• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Northern Russia and Canada
 Transnistria under the Roumanian...
 A look at Northern Bukovina postal...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 The Russians at Spitsbergen
 Imperial air mail
 More about Aleksandrovskoe...
 More about the Crimean Tartars
 Still more about the Volga...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 Obituaries
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner














Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 10
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00010
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 10
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Northern Russia and Canada
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Transnistria under the Roumanian administration
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    A look at Northern Bukovina postal history
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The Russians at Spitsbergen
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Imperial air mail
        Page 61
        Page 62
    More about Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri
        Page 63
    More about the Crimean Tartars
        Page 64
    Still more about the Volga Germans
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Review of literature
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Obituaries
        Page 74
    The journal fund
        Page 75
    The collectors' corner
        Page 76
Full Text










.. 6,0


I a


Printed In Canada














THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER", No. 10.


MAY 1982.


CONTENTS:


Editorial ; Archives and Material
Correspondence with Canada
Northern Russia and Canada
Transnistria under the Roumanian Administration
A Look at Northern Bukovina Postal History

Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos
The Russians at Spitsbergen
Imperial Air Mail
More about Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri
More about the Crimean Tartars
Still more about the Volga Germans
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
Obituaries
Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner.


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY:

Publisher and Treasurer
Secretary
Editor


W. G. Robinson
A. L. Steinhart
C. M. Trevers
Dr.Robert Bell
& A. Cronin
A. Artuchov
J. Lloyd,FRPSL
Rev.L.L. Tann
Various authors
Various authors
Various authors
Various authors


Alex. Artuchov
P. J. Campbell
Andrew Cronin


CREDITS:

The Society thanks its contributors for helping to make this an
interesting issue.


TAg ^ |gbE


lit




















EDITORIAL

ARCHIVES AND MATERIAL. N23

Most governments around the world keep extensive archives, including
those relating to postal matters. So far as our own country of
Canada is concerned, that is especially the case and the existing
postal archives occupy an enormous amount of space in Ottawa. They
have proved to be a happy hunting ground for serious Canadian
philatelists.

In our spheres of collecting, the situation is complex. Due to the
wondrous doings that have taken place since the former Russian
Empire collapsed in 1917, much destruction of philatelic material
and archives has taken place. Fortunately for the Western world in
general and North America in particular, millions of immigrants
have come over here from Eastern Europe since the turn of the
century. The resulting exchanges of correspondence have since put
North American philatelists in a very favourable position for
finding material.

Indeed, that is the crux of the matter. While it would be nice to
have access to the archives, such access is not crucial. To cite an
example from his own experience, your Editor was living in
Australia when, after WWII, the local philatelists wanted to dig
into the early Colonial and Commonwealth postal archives. It was
then discovered that they were practically non-existent, as the
greater part had been pulped during the war as a result of paper
shortages and recycled. However, by carefully correlating and
examining the material surviving in collections, it has become
possible to reconstruct much of the background for the Australian
postal services in bygone days.

That is the task also facing us philatelists in the West in our own
areas of collecting. We must keep on accumulating material, no
matter how duplicated. The more we accumulate, the easier it becomes
to classify the material and then some conclusions may be drawn. To
give another example, your Editor once ran across a triangular
folded letter from a civilian to a Soviet serviceman during WWII.
Among the markings on the item was a mysterious c.d.s. reading :
GLAVNYI VPSP (Main VPSP)_ The initials were a puzzle but your
Editor kept on searching until he found several further letters from
civilians to servicemen, with marking inscribed : VOENNO-POCHTOVYI
SORTIR. PUNKT followed by a number (Military Postal Sorting Point).
A picture thus began to take shape..See the illn. at top right.
2







To end on an even more optimistic note, it can now be said that
archives of easy access to us in the West are not entirely lacking.
During the Imperial period, a duplicate set of general archives was
kept in Helsinki, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland. It is
up to our friends in the Finnish capital to start delving into this
source, as the discoveries are there to be made. Since the Republic
of Finland is an open society with established Western traditions of
conduct, including the rule of law, access to these archives should
not be difficult for bona-fide students and researchers.



CORRESQPNDENCE ,

WITH CANADA





"Correspcndence with Canada" is a regular feature KaHay :
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting L
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph, i)
or xercx copy of the item, along with sane expla-
natory text to the Editor.



THE CANADIANS IN NORTHERN RUSSIA 1918-1919
by W. G. Robinson.

In September 1918, 92 Canadian officers and NCOs sailed from Leith,
Scotland to Murmansk, Russia, under the command of Lt.-Col. J. E.
Leckie, CMG, DSO. They were sent to instruct and command locally
recruited Russian units during a White advance south from Murmansk.







The card shown here was posted by Major L. Howard Mackenzie, one of
the senior officers in this group, to his cousin in Westville, Nova
Scotia. It bears the 27 mm. double-ring postmark of FIELD POST
OFFICE PB 11, dated 19 Dec. 1918. This office was located at Soroka
(Sorokka), on the railway about 400 miles south of Murmansk, from
Dec. 1918 to July 1919. It also bears an early usage of the purple
censor mark "X13" in oval; recorded by Kennedy and Crabbe (1977)
only from June to Sept. 1919.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: We are indebted to Mr. Robinson of Vancouver,
B.C., for permission to reproduce the above information from his
collection. The item is rare, as there was only a small Canadian
participation in the Allied Intervention in Northern Russia. Since
the discovery of this particular piece, a further find of mail
relating to the Canadian presence has been made by our tireless and
modest contributor, Mr. Allan L. Steinhart of Toronto. The details
are given below and Mr. Robinson has also been able, as a result,
to expand his holdings of this type of material.


NORTHERN RUSSIA AND CANADA

by Allan L. Steinhart.

As we know, there was a considerable Allied expeditionery force
sent in 1918 to Northern Russia, officially to take control of war
supplies at Murmansk and Archangel and to establish an anti-German
front ("Operation Polar Bear", = "PB" in the postmarks). These
forces soon exceeded their original mandate and became embroiled in
the White-Red conflict, taking the side of the White forces.
American, British, French, Italian and Polish troops were active,in
addition to several other minor troop concentrations. Among these
were a Canadian artillery battery and a few Canadian volunteers who
were engaged in training the White Russian forces, helping with
logistics etc. and amounting in all to under 200 men.

Needless to say, covers from the Canadians in Northern Russia are
not common. It therefore follows that covers sent in the opposite
direction, i.e. to the Canadians in Northern Russia, are scarcer
yet, as there always appears to be more mail from soldiers to a
peaceful civilian area where it could be put aside securely, than
to soldiers in a combat area. Shown in this article is a group of
covers to and from Canadian troops in Northern Russia.

Fig. 1 shows a cover to Canada from PB 1 at Murmansk and dated 14
Oct. 1918, with the oval censor "X3" (?). Fig. 2 gives a cover to
Canada from APO-PB 2 at Archangel, dated 16 May 1919 and with the
censor handstamp "PE/C/32". The item in Fig. 3 is also from
Archangel, but is dated 2 Feb. 1919 and with the oval censor "X20",
plus an unusual double circle censor marking reading HOSPITAL SHIP
R.A.M.C. / P.C. 8, which is not recorded in Kennedy and Crabbe as
being applied in Northern Russia. We therefore have covers from
Canadians at both of the APO base camps at Archangel and Murmansk.

In addition to the above, a few covers can be shown from Canadians
with the forward forces in the field. Fig. 4 is from FPO-PB 11,
dated 12 Jan. 1919 on a buff-coloured Canadian Y.M.C.A. cacheted
envelope and with the censor mark "X13", together with a notation


I







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y


Fig. 1.


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Fig. 2.
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Fig. 3.


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Z~,~a~aerradb-~~*h, ;. ~l~r*ms ~-6 ---- ~t ~~~LBlffdRBWAI*I~ _u~;T~-


'/^^~~~ ~~~~ ,? |.'b^-^ "" f- ;



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7' p/'t.-* ^^ r



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,

I


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!
i<.


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6.


/1


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reading "On Active Service". PB 11 was located at Soroka, about 400
miles south of Murmansk. Fig. 5 shows a further cover from the same
* correspondence as in Figs. 2 & 3; it is postmarked FPO PB 44, dated
1 Feb. 1919 and with censor marking PE/C/21. This office was located
at Bakharitsa, operating out of Archangel. I have another Canadian
PB 44 cover, dated 25 Nov. 1918 and with censor marking PE/C/16. Fig.
6 demonstrates yet another cover from a Canadian in Northern Russia
from FPO PB 55 and dated 7 Jan. 1919. This office was situated at
Bereznik, which was the headquarters of the Dvina Force. The letter
bears the censor mark "X5".

Apart from the above covers from Canadians in Northern Russia, I can
show here a pair of letters addressed to a Canadian serving with the
Allied forces in Northern Russia. Fig. 7 shows a single-rate cover
(3), sent from Toronto on 3 Jan. 1919 and addressed to Lieut. A. K.
Griffin in London. It was redirected to R.G.A., "Elope", North Russia
Expeditionery Force. "Elope" was the military code name for Archangel.
-.,... 1~ M S ..


f] &'/.'*
CA



~C


, Eolope.




It ..l #.a /-- .










^f^ ^1%
II- ^>^^^^^^


Fig. 7.



















i F 23 A .''




Fig. 8.


3


I


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I I







Fig. 8 is addressed to the same 2nd. Lt. A. K. Griffin and sent from
Toronto exactly one month later. Once again, the letter was
redirected to "Elope". On the reverse, there is the receiving
backstamp of FPO PB 44, dated 23 Apr. 1919. There appears to have
been no censoring of this incoming military mail. This particular
letter was probably double-rated; i.e. two-applications of the
domestic rate of 2 per. ounce, plus 1 War Tax per item, for a total
of 5. The domestic rates of postage were extended to Canadians
serving in Northern Russia, in the same way as the rates were
extended to Canadian soldiers overseas during WWI and receiving first
class mail.

This little group gives us covers from both of the Army Post Office
bases PB 1 and PB 2 and from three of the Field Post Offices: PB 11,
PB 44 & PB 55 from Canadians in Northern Russia, along with a pair of
letters to an officer in Northern Russia. Apart from the previously
mentioned Canadians, there were possibly a few others in Northern
Russia, serving with the British forces in the Royal Navy or other
services, especially elements of the Hudson's Bay Company. The latter
company has an icebreaker, the "Nascopie", which had come from the
Canadian Arctic Service to be used as an icebreaker at Archangel and
Murmansk. To the best of my knowledge, there are no "Nascopie" covers
from Northern Russia known at present.

The Canadians in Northern Russia offer a small and difficult area,
which appeals to several spheres of collecting interest, i.e. Russian
philately, military postal history and Canadian philately.


TRANSNISTRIA SOME NOTES ON THE CANCELLATIONS AND MARKINGS USED
UNDER THE ROUMANIAN ADMINISTRATION.

by Chris. M. Trevers.

(This article is an expanded and updated version of a study that
originally appeared in the May, 1981 issue of "THE N.S.W. PHILATELIST"
the journal of the Philatelic Society of New South Wales, Australia,&
by whose kind permission and that of the author the present-study is
now appearing on these pages. Thanks are also due to Mr. N.J. Sheppard
of Lakemba, N.S.W. for the artwork done to prepare the article).

Other than some references on the 1943 unissued miniature sheets, I
have seen nothing written on the subject of the Roumanian
administration of Transnistria, except what appears in the standard
stamp and stationery catalogues and even that little information
does not appear to be always correct.

I have seen nothing to indicate the geographical limits of the
Roumanian administration (roughly, Transnistria is the Ukrainian
region between the Nistru Dniester and the Bug rivers); nothing
to indicate where and when post offices functioned; not a mention of
the postage stamps used, of the postal rates and regulations, of the
extent to which they were the same (if they were) to those applicable
in Roumania; not a mention of any cancellations or markings of any
sort.

This being the situation, anyone interested in the situation must
start afresh, with nothing on which to rely, except the material at







one's disposal. Unfortunately, the material anything other than
mint singles is scarce in the extreme. During seven years of
intense search, I have encountered thirty postal items (not all
genuinely used) and three stamps bearing identifiable dated
cancellations; and in order to obtain one of these used stamps, I had
to purchase a small Roumanian collection.

(The scarcity of the material is partly due to the relatively small
use made of the Roumanian-run postal service in Transnistria, but
mostly due to the post-war political situation in Roumania and
Russia, where the collecting of Transnistrian material has been
virtually prohibited since the war. There can be no question of
obtaining now Transnistrian philatelic material from either of these
countries).

A. Cronin has suggested that the Roumanian postal service in
Transnistria was not intended to, and did not in fact, serve the
local Ukrainian population. (There have always been Roumanians
living in the territory). The suggestion was confirmed by the
Ukrainians to whom I have spoken and who lived in Transnistria in
1941-44, and also (more significantly) by the material encountered -
all but two of the postal items mentioned in the following pages
appear to be from either Roumanians or Germans, and are addressed to
either Roumania or Germany (as the latter was then).

Again according to A. Cronin, the locals' (Ukrainians') only
correspondence was to and from German P.O.W. and labour camps, but
all such mail went through a special German postal system.

Odessa was the last Transnistrian town to fall to the Roumanian
armies, on 16th. Oct. 1941, and I was told by a local collector that
it was in Odessa that the first Roumanian post office was opened, in
mid-November 1941. The office was located in Sadovaia Ulitsa (Street)
in the building of the old General Post Office.

The same collector suggested that some 9 more post offices opened in
the city before the end of the occupation. This figure would seem
unlikely, as (according to the same source) only 22 post offices
functioned in Odessa before the war, and the Roumanian personnel
running the civilian administration in Odessa could hardly justify
10 post offices. (Most of the Roumanians native to Transnistria lived
in the country area, and there would seem little reason for large
numbers to have moved to the city during the occupation. Similarly,
there was no transfer of population from Roumania to the territory).

Whatever the number of post offices, the only one that can be
identified from its postmark was ODESA 1, located (I believe) in
Ekaterinenskaia (now Karl Marx) Ulitsa.

I have no idea when and where other post offices opened. I am listing
markings from Tiraspol (the headquarters of the Roumanian armies, and,
next to Odessa, the largest town in Transnistria), from Birzula (now
Kotovsk not to be confused with Bessarabian towns of the same name)
and RAbnifa, as well as from three smaller localities, Balta,Ovidiopol
and Tulcin. However, not too many conclusions may be drawn from one or
two cancellations.

I was fortunate enough to find a larger number of postmarks from Golta







(together with Bogopol on the other side of the Bug now known as
Pervomaisk). However, the five dates are separated by only six weeks
in all.

I am listing a part-strike reading STANISL... at the top, and JUD.
MOGHIL... at the bottom, resembling the Roumanian rural cancellations,
which indicate the locality at the top, and the shire ("judetul") at
the bottom.

My 1:1,750,000 road map shows only one locality with a similar name,
Stanislavca. However, it is in the Central-West (see map herewith),
and much too far south of Moghilev (some 140 km.) to have belonged to
that shire. There remains the possibility of a change of name, as in
the case of Birzula.

I also have two part strikes reading ..OGRA.. and, ..GRAD..
respectively, in the upper half of a double-circle cancellation. I was
unable to learn of any Transnistrian locality, the name of which
included this letter combination.

There was a regional administration office prefecturera") in Ananiev
in 1942, and a Roumanian employed in that office recalls writing
regularly to Bucharest. However, I have not encountered any Ananiev
cancellations.

The following is an attempt to list and classify the material
encountered. Certainly, thirty covers and postcards, plus three
stamps, hardly amount to sufficient material to form the basis of a
study. However, someone, somewhere, has to take the first steps, in
the hope that others will follow, providing additional information
and leading to a fuller understanding of the subject.




r 0--- I.tem. AitSTA p -T













: "Calea 7ictorii 405


S' Bucureti






10 Item A













Tulcin,


Moghilev


UKRAINE


. Balta


Golta


ROMANIA


.Rabnita
RAbnia Birzula.

Stanislavca


Chiginius


Tiraspol


Tighina


BLACK SEA


TRANSNISTRIA


Ananiev


*Kotovsk


1941-44.



















C51.
- .._. ~" "I


' ,. .'"..CRTE POSTmL











Item B


Item C


c 11















































Item D


Item E


I








































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Item Q


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Item Type


From


Canc.
Type


TRANSNISTRIAN


Date


Regn. Censor
Type Type


A

G

J

K

L

V

H

W

M

I

P

N

S

Q

E

F

T

U

C

D
B
R


cover

mil.p.c.

cover

cover

cover

cover

ill.card

cover

cover

p.c.

p.c.

cover

p.c.

cover

ill.card

cover

p.c.

p.c.

cover

cover
p.c.
cover


Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Odessa

Ovidiopol

Tiraspol

Tiraspol

Tiraspol

Rabniga

Rabnifa

Birzula

Balta
Tulcin
Golta


c.t.o.

Bucharest

Bucharest

Timigoara

Timigoara

Brussels

Bucharest

Brussels

Vienna

Bucharest

Bucharest

c.t.o.

Craiova

Ploesti

Deva

c.t.o.

Tr.Magurele

Tr.Magurele

Oravifa

Bucharest
Bucharest
Slatina


PiTaa 10

P2a 15

P3a 28

P3a 3

P3a 21

P3a 16

P2b 25

P3b 28

P3a 3

P2b 16

P3b 2

P3a 10

PiTaa ??

PITb 20

P1Tb 10

PITb 13

P1Tb 25

PITb 30

PiTaa 3

PiTab 25
PiTaa 15
P1Ta 20


May

Aug

Aug

Nov

Nov

Feb

Mar

Mar

Apr

Jun

Sep

Nov

???

Nov

Sep

Jan

Nov

Nov

Feb

Jun
Aug
Jun


Rla

Rla

R3

Rib


Cl

C3b(2)

C2b
C2a
Cla


(naval)

.2 (?)

2 C3a(9)

2 C3a(9)

2 (external)

C3a(18)

,2 (external)

[2 (external)

- C3a(17)

,2 C3a(20)



Cla(l)

(?)

- C3a(l)

- -


PITaa 2? Oct 43 C3(1)


Stamps


Odesa opts.,1 L.fiscal



24 L.

Trans.Commem.set; 6 L.

Trans.Commem.set; 6 L.

6 L.; 2 pairs 12 L.

12 L.

12 L.; pair 24 L.

12 L.; pair 24 L.



12 L.; 24 L.

3L.,6L.,12L.,24L.



6L.,12L.,24L.

6 L.

12 L.; 24 L.

6 L.; 12 L.

6 L.; 12 L.

9 singles & 3 pairs 12 L.

pair 6 L.; 12 L.

stamp(s) removed.


MAIL


S p.c. Ovidiopol Craiova








All stamps are Transnistrian definitive, unless otherwise noted.
All items are in the writer's collection, except item L. J. Paior
collection.

Additional markings and comments to table of Transnistrian Mail.

Item A no other markings; clearly cancelled by favour.
Item G additional military censor marking and signature; naval unit
identification marking; indistinct arrival cancellation.
Item J framed OPRIT A SE CENZURA (held for censoring); m/s endorsement
RECOMANDAT (registered); three Bucharest backstamps dated 30
Aug., 1 Sep. and 3 Sep.; letter addressed to a Minister of State.
Item K Timipoara arrival cancellation, 6 Nov.; philatelic item.
Item L indistinct backstamp; philatelic item.
Items V & W Roumanian external T type censor marking (?); German
resealing strip and censor markings; covers sent to a country
other than Roumania or Germany (though still within the
German sphere of influence), names of both sender and
addressee appear to be Slavonic; item W also carries test
mark for invisible inks. See further comments under CENSOR
MARKINGS.
Item H Bucharest arrival cancellation 27.III.
Item M Roumanian external T type censor marking (9); German censor
marking and resealing strip; Vienna arrival cancellation 15
Apr. See further comments under CENSOR MARKINGS.
Item I Bucharest and Serban Voda (Bucharest suburban post office)
arrival cancellations 19 June; this is the 12 L. Transnistrian
postcard.
Item P Bucharest arrival cancellation 5 Sep.; this is the 1943 12 L.
Transnistrian postcard. .
Item N no other markings clearly cancelled by favour.
Item Q private endorsement RECOMANDAT (registered); arrival
cancellation 24 Nov. See further comments under CENSOR MARKINGS.
Item E no other markings; illustrated cards do not always bear
arrival cancellations in Roumania.
Item F no other markings. See further comments under CENSOR MARKINGS.
Item T Tr.Magurele arrival cancellation 3 Dec.; m/s endorsement "3/12,
being closed, unable to deliver"; Roumanian 4 L. postcard, to
which the sender added Transnistrian definitive adhesives;
Rabnita cancellations in violet ink. See further comments
under CENSOR MARKINGS.
Item U indistinct Roumanian cancellation; Roumanian 4 L. postcard, to
which the sender added Transnistrian definitive adhesive.
Item C Roumanian external T type censor marking (9). See further
comments under CENSOR MARKINGS.
Item D Bucharest arrival cancellation 28 June; Bucharest framed
CENZURAT and censor's signature.
Item B the 6 L. Transnistrian postcard (listed by Higgins & Gage as
having been issued in 1943).
Item R m/s "Cenzurat" and signature, on top of the identification
marking of the Campaign Hospital No. 406; the same marking is
present on the reverse of the cover, together with a rather
unclear Slatina arrival postmark of 23 June. This item is
part of a lot of Slatina/Golta and Golta/Slatina covers, all
of which were posted in June-July 1943; therefore, I believe
it not altogether unreasonable to ascribe a 1943 date to this
item also. See further comments under CENSOR MARKINGS.


22







Item S Craiova arrival cancellation 10.XI.43; the 12 L.
Transnistrian postcard. Two unidentified grey markings; 2-
figure numbers in circles of 12 mm. diameter. On the back
a machine marking reading ROMANIA CENZURA EXTERNA.

POSTMARKS prefix P (see Figs. 1 & 2)
Type 1 purpose unspecified.
- Subtype T urban.
a. circle/... arcs of circle.
aa. 2 arcs of circle.


ODESA
TULCIN
BALTA
GOLTA




OVIDIOPOL
BIRZULA


10MAI42-8
15AUG42-7
16APR43-9
18IUN4319
26IUN43-9
28IUN43-9
24IUL43??
31IUL43-9
2?OCT43??
-3FEB44-8


item A
item B
arrival postmark


arrival postmarks; all five on
covers from Slatina.

item S
item C


ab. 4 arcs of circle


25IUN42-I
15SEP4212
20SEP4212


item D
arrival postmark
arrival postmark


b. double circle


TIRASPOL 20NOE1941

10SEO42 9
13IAN-944


RABNITA


25NOE41-8
30NOE41-8


item Q;year/hour (?) pattern impossible
to follow.
item E; "
item F;
same cancel as item Q;see indentations.
item T
item U


- Subtype V rural.


STANISL.. 12AUG42-?
(JUD.MOGHIL..)


1941 12 L. definitive stamp.


Type 2 departure (EXPEDITIE or EXPEDIERE).

a. EXPEDITIE P.O. number specified, month indicated in letters,
year indicated by 3 figures,time specified.


ODESA I 15AUG9428


item G


b. EXPEDIERE P.O. number not specified, month indicated by
figures, year by 2 figures,time not specified.


ODESA


25 3 43
16 6 43


item H
item I


BALTA























PiTaa


2iUNTa




P1Taa


PiTaa


P1Taa


PiTab


r.







PITb

P1 Tb


Fig. 1.


PiTaa


P Taa




P1Taa


PiTaa


P1Tb


PITb





















P1V


P2a


4~N\
x~=--



;c-


P3a


I.9
S .. -
O~
I ic nii~S 'U


P3a


P2b











AP3b



P3b


Fig. 2.


Fig. 3.







Type 3 registration (RECOMANDATE)


a. circle/2 arcs of circle, P.O. number indicated at top, month
indicated in letters, time specified.

ODESA I 28AUG42-8 item J
-3NOE42-8 item K
21NOE42-8 item L
16FEB43-8 item V
-3APR43-8 (x) item M
10NOE43 I item N

(x) On this type of cancellation, the last two figures normally
indicate the time of posting; the prevalence of "8" (o'clock)
may be due to:
a coincidence,
a tendency for letters to be placed in mailing boxes,
rather than to be handed over the counter, although this
could not apply to registered mail,
a lack of diligence of the counter staff in adjusting the
canceller.

b. double circle, P.O. number indicated at bottom (**), month
indicated by figures, time not specified, date enclosed in
"rectangle".

ODESA I -2 9 43 item P
?? 12 43 1943 24 L.definitive stamp.
ODESA ? 28 3 43 item W

(**) There was a suggestion that the number refers to the
despatch, rather than to the P.O. It is a possibility and a
conclusive answer might be provided by the occurrence of a
number (say V) too high to represent the possible number of
daily despatches.

A 1943 6 L. Transnistrian definitive shows the lower half of a double-
circle cancellation dated MAR 44; reading (CU)RSA I, it is of the type
used in larger Roumanian towns, requiring more than one daily despatch
("cursa").

Odessa and, possibly, Tiraspol would have been the only Transnistrian
towns large enough to warrant more than one daily despatch.

There was a suggestion of this cancellation coming from a Roumanian
locality. I do not know whether the Transnistrian definitive had
postal validity outside the territory and I very much doubt they were
used in Roumania. For had that been the case, used stamps would not
have been so scarce and I expect I would have encountered by now at
least one copy bearing an identifiable Roumanian cancellation.

Then, there is always the possibility of the cancellation having been
applied on arrival see item T.

A. Cronin recalls seeing a cancellation which read ODESA OFICIALE, but
can supply no further details.

Fig. 3 shows a 1941 6 L. definitive bearing a German F.P.O.
26







cancellation dated 23.3.?? It is not possible to ascertain whether
the cancellation was applied by favour, or was the result of a letter
* intended for the civilian service, finding its way in the military
postal system (the reverse case of item G).

REGISTRATION MARKINGS prefix R (see Fig. 4).

Type R1 manuscript

a. P.O. not indicated.
RABNITA (items T and U).

b. P.O. indicated
BALTA (item D).

Type R2 P.O. specified.
ODESA I (items J,K,L,M.P.V,W).

Type R3 key type, P.O. name added by hand.
BIRZULA (item CO.

CENSOR MARKINGS prefix C (see Figs 5 & 6).

Type Cl unspecified manuscript marking ("Cenzurat" + signature).
RABNITA (item U).

Type C2 military unit identification and censor marking, and/or
manuscript marking, also used to censor military mail.

a. army.
TULCIN (item B)

b. para-military police ("jandarmeria").
BALTA (item D)

Type C3 markings used on civilian mail only,with locality & censor
number.
a. shallow T-type; 53 x 16 mm. to 70 x 20 mm. overall.
ODESA 9(items K,L); 17(I); 18(H); 20 (P).
TIRASPOL l(item E).
GOLTA 2(item R).
OVIDIOPOL l(item S).

b. deep T-type; 71 x 37 mm. overall.
BIRZULA 2(item C).

No two C3a markings (Odessa, Tiraspol, Golta, Ovidiopol) encountered
are identical, differing in both shape and size of letters and frame.
The C3b marking (Birzula) is basically different.

Items C and S bear external censor markings (T-type and mechanical,
respectively see Fig. 7), as well as local ones. It is possible that,
after being censored locally, the items were mistakenly directed to
Sthe external censor office, where they received the respective
markings, before being identified as internal items.

The C2 military markings appear to have been also used on civilian
mail from small localities, where the reduced volume of mail would not






pe aceasd part se score
anurma adres. -.-





Rla


Pe, aceastl parole se scrie *<






j _.Rja Ra


L/Y


Rib


'T 0C.- -E -A I
R N? .~G IJN


Fig. 4.


C2a


Fig. 5.


C2b








CENZURAT ODESA (I
No. 17

C3a .




S..C3a
C3a


C, ...T TIRASPO
"" C a


C3a


-----------
CENZURAT OVIDIPOL
No. 1

C3a


NZURAT'IRZULA

l NOW I. .
Mai:


C3b


Fig. 6.

.. =. :.(-'--<->/ ": .'.,

Ir L-?-" ,




*v- ..."


( S^^RO Nllfl
I3 *^i; A- (


Fig. 7.







have warranted the presence of a civilian censor; the mail was
probably submitted to the censor of whatever military (or para-
military police) unit was stationed in the locality at that
particular time.

One should stress the danger of drawing too many conclusions from one
or two markings. However, this is about as large a number as one has
the right to expect to find, of any one marking, in Transnistrian
philately.

LOCALLY UNCENSORED ITEMS.

Items A and N bear only departure cancellations; they were clearly
cancelled by favour and never went through the mails. Their only
philatelic significance lies in their illustrating cancellations used
in Transnistria; no small merit, considering the scarcity of these
cancellations.

Item F bears only departure cancellations; no Roumanian or German
censor markings, no arrival cancellations, not even the censor's
name and address; most unusual for a wartime cover. I believe it was
also cancelled by favour.

Item G is a military postcard, bearing the military censor's marking
and signature, as well as the identification marking of the Odessa
Naval Unit. For some unknown reason, the postcard went through the
civilian (rather than the military) postal system and it is feasible
that the civilian censor would have believed the postcard required
no further checking.

By comparison, item R WAS examined by a civilian censor in Golta,
although the cover bore the marking of the military censor. In this
case, one cannot do more than speculate as to whether the item had
originally been intended for the military or the civilian postal
system.

(Item R is part of a number of covers which, at the time, went from
Campaign Hospital Z.O.406, then located in, or near Golta and sent
to Slatina; they all bear military postmarks and censor markings; no
stamps, no civilian postmarks or censor markings).

There is no local censor marking on item T, the second earliest
Transnistrian item I have encountered so far. However, note the
presence of a m/s censor marking on item U, posted in the same
locality only 5 days later.

Item J carries a censor marking I have not encountered before. The
marking does not indicate the locality of usage and I have no more
reason to ascribe it to Odessa than to Bucharest. The cover is
addressed to the Minister for (i.e. the President of) the Military
Court, which was then part of the Ministry of National Defence
(MINISTERUL APARARII NATIONALE; therefore the m/s endorsement
("M.A.N ) .

Items V, W, and M bear only an external censor marking (T-type), as
did most of the Roumanian mail going abroad during the period. It
appears likely that all external mail was censored at one point
(probably Bucharest), regardless of where it was posted or addressed.


I







Item Q bears no local censor marking. The cover was posted very soon
after occupation (being the earliest Transnistrian item I have
* encountered) and it is possible that no measures had yet been taken
for the mail to be censored locally, the censoring being left to the
distribution or arrival offices.

Apart from this cover, I have encountered the framed censor marking
only on mail to and from Bucharest. In normal times, a letter from
Tiraspol to Ploesti would not have gone through Bucharest, but these
were hardly normal times. The four days between departure from
Tiraspol and arrival in Ploesti would have given the letter
sufficient time to go through Bucharest. The cover does not bear
Bucharest arrival/transit/distribution markings, but such markings
were not generally applied on internal unregistered mail.

The possibility of letters posted in localities,where no censors
were provided,having been directed to the Bucharest censor would
appear to be confirmed by a series of covers posted from Tighina
(now Bendery) to Chiginau (Kishinev) between November 1942 and July
1943. All the covers are endorsed, in various handwriting (Buc",
"Bucuresti" or "Cenzura Bucuresti" and all bear a T-type CENZURAT
BUCURESTI/number marking, as well as Bucharest registration-arrival
cancellations. I have never encountered any Tighina censor markings.

A particularly interesting and relevant feature of these Tighina
covers is that the sender (a Roumanian officer attached to the
German forces) gives his return address in Tiraspol. Having the
opportunity of using the German or the Roumanian military postal
service, or the Transnistrian civilian service, the sender preferred
to have his letters posted across the river in Roumania proper,
probably in the hope that the mail would then cover more quickly the
70 km. to Chisinau. Instead, his letters made a 750-km. round trip
via Bucharest.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The Transnistrian definitive referred to by Mr.
Trevers are buried in the Roumania listings in all the general
stamp catalogues. The relevant catalogue numbers are as follow:-
Michel Nos. 703-5, 765-68; Yvert Nos. 654-6, 747-50.
Scott Nos. 517-9, 554-57; Zumstein 810-12, 878-81.
S. .G. Nos.1509-11, 1572-75;

The ODESA/OFICIALE double-circle marking was seen by Mr. Cronin on a
cover in the Kurt Adler Collection. It had originally been found by
the late and noted Austrian philatelist, Herr Franz See of Vienna.

The Roumanian language avoids double consonants, which is why the
capital is spelt ODESA on the postal markings. The P.O. spelt
RABNITA is the Roumanian transliteration for the Russian place-name
RYBNITSA (in Ukrainian RYBNITSYA).

To add to the registration postmarks listed under Type 3, Mr. Cronin
can advise the existence of BALTA in Type 3a, reading BALTA 24NOE4312
RECOMANDATE on the second 6 L. Transnistrian definitive (Michel 766,
* Scott 555, S.G. 1573, Yvert 748, Zumstein 879). Similar RECOMANDATE
postmarkers must have been assigned to other offices in Transnistria,
in addition to Balta and Odessa.
Finally, note in Fig. 1 that the two GOLTA postmarks in the PiTaa type
differ from each other: straight or curved top to the "G" and
dissimilar ornaments at the bottom of the markings. 31







A LOOK AT NORTHERN-BUKOVINA POSTAL HISTORY

by Dr. Robert Bell & Andrew Cronin.

The geographic name "Bukovina" is of Slav origin, going back to 1392
A.D. and meaning "Beech-tree Country". It is situated in the
Carpathian foothills of Eastern Europe, between Roumania and the
USSR. The 3 main rivers running through the northern part of this
area are the Cheremosh the Pruth and the Seret.

Bukovina formed a part of the province of Dacia during the time of
the Roman Empire, the inhabitants being the ancestors of the present-
day Roumanians. Slav tribes started drifting in after the 6th.
century A.D. and the Roumanians settled there in strength in the
12th. century. The area then came under the rule of the Principality
of Moldova (Moldavia), whose hospodars or rulers resided at Suceava,
the main town in Southern Bukovina. It fell under Turkish rule in
1514 and was ceded by the Sublime Porte to the Austrian Empire in
1775. The territory was transformed into an autonomous "Crown Land"
within the framework of the Austrian Empire in 1849 and the city of
Czernowitz (Cernauti, Chernivtsi, Chernovtsy) named as its capital.
It was a battleground between the Austro-Hungarian and Russian
forces in WWI and was formally ceded to the Kingdom of Roumania on
10 Sept. 1919 by the Treaty of St. Germain, with the exception of
four communities, which were regarded as Polish.

Our interest in the area is due to the fact that Northern Bukovina,
together with its main city of Czernowitz, has been part of the
Ukrainian SSR since 28 June 1940, except for a hiatus from 5 July
1941 to March 1944 (the second Roumanian administration). The
postal history is therefore complex and its main features will now
be considered.

I. The Austrian Administration to the end of 1918.

The Crown Land had a very mixed population and, towards the end of
the Empire, the ethnic composition was as follows: Roumanians 39%;
Ukrainians 32%; Jews 15%; Germans 8%; plus a sprinkling of
Armenians, Hungarians, Russians and Slovaks. The Ukrainians ("nashi
bukovyntsi", as the Canadian Ukrainians used to call them)
predominated in Northern Bukovina, the Roumanians in the South, the
Jews were in the merchant class and the professions and the Germans
active in administration, construction, farming and industry
throughout the territory.

The Austrian Govt. made a valiant attempt to satisfy this ethnic
mosaic by issuing, among other things, multilingual postal
stationery (see Fig. 1). However, the place-names, as given on the
postmarks, are often garbled Germanised versions of the Roumanian
names and in the Polish system of spelling As far as we can
determine from the November 1909 edition of the "Dictionnaire des
Bureaux de Poste", published by the Universal Postal Union in
Berne, Switzerland, the following Austrian post offices were then
in operation in Northern Bukovina (the Roumanian and Ukrainian
equivalents have been added for cross-reference):-






Two examples of the multilingual postal stationery
issued by the Austrians for use in Bukovina.


I


Postcard text in German, Roumanian and Ukrainian.


T-:T


ll oi:in .


177 i


r pop- Orq .- r


r p~hjd. Foaie postal' de ifisot-- -



64 2
L~li I ID( V1


:j3ri bil1 I2--''...-. L (rhte t.loR
ee

SIontnutu ll Posta ullir.

Valoarea f )cr. Provincia


bro ...._ fl*~_~~ icr


'yravco Porto J .................
~ .- ii: *. BejieM~ over "baiio4
(ft
'.. ..: Taxa:de hiina- 1fL
_14ettiitd ~ I;i Vutiie oil de avis
Grgutt. IM.
.. . .. . .. . ..... t


fieerungnexpedi 8n............... fin ) t ........ fl... .
'. .ruminulexpedarii "...... ".. .. Total cr.


-;

J A. N



E --
E ?OLJ-~rJ




~ t.97


$TV


=


Text of the parcel declaration form in German & Roumanian.


Fig. 1.


_ ,,


1


5orrerpoiteupfkrte.I Frtof m 5,j&
Carta postal.
.IapTa iiopecduoIferujlinIilla.

(Antwort. -- Respuns. 110ntI14u.-.)




fii

Bi





lit twil-Ri In. I u"1111.)


- .,. -.;I, i.:i~-~----~ ~- .







Austrian Name

Alt-Zuczka
Babin
Bad Lopuszna
Bajaschestie
Banilla am Czeremosz
Barbeschtie
Berhometh am Sereth
Bobestie
Bojan
Boroutz
Brodok
Bukszoja
Chliwestie
Czerepkoutz
Czernawka.
Czernowitz
Cziresch
Czudyn
Dawideny
Derehlui
Dolhopole
Draczynetz
Fonteniza = Komarestie
Slobozia
Hliboka
Hlinitza
Idzestie
Iwankoutz
Jablonitza
Jurkoutz
Kamena
Kameral Szypot
Karapcziu am Czeremosz

Karapcziu am Sereth
Klimoutz
Kliwodyn
Kostestie
Kotzman
Krasna Ilski
Kuczurmare
Kuczurmik
Kupka
Laszkowka
Lukawetz am Sereth
Luzan
Mahala
Mamajestie
Michalcze
Millie
Moldauisch Banilla
Molodia
Nepolokoutz
Oesterr. Nowoselitza
Okna
34


Roumanian Name

Jucica-Veche
Babin
Lopupna
Baiagegti
Banila pe Ceremus
Barbe ti
Berhomet pe Siret
BobeQti
Boian
Borauti
Brodoc
Bucpoia
Hliveyti
Cerepcauii
Cernauca
Cerniuyi
Cire
Ciudeiu
Davideni
Derelui
Campulungul Rusesc
Dracinet
Fintinita

Hliboca
Hlinita
Igeqti
Ivancauyi
lablonita
Iurcau'i
Camena
ipotele pe Ceremug
Carapciu pe Ceremu

Carapciu pe Siret
Climiuti
Clivodin
Costepti
Cosmeni
Cuciuru Mare
Cuciurul Mare
Cuciurul Mic
Cupca
Laschiuca
Lucavitul pe Siret
Lujeni
Mahala
MAmaepti

Milie
Banila pe Siret
Mologia
Nepolocaui
cna Bucovinei
Ocna Bucovinei


Ukrainian Name.

Stara Zhuchka
Babyn
Lopushna
Baishesk
Banyliw Rus'kyj
Barbivtsi
Berhomet
Bobivtsi
Boyani
Borivtsi
Brodok
Bukshoya
Khlivyska
Cherepkivtsi
Chernavka
Chernivtsi
Cheresh
Chudyn
Davydivka
Dereluya
Dovhopole
Drachyntsi
Komarivtsi Slobodiya

Hlyboka
Hlynytsya
Idzeshti
Ivankivtsi
Yablonytsya
Yurkivtsi
Kamenna
Shypot
Karapchiv nad
Cheremoshem
Karapchiv nad Seretom
Klymivtsi
Klivodyn
Kostyntsi
Kitsman'
Krasneils'k
Kuchuriv Velykyj
Kuchuriv Malyj
Kupka
Lashkivka
Lukavets' nad Seretom
Luzhany
Mahala
Mamayivtsi
Mykhalche
Myliyiv
Banyliv Movdavs'kyj
Molodiya
Nepolokivtsi
Noveselitsya
Vikno
























































'"ot 'EASTERN SECTION, ?.J
NORTHERN BUKOVINA.'':-
SCALE: 1 cm.=2 km.=1lmiles. .\
I^-4J^ .1.




4- 4!1 ULUMLA
,-ao SCALE: 1 cm.=2 km.=l1miles. k3' Fig. 3. N'ORTH-WEST 8ECTTON, NORTHERN BUKOVINA. llmnie.



-b~la~'I? d (24 t
...



'Oel -


-rct .2' ` ieeL'~, ~


Ll y 4 -`N-
SIX TAT 6-70 0's-
P65..)t~flkit lrn~~ li7 z 9
A; schedh__ c







'' (c~j z k;. ~. V ~ bo



.. .*: i ~
w ws





it- !i

















i:4) '. .r. .* ', )~~Q
~ Y 8L, lkm
3L4 ovft E3 ALQ~-.c3l~iEt\ ?
"I't lW7
r' k



Z. 4.ff y h



o .j. N I Pint -
IF :, 1 1". 11 I f, i '.,
v y 4) w r
LA ;,1j 1 ,r
~.,\I
tE~ l F w

ra




v I j q
;41 !rl~t,6t ~ ; r
Of' f irwver *i' uT: ;l7( a;


~. A,

:I~pS, R "IAJA ri A
d. /Z. 'a.'I ; rj


aik` im MOO?,i
RIP




































6_41 .4,





0111 *







?A4~
P'" (A: ~ ~ I. h...










\.Z.







SOUTH-WEST SECTION,-
NzNORHERNBUKOVINA.,.
--..--;=E
-SCALE-1 cm.= kM.=1,Miles

Rr~~~lu~i. ~L:J;I~llar








Austrian Name

Rarancze
Ropcze
Rostoki
Sadag6ra (Sadagura)
Seletin
Stanestie
Stawczan
Stefanestie
Storoiynetz
Tereblestie
Terescheny
Toporoutz
Unter Patroutz
Unter Sinoutz
Uscie Putilla
Waschkoutz
Wi nitz
Zadowa
Zastawna
Zuryn


Roumanian Name

Rarancea
Ropcea
Rastoace
Sadagura
Seletin
Stanestii-de-Jos
Stavcean
tefanegti Bucovinei
Storojinet
Tereble ti
Terepeni
ToporAuti
Patrauiii-de-Sus
Sinaufii-de-Sus
?
Vascauti pe Ceremus
Vijnita
Jadova
Zastavna
Turin


Ukrainian Name

Rarancha
Ropcha
Rostoki
Sadahora
Selyatyn
Stanivtsi
Stavchan
Stepanivtsi
Storozhynets'
?
Tarashany
Toporivtsi
Petrivtsi Nyzhni
Synivtsi Nyzhni
Ust'-Putila
Vashkivtsi
Vyzhnytsya
Zhadova
Zastavna
Tsuryn (3)


NOTES:


(1) The designation "rus'kyj", as in Banyliv Rus'kyj, is a short
form of "rusyns'kyj",meaning "Ruthenian" or Ukrainian. Many
Ukrainians in the Carpatho-Ukraine and Northern Bukovina used to
refer to themselves as "rus'kyj" and this designation is also
reflected in other place-names throughout the area.
(2) There are several Berhomeths in Northern Bukovina. The
Austrian post office was in the town located on the Seret river,
as shown on the postmark.
(3) The town of Zuryn (Turin) has not been found as yet on any
map consulted, so its listing is tentative.

All the other place-names given above may be found on two
magnificent maps for the Czernowitz and Sniatyn areas, issued by
the Imperial and Royal Military Geographic Institute in Vienna,
Austria. The detail is tremendous, as the scale is 1 cm. = 2 km. =
1 miles and such maps have often been consulted when fixing the
boundaries in international treaties. Three excerpts are given
here (Figs. 2 to 4), as a guide to finding the post offices in
Northern Bukovina.

Please refer to Fig. 5 for a range of postmarks from these offices,
followed by the markings of two TPOs (RPOs) which crossed Northern
Bukovina (No. 91 ITZKANY-KRAKAU, dated 3.10.1899 and No. 499
LEMBERG-CZERNOWITZ, dated 13.5.1910). Apart from the later
Czernowitz and Storozynetz examples shown, most of the postmarks
are rare. The three pieces illustrated in Fig. 6 are interesting
as examples of the ethnic diversity when the Austrians ruled
Northern Bukovina.


I





SOME AUSTRIAN MARKINGS FROM NORTHERN BUKOVINA


iTr N
6' t
C. i JN
~lI I k-


hSV fl"
-2:,-- ~~ 1-


-" .- r l c,'": -* *
64.0 --,.
30IPP-ll r


QIIt0



\6 ^


K;#


Fig. 5. 39
TPO(RPO) 91 TPO(RPO)499





Fig. 6: THREE EXAMPLES OF THE ETHNIC
AUSTRIAN RULE.


MOSAIC IN NORTHERN BUKOVINA UNDER


11 I """- ,J


,.,1
VIC' _I

rl -. ^. "

.. -...- -


G-ru .l3 -s_--d.-e-B_.o a .. .s
eHi ,-- _.---3-. ."--- '.

L ..:/. .e-" -.-. .,

GruB aus der Bukowina. R Jer':
\[


Note the 2-Heller label at top left
inscribed ZU. SCHUTZ UND NUTZ DER
BUKOWINER DEUTSCHEN (FOR THE DEFENCE
AND BENEFIT OF THE BUKOVINA GERMANS).


An illustrated postcard, showing a
Ukrainian farm couple in national
dress and with machine cancel
reading CZERNOWITZ 1, 26.XII.08-9,3b.


A Roumanian notice for 1/13 May 1883 about the ARMONIA Society in Cernauti.
40 Printed on the back of a Govt.-issued Austrian card.


ARMONIA
societate pentru cultivarea si respindirea musical national
i a BeusTina.


F T-


Aducem la cunoscinta oioratulul publicri rominn, cumca teatrul
diletant a trecutti sub auspiciile societSti ,,A rm onia", si cA representatiunea
vilt6rie se va da DomlnecA, intr'al 1./13. MaiA a. c.
CernAuti, it MaliI 1883.
Co=ltet-i SocietatiL
Prer dintele: Secretariul:
Leon~ cav. de Goiani. Eugeniu Me.ederi.


- I it~--~-


E3ec~funeEtI.




bUME ROUUMANIAN MARKINGS FROM NUKORTiRN BUKOVINA-FIRST ADMN.
USED AS CENSOR MARK,
--- 2- CERNAUTI 8.5.19.


' 1 '

..B .\


_3 -
V I ~~Y 7JN, Is
I~. -~1.


CENAUTI 2
.- ";


12 3'


K
,1
I
V-7'


n 4wcea7Cr ':


/-;
L2


TPO(RPO) 114

41


Fig. 7


-,







II. THE FIRST ROUMANIAN ADMINISTRATION 1919 28 JUNE 1940.

With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of WWI,
the Roumanian Army entered the Crown Land of Bukovina. It was.
subdivided into several "judefi" or counties, with Northern
Bukovina consisting of the counties of Cernauti and Storojinet,
together with a few places in the adjoining county of RgdguVi.
According to the April 1937 edition of the "Dictionnaire des
Bureaux de Poste" published by the U.P.U., the following offices
were then functioning in Northern Bucovina (county abbreviations:
C = Cernauyi; R = Radauti; S = Storojinet):-


Banila-pe-Ceremu
Bcnila-pe-Siret
Barbesti
Berhomet-pe-Siret
Boian
Broscautii-Vechi
Cernauyi
Costeqti
Cozmeni
Cuciurul Mare
Dracinet
Grigore-Ghica-Voda
Ispas
Ivancauti
Jadova
Jucica-Veche
Lucavatul-pe-Siret
Lujeni
Mamaetti


(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(C)
(S)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(S)
(C)
(S)
(C)
(S)
(C)
(S)
(C)
(C)


Milie
Ocna Bucovinei
Patrauyii-de-Sus
Plaiul Cosminului
Rastoace
Ropcea
Sadagura
Seletin
Stgnestii-de-Jos pe Ceremug
Storojine
ipotele
tefanesti Bucovinei
Vascauti-pe-Ceremus
Vijniga
Vilancea
Vrancen
Zastavna
Zviniace


NOTES:


(1) The Austrian and Roumanian lists do not coincide. It seems
obvious that the Roumanians renamed some localities and also
closed some of the former Austrian offices as not being economically
viable. For example, we have found the postmark CIRES (Cziresch,
Cheresh) with a 1923 date on a Roumanian stamp, but this office
does not appear on the above list.
(2) There were at least four post offices in Cerniuti; two in the
city proper (Nos. 1 & 2)and one each at the railway station & airport.

Kindly refer to Fig. 7 for a range of the Roumanian postal
markings, including that of TPO (RPO) No. 114, dated 18 Feb. 1937
and running from Berhomet to Cernauyi. Other TPOs should exist.
Note especially that the old Austrian postmarkers continued to be
applied in the early days of the Roumanian administration, until
they could be replaced. Strikes are hard to find and we have only
seen them so far from the city of Czernowitz (Cerniuyi). Readers
will notice that this city developed an unusual series of cancellers
for its two offices, numbered from 0 to at least 33 for Cernauyi-1
and from 0 to at least 5 for Cernauyi-2 (see the bottom segments
of the postmarks).Both these offices had also put into operation
machine cancellers to handle mail by the late 1930s and the C-2
machine continued in use after 28 June 1940, during the first
Soviet administration.


(S)
(C)
(S)
(C)
(S)
(S)
(C)
(R)
(S)
(S)
(R)
(C)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(C)
(C)
(C)









EXAMPLES OF MAIL FROM CHERNOVITSY DURING THE FIRST SOVIET ADMINISTRATION OF NORTHERN BUKOVINA.


-t .2



* C-


~-.'.'.t~.t tCi;1~z


CERNAUTI 2, 26 Dec. 1940, thus showing
continued use of the Roumanian
machine canceller.




I' 3^ / 'CARTEPO 4

! '-- *. / d.c ** i



-. ". ,9 .


-. I ... .. "* ..-.+, i ^
lpt.,u r K
CARFE
y~


... .1. .--.-.'...


4,~ ~ 1


CHERNOVITSKAYA POCHTOVAYA KONTORA z -
7 April 1941.


4'~~ ..l


[ ....,i.


I


CERNAUTI 2, 5 April 1941, again using
the Roumanian machine canceller.
"i v-'- '- -..'T.- 'K


-. 'u r ,
... .. IlO.U TA HO. TA '. .












.-.' : ..I T .




CHERNOVITSKAYA POCHTOVAYA KONTORA i -
14 April 1941.


ow. eUXOWD&4-XTO9. -
*CARe OST LE

( 7' tSS- ', et I
in I I X


S.-i ..... ... C ,.
del.up ide t ,


', '. '" a I, '- -

dv emtfi al r \ ., / ** ,
V., /,....-YII -l I-1 U


c~--"- "YY~-


-~_Cllli ---~-r*~U








III. THE FIRST SOVIET ADMINISTRATION 28 JUNE 1940 5 JULY 1941.

On 25 June 1940, the Soviet Government demanded the cession of all
of Bukovina by the Kingdom of Roumania. On hearing of this, the
Foreign Minister of the Third Reich, Joachim von Ribbentrop, wired
the German Ambassador in Moscow, Count Friedrich von der
Schulenberg, that same day, asking him to point out to V. M.
Molotov that Bukovina was formerly an Austrian Crown Land and
still had a sizeable German population.

The Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs replied that Bukovina was
the last missing part of a united Ukraine. However, in the face of
German concern, he stated that the USSR would be content with the
northern part of Bukovina, with its main city of Czernowitz
(Cernau4i). The Government of the Third Reich then advised the
Roumanian authorities to yield to the Soviet demand, in order to
avoid war. The Red Army started moving into the area at 2 pm. on
28 June 1940. A total of 44,000 Germans was subsequently
repatriated from Northern Bukovina to Germany.

Bessarabia was taken at the same time by the USSR and its northern
"judet" or county of Hotin, mainly populated by Ukrainians, was
incorporated in Northern Bukovina and the unified territory
renamed "Chernovitskaya oblast'" (Chernovitsy province).

Soviet mail during this period is very hard to find and has so far
only been seen sent from the capital, now called CHERNOVITSY by the
Russians. Please refer to Fig. 8, which shows four examples; their
details are summarised hereunder:-


Type of mail


Despatch
markings


Arrival
markings


Surface
letter


Surface
postcard


Cernauti-2,
26DEC40*-0


Cernau'i-2
-5APR41*1l


Registered Chernovitskaya
postcard Pochtovaya
Kontora z -
-7.4.41.


Registered
airmail'
letter


Chernovitskaya
Pochtovaya
Kontora i -
14.4.41


Kirkland
Lake, Ont.
22 Mar.41.


Maplewood,
N.J., USA,
8 JUL. 41.


Elizabeth,
N.J., USA,
3 JUL.41.


50k. Roumanian machine pmk.
Actually sent from
VIKNO,30 km.(19-miles)
north of Chernovitsy.
40k. Roumanian machine pmk.
Sent to Iasi,Roumania.

Ir.lOk. Transit marking of
San Pedro,Calif.,
26 June 1941.


2r.30k. Transit postmark of
San Pedro,Calif.,
20 June 1941.


The written message on the
translates as follows:-


registered postcard is in German and it


"Dear Sarah, Cernauti, 6 Apr. 1941.
I still have no letter from you. We are well, thank
God, and hope all of you are the same. I am glad it will soon be
warm. I have work and am earning money. Poldi has no work. George
would like to know if Joseph has sent the permit to Moscow, as he
heard that other people have received. Paula has not yet received


Rate
paid


Remarks


I







the package; she needs it as she is not earning money. Write me the
address of Pepi, as I have received hardly anything from her for a
year now. My work is very responsible, so that it is hard on me,
but I am glad that I have employment. When you have a chance to let
Paula have something, please do so. I kiss you and your family,
also Joseph and family. Signature."

All the other post offices in Northern Bukovina must have been
Sovietised during that period and a logical source for the postal
markings would be Roumania. However, no postal history of any
administration from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina can be sent
out of Roumania, for sensitive political reasons.

IV. THE SECOND ROUMANIAN ADMINISTRATION 5 JULY 1941 MARCH 1944.

The loss of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina inevitably pushed
Roumania into the Axis camp. It therefore joined Nazi Germany in
the attack on the USSR on 22 June 1941. The Roumanian Army
reentered Cernauyi on 5 July 1941 and this event was commemorated
by an appropriate overprint, which is listed in all the standard
catalogues.

Material from this second Roumanian administration is rare in the
Western world. It has only been seen in the form of censored mail
snet to the International Red Cross in Geneva, Switzerland and
bearing various postmarks of CERNAUTI, together with T-shaped and
framed CENZURAT (censored) markings see Fig. 9 herewith.
__ __ A amlv-v~~~t -,, ~


Fig. 9. a-/

SOME ROUMANIAN MARKINGS FROM NORTHERN BUKOVINA-2ND. ADMN.







The Roumanian military postcard included in Fig. 9 is also of
interest as it appears to have been posted by a Roumanian
serviceman in German-occupied Poland. The evidence is in the mute
Polish-type postmark, dated 12 Sep. 1942, applied at the top centre
of the card. On its way south into Roumania, the card was censored
at Cern&u*i, with an unusual rectangular marking in red, including
the name of the city and applied at the bottom left of the item.

V. THE CURRENT SOVIET ADMINISTRATION MARCH 1944 TO DATE.

As a result of the "Mud Offensive" mounted by the 1st. & 2nd.
Ukrainian Fronts of the Soviet Army against the Axis forces, the
1st. Ukrainian Front, which had been taken over by Marshal G. K.
Zhukov, reentered Northern Bukovina during March 1944. The Soviet
postal service there was restored and the following post offices
have been found listed in the 1977 edition of of the "Nomenclature
International des Bureaux de Poste", published by the U. P. U. :-


Name


Postal Code


Babin (Zastavna dist.) 275342
Banilov (on the Cheremosh) 275610
Banilov-Podgornyi(on Seret)275417
Beregomet 275641
Boyany 275224
Budenets 275410
Chagor 275432
Cherepkovtsy 275502
Chernovtsy 274000
Davydovka 275416
Dikhtinets 275710
Drachintsy 275311
Gertsa 275440
Glyboka 275500
Ispas 275630
Ivankovtsy 275321
Kamenka 275503
Kamennaya 275401
Karapchiv(on the Seret) 275520
Karapchov(on the Cheremosh)275601
Kitsman' 275300
Klishkovtsy 275371
Klivodin 275325
Kostintsy 275425
Krasnoil'sk 275412
Kupka 275330
Lashkovka 275301
Lukovtsy 275643
Luzhany 275302
Magala 275225
Malyi Kochurov 275334
Migovoe 275644
Molodiya 275433
Nepolokovtsy 275323
Nizhnie Sinevtsy 275513
Nizhnie Stanovtsy 275313


Name


Postal Code


Novoselitsa (Novosel.dist)275210
Novye Broskovtsy 275426
Okno 275351
Orshevtsy 275332
Ploskaya 275704
Porubnoe 275512
Putila 275700
Repuzhintsy 275344
Ropcha 275405
Rostoki 275701
Rukshin 275361
Selyatin 275705
Shepot 275706
Stanivtsy 275515
Staraya Zhadova 275422
Starye Broskovtsy 275423
Stavchany (Kitsman' dist.)275326
Storozhinets 275400
Tarashany 275511
Ternavka 275445
Toporovtsy 275230
Turyatka 275514
Ust' Putila 275711
Valyava 275304
Vaiya Kuzmina 275430
Vashkovtsy(Vizhnitsa dist)275600
Velikii Kochurov 275403
Verenchanka 275346
Verkhnie Petrovtsy 275414
Vizhnitsa 275640
Yablanitsa 275714
Yurkovtsy 275350
Zastavna 275330
Zvenyachin 275341














"IEPHOBHEKARA OBJIACTb


THE CHERNOVTSY (CHERNIVTSI) PROVINCE AS AT NOV. 1956.


a raruu 25* 59-ar *Xonbwccun. 26' 17P.. vp 2 7r X--y






x*u v e 49'c e
N. u a o

















V' -HelJ~s a-- fl


I' Cyo434bep5
a, -~i:po-- Y

ma flpictsis




7T
/-O i
Mo WKAI1A B4CO B METPAX

qY E P



u -

TelA




54 &mpo-Arpa.nes. rocpaapcracft&Mf
----- rpaHm~lb, 06naaCTC
0 Llemrpw obnaCreA
0;e UCHTPW PaAOMoB
K0Al~lW ropoita 06naCTnoro nonA4nlMCH HX. r
Kmawamlpl roposa vtomoo nO4HCM~ mncex
r-I, Crswltom~ np04HC macenem~we n yMKrbl
*- ene3Hue AoporN
I IPOMe 60lpenbCasSWC Aoporm tpsn
AL Cynomomme pexK
~5YPC3Y BOA
--4\- npNCraNF

WIKAnA UCOT BMETPAX



25* a &paqflqp- 0c* a w Ra....


MACUWTA 1 1250 000
10 0 t10 20 30 40 .

Fig. 10.


Cocsaoxe.o m opopummo HPHK4 rYr
a ..0fte 1956r


3.s 582 A








The post office names are given in their Russian form in the U.P.U.
listings. They may not be complete, as the 1977 edition lists
close to half a million offices throughout the world and wading the
book is a monumental task. Most of the offices presented here may
be found on the Soviet map herewith of the Chernovtsi (Chernivtsi)
province as at November 1956 see Fig. 10.

The derivation of the postal codes is interesting and the details
are given in"A Short Manual of Postal Indexation", by D.M. Popov,
I.G. Papinako, A.K. Kulin & M.B. Titov ("Svyaz' Publishers,
Moscow 1975). The first three digits designate the republic,
territory, province or provincial centre. In the case of the
provincial centre, the last three digits fix the number of a
specific post office within the city. Outside the provincial centres,
the 4th. digit is the TPO (RPO) number, the 5th. digit the railway
or main postal route number and the 6th. digit the specific number
assigned to a post office. Notice that, in the listing given
herewith for Northern Bukovina, the first three digits are shown as
"274" for the provincial centre of Chernovtsy (Chernivtsi), while
all other offices have a "275" prefix. The same difference of one
in the 3rd. digit has also been noticed for other Soviet provinces.

Note that the post offices in the easternmost district of Khotin
have not been included. That region was historically part of
Bessarabia, the postal history of which will be treated in a future
issue of "The Post-Rider". It should also be remembered that Soviet
TPOs (RPOs) serving Northern Bukovina must definitely exist, but
none of their markings have yet been seen.


1.- -----*- r-.----t r .-x'-c -
r-,'_.F. ; ,. .u c j .' ,-i 'I '. 'I **...
i .. ^ i i, .r :- 1 -'r"


.. t .;t-^ ^ v ^


I
SI,
I-

I,;


i -


I J l -' -
' k *... L."
1 ,, ,


*1 ~r

* /
4-.-
*I ^ r (: *
Jr-
tI~JC r"


Fig. 11.


I


- i





SOME MARKINGS FROM PRESENT SOVIET ADMN.IN NORTHERN BUKOVINA.


-t'4T1G6


lr .,
F
Vt331


II THERqNfi TSK.OBL,
S,. Wu/L---


Note unusual inscription
for NIZHNIE STANIVTSY R-MARK.


S DSORD VALIPU KUZMIN'
TCHEs irSK OBL. 17S ( TCHERNOVITSK..CBL.


Fig. 12.


Dh. VSMANI


41'1, 10 .

16 J^L/
.'C;/_ : a;
^(251srl(677t8
a z^^'
/>^^








Although it does not appear in the above list, a series of covers
to North America has been found sent by Ukrainians living in STARA
ZHUCHKA, but bearing postmarks of CHERNOVTSY, which is nearby. This
office has either been closed or renamed. The office at SADAHORA,
also near Chernovtsy, is absent from the 1977 list, although Soviet
postmarks are known with the inscription SADGORA (see Fig. 11). It
has obviously been renamed. By the way, this is a most unusual
cover because of the exceptionally high rate of postage paid on 21
Dec. 1960 (6r. 20k.). In addition to being sent by registered
express airmail, there are traces of an "A.R." card, which was
affixed to the back.


Please refer to Fig. 12 for a selection of the Soviet markings since
March 1944. Note the confusion about the Russian name for the
capital city. The Soviet authorities settled for CHERNOVTSY on the
postmarks, but for years after WWII, the registration cachets read
TCHERNOVITSY Notice also the throwback to the old Austrian name of
"Czernowitz" on registration labels used in 1946. Also, that while
the post office at BERGOMET on the Seret has both postmarks and
registration cachets so inscribed, it is given in the 1977 listing
as BEREGOMET and the current markings have probably been modified
accordingly.

In conclusion, it must be stressed that a survey only of the postal
history of Northern Bukovina has been given on these pages. A lot of
detailed work remains to be done and it is certain that the postal
history of just the capital city of Czernowitz (Cernguyi, Chernivtsi,
Chernovitsy, Chernovtsy) would be a major study in itself. Any
further information from our readers would be most welcome and will
be included in future issues of "The Post-Rider".

%&%&%&%&%&%&%&%&%&%&%&%


A SPECIAL WARNING ABOUT
THE SO-CALLED ISSUE FOR
THE ROUMANIAN OCCUPATION
OF ODESSA.

Since we are on a Roumanian "kick" in this issue of "The Post-Rider",
it would be as well to remind our readers that the four surcharges
"8" on 5 kop., "10" on 15 kop., "25" on 30 kop. and "50" on 60 kop.,
as well as double overprints of the same, applied on the relevant
Soviet definitive and purporting to be an issue of the Roumanian
Occupation of Odessa during 1941 are BOGUS.

They are listed in the Michel catalogue for the healthy sum of DM400.-
per set, as well as in Zumstein. In actual fact, they were "issued"
in New York City, shortly after the fall of Odessa to the Axis forces
in October 1941.We know who was behind the preparation of these
surcharges and, when he finally kicks the bucket, we will reveal all
the details of these and others of his "productions".


I








POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS


by Alex Artuchov








BOGUCHAR ( Voronezh Province )


1871-72

26.5 x 10 mm black handstamp on various papers, ( 0.1 mm for no. 1
and 0.04 mm for no. 2 ), without gum, imperforate, sheets of 6 x 17
+ 6 x 17 on the first and third sides of a writing page (*), double
prints are known.


no s0ryuAPCN
yvASH5on.


1. 5 kop. black or grey black
( on rough yellowish white paper )

2. 5 kop. black or grey black
( on smooth white paper with a
watermark of horizontal lines )


Reprints

5 kop. black on smooth white paper ( 0.08 mm)

5 kop. violet on smooth white paper (0.08 mm)

5 kop. lilac red on thin white paper (0.05 mm)


Forgeries

Forgeries exist on various grades of paper and
due to a quite different inscription.


In 1873 stamps were withdrawn and the mail was
henceforth.


7.50


10.00


are easy to detect



delivered free


(*) This is presumably the result of a larger page being folded in two
and the stamps being printed on the outside page and the inner
right hand page.
























First
side


Third
side


BORISOGLYEBSK (Tambov Province)

1872 (April)

30.5 mm in diameter, embossed on white or slightly toned rose or
yellowish paper,( 0.06-0.09 mm), white gum, circular in shape with
35 scallops around the edges, round dots on each side of 3 k ,
some of the stamps are found printed on two pieces of paper glued
together, there are many shades, the embossing varies from clean cut
to practically non-existent on what were presumably late printings,
printed individually.


1. 3 kop. ultramarine
greenish blue


4.00
10.00


Cancellations
Crossed penstrokes or handwritten date or sometimes left uncancelled.







1877 (June)

28 mm in diameter, embossed on smoothwhite paper, (0.06-0.09 mm),
white gum, similar to previous issue, 30 scallops, the white dots
at the sides of 3 k are replaced by six rayed stars, shield smaller,
narrower crown, thinner letters, even more shades than in previous
issue, copies printed on two pieces of paper pasted together known.


2. 3 kop. sky blue
milky blue


RR
5.00


Cancellations
As on previous issue, also with inscription nPHEBJIO Bb BOPHCOrImBCK
6/1 1878


1880 (January,l)

29mm in diameter, embossed on smooth white or laid paper, (0.07 mm),
brownish yellow gum, similar to previous issue, shield smaller,
numerals and k smaller, eight rayed stars at the sides of 3 k, 30
scallops, all stamps of this issue printed on two pieces of paper
pasted together.

a. Smooth white paper


3. 3 kop. ultramarine, milky blue, greenish blue


2.50


b. horizontally laid paper


4. 3 kop. dull blue


RR (12)


All stamps were withdrawn on January 1, 1882.








BRONNITSY ( Moscow Province


1868

27.5 x 21 mm lithographed on smooth yellowish paper, ( 0.01 mm ),
brownish gum, large 5 in central oval with shadow,sheet unknown,
large multiples indicate a transfer block of 12 stamps 6 x 2
imperforate.


1. 5 kop. red


Setting on Known Multiples


12 3

7 8 9

1 2 3


5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

1112 7 8 9 10 1112

56 1 2 34 56

1112 7 8 9 10 1112


3.00


Cancellations

Cancelled in pen and ink by either a cross shaped pen stroke or
a date written across.


1875

27 x 20.5 mm lithographed on smooth yellowish paper with shiny
grey-brown gum, similar to previous issue, stamps separated by a thin
line, the large 5 in the central oval is slightly thicker and the
shadow is clearer, the period after the k in the central oval
touches the thick inner oval line, largest block known is 8 x 4,
imperforate.








2. 5 kop. red
(appears as copper red when oxidized)


5.00


Cancellations
As for previous issue.


1893

22.25 x 28.5 mm lithographed in two colours on white paper,
( 0.07 mm ), yellowish gum, similar to previous issue larger
letters in inscription, corner numerals are wider, sheet of 10 x 7,
perforated 114.


3. 5 kop. indigo blue and lilac rose


0.50


Cancellations
As for previous issue.







1904 ( November 1 )

22.5 x 28.75 mm lithographed white paper, ( 0.07 mm ), white gum,
similar to previous issue, numerals and letters of value in corners
are larger, shorter letters in the word 3EMCKOR, space between
stamps is 1.5 2 mm, sheet of 9 x 8 with a transfer block of 2 x 2,
perforated 11 both clean cut and coarse, four types.


a
1 0 PON


N


4. 5 kop. indigo blue and lilac rose


I


. 2.50








The Sheet


The Main

Type 1 -
Type 2 -


Type 3 -

Type 4 -


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4



Characteristics of the Four Types


Normal
The 5 in the upper


left hand corner has a short foot and


there is a very narrow space in the curve of the 5 in the
bottom right hand corner.
The curve of the 5 in the lower right hand corner has a
very narrow space in the curve.
There is a very narrow K which almost appears to be an H
in the upper right hand corner.


Cancellations
As for previous issues.

*********
Between 1905 and 1910 the mail was carried free of charge






1910 1913

Lithographed on soft white paper, ( 0.08 mm ), white gum, similar
to previous issue, 5 k in corners is smaller, the letters of the
inscription are thicker, roughly perforated 11, two printings.


First Printing 1910 ( December )

Space between stamps 4 5 mm two centre dots in oval, one at the
top just above the numeral 5 and the other at the bottom between the
5 and K sheet of 5 x 6.


5. 5 kop. blue and lilac rose


50.00







Second Printing 1913 ( November )

Similar to first printing, printed from a new plate, the centre dots
are no longer visible, white horizontal scratches across the stamps,
especially in the central oval, sheet of 6 x 6 with transfer block
of 2 x 2 evenly distributed.


6. 5 kop. blue and lilac rose


200.00


Note
Schmidt mentions that the second printing of 1913 was printed from
a new plate with a transfer block of 2 x 2, with four types. There
is no mention of a transfer block for the first printing. Stamps
A and B shown diagramatically below,are from the Baughman collection.
They show flaws not found on stamps C and D and may well represent
the 1910 transfer block. Additional material will however, have to
be located to establish this possibility.

Stamp A Damaged 0 in the word 3EMCKOR, short diagonal line on the
inner oval outlines directly under the letter O.

Stamp B The letter 3 in the word YIbS.3AA and appears to be a numeral 8.


Cancellations
An oval postmark (38 x 21 mm) was inscribed at the top with
BPOHHHIKA1 and 3EMCKAH IIPABA at the bottom, with a usually
illegible date in the centre, was used on stamps of the 1910 and
1913 issues.







Postal Stationary


Sizes
(a) 145 x 79 mm
(b) 141 x 111-115 mm
(c) 187 x 117 mm
(d) 138 x 113 mm
(e) 138 x 75 mm


11*)


io~






1868 ( February?)

Stamps value on straight flaps







1. 5 kop. lilac blue
(a) yellowish, ungummed a. 50.00 b. 5.00
(b) grey-white, gummed b. 4.00


1875 (?)

As above but on curved flaps I. Grey-white II. White smooth
rough paper paper
2. 5 kop blue (shades) c. 2.00 c. 25.00
3. 5 kop. blue ( shades ) d. 25.00 e. 3.00
laid paper


I IN I IN INN I III I II I IIIIIIIIIIIII IIIt#alllgalKigaliIgoINllllllIIIlNolgoIIIIIN lIfIInIitIII IIIIIIIINNlIIIiftI



RUSSIA-POLAND


PRICE LISTS, DISCOUNTS, NEW ISSUES,

ERRORS, COVERS, POSTAL STATIONERY.

SPECIAL YEARLY UNIT PRICES!

60% DISCOUNT 60%

FROM SCOTTS ON THE FOLLOWING: IMPERIAL

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ALL RUSSIAN STATES MINT AND USED.



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S88
DIMONDALE MICHIGAN 48821
11I ll 11111| | ||| 111 11111111111111111





MAIL TO THE


EMPIRE




Russian philatelists in the Western
World have many examples of Imperial
mail directed abroad and have, in /B
fact, ensured the survival and l "nepi1o 0
loving preservation of practically
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is (
a horse of another colour, as (
terrible things have happened since.
the collapse of that Empire and \
many magnificent philatelic items
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.
THE RUSSIANS AT SPITSBERGEN

by John Lloyd, F.R.P.S.,L.

These notes describe a card I had the great fortune to pick up
almost unnoticed in a French auction. Many facts may be deduced
from the card and we shall now proceed to examine both sides of it.

Looking at the view side (Fig. 1), we notice a glacial and rocky
view of an island in the Spitsbergen archipelago. The handwritten
notes in Russian at top left and top right read as follow:-

"Spitsbergen "Amid the ice in the gulf of
Transport Horn Sound".
Bakan
15 July (We will be able to conclude, on further
99". examination, that this date was in New Style).
---. --- --- 'i7.---. ..., -'. .'-- ".:"



S ,'
ii h i i i. I i ; I .' i i I I i I :' ^ .' ;






I I'.. .. <* I .' .. I'I '. ... ". -', F ig 1 .
.. ". '. ,: ; .. ,< : ," ,, .. .




1 1~
~~~~;1 59-
T".7; :I .4 ~.. :'2










(DIA SIDI 'NTIDES L GO .


F i 2 ............................ ...............:.......... .. ....--


Fig. 2. ....

g '' 'b(omim'kn SppGifva ..- l s Jp/ .
i-. 0 ... .

I:' '":. "i."" i



Turning to the address side (Fig. 2), we see that the text is
entirely in Norwegian, pointing to local, rather than international
usage. There is a red Norwegian 10-zre definitive affixed at top
right and a brown Spitsbergen 10-zre local stamp at top left.
According to some authorities, this was the only colour in the
Captain W. Bade local stamps to be used officially. Anyway, both
stamps are cancelled TROMSO, 8.VIII.99 (date in New Style).

I have always thought that the oval cachet in violet at bottom
right and reading "M.W. HOLMBOE & CO., TROMSO" was that of the
shipping firm that carried the card from Spitsbergen to Tromso. I
have not been able to confirm this, although I have written to
Norwegian philatelists.

The card is addressed in French at top to "Russia, St. Petersburg"
and then in Russian "18th. Fleet Squadron, Wilhelm Karl Witthoeft,
Esq.". He was possibly a Baltic German and serving with the Imperial
Russian Navy.

The confirmatory TROMSO postmark in black at top centre obscures
the strike in blue of "S. PETERBURG / 6 EK / 31 31 / 3 VIII -
18 99 / VECHER" postmark, with a diameter of 28 mm. and date in
Old Style. This marking is listed in Herr Heinrich Imhof's
wonderful study of the St. Petersburg postmarks under No. 1.7.3.2 in
both black and blue. He gives the period of usage as 1896-1897, so
we can now extend that by at least two years.

There is a further Russian strike in another shade of blue at centre
right, reading "S. PETERBURG / 4.VIII.99 8 ch. / EKSP.GOR.POCHT.",
also with a 28-mm. diameter and listed by Herr Imhof as No. 1.10.2.2
in black, violet and gray, with usages from 1895 to 1899. Well, we
can now add another colour (blue) to his list !

Now for some data on the ship. At that time, the first Russian
icebreaker, the s.s. "Yermak", was despatched under the command of
Vice-Admiral S.O. Makarov from Kronshtadt to the Franz-Josef-Land
and Spitsbergen area to do its sea trials in Arctic conditions. The
reinforced transport s.s. "Bakan" was sent as an auxiliary vessel in







support of the s.s. "Yermak", the latter having been built in
England. The s.s. "Bakan" then returned to its home base at
Archangel, to continue its work in Barents and White Seas. Terence
Armstrong, of the Scott Polar Research Institute, states in his
report on the Northern Sea Route that "the only traffic to the Ob'
or Yenisei between 1906 and 1910 was the voyage of one Russian
steamer, the 'Bakan', to the Yenisei in 1907".

The card detailed here was also recorded, without acknowledgement
of the source,in an article in "Philately of the USSR", August
1981, p. 9. Although the illustration showed a clear outline of all
perforations, the describer, V. Boiko, thought that the Spitsbergen
local was not an adhesive stamp, but imprinted directly in the upper
left corner of the card; this error was not caught by the Editorial
Board in printing the article. Mr. Boiko also read Horn Sound as
"Nore Sund", confusing the Latin "H" with the Russian "N".

Quite apart from being an unusual item sent to the Empire, this
piece is also a very interesting Arctic card, as we have now seen.
I have always been puzzled by the disproportionate interest shown in
the postal history of Antarctica, which has really only got under
way since the late 1940s. The postal history of the Arctic regions
is a much more extensive and still relatively unstudied field, as
expeditions and exploration have been going on up there for at least
the past couple of centuries.



IMPERIAL AIR MAIL

by Rev. L.L. Tann

It was I who first raised the question "Imperial Russian Air Mail"in
a previous "Yamshchik", to be greeted by the surprise of "flown
Romanov covers", which were obsolete and demonetised Romanov postal
stationery with Soviet postage covering the imprinted Romanov
designs and actually flown. Both Barry Hong and Dr. Alfred Wortman
contributed to the subject, but it did not touch on actual and real
covers of the Imperial period (i.e. prior to 1917) being carried by
aircraft.

Sadly, both for myself and for our branch of philately in general,
I am not able to produce or illustrate such a cover. But I have
pursued the subject further and thought I would share my sparse
discoveries with readers. But who know ? It might yet result in such
a cover being found. I have discovered, as others before me, that it
only requires a specialist to assert that "that stamp does not
exist", or "such a postmark will not be found on that stamp" for a
collector to find exactly such a thing That is philatelic progress.

Two books, that I have recently purchased, throw a great deal of
light on the existence of a Russian Imperial Air Service :-

"Air Aces of the First World War", by Bruce Robertson and others.
Recently reprinted and with a very good section on Russia.
"Russian Civil and Military Aircraft 1884-1969", by H. Nowarra and
G.R. Duval. The first 58 pages take the reader up to the end of
the Civil War.







It is quite amazing to read of the quantity, quality and types of
aircraft owned and buily by Tsarist Russia and, what is more, the
Tsar himself took a great interest in the Air Force. While the vast
majority of aeroplanes was for civilian use and employed by flying
schools and flying clubs, the military started to take an interest in
1911, as warmongering rose in temperature.

I could not believe that the infant Soviet Republic brought Russian
air mail to birth in 1918-1919. I was unshakeably convinced that mail
was carried by air in Imperial days, though perhaps unofficially. I
set out to write to people whom I thought could help. Fro the
publishers of "Air Aces of the First World War", I was referred to
Mr. Nigel Eastaway of the Russian Aircraft Society. Mr. Eastaway
kindly replied to my letter and I reproduce most of it here:-
"Dear Mr. Tann,
Thank you for your letter of March 30th. (1981). I
regret that I am unable to confirm the existence of an Imperial
Russian Air Mail.
I think it extremely probable that mail was carried
on special occasions, at least by aircraft in Russia prior to the
Revolution.
It is known that the Tsar himself was air-minded and
supported the Imperial All-Russian Aero Club (Lt. Col. B.Roustam-Bek:
"Aerial Russia",J.Lane,The Bodley Head, London, 1916, p.36). That the
Russians had the aircraft capable of carrying substantial quantities
of freight is again undoubted. Sikorsky built and flew a four-
engined aircraft "Le Grand" on 13th. May 1913. This aircraft on 8th.
August 1913 set a world endurance record of 1 hr. 54 mins. with eight
people on board. This was followed by the Ilya Muromets, which first
flew in the spring of 1914 and between 29th. June and llth. July,
piloted by Sikorsky and Capt. Prussis flew from St. Petersburg to
Kiev and back, some 1400 miles, taking but 10 hours for the return
journey, which was completed with but one immediate stop. Something
like sixty Ilya Muromets aircraft were built before the Revolution
and the ultimate development carried the useful load of 5510 lbs.
According to "Die Entwicklung des Luftverkehrs in der
UdSSR", by K.H. Eyermann, published in East Berlin in 1967, the Ilya
Muromets surviving from pre-revolution times were put into service
between Gorky and Moscow, carrying passengers, freight and mail.
Sikorsky's "Le Grand" was the world's first four-
engined aircraft and it made altogether 53 flights, and was
demonstrated to the Tsar, who presented Sikorsky with a gold watch
bearing the Imperial Eagle.
Although Jacob Hackel built a number of aircraft,
these were mainly small and unlikely to have been used for carrying
mail."

Mr. Eastaway went on to mention that Sikorsky's son resided in the
USA, working at not unnaturally Sikorsky Aircraft in Connecticut.
I wrote to him with the same query and quote his reply here:-
"Dear Reverend Tann,
Unfortunately, there seems to be no proof of any
transport of mail in Imperial Russia by aircraft. From time to time,
the Ilya Muromets ferry crews carried letters as personal favours
between the factory in St. Petersburg and the heavy bomber bases in
the Baltic and Central European fronts, while delivering aircraft.
However, this was very much a question of private initiative and in
no way was it formally organised.
With best wishes, Sergei Sikorsky".
62







Where does that leave us ? Not quite as dashed as might be supposed.
Both contacts affirm that mail was probably carried by air and Mr.
Sikorsky certainly affirms that letters were carried by air, even
though privately organised. If anyone comes across a letter or cover
addressed to someone working at an air factory, either in Petrograd
(we are dealing with the war period) or addressed to someone at
bomber bases at the Front, and these would presumably be without
stamps, there is the strong chance these were carried by air,
having been taken by airstaff or pilots as favours to friends and
compatriots. There is a tiny chance that these may have survived.
There is also a chance that such letters may have scrawled across
the top the notations "By aeroplane" or "By Il'ya Muromets", in
place of a postage stamp.

There is no doubt that missives from the Imperial Family and urgent
Government papers were carried by air and several experts have
affirmed that. These would not necessarily bear special cachets, but
again might be inscribed "By Air" or something similar.

All we have to do is find them !


MORE ABOUT ALEKSANDROVSKOE DE KASTRI

John V. Woollam, Merseyside, England.

It is evident that a mistake in a preposition was made when my
article was typed on p. 41 of "The Post-Rider", No. 9. Aleksandrovskoe
de Kastri was on the Russian mainland, opposite the island of
Sakhalin.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Our apologies for the error made in typing the
correct text submitted by Mr. Woollam.

Dr. A. H. Wortman, Enfield, Middlesex, England.

One small point; John Woollam's very nice postcard is not a Sakhalin
item. ALEKSANDROVSKOE DE KASTRI is on the mainland,opposite Sakhalin.
The town on Sakhalin is ALEKSANDROVSKII, opposite the other on the
mainland. The official P. & T. map of 1914 shows the mainland town as
DE KASTRI only, probably to avoid confusion. On my Sakhalin cover,
the postmark reads : ALEKSANDROV. P. NA OSTR. SAKHALIN. 23 MAYA 1889
1 POCHT. TEL. KONT. 1. I have another Sakhalin cover, registered from
KORSAKOVSK to London. The map does not show that one, but the
registration label on the cover reads KORSAKOVSK SAKHALIN. I would
add that I believe covers from Sakhalin (written address) are known
with the DE KASTRI postmark, but I still feel they must have been
taken privately to the mainland for posting.

Harry von Hofmann, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

I am supplying the missing words in the Gothic script for the fine
card held by John V. Woollam from Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri. The full
German text is now as follows:-
" L. M. u. Schw., Castries (Siberien), 18. VIII.99.
Am 15 d. Mts. habe ich Euern Brief vom 21 Juni
erhalten. Bis zum 14 d. Mts. haben wir in den Baracuta Bay gelegen
und keine Post gehabt (5 Wochen lang). Dies ist jedenfalls der Grund







daftr, dass ich Euern Brief so spat empfangen habe. Das UnglUck,
den Pblitz betreffend habe ich auch in der Zeitung gelesen, es stand
darin, die Schuld treffe den Maschinisten. Schreibt mir bitte wie es
sich damit verh< und wer zur Zeit der Havarie Maschinist, resp.
SchiffsfUhrer war. Wir gehen von hier noch nach einem russischen
Hafen und dann nach Hakodate (Japan). Bis jetzt bin ich noch gesund
und hoffe desselbe von Euch. Noch 9 Monate, dann werden wir
jedenfalls unsere Heimreise antreten.
Bitte um bald. Antw. Mit herzlichem Gruss, Carl ".

(Dear Mother and Sister, I received your letter of 20 June on 15th.
of this month. We have been lying in the Barracuda Bay until the
14th. and had no mail for 5 weeks. That is the reason why I have
received your letter so late. I have read in the newspaper about the
misfortune concerning the "P81itz"; it seems that the engineers are
to blame. Please write me what it is all about and as to who was the
engineer or pilot at the time the damage was done by the sea. We go
from here yet to a Russian port (hence the Nikolaevsk postmark) and
then to Hakodate, Japan. I am still well so far and hope you are the
same. N ne months more, then we will enter on our homeward voyage.
Please reply soon. With hearty greetings, Carl).


MORE ABOUT THE CRIMEAN TARTARS

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

Because of the length of the 1937 post office
listing for the Crimean ASSR, as least two
n names were omitted by mistake. The number of
known POs is now 274. The additions are:-
PEREKOP
4 YUDENDORF JUDENDORF (of especial interest to
Judaica collectors).
One of the postmarks of the Imperial period for
PEREKOP is shown herewith. It would be useful
to know if the Tartars had their own name for
this town at the entrance to the peninsula.

Dr. Peter Michalove, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A.









7 ^ r-Ar w





Shown here is the upper half of a surface letter to the town of
Rankin, Vermilion County, Illinois, U.S.A. and bearing a varied







franking to pay the overseas rate of 15 kop. The five stamps are
cancelled with three strikes of a marking, 32 mm. in diameter, and
* reading KRYMSKAYA VOKZAL CHERN. OKR. 18.12.30. a.(KRYMSKAYA
RAILWAY STATION, BLACK SEA DISTRICT).

The point to make here is that there have been, and still are,
several place-names referring to the Crimea, but outside the
peninsula and scattered throughout the USSR. Consulting the 1977
U.P.U. listings, we find that the Black Sea District has been
renamed the Krasnodar Province, with its capital of the same name.
The only possible candidate in the listing for that area is the
post office given in 1977 as KRYMSK, postal code 353330. Consulting
the manual RAILWAY LINES OF THE USSR DIRECTIONS AND STATIONS,
published by the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, Moscow, 1966, we
see on map 65b that there is a place-name called KRYMSKAYA, being a
railway junction 5 stations east of Novorossiisk and 8 stations
west of Krasnodar. This must have been where the letter was posted.

Getting back to the --;
Crimean Peninsula,
I am showing here
the view side of a r
card printed in the -
Imperial period, to
add a touch of local
colour and show the
Khan's palace at
Bakhchisarai. This
was the residence of
the Khans for three .
centuries before the. : .
Russian annexation
of the Crimea in
1783.


STILL MORE ABOUT THE VOLGA GERMANS

John Lechtanski, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A.

I enclose a photocopy of a Balzer (Golyi Karamysh
A.R.N.P. "a" cancellation)on a bank card, which 0
pushes back the earliest date known for this marking 2|32 27
by one month to 23.2.27. There is no doubt that these \--
bank remittance cards are a fertile source for Volga
German postal history.

Robert Taylor, Malibu, California, U.S.A.

Herewith the photocopy of the registered letter from the Erlenbach
MTS post office in the Volga German Republic, the details of which
were originally in "The Post-Rider" No. 9, p.61. Some more
information may be gleaned from the envelope, which is shown
overleaf. Apart from the pre-printed address, there are also some
manuscript notations on the cover, the one at bottom left stating
that the sender was a German named Stamm and living in the village
of MARIENFELD. That place does not appear either in the 1937 U.P.U.
list or on any maps that have been consulted, so the village must be
quite small.
65

















SRetailers' Ti

^-,-


C SASKATOO


.. .. .. ... .. ;.. ...._.-... ..


I1, SASK."


August Leppa, JarvenpM, Finland.

Re the work being done in "The Post-Rider" on Volga
German postal history, I can add a couple of
CI interesting details. I have a reused 30-kop. postal
stationery envelope, originally posted with a pmk.
Reading KALININO ASSRNP KALININO 23.3.41 (no code
S6-letter) and addressed to Staraya Poltavka. It was
turned inside out and reused as an envelope to
Vyborg, the despatch postmark reading ST.POLTAVKA
S ASSRNP St. POLTAWKA 4.6.41 "a". It is in the same
style as the KALININO marking noted above and the
cover also has a DOPLATIT' cachet, as it was not
AI prepaid (see illustrations at left). So we can add
a new P.O. to the list (Kalinino) and also say that
the German equivalent of Staraya Poltavka was given
as ST. POLTAWKA, not Alt-Poltawka. The Vyborg
arrival pmk. is not complete, but of great interest
to Finnish collectors, as it is bilingual: VYBORG -
VIIPURI 14.6.41. (!).

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.

.-,-*, Here is another proof that the bank cards are a
i '.. great source for Volga German postal history and
that it pays to read the backs, to see where they
S Y er m went. The pre-war R-label for UMET was affixed to the
Front of this particular card and the back stated
that Johannes Senger of JOSEFTHAL had received the
sum of 40 roubles. Josefthal was listed as a possible
P.O. in No. 8 of "The Post-Rider", but it does not
appear in the 1937 U.P.U. list. Neither does Umet,
; 5 so it must have been renamed in the interim. The R-
L label and postmark, reading UMET P-T-K 13.1.25,
are both illustrated at left.


~(3 r~~~nd RI111 nlNC











PHILATELIC SHORTS ,
DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item in your collection that
could use some clarifying information, or might there 0oo
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 0 oo oO
newly acquired item? ?do o eO

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers !
George Shalimoff, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

I have followed your editorials and the Werbizky, Ceresa and Waters
comments on expertisation with great interest. Also, the references
to Mr. A. Rosselevitch. Though I hate to be an iconoclast, I must
admit my extreme skepticism of his expertisations, especially those
made in the last few years of his life.

In a collection here, I have seen his mark on a mint Scott No. 287,
probably the rarest Soviet stamp. Yet, under magnification, the
stamp proved to be a paste-up. The owner accepted Rosselevitch's
opinion, though he paid dearly for the stamp. On another "small
head" stamp, the "Ross" mark indicated a rare typographed value.
But, under close examination of the gum side of the stamp, the
"typographed" indentations were only visible for the frame and not
the design. In addition, the frame lines did not come to a clear
square corner, but extended beyond the corners. This intersection
of lines was a condition that Rosselevitch himself warned about in
his series of articles in his journal "The Russian Philatelist". In
this case, someone had taken a lithographed stamp and tried to make
it appear typographed.

The articles in "The Russian Philatelist", I thought, provided
collectors with many of the basic elements to detect fakes. For
example, his description of genuine and fake Offices in China
overprints makes it quite easy for anyone to tell the difference.
Yet Rosselevitch signed all the copies in a collection here, even
though more than half of them had all the characteristics of fakes
according to his own descriptions. Either his descriptions are
wrong or his expertisation is wrong.

I am inclined to believe that, in his last few years, his vision was
not the best. I do not know what tools he used towards the last but,
most likely, he did not use high power magnifiers or a microscope.
Whatever the reason, he made some big and expensive mistakes in that
collection. Unfortunately, the stamps are marked and will some day
* be resold to some unfortunate buyer. He marked everything from the
rarities to the 2 stamps, without any identification as to what he
was marking. In general, it is left to the owner to tell you that
this marked stamp is supposed to be such and such, although you do
not really know what the expert had in mind when he put his mark on
the stamp.
67








As Dr. Ceresa states, one needs to learn to become one's own expert.
A mark, even by an accepted expert, is no guarantee. It is just too
bad that so many experts will mark stamps, rather than leave them
and blank when they were not sure or did not know. I am afraid that,
all too often, they have marked stamps just to please their anxious
owners.

W. Thomas Waters, Pottstown, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Re my list of expertising marks that was given on p. 67 of "The Post-
Rider", No. 9, please add to it "THALS PARIS", with an appropriate
note that his mark seems more than anything to indicate that a
Wrangel overprint is unacceptable. Another mark that I have come upon
is ( on Batum.

I have just heard now that a forgery of the "Ross" mark, on a
counterfeit stamp, showed up at the ASDA Show in New York City in
November 1981. Forging the marks of the expertisers can certainly
complicate things !

Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Canada.






RUSZKA-B YA'

SEP .
1874. : 1 4 il -

The postmark shown above at left is that of a place-name of mixed
Slav and Hungarian origin. RUSZKA-BANYA means "Russian Mine" and the
office was still operating in 1909 under the name of RUSZKABANYA in
Transylvania, which was then part of the Kingdom of Hungary. It was
located in the megye or district of Krasso-Szoreny, 30 km. (18 miles)
SSE of Karansebes (now Caranpebeg in the Caras-Severin county in
Roumania). Its current Roumanian name has not yet been determined.
There is another village with the Hungarian name of DOMASNIA,
pronounced Domashnya and obviously also of Slav origin, 8 km. (5
miles) to the south of Ruszkabanya and now called Domagnea by the
Roumanians. It seems that both places were originally settled by
people of Russian or other Slav origin and further information would
be welcomed.

The postmark shown above at right is an Austrian one for the town
they called RUSSISCH MOLDAWITZA and dated 20.4.02. This town is now
in Southern Bukovina, Roumania and 17 km. (10 miles) north of
Cimpulung Moldovenesc (Kimpulung in the Austrian period; see the
map inset). The Ukrainian name was Rus'ka Movdovitsya and, as stated
in the article on Northern Bukovina postal history, the word"Rus'ka"
actually meant Ruthenian or Ukrainian. This place now bears the
Roumanian name of MOLDOVITA and is famous for a fortified monastery,
with a church whose frescoes depict "The Hymn to the Virgin", "The
Siege of Constantinople" and "The Tree of Jesse".







James Mazepa, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.


.-A N AD I A N


9 0.1 o w.
*i ___^ ^. -^_______- *


Enclosed is the illustration of the front of a registered cover with
Polish franking of 1,200,000 marks (there is a further block of 25 of
the 25,000-mark surcharges on the back of the cover), which makes me
think our inflation rate is not so bad. It was sent from Tarnopol on
16 Jan. 1924, then in Eastern Poland and now known as Ternopil' in the
Western Ukraine. What in the world was the Canadian Pacific Railway
doing with an office in Tarnopol ? The advertising cover had to be
printed in Poland, as it has Polish inscriptions e.g. "Adres
telegraficzny" and the rest obscured. Any information appreciated.
The letter was received in Welland, Ont., on 5(?) February 1924.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Canadians will remember that the Canadian
Pacific Railway was still operating a steamship line in the 1920s, as
can also be noticed from the picture of a vessel shown at the top of
this advertising cover. The existence of an agency in Tarnopol was
probably due to the fact that there was substantial emigration from
the area to North America and they would have gone there by sea from
a Polish port.
&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&

SPECIAL NOTES:

The views expressed in the articles contained herein in this issue of
* "The Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and not
necessarily those of the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission,
provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.







REVIEW OF




JITERATURE









LUOVOTETUN KARJALAN, PETSAMON JA SALLAN POSTIHISTORIAA (The Postal
History of the Karelia, Petsamo and Salla Ceded Territories), by
Eero J. HelkiB. A paperback of 176 fine quality pages, published
in Lahti, 1980 by Kaj Hellman Ltd., Lansankallio 3C, SF-02610
ESPOO 61, Finland. Price US $20.00 postpaid.

When your reviewer heard of this work, he assumed that it would be
all about the history of these territories after they had been ceded
to the USSR in 1940 and 1944, i.e. Soviet postal history. However,
when he received it from a friend in Helsinki, he found it to be
all about the Finnish postal history of these areas, until they
were lost to the USSR.

In other words, this is a very nostalgic and profoundly upsetting
book. These lands were lost because the "White Finns", a derogatory
term used by "Philately of the USSR" as recently as December 1981
(the opening sentence on p. 7), had the audacity to stand up to the
Stalin regime in defence of the independence and territorial
integrity of the Republic of Finland. With a population in 1939 of
3,650,000 the Finns in the Winter War with the USSR (population
190 millions) took heavy losses, but inflicted far greater
casualties on a much-vaunted Red Army, which had already been
bludgeoned into gibbering impotence during Stalin's maniacal purges
of the 1930s. There is no doubt that if the Finns had accepted the
original demand by Stalin for bases on Finnish territory, the
country would have eventually suffered the same fate as the Baltic
republics in June 1940.

The details given in the book are comprehensive, it is well
illustrated and some charming photographs, including those of
Russian interest, have been added. The work is heartily
recommended. Ya. Afangulskii.

THE RUSSIAN POST IN THE EMPIRE, TURKEY, CHINA AND THE POST IN THE
KINGDOM OF POLAND, by S. V. Prigara (translated by David Skipton).
A 196-page reprint in English of the 1941 Prigara handbook. This
edition is hardbound, printed on quality paper and published by
the Rossica Society of Russian Philately in 1981 in a quantity of
1000 copies. Price US $35.00 (US $40.00 to non-members of Rossica)
and obtainable from David Skipton, 6212 Breezewood Court, Apt. 202,
Greenbelt, Maryland, U.S.A., 20770.







Although dated, Prigara's book must still be regardedas the best
primary source for Russian philately. Prigara's work is the source
from which an immense amount of today's knowledge and research
originated. It is an invaluable companion for novice and specialist
alike. Our congratulations to David Skipton for re-introducing this
"must" publication and for making it accessible for the collector
without the command of Russian. A. Artuchov.

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 58 for Nov. 1981. A
43-page magazine, published by the British Society of Russian
Philately. All enquiries to the General Secretary, Mr. R. Young,
27 Coxhill Gardens, River, Dover, England CT17 OPX.

This issue contains "The Russian Empire in the 16th. Century", "The
Postal Service from Siberia", "Weights, Measures, Coinage" & "Ust'-
Sysol'sk Local Post-Further Notes", all by Dr. T. Rutkowska;"Odessa
1804", "Russian Porto Marks" and "Railway Marks(not numbered)", all
by I.L.G. Baillie; "Franked MTO Forms" by I.L.G. Baillie & A.
Speeckaert; "St.Petersburg-'Postmark of 1757' ", by P.T. Ashford &
Dr. A.H. Wortman; "Stamped Envelopes of Fatezh", by D. Kuznetsov,
trans. by Dr. Rutkowska; "Early Issues of Tver", by T. Lavroff;
"From Siberia in 1875", by Dr. A.H. Wortman; "Akmolinsk Siberia 1878"
by R.S. Blomfield; "Russian Arms Types Varieties", by W. Frauenlob;
"Used Abroad", by various authors; "The Amur Railway", by G.Werbizky;
"Stamped Letters with Printed Ads." & "Registered Mail-Addendum 5",
both by A. Speeckaert; "Sdano Marks", by M. Shmuely & L.A. Kolot;
"Forged Steamship Mark", by B. Pritt; "Kovno vs. Kovna", by J. Tovey;
"Machine Cancels-Addendum 2", by W.C. Ainsley & A. Krassowsky; "Mute
Cancels-WWI", by A. Krassowsky; "Petrograd Censorship-an update", by
H.L. Weinert; "Moscow Censorship-Addendum I", by N.C. Warr;
"Arkhangelsk-the 'Polar Bears'", "North Pole Stamps & Min. Sheets",
"Non-Postal Miniature Sheets" & "Soviet Icebreaker Covers", all by
L.A. Kolot; "Soviet Varieties", by M. Shmuely and "Registered
Postcards", by G. Shalimoff. The magazine concludes with literature
reviews and it is obvious from the foregoing that a great deal of
ground has been covered in our area of philately.

THE ROSSICA JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 98-99 for 1980.
Published by the Rossica Society of Russian Philately and obtainable
from the Treasurer, Mr. Norman Epstein, 33 Crooke Ave., Brooklyn 11226.

This double issue is a well produced and illustrated magazine of 128
pages. The subjects covered are Life of the Society, by Dr. G. Torrey;
Obituaries; The Earliest Kyakhta & Yakutsk Handstamps (most
interesting and from the Yudin Collection), by D. Skipton; Kitai Ovpt.
Forgeries-A Survey, by G. Shalimoff; Field Post in the Caucasus during
the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, by S.M. Blekhman, trans. D. Skipton;
Catalogue of Russian Stamps 1905-1923, by V.V. Lobachevskii, trans. by
G. Shalimoff; Plate Flaws in Arms Issues of 1909-22, by E.Wisewell Jr;
Imperial Stamps of 1908-21, by O.K. Basov, trans. D.Skipton; Post. St.
Olga-a Maritime Province Marking, by Dr. A.H. Wortman; Azerbaijan -
Forgeries of Fantasies, by Dr. G. Torrey; Private Mail Order Forms of
the Moscow City Post, by S.M. Blekhman, trans. M. Tihomirov; A
Bessarabian Octagon (TPO No.145), by D. Skipton; Alaska-Hawaii-Russia,
by D.P. Cruikshank; Censor Markings from Austrian POWs in Russia, by
H. Hahn; a' historical piece on Wenden by V. Kent; a further one on
Vytus/Pahonia by W. Lesh; New Listings of Russian FPOs in Bulgaria
1877-79, by P.F. Mazur & adapted by R.Trbovich; Counterfeits of the







Karelia Bear Stamps, by the late R. Sklarevski; Russian Postal
Establishments in 1881; Member to Member Adlets; Library Notes and,
finally, Literature Reviews. In short, something for everybody.

RUSSISCH-SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE (Russian & Soviet Philately) No. 28
for Oct. 1981. A 26-page journal, issued by the Russia-USSR Study
Group in the Federal Republic of Germany. Obtainable from Herr Pitt
Piacenza, D-5583 ZELL/Mosel, Schloss-Str. 1, West Germany.

This issue has a message to the members; the 2nd. installment of the
V.V. Lobachevskii Catalogue of Russia 1857-1879, trans. by-Dr.
Bartmann & G.D. Mehrtens; Russian Postal Stationery & Finland, both
by W. Frauenlob; Place-Name Changes in the USSR, A Holiday in Baku,
both by W. Nietsch; Russian Reg. Letters and R-Labels, a supplement
by K. Bachmann; Letters from Readers; Expertising Rules of the West
German Union of Philatelic Expertisers and, to round off, some adlets
and Society notes.

The No. 29 issue for April 1982 is a 52-page magazine, well produced
by the new Editor, Herr Joachim Schneider, Melonenstr. 56, D-7000,
Stuttgart. The contents include a notice of the next Annual General
Meeting, the 3rd. installment of the V.V. Lobachevskii catalogue;
The Forwarding of Ordinary Foreign Mail in the Moscow Province in
1947 & The Varied Transmission of German Mail to the Soviet Union,
a pair of very interesting articles about the mail of German
technicians in the USSR in 1947, also A Very Special Postmark &
Again About the Moscow-Teheran Special Flight, all by the Editor, J.
Schneider; Corrections to the Place-Name Changes, by V. Marcilger;
The Local Messenger Post of the 10th. Army & Two St. Petersburg
Postmarks, both by M. Shmuely; The Court Fee Stamps of 1909-11, by
W. Frauenlob; Soviet Maximum Cards, Soviet Airmail Postcards, Soviet
Envelopes with Special Die Impressions & Moscow-80 in the Mirror of
Soviet Philately, all by P. Haubner; an Information Enquiry; Reviews
of Soviet philatelic literature and two German works, to conclude
with Society notes and adlets.

Our West German friends are getting back on their feet after the
heavy loss of the late Herbert Giese. We wish them, and especially
the new Editor, all the very best in the future progress of their
excellent magazine.

PLACE-NAME CHANGES SINCE 1900 A WORLD GAZETEER, by Adrian Room.
Published by Scarecrow Press Inc., P.O. Box 656, Metuchen, N.J.,USA
08840. Contains 202 pages and published in 1979. Price US $10.00.

This title was advised by Dr. Peter Michalove and is self-
explanatory. An estimated 709,000 place-name changes have occurred
in the USSR alone since 1917. It is therefore not surprising that
place-name changes from that country predominate in the entries.
Obviously useful for the serious postal historian in our areas.

SOIM KARPATSKOYI UKRAYINI (The Parliament of Carpatho-Ukraine), by
Dr. Stepan Rosokha. A paperback of 98 pages, published by "Kul'tura
i Osvita", Winnipeg, 1949. No price stated.

This is an eye-witness account by one of the Ministers in the
Ukrainian Govt. that lasted for one day on 15 March 1939 in the
Carpatho-Ukraine. It is printed in Ukrainian, except for a 10-page


I







summary in English at the end of the booklet. Of great interest to
the collectors of Carpatho-Ukrainian material for the information
and photographs. The son of Kalenik Lissiuk (who wrote the popular
brochure on the Postmaster Provisionals) was a member of the
Ukrainian Sich that defended the country when the Hungarian Honved
(Soldiery) began its invasion on 16 March 1939; he was killed in
the bitter struggle that then took place.
We understand that Dr. Rosokha is still alive and currently living
in our fair city of Toronto.

FILATELISTICHESKAYA GEOGRAFIYA-EVROPEISKIE ZARUBEZHNIE STRANY
(Philatelic Geography-Foreign Countries in Europe), by N.I.
Vladinets. A paperback of 160 pages, issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'"
Publishers, Moscow, 1981, in an edition of 60,000 copies.Price 70 k.

This is not an original idea in Soviet philatelic literature, as a
similar work covering stamp-issuing countries in the world came
out in the 1960s. In this present booklet, extensive historic and
philatelic data are given for each European country outside of the
USSR. The author is a leading Soviet specialist in German
philately and has done his homework well.

SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER No. 19 (Soviet Collector). A paperback of
136 pages, issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow, 1981,
in an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 90 kop.

This traditionally annual "sbornik" or collection of articles
includes Postal Rates 1917-1923 for Money Orders & Parcels, by D.
Kuznetsov; Advertising Envelopes of the USSR 1929-36, by V.
Pantyukhin; Plating the Consular Airmail (based on Belgian research)
by I. Morozov; Field Post in the Caucasus during the Russo-Turkish
War of 1877-78, by S.M. Blekhman; The Irbit Zemstvo Post & Zemstvo
Bisects, by M. Minskii; The Brothers Karamazov on Postcards, by L.
Reinus; Lenin Medals, by A. Gdalin & D. Robinson; Milling Varieties
on Soviet Coins, by I. Semenov; The Novgorod Mint & First Die Usage
in Russian Minting in 15th. Century, both by M. L'vov; Soviet
Commem. Medals, by A. Shaten; Badges with Aviation Themes, by I.Sud;
Bonds of the Central Bank, by A. Usachiv and Book Reviews by Yu.
Myakota and V. Koretskii.

This is the only serious philatelic journal issued on a regular
basis in the USSR and it has to share space with non-philatelic
subjects which, in this issue, take up 2/3 of the total magazine.
One gets the distinct impression that Soviet philatelists live in
a very restricted world and have difficulty in generating serious
research from the philatelic material they possess.

POCHTOVYE MARKI SSSR-KATALOG 1980 (Postage Stamps of the USSR -
Catalogue for 1980). A 48-page booklet, compiled by M.I. Spivak and
issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow, 1981, in an
edition of 205,000 copies (!). Price 25 kop.

The title says it all and background information is given for the
108 stamps and 6 miniature sheets which were issued. Two ads. are
included to promote the collecting of (a) Stamps of the Socialist
and Developing Countries and (b) First Day Covers and Maximum Cards.







0 FILATELII (About Philately), edited by V.V. Agenosov. A paperback
of 56 pages, issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'" Publishers, Moscow, 1981
in an edition of 25,000 copies. Price 10 kop.

This brochure is a small handbook for the leaders of groups and clubs
of junior philatelists. It contains a very good range of basic data
on philately, related international organizations and the work of the
All-Union Society of Philatelists. It concludes with a bibliography
of 102 references. Excellent for the purpose stated.

MARKI-DRUZ'YA PRIRODY (Stamps-The Friends of Nature), by I.V. Chekhov
and L.A. Sladkov. A paperback of 96 pages, issued by the "Radio i
Svyaz'" Publishers in an edition of 30,000 copies. Price 30 kop.

This is a booklet in the "Library of the Junior Philatelist" series
and devoted to the themes of flora and fauna on stamps. Many are
illustrated in colour and the work should be of great help to the young.

FILATELISTICHESKAYA PUSHKINIANA (Philatelic Pushkiniana), by A.D.
Gdalin. A paperback of 128 pages, issued by the "Radio i Svyaz'"
Publishers, Moscow, 1981 and issued in an edition of 30,000 copies.40 k.

Another booklet in the "Library of the Junior Philatelist" series and
covering this time the theme of the greatest Russian port, A. S.
Pushkin. Cancellations, postal stationery and postage stamps are
described, some in colour. A comprehensive catalogue is included.

LATVIAN COLLECTOR 32/33. A magazine of 72 pages, edited by M. Tirums
and available from I. Rozentals, Box 5403, San Mateo, Calif., U.S.A.
94402. Prices are US $3.00 for single copies, $8.50 for three issues
and $15.00 for six issues.

This fine double number has articles on The Baltic States & the UPU;
Latvian Judaica; Arms Issue Plate Types; Catalogue of the Coat of
Arms & Latu Issue; Standard Cancellations of Latvia; Pre-Stamp Pmks
of Vidzeme; Tsarist Russian Postal Cards Used in Latvia; Altered
Postal History-Reattached Stamps; Latvian Censorship Markings; First
Soviet Occupation of Latvia 1917-20; Scripophily in Latvia and,
finally, Maps of Jaunlatgale & Ludza. Great value for the money I


OBITUARIES

It is our sad duty to record the passing of several friends and
subscribers. Our sincerest sympathy goes out to their relatives.

ANDREJS PETREVICS came from Liep&ja, Latvia and passed away on 17
Sept. 1981 in El Cajon, California, at the age of 72 years. A giant
in Latvian philately, who wrote and edited extensively, he was yet a
very modest man. He always said that he was the luckiest man alive,
as he was subjected to two dictatorships, those of Stalin and Hitler,
and survived to tell the tale.

JAN POULIE was a Hollander, who spent the last years of his life in
Switzerland. A keen philatelist from childhood, he put together over
the years astounding collections of Eastern European countries,
including our area and the Balkans. We will eventually publish the
details of his wonderful collection of Soviet Latvia 1917-1920. He







won hundreds of gold medals over the years at international shows
and left us on 10 Dec. 1981 at 74 years of age.

S EDWARD E. KUEHN of Columbus, Ohio was one of our subscribers and a
keen student of Tuvan philately, among other things. He was of
German descent, being especially active in the Germany Philatelic
Society and the Ko Lun Pu Chapter of the China Stamp Society, Inc.
He died suddenly from a heart attack on 30 Dec. 1981 at the age of
only 55. He will be sadly missed on the local philatelic scene.

ALBERT DOEL of St.Nazaire,France, originally hailed from Manchuria
and we had a very pleasant relationship with him as a subscriber.
He apparently passed away at the beginning of this year.

RIMMA SKLAREVSKI was Russian-born and got through the 1921-22 famine
by living on potato peelings, before emigrating to the U.S. An
unassuming man who enjoyed smoking large cigars, he started writing
in the American philatelic press as far back as 1932. He was very
good at describing forgeries, his last work being on the Karelian
Bear issue of 1922. He left us on Friday, 16 April 1982.


The Journal Fund

All sales benefit the Society and all orders should be made payable
to A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.
Further supplies are available exclusively of the following titles.
All others have been sold out and are unfortunately irreplaceable.

C THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L.L. Tann. When we start
getting repeat orders at the new price from the original subscribers,
then we know we are on a winner. All you needed to know about these
humble stamps, but were too humiliated to ask. Richly illustrated
and containing 257 pages. Price postpaid US $20.00.

IDENTIFY YOUR STAMPS, by Ervin J. Felix. A 256-page hardback, with
a lot of highly useful information in many philatelic fields. Of
especial interest to people in our sphere, as the author includes
fine illustrations of Imperial Russian stamps used in the Far East
and guaranteed pre-Shtempelgate Price postpaid US $ 5.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great writers.Price postpaid US $ 2.50.

LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow
State University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian
grammar, many phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual
for"us monolingual slobs", as one of our readers bluntly it. Great
value for the money. Price postpaid US $ 2.50.


PLEASE NOTE THAT THE SOCIETY HAS SOLD OUT OF "THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS"
BY REV. L.L. TANN. COPIES ARE STILL AVAILABLE FROM GEORGE ALEVIZOS,
2716 OCEAN PARK BOULEVARD,SUITE 1020,SANTA MONICA,CALIF.,USA 90405.


75









THE COLLECTORS' CORNER

DEAR COLLECTORS: /
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or /
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line -
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

ZEMSTVO CATALOGUE IN DUTCH. Complete with photos + Wenden + Red
Cross envelopes of Odessa. Price US $16.00 or CANADIAN $ 20.00
postpaid. NEARLY EVERY STAMP IS PHOTOGRAPHED. Orders to
G. BORDEWIJK, arts, NL 3132 NV VLAARDINGEN, MR. VERSCHUURSTRAAT
58, HOLLAND.

A FEW original copies of "The Russian Philatelist" still available:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US $2.00 each; Nos. 8 to 11 US $2.50 each.
MRS C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y., USA, 11524.

WANTED: Bogus, phantom & private issues, locals, vignettes,
forgeries, Armies, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Russia 1917-25 etc.
Will trade or exchange Estonian cards/covers against the same of
Latvia, Lithuania, Imperial Russia, Field Post of WWI and WWII.
AUGUST LEPPA, P.O. Box 95, SF-o4401, Jarvenpdg, Suomi/Finland.

ALWAYS looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fair exchange assured.
G. G. WERBIZKY, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A., 13850.

I HAVE many dot and numeral cancellations on both covers and stamps
available in exchange for the same. Exchange for Zemstvos or South
Russia material would also be considered.
ALEX ARTUCHOV, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

WANTED: Imperial dot cancellations on cover; buy or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price for
desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A., 95051.


SPECIAL NOTE: WE HAVE COMPLETELY SOLD OUT OF ALL PARTS OF "IMPERIAL
RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA". ALL FUTURE ORDERS SHOULD GO
DIRECTLY TO P.T.ASHFORD,9 PENTRE CLOSE,ASHTON,CHESTER,ENGLAND
CH3 8BR. PRICE PER PART IS US$5.00 POSTPAID.CASH WITH ORDER, PLEASE




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