• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Guest editorial: Russian phila...
 Correspondence with Canada
 Study of the RSFSR first issue...
 Baltic equivalent of a Zemstvo-to-Zemstvo...
 Report on "Brasiliana '83"
 The Tsar's collection
 Imperial correspondence in universal...
 The curious case of the missing...
 A Paraguayan card sent to...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Carpatho-Ukrainian postal history:...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner














Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Guest editorial: Russian philately
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Study of the RSFSR first issue and its subsequent use as postage dues
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Baltic equivalent of a Zemstvo-to-Zemstvo cover
        Page 59
    Report on "Brasiliana '83"
        Page 60
    The Tsar's collection
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Imperial correspondence in universal languages
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    The curious case of the missing colours
        Page 72
        Page 73
    A Paraguayan card sent to St. Petersburg
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Carpatho-Ukrainian postal history: Addendum II
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Review of literature
        Page 87
        Page 88
    The journal fund
        Page 89
    The collectors' corner
        Page 90
Full Text














Nov.
19EB3


No. 13


THE SWORD-CUTTER ISSUE
p ST-TKIIER


Printed in Canada


Ii










1MK


THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER", No. 13.


CONTENTS:


2 Guest Editorial: Russian Philately
3 Correspondence with Canada
5 Study of the RSFSR First Issue and its
Subsequent Use as Postage Dues
59 Baltic Equivalent of Zemstvo-to-Zemstvo
Cover
60 Report on "Brasiliana '83"
61 The Tsar's Collection
68 Imperial Correspondence in Universal
Languages
72 The Curious Case of the Missing Colours
74 A Paraguayan Card sent to St. Petersburg
76 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
79 Carpatho-Ukrainian Postal History: Addenda
84 Philatelic Shorts
87 Review of Literature
89 Journal Fund
90 The Collectors' Corner


NOVEMBER 1983.


Alex Artuchov
V. A. Popov
N. J. Sheppard
J. Marcovitch
A. Cronin
Rev.L.L. Tann
P. J. Campbell
& A. Cronin
P. J. Campbell
A. Cronin
Alex Artuchov
A. Cronin


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY: Alex Artuchov, Publisher & Treasurer
P.J. Campbell, Secretary
Andrew Cronin, Editor
The Society gratefully thanks its contributors for helping to
make this an interesting issue.


"PrOST-KIIER


Hi


1 i\






















GUEST EDITORIAL

RUSSIAN PHILATELY : A LEGACY OF CHALLENGE AND AMBITION

by Alex. Artuchov

Wortman, Berngard, Lobachevskii, Marcovitch, Blekhman, Kuznetsov,
all prominent figures in Russian philately, were recently lost due to
death. Readers will note that the toll was taken on both sides of the
magical East/West line, making the attrition of the ranks a common
denominator.

Dr. Alfred H. Wortman was one of the most learned philatelists in the
West. He was a founding member of the BSRP and a constant contributor
to the philatelic press for a period of some 50 years. His articles
and research broke much new ground and added considerable knowledge
to the field of Russian philately. To say that he was a spry old
gentleman would be an understatement, for Dr. Wortman was the
recently appointed editor of the BJRP and a practicing physician
almost up to the time of his death, just short of his 84th. birthday.

Professor K.A. Berngard was a prominent Soviet philatelic figure and
a Muscovite. He was an Honoured Member of the VOF and Chairman of
their Expertising Committee. He sat on the editorial board of
"Philately of the USSR" and was a keen student of Imperial and early
Soviet philately.

Emile Isidorovich Marcovitch was a philatelist of the old school. His
book on Russian vignettes is the standard reference in the field and
a significant pioneering effort. His great love for Zemstvo stamps
led to the formation of what must be regarded as one of the world's
foremost collections, put together jointly with his son Jacques who,
in turn, is a "Zemshchik par excellence" and a true gentleman.

V.V..Lobachevskii, an ethnic Russian living in L'vov, capital of the
Western Ukraine, is best known for his series of articles in "The
Soviet Collector" (recently translated and reprinted in "The Rossica
Journal"), cataloguing issues of the Russian Empire. Himself an avid
Imperial collector, Lobachevskii married knowledge from East and West
to compile an outstanding catalogue of Russian philately.

S.M. Blekhman, another Muscovite, was the leading Soviet collector.
His philatelic awareness was enhanced in the 1930s through







acquaintance with the artists working at GOZNAK(State Printing Works),
from whom he obtained many unique essays and proofs. Blekhman's
collections were consistent in obtaining many high awards at
international exhibitions.

D. Kuznetsov of Tula was one of the leading Soviet collectors of
Zemstvo issues. His research produced much previously unknown
information from the archives and his exhibits at international shows
were in the vermeill +" class.

Russian philately has thus recently suffered the loss of a good number
of significant philatelists. Each, in his own way, was able to enrich,
encourage, expand and enlighten our rich and diverse field of
collecting. While the efforts of the above who have passed and, indeed,
of those who have gone on before them remain unforgotten, each has
left us with a standard and example to follow.

The established challenge is to forge ahead, using the paths laid down
by our predecessors to uncover vast and virgin ground. The ambition is
to do it as well as they did.
*



CORRESPONDENCE

WITH CANADA d? (

I/ ', :
A- ( "\ .

"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature i'
of this journal. Anycme possessing interesting -
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerat copy of the item, along with sane expla-
natory text to the Editor.



A CIVIL WAR POSTCARD SENT TO CANADA

by V. A. Popov.

Any Russian item that went through the mails during the year of 1919
is scarce to rare, as it was the height of the Civil War, postal
communications were severely disrupted and people spent most of their
efforts trying to survive, let alone bothering to conduct any
correspondence. The example illustrated on the next page is thus all
the more noteworthy, as it demonstrates, among other things, the hold
that philately had, even in that crucial year.

First of all, the card is addressed to a Mr. Fred Meyer of Vaterloo(sic),

























a.. -
31_ :- *; *.j N- -


flFTPAO i ? 7. -
'" : 1I


." Russ. C. 295. ',: .' -



/ /" /-l, -/- /.


















the back. He wanted to exchange stamps, could offer the Romanovs cplte,
i. terbeing a twin ct withi- *^ *z c*^^ ^-^ ^ ~itchener. Thelatter
















Mr. Meyer's conditions for an exchange.

There is a faint violet censorship marking of Perm on the front, plus a
franking of a pair of 5 k. and a single 10 k. in Savings Bank stamps.
Only the pair is cancelled and the postmark reads PETROPAVLOVSK KAMCHAT.
a. 1.7.19 (!). How it managed to leave Siberia for Canada through that
remote port on the Kamchatka peninsula is, of course, a real puzzle and
comments would be welcomed. Unfortunately, there is no Waterloo
Anyway, the card stand message were from F.A. Zaitsev of Perm and the
postmark on the card of to pinpoin is shown in negative at the left side on
the back. He wanted to exchange stamps, could offer the Romanovs cplte,
the surcharges, the charities (semi-postals) and the imperfs. to 10 r.,
both mint and used. He had the Yvert 1917 catalogue and wanted to know
Mr. Meyer's conditions for an exchange.

There is a faint violet censorship marking of Perm on the front, plus a
franking of a pair of 5 k. and a single 10 k. in Savings Bank stamps.
Only the pair is cancelled and the postmark reads PETROPAVLOVSK KAMCHAT.
a. 1.7.19 (!). How it managed to leave Siberia for Canada through that
remote port on the Kamchatka peninsula is, of course, a real puzzle and
comments would be welcomed. Unfortunately, there is no Waterloo
postmark on the card to pinpoint its arrival.
4




















A STUDY OF THE R.S.F.S.R. FIRST POSTAGE STAMP ISSUE, AND ITS SUBSEQUENT
USE AS POSTAGE DUES.
by N.J.Sheppard, Lakemba, N.S.W.

INTRODUCTION:
During 1917 the Kerensky Provisional Government of Russia is said to have prepar-
ed an issue of stamps to commemorate the February Revolution of that year, but
the stamps were not destined to be issued during the short lifetime of that gov-
ernment. In October (November 7th. new style) a second revolution took place
and the Bolshevik Government came to power, which government remains to this day.
Whatever the truth of the abovementioned statement about the issue of stamps,
this issue of postage stamps featuring a hand and sword cutting a chain, is
listed in the "Catalogue of Postage Stamps of the U.S.S.R." issued in that coun-
try (hereinafter referred to as the Soviet.Catalogue) as the "first revolutionary
issue of postage stamps of the R.S.F.S.R." (1). This "first issue" was in two
values a 35 kopek and a 70 kopek value. The official date is given in the Sov-
iet Catalogue (2) as November 7th, 1918 (October 25th, 1918, Old Style). The Stan-
ley Gibbons Catalogue, Part 10, 1981 Edition, says that the issue was first made
in March, 1918 in Petrograd (now Leningrad) and then made generally on October
25th (Old Style). Michel Catalogue concurs with the Soviet Catalogue as to issue
date.
The stamp was designed by R. Zarriip (whose initials appear in the lower part
of the stamp design) and the engraving done by P. Ksidias The stamps were typo-
graphed on laid paper with a vertical rhomboidal grid overlay of varnish lines,
which security practice had been used on the previous Imperial Government issues.
My measurement of the comb perforation is 13 X 13, which concurs with that gen-
erally listed. The nominal colours for the issue were listed as 35 kopek, blue,
and 70 kopek, brown.
During November, 1922 these stamps were overprinted in a reddish colour for use
as customs controls for philatelic material leaving the R.S.F.S.R., the overprint-
ed values being 250R on the 35K and 500R on the 70K.
A further series of 10 values for a similar purpose were overprinted during Jan-
uary, 1932 to April, 1933.
The same issue of stamps was also overprinted for use in January, 1924 to Decem-
ber, 1924 for use as Postage Dues, in a series of 8 values using at first a car-
mine overprint, and in a second printing during July, to December, 1924, a brick-
red overprint.
Ref. (1) R.S.F.S.R. means Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic.
(2) "Catalogue of Postage Stamps of the U.S.S.R."- 1918-1974." Publ. by
Central Philatelic Agelcy"Unionprint", Ministry of Communications,
U.S.S.R., Moscow, 1976.


(The article reproduced hereunder is a definitive study that
originally appeared in the May, 1983 issue of "THE N.S.W. PHILATELIST",
the official organ of The Philatelic Society of New South Wales in
Sydney, Australia. It is now appearing on these pages by kind
permission of the author and that Society, to both of whom many thanks
are due).









While this issue of stamps and its subsequent overprinted form for use as Post-
age Dues have never been in short supply, strange as it may seem, I have not,
as yet, been able to find a research reference in the philatelic literature.
Certainly the Combined Index issued in 1978 by the British Journal of Russian
Philately (3) does not contain a single reference.
This article is twofold in purpose. It presents a study of the original issue
of the postage stamps, and then one on the stamps used as Postage Dues. This
has all been made possible by the generous provision of material by Mr. David
Benson, the Hon. Exchange Superintendant of the Philatelic Society of N.S.W.

A STUDY OF THE 35 KOPEK (35 KOn) ISSUE.
This postage stamp printed in blue, was issued in sheets of 100 (10 rows of 10).
From the presence of two major flaws,two plates ( atleast (?)) of 100 were used
to print this stamp. The major flaws are:-
1) Plate 1 Stamp No33 (see Fig.l) is elevated 0.75mm. above the general align-
ment of stamps in the 4th row. This can be easily seen by the naked
eye.
2) Plate 2 Stamp No.34 (see Figs. 2 & 3) has a markedly bulged top frame above
ROSSIYA, which itself is distorted upwards. This can also be read-
ily seen by the naked eye.
An examination of sheets shows that plate 2, when the top and left margins
are wide enough has a Imm. diam. blue spot situated at a point 10mm. above
the upper frame lines of the upper row of stamps and 10mm. out from the left
frames of the first vertical row of stamps.
Plate 1 never carries the blue spot, but in one case does carry a blue bar 235
X 3mm. in size, which is situated 5mm. above the line of the top frames of the
upper row of stamps.
My interpretation of these details is that Plate 1 could constitute the Upper
Plate of a pair,with Plate 2.as the lower one,used to print the issue, the blue
spot being a guillotine location. The fact that two types of upper sheets exist-
one with the blue bar and the other without indicates that two plate arrange-
ments must have existed, and that therefore, at least two printings were carried
out. However because these stamps were used in overprinted form up to 1933,
it seems probable that several printings were made.
On the other hand I must-freely admit that the blue spot may be a means of
differentiating one plate from the other, and that it is possible the plates
were used independentally to print stamps 100-on and not simultaneously as a
pair. Here is an intriguing problem for some one to solve!
The 35K value nominally described as blue in colour, was printed in a range of
shades. I have.seen it as blue, pale blue, and a very dark blue, and the Soviet
Catalogue mentions a black-blue shade.
An examination of the varnish lines reveals that the overlay was made to fit
the 10 rows X 10 sheet,with the rhomboidal grid continuous and complete along
both vertical margins of the sheet,with the longer dimension of the rhomboid in
the vertical direction of the sheet. The rhomboids are incomplete at the upper
margins of the sheet, and nowhere do they normally protrude into those margins.

(3) Combined Index of Russian Specialist Society Journals to 1977.
Publ. by British Journal of Russian Philately, 1978. Available British Soc-
iety of Russian Philately, London, U.K.





















No.32. No.33. No.34.

FIG.. : PLATE 1 No.33. is elevated
out of alignment with adjac-
ent cliches.










No.33. No.34. No.35.

FIG.2. : PLATE 2 No.34 has bulged
Upper Frame.






















FIG.3. : PLATE 2 Enlarged Illustration of
Bulged Upper Frame on No. 34.










As far as perforations are concerned the comb perforation always passes out
through the upper margins of the sheets, and never through the lower margins,
thus indicating that it was customary to commence perforating first at row 10.
No perforation varieties have been observed. The 13 X 13 comb is apparently
the same as that used in association with the Romanov Issue, and the Paper Cur-
rency Issues.
PLATE 1 FLAWS.
Two repetitive flaws on Plate 1 (and also Plate 2) are those associated with
the upper left and upper right spiral scroll ornaments, which consistently break
through to the white upper margin near the corners to give a white continuum.
For this reason only those cases where the break is marked, are mentioned in the
following text.
Many of the flaws are quite minor being colour spots and breaks in the fine
areas of ornament, and within the value figures at left and right. Not all of
these have been logged here, and it would be safe to say that every cliche has
some characteristic spot or small break, which would enable it to be plated.


The Plate 1 Flaws logged are:
No.17. ROSSIYA







Right Dot below L(IYA)
No.24. Upper Right Scroll

No.28. Upper Right Scroll
Upper Left Scroll
Left Triangular Projection
on Inner Upper Frame
ROSSIYA


Right Circular Ornament






Lower Right Spiral Ornament



Right 35
Kon


- (i) thin spike of colour links bottom of
vertical of (YA) at left to solid
line below.
(ii)second C(S) has spot of colour off
top of lower curved arm.
(iii)there is a small spot of colour be-
low the first C(S) and another be.
tween 0 and C(S).
- is distorted by colour spot at bottom.
- is only a thin line ending in a point
and not in a white bulb.
- spiral scroll is weak.
- spiral scroll is broken at left.
- is broken and deformed.

- both C's (S's) have projections at left
sides.
- (i) spot of colour joins vertical bulb-
ous line to oblique upper right
irregular line within the ornament.
(ii) lower oblique line at left is curl-
ed at bottom to join the lowest
bulbous line at mid-point.
- internal parts of spiral are joined up by
spot of colour at top. At returning tip
of the ornament a spot of colour cuts off
the tip.
- spot of colour in upper part of loop of 5.
- upper line joining 0 to n(P) is broken.










No.29. Upper.Left:Scroll
No.30. Upper Left'Scroll
No.31. -Upper Left Scroll
Upper Right Corner
Lower Frame
No.32. Right 35.


No.33. Cliche Mis-alignment
(see Fig.l)


No.35., Right Circular. Ornament

No.36. Left 35


Right 35


No.37. :Lower Left Scroll Ornament



ROSSIYA




Right Colour Spot Below I
Kon



Right 35


No.40. Inner White Oval Margin

Kon
Right 35.


No.41. Designer's Initials


-.is broken through to white margin above.
- as No.29.
- as No.29.
- bulged at outer frames.
- thinned below Kon 35.
- irregular spot of colour within lower
part of loop joined to solid colour
below.
- the whole cliche is elevated 0.75mm,
above the adjacent cliches. This is-the
main.variety for distinguishing Plate 1
from Plate 2.
- circular coloured line is broken at
8 o'clock,
- (i) crescent-shaped coloured spot at top
of loop of 3 with irregular spikes
of colour projecting down into low-
er part of loop from heavy coloured
line which separates the lower part
of the 5 as it passes through the 3.
(ii) spot of colour mid-way in loop of 5.
- irregular colour spot in upper part of
loop of 3.
- (i) upward returning. tail is broken off
by colour spot.
(ii) tip of spiral is joined to spiral
loop at left by colour spot.
- (i) spot of colour projects up below
first C(S) fromthe coloured area
below.
(ii) inner top loop of second C(S) is
damaged and has colour spot below.
- has colour blemish.
- (i) line joining 0 to n(P) is irregul-
ar and broken.
(ii) top of n(P) at left is joined to in-
ner white margin above.
(i) loop of 3 is irregular.
(ii) upper part of loop is gashed with
oblique spike of colour
spot of colour adjacent to returning tip
of loweracroll ornament.
small spot of colour in left serif of n(P).
small spot of colour in lower extremity
of loop of 3.
P(R) is almost obliterated.










No.43. Upper Left Corner

Upper Left Scroll
No.44. Left 35

ROSSIYA

No.45. Left 35
No.46. Left Frame (see Fig.4.)
No.47. Larger Dot at Left


ROSSIYA


Left 35

No.49. Upper Left Scroll


No.51.
No.53.


Upper Right Scroll

Upper Left Scroll
Left Circular Ornament


Right Lower Spiral Ornament

Right 35 (see Fig.4)


- inner coloured frame is broken right
near corner.
- broken through to white margin above.
- V-shaped coloured flaw projects into
upper right corner of 3 at right.
- small spot of colour almost joining low-
er serif of vertical of P(R).
- small coloured spot in upper loop of 3.
- Broken near upper left corner.
- two coloured spots immediately below this
dot in inner white margin constituting
part of the circular ornament above.
coloured spot within lower loop of second
C(S). Lower loop of this C is irregular
below spot.
coloured spot projecting up from line of
colour between tip of 5 and loop of 3.
breaks through to inner white margin
above.
breaks through to inner white margin
above.
as No.49.
colour spot in white circular frame at
10 o'clock causing the colourless portion
to enlarge to the left.
Coloured spot within spiral joins lower
loop to outer loop at left.
(i) colour spot in upper horizontal of


(ii)' 5 is joined
our spot in
(iii) colour spot
5.


No.54. Kon (see Fig.4)












No.58. Upper Left Scroll


to loop of 3 with col-
centre of joining area.
in upper horizontal of


- (i) n(P) is joined mid-point of top to
white frame above.
(ii) inner coloured frame below the mid-
point.ofthe f(P) is broken.
(iii) the outline of the 0 at upper right
is dislocated downward due to re-
touch, and there is a V-shaped pro-
jection at 4 o'clock.
(iv) the bases of the verticals of n(P)
have centrally placed verticals
projecting up from the bases. There
is also a colour projection at 1
o'clock from inner side.
- as No.49.









No.61.. Lower Right Spiral Ornament

No.64. Outer Right Frame

Inner Right Frame


Left Lower Solid Area


Right 35

No.65. Upper Frame
Upper Left Scroll
Upper Right Scroll
Name Tablet

No.66. Outer Left Frame


ROSSIYA


No.67. Upper Solid Area at Left

Lower Left Solid Area


-Left 35.
No.69. Upper Left Scroll


Left.35 (see Fig.4)



No.71,- ROSSIYA

No.74. Upper Left Scroll
Upper Right Scroll
Lower Frame


- colour spot joins inner loop of spiral
to outer loop at left.
thinned on inner side for 2.5mm. at
mid-point.
also thinned at mid-point for Imm. at
position adjacent to thinning on outer
right frame above.
white streak running parallel with white
inner margin of oval just below mid--
point.
- two spots of colour in 5; one in horiz-
ontal, and the other in upper loop.
- gapped almost at upper left corner.
- broken through to upper white margin.
- as above.
- lower right dovetail is deformed and has
spot of colour within.
- three small indentations at 6.5, 5.0, an
and 3.5mm. exist below upper left corner.
Frame appears ragged in the area.
- (i) squared projection of colour up
from coloured area below right part
of 0.
(ii) small projection of colour from
coloured area below and almost int-
ersecting lower arm of second C(S).
(iii) spiral ornament below R(YA) has
ragged coloured projection into
lower part.
- fine scratch runs from upper left spiral
to white name tablet at the dovetail area.
- fine scratch extending from inner white
oval margin just below mid-point to lower
left corner of the solid area.
- loop of 5 is ragged.
- is damaged, enlarged and broken through
to upper white margin above. The spiral
is missing.
- lower coloured dividing line between
point of 5 and lower loop of 3 is splay-
ed out at lower area into a wedge of
colour.
- very thin coloured frame below first C(S)
is deformed upwards, broken and missing.
- as No.49.
- as No.49.
- left half is thinned.










No.76. Inner Right Frame


No.78. Inner Right Frame
Upper Right Scroll
No.82. Inner White Oval Margin

No.83. Left 35
Upper Left Scroll
No.86. Upper Left Scroll
No.91. Scroll below P(R)(see Fig.4) -






No.92. ROSSIYA

No.98. ROSSIYA

No.99. Left 35


Right 35


Kon


- thinned just below mid-point of left
frame.


very thin over whole length.
As No.49.
small elongated spot of colour at lower
left almost joining frame of oval.
two small blue spots on 3.
as No.49.
as No.49.
upper line of ornament immediately below
the P(R) is broken and deformed. The
right side is deformed up toward centre
of base of P and that at the left is curl-
ed back on itself. Below the break is a
line of colour.
both C's(S's) have spots of colour above
bottom loops.
small spot of colour by left end of lower
loop of second C.
horizontal dash of colour extending from
left edge of loop of 3.


- colour spot at lower tip of 3 enlarging
the tip and extending it upwards.
- colour spot in upper right bulbous arm.


No.100. Left Upper Scroll
NOTE: Nos. 91 to 100




PLATE 2 FLAWS (see Figs.2, 3, & 5.)
No.l. Upper Right Corner
No.5. Upper Frame (see Fig.5)
Upper Left Scroll (see Fig.5.)-



Inner Left Frame (see Fig.5.) -





Lower Left Spiral Ornament -


as No.49.
all inner and outer frames are thinned
due to wear on the plate. The areas with-
in the value tablets immediately above
are also weak.


rounded.
thinned 2mm. from upper left corner.
scroll is damaged at top and breaks
through into white margin above. A
roughly triangular block of colour re-
mains to the right.
broken through into white dot with rough-
ly square spot of colour in middle. The
inner white frame carries three spots of
colour, which link to the inner left frame;
one at upper corner and one just above
damaged area and one some distance below.
is broken from centre to right and there
is a spot of colour.






























35K. Plate 1, No.53. 35K. Plate 1, No.69.


--




35K. Plate 1,
No.46. 35K. Plate 1, No.54.





FIG .4. 35K

SValue. Plate 1
Flaws.





35K. Plate 1, No.91.

70K. No.5.










70K. No.73..

FIG.6. : 70K. Value. Plate Flaws.


I












No.5.
Left Floral Ornament



Left Circular White Dot


Left Circular Ornament


Scroll Ornament below P(R)



ROSSIYA


Left Inner White Oval Margin

No.8. Upper Right Corner
Upper Frame
NOTE:.Nos.l to 10
No.17.(See Fig.5.)
Right Triangular Projection
on Inner Upper Frame
Scroll Ornament below A(YA)


ROSSIYA

Left Triangular Projection
on Upper Inner Frame

No.25.Scroll Ornament below P(R)

No.27.Upper Outer Frame
No.29.Upper Left Corner
Triangular Projection on
Inner Upper Left Frame
No.31.Upper Right Corner


- this adjacent ornament to right and above
the Lower Spiral left Ornament is broken
along its lower line leaving a blue spot
of colour.
- below Large Circular Left Ornament is
elongated left to right and carries a spot
of colour within.
- the upper vertical bulbous line is broken
mid-way leaving round blue spot of colour
with residue below.
- carries two spots of colour; one at left
immediately below the left vertical out-
line of the P, and the other in right part
of spiral at right.
- (i) the P(R) is gapped at base.
(ii) there is a blue spot of colour at
white central area of 0.
- there is a blue spot of colour below the
9 o'clock position.
- spiked protrusion of colour at 45 degrees.
- thinned and worn especially at left half.
- the upper frames are all weak due to wear.


- is solid with spot of colour to left of
mid-point.
- has been cut away with engraving tool at
top leaving several particles of residual
colour.
- letter 1(YA) carries several white markings
in the vertical and the loop.
- is cut off leaving inner frame above thick-
ened with spot of colour below (the remains
of the point of the triangular protrusion).
- solid blue colour is joined to base of P
at left.
- thinned for 5mm. to upper left corner.
- is split diagonallyupward through corner.
- is solid in colour.

- Outer and Inner Frames are thickened to
give bulging effect.




















35K. Plate 2,
No.17.,
Left.







|s<


35K. Plate 2,
No.73.,
(a).


35K. Plate 2,
No.5.


35K. Plate 2,
No.17.,
Right.


35K. Plate 2,
No.73.,
(b).


35K. Plate 2,
No.29.


35K. Plate 2, No.74.

FIG.5. : 35K. Value. Plate Flaws.












No.34. (See Figs.2 and 3)
Upper Outer and Inner Frames


ROSSIYA


No.51.
No.66.


NOTE: This Flaw is the major
.Lower Left Corner
Left 35


No.67. Lower Frame
No.73. ROSSIYA (see Fig.5)


Oval Frames (see Fig.5)


White Oval Margin





No.74. (See Fig.5.)
Lower Right Solid Colour Area












Right 35


0


- bulged upward for whole of distance
above ROSSIYA with apex of the bulge
above the first C(S).
is also deformed upward together with
the very thin line of colour below,
thus giving the oval a wider white mar-
gin than usual.
one for identification of Plate 2.
- rounded
- smallblue spot in loop of 5.
- thinned below KO to left corner.
- thin line of colour joins thin lower
end of first C(S) to thin frame line
below.
two spots of colour in white oval marg-
in joins the two oval frames just below
3 o'clock.
has triangular shaped spot of colour
below scroll ornament below P(R); a
second triangular shaped spot exists
down the oval margin to the left near
the next ornament; several other small
colour spots exist nearby.


(i) thin scratch cuts inner right frame
at 3 o'clock and passes obliquely
downward through solid blue area
to horizontal blue frame line below,
which scratch cuts this line with
two parallel oblique scratches.
Immediately below the horizontal
coloured frame surrounding it,!the val-
ue tablet is gapped above the horiz-
tal arm of the 3.
(ii) a second vertical scratch runs with-
in the solid area close to the in-
ner right frame line.
- (i) upper left point of horizontal arm
of 3 projects upward and joins hor-
izontal frame above.
(ii) horizontal arm of 3 has downward
white bulge due to penetration of
the oblique scratch mentioned above
under (i), into the solid coloured
area below.












No.74.


Right 35 (Continued)


Upper Inner Fraime
No.79. Lower Right Corner


No.86.
No.93.


Lower Frame
Lower Frame


No.99. Left Circular Ornament






Right Circular Ornament





Dot below I

ROSSIYA

Scroll Ornament below


ROSSIYA


NOTE:


Upper Left Scroll


Nos.91 to 100


- (iii) the oblique arm of the 3 is also
intersected by the scratch (see
(i)) in the form of an inverted V
into the solid colour above at a
point immediately below the down-
ward bulge of the horizontal arm
(see (ii)).
(iv) spot of blue colour exists within
the upper part of the loop of 5.
- gapped above P(R) of ROSSIYA.
- is rounded.
- is thinned over whole length.
- thinned below left 35K.
- central square in ornament is distorted
by spot of colour at lower centre. Upper
oblique lines at left and right are link-
ed to the coloured frame at either side
by spots of colour which merge with the
bulbous ornament at either side.
- central square in the ornament has spot
of colour at lower portion. Immediately
below.the oblique lines left and right
are linked to the bulbous ornament by
spots of colour at either side.
- this is distorted at lower side by run
of colour
the thin line joining the letters L1 is
broken.
- is joined at the spiral end by a spot of
colour. The centre point of the ornament
at far right also has coloured spot.
the second C(S) has projection of colour
at 11 o'clock.
has rounded spot of colour projecting in-
to white inner margin above.

the Inner and Outer Frames at the bottom
are all weak and worn and the value tablet
areas above are affected generally print-
ing lighter than the rest of the stamps.











A STUDY OF THE 70 KOPEK (70 KOP) ISSUE.
So far I have only seen sheets of this value which correspond to a single print-
ing plate of 100-on. I will certainly be most interested to learn if another
plate exists.
On the sheets I have seen there are no markings to suggest the existence of
another plate. Certainly there is no brown spot to correspond to the Imm. diam.
blue spot on the upper left corner of the 35K value.
The issued colour is simply given as brown in most catalogues, but the Soviet
Catalogue lists it as dark-brown. All the sheets I have seen I must interpret
as being:simply.brown.
As far as varnish lines and perforations are concerned all that has been said
for the 35K value applies equally here.


PLATE FLAWS (See Fig.6.).
No.5. ROSSIYA (see Fig.6)





Floral Ornament below P(R)


No.9. Right Lower Spiral Ornament

NOTE: Nos.l to 10

No.18. Upper Right Floral Ornament

Right Circular Ornament

No.22. Right 70

Right Frame




Right lower Spiral Ornament

No.25. Left Inner White Margin






No.35. Upper Right Corner


- (i) the lower loop of P(R) has been de-
formed upwards and broken.
(ii)the lower portion of 0 has an indent-
ation at lower left caused by a spot
of colour broken out of the solid
area below.
outline of right leaf at right is frag-
mentary and the leaf at left has a spot
of colour across it.
- spiral has been broken up into spots of
colour.
- Upper Outer and Inner Frames are all thin
due to wear.
- several of the striations have been brok-
en into spots of colour.
- the lowest bulbous line has been broken
up into irregularly spaced spots of colour.
- spot of colour in horizontal arm of 7 at
left.
- (i) spot of colour in right white outer
margin 6.5mm. above lower right corn-
er.
(ii) also projects on inner side of right
inner frame.
- outline of spiral has been broken at upper
left and remains as spot of colour.
- (i) spot of colour across left inner
white margin projecting through in-
to outer left white margin at a point
8mm. below upper left corner.
(ii) there are several small colour spots
within the white margin above and
below that mentioned in (i).
- projects upward from upper frame.









No.4

No.4

No.5

No.5
No.6

No.7


No.7

No.8(


No.8:
No.8:
No. 8

No.9(

No.9


1. Left 70

3. Outline of Sun within Ova:

5. Right Frame

7. Lower Left Corner
5. Left Spiral Ornament

3. (See Fig.6.)
Upper Outer Frame
ROSSIYA



Lower Frame

Left Upper Floral Ornament


Left Circular Ornament

Left Lower Spiral Ornameni

7. Left Lower Solid Area

0. Lower Right Solid Area


1. Upper Outer Frame
2. Right Frame
9. Left..Inner Frame

0. Left Upper Floral Ornameni

7. Right Spiral Ornament


'Right Circular Ornament
No.100.Lower Frame.


Value Tablets


several spots of colour in right ,,..
loop of 0.
L broken at upper left leaving spot of .
colour.
shaved inward at outside for Imm. at a
point 6.5mm. from lower corner.
is bulged downward.
spot of colour above spiral'causing an
:upward bulge of the ornament. ..


thinned.
blue spots within loop of P; within 0 at
bottom; between and below P(R) and 0;
between and above O and C(S) and within
loop of 1(YA).
thinned at left half; also bottoms of
left and right frames somewhat thinned.
t some striations at right are broken up
into spots of colour. The central part
below has a spot of colour.
has several spots of colour, as does
floral ornament to right. :
t returning tail at bottom is severed by a
spot of colour.
eroded white patch within upper part of
solid colour.
eroded patches at right side toward bot-
tom causing local widening of inner white
margin.
thinned 'for 5mm. from upper left corner..
indentation on outside at mid-point.
indentation on inside just below mid-
point.
t spiral is broken up into spots of colour
at upper part.
(i) spiral is broken up into'spots of
colour at upper part.
(ii)has spot of colour on second leaf at
right.
has spot of colour within square.
appears darkened as though recut below
left and right 70 and is thinned in be-
tween.
bases of left and right 70's and Kon
appear light as though worn.









NOTE: Nos.91 to 99. Lower Frames these stamps all have recut lower fram-
es immediately below the original fram-
es and appear quite dark. The remains
above are faint brown in colour.
Value Tablets the lower parts of the left and right
70's and of the Kon appear light as
though printed from a worn plate.
NOTE: One sheet has been seen with the following characteristics -
Nos.91 to 94. Lower Frames appear faint.
Value Tablets appear faint as though printed from a
worn plate.
Nos.95 to 99. Lower Frames appear dark as though recut below left
and right 70 and are thinned and faint
in between.
Value tablets bases of left and right 70's and Kon
appear light as though printed from a
worn plate.
COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
Having gone to so much trouble to log all the observed imperfections on the
sheets of stamps the logical question to arise is to ask How do we deter-
mine what type of printing plate was used to print the stamps? And, how were the
plates made? As a starting point only one thing is certain and that is that the
printed record tells us that the stamps were typographed. This is, of course, a
very useful.starting point.
A characteristic feature of all the sheets of the 35K and 70K stamps examined is
the number of skewed and otherwise misaligned cliches observed.
If the printing plates were laid down with a transfer roll a cliche at a time,
then on the evidence,the transfer press must have been quite worn. This I do not
believe, so we must look elsewhere for a another method of manufacture.
Since the stamps were printed by typography this means that the only images to
appear in print would have been those produced by the raised portions of the
printing plate. Any repairs by retouching with the engraving tool could then
only be carried out by bumping up the plate from the back in the offending area
and then re-engraving the area in question with the burin to produce.once more,
the necessary raised area to permit production of an image. What is most import-
ant to appreciate here is that the re-engraving takes place in the adjacent re-
cesses, and that by no stretch of imagination is it possible to directly produce
a printing surface with an.engraving tool on a typographic printing plate.
As an alternative to what has already been said above,the printing plates could
have been made as electrotypes produced from a forme of leads produced individ-
ually by striking with a flat die. This practice was common-place at the time
these plates were produced, in many countries,including our own. The many skewed
and mis-aligned cliches on the printing plates suggest this method was used. It
was certainly the most economical method in vogue at the time for making surface-
printing plates.
As the sheets of stamps abound with constant imperfections in the form of spots
of colour arising from breaks in the fine detail of ornamental design and no at-
tempt was made to repair them.it is fairly safe to assume that in many cases they
have arisen from the original formes. Certainly some re-engraving has been done,
as for example Plate 2,No.17 and Plate 1, No.54. These could have been "master"
in origin.
20












However whatever the method used to make the printing plates my observations
indicate that two printing plates of 100-on existed for the 35K value and one
for the 70K value.
My own feeling is that the two 35K plates were used as a pair, and the 70K, in-
evitably, as a single. There is also evidence to indicate that two printing
plate arrangements have existed for the 35K value, one with the solid bar on the
upper plate, and one without. The printing plates were identical in both cases
because the flaws observed are in every case identical, so do not point to the
existence of more than one electrotype per plate.

THE POSTAGE DUES OVERPRINTS OF 1924.

Sometime in 1924 the 35K and 70K stamps of the 1918 design were overprinted in
both carmine and brick-red in a series of values for use as postage dues. The
overprint was printed in Cyrillic, which transposed to Roman letters, is shown
with its English translation at Fig.7. belows-


DOPLATA POSTAGE DUE

1 KOP. 1 KOP.

ZOLOTOM. GOLD.

FIG.7.: The Romanised version of the Cyrillic Over-
print with English Translation.

The 1 KOP. means 1 Kopek, and Zolotom is derived from the Russian word for gold-
zolot- anid refers to the system of gold-backed currency introduced late in 1923.
The Russian word DOPLATA actually translates to ADDITIONAL PAYMENT and I have
freely translated.it as.Postage Due, which accords with our understanding of the
usage of the particular stamps being studied.*
The date of issue of these stamps is described variously. Stanley Gibbons Catal-
ogue, Part 10, 1981 Edition, lists the issue period as 1924 (JAN) -25; Michel
Catalogue Catalogue, Europe, 1969 Edition 1924(April) 25; Scott Catalogue -
1924 -25. The Soviet Catalogue lists the issue dates as 1924, January 1 Dec-
ember, for the carmine overprint, and June December, for the brick-red.
Only a detailed study of cancelled copies of these stamps will determine the val-
idity of these dates. For the time being I will accept the dates of issue of
the Soviet Catalogue as being correct, until proven otherwise.
The emission of an additional 1 Kopek in violet overprint on the Agricultural
Issue of 1921, in August 1924, would seem to indicate a shortage of the 35 Kopek
stamps. In any case this overprinted Postage Dues series was replaced early in
1925 by definitive series of Postage Dues. Viewed in this way the overprinted
Postage Dues must:be seen as a temporary issue but whether additional print,'
ings of the 35K and 70K values were made to cope with the temporary requirement,
or old stocks were available and used is not known.
Table t lists the overprinted Postage Dues, which were issued with carmine over-
print in accordance with the Soviet Catalogue, during the period January, 1924,
and 1 December, of that year.
21











TABLE I:
Colour.Imperf. Inverted Pair with and Double Zolotom
Overprint. without Double Overprint, missing.
Overprint.
1 Kopek on 35K blue *
3 Kopek on 35K blue *
5 Kopek on 35K blue *
8 Kopek on 35K blue *
10Kopek on 35K blue *
12Kopek on 70K brown *
14Kopek on 35K blue *
32Kopek on 35K blue *
40Kopek on 35K blue *

The Soviet Catalogue says also that all but the 8 Kopek value were issued in
brick-red during June December, 1924, the 1K and 14K values being issued in
December of the same year.
The same literature source points out that the 8 Kopek value with carmine over-
print was never released for postal circulation. Stanley Gibbons, Michel and
Scott Catalogues say that the 8K and 14K values were issued during 1925.
Table I above shows errors associated with individual overprint values. These
include imperforates, inverted and double overprints, pairs with and without
overprint ,and the single case where the ZOLOTOM has failed to print. The imperf-
orate 5 Kopek value is recorded as having been associated with a blue-black
printing of the basic 35K value.
THE OVERPRINT PLATES.
In the succeeding pages the individual overprints are studied in detail in an
endeavQur to determine how the plates were made. A study of the Full-stops has,
in most cases, yielded much information. Individual repetitive flaws associated
with the overprints have also helped greatly. Measurements of the centrelines
of the overprints themselves, together with the relative positions of the rows of
overprints has also helped in determining the make-up of the printing plates.
Because I do not have a typewriter with Cyrillic characters, I have found it
necessary (except where absolutely essential) to convert to Roman letters on
the following basis -
n = D K =K 3= z
0 = 0 0= 0 0= 0
n = P n= P 1= L
J= L 0= 0
= A T= T
T= T 0= 0
a= A w= M











THE 1 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
The overprints used to print this value exhibit the following general character-
istics -
a) DOPLATA The height of the letters "ATA" become progressively shorter
to the last "A".
b) KOP. The letters are uniform in height.
c) ZOLOTOM. The letters are generally uniform in height.
d) Full Stops- These are generally rounded except in a few cases where they are
squared.
Measurements of Centrelines.
Measurements of the centrelines of the overprints are -
Vertical Rows 1 to 8 all 24mm. R8 to R9 25mm. R9 to R10 24am.
Horizontal R1 to R2 30mm. R4 to R5 30mm. R7 to R8 29.5mm.
R2 to R3 30mm. R5 to R6 30mm. R8 to R9 29mm.
R3 to R4 29.5mm. R6 to R7 30mm. R9 to RI0- 30mm.
These measurements can be useful in determining possible joints between specif-
ic electros which, as the subsequent detailsindicate, have occurred. Sometimes,
but not in the case of this 1 Kopek value, some rows or groups of rows are dis-
placed forward of others to the left (or right), which will indicate a jointing
position of two or more electrotypes.
The Full Stops in the Overprints.
Each individual overprint has (or should have) two full stops one after KOP
and:the other after ZOLOTOM. These full stops, when their lowest points lie in"
the same line as the bottoms of the adjacent lettersn(P) or M, are referred to
as being normally positioned. When they lie above or below these lines they are
considered to be not normally positioned even though, as such, they may predom-
inate on a particular printing plate. In many cases the positions of these full
stops of the second group repeat themselves regularly elsewhere on the printing
plate, and it is this repitition which aids greatly in determining how the over-
print plates were fabricated in this and succeeding values. In the very few
cases where the full stops are missing, or failed to print, these,even more so,
help in the same determination.
In the case of this 1 KOP. value ( and in the succeeding ones), when the full
stops are above the bottom lines of the letters, the term "above the letter line"
is used in the text, and a stop with an upward arrow in the tabulated illustrat-
ions. When they are below the term "below the letter line" is used in the text
and a stop with a downward arrow in the tabulated illustrations. When they are
in line with the bottoms of the letters the term "normal" is used, but no indic-
ation whatever is given in the tabulated illustrations.
With this 1 KOP. value the positions of all the full stops are recorded as pairs
in the text (i.e.n (P) and M) only when one or both of the pair are not normal.
When they are not recorded for particular stamps the reader may assume that the
full stops lie in the "normal" position.
In the case of this 1 KOP. value only,in order to show clearly what the text on
the positions of the full stops means they are also recorded in detail in Fig.8.,
and also in a tabulated form at Fig.9., which latter form is used for all the
subsequent values of the overprint.








The Flaws (see Fig.10.).
The constant flaws on the 1 KOP. value are recorded below. No attempt has been
made here to record as flaws the positions of all the full stops, only those
being specifically recorded, which it is considered have sufficient individual-
ity as repetitive varieties.
The appearance of a numeral and an asterisk (e.g. (1*)) in front of the cliche
Number (e.g. No.l.) indicates that the particular flaw is repetitive on later
rows on the same sheet.


(1*) No.l.


(see Fig.l0)
DOPLATA Letter D is enlarged in height and each of the follow-
ing letters decreases in height progressively. The
letters tend to run together giving an obliterating
effect up to the T, which is the first letter visible
as such.


(2*) No.11. (see Fig.10)


DOPLATA


- Letters OPL increase in height to L then become normal.


(3*) No.21. ZOLOTOM
(4*) No.35 (see Fig.10)
1 KOP.


No.40. DOPLATA


- No stop after M.


- Thick 1.


- Loop of last A is gapped.


ZOLOTOM. The stop after M is small.


(1*) No.41.
No.47. DOPLATA
No.50. DOPLATA
1 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
(2*) No.51.
No.56. 1 KOP.
No.58. 1 KOP.
No.60. DOPLATA

1 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.

(3*) No.61. ZOLOTOM.
No.70. DOPLATA
1 KOP.


- As No.1.
- TA is weakly printed. Loop of A is gapped.
- TA is weak. Loop of A is missing.
- P is very thin. Very small full stop.
- M is weak. No stop after M.
- As No.11.
- Thick 1.
- Thick 1.
- Loop of last A is broken at the bottom and missing.
T is weak.
- KOP is weak with small stop.
- All letters of the word are weak, and there is a
small stop after M.
- No stop after M.
- Left arm of (D) is broken.
- Thin KOP with small vertical stroke as full stop.


ZOLOTOM. All letters are weak.


Nos.71, 72, 73.
(4*) No.75. 1 KOP.
No.80. ZOLOTOM.
(1*) No.81.
(2*) No.91.


- As No.1.
- Thick 1.
- Weak print, especially left loop of second 0, etc.
- As No.l.
- As No.11.










FIG.9 ARRANGEMENT OF FULL STOPS ON 1


Cliche No.


Row No,1.




Row No.2.




Row No.3.




Row No.4.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .10
: :


n

M


n. nt

M M


n "t

Mo
,L No
n

M.


n

M.
Full
n

M.


n



nI

M.
Stop.

n
MI


n1 nt

Me M.-


no n

M, M.

n n*

MI Mi


nt

M.


Row No.5.




Row No.6.


Row No.7.


Row No.8.


Row No.9.


Row No.10.


n n

M M.


n .:



'nt
Me
L
U0

n

Me


Mn

M.


nt

M.
No Full
n

M.


n


n t
M.

Stop.
n

M.


nt .. n
M. Mt


n n,

M* M


n. n

Mt -M.


n
Mo


n ni

M. M


*nt

M.


nl nM nM

M. Me M.


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.
M = Russian letter = English letter M.


n;

Mt




:M.


n n n n n n n n n n

M M1 M M. M. Mt M. M. M. Mt

n n n no n ni n n n n

M M. Ml Mt M. M. M M. Mt M#


KOPEK OVERPRINTED SHEET.










n. n. n. n.


M. M. M. M.


n.


m.
Nos. 2
42
82



n.


M.
Nos.10
50
90



n.



Nos.19
59
99


n.


M.
Nos. 4
44
84



n.


M.
Nos.12
52
92



n.


m.
Nos.20
60
100


n.


M.
Nos. 5
45
85



n


M.
Nos.13
53
93



n.



Nos.21
61


Nos. 9
49
89


n. n. n. n.


M. M. M. .


Nos.14
54
94


Ii


Nos.15
55
95


n


Nos.16
56
96


Nos.18
58
98


U 0
N.B.A B


Nos.22
62


Nos.23
63


Nos.24
64


Nos.25
65


FIG.8A : 1 Kopek Value Arrangement of full Stops in the Overprint.
Missing numbers have normal Full Stops level
with bases of letters 'n' and 'M'.


0


Nos. 6
46
86


Nos. 7
47
87


Nos. 8
48
88







n. n.
0 0
N. M.
Nos.26 Nos.27
66 67


n.

M.
Nos.35
75


n. n n nn n,

M. NM.M. M.
Nos.29 Nos.30 Nos.31 Nos.32 Nos.33 Nos.34
69 70 71 72 73 74


n.

M.
Nos.36
76
FIG.8B


nr n n n

l. W. m. B.
Nos.37 Nos.38 Nos.39 Nos.40
77 78 79 80
: Continued from Fig.8A.


lou IaTa


lonuaTa


Nos. 1 Nos.1
4 1 51
81 Hon. 9
Nos.35 and 75.
FIG.10 : 1 Kopek Value Repetitive Overprint Flaws.










Comment.
As the positions of the full stops on Fig.8A and 8B (and Fig.9) and the flaw
descriptions indicate the following varieties are common -
(a) Full Stops:
Rows 1, 5, and 9. the positions of the full stops repeat as follows-
Nos.2, 42, 82. P stops above the letter line.
M stops below the letter line.
Nos.4, 44, 84. P stops below the letter line.
Nos.5, 45, 85. P stops below the letter line.
Nos.6, 46, 86. P stops below the letter line.
M stops above the letter line.
Nos.7, 47, 87. P stops below the letter line.
Nos.8, 48, 88. P stops below the letter line.
Nos.9, 49, 89. P stops below the letter line.
Nos.10,50, 90. P stops below the letter line.
M stops above the letter line.
and so on for
Rows 2, 6, and 10.
Rows 3, and 7.
Rows 4 and 8.
(b) Flaws:
The following flaws are repetitive -
Flaws (1*) on Nos.l, 41, 81.
(2*) on Nos.ll, 51, 91.
(3*) on Nos.21, 61.
(4*) on Nos.35, 75.
NOTE: The presence of thick "l's" on Nos.35, 56, and 75 is probably due to
make-ready, and has no bearing on the repetitiveness of flaws.
In a more simplified form,the abovementioned detail is represented below -
(a) Full stops are repeated as follows:
R 1, 5, 9.
2, 6, 10.
3, 7, -
4, 8, -
(b) Flaws are repeated as follows:
(1*) No.l(RI), 41(R5), 81(R9).
(2*) No.ll(R2), 51(R6), 91(R10).
(3*) No.21(R3), 61(R7),
(4*) No.35(R4), 75(R8), -
28









This form is used for all the succeeding values of the overprint.
Conclusion.
All of the foregoing detail indicates that an original forme was made up of
movable type from which a copper alto was grown. This alto plate was then used
to make three separate electrotypes from one of which the two top rows were cut.
The three electrotypes were then assembled to make the 1 KOP. overprint plate,
as shown diagrammatically below and also at Fig.9.

ELECTRO I (R1, 2, 3, 4.)

FORME ALTO ELECTRO II (R5(1), 6(2), 7(3), 8(4)).
(R1,2,3,4.) (R1,2,3,4.)
(RELECTRO III (R9(1), 10(2)).

THE 3 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
The letters of the 3 KOP. value overprint are generally uniform in height. The
numbers vary slightly from thin to thick, and very thick as in the cases of Nos.
35 and 63 (see Fig.12.).
The Full Stops are generally rounded, but squared stops do exist on Nos.55 and
88. These are tabulated at Fig.ll.
Measurements of Centrelines.


Measurements of the centrelines of the overprints are reproduced below -
Vertical Rows 1 to 10 all 24mm.
Horizontal Rl to R2 30mm. R4 to R5 29mm. R7 to R8 30
R2 to R3 30mm. R5 to R6 30mm. R8 to R9 29,
R3 to R4 30mm. R6 to R7 30+mm. R9 to R10- 30r


Tin.
* m.5in
flu.


The Full Stops.
Relevant and repetitive Full Stops are shown at Fig.ll.
Flaws-(see Fig.12).
(1*) No.2. (see Fig.12)
DOPLATA thin right loop of 0.
(2*) No.21. 3 KOP. Bulge on n(P) at top right. L
ZOLOTOM. No stop after M.
(3*) No.22. (see Fig.12)
DOPLATA Right leg of (L) thinned.
ZOLOTOM. Loop of third 0 of ZOLOTOM th:
No.33. ZOLOTOM. (Z) thinned and broken.
No.34. ZOLOTOM. As No.33.
No.35. 3 KOP. Large thick 3.
ZOLOTOM. Squared full stop.


(1*) No.42.
No.55. ZOLOTOM.
(1*) No.62.


arge round full stop.


inned.


- As No.2.
- Squared full stop.
- As No.2.













STOPS ON 3 KOPIEK (VI:RPRIN'I'ILD SHEET.


Cliche No.


Row No.1.




Row No.2.




Row No.3.




Row No.4.




Row No.5.




Row No.6.




Row No.7.




Row No.8.




Row No.9.




Row No.10.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


n. nt nt n n n n rn n




n n n n, i n it n. I n n

M. M. Mt M N. M. M. M. Mt M.

n n n n nT n n n. n n

Mo M. M. M Mm M Mt MN. M.
LNO FULL STOP.
n n 1 i nll t 1n n n n

M. M. MI M. M. M. M M, M, M

no n n. n n n n n n n

M Mt M. M. M. M M. M, M. Ms

n. n n n. I nt n. n n n

M. M. Mt Mt M. M. M. M. Mt M.

n. nI n. n n n n n n n

M. Mt M. M. M. M MI M. M. MI

no n n n, n nI no n n n

M, M. Mt Mt M. M. M. M. Mt M.

n n n n n* n n no n n


SNO FULL STOP.
n n n n n nt n n n n

Me M. Mi M. M. M. M. M. M. M.


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.
M = Russian letter = English letter M.


__


FIG.11. ARRANGEMENT OF FULL





EI


floniaia

5 Hon.


Nos. 55 65 .
Nos. 55, 65.


5 Hon.
No. 67. Note: Thick Tall "5".




No. 87. Note: Small 3(Z).


FIG.14 : 5 KOP. Value Flaws.


L


Hon.
Large "3".


JOTs N.
Nos. 32, 82.


o Hon. 3
Normal "3".


cn aT 30
Nos. 2, 42, 62.
FIG.12. : 3 KOP. Value Flaws.


A










Flaws (continued).
No.63. 3KOP. Thick squared 3.
(2*)No.81. ZOLOTOM. No stop after M.
(3*)No.82. ZOLOTOM. Loop of third 0 of ZOLOTOM thinned.
No.88. ZOLOTOM. Squared full stop.
Comment.
As the positions of the full stops on Fig.11. indicate the following rows of
overprint cliches correspond -
R.1, 5, 7.
2, 6, 8.
3, 9.
4, 10.
Relevant and repetitive flaws are -
(1*) No.2(Rl), 42(R5), 62(R7).
(2*) No.21.(R3), 81(R9).
(3*) No.22(R3), 82(R9).
Conclusion.
The printing plate for the 3 KOP. overprint was made up from a forme of movable
type comprising 40 units (4 rows of 10). From this forme an alto of 40 units was
grown in copper, and from this alto three electrotypes were made from one of
which two rows of 10 units were cut to make up Rows 5 and 6. The arrangement is
shown diagrammatically below -

ELECTRO I (R1, 2, 3, 4)
FORME ALTO ELECTRO II (R5(1), 6(2).
(R1,2,3,4.) (R1,2,3,4.)
ELECTRO,III (R7(1), 8(2), 9(3), 10(4)).

THE 5 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
This overprint plate exhibits distinct variations in the size and shape of the
5's of 5 KOP. Thus stamp No.6 shows a square type thickened 5 (see Fig.14), which
is quite distinctive, and is repeated with variation in shape and thickness over
as many as 25 other cliches especially on the lower half of the sheet of stamps.
Squared Full Stops predominate on the sheets.
Overprint Measurements.
Measurements made on the centrelines of the overprints are recorded below -
Verticals Rows 1 to 10 24mm. in all cases.
Horizontals R1 to R2 31mm. R4 to R5 30mm. R7 to R8 30mm.
R2 to R3 30mm. R5 to R6 30+mm. R8 to R9 29mm.
R3 to R4 29+mm. R6 to R7 29.5mm. R9 to RIO- 31mm.
There is also essential line up of all the rows of cliches at the left and right.












The Full Stops.
The positions of the Full Stops are tabulated at Fig.13,
Flaws (see Fig.14).
No.6. 5 KOP. Thick and tall squared 5.
(4*)No.20. 5 KOP. n(P) has short right leg.
No.30. 5 KOP. n(P) has thin short right leg.


(l*)No.38.
No.42.
No.45.
(l*)No.48.
(2*)No.55.


No.63.
(2*)No.65.
(3*)No.60.
No.67.


(3*)No.70.
(4*)No.80.
No.82.


5 KOP. Large squared stop after P.
DOPLATA PL joined.
5 KOP. Thick squared 5.
5 KOP. As No.38.
(see Fig.14)


5 KOP.
DOPLATA
5 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
5 KOP.


Zolotom.
5 KOP.
DOPLATA


No.87. (see Fig.14)
ZOLOTOM.
No.92. DOPLATA


- Position of 5 to right side of D in DOPLATA above.
- PL joined at base.
- As No.55.
- Minute full stop after M.
- (i) 5 is thick and squared.
(ii) Right leg of n(P) is shortened and full stop is
elevated.
- As No.60.
- As No.20.
- As No.63.


- (Z) is short in height.
- As No.63.


Comment.
The make-up of this plate is somewhat of a puzzle. From a study of the positions -
of the full stops there does not appear to be much correspondence. Rows 1, 2, 3,
and 4, do not correspond with Rows 7, 8, 9, and 10, but Row 4 (No.38) does corres-
pond with Row 5 (No.48) in the form of large square full stops after P. Row 6
_(No.60) corresponds with Row 7 (No.70) because of the minute full stop after M.
Nos.40,and 50 also correspond by virtue of the full stop after P lying below the
line of the letters in each case.
As far as variations in typesetting are concerned, Rows 6 and 7 do have a corres-
ponding variety 'in the form of the 5,which is set to the right of the D in DOPL-
ATA on both Nos.55 and 65, the only case where this happens on the plate.
In tabulated form corresponding varieties are set out below -
(1*) No.38(R4)-, Np.48(R5). (2*) No.55(R6), No.65(R7).
No.40(R4), No.50(R5). (3*) No.60(R6), No.70)R7).


I













FIG.13. ARRANGEMENT OF FuLL STOPS ON 5 KOPEK OVERPRINTIE SHEET.

Cliche No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


Row No.1. no n3 n. n. no n. n. n_


Row No.2.




Row No.3.




Row No.4.




Row No.5.




Row No.6.




Row No.7.




Row No.8.




Row No.9.




Row No.10.


n n. n. no n. n. n. nj no n 1
Large Squared Stop.
M. Mo MH M. M. M M M. M. M. M. H

n no no no no nn n. n, n,. o
Small Full Stop.--
MN M M. M. M M. M. Me M. M. C4

nt n. no no no no no no no no
Small Full Stop.--
M. MH M. M& M. M. MO Me M, M.

no no no nb n n no n no n. n,




n. no n, no no na n n no no n.

M Mo M. M. M, N NM MO. M. NM

no no n. n. no n. no no no no

M m M* M* M, M, M, MO Me M. Me


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.
M = Russian letter M = English letter M.


9 1.0











Conclusion.
The limited information on corresponding varieties suggests that two separate
forces of movable type were made up from each of which an alto was made. Then,
from each of these altos,two electrotypes were made. From one of them,Row 4
was cut off and attached to the firstelectro'andfrom the other, the top. Row was
separated and attached to the top of the second electrotype. This. is shown be-
low in diagrammatic form and also on Fig.13.

---- ELECTRO I (R1, 2, 3, 4.)

FORME I ---- ALTO I -ELECTRO II (R5(4))
(R1,2,3,4.) (R1,2,3,4,.)

FORME II- ALTO II ELECTRO III (R6(7).)
(R7,8,9,10.) (R7,8,9,10.) \
(t-- ELECTRO IV (R7, 8, 9, 10.)

THE 8 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
The printing plate for this value presents us with a problem, because it carries
two types of 8's.
The Soviet Catalogue gives an illustration of the two types of overprint, and
these are reproduced at Fig.15, from which the reader will deduce that the
characteristics of the types should be as follows:
Type I (i) The "8" is broader with larger white areas between the loops.
(ii) DOPLATA has a shaved D at the upper left, and is slightly shorter
than the D in Type II.
(iii) The other letters of DOPLATA diminish in height from the 0 to the
last A.
Type II- (i) The "8" is taller and narrower and thicker, with corresponding
diminution of the white areas within the loops.
(ii) The D of DOPLATA is slightly taller than that of Type I and the
other letters are in line at their tops, but irregular at the
bottom the P and L being shorter in overall length.
My observations are illustrated at Fig.16. and the reader will see that they do
not correspond in every respect with what has been reproduced in the Soviet Cat-
alogue. Certainly the "8's" are fairly similar, but I have found the letters of
DOPLATA to be similar in the both Types.
My observations show, also, that Type II appears on Nos.8, 20, 43, 58, 70 and 93,
which is not a random distribution across the sheets of stamps.
Overprint Measurements.
Measurements of the centrlines of the overprints are as follows -
Vertical Rows are all 24mm. apart.
Horizontal Rows are all 30mm. apart.
However vertical Rows Nos.l, 2, 3, and 4, are all stepped down by Imm. in relat-
ion to Rows Nos.5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, but there is also some uneveness with in-
dividual cliches as well.











The Full Stops.
These are illustrated in tabular form at Fig.17.
Flaws (see Figs.8A &18.B)
There are more flaws associated with this value than any of the others.
No.l. DOPLATA Letters PL increase in height L being the tallest. The
letters are generally uneven in height.
(l*)No.2. ZOLOTOM. Right leg of M Is broken mid-way, and there is no full
stop.
(2*)No.8. .8 KOP. Type II "8".
(3*)No.20. (see Fig.18B)
8 KOP. Type II "8".
(4*)No.30. DOPLATA Lettet L is filled with ink, and loop of first A is


(5*)No.34.


(5*)No.,


(7*)No.i


missing.
8 KOP. (i) "8" is thick at right side and distorted.
(ii) Right leg of n(P) is thinned.
(iii) There is a large squared stop.
ZOLOTOM. The 3(Z) is represented by 3 dots of colour in vertical
alignment; the left leg of the L is missing; the right
Cross-arm of the T is missingand the vertical leg thin-
ned; and the right leg of.the M is very-thin at the bot-
tom half.
(see Fig.18B)
DOPLATA Letters OPL increase in height L being the tallest.
ZOLOTOM. 3(Z) is thin;the third 0 has a thin right loop; M is
weak at right lpg and,there is a squared stop.


35. (see Fig.18A)
ZOLOTOM. 3() is thinned at right; the right loops of the second
and third O's are thinned.
W0. (see Fig.18A)


(8*)No.43.
(9*)No.44.
(10*)No.49.




(ll*)No.50.


8KOP, n(P) has a thinned right leg and there is a large round
full stop,
ZOLOTOM. Bottom half of the right leg of M is missing and there
is a large distorted full stop.
8 KOP. '- Type II "8".
8 KOP. Has a large squaredfull stop.
(see Fig.18B)
ZOLOTOM. The lower half of the right leg of M is thinned to a


8 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.


point, and the right cross-arm is shortened and the
vertical is thinned to the bulbous base.
- Full stop is very small.
- Full stop is very small.


T ,








8 on.aa
8 Kon.


Son0aia
8 K0n.


FIG.15 : The Types of the "8" as shown in
the Soviet Catalogue.


lonjaTa


8


Hon.


3010TOM.
Type I.
FIG.16 : The Types I & II


by the Author.


8


3010JTOH.
Type II.
of' the "8" as observed


30O10TC M 301TOf.
Nos. 35, 85. Nos. 40, 70.
FIG.18A : The 8 KOP. Value Flaws.
(Continued on page39)


8 mon.
30O0TOM.


HOn.


M nTa














FIG.17. ARRANGEMENT OF FULL STOPS ON


Clichi No.


Row No.1.


Row No.2.


Row No.3.




Row No.4.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


i ...


n5 n3 no

Mo M. M.
-NO FULL STOP.
no no no

M. M M.


nA no n.

M M. M.


n n. n.

M. M. M.


M


no

M.


n.
Large
M.


nt

M


n.

M.


n,

Me


ni
Squared
Mo


no

Mt


n.

M.


nt

M.


nt
Stop.
M.


nt

Mt


Me

no
M.












nt

M.


In '_


n n n a nu nI n, n.
-LARGE SQUARED STOP. S
M. M. M. M. M. M. M,


Row No.10.


Mn n M n

M. Mo M.


n. nz
-LARGE
M. M.


na
SQUARED
M.


no no n; n.
STOP. SMALL FULL STOP. -I
M. M M, Mi


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.
M = Russian letter = English letter M.


n.
MALL
M.


Row No.5.


Row No.6.


Row No.7.


Row No.8.


Row No.9.


n'
FULL STOP
Me


n H
n.

Ni M


n n no n o n ni n n n, no n,

M. Mo M. Mv M. M. M. M M. M.
t--NO FULL STOP.
n, no no n. n n n n. n. nt n.

M. M M. M. M. M. M. M. M M M


n n n. n n. n n n. n. nf nt n
Large Squared Stop.--
M. Mo M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M.


no n. no n, n. n. ni n n n

M M. M. M, M Me Mt M Mi Me


m I


--


-


6 KOPEK OVERPRINTED SHEET.







0onAaTa


1on4 .


0fonl Ta


8


. 30, 50, 0.
Nos. 30, 50, 80.


0on.


S30OTOM.
Nos. 34, 84.


30101GMW .
Nos. 49, 99.
FIG.18B.: The 8 KOP. Value Flaws (Continued).


12
Nos. 11,


Hon. 12 non.
31, 51, 71, 91. Nos. 25, 55.

Nos. 18, 38, 58, 78, 98.
FIG.21: The 12 KOP. Value Flaws.


B












Flaws (continued).
(1*)No.52. ZOLOTOM.
(2*)No.58. 8 KOP.
No.60. ZOLOTOM.


No.64.
(3*)No.70.
No.79.


(4*)No.80.


8 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
8 KOP.

ZOLOTOM.


(5*)No.84.
(6*)No.85.
No.87. 8 KOP.
(7*)No.90. ZOLOTOM.
(8*)No.93.
(9*)No.94.
No.98. ZOLOTOM.
(10*)No.99.
(ll*)No.100.ZOLOTOM.


Comment.
Examination of the full
pondences -
Rl, 6.


- Has no full stop.
- Type II "8".
- The Z and T are deformed and thin, and the whole word
is skewed down to the right in relation to the.other
two lines of type.
Similar to No.34, except that the Z is not thinned.
As No.20.
Has very small full stop.
-Has very small full stop.
Letters 0 and P are thinned and distorted and there is
a large squared stop.
- The latter 3(Z) is represented by two dots of colour
in vertical alignment; the left leg of J(L) is missing;
the right cross-arm of T is missing, and there is a
large square stop.
- As No.34.
- As No.35.
- (P) has a projection of colour at upper right.
- The right leg of M is thinned and missing at lower half.
- As No.43.
- As No.44.
- Right leg of M is thinned and distorted inward.
- As No.49.
- Small full stop.


stops as shown on Fig.17. shows the following Row corres-


R2, 7. R3, 8. R4,


9. R5, 10.


Likewise the flaws
(1*) -
(2*) -
(3*) -
(4*) -
(5*) -


repeat row
Nos.2(Rl),
Nos.8(Rl),
Nos.20(R2),
Nos.30(R3),
Nos.34(R4),


by row as follows -
52(R6). (6*) Nos.35(R4),
58(R6). (7*) Nos.40(R4),
70(R7). (8*) Nos.43(R5),
80(R8). (9*) Nos.44(R5),
84(R9). (10*)- Nos.49(R5),
(11*)- Nos.50(R5),


85(R9).
90(R9).
93(R10)..
94(R10).
99(R1O);.
100(RIO).












Conclusion.
The abovementioned detail indicates that two formes were made up from movable
type one of 40 units in 4 rows of 10; theother in a single row of 10. OR,
one forme of 50 units was made in 5 rows of 10. However, as it seems to have
been the order of the day to produce nothing greater than 4 rows of 10 in the
cases of the other values of overprint, it would seem that there was some tech-
nical limitation associated with this procedure. Because of this seeming limit-
ation I will adhere to the block of 40 units as being the largest possible and
base my further argument on it.
From the two formes produced,two independent altos were produced and from each of
of these two electrotypes thus:


----ELECTRO I (R1,

FORME I ALTO I ELECTROO II (R6(
(R1,2,3,4.) (R1,2,3,4.)

FORME II ALTO II --ELECTRO III (R5)
(R5) (R5)
.----. ELECTRO IV (R10


2, 3, 4.)

1), 7(2), 8(3), 9(4))


(5)).


The assembly of these 4 Electro produced the printing plate for this 8 KOP.
As far as the TYPE II "8's" are concerned these were undoubtedly built into
plate when the type was being selected.


THE 10 KOPEK OVERPRINT.

Squared full stops predominate throughout the sheets of printed stamps, but the
numbers of distinguishing flaws are small.
Measurements of Centrelines.
Measurements of centrelines are as follows -
Vertical all 24mm.


Horizontal RI to R6 all 30mm.
R6 to R7 31mm.


R7 to R9 30rm.
R9 to R10- 30.5+mm.


The Full Stops.
The layout of the Full Stops is shown at Fig.19.


Flaws.
No.18. 10 KOP.
No.40. 10 KOP.
No.50. 10 KOP.
No.78. 10 KOP.
No.80. 10 KOP.
No.90. 10 KOP.


- Has large fullstop.
- Has large rhomboidal stop.
- Has a large square stop.
- Has a large square stop.
- Has a large rhomboidal stop.
- 1 is elevated above the 0.


value.
the













FIG.19. ARRANGEMENT OF FULL STOPS ON 10KOPEK OVERPRINTED SHEET.


Cliche No. 1


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


n no no

M* M. M


n, n, n ni

M. Me M. M,


n. no

Me M.


Row No.1.




Row No.2.




Row No.3.




Row No.4.


Sn n. n

M. M. M.


n no n

M. M. M.


no n n n. n no no

M. M M. Mt M Mo M.

LARGE FULL STOP.--
n, n. n. no n, n. n

M. Me Me M. M. .M. M.


n. n. n. nH
LARGE FULL STOP. M
M. M. M. M .
-----------*


n n

MN M.


no n n

M. M. M.


n* n. n. no n, n.

M. M. M. M. M. M.


no n

M. M.


n, n. n. n.

M M. M. M.
LARGE. FULL STOP.
n. n no nW

M. M. M. M.


n. no n, n. n, n, n, no n,

M. M. M. M. M, M. M. M. M.


Row No.10.


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.

M = Russian letterM = English letter M.


no no no

M. .M. M.


Row No.5. n

M.


Row No.6.




Row No.7.




Row No.8.


Row No.9. n.

M-


___









Comment.
Checks on the full stops reveal the following row correspondences -
R1, 10. R2, 6. R3, -. R4, 5, 8. R9, -.
The flaws mainly full stop varieties show -
R4, 5, 8. large rhomboidal full stops after KOP.
R9. the 1 and 0 are out of alignment.
The measurements of centrelines of the horizontal rows reveal significant dif-
ferences between -
R6, and 7; R9 and RIO.
Alignment of the vertical rows at the left shows that R10 stands forward of R7,
8, and 9, and these in turn are forward of Rl'to 6.
Conclusion.
This data indicates that R9 is the oddity, standing by itself, and that two
Formes must have been made up, together with their own separate altos. From these
altos four electrotypes were made up from one, and one from the other. The dia-
grammatic arrangement is shown below -

ELECTRO I (Rl, 2, 3, 4.)

ELECTRO II (R5(4)).
FORME I ALTO I
(Rl,2,3,4.) (Rl,2,3,4.) ELECTRO III (R6(2), R7(3),8(4).)


ELECTRO IV (R10(1).)

FORME II ALTO II ELECTRO V (R9.)
(R9) (R9)

THE 12 KOPEK OVERPRINT.

The letters used for this overprint have been laid down evenly in straight lines
as evidenced by DOPLATA. The full stops are largely squared.
The numerals comprise two groups -
(i) in which both are of even height, and
(ii)the other in which the 1 is consistently taller than the 2.
Because of the consistency of position with which the taller "l's" recur on the
sheets of stamps and hence within the forme the variation must have arisen orig-
inally from type selection.
Measurements of Centrelines.
Measurements of centrelines are -
R1 to R2 29mm. R4 to R5 31.5mm. R7 to R8 29mm.
R2 to R3 30mm. R5 to R6 29mm. R8 to R9 31mm.
R3 to R4 29mm. R6 to R7 31mm. R9 to RIO- 29mm.











Rows 7,8,9 and 10 stand forward at their Left ends of Rows 3,4,5,and 6, and Rows
Rows 1 and 2 in front of all the others.
The Full Stops.
The layout of the Full Stops is set out in Fig.20,
Flaws. (see Fig.21.)
No.2. 12 KOP. 1 is slightly taller than 2.
No.3. ZOLOTOM. Deformed third O at right.
No.9. ZOLOTOM. Deformed first 0 at right.
(1*)No.ll. (see Fig.21.)
12 KOP. Thicker and taller 1 in relation to the 2.
(2*)No.12. 12 KOP. As No.11.
(3*)No.13. 12 KOP. 1 is slightly taller than 2.
(4*)No.18. (see Fig.21.)
ZOLOTOM. Right leg of M is broken at. the lower extremity.
(5*)No.19. 12 KOP. -. 1 is taller than the 2.
(6*)No.25. (see Fig.21.)


(1*)No.31.
(2*)No.32.
(3*)No.33.
No.35.
(4*)No.38.


(5*)No.39.
No.43.
No.44.
No.49.
(1*)No.51.
(2*)No.52.
(3*)No.53.
(4*)No.58.
(5*)No.59.
No.65.
(1*)No.71.
(2*)No.72.
(3*)No.73.
No.75.


12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
ZOLOTOM.
ZOLOTOM.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.


- n(P) has indentation at upper right of right leg.
- As No.11.
- As No.12.
- As No.13.
- 0 is broken at upper right leg.
- As No.11.
- As No.18.
- As No.19.
- First 0 is broken at the right loop.
- The second 0 has a cross-bar,
- M-has sharp indentation at upper right.
- As No.11.
- As No.12.
- As No.13.
-.As No.18.
- As No.19.
- Right leg of M is thinned and distorted.
- As No.11.
- As No.12.
- As No.13.
- Right leg of M is thinned and distorted.


1














FIG.20. ARRANGEMENT OF FULL STOPS ON 12KOPEK OVERPRTNTED SHEET.


Cliche No. 1


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Row No.l.




Row No.2.




Row No.3.




Row No.4.




Row No.5.




Row No.6.




Row No.7.




Row No.8.




Row No.9.




Row No.10.


*

M.


ne

Mo


- -r -


no no

M M


n* n n. n. n. no n. n n.

M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M.


n o n o no n. n. no no n. no

M, M. M. M. M. M. MG M. M. M.


n. n* n. n. n. no ni nf n. n.

M. M. M. M. M. M. M M. MH M.


n n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n. n.

M. M. Mo M. M. M. M, M. M. M.


n. n. i. n. n. n n n, n. n,

M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M.


n no n. no n. n n. n. n, n,

M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M.


n. n oo n no no n. nt n. n. no

M. M. M M. M N M. M. M. M. M.


n n n n. n. n. n. n. n, n. n.

M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M.


n. no nh

Me M, M.


n. n, n n

M- M M


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.

M = Russian letterM = English letter M.












No.76.
(4*)No.78.
(5*)No.79.
(6*)No.85.
(1*)No.91.
(2*)No.92.
(3*)No.93.
(4*)No.98.

(5*)No.99.
Comment.


The sparse
correspond


12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
12 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.

12 KOP.


- As
- As
- As
- As
- As
- As
- As


No.11.
No.18.
No,19.
No.25.
No.11.
No.12.
No.13.


- Lower right leg of M is broken (the whole M is weakly
printed).
- As No.19.


correlation of the full stops indicates that the following rows
-
R1, 3, 5, 7, 9.
2, 4, 6, 8, 10.


The information yielded by the extensive list
(1*)Nos.ll(R2), 31(R4), 51(R6),
(2*)Nos.12(R2), 32(R4), 52(R6),
(3*)Nos.13(R2), 33(R4), 53(R6),
(4*)Nos.18(R2), 38(R4), 58(R6),
(5*)Nos.19(R2), 39(R4), 59(R6),
(6*)Nos.25(R3), -


of flaws is -
71(R8), 91(R10).
72(R8), 92(R10).
73(R8), 93(R10).
78(R8), 98(RlO).
79(R8), 99(RO0).
85(R9).


Conclusion.
All this information indicates that the original forme was of 20 units in two
rows of 10, from which an alto was made, and from which alto 5 electrotypes were
grown. These latter were assembled to form the printing plate, as indicated dia-
grammatically below.


FORME ALTO -
(Rl,2) (Rl,2)


ELECTRO I (R1, 2.)

ELECTRO II (R3, 4.)

ELECTRO III (R5, 6.)

ELECTRO IV (R7, 8.)

ELECTRO V (R9,10.)


This arrangement is quite different to any other for the overprints.









THE 14 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
The 14 KOP. Overprint is characterized by a preponderance of round full stops
on the upper part of the sheets of stamps, which became less in the lower part of
of the sheets being replaced by squared full stops.
This value of overprint is also characterized by a number of tall 4's and two
ones that are taller than their associated 4's. As will be shown there. is a
high degree of correlation in the positions of these items in the rows. From
this it is certain that their presence arose from original type selection.
The ATA of DOPLATA diminishes in height letter by letter to the last A.
Measurements of Centrelines.
Measurements of centrelines of the overprints are -
Rl to R4 30mm,
R4 to R5 30.5mm.
R6 to R7 29.5mm.
R7 to R10 30mm.
Rows 7,8,9 and 10 stand forward to the left of all the other rows.
Full stops.
The layout of the full .stops is shown at Fig.22,
Flaws (see Fig.23.).


(l*)No.2.


14 KOP.


(2*)No.4. 14
(3*)No.5. 14
(4*)No.8. 14
(5*)No.10. 14
(6*)No.17. 14
No.20. 14
(7*)No.24. 14
(8*)No.32. 14
(9*)No.36. 14
(10*)No.39.14
(ll*)No.40.14
(1*)No.42. 14
(2*)No.44. 14
(3*)No.45. 14
(4*)No.48. 14
(5*)No.50. 14
(6*)No.57. (se
14


KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
-KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
.e Fig.23.
KOP.


- 4 is taller than 1.
- As No.2.
- As No.2.
- As No.2.
- Has a very faint stop below the bottom line of n(P).
- 1 is smaller than 4.
- Faint stop below (P).
- As No.2.
- The 4 is narrow.
- As No.2.
- 1 is slightly taller than 4, and much thicker than usual.
- As No.39.
- As No.2.
- 4 is taller than 1, and skewed in relation thereto.
- As No.2.
- Has a faint stop below f(P).
- Has a faint stop below n(P).

1 is taller thn the 4 and thicker than usual
- 1 is taller than the 4 and thicker than usual.











(1*)
(2*)

(3*)
(4*)
(6*)



(7*)
(9*)


(8*)
(9*)
(10*)
(11*)


N0.60.
NO.61.
No.62.
No.64.

No.65.
No.68.
No.77.
No.80.

No.84.
No.85.
No.90.
No.92.
No,96.
No.99.
No.100.


KOP.
KOP.
KOP.
KOP.


14 KOP.
14 KOP.
14 KOP.
Doplata

14 KOP.
14 KOP.
14 KOP.
14 KOP.
14 KOP.
14 KOP.
14 KOP.


Comment.
The positions of the full
of stops thus:
R1, 5, 7.
2, 6, 8.


- Diagonal crossbar joins the legs of n(P).
- Nick in right leg of n(P).
- As No.2.
- 4 is taller than the 1 and the loop of the 4 is al-
most filled in with colour.
As No.64.
- 4 is taller than 1 and slightly elevated above the 1.
- 1 is taller and the 1 is much thicker than usual.
- Small spot of colour between L and A near tops of
letters.
- As No.2.
- As No.2.
- Small dash as full stop below the n(P).
- Narrow 4 in relation to 1.
- As No.2.
- 1 is elevated above the 4.
- 1 is elevated above the 4 and P of KOP is thin and
weak.


stops indicate the following correlation in the rows


The positions


3, 9.
4, 10.
of the flaws indicates the fallowing


correlation -


(l*)Nos.2(Rl),
(2*)Nos.4(Rl),
(3*)Nos.5(Rl),
(4*)Nos.8(Rl),
(5*)Nos.10(Rl),
(6*)Nos.17(R2),
(7*)Nos.24(R3),
(8*)Nos.32(R4),
(9*)Nos.36(R4),
(10*)Nos.39(R4),
(11*)Nos.40(R4),


42(R5),
44(R5),
45(R5),
48(R5),
50(R5),


62(R7).
64(R7).
65(R7).
68(R7).


7(R6), 77(R8).
- 84(R9).
92(R10).
96(R10).
S 99(R10).
S 100(R10).


_


57












FULL STOPS ON'14KOPEK OVERPRINTED SHEET


Cliche No.


Row No.1.




Row No.2.



Row No.3.




Row No.4.




Row No.5.




Row No.6.




Row No.7.



Row No.8.




Row No.9.



Row No.10.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


9 10


n. nt n. n n n n n n n

M. Mt M. M. M. Mn M. .M. M. Mn

n. n n n, n nh n n n n

M. M. M Mi M M. M. M. M* M.


n n n n; n n, n, n n

MO M M. M, M M. M* M. M. M.

n ni no n n n. nn nt n n

Me M. M. M. M. M, M. M. M. M*

no n n; n o n n n n n n,

MH M M. M. M. M* M. M. Ms M

nf n n n. n nt n. n n n

M. M. M M M. M M. M* M.

n. n n. n h n n n n n

M. M M. M M. M M. M. M. M

no n n, n nt n, n n n

M. M. Mi M M M. M. M. M M.

f l a n n0 n n n nn
n n n n n. T T I m m mn
M. M. M. M Mt M. M* M. M. M.

n n n n n n. n n n n,

M. M. M. M. MH M. M. M. M. M.


n = Russian letter


n = English letter p.


M = Russian letterM = English letter M.


1


FIG.22., ARRANGEMENT OF










Conclusion.
As there is a high degree of correspondence in this data,it is certain that
three electrotypes were made from the one alto, which was itself, produced
from an original forme of movable type made up in 4 rows of 10 units. These were
assembled to form the printing plate thus -
ELECTRO I (R1,2,3,4.)

FORME -LTO ELECTRO'II (R5(1),6(2))
(R1,2,3,4.) (Rl,2,3,4,)
3ELECTRO III (R7(1),8C2),9(3),10(4)).
THE 32 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
Well developed squared full stops pre-dominate throughout these sheets of stamps.
This plate carries several 2's of the 32's, which are differently shaped to those
on the rest of'the sheet. ;


Measurements of Centrelines.
Measurements made on the centrelines of the sheets of stamps are -
Vertical 24mm. in all cases.
Horizontal Ri to R2 29mm. R4 to R5 31mm. R7 to RI
R2 to R3 31+inm. R5 to R6 29mm. R8 to R
R4 to R4 29mm. R6 to R7 29.5mm. R9 to R
Rows 1,2,3 and 4 are set forward slightly to the left of Row 5 and
and 10 are forward to the left of all other rows..
The Full Stops.
The layout of the full stops is shown at Fig.24.
Flaws (see Fig.25).


8 29mm.
9 31mm.
10- 29mm. -
Rws 6,7,8,9


(1*)No.8.
No.12.
No.13.
(2*)No.15.



(3*)No.19,


(4*


32 KOP.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.
(see Fig.25)
32 KOP.

32 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.


)No.20. (see Fig.25)
DOPLATA
ZOLOTOM.
No.21. 32 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.


- Large.squared stop after n(P).
- Thick 3 in 32.
- As No.12.


- The 3 is set below the 2, which has a squared appear-
ance and appears thicker and taller.
- Large squared stop afternl(P).
- Very small stop after M and the bottom of the right
leg of A(L) is very thin.


- The right arm of A(D) is thin and deformed.
- Comma shaped stop after M.
- The 3 is deformed.
- This is weakly printed especially -along the base and
the bottom of the first 0 is missing.







14 Hon.
No.1.: Normal "4".


14 Hon.
Nos. 2, 42, 62.
The Tall "4".


14 non.
Nos. 57, 87.
The Tall "1".
FIG.23. : The 14 Kop. Value Flaws.


32 Hon.
Nos. 15, 35, 75.


3010JTO H.
Nos. 19, 39, 79.


IonjaTa
Nos. 20, 40, 80.
FIG.25. : The 32 KOP. Value Flaws.


40 Hon.


40 non.


Nos. 11, 51, 91. Nos. 18, 58, 78.

30A TOM. onJia
Nos. 37, 97. Nos. 55, 95.
FIG.27. : The 40 KOP. Value Flaws.










No.22. ZOLOTOM. Weakly printed as for No.21. and bottom of second 0
is missing.
No.23. ZOLOTOM. Weakly printed at base.
No.24. ZOLOTOM. Weakly printed at the base and the last 0 is chopped
short.


No.25.
(1*) No.28.
N0.34.
(2*) No.35.
No.36.
(3*) No.39.
(4*) No.40.


(5*)
(2*)
(6*)


(7*)
(2*)


No. 44
No.45
No.48


No.54
No.55


(8*) No.57.
(9*) No.59.
No.61.
(1*) No.68.
(2*) No.75.
(3*) No.79.
(4*) No.80.
(5*) No.84.
(6*) No.88.
(7*) No.94.
(8*) No.97.
(9*) No.99.
Comment.


ZOLOTOM.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.


DOPLATA
ZOLOTOM.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.
DOPLATA
32 KOP.
ZOLOTOM.
32 KOP.

ZOLOTOM.
ZOLOTOM.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.
32 KOP.



32 KOP.


ZOLOTOM.
ZOLOTOM.
ZOLOTOM.


- Vertical leg of T is shortened.
- As No.8.
- Has weakly printed 3.
- As No.15.
- Has weakly printed 3.
- As No.19.
- As no.20.
- As No.20.
- 2 has squared shape and is deformed and weakly printed.
- As No.15.
- Right arm of If(D) is deformed.
- Large squared stop after n(P).
- Very small elevated stop after M. -
- 2 is set below 32, and is broken away at base of top
loop to give the appearance of a colour dot.
Narrow elongated stop after M.
Narrow elongated full stop after M.
The 3 is weak.
As No.8.
As No.15.
As No.19.
As No.20.
As No.44.
As No.48.
As No.54.
- As No.57.
- As No.59.


The positions of the full stops (see Fig.24) indicate the following row correl-
ation -


Rl, 3, 7.
2, 4, 8.
- 5, 9.
6, 10.


0













OF FULL STOPS ON 32 KOPEK OVERPRINTED SHEET.


Clichi No.


Row No.l.




Row No.2.


Row No.3.




Row No.4.




Row No.5.




Row No.6.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


n n n n n n n n- n n
LARGE SQUARED STOP.-j
M M M M M M M M. M M


n
SMALL
M


n n.

M Mo
FULL STOP.
n n

M M


n no
FULL STOP.-
M M-


1 n n
LARGE SQUARED STOP.
M M M
COMMA SHAPED


n n n n
LARGE SQUARED STOP.
M M M Me


nI
-p
M.
STOP
n

M


n, n no
ELONGATED STOP.-
Me M Me


n,




n
M


n

M
M


MI


Row No.7.




Row No.8.




Row No.9.




Row No.10.


n = Russian letter n = English letter p.
M = Russian letter] = English letter M.


FIG.24. ARRANGEMENT









Likewise the flaws indicate a similar correlation at


(l*)Nos.8(Rl),
(2*)Nos.15(R2),
(3*)Nos.19(R2),
(4*)Nos.20(R2),
(5*)Nos. -
(6*)Nos. -
(7*)Nos. -
(8*)Nos. -
(9*)Nos. -


28(R3),
35(R4),
39(R4),
40(R4),
44(R5),
48(R5),
54(R6),
57(R6),
59(R6),


s the stops, thus -
68(R7).
75(R8).
79(R8).
80(R8).
84(R9).
85(R9).
94(R10).
97(R10).
99(R10).


Conclusion.
The printing plate was assembled from three electrotypes grown from the one alto,
two rows of 10 units being taken from the first electro, the other two electros
of 4 rows of.10 being used without alteration. The alto comprising 4 rows of 10-
units was grown from a forme of the same number of units and arrangement made
from movable type. The arrangement is shown diagrammatically below;-

ELECTRO I (Rl(3), 2(4)).

FORME ALTO ELECTRO II (R3, 4, 5, 6.)
(R3,4,5,6,) (R3,4,5,6.)
ELECTRO III (R7(3), 8(4), 9(5), 10(6)).

THE 40 KOPEK OVERPRINT.
The full stops on this plate are largely squared in form, but there are a few
rounded examples. A further characteristic is' the existence of several elongated
4's in relation to the O's. These are all in the 8th. vertical row, and yield
correlation within the rows.
Measurements of Centrelines.


Measurements of the centrelines of the overprints are -
Vertical All 24mm.
Horizontal R1 to R2 29mm. R4 to R5 31mm. R7 to R8 29n
R2 to R3 31.5mm. R5 to R6 29mm. R8 to R9 31n
R3 to R4 29mm. R6 to R7 31.5mm. R9 to R10- 29n
Rows 1,2,3,4 stand forward at left of Rows 5 and 6, as do Rows 7,8,9,10.
Full Stops.
See Fig.26. for the layout of the Full Stops associated with this value of over-
print.
Flaws (see Fig.27)
(l*)No.2. DOPLATA Right loop of 0 is weak to missing.
(2*)No.ll. (see Fig.27)
40 KOP. The 4 is small in relation to the O.


3m.
X10














FULL STOPS ON 40KOPEK OVERPRINTED SHEET.


Cliche No.


Row No.l.




Row No.2.




Row No.3.




Row No.4.


Row No.5.




Row No.6.




Row No.7.




Row No.8.




Row No.9.




Row No.10.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


n n n n n n n n n n

M M M M. M M M M M M


n n n n n n n n n n

M M M M M M MI M M M


n n n n n n n n n n

M M M M M M M M M M


n nM n n n n n n n n

M M M M M M M M M M


n n n n n n n n n n

M M M M M M M M M M


n Jn n n n n n n n n

M Mt M M M M MI M M M


n n n n h n n n n n

M M. M M M M M M M M


n n n n n n n n n n

M M M M M M Mt M M M


n n n n n n n n n n

M M M M M M M M M M


n na n n n n n n n n

M Mt M M M M MI M M M


n = Russian letter n =


English letter p.


M = Russian letter M = English letter M.


__


FIG.26. ARRANGEMENT OF











(3*)No.18.


(4*)No.37.


(5*)No.38.
(2*)No.51.
No.55



(3*)No.58.
(1*)No.62.
(2*)No.71.
(3*)No.78.
No.90.
No.91.
No.95.
(4*)No.97.


(see Fig.27)
40 KOP. Long narrow 4 in relation to 0.
(see Fig.27)
ZOLOTOM. The third 0 is weak at the top.
40 KOP. Tall 4 in relation to 0.
40 KOP. As No.11.
(see Fig.27)
DOPLATA D is deformed at lower right.
40 KOP. 4 is small in relation to the 0.
40 KOP. As No.18.
DOPLATA As No,2.
40 KOP. As No.11.
40 KOP. Long narrow 4 in relation to 0.
DOPLATA T is damaged near top.
40 KOP. Similar to No.11.
Similar to No.55.
ZOLOTOM. As No.37.


(5*)No.98. 40 KOP. As No.38.
NOTE: An unpositioned block comprising 3 vertical rows of 5 stamps carries two
adjacent vertical cliches in which the 4's of the 40's are distinctly
above the O's, as well as .one small 4 to the right of the lower cliche
with the elevated 4. There is also a block of 4 with the same vertical
pair of elevated 4's. As these do not appear on any of the full sheets or
part sheets I have studied their existence strongly suggests either -
(i) a printing plate in which some replacements were made, or
(ii) a second printing plate was made.
Comment.
The few examples of out of normal positioned Full Stops on these sheets of stamps
exhibit the following correspondences -
Rl, 5, 7.
2, 6, 8.
3, 9.
4, 10.


The flaws correlate in the same way -
(l*)No.2(Rl),
(2*)No.ll(R2),
(3*)No.18(R2),
(4*)No.37(R4),
(5*)No.38(R4),


62(R7).
51(R6), 71(R8).
58(R6), 78(R8).
97(R10).
98(R10).










Conclusion.
On the basis of the abovementioned information the printing plate was assembled
from two electrotypes and one part electrotype comprising the upper two rows of
an electro of 40 units (4 rows of 10). All of the electrotypes were grown from
a common' alto plate, which was in turn made from a forme set up from original
movable type. The arrangement is shown diagrammatically below -


FORME -- ALTO
(RI,2,3,4.) (Rl,2,3,


ELECTRO I- (R1, 2, 3, 4.)

ELECTRO II (R5(1), 6(2))

Electro III (R7(1), 8(2),


)(3), 10(4).)


SUMMARY AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.
The aforementioned philatelic observations indicate that -
(a) the printing platesfor overprinting the various values of the 1924 series
of Soviet Postage Dues originated from a forme made up from movable type.
This varied in size, but 4 rows of 40 was the size most favoured.
(b) from this forme a copper electrotype of size and number, appropriate to each
value was grownthis being termed an alto(s).
(c) usually three to five electrotypes were produced from the alto(s).
(d) the printing plates were made up from the electrotypes by assembly, as shown
below in Table II, thus -


Electro I. Electro II.
Rl,2,3,4. R5(1),6(2),7(3),8(4).


Electro III.
R9(1),10(2). -


E IV. E V.


3 Kopek R1,2,3,4. R5(1),6(2). -
5 Kopek R1,2,3,4. R5(4) -
8 Kopek R1,2,3,4. R5 -
10Kopek Rl,2,3,4. R5(l),6(2). -
12Kopek Rl,2.- R3(1),4(2). -

14Kopek Rl,2,3,4. R5(l),6(2). -
32Kopek Rl(3),2(4). R3, 4, 5, 6
40Kopek R1,2,3,4. R5(1),6(2). -
NOTE: As an alternative,the 8 Kopek va
ectrotypes made up as 5 rows of


- R7< 8(),8(2),9(3),0(4).
- R7,8,9,10.


R6(7).


- R6(l),7(2),8(3),9(4). R10(5). -
- R6(2),7(3),8(4). R10(l). R9.
- R5(1),6(2). R7(1), R9(1),
8(2). 10(2).
R7(l),8(2),9(3),10(4). -
R7(3),8(4),9(5),10(6). -
R7(l),8(2),9(3),10(4). -
ilue could have been made up from two el-


The philatelic material has yielded a great deal of useful information in connect-
ion with these overprinted Postage Dues, but several questions remain unanswered.
Perhaps some of them may be considered speculative, but I will,nevertheless, set
them down in print just in case there is a logical answer thus -
(1) Why was a Forme of 100 units not set up from movable type?
(2) Why was the forme limited to 4 rows of 10?
(3) Why were so many electrotypes made in the case of the 5, 8, 10 and 12 Kopek
values?


TABLE II.
Value
1 Kopek -







EDITORIAL COMMENT:


The above study by Mr. Sheppard is a wonderful example of the wealth
of information that may be deduced from the careful examination of
relatively cheap stamps. This approach might also be applied to other
Soviet overprinted stamps, yielding equalling fascinating results.
There is only one point in his analysis with which we do not agree:
the usage of alto plates. Such plates are normally made in the
manufacture of recess-engraved stamps, where they are required in
huge quantities, such as for definitive.

Overprinting is a horse of another colour, as the impression need not
be so sharp and plates can quickly be made by stereotyping.In the
case of these Soviet postage dues, it would appear from Mr. Sheppard's
findings that four rows of type (4 x 10 units) were originally hand-
set for each value. Three moulds, making a total of 12 rows, would
then have been taken off the master block of type (4 x 10) by pouring
prepared plaster of Paris, or applying a paper mache mixture (paper
long) to the type and then baking in an oven. One would then saw off
the ten best rows, put them in a casting box and pour in an alloy of
antimony, lead and tin to get the required overprinting plate. A
similar method is used to make plates for printing newspapers.

The chipped and shaved flaws illustrated by Mr. Sheppard suggest that
the Soviet Printing Office used the plaster of Paris method. A final
problem is the investigation of the overprinting plates for the 10-k.
value. There was at least another (earlier?) plate made, different to
the one described by Mr. Sheppard, as the first stamp in the 7th. row
showed NO OVERPRINT. It is listed in some catalogues in a pair with
the adjoining normal stamp. The plaster cast for the blank position
(cliche No. 61) may have snapped off while the plate was being made
and, when the error was discovered, would have forced the deletion of
that row for the new, corrected plate. The repetition of Rows 2, 3 & 4
would have been moved up to Rows 6, 7 & 8, and a new Row 9 would have
had to be set, which stood by itself, as shown by Mr. Sheppard in his
Conclusion for the 10-k. value. An absorbing problem '

Two desirable covers
S,,, with 12 k. double
Deficiency in o'printed
-' \ dues from the collection
of Derek Palmer,FRPSL,RDP.

'~r :V !4 1


58


























THE BALTIC EQUIVALENT OF A ZEMSTVO-TO-ZEMSTVO COVER


by Jacques Marcovitch


There were no Zemstvos in the Baltic provinces. The nearest equivalent
was the auxiliary "Briefpost" of the Baltic Germans in the Wenden
district (now Cesis in Latvia). It operated for 40 odd years from 1863
and most of the mail went to local or other Germans in the Russian
Empire, as well as to other German-speaking countries.
The writer recently bought the cover illustrated here, which appears
to be the only one of its kind so far discovered. Addressed in Russian
to Baron Nicholas Johann Mengden at the Zapol'e estate, via Tikhvin in
Novgorod Province, it bears on the front a 7-kop. Imperial and, below
it, a 2-kop. Wenden local. The postmarks on both stamps and to the left
read MAIL COACHNo.106,3 AUG.1888, for the Verzhbolovo-Riga postal
route. From material in the M.V. Liphschutz collection, we know that
Wenden stamps were not locally cancelled in the 1886-1888 period. On
the back at top right, we see the transit marking of the St.Petersburg
Nikolai Rlwy P.O. of 4th.Aug. and, at top left, the Mail Coach mark of
Crew No. 3, dated 5th. Aug. It was obviously for TPO/RPO No. 1, which
ran from St.Petersburg to Moscow, taking the letter 100 km. down to
Chudovo the same day (see the two strikes on the front). From there,
the Imperial Postal Service took it overland to Tikhvin, where it
arrived on the 6th.(see the back at bottom left). The 5-kop. Zemstvo
stamp was affixed there, to pay for the trip out to the estate.
It is important to note that the nearest Imperial P.O.for mailing was
at Stockmannshof, which was also a station on the Verzhbolovo to Riga
Railway. As the sender had already affixed the Imperial postage, the
Wendensche Briefpost took the letter direct to the station and posted
it on Mail Coach No.106.All for a modest 2k.as against 5k.in Tikhvin!


V -
i ZJ-)

f~~ r ...
I.-
. I r- -...


~~L. I'I 0'',r


The map inset shows
the St.Petersburg-
Chudovo-Tikhvin leg
of the journey for
this cover.


S -
."n ,








REPORT ON "BRASILIANA '83"

by Andrew Cronin.

Your editor was the Canadian Commissioner for this international
exhibition under F.I.P. patronage and held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
from 29 July to 7 August 1983. It was especially noteworthy in having
taken place in a country currently going through unprecedented
economic difficulties, which still show no sign of being resolved.

The writer attends these international shows, as every one is different
and generally at considerable expense to himself. They always feature
new finds and new material, of which extensive notes are taken, and
valuable contacts are also made. In short, no glory or exercise of
power, but a lot of very hard, albeit rewarding work. That is what a
specialist society such as the CSRP is all about. Readers will be
interested to know that our subscriber, Monsieur M.V. Liphschutz of
France, was a member of the International Jury.

It is always especially pleasant at such functions to meet our
subscribers in the host country. In this case, it was Colonel Asdribal
Prado of Campinas, who put in a total driving distance of 400 km. to
pick up the writer at the Sao Paulo airport on Monday morning, 1st.
August and to bring him back that evening for the return flight to Rio.
The hospitality offered by the Colonel and his gracious wife Zira was
overwhelming and included a specially prepared repast of Beef
Stroganoff. Yea, verily, 'tis of such stuff that great friendships are
made The afternoon was spent viewing the results of the shrewd
buying Col. Prado has been conducting over the years in the
international philatelic auctions. Reference will be made to some of
his treasures as opportunity occurs.

The awards for the material in our fields were as follow:

LARGE GOLD


Yulii Lur'e


Zbigniew Mikulski


SMALL GOLD


Manfred Dobin



Paul Jensen


Heroes of the Great Patriotic War, incl.
FPOs & a Grenada Zhukov cover sent to
your editor.
Polish Kingdom 1858-1870, with really
magnificent Polish & Russian material, as
well as mixed frankings.



St. Petersburg postal history, incl.pre-
UPU foreign mail to SPB,Poezd Nos.1,2,3,5;
Pochta Nos.l,3,4;glorious "45m.po Polud.
3 Poezd" of 1876 on cover from Vytegra.
Czechoslovak Postal History 1499-1850,with
much data & material of interest to
collectors of the Carpatho-Ukraine.


VERMEIL


Per-Anders Erixon (+SP)
Estonian Phil.Soc.Sweden
Aleksandr Gdalin
Yevhen Kobylanskyj
60


Russia 1822-1922, with many rarities.
"The Estonian Philatelist" (literature).
Pushkin theme, incl. MOCKBA 1799 marking.
Ukraine 1918-20,with many Trident rarities.








Meiso Mizuhara (+SP)


Yurii Pavlov


Manchurian Postal History 1876-1951; many
rare items, including bilingual Dal'nii
1950.6.17 and 1951.2.25 pmks on covers.
Battle of Leningrad theme, with much
censored and F.P.O. material.


SILVER


Vladimir Berdychevskii

Dr.Mieczys3aw Kamienski


Yurii Rudnikov

Moshe-Shmuely


Dr. B6la Simady

Igor' Verdysh
Sergei Vvedenskii


Excellent material in Naval Mail of Russia
and USSR.
Poland to 1923, with magnificent Western
Ukraine registration stamps and CMT
overprints on commercial covers.
Thematic exhibit of the History of the
Air Service in Russia.
Russia 1917-1923, with many covers and a
pane of the 100r. 1923 with substituted
cliche (much rarer than the 70r."error").
Postal History of Carpatho-Ukraine 1789-
1945, incl. many rare & unusual items.
Russia 1923-1941 on rather doggy covers.
Lenin theme.


SILVER-BRONZE


Ryszard Poddubiuk

Agnar Presterud


Postal History of Congress Kingdom of
Poland 1815-1851.
Russia 1857-1933, incl. controversial tete-
beche pair of first Soviet airmail stamp.


Monsieur Liphschutz had an exhibit in the Jury collections of the
scarce publicity stationery of the Empress Maria Foundation 1898-1901.
These advertising sheets were originally written up by the famous
specialist Carl Schmidt in ROSSICA No. 37 for May-June 1939, pp.239-
245. M. Michel Liphschutz would like to expand that study further by
hearing from our readers what they have in their collections under the
following categories:-

(a) The serial number given by the Censorship to the sheet.
(b) The face value of the impressed stamp (5 k. or 7 k.).
(c) Whether mint, or date of usage.

Please address him at 8, rue Louis-Philippe,F-92200, PARIS, France.


THE TSAR'S COLLECTION


by the Rev. L.L.Tann.

When I was researching for my earlier handbook THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS,
which I produced in December 1977, I tried to collate details of the
personal collection of His Late Imperial Majesty Tsar Nicholas II. It
* was only somewhat later, in mid-1978, that I was able to piece
together all the details, or so I thought There remains, I think,
one problem. Unless any of the elite experts in the field can offer
the answer and this subject will thereby be enriched and concluded
if such were possible I may have to resort to analysing
probability and leave it at that.
61








I wish to express my sincere thanks at the outset to those who have
played a part in providing the pieces of the jigsaw: Paul
Buchsbajew of the Cherrystone Stamp Co. in New York; Kenneth
Chapman of "Philatelic Magazine",London; John Webb, formerly of
Harmer-Rooke & Co., London (now Stanley Gibbons Auctions) and Robson
Lowe, of the world-famous auctioneers in London. The original elements
were mentioned by the late giant of Russian philately and expert on
the Romanov issue, Dr. Gregory B. Salisbury, in his series on these
stamps in early journals of the BSRP. A note of thanks too to the late
and lamented Andrejs Petrevics, who wrote a short article, published
in the new Independent Russian Philatelist (GB) and which spurred me
to look afresh at the subject.

The story and the problem.

When the Romanov Jubilee stamps were finally issued on 2nd. Jan. 1913,
Richards Zarripg, the Director of the Imperial State Printing Office,i
overseer of this magnificent classic set and himself designer of
several values, assembled two fabulous collections of essays & proofs.
The first was for his Sovereign, the Tsar. This was housed, according
to the authoritative sources, in two splendid albums. A total of 1274
individual items (1271, according to another source, as we shall see),
showing every value and design in the making. Until now, it was
presumed that this vast collection included the extremely rare essays
and rejected designs in an array of colours; as well as the final
issue in blocks; the "short set" with the projected, but unadopted
overprint for Finland and, only possibly, the extremely rare booklets.

The Tsar, who was a stamp collector only in the most general sense,
treasured this collection and was extremely proud of the issue. When
rabid right-wing elements and clergy tried to get the issue stopped,
to prevent the pictures of the semi-divine Tsars and Tsarinas being
licked, gummed, obliterated and thrown away, the Tsar himself
intervened and ordered sales to continue.

Richards Zarrins put together a similar collection for himself of
proofs and essays from what remained. I myself saw this collection
when it went up for sale at Robson Lowe, London in 1967. It consisted
of 925 items, including the scarce essays: monocloured and bicoloured;
rejected essays; proofs in many stages; the Finnish overprint and the
set in blocks of four. It sold then for the paltry sum of ;3000
(around US $7000.00 at the time).

Richards Zarri4s stayed in Russia after the February 1917 Revolution;
he was the designer of the Sword and Chain stamps, released later by
the Bolsheviks in October 1918. He later went back to Latvia, taking
his collection with him. The collection was intact as a unit in 1967
and I believe it was still intact in 1979. Stanley Gibbons in West
Germany offered it again as a unit, this time estimated at DM 120,000.-
(about 30,000 or US $65,000.00). The description in the catalogue and
the illustrations, particularly of the unique 10-kop. essay and
drawing by Zarriis himself, annotated by the Tsar in crayon as "ne
khorosho" unacceptedd), brand this as the Zarrins Collection. The
collection did not reach the estimated price and was sold privately
later. The present whereabouts are unknown. But it is important to
establish that, in October 1979, the collection (catalogued at 1000
items, perhaps by counting each of the blocks of four and other
material) was intact.

62








On 12th. March N.S.(28th.February O.S.) 1917, Imperial Rule reached
its end. The Tsar took with him into exile in Tobolsk a vast array of
* cases with clothes, jewellery, mementos, family treasures and personal
property. While in Tobolsk, the Provisional Government, which had
tried to protect them from lynch mobs and show trials (Kerenskii said
dryly that he was not to be the Marat of the Russian Revolution I)
fell from power. The Bolsheviks took over and the prison regime of the
Imperial Family became bleak indeed. The insolent Bloshevik guards,
who had not been paid, took to insulting the Family whenever they
could and, by way of compensation, helped themselves to their
property. In this way, many of the articles brought with them
disappeared, including jewellery, clothing and the albums of
treasured stamps.

During the time the Imperial Family was imprisoned in Yekaterinburg
for whatever was to befall them there and the accepted story of the
mass slaughter in July 1918 has been brought seriously into question
(see "The File on the Tsar", by Tom Mangold & Anthony Summers,
Victor Gollancz Ltd., London 1976 & in paperback by Collins, Glasgow
in the Fontana Books series) this fabulous and valuable collection
was stolen and smuggled out of Bolshevik Russia. Many of the-guards
and officials helping themselves to the Tsar's property used it as
currency (the currency tokens and the flood of Revolutionary paper
money in ever spiralling denominations trying to keep up with
rampaging inflation bear eminent testimony to the need for items of
value: coinage, gold, jewellery, anything of unimpeachable value).
An officer in the White Forces somehow got hold of the collection and
* fled with it to a fragment, now independent, of the Tsarist Empire:
Riga in Latvia.

Mr. Georg H. Jaeger of Libau (Liepaja) in Latvia purchased the
collection and, at the great International Stamp Exhibition of 1926
in New York, put the collection on display and offered it for sale.
The impressive poster (reproduced herewith on pp. 64-65) described it
in glowing terms. For emphasis, it is worth repeating certain portions
of it, as the illustrations tend to be too small to be read clearly.
Referring to the collector and the collection, Mr. Jaeger writes:-
"In consequence of the very strong control, the proofs & essays of the
Romanoff centenary issue almost did not come into the hands of
collectors. The collection of which we are speaking could only be
collected by a man, who had the management of the Office and this man
has been the late managing director of the "''Expedicia'. His intention
by collecting the proofs was to present them to the late Tsar Nicholas
II who used to be like his relation King George V of England a big
stamp collector. It is possible that this was the reason for calling
our collection of essays consisting of 1271 items the 'Tsar's
collection' ". Note that he numbers the items as totalling 1271. Since
he lists every value with the number of proofs and items, he arrives
at the exact figure of 1271.

"with the exception of a small lot in the possession of Mr. S-", no
further identification is given, but could this refer to three missing
items ?, "nobody has got the essays, not even Stekloff, and besides
* this they cannot reprinted (sic) as all the matrices, patterns,
originals and stereotypes were destroyed in 1918 as being photos of
the Tsar and containing the Tsar's attributes. Therefore this
collection is an 'unicum' (unique) and of a very high value....
Apart from this collection only a small quantity of the proofs is in
63




















INTERNATIONAL STAMP



SRUSSIAN


WORLD'S GREATEST COLLECTION OF ESSAYS


CLIPPING FROM ,,THE

IEIlllu i-tlrO l f1i: I which w are speaking cou
World's Greatest Collection of Essays of the Romanoff a 1i ai n 1 .s. Ib, l tie lanate r"
tlthi- 10411 I't Is 1lH i the lat. tr
Centenary issue 1913. Expedicia". His intention by .
By George Neliubin. IWith f illustrations.) to present them t tlhe late Ci
to be like his relation the Kinl
The Romanoff Cen- a big stamp collector.
tenary Issue is the last it is possible that this
prewar emission of po- our collection of essays consi
f'. stage stamps of the ,,Czar's collection."
.-." .J Russian Empire. It is
Io, duaht, that in the
whole world another
set of stamps exists,
for the emissni In of
w\hic'h so tuch time,
work and illimit ed
il ('a1* m have beell
.e spent as for this mnag-
nificent issue prede-
stinated to immortali-
ze thll 3Uth ct1rentenary
Sof the rcign ocf the
Romanoff d'nastv.
Fig. Fig 2.
Thi l .lto, a.,e axibto o G ,.ra hi .. A itis t i ,enna w grag- 2u
4 years before the jubilee of the I louse RoInanoff. The When the 'ol ect ion was i
greatest artists of the time as E. Lanceray, J. Bilibin. the Iwell know philatilic fi'
R. Sarrin also engravers F. Lundin. J. Ksidias as well Rooke d Co. Lid, thcil interest I
as Prof. Schirnboeck (VieInna), whoi is considered up big, that siev\ral English paper
till now as the world's best engraver on steel, had the .,Daily ( hronicil" tc. has
been invited to participate ill this wo.rk. in which the w\rite.rs IowiI a
The Imperial Printing Office, at St. Petersburg, the oriuine of the cill'ction.
so called .Expedicia", which always' had a high repu- In thi' IiE itst tollectiotls
tatiin from the technical point oif view and which ISn 4 can find perhaps 2-3 items
at the Exhibition of Graphical Arts at Vienna was gran- the Russian Stamp Mlus umi ha
ted with the big golden medal for the book about the Ilere below we are givi\in
famous Russian painter Ilia Repin, decided to create of thtelate head ilanarlr of th
something prominent and organized for the production 26th fIebruara 125:
of the Romanoff stamps a special department.
Ilere below we give a list indicating the part taken
by everyone of the above Inentionled artists and en-
gravers in the creation of the Romanoff stamps, which
were issued the 14th January 1913:
Designer: Engraver:
1 kop. Peter I. J. Bilibn Prof, Schirnboeck
2 Aleander II. R. Slrrln J. Ksidlea
8 Alexnder III R Sarrfn J. Kud-s h
Peter I. E Lnc ,rat F Lundln
N'Iot.s II J. Bl.bin F. Lundin
0 ,, icols II. R. Sarrn F Lundan
154 ^ "Kather II. E Lancer.) J. Ksldas
Is5 Nal.% I S .rrl Prof. Schla boeck
20 Aleander I. R. S.rrin F. Lundin Fig. 4.
25 Ale\ei MIchadlowitsch J. Blbn Prof Schirnboeck
35 Pal 1.. E L .ncer, Prof. SCunhbn eck ,\ il t (' ptiol it a
50 Elsln eth I. E. L.nce.,. J. K ., ,f
70 Michdl Feodorowtsch J. Bilib F. Lundin (f Mr. S oli)i .Iv I ; i t tll- c
SThe KremI, Moscow J. Blabin J Ksldas aill Isiit' s th lls ttllv cannot r
2 TheWMnieplac. Pe, tersiourg E Lancer., J. Ksdias .s. ,, piittcn a' nd '
3 Romlnriff Pall-r. M. scow Bhb. F Lund,.n, ltti'il s ori illo lo ll st
5 N olal, II. R. Sarri F. Lunadn in 1615 a"s b inlt photos io tlii
ULlLnder every stamp thill nants oif tihe artists and of Czar's attriillinc. Thtr'lfor thi
the engravcr-. sto.r, l)ritituId ill lnirl.rc pir c lhtturis, but i' t111" nld of I \ \ i.h I,1
whlien the stamps were out of print in large sheets, the Apart from this collection
signatures ere cout off, as tilhe' wre inot clear. Onl proofs is in thli hands of one
1the coloured proofs we 'an see tlillin clearly. coltittion we ari. sptkingi. of
itn 'conIseqiencl(i' ofI the (ver tstrtong ontrotlt tihe proofs iteri, mllon gstl thtrn 4 blocks
Sessiays of the ilt omnan)ff (enttenlary iss l almost did pitches are arintg, i i thait t
Ilg3not 'come into tlle hands of collector. Th' collection dupllicates.


STAND OF MR. GEO. H. JAEGER,

All particulars personal in the Exhibition or in Collectors Club b'





Printed hv ..National Cul'

64




















EXHIBITION, NEW-YORK 1926




EMPIRE.


OF THE ROMANOFF CENTENARY ISSUE 1913.


BALTIC PHILATELIST".

d only be collected hv Our collection also contains a certain number of not
enct of the Office and finished stamps (Fig. 6), on which we can trace the whole
managing director of the preparation and development of the designs. The rolo-
ollecting the proofs was ured proofs are printed on chalk paper measuring 40X 50
ar Nicolas 11, who used centimeter, the stamps of one rouble on cartoon or like
SGeorge V. of England, the stamps of five roubles on japanese paper.
The collection contains: 1. stamps. 2. heads of the
is the reason for calling Czars (Fig. 4) 3. frames (Fig. 2. 3 & 5), as to be seen
tingg of 1271 items the from the following illustrations:
I Kop in ine colour 53 var. 35 Kop. in two culour. 132 vr
2 .. .. .. 48 35 frme 11
3 ,. heads 50 ,, in one colour 14
3 ,, pl,t.ards prooto 214 ,, 50 in lwo oolours 13
3 .. dtel 21 1 50 .., trnm 51
4 .i rone colour 22., 50 he. ds 3
4 .. postc ds dto 15 70 in ne colour 28
7 heads 24 ,a 70 in two colours 84
10 .. 24 70 ,, he7 ds 5
10 ..temporr) 15 70 .. trmes 44 .
S14 .. in ,e colour 20 .. i R in inme olour 9
....... 51,. 3 .... 18 ..
15 .. .. two -lours 77 .. S .. frames ..
15 frames 21 5 temporary 23
15 ,, hec 10 5 .. 3
20 .. In .ne col u. 29 .. 15 Kop, 3 blocks of 10 301.
20 ,. tempor.held '11 .. 14 .. A l ln derl. blue 1
Ii25 .. In one colour 4S .. Ir I block oL 10 10 ..
25 ,. in two colours 13 .. T .tl 1271 pr ol.s
Fig. 35 in one colour 60 .
xhibitcd in Lniiiion by the frishnes, of thil colours are astonishing. There
1n of Messrs Harmer,
or the collection w as so,
Sas tilLhe ,l rlnine Post", .
e written lonig articles
lot of fanllrtay a s to tilthe ta .
of Russian stalltps one



















565
f the cssayvs and eAI l
I got nione of th(lnm.
In extralt fronl a letter .,
Expcdicia"' dated thet

~'. 'P 7.



Fig. 5. Fig. 6.
art two Iiolouredi proofs, which later on havs been
printed onll i one volour as f. i. the 15 cop. The 4
blocks (of tilh 4 and 15 cop. and severall of the five
roub cIes hv thll(neosl I\ s arit' a gralld embellishment of
a first clss coll'ectio11n without speaking of tihe other
hundriInds which are 110t less beautiful and interesting.
This iollhctilonl as imonumelntal work of the
nall lot in thi po sssioln ,,Exlpe'dicia" \\ill hi exhibited at the Philatelic
. o.ays, 111not S\n tCkloff,. Erhibitron of New-York from the 16th ---23rd october.
,printed. as all til" imatri- Class XVI (Sec. 8 in four fromes. Exibited hbi Geo. H.
:r.otylpes were destroyed Jaeger, L.ibau. Thl collection will be offered at a mo-
Czar iand containing tilt deratc pri, c so that tiit purchase of this collection
s collctiol i ,,al l i- b tin th lc only one in the whole world, will not only
an exceptional attribution to a first class collection
i ni" a stllail quantity of thl b t also a harain, s the value will inlcretase from vear
if ith arti-ts, whilst thi to vear. For thit Philately it would be desirable that
contains, 1.-71 different thc collection is lnot divided into lots, but should be
fIn, tn, lt rtmlailling 1231 sold tlirsly to a coii letor or for a museum, as it re-
whole collection has no I)r'ents the full creation of the Romanoff stamps, the
last classic emissioll of le Russian Empire.


LIBAU, LATVIA. CLASS XVI. Sect. 8.

Mr. Harry L. Lindquist 51 West .48 th Street New-York City.






ure" Ltd., .ihau, Latvia.

65








the hands of one of the artists...". This presumably refers to the
Zarris collection. Note that he dismisses the Zarrins collection of
925 items as "small quantity". Sales talk, no doubt !

While Mr. Jaeger uses the terms "proofs" and "essays" interchangeably-.
the reprint of Andrejs Petrevics' article in The Independent Russian
Philatelist (issue of May 1983) drew my attention to the fact that
ALL BUT ONE OF THE ITEMS, LISTED AND CLEARLY DESCRIBED BY MR. JAEGER
ARE IN FACT PROOFS. The only piece that could possibly be one of the
rejected or unissued essays is the second last item in his list,
referred to as: "14 Kop. Alexander I.blue 1 var.".

Mr. Chapman and Mr. Webb recall the collection being exhibited in
London, as there was a threat from Bolsheviks to disrupt the
exhibition and security stewards were hired for the occasion.
Fortunately, nothing happened. Mr. Robson Lowe remembers the
collection coming into his hands in the mid-1930s and he broke it up
into several substantial sections which were sold.

While one might accept that a few items from the mass of essays and
proofs were given as gifts to the senior workers on the project we
know that the colour proofs on thick square-cut card were probably
presentation items -.the question is, from where do the rejected
essays come ? If the Zarri4s collection is still intact, or was until
at least October 1979 and the only other source is the Tsar's
collection, broken up for sale in the mid-1930s (and this apparently
consisted practically only of proofs, with possibly one essay), then
what is the source of the very rare essays ? Mr. Jaeger took great
pains to point out that only one collector, a Mr. S, had a small
collection of proofs and that not even Stekloff, a noted collector,
had any. Mr. Jaeger presented the collection as 'unicum' and went on
to offer it intact, the "last classic emission of the Russian Empire".
Unless one of the lite experts of this issue can offer definite
proof, I shall offer the following probability.

The original Tsar's collection was housed in two albums. Simply put,
Mr. Jaeger had only one. If the Zarrins collection was housed in a
single volume of all 925 items, it would not need much more of an
album to contain 1271 items. The discrepancy of three items (unless
these were now Mr. S's) is irrelevant. If Mr. Jaeger's collection
was the second album with the proofs, we could reasonably assume that
the first album was a collection of the rare and rejected essays.

A number of collectors have some of these magnificent, but
exceptionally rare essays: M. Michel Liphschutz, Norman Epstein and
Claude Lysloff, just to name three people. I myself have four of
these items. It is rarely indeed that the essays (as distinct from
the proofs) come up for auction. The late H.C. Goss bought a
substantial section from Robson Lowe and it was the Robson Lowe
Auctions that resold that section for him in 1958. That collection
contained some wonderful essays, but those could not have come from
the Jaeger holding, since that latter apparently contained only
proofs, with the possible exception of one item. The Robert Baughman
collection, sold by Robert Siegel Auctions in New York in March 1971,
also contained some rare essays, including a 5 r. value showing the
Imperial Crown of Tsars, but these could not have come from the
Jaeger collection.








I spoke to Mr. Lowe on the telephone in connection with the Tsar's
collection and its sale in his auctions. He kindly sent me a
Sphotocopy of a general article about it from a stamp newspaper of the
time, which was, in general, a regurgitation of Mr. Jaeger's own.
"The Baltic Philatelist". But another piece of the jigsaw falls into
place. "Yamshchik" No. 12 had a reproduction of the very Robson Lowe
auction of the 1930s period mentioned hereabove. The auction listed
1274 items, as against Georg Jaeger's 1271 items. The Robson Lowe
listing of this incredible collection has no mention of proofs of
the 2-rouble value, but both refer to the 14-kop. essay in blue of
Tsar Alexander I, which was adopted in olive-green for the 20-kop.
value. It is therefore possible to state that the Captain Trevor Hume
collection, listing all the various proofs, part proofs and strikes
is, in large part, the same collection as Georg Jaeger's, but with
some notable differences, as can be seen from the tabulation hereunder:
QUANTITIES QUANTITIES
Value Georg Jaeger -Trevor Humre Value Georg Jaeger Trevor Hume

1 k. 53 52 25 k. 28 28
2 k. 48 50 35 k. 314 306
3 k. 119 120 50 k. 88 87
4 k. 47 46 70 k. 161 164
7 k. 24 37 1 r. 9 9
10 k. 39 28 2 r. -
14 k. 20+1 20+1 3 r. 18 18
15 k. 189 .187 5 r. 73 69
20 k. 40 39 TOTALS 1271 1261 *

There should have been a total of 1274 items in the R.Lowe Sale, so
there was either an error in addition (very doubtful) or ambiguous
descriptions of the various lots in that auction.

In the rifling of the Tsar's property in 1917-1918, it is quite likely
that the two bulky volumes became separated and found their way out of
Russia by different routes. Mr. Jaeger had one; perhaps the other had
not yet come to the surface. There is no doubt now that the proofs and
essays in the hands of collectors today have come from the Tsar's
collection; the two volumes. With the Zarrins collection still intact
as far as we know, the only source for proofs and essays is the two-
volume collection; unless you believe that the few items given to
senior workers on the project and a few presentation items made to
diplomats or officers of state would make any difference. I think that
these items were very few; not "a few" in the sense that Mr. Jaeger
spoke of the Zarrins collection, but perhaps not more than a dozen or
score. I speculate, of course, but I think, in the absence of certain
proof, that the other volume was smuggled out of Russia independently
of the first one, or even at the same time, to become separated in the
West, before Mr. Jaeger found out about it and was later dispersed .to
collectors.

Why cannot Mr. Jaeger's collection be the source of the essays ? In
the proof stage, when the designs had been accepted and were undergoing
colour & colour combination trials, the names of each engraver and
designer were printed in tiny letters under the base frameline. That
occurred only on the proofs;not on the essays or issued stamps. But for
that, we would not know the designers and engravers of the individual
stamps. Mr. Jaeger lists them methodically twice on his advertising
sheet. The first time he names the artists of each individual value,








the second time he lists the value and how many proofs or part-
proofs of the items. At the end, he mentions the effigy of
Alexander I for the 14 k.(issued for the 20-kop. value). He lists no
"valueless proofs"; the essays in the main were not denominated with
a value, nor does he mention essays of different types that we know
to exist. I conclude that, on Mr. Jaeger's own description, there
was only one essay in this collection. Mr. Jaeger states that, at
that time, the Russian State Collection held no Romanov essays or
proofs. I do not know if there are any there now. So the whole
collection of two volumes did leave Russia at around the same time,
to be separated later.

Any further information on this really fascinating subject would be
sincerely welcomed.
*

IMPERIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN UNIVERSAL LANGUAGES

by P. J. Campbell & A. Cronin.


S..J. TOE imCbMO. -C -



L; ye -<



-1 _---- -_ ao Cog:








This subject popped up when Mr. Campbell came across a 3-kop.Imperial
postcard, cancelled NIZHNECHIRSK OB.V.DON-1-29 NOV.1887 Old Style,i.e.
in the Don Cossack Territory and addressed in Russian and French to
Anvers/Antwerp in Belgium. It was received on 21st. Dec.(ten days
later). The point of posting is now known as NIZHNII CHIR, in the
Volgograd (Stalingrad) province, postal code 404446. It is shown in
the map inset on p. 68 at 90 km. (56% miles) south-west of Tsaritsyn
(Stalingrad, Volgograd), to which it was connected in Tsarist days by a
postal road.

The message was the most intriguing part of the.card, as the language
used was not immediately familiar. Mr. Cronin was able to determine
that the text was written in Volap1k, an artificial universal
language. That opened up a whole new subject, as the idea of a world
language was not new, even in those days. Indeed, the first steps were
taken by Bishop John Wilkins of Cheshire, England in 1668 and there
were many later schemes, all of them based on metaphysical or other
impractical concepts.

Volapik, meaning "world's language", was the invention of a German
Catholic priest, Johann Martin Schleyer (1831-1912), who was born in
Oberland, Grand Duchy of Baden. He became an ardent student of
philology, with a knowledge of some 50 languages and dialects. Father
Schleyer used this knowledge to produce a vehicle for international
correspondence and avoiding the complexities and irregularities of
existing languages. His approach was highly important, as it was the
first method of a practical character. An outline was published in
* 1878, with a grammar and dictionary following in 1880. The philosophy
of the language was summed up in the motto: "Menad bal, ptk bal"
("Humanity one, language one").

It quickly became popular in Germany and Austria and its use had
spread to Belgium, France and Holland by 1885. Father Schleyer's
native language was, of course, German and he retained Germanisms in
the grammar and sounds of his system, making his method difficult for
speakers of other languages. Which brings us to the text of Mr.
Campbell's card. The writer was August Reiner, apparently a Belgian
tutor or teacher at Nizhne-Chirskaya. In his very first sentence, he
considered that the 'v8kads' (as Father Schleyer called the umlauted
vowels d, 8 and t) were both unnecessary and unfamiliar to the
speakers of many European languages. He also thought that inflections
should be eliminated and concluded with a comment on investments in
Antwerp and Brussels.

The popularity of Volapik encouraged other philologists to come forth,
with another German, Herr P. Steiner, publishing a further system
called Pasilengua in 1885. That was followed in 1887 by the
publication of "An International Language", proposed by a Warsaw
oculist, Dr. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (1859-1917). i It came to be
known as Esperanto, the only artificial language to last with the
passage of time and based on the internationality of many words in the
Indo-European group. Dr. Zamenhof carried on a wide correspondence
with his adherents and it is interesting to collect postcards of the
Imperial period written in his hand. Please see the illustration
overleaf for a typical example, which he had privately printed for
himself and showing the Esperanto term "Posta Karto" (Postcard) on
the face at top centre. It was postmarked in Warsaw 7.7.10 Old Style,
or 20 July 1910 New Style.
69
















Cr


E s pe. o b t h e n c, 'ilo is., L C o t u a ( 1 8 6 8 .1 9 1 4 ) T h e .
.0 C I





wd mo ff g in I and it ,,.a A .,&ne.'


C: 0 i. 1(, : .. *',. : /. ",...:










but it never really caught on. It is mentioned here, as Mr. Cronin has

a Russian pre-WWI leaflet, issued by A. Kapustyanski i of Armavir and






for the benefit of our readers who have Russian.
The final artificial language to appear was Idpeople, modified from
Esperanto by the French philosopher Louis Coutourat (1868-1914). The
word means "offsprld in general Esperanto and it was recommended at the
sittings of an International Committee in Paris during 15-24 October
1907. Some arbitrary and archaic features of Esperanto were discarded,
but it never really caught on. It is mentioned here, as Mr. Cronin has
a Russian pre-WWI leaflet, issued by A. Kapustyanskii of Armavir and
publicising Ido. Excerpts from this leaflet are given on the next page
for the benefit of our readers who have Russian.

All these universal languages appealed to people in the Russian Empire,
the Slav world in general and countries such as Hungary, as these areas
spoke languages which, in the pre-WWI era, were little studied by
foreigners and regarded as "exotic". Of course, Russian is much better
known today, but the other Slav languages and those in the Finno-Ugrian
& Turkic groups (Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian and Turkish) are still
neglected and it is in such countries that the idea of Esperanto as an
international vehicle still has some validity.

Our readers must certainly have other examples of international
languages used on mail from the Russian area and we would much
appreciate having details.


, D : hI. Zamenhof 'r
.Varsovio, str. Dzika 9-. 9.
7 1 r
-'- z^


V
c 2 t4Y~ y
/ -








ITro TaKoe Hao?

MemnyHapOAHbl s513blK'b COBatMb He CTpeMHTCn s 3naMtCTHTb Hatio-
HanbHble SI3blKH B'b HXb eCTeCTBeHHOt ~ HnonIHTH4ecKO~ o6njaCTH, a npo-
CTO HMMeTb LktJIblO tCny}HTb AnJI MeHAyHapOAHblXb CHoweHi~i B-b TX- cny-
Manxb, KorAa HaLioHalnbHbie S3blMKH HeAOCTaTO'Hbl. OHH We CTaHOBS'TCS
Bce 6onje H 6ont-e HeAOCTaTOqHbIMH, BcnhlACTBie 6blCTparo pa3BHTis Mew-
AyHapOAHblX'b CHoueHii. fnpo6neMa MeAyHapOAHarO Fl3biKa He MOKeT-b
6blTb pa3piLueHa HH npHH1TieM- Sa3biKa KaKOA-HH6yYAb cyuLecTByiouee Ha-
ilU, TaKb KaKb 3TOMy BocnpOTHBHnHCb 6bi npOliSH Ha8iH, HMMiIOisliA OtH-
HaKOBbl npaBa H He npeMHHyBWuiS 6bl npeAlb5BHTb HXb, HH BOCKpewe-
HieM'b KaKorO-HM6yAb yMepwaro 53b1Ka, Hanp., naTHHCKaro, KOTOpblH CnHI-
KOMb TpyAeH-b, He OTBtqaeTb HywHAaMb COBpeMeHHaro Ayxa H cocra-
aBneT- npHBHnerito ManoqHcneHHaro Kpyra nH -b, qccno 1KOTOpblX-, BAO-
6aBOK1b, 6e3npepblBHo yMeHbwaeTc5. fnonblTRH npHcnoco6HTb Kb COBpe-
MeHHblMb HyHwAaMb naTHHCHir Sl3blKb npHBOAHtlnH K-b C03AOaHiK) M3b Hero
SI3blKa, COBepmeHHO yTpaHwBaOLoaro CBOIO eCTecTBeHHOCTb. 3TO 'OKa3bl-
BaeT-, HTO eAHHCTBeHHbM-b HCTHHHblM- pa3ptweHieM-b npo6neMbl Mo}KeTb
6blTb TOJIbKO aS3blK'b C Ky ccT B.e H H bl f. .
Bo3HlHHOBeHie JeneraLiH CBa[3aHO co BceMipHOi BbICTaBxKOi 1900 r.
Bb flapHtB, KorAa 3actAaBuaie TaMb HtCKOqnbKO KOHrpeCCOB'b -y6lAHnnHCb
B- KpynHOMb HeyAo6cTB-, npOHcxOAlLLueM-b OTbpa3H053bl4ia. A4TO6bl H3blC-
KaTb CpeACCTBO AJn ycTpaHeHiS 3TorO HeyAo6cTBa, KOHrpeccbi +ia3sH'aHjMI
OCo6blX'b AeJIeraTOBib, HtCKOJIbKO 'HaybHblXb O6L~eCTB'bt cA lnarnM To He, H
17 51HBapsi 1901 roAa, H36paHHas TaKHM-b o6pa3oM-, Ueneraui5 ony6nH-
Koaana AeKfnapaLhio,. 4opMynHpOBaBwuyto es nporpaMMy H i.nb. .BI Te-
LeHie 7 nhTb ,enerauil AtST ITernbHO nponaraHAlHpOBana HAeio teWA[yHa-
poAHaro SI3blKa, He3aBHCMMO OTb pa3nHJMHblX-b npoeKTOB- ero, pacnpocT-
paHsHBeHXCa B'b ny6nMKwt. ,o 1 OKTR6psI 1907 r. K-b 3TTOMeRnapaLin npH-
coeAHHHimnCb 310 pa3HOd6pa3HblX-b Ouj.eCTBb H KOHrpeCCOBS H 1250 nBe-
.HOB- aKaAeMii H yHHBePCHTeTOBb pa3HbX-b CTpaH-. B'b TOMb -}e roAy
,DeneraLiA H36pana cBOM KOMHTeTr, COCTOSaBWir H3b 12 yqeHblX'b, npH-
Ha.ne>KaLlMb X'b pa3HblMb CTpaHaM H MM3BtCTHblXb' CBOelO KOMneTeHT-
HOCTblO H npexaHHOCTblO HrAet MeHwAyHapOAHaro 513blKa. .KOMMTeTb CO-
6panc; Bab napMwB M HMjxnb, ca- 15 no-24 OKTS6pS. 1907 r., -18 3actAa-
HiM no-' npeAc-'AaTeenbCTBOMb BceMipHO-H3BtCTHaro npop). B. OcrBanbAa,
H3y4as H o6cyHKAasi rnaBHbie npoeKTbl MemeAyHapoAHaro Sl3biKa, npH 4eM'b
HbKOTOpble M3b HMXb npeACTaBnJiHCb H 3amLHLMaJHCb caMHMH aBTOpaMH.
MaTepianbl Ans MH3yqeHis 6binH nonrOTOBfneHbl H3Cn-AOBaHi5IMH ceKpeT a-
peg KoMMTeTa, npoqceccopoBsb I. KyTopa H j 1lo, KOTopble, Bb ,,Histoire
de la Langue Universelle" H 3aTMb B-b ,,Les Nouvelles Langues Interna-
tionales", pa3o6panH nOqTH BCt CTrapble HOBble npoeKTbl MemnyHapOA-
Haro S3blKa. KpOM' Toro, Bb CBOeM-b AOKnaA OHM H3nOm1nH H-BCKOnbKO
HeH3XaHHblixb npoeKTOB-b Bb pyKonHCSIXb npeACTaBJeHHblX- HMMb Anri Ko-
MHTeTa, H pa3J.H-HblS5 KOMneTeHTHblSI MHItHi5I, BblCKa3aHHbSIa OTHOCHTeJIbHO
npo6neMbl, TaK-b HTO pa6oTbi KoMHTeTa HMMRBI OCHOBaHieM-b H3CJtAOBa-
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MHcciS ,leneraLiiH BBeeThb Bb 3TOThb a3blKb M3MtHeHiSI, cornacHo 3aKjI3-
eeHSIM'b xloKnaAa ceKpeTaperi H npoeKTy Mao, H BORAeTb B'b neperoBopbl
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H AcCCOLiaui, MOWHO nonylaTb: CaMoyHTenJH, cnoBapH H np. Ha pyccKOM-bM
Ap. s3blKaX-b; BCt KHHrH, WypHanbl H np. Ha MAo H o HeMb; nepeBoAbi
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H3GaTenbCTBO ,,ME KAYHRPOWAHblH 93blHb", Rpmaempb, KaMaKab.


1








THE CURIOUS CASE OF THE MISSING COLOURS


by P. J. Campbell

Anyone who has ever visited a printing shop will realise that multi-
coloured stamps are produced in a series of operations; one colour
at a time. It should be obvious that all the colours must register
perfectly with one another, or the colours will overlap or appear
in the wrong place. When the printing press is being set up, there
are usually little circles or crosses in the margin, or some other
symbol to help the printer align the successive colours to give a
perfect result. Of course, a stamp printed in a single colour avoids
this problem entirely; a two-colour stamp is not too difficult, but
each succeeding colour added compounds the problem of setting up the
press. During the course of the print run, the humidity may change
and the paper alter slightly to throw the printing off register.
Moreover, there are other variables of paper and ink to make the
printer's task difficult. It naturally follows that a print shop must
expect lots of sub-standard material during initial production, while
the right set-up and the correct amount of ink are being established.
This material is correctly called "printer's waste" and it all
finishes up being destroyed by burning or shredding by a proper
Security Printer. Such a printer has full-time inspectors checking
the end-product continually during printing and subsequent operations
and yet an occasional "Inverted Seaway" or a "colour missing" variety
appears in the hands of some lucky collector. Most of the early
issues of Imperial Russia were inspected very thoroughly and the
result is that a 14-kop. arms stamp of 1883-88 (Scott No.35) with an
inverted centre is worth about $3000 instead of 35 cents. That is an
example of good quality control and careful checking of output.
During the turbulent period of 1917, the checking became much less
thorough and a 1-rouble stamp (Scott No.131) with inverted centre is
priced at $25 instead of 10 cents. That is the result of poor quality
control, perhaps also combined with substantial consumption of vodka
during the printing and inspection process.

The result of this preamble is to introduce a strange collection of
Soviet stamps recently acquired by CSRP member Lester Glass of Los
Angeles. The stamps all appear to be normal issues, except that one or
more colours are missing entirely, although all are cancelled to order.
The c.t.o.MOCKBA IHOTAMT is most common, with one IEH(ingrad) probably.
The collection covers the period from 1951 to 1976 and includes 18
different stamps, as listed below. There does not appear to be any
chemical skullduggery, as comparison with the normal issues shows them
to be identical, except for the missing colour(s). Analysis shows 14
to be offset or lithographed and 4 to be photogravure. The values
range from 1 kop. to 60 kop. and the stamp designer varies as follows:-

V.V. Zav'yalov 5 P.E. Bendel 1
L. Zav'yalov 3 V.V. Pimenov 1
I. Dubasov 1 I. Bilibin 1
P.M. Chernyshev 1 Y. Levinovskii/A. Shmidshtein 1
I.A. Kominarets 1 Unknown 2

If all had been done by the same designer, it would have appeared that
his personal collection had come onto the market or that he was living
beyond his means The list is as follows. Lester has several copies of
some of them and only one or two of the others; all but one have full
gum.
72






Scott No .....Year..... Colour Situation

1587 1951 Printed in a single colour only, a plum
(Fruit Gathering) shade not evident in the normal violet,
.orange, -and brown colours that are normal

1628 1952 Lemon-yellow colour missing
(Novikov -Priboy
and Warship)

1937 1957 Only blue and black printed
(Sculptor & Mother-
hood)

1971 1957 Only blue and black printed
(Boxers)

1973 1957 Red missing
(Weightlifters)

2026 1957 Blue and brown only, so curtains are
(M.N. Ermolova) azure. blue instead of violet. .. ...

2548 1962 Printed in red only, no brown and no
(Ballet Red. Flower) green, a. most, dramatic, item .

2690 1962 Red and black only printed
(Savings Banks)

2759 1963 Blue and black only, no brown
(Bicyclist)

2760 1963 Blue and black only. This is only
(Long Jump) imperf stamp in the batch, no gum

2762 1963 Red and black only printed
(Basketball)

2887 1964 Blue and black only printed
(N.I. Kibaltchich)

3624 1969 Blue and black only; very dramatic
(Repin Painting of appearance
Volga Boat-Haulers)

3662 1969 Blue only, red and yellow missing
(Vasilissa, the
Beauty)

3666 1969 as 3662 above
(Sultan and the
Czar). ..

3904 1971 Red missing
(Cosmonauts) .

4088 1973 Red missing
(Athlete: on Rings)

4505 1976 Red missing
(Saffron Flower) .








The foregoing would be easier to understand if the exact printing
sequence were known. Were all the first colours printed and the last
colour or colours omitted, which would seem sensible ? In some cases,
the catalogue simply describes the stamps as "multicoloured",.while
sometimes two different print runs were superimposed to give a
secondary colour, so it is not easy to determine just what colour is
missing. Some of the above may be slightly in error, as I am writing
this article from notes made several months ago during a rainy
Saturday on La Cienega Boulevard in Los Angeles.The strange thing is
that such a wide range of "printer's waste" had leaked out of a
security printer over such a number of years, unless one of the
former staff had brought a little private collection out of the USSR
with him. It seems doubtful that the material is officially
sanctioned, as there is not enough on the market to raise any
significant amount of money. The one item that does not seem to fit
in the pattern is Scott No.1587 above, which could be a colour proof
and perhaps also Scott No.2026. The rest seem to be straight out of
the print shop, incompletely printed and yet correctly perforated and
obviously cancelled to order.

Has anyone else seen such material, or can anyone suggest an
explanation ? Comments welcomed.
*

MAIL TO THE


EMPIRE ,




Russian philatelists in the Western F
World have many examples of Imperial 1
mail directed abroad and have, in B ,I -
fact, ensured the survival and epio
loving preservation of practically -
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is 'I
a horse of another colour, as
terrible things have happened since
the collapse of that Empire and
many magnificent philatelic items
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.
A PARAGUAYAN CARD SENT TO ST. PETERSBURG

by Andrew Cronin.

Paraguay is one of the two land-locked countries of South America and
is probably the poorest and most tragic in that continent. It was
involved in a disastrous war with Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay from
1864 to 1870, which devastated the country and reduced the population
from 525,000 to 221,000, of whom less than 30,000 were men. .By the
end of the 19th. century, its population was still less than one
million souls.


I






























The main link with the outside world has traditionally been along the
Parana River, down through Argentina to the "big smoke" of Buenos
Aires.The card shown above is a typical illustrated one of the period,
printed in colour by Kunst-Anstalt Rosenblatt of Frankfurt-on-Main
for G. de Grfter of Paraguay and has four local scenes on the view
side. According to Sonia, the lady writing in French, it was the only
one available in Asunci6n (the capital) and she promised to send views
of Argentina on arrival in Buenos Aires, both to the addressee in St.
Petersburg and her sister.

The 20-centavos rate for the card going abroad was paid with five
copies of the 4c. 1896 issue, printed by Giesecke & Devrient of
Leipzig. The cancellation reads ESTAFETA FLUVIAL No. 10, ST 12 1900,
or "River (Postal) Agency No. 10, 12 Sept. 1900". It was thus posted
aboard a steamer going down the Parana River from Asuncion. In other
words, it is a very nice Paraguayan item in its own right, let alone
the fact that it went to an unusual destination, such as the Russian
Empire.
*

SPECIAL NOTES:

The views expressed in the articles contained herein in this issue
of "The Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and not
necessarily those of the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is acknowledged and a copy sent to the
Society.

* Readers are reminded that all three coordinators of the Society are
fully engaged in earning their livings and thus do not have the
time to answer individual queries and requests. Where such questions
are of general interest to the readership, they will be taken up in
subsequent issues of "The Post-Rider". Please bear with us
75






POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov
LGOV (Kursk Province)


1884-87


Lithographed in four colours, 20.5 x 27.25 mm, white paper
(0.08 mm), imperforate, two printings.

First Printing ( July 1, 1884)
Sheet of 78 stamps, configuration of 10 x 7 with an additional
8 stamps on the left side of the sheet perpendicular to the
others, transfer block of 2 types horizontally connected to
the other at the centre by a thin black line, the other three
sides have 3 small guidelines in three different colours, issue
of 6000 stamps with one sheet having a colour error


The Sheet


U blAr
I Q,


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
-12 12121212
N --

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

S1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

\ 1212121212
- 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

N 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2


1. 5 kop. black, pale brown, green & red


The Two Types


T.1


2.00


T.2


9AI


Second Printing (January, 1887)
This the sheet of the first printing with the colour error.
Only single copies are known and only one copy known used.


1 2 1 2


tf










2. 5 kop. black gray-lilac, green & red


(20 known)


Cancellations
The stamps were cancelled with pen and ink with either a cross
or the date. Beginning in 1886 a 27 mm circular postmark with
JbrOBCKAH 3EMCKA HIIOqTA and date inscribed in the centre in
three lines, was used.


1891 (July)
Three different designs
paper, white gum, sheet


lithographed in two colours, on white
of 9 x 4, perforated 11.


3. 5 kop. dark blue and light greenish blue


4. 5 kop. carmine and light yellow rose


5. 5 kop. dark green and light yellow green


1.00


1.00


1.00


Cancellations
The same circular cancellation described for the previous
issue was used.








1901-02
Typographed by the State.Printing Office in St. Petersburg,
on white paper (0.07 mm), white gum, sheet of 5 x 5, perf.13,
two printings.

First Printing (1901)
5000 stamps of each value









6. 5 kop. dark blue 0.50

7. 5 kop. carmine red 0.50

8. 5 kop. green 0.50

Second Printing (1902)
3000 stamps printed with a lighter colour of blue than in
the first printing.

9. 5 kop. blue 1.50


IJ1ULIAtUIU^ItllI-I Il1U11 EII IIIiJJJILJJ J Il UjIjItoIIIarIIDII rIIIUlul u I lllllllll IIIIJlIIII



RUSSIA-POLAND

NEW ISSUE SERVICE

These are sent at three month intervals and
discounted from low retail by 20%.

*Russia $2.20/Ruble low retail or net $1.76
which is lower than wholesale of $2.00/Ruble.

*Poland- 7per Zloty or a net of 5.6 per Zloty.

oPoland at a net of 2.8 per Zloty

We also supply mint Vatican and United Nations
at 10% discount from low retail.



393 Sterling Drive, '
DIMONDALE, Michigan, U.S.A. 48821.

5ianununtiiiasian iasaniainnessmassagaun seaaarsiiiiiiaiiimisiiuisitinununuiinunwasmaI an annun un i inux mas


I













THE UKRAINIAN CORNER


This corner will be a
regular feature in
tribute to the many
thousands of Ukrainian
immigrants who, by their
hard work, have enriched )
their country of adoption,
namely Canada. As most of
them came from the western
provinces of the Ukraine, we
will be featuring items from
Bukovina, Carpatho-Ukraine & Galicia.
CARPATHO UKRAINIAN POSTAL HISTORY:ADDENDUM II

by Andrew Cronin.

As mentioned in the "Report on Brasiliana 83", further information on
Austrian prephilately has been gathered from the gold medal collection
* of Czechoslovakian postal history 1499-1850, as exhibited by Paul H.
Jensen of Oslo, Norway. His extensive data, as well as examples from
his and other holdings relating to Carpatho-Ukrainian postal history,
are set out here.

Slovakia, together with the Carpatho-Ukraine, belonged to the "Lands of
the Crown of St. Stephen", i.e. Hungary. Parts of this area came under
Hapsburg rule in 1538; the rest was gradually retaken from Turkey.After
1687, all of Hungary, including the Carpatho-Ukraine, was ruled by the
Hapsburgs. Latin was the official language.

The postal periods may generally be divided as follow:-

(a) Before 1526: Pre-Hapsburg period. Courier mail only.
(b) 1526 1622: Imperial Hapsburg Postal System, with postmasters
appointed by the Kaiser (Emperor).
(c) 1622 1722: The Counts of Paar were the Imperial postmasters.
(d) 1722 1850: The Imperial postal monopoly reestablished.

Postal markings in the present sense were introduced after 1661, when
specific tariffs were established (affirmed in 1695). After 1722, rate
markings and marks of origin became obligatory; more so as the postal
system became more regulated. From 1722, the definite periods were:-

First Period, from 1722 to 1788. Special rates for mail. Postage based
on weight and up to three distances. Handstamps introduced gradually
and the postage due was marked.

Second Period, from 1788 to 1817. Unified rates were introduced for the
Hapsburg Crown Lands, the basic weight being Loth (6.4 g. or 0.225oz.).
Half the postage was to be paid by the sender and addressee each. The
basic full rate was 8 krajczAr from 1788.
79








An official letter No. 35318 in the collection of Dr. B41a Simady of
Hungary belongs to this period. Endorsed "Ex offo", it was apparently
sent in 1789 from Vienna via Pressburg (Pozsony/Bratislava) and Unghvar
to Munkacs, to BACSINSZKY Andras (Andrij Bachins'kyj). The Bachins'kyjs
are a well-known Ukrainian family who have lived there for centuries
and became prominent in the pro-Russian faction after 1919. In this
particular letter, the sender had the free franking privelege, as shown
by the "Ex offo" notation, but NOT the addressee. The latter had to pay
half the rate, which, in this case, was 8 krajczar, as given by the
figure "8" in red crayon at bottom left. We can deduce from this what
the full rate must have been. The weight of the letter was not all that
critical, as the rule of thumb used was that 1 sheet = Loth = 8 kr.,
or 2 sheets = 1 Loth = 16 kr. The last was the full tariff in this case.
A most interesting and historic letter '
A further example from this period
vi .-) < ----- is a letter in the Paul H. Jensen
/ /collection from the now familiar
( / / Horvath Imre Stanschitz
|z o*a'-__ /1,ya correspondence,endorsed "v.Unghvar"
/ at top right and sent on 27 February
cI f) ^1791 via Cassovia (Kosice,Slovakia)
/ to Leutschau (Levoca,Slovakia). The
S/ postage to pay was 4 krajczar, as
S /'I, i/ shown by the figure "4" in red
crayon at bottom centre.

In short, this is another
./ < / 2 application of the "split rate"
usage.


gurr u..- .- pp.,


I *, ." '. '. .'- .. ." .. "





gaMi.t .,a t e, s t. a ,o r i,,, j,-. ,, a,, ; ft l i i t
.. ,t .B-i8W,;,m *ti t ,j"' <, B Bin tn j p




4a lro gBtt' ft
One r f ..ei "




defti 1 .O-t firt i *et gSa B.ig can.a. 8:1r.. .n.4
frt, teft fesI 4btnj I*m # oobit( p- w gtfas
3r tlonMuirtX, tb r n ti h a O fs b $ t4ag pof b



80 OB a t af lte .. -.t


Reproduction of the German-Czech
text for the Unified Rate, as
published in Prague, 27.12.1788,
courtesy of Paul H. Jensen.


.rife, ted4e in ala" b,





. ...... .... ..' .,..
."ta s b. ai s "i,, il/ r .-"



' .' .-..;" .. "*. ::--, i. ': /" -,


2) 6Q $cb>tl3.I P i^it'
vdj bo cy^ emJk. 4aMb to 10
'(;.. *.; hih "' .

?by$ IaO .b' netob$eS*
t u to* ,aobe
bT gbau, woCT nclU Ibhbu..
4= top4 yi igmutj Antb tox,


V Pl$, b17. tft-,78 8.
,. si


f 9rin 0 i. iatriani

;a.3 .*.t s agi.n ,,"
!a ( I i 0'ii








The Unified Rate rose to 12 krajczar in 1798, 16 krajczar in 1803 and
* 24 krajczar in 1806. The use of postmarks fades out, as the Unified
Rate eliminates the need to show the place of posting. A two-zone
system came into use in 1810 and the postage rates increased, due to
inflation. French Field Posts operated during the Napoleonic Wars.

Third Period, from 1817 to 1838. A rayon system of seven zones of
distance was established for inland letters, according to the number
of postal stations they had to pass through. The single rates for a
letter up to Loth in weight were as follow:-

Zone 1: Up to three postal stations: 2 krajczar C.M.*
Zone 2: Beyond 3 and up to 6 postal stations: 4 "
Zone 3: Beyond 6 and up to 9 postal stations: 6 "
Zone 4: Beyond 9 and up to 12 postal stations: 8 "
Zone 5: Beyond 12 and up to 15 postal stations: 10 "
Zone 6: Beyond 15 and up to 18 postal stations: 12 "
Zone 7: Beyond 18 postal stations: 14 "
*C.M.=Conventionsmuinze, a silver-based currency then used in Austria.
The rates could be paid either by the sender or the addressee. The
marking of the post office of despatch was again obligatory, so as to
check the correct postage. Official mail had the free franking
privilege for half the postage, with the other half to be paid by the
addressee, if he did not also have free franking rights. From 1819,
letters to persons or public offices enjoying free franking privileges
could be prepaid at half the rate by a sender.


In the example shown
here from the Lauson H.
Stone collection, the
letter was sent from
Szobrancz (Szobranc,
Sobrance, COBPAHL~),
in 1831 as official
mail. The addressee in
Munkatsch (Mukacevo)
did not have the free
franking privelege and
paid 4 krajczar upon
receipt of the letter.
Sobrance is in Eastern
Slovakia, where many
Ukrainians still live.


Fourth Period, from 1838 to
1842. This time span is
important to Carpatho-
Ukrainian prephilately, as
a new Postal Act separated
the Imperial Posts from the
Royal Hungarian Posts (A
Magyar Kiralyi Posta). The
* date of mailing was now
included in the postmarks.
The excerpt here from the
Act is by courtesy of Paul
H. Jensen, of Oslo, Norway.


Ra0 bifen mounbf4a a ift ba beUiernbe Gfet .aoefaft toben, Wte.
OtS bas Befen unb btn mUifaug bter pof.tegalI etfntimmtvtnb mit
ber i. SSllu S i838 in Unfmr ea tten, mit 2WtSna me von lngarn unb irtben
bfrgen, in Birframrt it gu treten b t. IBon bem 8itpncte be i:tfamftit blefes
Qcft'eS an, treten bite bfs beftanbeamn Xotbhunmen tifStlpi~ btejofgen,
todroint blefte ft dline fBeiimmung ent4it, aucntr aft.


4 ~ ~~xst


r 7


I-- -~


t~L-~:~







As an example of the dating of postmarks in this
period, the Cronin collection has a prephilatelic
/S /'letter from Szathmar(now Satu Mare in Roumania) and
addressed to Bishop Vasyl' Popovych in Ungvar (Uzhorod).
S'It bears on the back the arrival marking UNGHVAR, as
shown here, with a manuscript notation below reading "M 27/10.39". The
"M" possibly stands for the Hungarian word "Megerkezett" = "Arrived",
or "Megkapott"="Received",on 27 October 1839.
Fifth Period, from 1842 to 1848. The Rayon system was simplified to two
zones: up to, and more than 10 Postmeilen or 74.2 km. The local rate of
2 krajczar was maintained. In 1843, the first zone was increased to 20
Postmeilen or 148.4 km.

Sixth Period, from 1848 to 1850. The postal rate for distances less
than 10 Postmeilen was reduced to 3 krajczar. Adhesive postage stamps
were introduced on Ist. June 1850 and made compulsory for the
prepayment of ordinary letters, but not official mail, in all the
Hapsburg Crown Lands.

ADDENDUM III : FURTHER FINDS IN THE EARLY ADHESIVE PERIOD.

(a) A most interesting
letter in the Dr.W.J.Rauch
., collection, sent on 8 Feb.
1854 from Munkacs/Mukacevo
S% : < to Ungvar/Uzhorod and paid
S / with 2 copies of the 3 kr.
__ a.t As the distance between the
-, 7 *n's two towns was less than 10
4 0 '7,- Postmeilen, it must have
S' ." .. been a double-weight letter.
Addressed in Russian to
Bishop Vasyl' opovych, but,
Ax X9 unfortunately, the contents
are missing.
S(b) Another letter, in the
S- Cronin collection, sent
-1 this time from Maramaros-
sziget, the capital of the
Maramaros county and paid
-I with a 6 kr., which was
postmarked 8/8 (1852). It
Swas the correct rate for
the distance beyond 10
--- -- ---- .. -. -.. Postmeilen to destination.
It went through Munkacs on
9th. Aug. and was received
[" i-'--n Ungvar a day later.
_00 Again from the Bishop
o' c-c Popovych correspondence,
with the address, complete
*J;.) with all his titles now
S ," .../o given in Roumanian '








(c) A further
letter from the
Cronin collection,
official this time
and sent from
Nylregyhaza 26/5
via Munkacs 29/5
to Ungvar 30/5.
Again to Bishop
Popovych and note
that;,at that time,
(year unknown)
Ungvar had no date
slugs and the
figures were
written in by
hand i


S ', .. i ,*

S:


(d) Another official
letter in the Cronin
collection, sent by the /-
Director of a monastery
in Huszt (Chust)10 March c:
(1872) to the Very i"
Reverend (F8tisztelend8)
Mykyta Matvij, a monk at
Csernekhegy.The word "hegy"
means "hill" in Hungarian .
and the place-name is a
Magyarisation of the 6 '
Ukrainian CHERNECH'A HORA
or "Monk's Hill", a ___
famous monastery on the
outskirts of Muka&evo, where the letter was received a day later. In
the Czech period, it was known as "6ernecky Monastyr u Mukaceva",
being featured on one card in a rare series issued by the Czechoslovak
Posts on 1 June 1934. By the way, there is also an old Russian proverb
which goes as follows:-
Bepermcb Kosna cnepegH, noImanH csan a qepHega co Bcex CTOPOH !
(Beware of a he-goat from in front, a horse from behind and a monk
from all sides !).


SPECIAL OFFER
Re the authoritative work THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev.
* L.L. Tann, which won a silver medal at the International Philatelic
Literature Exhibition in Milan, Italy, in 1982, we have on hand some
copies in which one page failed to be printed and a xeroxed correction
pasted in. These corrected and completed copies are now available at
the .very special price, postpaid anywhere in the world, of US$ 15.00.
Please order quickly, as supplies are limited I


83


__^_^^_^J__^_^___^___A













PHILATELIC SHORTS


DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some
newly acquired item ?

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers '



Helmut Weikard, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany.


I am showing here the view and front side of a postcard that was mailed
from one of the German settlements in Russia. The manorial village of
Fal'ts-Feinovo on the Dnieper (originally called Gavrilovka, in the
Kherson Province and present name unknown to me) belonged to a great
landowner of German descent, Alexander von Falz-Fein, who died in 1919.
He was the brother of Friedrich von Falz-Fein (1863-1920), the creator
of the Zoological Garden of Askaniya-Nova. By the way, there was also
a small zoo in Fal'ts-Feinovo itself and the castle there (shown above)
was destroyed during the Revolution. Alexander von Falz-Fein was married
to a daughter of the Tsarist General Zugalovskii. As can be seen from
the illustration the postmark for the village was of the bridge type
and reading FAL'TS-FEINOVO KHERS. a 21.2.04.


---7







Colonel Asdrubal Prado, Campinas, Brazil.


(a) The Zemstvo system performed many postal functions, not only the
transmission of mail. The specific origin of the above Zemstvo
envelope is unknown to me, but the face of it shows that local money
orders were also handled, while the back has a No. designation on the
flap, as well as a line for noting the commission charged and space
for the signature of the postmaster. Which Zemstvo issued this item ?







(b) The both sides of the envelope at the bottom of the previous page
tell quite a story. The 7-kop. envelope was posted on 7 Oct.1884 O.S.
at Beltsy in Bessarabia and was at the Russian border post office at
at Novoselitsy the next two days, before crossing over to Austrian
Novoselitsa on the second day (21st. Oct.N.S.). It was at its
destination in Czernowitz,Northern Bukovina at 2pm. that afternoon.
Such "cross-border" covers are always worth looking for.

Dr. Robert Bell, Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A.


The biography given of Colonel "Klondyke Joe" Boyle in "The Post-Rider"
No. 12 and especially re his reorganising the Southern Russian railways
makes me think that he may have been working with the British Railway
Mission in 1917. I have two covers, as shown above, addressed to that
Mission, c/o the British Embassy in Jassy, Roumania. Further research
in the Public Record Office in London should yield good clues.

G.G. Werbizky, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A.


Photocopies are given above of a 4-kop. Romanov postcard, used with the
"DBP" overprint. Such usages are rare and this example was sent from
Vladivostok on 20 Sept. 1921 by the well-known dealer S.A.Pappadopulo.
Addressed to Bombay, India, the message is in French, with an offer to
exchange stamps of Russia, Siberia and Far Eastern Republic, as well as
war issues for British India material, on the basis of the Yvert 1921 w
catalogue. He was involved in the illegal reprinting of the rare
Nikolaevsk-on-Amur surcharges and material known to have come from him
in the first place should be treated with caution. However, the above
card is properly used.
86








REVIEW OF to






"------Sa 7f /".S^J A







THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE A Portrait in 500 Photographs, by Chlo8
Obolenskaya, with an introduction by the late Max Hayward. Published by
Random House, New York, 1979, at $24.95.

The interesting introduction was written by Max Hayward (1924-1979) and
is difficult to read, as he had a long-winded style. An erratic genius,
he was in the USSR on and off between 1947 & 1956, had translated
several modern Soviet authors and was severely criticised for the
American version of "Doctor Zhivago".

* The photographs cover the period from 1852 to 1915. This book was
obviously inspired by the previous work "Before the Revolution" and
repeats some of the shots given in that earlier study. In short,
another case of imitation being the sincerest form of flattery. While
the contents are absorbing, this present volume is both big and heavy.
By contrast, its forerunner "Before the Revolution" is compact, much
easier to handle and with just as good, if not better, photographs.

FORGERY AND REPRINT GUIDE No. 3 (Armenia, 1922 Pictorials), No. 4
(Armenia, 1923 Pictorials) and No. 11 (Azerbaijan). A set of three
booklets, researched by John Barefoot and Andrew Hall and published by
J.Barefoot (Investments) Ltd., York, England in 1983.

The illustrations are double-size and clear, with the differences
between originals and forgeries nicely tabulated and easy to follow.
Re the Azerbaijani pictorials, it has been our experience on this side
of the water that the forgeries are much scarcer than the originals!
These booklets are an ideal guide to the collectors of these issues
and, for the convenience of CSRP subscribers, the set of three titles
is being offered at a modest price in our Journal Fund (see p. 89).

EESTI FILATELIST No. 28 for 1982. A 416(!)-page journal, published by
the Society of Estonian Philatelists in Sweden & the Estonian Philatelic
Society of New York. Available from Elmar Ojaste, Mandolingatan 17,
S-421 45 V&stra FrBlunda, Sweden.

This magnificent volume covers The Jaan Lubi Forgeries, by E.Sj8gren;
Pskov 1941-44 by H.Osi; Estonian Treasury Notes by T.R.Triumph; Tallinn
Postal Markings, by H.Alver; The Estonian Air Post, by W.Sch6nherr;
Estonian Forerunners 1636-1918, by V.Hurt; Kuresaare/Arensburg 1710-1917
by V.Kitt; Paevaleht Perfs.,by P.G.Gleason; Estonian Postmarks,Cachets &
87








Labels; The Postal Steamer "Sofia"; Soviet Estonian R-Markings &
Estonian Workers'Commune Mails 1918-19, all by E.Ojaste;International
Mails 1918-19, by W.Soopan; Estonian Field Posts 1918-20, by E.Ojaste,
H.Osi & A.Ostrat; as well as Society Notes, a tribute to Georg
Lindberg; Estonian Field Post in Latvia, by A.Lepp& and obituaries.

No. 29 for 1983 surveys the Jaan Lubi Forgeries (Part II),by E.Sj8gren;
Postal History of Viljandi, Estonian Mute Cancels of 1914, Esto-
Khaginskoe Settlement, Estonian Prov. Cancels-all by E.Ojaste;Tallinn
Postal Markings, by H.Alver; Estonian Esperanto Labels, by R. Hamar;
Save Estophilic Documents & Letters from Russia, by H.Osi; Estonian
Camp Post, by G.J.Koppermann; Air Stamp No. 1, by I.Weiner; Estonian
Field Posts 1918-20, by E.Ojaste, H.Osi & A.Ostrat; Estonica,by E.Raid
and the usual Society Notes etc. in this wonderful 192-page issue.

RUSSISCH-SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE (Russian & Soviet Philately) No. 32 for
July 1983. A 58-page journal, issued by the Russia-USSR Study Group in
the Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Herr Pitt Piacenza,
D-5583 ZELL/Mosel, Schloss-Str.l, Federal Republic of Germany.

Among the subjects covered are a Report on the 1983 USSR-FRG Exhibition
in Tbilisi, by H.Meyer; Philately Aside, Stationery Forerunners of the
Soviet Union & A Battle around Kiev, all by J.Schneider; An Extreme
Variety, or Rarity?, by H.Tobler-Sommerfeld; 28th.Soviet Antarctic
Expdn., by E.S.Anasir; Congress Poland, by W.Herrmann; The Delayed
Kerenskii Issue (magnificent !) & The St.Petersburg 1922 Postmark
Riddle, both by Ing.Z.Mikulski; Kiev Historical Timetable in the Civil
War & Ukraine 1918-20, both by Fr.Gerst; an excellent Catalogue of
Russian & Soviet Postal Stationery and, throughout this number, Society
News, Correspondence, Literature Reviews and Adlets.A very useful issue!

SOVIETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER (Soviet Collector) No. 20. A 142-page paperback
of articles, issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow 1982 in
an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 90 kop.

The philatelic studies include Postage Stamps of the RSFSR 1921-22 &.
Genesis of the First Russian Stamps, both by B.Kaminskii; Special'
Postcards, by S.Blekhman & V.Pantyukhin; Once Again about the Khar'kov
RUB Surcharges, by D.Kuznetsov & Classification & Coding of-the St.
Petersburg Postal Markings (unnecessarily complex), by M.Dobin.
The balance of the articles cover Rerikh Paintings on Postcards by M.
Zabochen' & S.Babintsev; four studies of coins & medals; two articles
on badges; Loan Coupons,by D. Senkevich; Rovno Paper Money of 1919, by
M.Alekseyuk and a Huge (Inflationery) Receipt, by A. Shishkin, to
terminate with literature reviews.

KATALOG POCHTOVYKH MAROK SSSR 1981 (Catalogue of Postage Stamps of the
USSR for 1981), compiled by M.I. Spivak. A 32-page booklet, issued by
the "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow 1982, in an edition of 200,000
copies. Price 25 kop.

This is an exhaustive listing of that year's issues, as an update to
the basic Soviet Catalogue, together with a thematic index.

The booklet for the 1982 issues, was published in 1983 in an edition of
210,000 copies and follows the same pattern as the previous work,
together with some advertisements at the end.







The Journal Fund

All sales benefit the Society and orders should be
made payable to A. Cronin, Box 5722 Station-A,
Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2. All previous titles
Shave unfortunately been sold out.

SOIM KARPATS'KOYI UKRAYINI, by Dr. Stepan Rosokha.
A fascinating eye-witness account of the birth of
the Carpatho-Ukrainian Republic by a former minister.
S Published in Ukrainian, with an English summary
Sand long out of print. Of great interest to the
Dr.S.Rosokha. Carpatho-Ukrainian collector. Price postpaid US$5.00

BEFORE THE REVOLUTION: Russia and its people under the Czar, by Kyril
FitzLyon & Tatiana Browning. A wonderful survey of life under the
last monarch of the Romanov Dynasty and containing many rare
photographs, including from postcards of the era. The ultimate in
nostalgia and indispensable for Imperial collectors. Published at
US$19.95 and offered to our readers at an unbeatable price, sent
sent anywhere in the world. A few copies left at POSTPAID'US$12.50.

THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L.L. Tann. We have a few
copies of this ever-popular work with a xeroxed page pasted onto
one that failed to print,at the bargain price of POSTPAID US$15.00.
The contents are complete and this is a great opportunity.

GEORGIA, by John Barefoot & Andrew Hall. A spiral-bound' book of 66
large-pages, covering all phases of Georgian philately : stamps,
varieties,forgeries,fantasies,P.O.List. PRICE POSTPAID US$12.00.

FORGERY AND REPRINT GUIDE No. 3(Armenia, 1922 Pictorials), No. 4
(Armenia 1923 Pictorials) & No. 11 (Azerbaijan). All illustrations
are double-size and the differences clearly tabulated. Invaluable
for Transcaucasia cillectors.Set of 3 booklets: _POSTPAID US$ 6.50.

DIE POSTSTEMPELFORMEN IN ST.PETERSBURG VON 1766-1914, by Heinrich
Imhof. This is the definitive study of St.Petersburg postmarks and
is easy to follow, as there are many illustrations and everything is
tabulated. A new supply at a special price. POSTPAID US$ 7.50.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great writers.Price postpaid US $ 2.50.

LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow
State University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian
grammar, many phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual
for"us monolingual slobs", as one of our readers bluntly it. Great
value for the money. Price postpaid US $ 2.50.


PLEASE NOTE THAT THE SOCIETY HAS SOLD OUT OF "THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS"
BY REV. L.L. TANN. COPIES ARE STILL AVAILABLE FROM GEORGE ALEVIZOS,
2716 OCEAN PARK BOULEVARD,SUITE 1020,SANTA MONICA,CALIF.,USA 90405.









THE COLLECTORS' CORNER ,\

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your .
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or /
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16 V'
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR a biography of the Russian actor and director Mikhail Chekhov
(1891-1955), I would appreciate hearing from anyone with letters,
recollections or personal anecdotes.
MEL GORDON, New York University School of the Arts, 51 West 4th.St.,
Room 300, New York, N.Y., U.S.A. 10003.

FOR SALE:Issues of the BJRP (originals, not xeroxes) Nos. 1,2,32,37-
42,47,49 & 50.The twelve for US$32.50 postpaid.The RUSSIAN-AMERICAN
PHILATELIST (NY),23 issues xeroxed at US$14.00 postpaid. Postmaster
Provisional stamps of Kiev & Khar'kov at 20% Michel (DM1.-= 45US).
Mint & used available, blocks pro rata; some strips & part sheets
showing the 5 positions at 30% premium.Several unlisted varieties
also available. Will consider trade for material I need.
JAMES MAZEPA,P.O.Box 1217, Oak Park, Illinois, U.S.A. 60304.

RUSSIAN REVENUES, revenue paper, documents, vignettes, labels, locals,
Zemstvo wanted. Will purchase or exchange as requested for needed items.
MARTIN CERINI,90 Third Ave., Huntington Station, N.Y., U.S.A. 11746.

WANTED: Imperial dot cancellations on cover; buy or trade. Please
write,describing covers) & asking price for desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.

A FEW original copies of THE RUSSIAN PHILATELIST still available:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US$4.00 each; Nos. 8 to 11 US$4.50 each.
MRS C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y., U.S.A. 11524.

ALWAYS looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fair exchange assured.
G. G. WERBIZKY, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A. 13850.

SPECIAL NOTE: WE HAVE COMPLETELY SOLD OUT OF ALL PARTS OF "IMPERIAL
RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA". ALL FUTURE ORDERS SHOULD GO
DIRECTLY TO P.T.ASHFORD,9 PENTRE CLOSE,ASHTON,CHESTER, ENGLAND
CH3 8BR.PRICE PER PART IS US$5.00 POSTPAID. CASH WITH ORDER, PLEASE


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