Printed in Canada
THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2
"THE POST-RIDER", No. 14.
2 Guest Editorial: Collectors, Beware
3 Correspondence with Canada
4 The Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia
33 Markings of the Canadian Expeditionary
41 The Postal History of the Wenden/Cesis
64 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
71 Philatelic Shorts
73 Review of Literature
S75 Journal Fund
76 The Collectors' Corner
M.Shmuely & A.Cronin
Dr. Robert C. Smith
COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. CAMPBELL, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
The views expressed in the articles contained herein in this issue of
"The Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and not
necessarily those of the Society or its coordinators.
Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is acknowledged and a copy sent to the Society.
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to make
this an interesting issue.
I4EP -WT I
by Alex. Artuchov
Stamp collectors are philatelic children. Collections grow and get
bigger, as they are constantly cultivated and nurtured into some
abstract state of perfection. Collections can stay with you for a
lifetime and succeed you, remaining as one of your dearest and finest
possessions. On the other hand, losing a collection must be one of
life's ultimate pains, negating years, if not decades,of careful and
loving shaping and selective accumulation.
Such was the moving experience of one of our readers, who was
recently robbed of a portion and, it must be added, a very valuable
portion,of his collection. In a lengthy and detailed letter, we heard
how two men made contact with our friend. His name, address and
telephone number were supposedly gained through a dealer, who was in
possession of our friend's calling card. The two visitors were
described to be of athletic build and one of them spoke excellent
Russian, presumably being a recent arrival. The other was supposedly
from Finland and spoke poor English, relying on his partner to
perform the role of translator.
Our friend received the two callers in his home and proceeded to
treat them to a viewing of selected portions of his collection. It
seems that some of the albums shown were not immediately returned to
their normal resting place and accumulated on the table as the
viewing continued. In due course, the two callers thanked our friend
for his hospitality and were walked off the premises. The callers
then asked our friend if he could drive them to a place where they
could find a taxi. Our friend returned inside for his keys but, by
this time, the visitors hadvanished. Immediately sensing that
something was amiss, our friend rushed back inside and, in taking
inventory of what he had displayed, discovered that a key album was
missing, as were a number of Zemstvo "R" items.
To the best of this writer's knowledge, theft has not shown its ugly
and disgusting head in our areas of interest to any significant
extent during his years of collecting. This episode is a caution to
our readers to be suspicious of sudden newcomers on the scene,
wanting to view and/or buy collections. It is also a warning to
notify the authorities if one comes across persons matching the above
We can only hope that the people responsible for our friend's
misfortune will be quickly apprehended and get the justice due to them.
Persons are more vital to collecting than the material itself and the
interaction with new enthusiasts is a lifeblood sustaining our spheres
of collecting. The suspicion that discourages such contact is a threat
that must be eliminated with speed and passion. As for our friend, we
can only hope that the final result will be a kidnapping with a happy
"Correspoidence with Canada" is a regular feature KaH
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xercc copy of the item, along with scme expla- .\ \
natory text to the Editor.
A RUSSIAN STAMPLESS COVER TO CANADA
by Allan Steinhart
While the first postage stamp of Russia went on general sale at the
beginning of 1858, it was intended for use within the boundaries of
the Empire. The prepayment of letters going abroad by the application
of postage stamps was not sanctioned until an Imperial Decree to that
effect was issued on 13/25 April 1863. The range of postage stamps
had to be expanded so as to put the decree into operation and, in a
Circular of June 1864, the Postal Administration informed the Postal
Department that adhesives in the new values of 1, 3 & 5 kop. would be
soon available. They went on sale on sale on 10/22 July 1864,
supplementing the 10, 20 & 30 kop. values, which had been covering
the three internal rate steps.
The illustrations overleaf are a fine example of a letter sent abroad
* during this stampless, but not pre-stamp, period. Addressed in French
to Henry T. or I. Morgan, in the city of Quebec in North America, it
was endorsed "franco", or pre-paid on the front of the cover at top
right. It was posted in St. Petersburg on 5/17 June 1863, 7th.
Despatch Office as shown by the Russian postmark on the back. We
K.': \? ^ ^?4d .-.. -
n a n .r
.- e P -..'- -
also see on the back two Prussian "split rate" notations: 28a/6,
which was crossed out and corrected to 221/6. The Prussians may also
have applied on the front of the cov the boxed P.D. marking (Pay
jusqu'a la Destination, or Paid to the Destination, being the
convention adopted in pre-UPU days). It was struck in red.
The letter would then have gone overland through Prussia and Western
Europe, to reach London, England on 20 June 1863. Note the LONDON HZ red
cds on the front, as well as one of the hand-written "2s", which
would have designated the local British 2d. rate (then equivalent to
20 centimes in the Franc zone, or 4 North American currency). The
stylised manuscript "1/4" at front centre would have denoted the
amount of 1 shilling 4 pence sterling., That was possibly the English
calculation of the total prepaid rate, as the rate by Canadian packet
then for a letter from England to Quebec was 6d. stg. or 7d.currency.
A final reference to the name "Blondoff" written at top front of the
cover. It was probably added by Mr. Morgan to identify the writer of
the letter. The Morgan people were department store owners in Quebec.
THE SOVIET POSTS IN WESTERN BELORUSSIA 1939-1941.
by Moshe Shmuely & Andrew Cronin
As a result of the Secret Additional Protocol to the Treaty of Non-
Aggression, signed on 23 August 1939 between the Third Reich and the
USSR, the latter was to obtain the Western Ukraine and Western
Belorussia and thus complete the partition of Poland. The original
Soviet share also included the Lublin and part of the Warsaw
wojew6dstwa(provinces) but, after the Soviet intervention at 6am on
17 September 1939, J.V. Stalin offered to give up these two areas in
exchange for a free hand with all three of the Baltic republics. It
should be noted here that, although the valiant Polish Army was now
surrounded and in a hopeless position, the Soviet advance was not a
walk-over; they lost 734 dead and had 1862 wounded, according to their
The provisional demarcation line was made firm by 26 September 1939
and, looking at the map from north to south from the East Prussian
border, the Soviet share ran down the Pisa river, lopped off part of
the powiat (county) of Ostrol@ka and reached the Bug river. Then down
the Bug and San rivers, but also including the powiat of PrzemySl.
Pre-war Poland was divided into 17 wojew6dstwa or provinces and
subdivided in turn into 243 starostwa or powiaty (counties). The
wojew6dstwa of Bialystok, Nowogr6dek, Polesie and Wilno were affected
by the Soviet take-over of Western Belorussia. It is convenient to
examine this acquisition of territory under the following three
A. THE RETURNED POLISH COUNTIES.
Most of the powiaty or counties in the province of Bialystok were
returned to Poland after WWII. They included August6w, Bialystok,
Bielsk, Eomia, Ostroleka, part of Sok61ka, the lower part of Suwalki,
Szczuczyn Bialostocki and Wysokie Mazowieckie. The upper part of
Suwalki county was regarded by the Third Reich as an ancient German
area, renamed Sudauen and incorporated into East Prussia.
B. WESTERN BELORUSSIA PROPER.
This took in the eastern part of Bialystok province, Nowogr6dek,
Polesie and part of the Wilno provinces, thus including the following
Bialystok province : Grodno, part of Sok61ka, Wolkowysk.
Nowogr6dek province: Baranowicze, Lida, Niedwiez, Nowogr6dek, Slonim,
SStolpce, Szczuczyn Nowogr6dzki, Woloiyn.
Wilno province : Braslaw, Dzisna, Molodeczno, Oszmiana, Postawy,
part of Swiecany, Wilejka, part of Wilno-Troki.
C. CENTRAL LITHUANIA.
The situation here was complex and was resolved in two steps:-
(i) The Wilno district, which took in most of the counties of Swiqcany
and Wilno-Troki, was handed over to Lithuania on 10 October 1939. The
markings from that area are therefore outside the scope of this study.
(ii) Coincident with the establishment of the Lithuanian SSR on 3rd.
August 1940, it also received three districts that were detached from
Western Belorussia for ethnic reasons. This led to an interesting
position where the new markings supplied during the Western Belorussian
period from October 1939 to July 1940 were now gradually replaced by
the Lithuanian equivalents from August 1940 to June 1941.
Previous literature on the Soviet Posts in Western Belorussia is sparse,
the only two references known to us being an article by Lev Kolosov in
PHILATELY OF THE USSR for May 1970 and a 64-page booklet, also by him
and entitled THE POSTAL ROADS OF BELORUSSIA, Minsk, 1982. He basically
* states that, at the beginning of October 1939, eight general post
offices were set up in the cities of Baranovichi, Brest-Litovsk (Brest),
Grodno, Lida, Luninets, Novogrudok, Pinsk and Volkovysk. Soviet postage
stamps, postcards and stamped envelopes to the value of 2,600,000
roubles were sent out from the Belorussian capital in Minsk. The old
Polish cancellers continued in use until they could be replaced. Mr.
Kolosov shows two strikes from this period: GRODNO 17.X.39 and
LUNINIEC 30.IX.39. He could find no further examples. He also says that
Polish stamps were declared invalid and that mail so franked was
returned to the senders. Mr. Kolosov's knowledge of the situation is
sketchy and sometimes incorrect; we will attempt to expand and correct
his findings under the following headings:-
Soviet currency'was quickly introduced into the territory and exchanged
1:1 under certain conditions against the Polish zloty. The result was
that the Polish and Soviet postal rates almost coincided, often being
within 5 gr. or 5 kop. of each other :-
Class of mail Polish rate Soviet rate
Local postcards 10 gr. 10 kop.
Interurban postcards 15 gr. 20 kop.
International postcards 30 gr. 30 kop.
Local letters 15 gr. 15-kop.
Interurban letters 25 gr. 30 kop.
International letters 55 gr. 50 kop.
Domestic registration fee 30 gr. 30 kop.
International registration fee 45 gr. 80 kop.
Until around the beginning of November 1939, the usage of Polish stamps
was also tolerated, although most of the examples we have seen were
philatelic. That situation theoretically led to the following
(a) Polish frankings at the Polish rates.
(b) Soviet frankings at the Polish rates.
(c) Polish frankings at the Soviet rates.
(d) Soviet frankings at the Soviet rates.
(e) Mixed Polish-Soviet frankings at the Polish rates.
(f) Mixed Polish-Soviet frankings at the Soviet rates.
Case (d) is naturally by far the most common.
It would appear from postally used material in our collections that the
authorities in the Belorussian capital of Minsk started issuing new
cancellers for the new territories by some time in November 1939. In
contrast to their Western Ukrainian neighbours to the south, who were
strongly nationalistic and prepared bilingual cancellers, except for
the Stanyslaviv postal district, the Belorussians handled the issuance
of new cancellers solely from Minsk and inscribed them exclusively in
Russian. The style was distinctive, with a diameter of 29 mm. Normally,
just the place-name was given, followed by the initials BSSR, but the
province designation was sometimes engraved instead. It turned out to
be quite a project and, by April 1940, Moscow started getting into the
act when the standard Soviet type with a diameter of 24mm. began
It is interesting to note that, while the old Polish cancellers were
gradually replaced altogether, many of the Polish registration cachets
continued in use right up to the Nazi invasion on 22 June 1941.
* The main sources for the surviving material in this period are from
mail addressed abroad to Jewish and Polish relatives in Palestine and
the United States. Readers are strongly advised to examine carefully
postally used Soviet issues between September 1939 and June 1941 for
cancellations from these territories. We will now consider the three
main groupings in detail, giving post office listings taken from the
invaluable Polish publication SPIS URZED6W, AGENCY I POREDNICTW
POCZTOWO-TELEKOMUNIKACYJNYCH NA OBSZARZE RZECZPOSPOLITEJ POLSKIEJ -
STAN Z DNIA 1-GO LIPCA 1936 R., Warsaw, 1936 and kindly loaned by Dr.
Mieczyslaw KamieAski of Toronto. The pre-war Polish Republic had a
comprehensive postal system, with five categories of post offices
designated I to V, three of postal agencies denoted 1 to 3, public
and private poSrednictwa (intermediate mail collecting points) and
facilities at railway stations (dworzec kolejowy) and railway sidings
(stacja kolejowa). The last-named handled telegrams only.
A. THE RETURNED POLISH COUNTIES
Postal facilities were available at the following places in the
Bialystok province as of 1st. July 1936 (place-name; class of.office;
county name. The abbreviation "k." stands for "ko:o" = near):-
August6w III August6w
Bargl6w Ag.3 August6w
Bialowieia IV Bielsk
* Bialystok-Centralny st.k.
Bialystok-2 dw.kol. centralny
Bielsk Podlaski III Bielsk
Bo6ki Ag.l Bielsk
BraAsk IV Bielsk
Choroszcz Ag.2 Bialystok
Czarna Wies V Bialystok
Czeremcha V Bielsk
Czerwony B6r Ag.l Lomia
Czyiew IV Wysok.Mazowiec
Dqbrowa Wielka Ag.3 "
Drohiczyn nad V Bielsk
Dziadkowice k. Ag.3 Bielsk
Grabowo k.Lomzy Ag.2
Grodzisk k. Ag.3
Gr6dek k. V
Holynka k. Ag.3
Jablonka Koscielna Ag.2 Wysok.Mazow.
Jan6w k.Sok61ki Ag.2 Sok6lka
Jasion6wka Ag.2 Bialystok
JaSwily Ag.3 Bialystok
Jedwabne Ag.l Lomia
JeAki Ag.3 Wysok.Mazow.
Juchnowiec Ag.3 Bialystok
Kalin6wka KoscielnaAg.3 Bialystok
Kamienna Nowa st.k August6w
Kleczkowo Ag.3 Ostrokeka
Kleszczele Ag.l Bielsk
Klukowo Ag.3 Wysok.Mazow.
Knyszyn V Bialystok
Kobylin-Borzymy Ag.2 Wysok.Mazow.
Kolno' IV Lomia
Kolaki Ag.3 Lomia
Kroszewo Aq.3 Szczuczyn
Krypno KoAcielne Ag.2 Bialystok
Kulesze Koscielne Ag.3 Wysok.Mazow.
Kuznica k.Sok61ki st.k Sok63ka
Lewicka st.k Bialystok
Lipsk nad Biebrza Ag,2 August6w
Lapy IV Wysok.Mazow.
Lomza II Lomia
Lubin KoAcielny Ag.3 Bielsk
Maly Plosk Ag.2 Lomza
Miastkowo k.Lomiy Ag.2 Lomia
Mielnik Ag.2 Bielsk
Milejczyce Ag.l Bielsk
MoAki Ag.2 Bialystok
Narew Ag.2 Bielsk
Narewka V Bielsk Stawiski V om
Narojki Ag.3 Bielsk Strabla Ag.2 Bielsk
Necko posr. August6w Suchowola V Sok61ka
Niemir6w n.Bugiem Ag.3 Bielsk Suprail Ag.l Bialystok
Nowogr6d Ag.l Lomia Surai Ag.2 Bialystok
Nurzec V Bielsk Szczuczyn Bialost.IV Szczuczyn
Obrubniki Ag.3 Bialystok Szepietowo V Wysok.Mazow.
Orla na Podlasiu Ag.l Bielsk Sztabin Ag.2 August6w
Osowiec st.k. Bialystok Szudzialowo Ag.3 Sok61ka
OXsowiec k.Grajewa V Bialystok Szumowo Ag.2 Lomia
Piekuty Nowe Ag.3 Wysok.Mazow. Sledzian6w Ag.3 Bielsk
Pietkowo Ag.2 Wysok.Mazow. Sniadowo V Lomia
Pobikry Ag.3 Bielsk Trzcianne Ag.2 Bialystok
Pobwietne k.Lap Ag.3 Wysok.Mazow. Turosl Ag.3 Ostr6w Maz.
Raczki Ag.l August6w Tykocin V Wysok.Mazow.
Radzil6w Ag.2 Szczuczyn Walily st.k. Bialystok
Rajgr6d Ag.l Szczuczyn Wasilk6w Ag.2 Bialystok
R6~any Stok Ag.2 Sok61ka Wizna Ag.2 Lomia
Rutki-Kossaki Ag.l Lomia Wysokie Mazowieckie IV Wysok.Maz.
Sidra Ag.2 Sok61ka Wyszonki KoscielneAg.l Wysok.Maz.
Siemiatycze IV Bielsk Zablud6w V Bialystok
Sok61ka III Sok61ka Zambr6w III Lomia
Sokoly V Wysok.Mazow. Zawady k. Lomzy Ag.3 Lomia
Sopo6kinie V August6w Zb6jna k. Lomzy Ag.3 Ostroleka
Starosielce Ag.l Bialystok Zedna poAr. Bialystok
Three further offices were operating just 8 months later on 28.2.1937 :-
August6w Port posr- August6w
Lojki posr. August6w
Wyszki Ag.3 Bielsk
An excerpt is given on p. 9 from a pre-WWII map of Poland, for the
orientation of readers (Scale: 1 cm. = 10 Km. = 6% miles). All the
offices given above would have theoretically received new cancellers
during the Soviet period and we are setting out hereunder the known
results, as taken from our collections.
AUGUSTOW AVGUSTOV : "
-- -"' ^ ^ ".- '
Three examples, inscribed in Russian AVGUSTOV BSSR.v.1.7.40; AVGUSTOV
BELOST. OBL.g.1.5.40 and AVGUSTOV ZH.D.P.O.BSSR.a.4.10.40, all in the
Shmuely collection. The last marking implies that, by the eve of WWII,
there must also have been Polish postal facilities available at the
August6w railway station (dworzec kolejowy).
S (a) Old Polish cancellers.
'- \' (i) BIALYSTOK 1, in the bridge type. Date and
serial letter unreadable; in the Shmuely
8 *r 'r-*
a -., 1, C **
7 .o O W )s
n c h e
70,;''tz~r;m~or~~~pa~ atap~-~~-~d~ -4 o*l~CNI i~~~--.~~~,ie.ie;B~~k~ ul~~n
3*n Alba o o
l EXCERPT, SHOWING THE. ARET 0aa
THE RETURNED POLISH COUNTIES.
SSCALE: 1 cm km. 6k iles. Or 0
/p / g. S+0 a T. W?
MAP EXCERPT, SHOWING THE AREA o~
Is Vi one
OFTERETURNED~ POLISH COUNTIES. s g -
S 1ne c k
d:Va#Y2WegC-~ j~ CilU~~~jP- ~
St -Bl a, 1
Ce8 -9d r
ox D 4
7'~n -~~~~~ \~e~li -Jt"r I- C j,-" .:OIPZ -~~TIU I- -a 4d.4. / / ,
S a -M ai
,,g aF o. 0o
maze' Irate "-- Ws
ag'a~7mtaC Za here so a
Und /, sb~
o K r '16S
0-B~ ll~~ -. ,'in i.' Idyaa'
a re-i Cata Jd r -a wNo
oS -o DMAs.
*'-~7-- 10 a \ a nda, ht
Ealhe ie'.\ o ao a* & Ko ol' g
K, ,: r
BIALYSTOK 2 *k* 3.XI.39 on a remarkable registered interurban
letter, with mixed Polish-Soviet franking at the Polish rate
(55 gr.;collection of the late Prof.Dr. Antoni Laszkiewicz).
(iii)Further strikes reading BIALYSTOK *k* on Soviet stamps and dated
2.XI.39; 9.XII.39; ll.XII.39; 26.1.40 in the Shmuely collection.
(b) New Soviet cancellers.
1.3.41, in the Cronin a nd Shmuely collections.
Strikes reading BELOSTOR.v. 20.2 BSSR.b.273.40; BELOSTOK BSSR.g.19.540;
BELOSTOK BSSR.v.15.12.39; BELOSTOK BSSR.z.8.3.40 & 19.5.40; BELOSTOK
BSSR.p.14.2.41; BELOSTOK ZH.D.P.O.BSSR.a.6.3.40; BELOSTOK 1 BSSR.a.
1.3.41, in the Cronin and Shmuely collections.
Finally, two fine postcards to Tel-Aviv in the Shmuely collection:-
(i) BELOSTOK BSSR.v. 20.2.40 on an airmail postcard, bearing the old
Polish registration cachet of BIALYSTOK lb, No. 6321. Rate of 2r. 10k.
paid (International postcard = 30 k.; registration fee international =
80 k.; airmail surcharge = 1 r.).
(ii) BELOSTOK ZH.D.P.O.BSSR.a.19.7.40 on a 20-k. postcard, with the
additional 10 k. stamp apparently lifted off during examination by the
Palestine Censor T5.
___ I __r
BIELSK PODLASKI BEL'SK PODLESSKII
Inscribed BEL'SK-PODLESSKII BSSR.a.4.1.41 on a Soviet 60-k. commem.
in the Cronin collection.
"'. '. -. '*^AKA3 HOEI_ |'
'*^ :** "S ; "5 ::; y ? ^
.- *- : : ; \, "^ i ^P 3
i-Caa ... .... ... .......... .............
I (,Hmeomamanc meLTZ rilae nnzommcw a. N o6jin RMa Kpva U' cUt- aA
uawmfeSozaHe zweleio.t Aoporw)
(i) Inscribed BRANSK BSSR.a.6.1.40 on a 60-k. Soviet Commemorative.
(ii)Inscribed BRANSK BELOST.OBL.v.21.6.41 on an unaddressed Soviet
60-k. registration envelope (both items Cronin collection).
CZARNA WIE CHeRNAYA VES'
(a) Old Polish cancellers. / V 'Y.'-
Bridge type, reading CZARNA '" y .
WIES ll.I.40.b. on a 5-k.- -..
Soviet commem.; Single circle J -
type reading CZARNA WIES -
23.XII.39-8.c. on a 60-k. .
Soviet commem. See p.11.
(b) New Soviet canceller. -
(i) Inscribed CHERNAYA VES'
BELOST.OBL.a.9.10.39 on a
25-gr. Polish stamp. It seems A CARNA W161
most unlikely that Minsk
could have supplied this new
type by such an early date,
only 22 days after the Soviet
arrival. This is almost
certainly a philatelic item,
made by turning back the date and applying it to a now invalid Polish
adhesive. See the illustration at the bottom of page 11.
(ii) Another example, dated 23.4.41 and applied to a registered
letter going abroad. Note the continued late application of the old
Polish registration cachet. All of the above items are from the
collection of the late Prof. Dr. Antoni Laszkiewicz.
Z IS SIDE OFCARiS FO* ADDF _
/ C A -- ..
(i) Inscribed GRAEVO BSSR.a.3.3.41 and applied on the return half of
a U.S. reply-paid card. This is a very fine item in the Shmuely colin.
(ii)Strikes reading GRAEVO BSSR.v.4.10.40 on a registered letter
forwarded to the Canal Zone. Note the applications of the old Polish
and Soviet internal "3-rPAEBO" registration cachets. The total rate
paid was Ir. 30k. (50 k. for a surface international letter and 80 k.
international registration fee).
.. 22 64
"- ,, .. ,. ... ""I*; I
'" ,,- B0 -2 1.
-.. .- .. -.w -.7 ."
jii. .. .. ... ,. .-.- .. ,. . "?i .
_. __-._ _-.. __,.__ _._ __-__;_.___ -- GRODEK HAJN6WKA-
(iii) Inscribed GRAEVO BSSR.D.22.6.41 and illustrated in the excellent
study DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST 1939-1945, by Dr. Hermann Schultz.
GR6DEK k. Bialegostoku GORODOK
Inscribed GORODOK 2 BELOST. OBL.24.1.41 on a Soviet 60 k. commem. in
the Shmuely collection.
Inscribed GAINOVKA BSSR.a.9.1.41 on a Soviet 20 k. commem. in the
Inscribed KLECHKOVO BSSR 8.4.41 iC
(no serial letter), on a card
addressed to a village just over ... .
the border in the German portion *
of the Ostrolgka county. The card .. '
herewith was directed all the way '; '
east to Minsk, where it was -l
obviously read on 14th. April, .i ... -
before being forwarded to its ~.
destination (Cronin collection). ......
Note that it was overpaid by 10 ..: ,-.
kopeks. .. .. '. .
(i) A registered piece, cancelled KOL'NO BSSR.a.9.2.41 in violet .and
S showing the old Polish registration cachet (Cronin collection). A
similar strike on a Soviet 1 r. commem. dated 1.7.40 in the Shmuely
collection. See the illustration overleaf.
(ii) A further piece with 50 k. postage, cancelled KOL'NO BSSR.b.
'-..1 .. .. -
.K R -
(H3- siO cra ,. .... r-1P )_ o- ..-- : '.. t, .-1 a_ a
F.~,.." I--:.." : .----
-~~~~ -C--^-yW ^ ^
..-: _" .. .. -.-- .. .. .-. -" 5 ..: -, -
14.2.41 in violet (Cronin collection). A similar strike, dated 7.2 ....
on a 20-k. definitive i-n the Shmuely collection.
? KORYTIN BRYANSK
-: .-:-- ,
SIt is possible that this office may not have existed
on a 20-k. definitive in the Shmuely collection
S -/ in the Polish period, but it is inscribed KORYTIN
(Y27.6A41.t BRYANSK BELOST.OBL.a.27.6.41 and illustrated in the
Sa f study DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST 1939-1945, by Dr. Hermann
.' r '.** .' i
:,. ,. I I,'l e
",NA$ .pA. ,A
i r. z ,,; t7 / /n / a .. ..... ............ ........ ; *'
...... /- .. /, / ,9 6
,,., ,, ,,., .:; ,, ,- *,*, ,.,u %
: .Lap O/" '' /I/'.WJ, xc. ( C.5t 06 r JS. St..
': t4SJf$CCL. /tt/f4viev>a
c *- A j) ,'-*'nl (flq
.a 14A ( i- f e. CCAUL ""
-. --- 4, ,"
<- :i^-'," .-I k,.. hb v M', an ,?_) ... .. .C- -.-
^^^"^J^ -^ 1f4 -"-_ .;R/
A surface international cover to Detroit, Michigan with 80 k. postage
postage (overpaid by 30 k.) and cancelled LOMZHA BSSR.e.6.3.41 in the
Cronin collection. See the illustration at bottom left on p. 14.
A card to Palestine, cancelled SEMYATICHI BSSR.v.27.12.40 and passing
through Minsk on 30th. December, in the Shmuely collection. See the
illustration at bottom right on the preceding page.
SnrOTOBAFb KAPTOLIKH r., Weo t s b-
C CARTE POSTAL N \ '-UAR 9
i Sea'ov 'igh. ia shoulda awy b tk
!.is in !u s bew e .en .. .of /,c a-.(,- ...-Sz,. N .- .. ow r k w h in
I / *r ,',
.4 '"* : ," .- ." "^ '.. ... *il
________________________________________ I "
,. c '.A... ... .. .( / rI Ik 1L
A remarkable postcard to Warsaw, addressed to the historic suburb of
Praga and bearing 40 kop. postage (overpaid by 10 k.). It was
cancelled with a provisional marking, unframed and in one line, reading
STAWISKI in Polish and with manuscript date "4.1" (4 January 1940)
added above, in the Shmuely collection. See above at left.
SZCZUCZYN BIA*OSTOCKI SHCHUCHIN
A postcard addressed to Germany and cancelled SHCHUCHIN BELOST.b.
18.11.40 and passing through BELOSTOK BSSR.p.21.11.40, in the Cronin
collection. See above at right. Care should always be taken to
distinguish between this office and Szczuczyn Nowogr6dzki, which is in
Western Belorussia proper.
A card to Tel-Aviv, Palestine, F.W 'CA T T LE'.
overfranked by 20 kop. and / $%.)_ E
postmarked VASIL'KOV BSSR.a. T
3.5.41. It passed through ,s .L,//
BELOSTOK BSSR.p. on 6th. May- .. .. ...........
(in the Shmuely collection). .U
,) : O.. fl P .i V H.I.!K /'pt1
1- 1 ^OcMAA/6 lU^ 6
1. -*^ Il ^Atv ^ frl'
B. WESTERN BELORUSSIA PROPER.
The listing hereunder of the Polish offices known to have been in
operation as of 1 July'1936 in this area will give some idea of the
work involved, both for Minsk and Moscow, in replacing all the
cancellers. The compilation is given in the following order:
place-name; class of office; wojew6dstwo/province; powiat/county :-
Baranowicze 2 Dworzec Kolejowy
Biala na Horyniem
BrzeS6 nad Bugiem 1
BrzeS6 nad Bugiem 2 Dworzec Kolejowy
Brze66 nad Bugiem Twierdza
Brze66 nad Bugiem 4
ByteA nad Szczarg
Chojno kolo Pinska
Cho6iw kolo Mokodeczna
Dabrowa kolo Grodna
Derewna kolo Slonima
Polesie Brzeb6 n.B.
Derewno kolo Stolpc6w
O Dobromyl 1
Drohiczyn Poleski 1
Drohiczyn Poleski 2:DworzecKolejowy
Grodno 2 Dworzec Kolejowy
Gr6dek kolo Motodeczna
Holynka kolo Niehwieia
Holynka kolo Slonima
Holynka kolo Wolkowyska
Horodec kolo Kobrynia
Horodno kolo Lidy
Horodno kolo Stolina
Horodyszcze kolo Baranowicz
Horodyszcze kolo PiAska
Iwje kolo Lidy
Jan6w kolo PiAska
Jeremicze kolo Kobrynia
Jeremicze nad Niemnem
Kamionka kolo Grodna
Kleck koko NieSwieia
Konstantyn6w k. Swiqcan
Kozlowszczyzna kolo Pos
Kozlowszczyzna kolo Slo
Krasne nad Uszi
Kroszyn kolo Baranowicz
Kuznica kolo Grodna
Lachowicze kolo Baranowicz V
. Lemieszewicze Ag.3
LENIN (!) kolo Mikaszewicz V
Lesna kolo Baranowicz st.k.
Lida 1 III
Lida 2:Dworzec Kolejowy IV
Lida 3:Koszary im.gen.RydzaimigliegoAg.1
Linowo kolo Pruzany Ag.l
Lubcza nad Niemnem V
Lusino kolo Hancewicz posr.
Lahiszyn kolo PiAska Ag.2
Luka nad Narwia Ag.3
* Lunna V
Lyszk6w kolo Slonima Ag.2
Mala Brzostowica Ag.3
Male Soleczniki Ag.3'
Mankowicze kolo Postaw Ag.3
MiQdzylesie kolo Berezy Kartuskiej Ag.3
MiQdzyrzecz kolo Zelwy Ag.3,
Mikolaj6w kolo Dzisny Ag.3
Molodeczno 1 IV
Molodeczno 2 Dworzec Kolejowy IV
* Mordycze posr.
Moroczno kolo PiAska Ag.2
Mosty 1 Dworzec Kolejowy V
Polesie KamieA Koszyrski
Polesie KamieA Koszyrski
Polesie Brzes6 n.B.
Nieciecz kolo Lidy
Nowosi6lki kolo Kobrynia
Nowy Dw6r kolo Grodna
Nowy Dw6r kolo Lidy
Orla nad Niemnem
Osowce kolo Drohiczyna Poleskiego
Ostrowiec kolo Wilna
Ostr6w kolo Batanowicz
Oszmiana 2 : Dworzec Kolejowy
Piaski kolo Wolkowyska
Plussy kolo Braslawia
Pogorzelce kolo Baranowicz
Polesie KamrieA Koszyrski
Polesie BrzeS6 n.B.
Polesie BrzeS6 n.B.
Wilno Bras aw
Polesie KamieA Koszyrski
Porzecze kolo Grodna
Porzecze nad Jasiolda
Rajca kolo Nowogr6dka
Rak6w kolo Olechnowicz
R6~anka nad Niemnem
Rudniki kolo Pruiany
O Rybnica kolo Grodna
Sielec nad Jasiolda
Slonim 2 : Dworzec Kolejowy
Stonim 3 : Komenda Garnizonu
Stolpce 2 : Dworzec Kolejowy
Polesie BrzeS6 n.B.
Polesie KamieA Koszyrski
Szydlowice kolo Wolkowyska
Wierzchnie kolo Dzisny
Wierzchowice kolo BrzeS6ia n. Bugiem
Wiszniew kolo Bohdanowa
Wiszniew kolo Swira
Wlodawa 2 : Dworzec Kolejowy
(not to be confused with W3odawa-1,
Wolkowysk 2 : Dworzec Kolejowy
Zablocie kolo Lidy
o of Lublin).
* Zalesie DziSniehskie
Zalesie kolo SmorgoA
Zamosze kolo Braslawia
There are 418 Polish offices in the above listing. The references to
postal status help to specify the rarity of cancellations; markings
from a Class I post office would be the commonest and those from a
poSrednictwo or a stacja kolejowa the rarest. Although the "st.k"
offices only handled telegrams, they have been included as they could have
conceivably been upgraded in status later on in the Polish or Soviet
periods. Just 8 months later on 28 Feb. 1937, the following additional
offices were in operation:-
BrzeS6 nad Bugiem 3
Glebokie 2 : Dworzec Kolejowy
Nowy Dw6r Wolkowyski
R6~anka nad Niemnem
Now to the markings and usages we have actually found.
(i) An arrival marking reading BARANOVICHI BSSR.v.22.214.171.124.
(ii) An undelivered cover to Minsk, postmarked BARANOVICHI
BSSR.126.96.36.199.19 (!). See the illustration at the top of
p.24. Both these items in the Cronin collection.
r .-;: *-. ': : -m
.. -.: TA
(iii) BARANOVICHI BSSR.d.20.5.40 and BARANOVICHI BSSR.188.8.131.52;
both items in the Shmuely collection.
BRZESC nad Bugiem BREST / BREST-LITOVSK
(i) 10 & 30-k. Soviet definitive on pieces with the old Polish marking
BRZESC n/B.l -1- 6.X.39 (collection of late Prof.Dr.Antoni Laszkiewicz).
(ii) New Soviet markings BREST-LITOVSK BSSR.z.20.9.40 & 1.12.40 on
Soviet 30 & 15-k. commems.
A ". 7; '1. --" .'- -. -
,. *- f ... .
le'i3 ~ -~ec .
(iii) BREST BSSR.v. and unreadable date on a Soviet 45-k. commem. in
the Shmuely collection.
(iv) BREST ZH.D.O.BSSR.a.ll.5.40 on a Soviet 10-k. commem. Note the
smaller size canceller supplied from Moscow (Shmuely collection).
A postcard to the Bronx, U.S.A., with the Moscow-type marking reading
KHOMSK PINSK.OBL.b.25.11.40, in the Cronin collection. See the
illustration at the bottom right of page 24.
S0 noqTOBAR DAa ^tA nOLITOBARKAF L P
CARTE PoS CARTE POS-" '
1 a 6 .e.C ,:,-
..... -........ ... ... K ". .,.e ...,
S ,,,, --- ...^ .. ,. l ...... ...... .. ... .. .. ...ft 1':
I I L-(.o- L o 'X
Mr. Shmuely has two postcards addressed to Haifa and cancelled DERECHIN
*BSSR.b.15.2.40 and 17.10.40 respectively, the second item passing
through Minsk on 26th. October.
____________ _________ '
Ne orUdAed l o, Fr' i
:* PTE pOS '
.. .. ..,r .. .. ....t. ... lr i.
(. .. ,, .. .. ..
-; .',y: r, LL"-- '"" "f .. r, ,
S .... .-. .
!" /] ....... .. ..,.,k !
I ^ZSAun J .W nL crai/ ^*wftf I
., Y.... F C .C- .
-I, z ssede,,ft t_~
onrzr:". .r,,c,, -,,, % ,,, ,ot.i,
'"'"":7 pl .c. ,
A card to Germany is shown above at left, with the Moscow-style marking
reading TOMASHOVKA BREST. P/V.v.13.1.41 in the Cronin collection. This
may be a TPO/RPO postmark and the card bears a Minsk strike of a few
days later, at top left.
DROHICZYN POLESKI DROGICHIN POLESSKII
A postcard to the Bronx, U.S.A., shown above at right, underpaid 10 kop.
and cancelled DROGICHIN-POL.PINSK.OBL.v.20.2.41,in the Cronin collection.
A part marking reading DYATLOVICHI.a.-2..., on a loose
15-kop. definitive held by Mr. Shmuely. This office is not [,
in the Polish Listing and may not have been opened until *
the Soviet period.
^ E. .. .. e .:: ; l I '- '
(i) The old Polish bridge-type marking, reading GRODNO l.d.30.X.1939
on a Soviet 5-kop. commem. in the collection of the late Prof. Dr.
(ii) The same Soviet commem. in the Cronin collection, now cancelled
GRODNO BSSR.a.184.108.40.206, being the earliest date so far seen for
postmarkers supplied from Minsk. Also, the same marking on a card to
Haifa, sent on 15.12.40 and passing through Minsk on 29th. December,
in the Shmuely collection (see illustration above at right).
(iii) A card to Haifa, cancelled GRODNO BSSR.b.28.11.40 and passing
through BELOSTOK-p on 6th. December. Why Belostok, which was well to
the west and thus near the new.frontier with the Third Reich ?
(iv) A Polish card to Haifa, with correct Soviet postage
over the Polish die and cancelled GRODNO BSSR.v.29.2.40. W
(v) A Soviet 1 r. commem.cancelled GRODNO BSSR.g.8.3.40. -
,',,y -4. t lt, .. f MD.,
..... ,, < ? ( .. 1< t
EI Ell %A 0fOHN*M fc> Hft
'qD-, C Hr.'^ .I
i. ..l R ,,.. ,,; ,
(vi) Two cards to Haifa, cancelled GRODNO BSSR.k.9.10.40 & 29.10.40,
passing through BELOSTOK-p on 29 & 31 October.
(vii) A card to Haifa,
postmarked GRODNO ZH.
(last six items above
all from the Shmuely
GRODNO 2 BSSR.b.
S21.6.41 and shown in
1939-1945, by Dr.
Mr.Hurold O.Luboviski, .
Fitzsiront,Colorado. I'.( '
United States of An.eric III r
Iti3,Ii-~d;.. r. i
Inscribed GORODEYA BSSR.v.14.7.40 on a cover to Colorado, U.S.A., in
the Cronin collection.
IWJE kolo Lidy IV'E
A postmark reading IV'E BSSR.a.20.11.39 on a cover overpaid by 10 kop.
and addressed to Glens Falls, U.S.A., in the Cronin collection.
~~ I 17
;; .... .... ......
KLECK kok3o Nieswieia KLETSK
(i) Inscribed KLETSK BSSR.a.
11.6.40 on a Soviet 60-kop.
(ii)Inscribed KLETSK BARANOV.
OBL.v.16.9.40 on a Soviet 50k.
A most interesting 20-kop.; card
to Tel-Aviv in the Shmuely
collection, with the additional
10-kop. stamp apparently lifted
off by the Palestine censor.The
cancel reads KOBRIN BRESTSK.OBL.
v.28.1.40. The sender,E.Levinson,
lived at No.8 in the 17th. of
September Street (obviously
renamed after the day the Soviet
forces crossed the old Polish
:' n O' OMTOBAnI 'APTOqhA
,.'';.J CARTE POSTAL
-7.. L -/
jn A: J 4 y ..- /
"/ (,^. / ;*,.-.,'* *
( .. 7 ^ ,, ... .o .,.. o
-,1,,...-. 1 <. Jc 11 :' I t"
r '".''., !,,: ', r, i *,, I ; .. ,
A strike of the old Polish bridge-type marking reading KUCEWICZE
12.VI.1940 on a Soviet 15-kop. commem. in the Cronin collection.
Inscribed LIDA ZH.D.P.O.BARANOV.OBL.a.10.10.40 on a Soviet 1-r.conrem.
in the Shmuely collection.
A postmark reading MOSTY BELOST.OBL.v.12.4.41 on a Soviet 80-kop.
commem. in the Cronin collection.
A strike of the old Polish bridge-type marking reading MOTOL...X.39 on
a Soviet 80-kop. commem. in the Shmuely collection.
A postcard to Rochester, U.S.A., cancelled NESVIZH BSSR.a.11.6.40-9
in the Cronin collection. Please see the illustration at the top of
the next page.
fl nOTOSIAF KAPTOIK;
Ky-a r 'll.Ct. U. C.IU u- ('
*AM tc.4(,Ao, *0J cj
o ,eaa, .lo._ ..I i
Koxy *Gc .. a O __
S XPAHHTE CBOH AEHbrH B 'CGGPEFATEJIbHOA HACCEI
N .W C.D ,R
Inscribed NOVOGRUDOK....a.20.9.40; NOVOGRUDOK BSSR.b.24.1.40;NOVOGRUDOK
BSSR.v.24.3.40 & 25.4.40; NOVOGRUDOK....OBL.g. with illegible date; all
on Soviet IDab & 60k. commems. in the Cronin and Shmuely collections.
A cover to Brooklyn, U.S.A., with the Soviet 20k. & 30k. definitive
affixed over the flap and cancelled OSHMYANY VILEIK. OBL.v.220.127.116.11,
in the Cronin collection.
(i) A Minsk-type marking inscribed PINSK.BSSR.a.10.5.40 on a Soviet
50-kop. commem. in the Cronin collection.
(ii) A Moscow-type marking reading PINSK 1 GOR.OTD.BSSR.b.21.6.41(!)
on a Soviet 15-kop. commem. in the Cronin collection.
A strike of the Moscow-type canceller, reading RECHITSA BREST.OBL.a.
24.4.40 on a Soviet 30-kop. commem. in the Shmuely collection. This
* was apparently a new office opened during the Soviet period.
(i) The old Polish markings for SLONIM-1 and SLONIM-2 must originally
jrn.,8um~u.\ ~~~~t~? u.
have been applied in the early months of the Soviet period, as they were
revived in 1942 during the Nazi occupation. The illustrations at left
above are taken from DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST 1939-1945, by Dr.Hermann
(ii) A new Soviet Minsk-type marking is now seen, reading SLONIM BARAN.
OBL.v.23.11.40 on a card to Haifa in the Shmuely collection; see above.
(iii) A further Minsk-type marking, reading SLONIM BARANOV.OBL.e. was
still being used on 11 May 1942, during the Nazi occupation (the
illustration is taken from DEUTSCHE DIENSTPOST 1939-1945,by Dr. Schultz)
A part marking reading SMORGON'.a.10.9.4..., on a Soviet 30-kop.comxem.
in the Cronin collection.
Inscribed STOLBTSY BARANOV.OBL.g.16.9.40 on a
the Cronin collection.
Soviet 50-kop. commem. in
A backstamp reading TEVLE BREST.OBL.a.11.6.41 on a cover from Ternopil'
in the Cronin collection.
A marking inscribed TRABY BARANOV.OBL.a.28.5.40 on a Soviet 60-kop.
commem. in the Cronin collection.
(i) Inscribed VILEIKA BSSR.v. 23.2.40 on a Soviet 15-kop. commem in
- .. ,
* ;. "^1- -^ ; i ^3
the Cronin collection.
(ii) Inscribed VILEIKA 2g.BSSR.v.23.6.41 on a pair of Soviet l-r.
commems. in the Shmuely collection.
A part marking reading VOLKOVYSK 3.4.40 on a Soviet
20-kop. commem. in the Shmuely collection.
ZCA E. .
i . ... ...*... .. *" '
"'" "b ,u .' "Y 1 -
WOO ZYN VOLOZHIN
A 20-kop. card addressed to Baranovichi and cancelled VOLOZHIN BSSR.
b.23.1.41 in the Cronin collection.
WYSOKIE LITEWSKIE VYSOKO-LITOVSK
A 30-kop. envelope cancelled VYSOKO-LITOVSK BSSR.b.22.2.41 and
addressed to a P.O.W. in Germany; it was underpaid by 20 kop. for a
letter going abroad. Such mail is rare, as few P.O.W. items have
P-survived (in the Cronin collection). -
ZAKOZIEL ZAKOZEL'E \- ": UM
A Moscow-type marking reading ZAKOZEL'E PINSK.OBL.b.
c7.8.40 on a Soviet 10-kop. commem in the Shmuely i
C. CENTRAL LIT,.HUANIA ... -- -.
The map overleaf, taken from Volume II of Ma.oji Lietuvi koji Tarybin6
Enciklopedija (The Small Lithuanian Soviet Encyclopaedia, Vilnius 1968)
shows the three zones that were detached from Western Belorussia on
3rd. August 1940 and handed over to the Lithuanian SSR. The former
Polish cancellers and those supplied from Minsk and Moscow were
applied from Sept. 1939 to Aug. 1940. Thereafter, Lithuanian types
I \ _n ^ -^ ^ ^'-,,,- :rnO4 TA j
prepared in ailnius would gradually have replaced them in use. So far
as can be determined, the following Western Belorussian offices were
functioning before the transfer :-
ZONE I (part of the powiat of Swiecany)
ZONE II (part of the powiat of Oszmiana)
ZONE III (parts of the powiaty of Grodno and Wilno-Troki):
We have never seen Soviet stamps with markings of the above offices
during the Western Belorussian period and such usages are doubtless
In conclusion, further notes on all the above data are welcomed from
_ __i _
MARKINGS OF THE CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (SIBERIA)
P by Dr. Robert C. Smith.
(This article first appeared in Journal No. 36 of the Postal History
Society of Canada and is reprinted here with the approval of the author).
The Canadian Expeditionary Force (Siberia) has been discussed at length
in the postal history literature (see for example Faulstichl and
Richardson2), although much remains to be learned about the postal
activities of this body. A number of different markings were used on
the mail, including steel postmarking hammers, boxed censor markings
and various orderly-room handstamps. Information not previously
published has recently come to light on the subject, in part from
markings on a correspondence which has been discovered and, in part,
from a search through archival records on the C.E.F. (S.). This article
presents this new information in context.with what has already been
published. In particular, much new information has been found on the
boxed censor markings and a major portion of the article will be
devoted to them. In addition, new dates for the latest observed usage
of two other marking instruments used in Siberia will be reported.
Boxed Censor Marks
The boxed censor marks (Fig. 1) have been listed if
by Richardson2 and by Campbell3 (see also
National Postal Museum4); those reported to the IPASSED
present time include 001, 002, 003, 004, 005, Y
006, 009, 010, 012, 014 and 016. S.
The records held by the Public Archives of Canada .
on the C.E.F.(S) contain a great deal of data on -
the censorship regulations in effect in Siberia
and, in particular, on these markings General
Routine Orders No. 1, under the title Fig. 1.
"Censorship Orders for Troops in the Field", were
published on 23 October 1918 by order of Major-General D.H. Elmsley,
the GeneralOfficer Commanding the C.E.F.(S.). The particulars on all
aspects of C.E.F.(S.) censorship were there set out in a little over
twelve pages of text. A long section was devoted to postal censorship
and included rules to be followed in using the "PASSED BY CENSOR"
stamps, even though these did not arrive in Vladivostok until early in
December, as will be seen below. The procedures for censoring mail
were laid out in full: an officer had first to satisfy himself that an
item of mail should be passed. When he had done this, he was to frank
the cover by writing his name on it, without rank or unit and pass it
unsealed to the "stamping officer" (the officer, in whose care the
censor stamp had been entrusted), who was to seal and stamp it. It
could then be passed on to the Postal Corps for standard mail
processing. Censor officers were given wide powers of opening and
delaying all private postal matter and of suppressing any statement,
which was in contravention of the regulations, even to destroying
S letters. Units without a censor stamp were to pass their
communications for stamping to the nearest headquarters unit or other
unit with such a stamp.
Fig. 1 above: The Boxed PASSED / BY / CENSOR 002 mark, from a cover
dated 11 December 1918. 33
The censor stamps themselves had their origin in a letter of 17 Sept.
1918, from the Headquarters of the Canadian Expeditionary Force in
London, England to the Secretary of the War Office, ordering
"sufficient postal censor stamps" for units of the C.E.F.(S.), which
were to be delivered to Lt.-Col. R.W. Stayner of the R.N.W.M.P.,
Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster General for the force, before he
sailed for Canada from England. The following letter shows that no time
was wasted in preparing these stamps:-
"H.Q. Can. Sib. Exp. Force
Oxford Circus House,
245 Oxford Street, W.1.
27th. Sept. 1918
Chief Postal Censor,
Carey Street, W.C.2.
Receipt of 35 'Passed by the Censor' stamps and 2 'Re-examined by Base
Censor' stamps for use of the C.S.E.F. forwarded by you to this office
under your file 0149/5611 (M.I.9a).27.9.18 are hereby acknowledged.
Lieut. Col. for
Brig.General Commanding C.S.E.F."5
Lt.-Col. Stayner thus carried the censor marking devices with him to
Canada after their manufacture in England. After crossing the country,
he sailed from Vancouver on board the Canadian Pacific ship R.M.S.
Monteagle on 17 November 1918, bound for Siberia with the second
shipload of Canadians to make that voyage6 This, of course, explains
why covers from Siberia with boxed censor marks, postmarked before early
December 1918, have never been observed. Those censor marking devices
did not arrive in Vladivostok until 5 December, on board the MONTEAGLE.
Webb's date of 8 December 1918 appears to be the earliest so far
Fig. 2 shows a cover franked with three 1$ green Admiral stamps,
postmarked by a VANCOUVER, B.C. International machine canceller on 22
January 1919 and bearing a boxed censor mark in violet, reading PASSED /
BY / CENSOR / 001. The censor mark is countersigned in pencil by H.
McCausland, the senior chaplain of the C.E.F.(S.). On the flap is the
designation THE CANADIAN PACIFIC OCEAN SERVICES, LIMITED / R.M.S.
"MONTEAGLE", with pennant. The interesting aspect of this cover,
however, is revealed by the letter it contained, which was written en
route from Vancouver to Vladivostok and reads in part :-
"There are two ways of sending letters,- one to put stamps on the
envelope and let them stay right on this boat, the other to send them
unstamped when they will go ashore, through the central military post
office and on the next boat."
It is apparent that the former of these methods was chosen for this
particular letter, since the envelope was stamped and was postmarked in
Vancouver on 22 January 1919, the very day the MONTEAGLE arrived back
in that city.8
Having thus established that this cover did not leave the ship until it
arrived in Vancouver, it is apparent not only that the censor handstamp
001 was carried to Siberia on the MONTEAGLE, but indeed that it was in
,.Ei 1.. aV1LNOVW.. "S *W "H
K '' < a
Fig. 2. A cover from the R.M.S. MONTEAGLE, posted en route from
Vancouver to Vladivostok. It shows the earliest recorded usage of a
boxed censor mark by the C.E.F.(S.), a 001 used on board the ship.
fact used on board the ship. Note, however, that the MQNTEAGLE docked
in Vladivostok on 5 December and that the cover did not leave the ship
there when the troops disembarked, the censor stamps being carried
ashore by Lt.-Col. Stayner. It follows that the censor mark 001 stamped
on the cover was struck before (or at the latest on) on 5 December 1918,
making it the earliest reported use of a boxed censor mark by the
C.E.F.(S.). A second cover, featured in Fig. 3 at the top of the next
page, shows another 001 censor mark on a Y.M.C.A. envelope postmarked
with the FIELD POST OFFICE / CANADIAN / SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE hammer 1,
dated 7 December 1918, one day earlier than Webb's earliest date for a
boxed censor mark.
Fig. 3. A Y.M.C.A. envelope postmarked on 7 December 1918 with the
FIELD POST OFFICE / CANADIAN SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE hammer 1 and
showing a boxed censor mark 001.
Reduced drawing from blueprint in Public Archives Canada RG 9 111 Vol. 5056. File 959
36 Fig. 4.
When the censor handstamps arrived in Vladivostok, they were controlled
by the office of the Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General (D.A.A.G.) there.
* He was responsible for assigning them to the various units, which were
situated in a number of locations in and around the city (see Fig.4 and
the table overleaf), as well as in Omsk and Krasnoyarsk. Ten of the
stamps were assigned immediately, but others were not given out until
requested at later dates. In a letter of 8 December 1918 accompanying
one of the assigned stamps, a Captain of the General Staff specified
that "This stamp will be kept under lock and key and used only by an
The table was constructed from data gleaned from correspondence
concerning the censor stamps.5 It shows the unit to which each censor
stamp was assigned, where that unit was located, the date on which
receipt of the stamp was acknowledged by the unit, the approximate
number of days it was in use and an indication of whether this marking
has been observed on cover, with a reference to where it was reported
when relevant. Note that stamps 003, 011 and 015 were used by British
Army units, serviced by the C.E.F.(S.). Note also that stamps 016 and
017, assigned to the 16th. Field Ambulance and the Y.M.C.A.Headquarters
respectively, were in use for only a few days. It is apparent from this
table that only 18 of the 35 stamps that were prepared were actually put
into use. No further mention is found of the "Re-examined by Base
Censor" marks, nor have they ever been found on cover.
The last day of use of the censor marks, at least in Vladivostok, was
15 February 1919. On that day, General Routine Orders No. 35 were
promulgated by Major-General Elmsley, item 7 of which stated: "All
* censor stamps will be returned to the D.A.A.G. Records (by an officer).9
On the 19th., he wrote to Lt.-Col. T.S. Morrisey in Omsk to inform him
of this order, stating in addition that the only stamp necessary on
outgoing mail was that of the Base Post Office.10 These orders were
promulgated in Omsk on 24 February.
Fig. 5 on p. 39 illustrates a Canadian Siberian Expedition patriotic
cover of a sort supplied to the troops by the Catholic Army Huts (a
series of field stations established by the Canadian Knights of
Columbusll). It is postmarked with the FIELD POST OFFICE / CANADIAN /
SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE steel hammer number 1, dated 15 February 1919.
Stamped on it in bright violet is a boxed PASSED / BY / CENSOR / 007, a
numeral not previously reported in the literature, countersigned in
pencil by C.S.L. Hertzberg, a Captain in the 16th. Field Company,
Canadian Engineers. The 15 February date has been reported previously as
being the latest observed for the usage of boxedcensor markings.4 In
light of the above remarks, it is unlikely that a later date will be
found. However, the censor marks were applied before the postmarks, so
that covers censored on 15 February may turn up postmarked a day or two
later. Also, the groups in Omsk and Krasnoyarsk continued, in all
likelihood, to apply censor marks until General Routine Orders No. 35
reached them. The only other reported censor mark with a 15 February
postmark is, in fact, from Omsk.7
A cover from the Brown correspondence postmarked on 19 February shows no
* censor mark, nor do any others postmarked later than this. Incidentally,
the earliest postmark seen in conjunction with a 007 censor mark in this
correspondence is dated 28 December 1918 although, as shown in the table
overleaf, this stamp was issued to Base Depot on 9 December.
DISPOSITION OF CENSOR HANDSTAMPS IN SIBERIA
Stamp To what unit issued Location Receipt Days Known
no.- acknowledged in use used?
001 Camp Commandant Pushkinskaya 1918 12 09 69 Yes2
002 Base Headquarters Pushkinskaya 1918 12 09 69 Yes2
003 1/9th Battalion, Omsk 1918 12 09 75 Yes4
004 Base Company West Barracks 1918 12 09 69 Yes2
005 #9 Detachment, Egerscheldt 1918 12 13 65 Yes2
Canadian Ordnance Corps
006 #5 Company, Egerscheldt 1918 12 09 69 Yes2
Canadian Postal Corps
007 Base Depot East Barracks 1918 12 09 69 Yes*
008 Royal North West Gornastai Bay 1918 12 28 50 No
Mounted Police & Second River
009 #11 Stationary Hospital Naval Hospital 1919 01 10 37 Yes2
010 20th Machine Gun Gornastai Bay 1919 01 17 30 Yes2
011 Headquarters, Omsk 1919 01 05 50 No
25th Middlesex Regiment
012 260th Battalion, Gornastai Bay 1919 01 18 29 Yes3
Canadian Rifles & Second River
013 Headquarters, Gornastai Bay 1919 01 17 30 No
16th Infantry Brigade Barracks
014 259th Battalion Gornastai Bay 1919 01 20 27 Yes3
015 Detachment, Krasnoyarsk 1919 01 08 47 No
25th Middlesex Regiment
016 16th Field Ambulance Gornastai Bay 1919 02 05 11 Yes2
017 Y.M.C.A. Headquarters Fedorovskaya 1919 02 03? 11? No
St., No. 1
018-019 not issued by D.A.A.G.
020 Lt -Col Morrisey Omsk 1918 12 08 75 No
021-035 not issued by D.A.A.G.
Fig. 5. Catholic Army Huts patriotic cover postmarked on 15 February 1919
by the FIELD POST OFFICE / CANADIAN / SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE hammer 1, with
a 007 censor mark and the signature of the censoring officer,
The steel handstamp mentioned above, reading FIELD POST OFFICE /
CANADIAN / SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE, hammer 1, has been reported in the
literature as being used from 1 November 1918 to 18 May 1919.7 The rubber
handstamp BASE DEPOT / SIBERIA, on the other hand, has been reported from
21 March 1919 to 15 May 1919.' While the dates of earliest usage of these
markings remain unchallenged, a cover from the Brown correspondence
(Fig.6) shows two clear strikes of the BASE DEPOT / SIBERIA stamp dated
26 May 1919 and one imperfect strike of the steel postmarking hammer 1
with an unclear date which might be read as 28 May. In any event, on all
other covers of this correspondence bearing both of these marks, the
postmark was applied after the Base Depot mark, so that it seems safe to
suppose that the postmark on this cover was applied after 26 May. The
period of known usage of the BASE DEPOT / SIBERIA rubber handstamp is
thus extended by eleven days and that of the FIELD POST OFFICE /
CANADIAN / SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE steel handstamp 1 by at least eight days,
both by the same cover, which establishes new dates of latest observed
usage for both.
No mention of the steel hammers was found in the archival sources
consulted. A unique strike of hammer 2 remains the only record of this
Sgt. Douglas M. Brown, the originator of the correspondence from which
the items described here were taken, remained in Siberia after the main
body of Canadian troops left, first with the British Military Mission W
and later with the Canadian Red Cross distributing relief supplies to
refugees from the Bolsheviks. He returned to Canada only in January 1921.
The later covers from this correspondence are just as interesting as
.' CANADIAN SIBERIAN EXPEDITION
*- I -: ?. ^*)
'- I *'.007 rl; ***
^ < j ^ ,- ^ *- .'; *
- - -- c ~" ~"C--~"e --~"~"~~e --~L~U ) Is~=~U
those described here; the postmarks of t British Military Mission
have, in fact, been described elsewhere. A broad description of the
correspondence as a whole, including fascinating data on mail routes
after the Canadian Postal Corps left Vladivostok, is planned for the
* Fig. 6. Cover showing two strikes of the BASE DEPOT / SIBERIA handstamp
of 26 May 1919 and one very faint strike of the steel postmarking
hammer 1 (arrow) the latest reported usage of both these devices.
1. Faulstich, Edith M., "The Canadian Expeditionary Force in Siberia,
1918-19". The Postal History Journal, vol.XII, No.1, 1968, p.3.
2. Richardson, Edward A., "Canadian Expeditionary Forces Mail Siberia,
1918-l9; A Study of its Markings and Stationery". The Canadian
Philatelist, vol.24, 1973, pp.65-71, 179-183, 283-289.
3. Canadian Military Mail Study Group Newsletter, BNAPS, J. Colin
Campbell,ed. No. 31, item 214, 19 March 1979; No. 32, item 223,
17 May 1979; No. 33, item 248, 17 July 1979.
4. National Postal Museum, "The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force
1918-19". The Post-Rider, No. 6, April 1980, p. 16.
5. Public Archives of Canada, Record Group 9, III (RG 9 III), vol. 366,
file 15-7; vol. 370, file 100-3; vol. 371, file 41; vol. 374, file
41-M; vol. 5056, file 958.
6. ibid., vol. 367, file 20-3: list of officers on board the MONTEAGLE.
7. Webb, Lt.-Col. R.H., "Canadian Forces Mail Siberia 1918-1919".
The Canadian Philatelist, vol. 20, 1969, pp. 35-43, 59-66.
8. Vancouver Sun, 22 January 1919, p. 1.
9. Public Archives of Canada, RG 9 III, vol. 5056, file 958:
"General Routine Orders No. 35", 15 February 1919.
10.ibid.: Elmsley to Morrisey, 19 February 1919.
* ll.Daniel, Rev.I.J.E. & Rev.D.A. Casey, For God and Country: A History
of the Canadian Knights of Columbus Catholic Army Huts,1922,pp.169-70.
12.Smith, Robert C.,"The British Military Mission to Siberia 1918-1920".
Postal History Society Bulletin, to be published. To be reprinted' in
The Post-Rider, No. 15.
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- -- I~ D 1-- --_- F IN III M I I 110911 ~
THE POSTAL HISTORY OF THE WENDEN/CESIS LOCAL SERVICE
(A survey, based on the material in several notable collections held by
some of our subscribers).
There is an extensive and thorough literature in German on the postage
stamps of Wenden/Cesis, written by such great philatelists as the
architect Carl Schmidt of Zemstvo fame, W. Svenson of Riga and A. von
Hirschheydt. The last-named was the Director of the Wenden/Cesis Local
Post and also had access to much archival data. While this valuable body
of information should and will eventually be translated for our English-
speakers, the intent of the present article is to investigate some
hitherto unexplored aspects of this postal service: the markings, rates
and usages affecting the local stamps.
First of all, some notes on Wenden/Cesis itself and its location. Wenden
is the German name for the town and Zehsis or Cesis the Latvian. It is
situated in the Livonia/Vidzeme area, 80 km./ 50 miles north-east of
Riga, the capital of Latvia. During the last century, it was still one
of the centres of the German landed gentry in the Baltic provinces. The
town was then located in the uppermost tip of the Wenden district, which
was locally administered by German-speaking officials of the
"Livl&ndische Ritterschaft" (Livonian Knighthood). However, the peasant
population in the district mainly spoke Latvian and some people were
The town of Wenden had had an Imperial Russian post office for a long
time and markings are known going back to 1806. As with other parts of
the Russian Empire, the Imperial posts only served the district capital
of Wenden. The need therefore arose for a local service within the
district, which extended for a good 100 km./62 miles south from Wenden
itself to the Daugava River.
The pre-stamp period for the Local Post began in 1857, serving the 18
parishes in the district. The sale of the first postage stamps of the-
local service began on 1st. January 1863. With the exception of the
final issue, all inscriptions on the stamps were in German and, as the
Imperial network was gradually expanded over the years, the Local Post
finally ceased operations on 23 April 1903.
Most of the patrons of the service were, of course, the Baltic Germans
living in the district, for both internal and external correspondence.
Next came mainly official communications and petitions, written in
Russian and mostly addressed to the District Court in the town of
Wenden. Finally, we have mail addressed and written in Latvian, which is
the most desirable category as examples are few and also of great
linguistic interest. Latvian and Lithuanian are the two surviving
languages in the Aistic branch of the Indo-European family. Both are of
great antiquity and purity, with direct links to Sanskrit. Now to some
other features of the service.
The situation was summed up succinctly by Herr A. von Hirschheydt in his
article "Die Wendensche Kreispostmarke in Livland" ("The Local Postage
Stamp of Wenden in Livonia"), in "Beitr&ge zur Postwertzeichenkunde",
Vol. II, No. 2, 1893:-
"The usage of the local postage stamps has been adequately laid down.
Both on the basis of the old decree of the Wenden Legislature in 1862,
as well as on the grounds of the Acts of the Assembly of Parish Leaders
* in Wenden on 30 August 1882, together with the introduction of these
measures on 23 April 1883, all letters circulating within the district
or addressed therefrom to other destinations, and any other class of
mail whatsoever, not excluding parcels up to a maximum weight of five
pounds (approx. 2% kg.), must be franked with the local postage stamps.
Letters weighing up to one Lot (12.8g. or 0.4 oz.) require a 2-kopek
stamp, with a further 2-kopek charge per Lot or part thereof for any
Parcels are charged at the rate of 2x2 kop., requiring the application
of two stamps. .Parcels above five pounds in weight may either be
reduced by repacking by the senders, or held over for the next mail
despatch day (the mails being sent off twice weekly), provided that
there would be room for heavier sending in the mail bag.
The Local Postal Service assumes no responsibility in the transmission
of valuable sending. Newspapers, by virtue of their being paid for in
advance, are post free and official mail, which enjoys the free postage
privilege in accordance with the Imperial General Regulations, will also
naturally be forwarded in the Wenden district, unfranked with the local
From the above statement, it can be seen that the rates of the Local
Post were very reasonable. The sum of 2 kopeks at that time was roughly
equivalent to 4 Pfennig; 5 centimes in the Franc zone; d. sterling or
1i in North American currency.
* A Wenden/Cesis Gazeteer:
To help readers pinpoint the places of despatch or destinations within
the district, a listing is given below of all known localities in the
area that could theoretically haye been served by the Local Post. The
map excerpt shown on the next page is taken from "Die General=Karte der
russischen Ost-See-Provinzen Liv.-, Esth.- und Kurland",by C.G. Rtcker,
7th. improved edition, Verlag Franz Kluge, Reval 1914. A reprint of this
fine work, together with its associated gazeteer, is available from
Firma Kubon & Sagner, D-8000 MONCHEN 40, Hess-Str.39, Federal Republic
of Germany. It was used in conjunction with the work "Verzeichnis
lettl&ndischer Ortsnamen", unter besonderer Mitwirkung von H. Meyer und
G. von Pantzer, herausgegeben von Hans Feldmann, Riga 1938, to compose
the list of place-names, givihg.both the German and Latvian versions. A
photo-mechanical reprint of this second work is available from Herr
Harry von Hofmann, D-2000 HAMBURG 52, Postfach 52 05 66, Federal
Republic of Germany, for DM 19,80 plus postage.
German place-name German parish Latvian place-name Latvian parish
Alt-Pebalg(Pebalg-Orisar)Alt-Pebalg Vecpiebalga Vecpiebalga
Appeltheen Ohlenhof Apeltiene Oli
Arrasch Drobbusch Araisi Drabesi
Aulenberg Drostenhof Aujukalns Drusti
SBersohn Modohn Bgrzaune Madona
Brinkenhof Drostenhof Bri4qi Drusti
Butkowsky Modohn Bu6auska Madona
Drobbusch Drobbusch Drabesi Drabesi
(Alt-) Drostenhof Drostenhof Vecdrusti Drusti
Erlrund a" Zeitlm 1
A YU CI. ( M)
W *A a.E a W (-.Jw..has K
.4* lub. ~ ~ a
~~~~ APECRPT OF nTEE
Scle 1 m =6v !
___ i r tiles.cc-~
4vel I aS~b~~4
~\~1--~ L IIT Wanent~Y~II~ id~Y
i dgi~Bg_~ ~~- -- 19r~ 6~Ja~ ~ iX~l r~;~C'_*i~.~ig~ljTL
-PbLE~ ~~ /SmiobR
Rl -0rpdsr--a~~ ~j
che~~j~~~ -rJz~~` g
IFScle 1an vrs
6 0 5 km
German parish Latvian place-name
von Wenden Kalnamuiza
German place-name German parish
Ogershof I Ogershof
Ogershof II Meselau
Rutzky : Stadtgebiet
(1) Readers will notice that STOCKMANNSHOF / Stukmaii Plavinas does
not appear in the above list, although its Imperial postal markings are
among the commonest to be found on the Wenden/Cesis stamps. As can be
seen in the map excerpt on p. 43, this town was NOT in Wenden district,
but just across its southern border with Riga district. It was the
nearest Imperial post office for the southern half of Wenden district,
with the added advantage of having a station on the Verzhbolovo to Riga
Railway. The Wenden Local Postal Service obviously made it a point to
post mail on trains at this station, rather than at the post office in
the town proper, for quicker onward transmission.
(2) While some of the German and Latvian place-names are related,
others are strikingly dissimilar. 45
(3) Teutschenbergen is an interesting place-name, as Teutsch is an
archaic form for Deutsch = German. The name means German Mountains and
that is also what the Latvian equivalent Vackalni says.
SUsages of the Local Post
(a) Pre-adhesive era from 1857 to the end of 1862.
A very fine example from this
period is shown here at right
and is in the Sven Kraul
collection. Sent from Riga on
8 Nov. 1860 Old Style, it was
in the Imperial post office
at Wenden a day later.
The letter is beautifully
addressed in the old German
Gothic script to the Right '
Pastor Muthel in Schujen /
Skujene. This latter place
was 27 km./17 miles south-
east of Wenden and it must
have been forwarded thence by .
the Local Postal Service. The
significance of the number "35" .
written above the'WENDEN .
postmark is.not known, but it
could not have been the rate as
we already know how cheap that
was during the adhesive
period. A wonderful item .
(b) The adhesive period from 1 January 1863 to 23 April 1903.
(i) There has always been controversy about the "Flower" stamp, stated
to have been issued on 1st. January 1863 and printed in pale
.ll' :1. blue. The general opinion has been that it was an unissued
i-, essay, as no copy has yet been seen genuinely used on mail.
An early investigator, Dr. E. von Bochmann,believed that the
4 Ii.^ stamp had been issued, as eye-witnessness had told him of
seeing the stamp applied on letters and parcels. In
particular, Pastor P. Phlamsch remembered seeing four such
stamps on a parcel, which had been affixed over the string, Dr. von
Bochmann had also seen a copy of the stamp on a letter, but another
noted philatelist, W. Svenson of Riga, was able to prove in 1904 that
the piece was a concoction. Reviewing all the preceding evidence, the
architect Carl Schmidt came to the conclusion that the lack of used
copies was due to their having been affixed over the string on parcels
and thus destroyed on opening. He believed that the stamp was soon
withdrawn, as the size was too small and the colour too pale, making it
almost unnoticeable. The pen-cancelled copy shown here from the Cronin
Collection definitely looks genuinely used, originally in a pair.
(ii) The Second Issue of 1863-1871.
This emission consists of the two well-known rectangular stamps, one
of them inscribed "Briefmarke" for letters and sold at 2 kop. and the
other reading "Packenmarke" for parcels, the price being 4 kop. The
technical skill evident in printing these stamps was so high that W.
Svenson felt they must have been produced in Germany, rather than in
Riga. The following usages' can be reported :- IET=
(a) A copy of the Briefmarke (Letter stamp) on piece, with
a pen cancellation and part of a circular date-stamp, in
the Harry von Hofmann collection.
(b) An illustration of a
letter in a Swedish
collection and addressed
to Narva in Estonia,
where it was received on
26 Feb.1865? The owner
stated that the dots pmk.
was "400"= Nennal in
Estonia, which makes no
sense. It seems more
likely that the smudged
dots pmk. on the Brief-
marke is that of "700" =
Riga Railway Station. The
addressee may have been
charged Imperial postage
due for the journey from
Riga to Narva. This item
communicated by Ing. Sven
Kraul of Hamburg.
(c) The two possible ways
of bisecting the Packen-
marke (Parcels stamp),so
as to pay the 2-k. letter
rate, are shown here from
the Harry von Hofmann
(i) Vertical bisect on
piece with pen marking
and Riga c.d.s.arrival
dated 14 May 1866.
(ii) A letter to Riga
with a diagonal bisect
pen cancelled and the
Imperial 10-kop. stamp
postmarked at Wenden on
6 September 1870.
(d) Another example of the Packenmarke bisect, this
S.. time from bottom left to top right and used on
-, piece with a 10-kop. Imperial, the latter being
cancelled with the rectangular dots No. 390 of
\ Wenden. This item was illustrated by W. Svenson
in his article"Typen und Abarten der Wendenschen
S.. Originalmarken, offiz. Neudrucke, Nachdrucke usw."
in Berliner Briefmarken-Zeitung, No. 17, 1907.
green and black, being tied with a pen cross. It is addressed via
Sesswegen/Cesvaine to G. von Magnus, Esquire in Libbien/Biksris. The
sender wrote the letter on 9 April 1868 in Gotthardsberg/Gatarta.
(iii) The Third Issue of 1863 with green line around the green central
oval. We have not been able to record any usages on mail.
(iv) The Fourth Issue of 1864 with a griffin (Arms of Livonia).
*\; e. .... -, ".
;-' ..* ... ^
-, -3 /
.*^ -: t *
-^ * .* -. '
: i" i:
The "griffin" stamp is rare and the only usage on mail that we have so
far seen is the letter shown at the bottom of the preceding page. The
stamp itself was left uncancelled, but it paid the postage for a local
letter within the town of Wenden and dated inside on 3 June 1865. There
is a further notation in German at bottom left, reading "gefunden am 25
April 1892" (found on 25 April 1892). This is a very fine item in the
Victor Kent collection.
(v) The Fifth Issue of 1866; similar to the Third Issue of 1863, but
but without the green line around the green central oval.
(a) A loose copy of this stamp with an Imperial postmark has an
interesting story behind it. It was originally in the collection of Herr
A. von Hirschheydt, the Director of the Local Post. He had an estate at
Kagenhof, just above Ramotzky/Ieriki. He handed in a letter at Ramotzky,
which had a post station, i.e. a station on the Imperial postal road
where horses could be exchanged. The adhesive was cancelled with the
truncated triangle dots marking No. 842 of Ramotzky/Ieriki.
(b) A letter with this stamp in the
Victor Kent collection. It was pen-
cancelled with a cross and the 10k.
Imperial was postmarked WENDEN 24
MAR. 1868. It was received in Riga
by Miss A. Glasenapp one day later.
(c) Another example
from the same colln.
Addressed to Herr F.
Baumeister in Wenden
and with the stamp
1868. This is a most
(d) A letter in the Harry
von Hofmann collection,
with the adhesive pen-
cancelled with a cross
and addressed to Miss
Emily von Wolff at the
parsonage in Ronneburg/
_ I -
~-.ctC, c~-~iJ cpz~Le.
(vi) The Sixth Issue of 11 June 1870.
This stamp is similar to the preceding issue, except that the central
oval is now enclosed by a semi-rosette design. It was ordered by the
then Director of the Local Post, Baron von Campenhausen. The two lovely
examples below of its usage are from the Harry von Hofmann collection.
This is the earliest recorded usage on cover, sent via the Imperial P.O.
in Wenden 17.7.1871 & Segewold/Sigulda 19.7.71 to the parsonage at
Peterskapelle via Lemsal (Peterupe,Birini parish via Limbazi). Note the
title Hochwohlerwirden = Right Reverend. Addressed to his wife, Mrs
Bertha Neuland, nee Ronssit. Carl Schmidt's earliest date was 21.9.1871.
a l Ie I lma u .... ... .- m . .. _. r
In this item, the local stamp is pen-cancelled 4/12/71 and the Imperial
postmarked in Wenden a day later. Addressed to Mrs E. Weidenbaum in
Fellin, now Viljandi in Estonia.
(vii) The Seventh Issue of 8 April 1872.
This was a new design, with the inscription now around the central oval
* and the arms of the Wenden District: a raised and mailed hand with
sword,emerging from the clouds.
(a) An Imperial post-
"_.. "_____ card with the local
pen-cancelled with a
A cross and the 5-kop.
WENDEN, 22 AUG.1872.
8 P 7 Addressed to Baron C.
-i 17 von Wrangell at the
Luhde Castle, via
...:. .Walk, now Valga in
"Estonia, where it
was received on the
... ......... ,. .... ..-..... -.......... 24th. August. A very
fine item in the
S....... ....................................... ........... co llect ion .
S. O OnpW.rroe ncM.Mo ;oXaHo a=w cEnoaM ae=-
ofnealmoo mnoTUoIo MapoxO. ., T ..
2. I a arof cropout Kpox aApecae i Me a
'consC"s i Mmafxsu canura1
S6 / S "4~1// (b) Another example of this stamp,
1 pen-cancelled with a cross on a
S' ... 'letter sent within the district
From Wenden on 7 October 1872 to
Konstantin Alabushev, a Russian
g official in Alt-Pebalg /
S Vecpiebalga / Staryi Pebalg.
In the Victor Kent collection.
(viii) The Eighth Issue of 1875. This had the same design as for
the preceding stamp, except that,
for the first time for Wenden
'' issues, there was now an
indication of value, i.e. "2".
rf ^ The only example we have so far
'. seen of its usage on mail is a pen-
cancelled item on a local letter,
again addressed to Chief Inspector
Alabushev in Alt-Pebalg. A rare
piece in the Victor Kent
(ix) The Ninth Issue of 1878 to 1894.
There were five distinct printings of this stamp, the first being in
June 1878, when a total of 188,064 copies was produced in green and
carmine-red. The new design was distinctive and similar to that of the
2-kop. Imperial adhesive then current, in direct contravention of the
Imperial postal regulations. The first printing was on sale for just on
two years, but we have not yet identified mail falling within that time.
(a) The second printing of May 1880, in grey, red & green and produced in
a total of 217,800 copies is represented below in the following examples:-
oL. .- I : -
Above: Sent in Oct. 1881 to the
Hirsbhenhbf- inL Linden Parish.
At right: Addressed to District
Inspector Baron Ernst von der
Pahlen in Wenden(V.Kent colln). :-.- -
-- -. i-.":. r. ", .-'." -&' .. '
Above: A double-rate letter in
Justices of the Peace Mof the
ensure of fifty (50) kopeks in silver, as written in Russian at top
right. Sent by A. P. Jansons, a Latvian resident in the parish of
Schujen/Skujene. A most interesting item in the Victor Kent collection
Alpbov:A dul-aeletri ;^^^ ;^i^
Russian ~~~~ ~ ~ toteSsso fI^ ^ ^ ^
*. *.' : r
..!T; ~ Vp' *4;; t:
; 4~ VV
Another example sent to
the Session of the Justices
of Peace in Wenden, single
rate this time and with
notation "with enclosure of
ten (10) kop." crossed out
at bottom left. From the
Victor Kent collection.
(c) The Third Printing in black, red and green and delivered between
13 July 1884 and 30 December 1892, in a total of 276,660 copies.
I -/ e rn
2 / I. ', I
Above: A letter to Pastor Pfeil in
Dorpat, the Imperial stamp being
cancelled VENDEN POCHT.KONT.1.LIFLYAND.
G.14 NOYA.1886 and local with pen cross.
In the Victor Kent collection.
At left: Double rate again to
Wenden and sent by Gustav Mark
Budermann in Hirschenhof/Irsi.
Below right: Postmarked pen
cross and VENDEN POCHT.KONT.1.
LIFLYAND.G.16 DEK.1886.and sent
via Lemsal/Limba'i. Addressed
in Latvian:"To be forwarded to
Peterupe to the August School,
to the schoolteacher Janis Vasils".
Redirected to Engelhardtshof/
Englarte, arriving on 20 Dec.
(in the Sven Kraul collection).
The Swiss postcard at left was mailed with 5 rappen postage at Clarens
3.12.1887 N.S. and routed via Riga, arriving on 24 November O.S. and
leaving the next day. It also arrived in Wenden/Cesis on the 25th. O.S.
and the 2-kop. local affixed at top left to take it out to Drobbusch /
Drabehi. This rare item in the Harry von Hofmann collection is the only
example we have so far seen of the local applied to foreign mail coming
into the Wenden/Cesis district. Further finds would be very valuable.
The 3-kop. Imperial postcard at right is from the Victor Kent collection
and, with the local affixed, was cancelled SHTOKMANSGOF P.S.1.LIFL.G.
24 DEK.1887. It was in Riga the next day, where it also received the
well-known rectangular arrival mark"R.G.P.K./8 ch.30 m. u." (Riga City
Post Office/8.30 in the morning). A very nice item.
For the purposes of continuity, we are repeating here some details about
the rare Wenden combination cover in the Jacques Marcovitch collection,
with a Tikhvin Zemstvo stamp also affixed to take it out to the Zapol'e
Estate in Novgorod province. Ing. Sven Kraul informs us that
Stockmannshof/Plaviias-Stukmani received a station on the Verzhbolovo to
Riga Railway in 1880, with TPO/RPO No.105/6 serving it. The cover here was
cancelled on the front with TPO/RPO.106 on 3 Aug. 1880 and forwarded
via Riga and St. Petersburg to its destination. This possibly unique
item is the Baltic equivalent of a Zemstvo-to-Zemstvo cover.
A further example is shown at top left on the next page of the usage of
the canceller reading clearly SHTOKMANSGOF P.S.l.LIFL.G.8 OKT.1888 on a
' .I ... ... i .,, .. ..
.1 i .. -- ', .
fl. md w^***i~ww *u~ a'"* "& r'rr r<-wJwrJ Cjeut
*k 11- l / /^ .
__I~__V___ i_____~i~mil~_ ___~~
Bsrr~p~nrra~TIICllrmam. --r~--- -I
cover in the Sven Kraul collection. Franked in combination with a 7-kop.
Imperial, it was addressed to Miss Ella von Marnitz in Goldingen/Kuldiga.
Herr Harry v.Hofmann has the latest known cover with this pmk: 5.4.1890.
The item at top right is from the Victor Kent collection and shows a
combination of the pen-crossed local with the new 7-kop. Imperial design.
It passed through the Imperial post office on 29 September 1889 and was
addressed to a Chief-Forester at the Adsel Castle/Gaujienas pils in
/ 2" 12 1 __
We will now consider a correspondence to Herr Fritz Schirmer, c/o I. A.
Wirckau in Libau/Liepaja. The latter was a well-known merchant and his
name has shown up on classic Imperial letters. The item at left was
apparently put on a train at Stockmannshof station and received the
marking of TPO/RPO No. 105, Gang No. 3, dated 8 April 1890. The
remarkable cover at right shows what happened when it was mailed on a
train going in the opposite direction, away from Riga. It landed in the
Vitebsk-Riga Rlwy Stn. P.O. at Dinaburg in Lettgallen/Daugavpils in
Latgale, before being sent back up the line to Riga and then out to
Libau/Liepaja in Kurland/Kurzeme. Both items in the Sven Kraul collection.
s correspondence, we now note at the
Continuing our examination
bottom left of the previous page a 7-kop. Imperial stationery envelope
posted with the local at Lasdohn/Lazdona and cancelled SHTOKMANSGOF LIFL.
G.I.POCHT.KONT.12.5.90.At bottom right, there is a similar stationery
envelope, with the postmark of TPO/RPO No.105, Gang No.4,16 May 1890.
Herr Harry von Hofmann has another cover from the same correspondence,
with the new SHTOKMANSGOF marking dated 10 June 1890.
Meanwhile, the Imperial P.O. at Wenden was also bringing new markings
into use. At left, we see a type inscribed VENDEN P.K.2.LIFLYANDSK.G.
30 MAR.1890 to Gertrudenhof via Werro/V6ru in Estonia, from the Victor
Kent collection. At right, we see an example of another well-known
correspondence, with the postmark reading VENDEN LIFL.G.3.POCHT.TEL.
KONT.29.1.18-93 and addressed to Pastor Th. Pfeil at Dorpat/Tartu in
Estonia (Sven Kraul collection).
Is : !
~'', ~- \U i~
., ii .
; ~ '
.. .I ..~ .
We will now round off our survey of the Third Printing with two items
to unusual foreign destinations, from the Victor Kent collection. The
example at left went through Wenden-3 on 21 July 1892 O.S. and was
received in Copenhagen, Denmark on 16 August 1892 N.S. The postcard at
right left Wenden-3 on 6 August 1893 O.S., passing through Laredo,
Texas on 4 September N.S. to arrive at Zacatecas, Mexico on 6.9.1893.
(d) The Fourth Printing of 1893.
There were two deliveries, on 24 November and 22 December 1893, with a
total of 103,264 stamps printed in black, bright red and green. The
sheet size was also changed from 11 horizontal rows of 12 to 8 horizontal
rows of 14 stamps. The only piece of mail that we can tie to this printing
was a most unusual variety, of which only some
thirty copies survived. It consisted of the
Stamp being both imperforate and with the oval ''' : -"
design in the centre inverted. Writing in the
Berliner Briefmarken-Zeitung, No. 19 for
April 1907, Herr W. Svenson reported that the *
former Director of the Local Postal Service,
A. Hirschheydt, had in his possession this "
spectacular variety on a piece of a postcard
sent from Alt-Pebalg/Vecpiebalga to Riga.
This particular item is illustrated herewith
and it will be seen that the Imperial
postmark reads STARYI PEBALG LIFLYAND.G.2. .... ...... .. 1 ,
16.IV.19-00. There is also the arrival c.d.s. /.
of Riga, dated 19 April 1900. ///'
This was a late usage for the Fourth Printing ........
and it is also curious to note that this is y, :-* p /
the only example we have so far seen of a -'
marking from this Imperial post office, .
situated within the district and applied on '-'.t.
the local stamps. It can be seen that Staryi
Pebalg/Alt-Pebalg/Vecpiebalga had at least
(e) The Fifth Printing of 1894.
The colours this time were black, red and green. The quantity printed and
the sheet size are both unknown, but the stamps may be distinguished from
from previous deliveries by being on ordinary paper, white in colour and
0.11 mm. thick. A selection of interesting usages now follow:-
'. i .. iu
I ::- L' ":: ; *
At left we see a cover with the postmark of Wenden-3 dated 15.3.1894
and respectfully addressed in Latvian to a lady in AlUksne/Marienburg.
The letter at right was addressed in a mixture of German and Latvian to
a Miss Karoline Dauksch in Riga. It travelled via TPO/RPO No. 90, dated
25 October 1894, Gang No.l. Around the beginning of this century, TPO/
RPO No.89/90 served Taps-Hapsal/Tapa-Haapsalu in Estonia but, from the
Wenden examples seen, it might be that this pair of numbers served the
line that ran from Riga to Wenden and via Dorpat/Tartu up to Reval/
Tallinn. More convincing evidence would be welcomed. Both items from
the Victor Kent collection. Note the imperforate 2-kop. local .
SOTE PbI'TOE IIHCbMd. OTKPLIT O IMC
Wenden/Csis on 9 December 1894 to Launkans/Launekain, i.e. within thei
district and the imperforate local stamp would have been sufficient.
Addressed in Latvian. On the right, we have another Imperial postcard
with an imperforate local affixed and also bearing the postmark of TPO/
RPO No. 89, Gang No.1 and dated 14 March 1897. It went to Palzmar/Palsmane
via Wolmar/Valmiera. Both items in the Victor Kent collection.
... .. .
.. '" -' .' .. ... .: ..... .' -' -.' ,..... ." .-...- ..- -..... .
U,4,..u MiN; 4
As a final example of the Travelling Post, we are featuring here at left
a letter to Reval/Tallinn in Estonia, the adhesives being cancelled by
TPO/RPO No. 89, Gang 2, 12.IX.1900.
At right, we see another letter from the Pastor Th. Pfeil correspondence
and sent to him in Dorpat/Tartu in Estonia by registered mail. Of the
two copies affixed of the local, the right-hand one has a plate flaw in
the upper left corner, turning the figure "2" into an inverted "3" (see
the enlargement). It has been stated that the Local Post had a
registration service, requiring the application of two of the local
stamps. We would appreciate concrete evidence of such a fee, as Herr A.
Hirschheydt made no mention of it in his writings about the Local Post.
Note the Imperial postmark, reading SHTOKMANSGOF LIFL.G.2.POCHT.TEL.KONT.
Both the items described above are from the Sven Kraul collection.
n~v- ~a~~pe ~
In this group of three items,
:struck in blue or violet. At top
left, a card in the Harry von
Stockmannshof-2 on 31.7.96 to
Heilbronn in Wrttemberg.
At top right, an example from
In this group of three items,
we see the application of the
oval marking KIRCHSPIELS-P'EOST/
struck in blue or violet. At top
left, a card in the Harry von
Hofmann colln.,that went out via
SStockmannshof-2 on 31.7.96 to
0 Heilbronn in Wurttemberg.
SAt top right, an example from
Sthe Pfeil correspondence that
Sent out through Wenden-3 on
22.11.96 to Dorpat/Tartu. Struck
in blue (Sven Kraul collection).
: At bottom left, we have Lot 1890
in the R.Koerber Auction of Feb.
17-18,1984, with the item going
out through Wenden-3 on 2.5.97
'" to the Right Reverend Pastor H.
Josephi in Riga.
This is obviously a very old
marking, ..ossibly going back to
the pre-adhesive period.
The latest example of
mail to the President
of the Wenden-Walk
Justices of the Peace is
shown here from the Harry
von Hofmann collection.It
was sent by a Latvian, P.
Klavi4s at the estate in
was received in Wenden on
28 December 1895. The No.
45 appears to refer to
the letter, rather than to
registration, although a
pair of the local stamp
.i .f^ <^>/i/noc^
/ pK.. .
Sesswegen/Cesvaine was not the only place that was still applying an old
marking. At left above, we note an amazing letter in the Victor Kent
collection that went out through SHTOKMANSGOF LIFL.G.1.POCHT.TEL.KONT.
8.VII.18-98, the local stamp being first cancelled with the truncated
triangle of dots No. 691 of Stockmannshof It was addressed in Russian
and Latvian to Mr. Andrejs Berzipi, via the station at R8mershof/Skriveri,
where it was received the next day.
At right above, we have a letter from the Jacobson correspondence, which
went out through Wenden-4 on 7 November 1900. In other words, the
Imperial post office at Wenden was by now handling a fair volume of mail.
Its population at that time was 3600 inhabitants (Sven Kraul collection).
- *** *.. '- ..^ :
The letter above, sent out through '
Wenden-4 on 17 October 1900, was 1 -
addressed to Mrs V. Zarina, a LA-L
Latvian lady living at 5 Kazan St.,
Apt. No. 46 in St. Petersburg. It '_' *- .-._. .
is possible that she may have been
the wife of Richards Zari4s (R. --'- ,-
Sarrinsch), the noted Latvian -- .
designer and engraver at the State l'
Printing Works (V.Kent collection). '' .'
The latest usage we have so far '' .
seen for the last printing of this: -
design is shown here at right from '
the Victor Kent collection. It '
went out through Stockmannshof-1
on 2 October 1902, via Reval/Tallinn 4.10.02 and Kegel/Keila the same day
to Wassalem/Vasalemma in Estonia.
(x) The Tenth Issue of 1901 to 23 April 1903.
This was the last issue of the Local Post and was notable in that the
* inscriptions were now exclusively in Russian. By this time, the Imperial
postal network was serving the district adequately and the days of the
Local Post were numbered. The result was that examples of such mail
were rare and we can only show six cards and covers, plus a combination
on piece, all from the Victor Kent collection. The stamps were
lithographed in two colours and in sheets of 150 units, arranged in 6
panes of 25, built up from two transfer types. There were four printings,
(a) The First Printing of 1901, in dark green and brown.
Two tete-b4che pairs occur in sheets of this printing and they may have
been philatelic, as two separate stones were required to do the frames
and centres and the inversions correspond on both of them.
L1t InO'ITOBbltt C010)'b. POCCIR. R
"E HHCbMO. CARTE POSTAL OTEP
.* ....a.t mo pE R ..L L. .em m .,,xrUSir, : -teeent Fdraem o
The card at left went through Wenden-4 on 16.III.19-01 and was addressed
to France, the arrival date being illegible. The card at right also went
through Wenden-4, this time on 13.IV.19-01 and Wenden-3 was also applied
the next day. It reached Riga on the 14th. April.
(b) The Second Printing of 1901 (?), in dark grey-green and brown.
The year of printing is not known for certain and it is also difficult
to separate the first and second printings in single copies. The lay-out
of the two transfers was different in this second printing and the tete-
beche errors were corrected.. The items shown below may therefore be from
either the first or second printing.
i \T, "' Jt og '-f
The registered envelope at the bottom left of the previous page was sent
through Wenden-1 on 11 June 1901 O.S. and was received in Berlin on 26th.
The registered cover at bottom right of the preceding page went through
Wenden-1 on 18 Dec. 1901 to St. Petersburg, where it was addressed to
Mrs V. Zarina. There is a notation on the back, saying that it contained
a photograph of Schloss Ronneburg/Pils-Rauna.
The piece here at left went through Stockmannshof-1 on 2 December 1901,
while the undated envelope at right went via Wenden to Arrasch/Araisi.
i The cover shown here at left went
Through Wenden-4 on 27 December
V 1902 O.S. and was received in
'Hamburg, Germany on 11 January
*y/^ /1903 N.S., being re-directed to
Hamburg-5 the next day.
(c) The Third Printing of 17 March 1903, in dark grey-green and red.
The printing date was determined from a pencilled notation found on one
of the sheets. There were 50,550 stamps printed, of which 30,494 were
sold and the remainder officially destroyed in April 1906. We have not
yet seen any mail bearing stamps of this printing. The layout of the
transfers had again been changed.
(d) The Fourth Printing of 1903, in dark grey-green and violet-red.
Once again the layout of the transfers was changed and the reason for
this printing remains obscure,' as the officials of the Local Postal
Service must have known that things would soon be wound up. A total of
85,550 stamps was printed, but none of the stamps was ever issued to the
public. The remainders, totalling 81,610 copies, were officially
destroyed in April 1906. It follows from the foregoing that no mail can
exist, bearing stamps of this printing.
In concluding this survey of the postal history of the Wenden/Cesis
Local Service, the Editor extends grateful thanks and appreciation to
our contributors, Messrs Harry von Hofmann and Ing. Sven Kraul of the
* Federal Republic of Germany and Jacques Marcovitch and Victor Kent,
both of the U.S.A. The data Mr. Kent supplied from his large collection
were most helpful and it might well be that the article published
herewith will become the standard reference for years to come. As a final
gesture, we are reproducing hereunder some clear drawings of markings
found on the local stamps, all but three of them being kindly drawn by
Ing. Sven Kraul, for the guidance of our readership.
*.*.*6*. :* .
1883 i/ 1 1892
4j0.0 7 mo
*e 00 ~g *
gee 4nErs g
S. 0 00 9.
Travelling Post Offices/
Railway Post Offices.
Railway Station P.O.
POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov
BOGORODSK (Moscow Province)
Lithographed, 221 x 29 mm, white paper (0.06 mm), white
gum, sheet of 10 (5 x 2), imperforate, postage due stamp (P),
used stamps left uncancelled.
Stamp No. 2. Stamp No. 4.
1. 1 kop. dark red (P) RRRR
2. 5 kop. blue, dark blue 5.00
3. 10 kop. red (P) 10.00
- 10 kop. proof reported: on white paper (0.09 mm), chalky,
imperforate and without gum.
Similar to previous issue but coarser in appearance,
lithographed on various papers (0.08 mm) ,yellowish white gum,
imperforate, sheet of 21 (3 x 7), known printed inverted and
Yellowish White Paper (No. 4)
Space between stamps 0.5 -0.75 mm, except between 1st and
2nd stamps of 4th horizontal row where the space is 2.5 mm
Finely Ribbed Paper (No. 5)
Spaced 2.5 7 mm apart, oily and permeating print at times,
sheet unknown but from partial reconstructions it has
apparently been determined that it had over 10 vertical rows;
some inverted stamps in 1st vertical row and printed sideways
Partial Sheet Reconstruction
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4
7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 7
4. 1 kop. lilac rose, light or dark (P) 15.00
5. 5 kop. wine, violet, brown or green rose (P) 5.00
Similar to previous issues, small rosettes and double oval
is more pointed, lithographed, 22 x28; mm, yellowish white
paper, white gum, sheet of 40 (8 x 5) for the 1 kop. stamps,
sheet of 84 (12 x 7) for the 5 and 10 kop. stamps with
transfer blocks of 2 x 2 with 4 types differing in position
of corner numerals of value, imperforate but in 1884 the
remainders of the 5 kop. blue stamp and the 10 kop. stamps
were perforated 11i; perforation errors of the 5 and 10 kop.
stamps are known.
Sheet of 5 kop Stamps Sheet of 10 kop Stamps
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4.3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1.2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 34 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 4 3 4 3 43 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 3 41 4 341 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 1 2
6. 1 kop. rose red, light or dark(P) 4.00
7. 5 kop. blue, dark blue 1.00
perforated 11 25.00
8. 5 kop. dull rose (P) 12.00
9. 10 kop. greenish blue, light greenish blue 1.00
perforated 11 25.00
10. 10 kop. rose red,light or dark (P) 2'.00
perforated 11 40.00
Used stamps were initially left uncancelled. Beginning
in 1879 a circular postmark (31 mm) was used; the top
inscription was BOFOPOACKAA with YVBJI. 3EM. YVP. at the
bottom and the date in the centre. The spaces above and
below the date werw filled with parallel vertical lines.
The Four Types
5 kop Stamps
Type 1 Upper left 5 is placed slightly straighter than it is
on the other types.
Type 2 All corner numerals are placed diagonally. The 5 at
the bottom right is somewhat more open than on the other types.
Type 3 The upper left 5 is almost upright, while the upper
right 5 is almost horizontal.
Type 4 The upper and lower left 5's are placed diagonally,
while the lower right 5 is slightly straighter and has a
very short neck.
10 kop Stamps
Type 1 The right bottom 10 is not in the centre of the
circle and is moved up towards the centre of the stamp.
Type 2 The right bottom 10 is more upright and has been
moved nearer to the right side of the circle.
Type 3 The upper left 10 is as in type 2, while the upper
right 10 is as in type 1.
Type 4 The 10 at the bottom right has been moved down-
nearer to the corner of the stamp and the 0 in 10 is flat
Similar to previous issue, shorter oval, five petalled flower
at the bottom, background changed from wavy lines to a network,
lithographed, 22.75 x 28.75 mm, soft yellowish or bluish paper,
dirty brownish gray gum, sheet of 36 (6 x6), transfer block of
2 stamps side by side with a space of 2.75 mm inbetween but
varying up to 5 mm. Virtually no difference in the two types
except that the second stamp has a missing petal on the left
side of the flower, issued imperforate but in the 1880's
the remnanftwere perforated 11, known perforated horizontally
11. 5 kop. blue, dark blue 1.00
perforated 111 20.00
12. 5 kop. red violet (P) 8.00
dark violet R
Similar to previous issue but in changed colours, lithographed,
white or bluish white paper, yellowish or gray gum, imperforate
but in the 1880's the remanents of the 10 kop. stamp were
1 Kop Stamp
Sheet of 6 x 6, transfer block of 2 types arranged horizontally.
Type 1-The left bottom 1 is thin and the top right 1
is placed nearer to the stamp corner.
Type 2-The left bottom 1 is thick and the top right 1
is placed more towards the bottom of the stamp.
5 Kop. Stamp
No sheets of this stamp are known, but a new plate must have
been made for this stamp since the two types of the 1876 issue
do not correspond.
10 Kop. Stamp
Sheet of 6 x 6, transfer block of 2 types arranged vertically.
Type 1- The 10 at the bottom right has a thick 0.
Type 2- The same 10 with a thin 0 and with the entire
numeral tipped somewhat more forward
1 Kop. Sheet 10 Kop. Sheet
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
13. 1 kop. violet light or dark (P) 2.00
14. 5 kop. violet rose (P) 10.00
-L. bottom 5 with very long neck and short body
-R. bottom 5 with thorn
15. 10 kop. yellow brown (P) 3.00
dark brown R
perforated 11 50.00
Similar to previous issue but in a different colour,
lithographed, yellowish white paper, brownish gum, sheet
of 49 (7 x 7) transfer block made from 3 stamps of the
1876 issue by altering the corner numerals of value and
producing 3 types with distinct numeral positions; a
horizontal row of 7 stamps shows the types in the following
order: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1, imperforate.
The Three Types
Type 1- The numeral 1 in the NW corner is
the right side of the circle.
Type 2- The numeral 1 in the NE corner is
but leans slightly to the right.
Type 3- The numeral 1 in the NW corner is
but leans slightly to the left.
very close to
16. 1 kop. dark red violet (P)
Similar to the 5 kop. stamp of 1877 but in changed colours,
lithographed from a new plate, only single copies known
without any types, unused stamps not common, imperforate,
1st Printing (1879)
White very fine vertically laid paper, yellowish white gum.
17. 5 kop. brownish rose (P)
2nd Printing (1880)
Previous stamp in changed colour, also same on thicker
paper with vertical lines barely visible, streaky white
18. 5 kop. yellowish rose, thin paper (P)
19. 5 kop. yellowish rose, thick paper (P)
3rd Printing (1880,end)
Similar to first and second printings but inchanged colours,
similar paper and gum, imperforate.
20. 5 kop. dark red, thin paper (P)
21. 5 kop. dark red, thick paper (P)
Note: All unused stamps with gum of the 1879 -1882 issue
are considered to be RR.
Similar to the first printing of 1879, lithographed on-
smooth white paper, white gum, new plate with fat print,
the rosette is barely visible, known in single copies
22. 5 kop. carmine rose (P)
1 kop. stamp similar to issue of 1877, 5.kop. stamp
similar to third printing of 1880, changed colours,
lithographed, 1 kop. stamp on thick grayish white paper
and with streeky brownish gray gum, 5 kop. stamps on
white vertically ribbed or smooth thick paper, imperforate.
1 kop. stamps in transfer block of 2 types arranged
horizontally on a sheet of 36 (6 x6) with a 5.25 mm
distance between stamps and 6.5 mm between transfer pairs,
5 kop. stamps on a sheet of 36 (6 x 6) with guide dots in the
centre of each margin, 4 types with minor differences in a
2 x 2 setting.
The Two Types
Type 1 Both right corner
numerals are nearly horizontal.
Type 2 Same corner numerals
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
23. 1 kop. red violet (P)
24. 5 kop. violet carmine (P)
25. 5 kop. violet carmine, smooth thick paper (P)
Stamps of the previous issue but with changed colours
and a new plate, lithographed, on white paper with grayish
yellow gum, Sheet of 36 (6 x 6), setting of three types
5 kop. blue stamp This stamp can be distinguished from its
1876 counterpart by the 5.25 -5.5 mm distance between stamps
and the small white dot at the top left of the rosette.
The Three Types of the 5 kop, Stamps
Type 1 The A in nOqTA has a left leg that is cut half way
Type 2 The left portion of the same A has two legs.
Type 3 The left foot of the same A is deformed
Type 1 Type 2
10 kop. blue stamp
The same three types are rearranged on the sheet.
2 3 1 2 3 1
2 3 1 2 3 1
2 3 1 2 3 1
? ? ? ? 3 1
? ? ? ? 3 1
? ? ? ? 1 1
The Three Types of the 10 Kop. Red Orange Stamp
Type 1 The upper right 10 is underlined.
Type 2 The upper right 10 is more upright and the 1
touches the circle at the bottom.
Type 3 The upper right 0 in 10 is quite narrow. The
right bottom 1 in 10 touches the circle at the top.
26. 5 kop. blue 50.00
27. 5 kop. red orange (P) 75.00
28, 10 kop. blue 100.00
29. 10 kop. red orange (P) R
( 22 known)
70 (to be continued).
PHILATELIC SHORTS '
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that r
could use some clarifying information, or might there o o o
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 0o o
newly acquired item ? ,oo
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers I
Hilary Norwood, Bexleyheath, Kent, England.
The excellent study of the first RSFSR
stamps by Mr.N.J. Sheppard in "The
Post-Rider"No.13 begins with a brief
discussion about their origin and
issue and it may be of interest to draw
attention to the results of researches i j-j.i
in the Soviet postal archives by P. F. '
Mazur. He has reported his discoveries
in articles in the Soviet journal i
FILATELIYA SSSR of December 1968, Oct. W -
*1970 & Jan. 1973 and the following
notes contain a summary of his
The designer, R. Zariis (R.Sarrinsch), [
offered his design to a jury during
the time of the Provisional Government under Prince L'vov (March-July
1917), but this government fell before approval could be given. After
the revolution of 7 November 1917, the first People's Commissar for
Posts & Telegraphs of the Bolshevik Soviet Republic, N. Avilov-Glebov,
authorised one of the five similar designs presented on a single sheet,
all showing the hand-held sword breaking a chain and differing only in
the ornamentation at the top corners. See the illustration above, taken
from the October 1970 article by P.F. Mazur. The authorisation is hand-
written on the sheet of designs and is undated, but obviously could not
have been made before late 1917. The value on the chosen design is 15
kopeks and, at that time, there were no designs for stamps of 35 or 70
kopeks. These latter values only became necessary after the introduction
of new postal rates on 28 February 1918, when an inland letter other
than local, cost 35 kopeks, with 70 kopeks extra for registration.
Early in 1918, V.N. Podbelskii,was the new People's Commissar for Posts &
Telegraphs and, on 22 May 1918, he approved the Zariis design to be used
for a 35-kopek stamp in blue and a 70-kopek stamp in brown. Production
was put in hand five days later. A People's Commissariat'of Posts and
Telegraphs circular No.TS.-4028,dated 11 October 1918, states that the
first revolutionary stamps would be issued on 25 October and there
follows a description of the design, values and colours of the stamps.
Another circular, dated 15 October 1918, quotes and confirms the above
and adds after the date "25 October" the words "Old Style", i.e. 7th.
November 1918 New Style.
Mr. Mazur draws attention to the fact that Chuchin, in the first and
second editions of his catalogue (1923 & 1924), gives the date of issue
as 1917 but, in the 1928 edition, this is altered to 1918. Used copies
exist with postmarks bearing dates in March, April, July etc. in 1918.
These, he says, are errors. The earliest used copy in his possession is
dated 27 October 1918. It does seem that Mr. Mazur has established the
dating of this issue beyond question. The only remaining problem
concerns the origin of the postmarks dated earlier than 25 October 1918.
Those dated prior to the end of May 1918 are clearly either errors, as
Mr. Mazur says, or else forgeries based upon the erroneous 1917 date of
issue. In all probability, the others are also either errors or
forgeries. Yet is it possible that a few sheets were stolen prior to
issue and that some stamps were put on letters and passed in those
confused days by postal workers ? That seems unlikely, but we shall
Colonel Asdrubal Prado, Campinas, Brazil.
The field post letter here shows at
top right the faint violet cachet of
the 273rd. Kazan Militia Troop and at
bottom right an oblong mark reading
"Post Free Mail of Military Ranks of
Mobilised Units". It was sent by the
Commander of the 2nd. Regiment of this
Militia from Pogranichnaya, Manchuria
to Vladivostok. Note the latest usage
so far seen of the POGRANICHNAYA-a
double-circle marking, T & S Type 2,
Fig. 632, dated 4.4.15. This office
was located well inside Manchuria, but
one would not know it from the simple
inscription on the postmark. As T & S
imply, something was wrong with the
year roller, as it printed poorly.
G.G. Werbizky, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A.
L- --- --- -
The part illustration here shows a
portion of a complete 10k./7k.envelope
I have with 7 Batum adhesives applied
to make a philatelic item addressed as
follows:"Local, Post Office, to Lyubov
M. Dolinskaya" (a lady). There are
four strikes on the envelope of the
official mail (post free) cachet of
the town of Maradidy, reading:MARADIDY-
POCHTOVO-TELEGR. OTDELENIE DLYA
KORRESPON/DENTSII. Located to the
south of Batum, it appears to have
functioned only during the British
S occupation, as Peter Ashford found no
mention of it in the P.O. Lists he
consulted. If the office still exists
' today, it must be under another name,
S as it is NOT to be found in the
"Nomenclature Internationale des
Bureaux de Poste", issued by the
Universal Postal Union in Berne,
Switzerland, in 1977. Can the
readership supply any further data ?
STANLEY GIBBONS STAMP CATALOGUE, PART 10, RUSSIA, SECOND EDITION. Issued
on 25 Nov. 1983 and available at 10.95 plus postage (approx.US$17.50
inclusive) from 399 Strand, London WC2R OLX, England.
The catalogue numbering has now reached 5315 and there are some fairly
substantial improvements to this second edition. Quite a few Soviet
varieties have been added, mainly due to the efforts of our subscriber
Hilary Norwood and the listing of the 1948-57 definitive has been
revised to differentiate the lithographic and typographed printings.
South Russia and the difficult early issues of Mongolia have been also
revised, all prices examined and the issues of Finland during the period
it was a Grand Duchy have now also been included in this part.
* This catalogue is already the best available in its field, as it is semi-
specialised in nature. There is no doubt that future editions will
continue the trend. The Baltic republics, Mongolia, Tuva and the Ukraine
have already been included and, to help complete the process, this
reviewer would suggest the addition of the POSTGEBIET OB.OST overprints,
the three stamps of the German 10th. Army during WWI, the 1918 Polish
Corps overprints issued in Belorussia and a comprehensive listing of the
stamps and overprints of the Carpatho-Ukraine, as well as the Postmaster
Provisional issues following upon the Civil War and possibly also the
Philatelic Tax stamps. This excellent publication is strongly
recommended to all collectors in our fields of interest.
THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 60, published in October
1983 by the British Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to the
General Secretary: R.F. Young,"Highfield", 27 Coxhill Gardens, River,
Dover, Kent CT17 OPX, England.
This 64-page issue was put together by Guest Editor P.T. Ashford and
with design and production by Harry Turner. The journal is now being
printed by the photo-litho process to cut costs to t oand the illustrations
have been included in the text to make for easier reading. The contents
include an obituary of and two articles by Dr.A.H. Wortman:The First 7k.
Stamp of Russia & Russia-Thunderbolts;Moscow Railways & Dots Cancels,
both by Dr.E.Kossoy; Russian Censorship Terms in WWI,by B.Pritt; WWI
Censor Markings,by Dr.P.Michalove; More Thoughts on Registered Mail, by
SD.Skipton; A new Type of 'Bez Plat', by R.L. Joseph; Shipwreck, by R.P.
SKnighton; Travels in Turkestan & Transcaspia 1895, by Dr..B. Krensler;
Georgia: An Unusual Fiscal Overprint & VOF Exhibition in Tbilisi, both
by D.W. Lewandowsky; Russian 5% War Loan 1915-16 & Related Ephemera, by.
J.G. Moyes; Soviet Inland & Overseas Postal Rates 1917-71, by V.
Karlinskii, trans.Dr.T.T. Rutkowska; Philately for the Workers 1923, by
H.Norwood; Errors in Stamp Designs, by D.E.G. Irvine and, bringing up
the rear, further obituaries, reviews of new literature and an
Editorial Note. An excellent issue, produced by an easy to read method I
THE ROSSICA JOURNAL, DOUBLE ISSUE Nos.102-103 for 1982. Issued by the
Rossica Society of Russian Philately. All enquiries to Dr. Kennedy
Wilson, 7415 Venice Street, Falls Church, Virginia, U.S.A. 22043.
This 100+ page issue gives an account of the last Annual Meeting; a
Warning about material stolen from Boris Shishkin & Dr. Leonid Kvetan;
Imperial Russian International Money Orders, by D. Skipton; USSR Postage
Stamps used as Revenue Stamps, by P.F. Mazur, trans.D.Skipton; Russian
Perforations, by Rev. L. Tann & Reply,by Dr. C. Stackelberg; From the
History of the SPB Post/Pre-Stamp Period,by M.Dobin/t.Skipton-Shalimoff;
The 1909-20 Arms Types on Wove Paper, by Diana Johnson (very intelligent
study); Requirements for Properly Addressing Mail in 1892, trans. D.
Skipton; The Catalonian "Homage to the USSR" Labels, by P.J. Campbell;
Development of Post & Telegraph Network in 1916, by D.Skipton; Bisects
of the Perm District Zemstvo Post, by D.Kuznetsov, trans. D. Skipton;
WWI Propaganda Postcard, by G.Shalimoff; Forgeries of N.W.Army Stamps;
Russia in Alaska,by A.Kholodkov, trans. R.L.Trbovich, finishing with
Notes from Collectors and Rossica Bookshelf. A meaty issue.
RUSSISCH-SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE ((Russian & Soviet Philately). A twice-
yearly journal, issued by the Russia-USSR Study Group in the Federal
Republic of Germany. All enquiries to Herr Joachim Schneider, D-7000
STUTTGART 75, Melonenstr. 56, Federal Republic of Germany.
No. 33 for Dec. 1983 contains Society news; a translation of the"MOCKBA-
A"article by A.Cronin, with comment by J.Schneider; The Moscow 50 Postal
Station Marking, by G.Shalimoff;The 35-k. Sword-Cutter Stamp,by H.Meyer;
The Volga Famine Issue of 1921, by H.Norwood; Jahn Postal Fiscal Covers
& Questions about Postmarks, both by J.Schneider; Machine Postmarks, by
Dr.A.H. Wortman; Meter Markings in the USSR, by Yu.Rudnikov; A Thematic
Note &..Data on Salakas Postmark, both by J.Schneider;Questions about
Inflation Letters; Extracts from Radio de Filintern; Postal Stationery
of Russia, by Yu.Myakota; The 4-k.Postcard Surcharge of 1876, by H. von
Hofmann; Notes on Cataloguing Russian & Soviet Postal Stationery, by K.-
E.Geier; an excellent Catalogue of Russian & Soviet Postal Stationery
by the Schwanenberger Publishers and, finally, advertisements.
No. 34 for April 1984 has Society Notes; the Condensed Printing of the
Rouble Values in 1919, by Dr.A.H. Wortman, with comment by J.Schneider;
Odessa Markings, by I.L.G.Baillie; Kashgar Postmarks, from T&S Handbook;
The Preparation of the First Russian Stamps, by B.Kaminskii; Notes on
the Moscow-50 Postal Station Marking & Moscow-San Francosco Air Usages,
by Ing.Z.Mikulski (fascinating!);a translation of Volga German Postal
History by A.Cronin; ZUrichtal & Zurich in Russia, by W.Frauenlob; The
Podolia Postal District, by F. Gerst; Hunger Charity Issues, trans.from
Russian; 29th. Soviet Antarctic Expedition, by E.S.Anasir; A Soyiet
Stationery Combination, by K.W.Geier; Auction Notes, by J. Schneider;
Soviet Postal Curiosities, by Prof.H.Schmenkel; Continued Usage of
German Cancellers in East Prussia after 1945, by H.R.Dietrich (highly
interesting!) & Advertising Stationery of the Empress Maria Foundation
by the same author, to terminate with extracts from Radio de Filintern
For those who read German, this Study Group and its journals are very
well worth subscribing to !
BEFORE THE REVOLUTION: Russia and its people under the Czar, by Kyril
FitzLyon & Tatiana Browning. A wonderful survey of life under the
last monarch of the Romanov Dynasty and containing many rare
photographs, including from postcards of the era. The ultimate in
nostalgia and indispensable for Imperial collectors. Published at
US$19.95 and offered to our readers at an unbeatable price,
sent anywhere in the world. A few copies left at POSTPAID US$12.50.
THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L.L. Tann. We have a few
copies of this ever-popular work with a xeroxed page pasted onto
one that failed to print,at the bargain price of POSTPAID US$15.00.
The contents are complete and this is a great opportunity.
GEORGIA, by John Barefoot & Andrew Hall. A spiral-bound book of 66
large pages, covering all phases of Georgian philately : stamps,
varieties,forgeries,fantasies,P.O.List. PRICE POSTPAID US$12.00.
FORGERY AND REPRINT GUIDE No. 3(Armenia, 1922 Pictorials), No. 4
(Armenia 1923 Pictorials) & No. 11 (Azerbaijan). All illustrations
are double-size and the differences clearly tabulated. Invaluable
for Transcaucasia cillectors.Set of 3 booklets: POSTPAID US$ 6.50.
DIE POSTSTEMPELFORMEN IN ST.PETERSBURG VON 1766-1914, by Heinrich
Imhof. This is the definitive study of St.Petersburg postmarks and
is easy to follow, as there are many illustrations and everything is
tabulated. A new supply at a special price. POSTPAID US$ 7.50.
NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great writers.Price postpaid US $ 2.50.
LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow
State University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian
grammar, many phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual
for"us monolingual slobs", as one of our readers bluntly it. Great
value for the money. Price postpaid US $ 2.50.
PLEASE NOTE THAT THE SOCIETY HAS SOLD OUT OF "THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS"
BY REV. L.L. TANN. COPIES ARE STILL AVAILABLE FROM GEORGE ALEVIZOS,
2716 OCEAN PARK BOULEVARD,SUITE 1020,SANTA MONICA,CALIF.,USA 90405.
All sales benefit the Society and orders should be
S." made payable to A. Cronin, Box 5722 Station-A,
S ,--Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles
have unfortunately been sold out.
SOIM KARPATS'KOYI UKRAYINI, by Dr. Stepan Rosokha.
'A fascinating eye-witness account of the birth of
Sthe Carpatho-Ukrainian Republic by a former minister.
S.; Published in Ukrainian, with an English summary
and long out of print. Of great interest to the
Dr.S.Rosokha. Carpatho-Ukrainian collector. Price postpaid US$5.00
~ Fovrrncq Fo n~
THE COLLECTORS' CORNER ', *
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some 7
duplicate material that you would like to trade or /
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your 1
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line '
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.
FOR a biography of the mathematician & philosopher Peter Demionovich
Ouspensky (1878-1947), I would appreciate hearing from anyone with
firsthand information about his friendships, his classes, his
relationship with G.I.Gurdjieff and his years in England. Published and
and unpublished letters,manuscripts,photographs,reminiscenses,anecdotes
and information of any kind would be welcome.
ANDREW ROTH, 235 Oxford Street, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 14607.
WANTED: Wenden L1,Posns. 7,46,53,54,56 & 57. Will give two others of my
choice for above stamps. Will identify your stamp positions.
VICTOR KENT,5738 Harris Cutoff Road,Mariposa,California,U.S.A. 95338.
WANTED: Russian revenues,fiscals,vignettes,labels or Cinderella stamps
plus revenue & legal paper,paper seals,bill of exchange cut-outs and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial,
Civil War and Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.
MARTIN CERINI,90 Third Ave.,Huntington Station,N.Y., U.S.A. 11746.
WANTED: Imperial dotted cancellations on cover; buy, sell or trade.
Please write, describing covers) & asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.
A FEW original copies of THE RUSSIAN PHILATELIST still available:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US$4.00 each; Nos. 8 to 11 US$4.50 each.
MRS C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y., U.S.A. 11524.
ALWAYS looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fair exchange assured.
G. G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A. 13850.
Collectors who can read German and are interested
oft 6triet ^ in this WWI issue and its fascinating postal
+ history will find a wealth of information
published in two thick bulletins annually. Write to
W.-D.R5TTGER, Am Markt, D-4130 MOERS 3, Federal Republic of Germany.