an honourable peace with
Germany. A wildly impractical view, to put it mildly; later on, when the
Germans captured Soviet partisans and handed them over to their Russian
auxiliaries for punishment, they generally deserted en masse with the
partisans to the Red Army. Most of the Soviet officers in German
captivity refused to have anything to do with the Vlasov movement and its
ranks were recruited from the miserable survivors in the POW camps. This
force was named the Russian Liberation Army (POA) and Vlasov became head
of the KOHP (Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia). There
were never more than 50,000 men in the Vlasov Army, most of them of
doubtful loyalty and military value. They did little fighting in the
* East and as WWII neared its end, they were milling around in the area
between Linz and Prague. Many surrendered to the advancing U.S. Army and
all the survivors, including Vlasov and his officers,fell into the hands of
the Soviet authorities. General Vlasov and his associated Major-Generals
Ivan Blagoveshchenskii, Vladimir Boyarskii, Sergei Bunyachenko, Vasilii
Malyshkin, Vladimir Mal'tsev, Fedor Trukhin, Georgii Zhilenkov and
Georgii Zverev, as well as Colonel Vasilii Meandrov,were tried in Moscow
and executed around the end of July 1946. The rank and file received
long prison terms in Soviet labour camps.

Field post material from members of the Vlasov Army would obviously be
rare and the author has yet to see examples. There were, however, some
unissued postage stamps, inscribed IIOTA in Russian and attributed to
the Vlasov movement. The designs are shown above and these stamps are
reputed to have been found lying in the streets of Berlin after its fall.
Printed on greyish-cream paper of newspaper quality, line-perforated 11l
and without watermark, the values were 50k. green-building a peasant
house; Ir. brown carmine-peasant plowing; 2r. blue-village scene; 4r.
colour unknown-Kremlin & cathedral at Pskov & 10r. dark brown-street
scene. The author does not possess the 4r. value, which is rare and data
about its colour would be welcome. These stamps have also been reported
with cancels reading "St.O.K./30 SEP.43/SLOBODA" and "STADTORTS-
KOMMANDANTUR/26.IX.43/SLOBODA", which may be bogus.

So there you have it. The author feels that he has only scratched the
surface of this subject and is convinced that many rarities remain to be
discovered. It will have been noticed that Lithuania has not been
included in this study, as the local issues of July-August 1941 may be
regarded as liberation overprints. The author has no data on volunteers
from that area and, in fact, Lithuania was the only Baltic republic where
Soviet partisans operated during the German occupation.

In a way, it can be argued that the Holy War against Bolshevism has never
really ended. The ashes of WWII were still warm, when it could be said to
have been transformed into the Cold War. But that would have to be the
subject of another article some time in the future.

by Dr. A. R. Marshall.

There are three items in my collection where cancelling has been used by
the Russian/Soviet Postal Administration. I would appreciate any
comments readers may have on these, either through our journal or to the
author at P.O. Box 7, Otorohanga, New Zealand.

Fig. 1 on the page opposite: An outer letter sheet from St. Petersburg,
with 10k., Ik. & 3k. Arms stamps of 1866-1875 making up the postage of
14k. They have been cancelled in manuscript with a thick black ink cross,
which has caused corrosion of the stamps and the letter-sheet. It bears a
St. Petersburg date-stamp in red: 3 SEP. 68 and in black: 4 SEP. 68,
both O.S. and double-ring AUS RUSSLAND/FRANCO date-stamp 17.9.68 N.S. in
red. A red manuscript "2" is applied to the front.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: The letter was fully prepaid, per the abbreviation
"fco" at bottom left. The Prussian entry marking of Bureau XI EDK.BRG.
is the Prussian TPO/RPO route Eydtkuhnen-Bromberg The letter was
addressed to Halberstadt near Magdeburg in Prussia and the "2" may refer
to the 2-Silbergroschen internal rate from the border to Halberstadt.

Fig. 2: A postcard from NADEZHDINSKAYA to Moscow, with the date inserted
by manuscript in the postmark as 22-8-23. The card has been sent with
postage Of 3r.(1923). The correct inland postcard rate for the period of
20 Aug. to 1 Sept.1923 was 5r.(1923). The card has been sent with the
postage rate correct for the period of 5 July to 20 Aug.1923. The local
post office probably had not received notification of the new rates.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Interestingly for this period, the card was addressed
to the archpresbyter, i.e. first priest V.D. Krasnitskii, in Moscow.

Fig. 3: A letter from Osa (?) in Perm province, sent on 16.12.21 via
Manchouli 10 Jan.22 to Peking 14 Jan. in China. The overseas letter rate
for 5000r. for the period 21 Nov.1921 to 21 Feb.1922. The back of the
envelope has a 25r. Control stamp, which was authorised for postage at
250r. The number "5000" has been written in black ink in the space on
the Control stamp and then crossed with indelible pencil lines. The
letter has no postage due markings, so it appears that the stamp may have
been accepted at 5000r., which was the correct postage for the period.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: If our readers can come up with further examples of
such a usage from Osa in Perm province, we may then be able to establish
that this surcharging of the Control stamp was a local postmaster's W
provisional. The provincial capital of Perm had a black-ink surcharge of
250r. on the 3r. Control stamp around August 1921 (see the Cercle
Philatelique USSR Catalogue, p.47), which may have set a precedent.


by Dr. A. R. Marshall.


~4- -I~


r,. 1...

^^^L~naifwr --- '^^

Figure 1.



Figure 3.


HILARY NORWOOD. The President of The British Society of Russian Philately
and a CSRP subscriber until his death at 75, sometime around October
1985, Mr. Norwood was a keen student of Soviet issues and associated
postal history. His knowledge was instrumental in having many Soviet
varieties listed in the Stanley Gibbons "Russia" catalogue, which is now
the most comprehensive one available to philatelists in our collecting
spheres. He had contributed both to The British Journal of Russian
Philately and The Post-Rider and was for several years BSRP Secretary
for VOF Affairs. His presence will be missed and our condolences go out
to his family.

JOHN LLOYD, FRPS,L. John was for many years Secretary of the BSRP, a
CSRP subscriber and many interests in our sphere, both Imperial and
Soviet. He had a genius for locating and accumulating a surprisingly
wide range of material, describing his discoveries in articles for the
BJRP, The Rossica Journal and The Post-Rider. John was born near Paris,
spoke French like a Parisian and was a very convivial host to his
visitors. In his later years, he developed allergies that became
progressively worse, finally leading to his death on 12 March 1986. Our
sincerest sympathies go out to his family in their loss.

DR. STEPAN ROSOKHA. The Vice-Speaker of the Carpatho-Ukrainian
Parliament in its sole session on 15 March 1939,
Dr. Rosokha was a fervent Ukrainian nationalist
author and publisher for more than 50 years. He
H was imprisoned by the Germans at Terezin
(Theresienstadt) in 1944 for his activities. He
passed away at 78 in St. Catherines, Ontario, on
Shis way back from a speaking engagement in
S. Rochester, N.Y. He was known to philatelists for
his brochure SOIM KARPATS'KOYI UKRAYINI, Winnipeg
S1949, which also mentioned and illustrated the
3 K. stamp in blue, issued at 3pm. on the day the
Parliament opened. His place in Ukrainian history
is assured.

IVAN DMITRIEVICH PAPANIN (1895-1986). In reading of the death of Ivan
Papanin recently, I was surprised to learn that he was 91 years old! A
long and fascinating life laid behind this pioneer of the Arctic and
one that touched frequently on fields of philately.

I.D. Papanin was born in 1895 in Sevastopol'; both his father and grand-
father had naval backgrounds and young Ivan was an apprentice lathe-
operator in shipyards at Sevastopol' and later at Reval (Tallinn). He
spent WWI at sea and was a naval rating at the time of the Revolution.
At the end of the Civil War, Ivan Papanin was employed with the People's
Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs. His work took him, with his wife
Galina, into Siberia. On his return, he became a student at the All-
Union Planning Academy in Moscow, studying to make up for time lost in
the war. In 1931, he found himself in the Arctic for the first time,
.travelling to Franz-Josef Land on the icebreaker "Malygin" (see Scott
4961) where, as representative of the Commissariat of Posts and
Telegraphs at Bukhta Tikhaya (Quiet Bay), he arranged the exchange of
mail with the Graf Zeppelin (see Scott C26-33). Here Papanin met Evgenii
F&dorov, one of the group who was to share his greatest adventure three
years later.

Papanin then went to work as head of a scientific team at Cape Chelyuskin,
the northernmost extremity of the European mainland and here he saw the
ship "Chelyuskin" (Scott C58), a cargo vessel reinforced for use in the
* ice and travelling eastward. It was soon to be crushed by the ice and
sank in an effort to emulate the feat of Nordenski8ld to pass through the
Arctic from Atlantic to Pacific. On board were Ernst Krenkel (see Scott
4084 & 4801) and P8tr Shirshov, being the other two who would join Papanin
before long.

Papanin submitted a plan in 1935 to have himself, with companions, placed
on the Arctic ice to act as a semi-permanent meteorological station at
the North Pole. Papanin went north in the "Rusanov" to set up his base in
Franz-Josef Land in 1936, to be joined in time by a fleet of aircraft
which finally put Papanin, Krenkel, Fedorov and Shirshov plus a dog at
the Pole. They drifted southward for 274 days, radioing out the weather
data until they were finally taken off by the Soviet ships "Taimyr" and
"Murman". This was followed by a triumphant return to Russia in the
icebreaker "Yermak" (see Scott 4533).

Papanin was made a Doctor of Geographical Sciences and appointed Head of
the Central Administration of the Northern Sea Route; a lifetime work
dear to his heart. He became acquainted in frequent trips with the ships
and people of the Arctic and was there to arrange the rescue of the ice-
breaker "Georgii Sedov" from the ice, after having drifted for 812 days
across the Polar regions (see Scott 772-775). This feat brought a second
award of Hero of the Soviet Union to Ivan Papanin.

Papanin retained his key post throughout the Second World War, overseeing
the complex transportation problems of the Arctic, superimposed on the
wartime needs of the population of his frozen empire. After the war, he
was elected a deputy to the Supreme Soviet and received other honours. He
became a President of the Sports Section of the All-Union Society of
Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries (BOKC) and was even made an
honorary member of The London Geographical Society.

So passes from the scene a man born in the days of Tsarist Russia, who
passed through revolution and wartime right into the present. I do not
know if Ivan Papanin was a philatelist, but he was certainly responsible
for a number of philatelic occasions and I trust that he will be
commemorated by a suitable stamp, or even a souvenir sheet, to mark the
passing of a remarkable man. P.J. Campbell.


Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that o '
could use some clarifying information, or might there 0 0
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 1 ooo oo
newly acquired item ? o "0

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers i

Ellen M. Thompson, Gahanna, Ohio, USA.

The Imperial Russian Arms issues are my specialty and the
one real item of interest, unlisted, that I have come
Across is the one-rouble value on vertically laid paper,
!. line-perforated 13 and with INVERTED BACKGROUND. It was
,* used somewhere in the Khar'kov province, on the 5th. day
of some month in 1905. The item was submitted to The
L1 American Philatelic Expertising Service and came back with
S a clean bill of health. I would be interested to know if
readers have run across any other copies, as I have no
records of this variety.

Dr. A. R. Marshall, Otorohanga, New Zealand.

'il1) The Romanov stamps with revolutionary-inspired
I 41 overprints became "available" around 4 March 1917.
1917. The balance of opinion is that these
overprints were totally unofficial. However,
i M there is no doubt that the stamps were still
&AiA. valid for postage and, although bearing these
unofficial overprints, they still passed through the mails.

Leaving aside the status of these overprints, it is known that postal
articles with stamps bearing the overprints are recorded from Petrograd,
Odessa and Ekaterinodar. The majority of these are dated March or April
1917. I would like to advise of two items in my collection dated in 1918:-

1. A registered letter from Ekaterinodar with a block of four of the

20/14k. stamp with the sword and bonnet overprint postmarked 6.2.18.
This cover was overfranked by 50k. (10k. local letter rate and 20k. for
registration fee). The registration receipt has been attached,
Indicating that the cover was philatelic.
2. A block of four of the 10/7k. with the sword and bonnet overprint on
piece, clearly datestamped PETROGRAD 2.4.18.

Norman R. Banfield, Wellington, New Zealand.

Re the article on "The Romanovs used in South Russia" ("The Post-Rider"
No.17,p.68), it might be as well to review the known Khar'kov Vokzal
postmarks, as shown below. Type 1 has large letters and distinctive
fretwork, Type 2 has different fretwork and smaller letters, while
Type 3 has larger letters, month by name and the year figures in full.

SV Type 2. ----Type 3. ---
Type 1. -
It is interesting to note that both Type 2 (with smaller letters and
date in form 15.6.13) and Type 3 were both in use in 1913; in fact, their
usage overlaps.

At the same time, may I express appreciation of the article on "The
Cancellations of South Russia"? It gave greater meaning to a cover I have

Authority-Censor No.5. It is shown below and the PORT ROVOROSSIISK cancel
Wi i
It-is in ntertiongo t-one thatbo Typ 2- (win thes malle let an

_- ,-..%_ ,- .* .. . 7
date in form" 1 3 an T- 5-6:1 .) a- :e 3 wer both in us:e n 1 ;-f the

A: t-he sm time, may expres atnr

= .. o.... .. ...-.. ^ .^ S ^

.-; -.- r'.. ouj.dgo OHJaW:O--ian I .
: :.'- ... -d .'.' 0 C!, d9, Ir!0'1!')I," fI B1bf I"
i'-J-- .-" -',t:.

Dr. Audrius V. Pliopys, Toronto, Canada.


Under the title "How did a Russian letter get on a Lithuanian postage
stamp?", the above author drew attention in the March 1986 issue of
"Filatelisty Zinios" (Knowledge of Philatelists), the bulletin of the
Toronto Society of Lithuanian Philatelists, to the presence of the
Russian letter H in the Lithuanian word CENTU appearing on two values
of the airmail set issued in 1930 to commemorate the 5th. centenary of
the death of Vytautas Didysis (20c. & 40c.;Scott C43-44).
EDITORIAL COMMENT: It is a truism to say that many philatelic curiosities
still remain to be discovered, years after they have made their original
appearance. This set, honouringrulerVytautas the Great (1392-1430), was
issued on 16 Feb. 1930. In the Lithuanian language, the word "centas"
(cent) is given in the genitive plural case after most numbers: CENTV.
Strictly speaking, there are TWO Cyrillic errors appearing on these two
airmails; the word above the figures of value reads CEHTI, instead of
CENTV, as can be seen from the enlarged illustration above. During the
period of independence (1918-1940), Lithuanian was spoken by at least 80%
of the population, but German, Russian and Yiddish were also used. The
designer, Adomas Varnas, was an ethnic Lithuanian, so it would seem that
the lithographic technician making up the frame plate was thinking in
terms of the Russian alphabet when it came to the word CENTU, hence the
two errors. The wonder is that neither the postal authorities nor the
public noticed the mistakes at the time of issue. These are fascinating
errors and occur on all stamps in the sheets for both values: 20c. & 40c.
S Rev. L.L. Tann,
SHale, England.
Here is a
/ Kerenskii card of
S",. : the "Russian
ST Republic" period
.(1917), showing
*/ the uncrowned
double eagle,used
in 1924. There is
... ..... ....... a framed strike,
reading BLANK/
........ ....... ..................... KHAR 'KOVSKOGO/P .-
authorising the
card as a blank
................ .................................. ._... --- / -. card as a blank
S-~ postcard, thus
...... demonetising the
-. .......... .... ... a imprinted 5 k.
Kerenskii stamp.



A.IVANOV (1864-1910)
Arrival of the Foreigners in Moscow in the 17th Century

Dear Sirs,

The Romanov House Literature,Theatre,Ballet Types of Russia Young
Ladies Love Children Holidays Churches and Monasteries Secu-
lar Buildings Monuments Train Stations Bridges Ports Nature -
Art Postcards: History of Russia,Napoleon and Russia Fairy Tales -
Advertisments Humor Songs Greetings from... Moonlight Panora-
ma,Leporello Military: The Russian-Japanese War,The World War 1914-
1918 (Russia and Germany).
The catalogue includes two color reproductions (9x13 cm) of two of the
Please place orders with: Dr.Richard Bartmann
Member of the Slavic Section
University Friedrich Alexander,
P r i c eS 50 Rathsbergerstr. 30
(Please send check or cash Bundesrepublik Deutschland
by registered post)


r %3
.... ... .! .. ...

Ha "nznii rMopoH16 nzuenie o ti n.iiwo Odpenl

C.AleepWyprcHiii MeAyeapoRil" l H eqe dHi.
I.deO ociAcoe OrvneNie.... -'

C.-HeTep6yjrcHMy- MeMayfapoAeoMY

H !1.5i

n '-


-7 J211.

- --- - -- --

David Jay, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

I can make a modest contribution to Alex. Artuchov's dot number cancel
search, with No.937 from ZABOR'E in Vil'na province. The 1881 Spisok
indicates that Zabor'e was a hamlet between Disna and Dokshitsy, both of
which are now in Belorussia. I have not been able to find Zabor'e on any
map and do not know if it still has this name (Editorial Comment: There
are currently two Zabor'e place-names in Belorussia and this one appears
now to be the one in Vitebsk province with postal code 211475).In the
illustration at the top of the next page, the Zabor'e Vil.P(inverted)??/
2 September 1874 (garbled)?? straight-line cancel and the 4 September
1874 Vil'na receipt are evident. The causal disarray of the year and the
mix of capital and small letters in the month suggest that they had a
pretty hard time scraping together the necessary type at this small
station. The 35-kop. franking suggests a large envelope and the 30-kop.
stamp is the vertically laid variant, Scott 25a; a nice item. I have
another item from the same correspondence with 65-kop. postage,including
a pair of the 30-kop. vertically laid, but it is from St. Petersburg to

N..' N
.-h L-r2,

- I.4A

G.G. Werbizky, Vestal, N.Y.,U.S.A.

Further to the article on the
cancels of South Russia by Alex.
Artuchov and the late A.M.
Rosselevitch, I can advise, two
items recently bought at auction:
(a) A bank postcard:35k.rate from
Ekaterinodar-g, 13.11.19 to Anapa.
Kub.-b,18.11.19, as shown here.
(b) Registered bank mail from
Feodosiya Tavr.-b,17.11.19 to
Rostov/Don-kh,28.11.19 with block
of 6 of the 35-k.surcharge,being
the largest block commercially
used known to Michael Rayhack(below).


Oleg Pantuhoff Jr., Maplewood, N.J., U.S.A.

Re Dr. Marshall's article on Russian postal rates in "The Post-Rider"
SNo.16, I am showing below a registered cover from Sumy-a,22.6.22 to my
father and with a total rate paid of 405,000r. Colonel Pantuhoff was the
founder of Scouting in Russia in 1909 and its Chief Scout; by 1922, he
was already a refugee in Constantinople.





OVER 100 8 1/2'x11' PAGES
7 COLOUR (3'x5') AND 3 BLACK AND WHITE (2 1/2'x4 1/2') PHOTOS

Please send orders to

P r i c eUSt 50

Dr.Richard Bartmann
Member of the Slavic Section
University Friedrich Alexander
Republic Federal of Germany

21 AUGUST 1986.

Write in for a free
catalogue. Up to 200 lots
of Imperial Russia, mostly
from the Baltic area and
railways, as well as
scarce Estonian & Latvian
postal history.

Correspondence is also
invited in Estonian,
English and German on all
areas of Baltic philately.

196 Burbank Drive,
Willowdale, Ontario,
Canada M2K 1P6.

(416) 223-0041.

k ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

REVIEW~~666~~666~~ OIF


page journal in standard A4 size, issued by The British Society of
Russian Philately. Available from A.T. Blunt, 27 Newlands, Langton Green,
Tunbridge Wells, England.

Edited by R.L. Joseph and capably produced by H. Turner, this issue
contains an editorial; Revised Index of Imperial Russian Posts;
Translations of postal rates etc; Poland No.l,by Dr.E. Kossoy; Lake
Baikal Icebreakers, J.G. Moyes & P.E. Robinson; Russian Railways, by L.L.
Tann; Registered Mail, by J.V. Woollam & R.L. Joseph; Freedom Loan
Ephemera, by J.G. Moyes; FPO No.66,by A. Lepp&; Soviet Charity Labels, by
I. Beddowes; Soviet 1935 marking, by R.L. Joseph; Russia 1941 card, by G.
Miskin & R.L. Joseph; Soviet Postal Mechanisation, by Dr. T.T. Rutkowska;

Relative Rarity in Philately, by P.J. Campbell; Literature Reviews and
finishing with town maps of Maikop, Ekaterinodar & Eisk. A fine issue!

* page combined issue, published by The Rossica Society of Russian
Philately and available from Dr. K.L. Wilson, 7415 Venice St., Falls
Church, Virginia, USA 22043.

This paperbound volume contains Life of the Society; Report on
UKRAINPEX'85; Forged Janow marking, by G.Shalimoff; Rare Soviet stamps,
by 0. Basov, trans. by D. Skipton; Russo-Jap. War POW Card, by Dr. G.
Torrey; ANT-3, by P.J. Campbell; Russian FPOs in 1849, by I. Roberts;
Soviet FPOs in Baltic States, by A. Leppa; Tsarist Postman, by D.Skipton;
8-kop. Surcharges, by G. Shalimoff; Vremennoe Update, by D. Skipton;
Russo-German Mail Exchange 1918, by A. Leppa; Catalogue Confusion about M.
Aivazov, by G. Shalimoff; Zemstvo Expertisation, by D. Kuznetsov, trans.
by D. Skipton; Romanovs, by L.L. Tann; Railroad Lines 125-126, by E.Blake
& G. Shalimoff; Asobny Atrad Issue, by W. Lesh; Soviet Posts in Western
Ukraine, by M. Shmuely; M. Gadzhiev, by G. Reikhman, trans. by G.
Shalimoff; Varieties made to order, by V. Popov; Finnish Colony in
Siberia, by A. Leppa; 1917 Double "V" Blanks; Reilly Memento, by Dr. G.
Torrey; Murmansk Convoys, by Dr. P.Michalove; Soviet Authentication Marks,
by V. Aloits, trans. by G. Shalimoff; finishing off with Notes from
Collectors, Adlets, Rossica Library by D. Skipton and literature reviews.
Very varied fare, indeed!

Trident Issues of Kharkiv, Types I, II & III, by Dr. R.J. Ceresa. An 84-
page softbound volume in A4 format, with six additional loose pages of
illustrations, available at US $17.50 from the author at Pepys Cottage,
13 High Street, Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 4SA, England.

The title speaks for itself and this well-produced volume has excellent
illustrations and a lucid text, covering a subject which has been
complicated by the numerous forgeries. It embodies the finest work done
so far in this field, helping to make it more popular and also increasing
the demand for literature on the Ukrainian tridents in general. An
indispensable aid for the specialist.

Soviet Philately). The official journal of the Russia-USSR Study Group in
the Federal Republic of Germany. All enquiries to Herr Joachim Schneider,
D-7000 STUTTGART 75, Melonenstr.76, Federal Republic of Germany.

No.39 for December 1985 has 80 pages and covers Society notes; Soviet
Culture Days in Mannheim; Editorial; Russia No.l, by M.V. Liphschutz &
Plate Varieties on Russia No.1 & 2, by A. Safonoff, both trans. from "The
Post-Rider"; The Icebreaker "Baikal", by W. Frauenlob; Early Trans-
Siberian Rly POS, by P.E. Robinson; Asian Services from Archiv fMr Post &
Telegraphie; Wenden, from Rossica 98/99; First Russian Airmail Stamp, by
H. Meyer; 1933 German R-marking from USSR, by K-E. Geier; Polar Notes, by
E.S. Anasir; Soviets on Mt. Everest, by P. Haubner; Soviet Philatelic
Exchange, by H. Schmenkel; also by same author: Buying Stamps in
Leningrad & Soviet Postal Codes; Soviet Postal Rates, by H-J. Meyer;
Soviet Composers, by W. Nietsch, to terminate by extracts from RADIO DE
SFILINTERN, advertisements and book reviews. A very solid number!

PHILATELIE. The official monthly organ for the Federation of German


Philatelists in the Federal Republic of Germany. Copies available from
Postfach 12 03 04, D-5300, BONN, Federal Republic of Germany.

No. 159 for Jan. 1985 was reviewed in our last issue and received from
Herr Heinz Otto of Eberstadt. He has since kindly sent us Nos. 162 for
July & 163 for Sept.1985, as well as 165 for January 1986, containing an
absolutely magnificent study of "The Mail of the German POWs in the USSR
and Their Relatives 1945-1956; The Red Cross Cards", by Martin Schr8ter.
Richly illustrated and the last word on the subject in classifying these

BALTISCHE POSTORTE 1858-1916 (Baltic Postal Points 1858-1916). A 286-page
paperback by Harry von Hofmann, assembled from official sources and
cartographic data and published by the Harry von Hofmann Verlag, Hamburg
1986. Available by special arrangement from the CSRP Journal Fund (p.77).

This is a masterly work, covering the Russian Imperial Posts in the Baltic
area, by an acknowledged specialist in the field. With prefaces of two
pages each in eight languages: German, English, French, Estonian, Latvian,
Lithuanian, Polish and Russian, it will certainly serve a wide circle of
specialists. By consulting a whole range of Russian postal guides and many
other sources, the author has been able to give a thorough listing of all
the Russian Imperial post offices, agencies and rural postal points that
ever existed in the provinces of Estonia, Kovno (Kaunas), Courland,
Livonia, St.Petersburg/Petrograd, Pskov, Suwalki, Vil'na (Vilnius) and
Vitebsk, to cover the areas of Baltic interest. As borders have changed
so much over the years, the author quotes the postal status of each
location during Imperial times, various linguistic equivalents for each
place-name and its present incorporation. The relevant rarity of each
marking can thereby be quickly gauged and the listings give a thorough
idea of which localities are worth looking for. The book is rounded off
with two complete indices in the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets and has now
filled a long-felt want. It cannot be too highly recommended!

MAILING TO THE SOVIET UNION. A 22-page booklet, being Publication No. 269
of The International Postal Affairs Department, U.S. Postal Service,
Washington, D.C. 20260-6500, USA and kindly communicated to us by our
subscriber, Dr. Denys J. Voaden. Available at U.S. post offices.

It is CSRP policy NOT to accept philatelic enquiries from the USSR and we
have never regretted our hard-headed decision. Reading this lucid and
beautifully written booklet will explain why; out of the 167 different
countries in the world where the U.S. Postal Service exchanges mail, none
has created more problems for U.S. mailers than the Soviet Union. One of
the worst problems and typical of the Soviet experience is in the
handling of Acknowledgement of Receipt cards (Avis de reception). It is
sometimes returned when the registered item has NOT been delivered; on
other occasions, it is not returned when the item HAS been delivered. All
other countries, including those in the Socialist bloc, have had similar
problems with the Soviet Postal Service. If you have a U.S. correspondent,
ask him to send you a copy of this booklet; its advice is invaluable!

booklet in A4 format of 4+39 pages, being Monograph No.4 of the
Czechoslovak Philatelic Society of Great Britain. All enquiries to W.A.
Page, 138 Chastilian Road, Dartford, Kent DAl 3LG, England.

The demand for this booklet has been so great that it is presently out

of print, but if a sufficient number of enquiries is received by Mr.
W.A. Page at the English address given above, a reprint could possibly
be arranged and a selling price determined.

* What the author, Sr. Juan E. Page of Madrid, has done is to save the
Carpatho-Ukrainian specialist a great deal of leg work by incorporating
in his study pertinent information on the fascinating postal history of
this province, taken from Czechoslovak and Hungarian sources. Nine pages
of postmark illustrations have been added, as well as a truly excellent
historical background, which has unravelled the complexities of the era.
This booklet is an absolute must for.the specialist in this field.

Bulletin of the Commission for Czechoslovak Stamps, No.26,September 1985).
Published by Svaz Ceskych Filatelist&, Celetna ul.26, 110 00 PRAHA 1.
Pages 2-7 of this bulletin contain an article in Czech by the noted
specialist Miroslav Blaha, entitled "The 3K. Jasina Stamp: The Opening
of the Parliament of Carpatho-Ukraine". It is both well illustrated and
detailed, covering the philatelic events that led up to the "Republic
for a Day". A dramatic and absorbing story.

The Journal Fund
All sales benefit the Society and orders should be made payable to the
CSRP, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous
titles have unfortunately been sold out.

von Hofmann. Locations, status & current equivalents of all Russian POs
& agencies in Baltic area, with 2-page preface in German,French,English,
Estonian,Latvian,Lithuanian,Polish & Russian. 286 pages,incl. indices in
Latin & Russian alphabets. A MAGNIFICENT WORK! Price postpaid US$ 14.00.

FORGERY AND REPRINT GUIDE No. 3:(Armenia, 1922 Pictorials), No. 4:
(Armenia, 1923 Pictorials) & No. 11:(Azerbaijan). All illustrations are
double-size and the differences clearly tabulated. Invaluable for the
collectors of Transcaucasia. Set of three booklets: Postpaid US$ 6.50.

1981 in Essen. A 38-page booklet, mostly in German and with a greeting
letter in Russian. Notable for a seminal article by Herr Heinrich Imhof
on the circular suburban train postal markings of Saint-Petersburg,
with latest findings. Price postpaid US$ 2.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR, unless you
read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library series by
one of the world's great humourists. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.

University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian grammar, many
phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual for "us monolingual
slobs" as one of our readers put it. Price postpaid US$ 2.50.

souvenir, of which we now have a new supply and which will be mailed
flat anywhere in the world by airmail for US$ 2.00.



Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line \Z .
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16 -
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise 7
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a biography of the Russian basso Fedor Shaliapin (1873-1938), I would
appreciate hearing from anyone who has or knows of letters and papers,
photographs, programmes, memories or anecdotes.
IRENE HUNTOON, 741 West End Avenue, New York City, N.Y., U.S.A. 10025.

TSARIST, Denikin & Odessa 1917 paper money available for exchange or
sale. Please write in French or English to: A. MECKEL, Residence Le Clos
d'Alengon, Batiment C4, F-91120, VILLEBONNE-sur-YVETTE, France.

INFORMATION sought concerning periods of usage of laid paper variants of
Russia Scott 19c-28a & 39a and Off. in Turkey 12a-22a. Please send dates,
PO of origin etc. Will also buy or trade other classical material.
Mainly interested in covers, cancels and used blocks.
DAVID JAY, 7206 Sixth Ave. NW, Seattle, Washington. U.S.A. 98117.

WANTED: Russian revenues, fiscal, vignettes, labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue & legal paper, paper seals, bill-of-exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil
War or Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI, 90 Third Ave., Huntington Station, N.Y., U.S.A. 11746.

WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover: buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

A FEW original copies of "The Russian Philatelist" still available:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US $4.00 each; Nos. 8 to 11 US $4.50 each.
MRS C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y., U.S.A. 11524.
WANTED: Russia 1915-1925 errors, off centre, off colour, inverted
surcharges etc., in singles or blocks. Condition important.
OLEG PANTUHOFF, Jr.,86 Durand Rd., Maplewood, New Jersey, U.S.A. 07040.


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs