• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Pulling the chestnuts out of the...
 Catholic army hut covers
 Report on "WIPA '81"
 Ukrainian literary language in...
 A major error in the arms...
 British India mail to the Russian...
 List of post offices in the Jewish...
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri
 Crimean Tartar postal history
 Crimean Tartar postal history
 More about the Volga Germans
 Shakhrisyabz and Shaar-shauz
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collectors' corner














Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 9
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00009
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 9
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
    Pulling the chestnuts out of the fire
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Catholic army hut covers
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Report on "WIPA '81"
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Ukrainian literary language in Austrian Empire
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    A major error in the arms types
        Page 24
        Page 25
    British India mail to the Russian Empire
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    List of post offices in the Jewish autonomous province as at 1937
        Page 30
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Crimean Tartar postal history
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Crimean Tartar postal history
        Page 55
    More about the Volga Germans
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Shakhrisyabz and Shaar-shauz
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Review of literature
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    The journal fund
        Page 75
    The collectors' corner
        Page 76
Full Text







































































Printed in Canada










HK


THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2


"THE POST-RIDER", No. 9.


NOV. 1981.


CONTENTS:


Editorial : More Soviet Forgeries
Correspondence with Canada
Pulling the Chestnuts out of the Fire
Catholic Army Hut Covers
Report on WIPA '81
Ukrainian Literary Language in Austrian Empire
A Major Error in the Arms Types
British India Mail to the Russian Empire
List of P.O.'s in the Jewish A.P. as at 1937
Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos
Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri
Crimean Tartar Postal History
Manuscript Dot and Numeral Cancellations
More about the Volga Germans
Shakhrisyabz and Shaar-Shauz
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
Journal Fund
The Collectors' Corner


COORDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY:


Publisher and Treasurer
Secretary
Editor


Dr. D.J. Voaden
Ya. Afangulskii
A. L. Steinhart
A. Cronin
A. Cronin
Rev. L. L. Tann
Col.A.H.Hinrichs
A. Artuchov
J. V. Woollam
A. Cronin
A. Artuchov
Various authors
Dr. P. Michalove


Alex. Artuchov
P. J. Campbell
Andrew Cronin


CREDITS:
The Society thanks'its contributors for helping to make this an
interesting issue. Sincere gratitude is also extended to Maili
Nagel for her assistance in the photographic work.


TPE PO TIIDER


H1


/i


I





















M EDITORIAL


MORE SOVIET FORGERIES.

For some time, we have been hearing from sources in the USSR that
the country is plagued with floods of forgeries and that the VOF
Expertising Committee cannot cope with the many requests for
verification.

Of late, the forging of Zemstvo covers has become a serious
problem. Rather than go into the details, which would also help
would-be forgers in the future, let us consider a prime example :
Zemstvo-to-Zemstvo covers. They are the crown jewels of a Zemstvo
collection and are, in fact, triple combination covers. They
normally bear a stamp of the despatching Zemstvo, an Imperial
postage stamp affixed at the capital of that Zemstvo to carry the
letter through the Imperial postal system to the post office
nearest the destination and, finally, a stamp of the Zemstvo of
destination. In short, glorious items and we have only been able
to record a total of 23 such covers so far: 19 of them in the
Western World and 4 in the USSR. Given the great rarity of such
pieces, especially in the Soviet Union, the temptation to forge
them there is obvious.

Another possible example of tampering from the Soviet end is the
"improvement" of pre-World War I foreign covers addressed to Russia
by adding Zemstvo stamps to carry them to their "final destinations"
It follows that anyone receiving Zemstvo material from new sources
should have it expertise by a competent body in the West before
any exchange arrangements or payments have been made.

One of the problems associated with Zemstvo philately is that the
"Big Schmidt" is not the final word on the subject. Just because a
particular stamp, variety or marking is not recorded there, it does
not necessarily follow that something is wrong. The late Carl
Schmidt was one of the world's great philatelists, but there would
inevitably be instances of errors or omissions to be found in such
a huge work. We will gradually be pointing out those that we have
noticed in future issues of "The Post-Rider".

The possibility cannot be excluded that forgeries of Zemstvo and
other material will become more and more sophisticated as time
goes by.

2







CORRESPONDENCE


WITH CANADA


"Carespodence with Canada" is a regular feature Kaay
of this journal. Anyoe possessing interesti-(
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerox copy of the item, along with sane expla-
natory text to the Editor.

A COVER FROM TAVRIDA PROVINCE.
by Dr. Denis J. Voaden.

The illustration shows a cover to Canada from VERKHNII ROGACHIK,
Tavrida province, dated 13 June 1914 and with the code letter "a".
It bears the correct foreign letter rate of 10 kopeks, paid with a
3-k. and 7-k. of the Romanov series. It is addressed to Abram G.
Neufeld, at Queen Centre, Morse, province of Saskatchewan.


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Mr. Neufeld was either a German or Jewish immigrant and further
details about him would be appreciated.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The Tavrida province in Imperial times consisted
of the Crimean peninsula and some adjoining parts of the Ukrainian
"mainland". In 1921, the Crimea was detached and formed into the
Crimean (Tartar) ASSR within the framework of the RSFSR; it has
been part of the Ukrainian SSR since 1954. The post office at
Verkhnii Rogachik still exists and is now located in the Kherson
province of the Ukrainian SSR. Re the Crimea itself, please see the
article on its postal history elsewhere in this issue.





PULLING THE CHESTNUTS OUT OF THE FIRE.

by Ya. Afangulskii.

The title refers to a phrase included by J. V. Stalin in his speech
of 10 March 1939 to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in a review of
current international political affairs. With the war clouds
gathering over Europe, he wanted to make it clear to other world
leaders that he would not be forced into the position of standing
alone against Nazi Germany. Both he and the Western Democracies
knew that there would have to be a showdown with Adolf Hitler
sooner or later but, with massive distrust between the USSR and the
West, the chances of concerted action were slim.

In that same speech, Stalin was also letting the Nazis know that,
despite ideological differences, there was no reason why trade
relations should not be expanded between their respective countries.
The next signal was the dismissal on 4 May 1939 of the Soviet
Commissar of Foreign Affairs, Maksim Litvinov, who was anathema to
the Nazis and his replacement by V. M. Molotov. On 20 May 1939, the
latter informed the German ambassador in Moscow that the Soviet
Government was also interested in improving the political climate
between the two countries. At the same time, negotiations had been
going on in Moscow all that summer for a common stance against
Nazism between the British and French on the one hand and the
Soviets on the other. Unfortunately, they were slowly getting
nowhere.

In one of the greatest bombshells of international political
history, it was suddenly announced on 23 August 1939 that an
"Agreement of Non-Aggression between Germany and the USSR" had just
been signed in Moscow. The immediate effect was that Hitler's hands
were freed for his attack on the Poles on Ist. Sept. 1939. By 17th.
of the same month, the Soviets had also joined in the dismemberment
of Poland with their "Liberation of the Fraternal Peoples of the
Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia" (see the relevant set of 5
Soviet stamps issued on this subject in March 1940). This event was
also immortalised by the great British cartoonist David Low in "The
London Evening Standard" for 20 Sept. 1939 see Fig. 1. By the
beginning of June 1941, relations between Germany and the USSR had
seriously deteriorated and, according to an American author, Dr.
Barton Whaley, a total of 84 specific warnings had been received by



































Fig. 1.





















"HULLO, JOE. I WONDER IF YOU'D DO ME A FAVOUR"








HULLOO, JOE. I WONDER IF YOU'D DO ME A FAVOUR"


Fig. 2.








the Soviets about an impending attack on them by the Nazis. The
situation was once again the subject of a famous cartoon by David
Low that same month in "The London Evening Standard" (see Fig. 2).

The warnings went unheeded, despite the defections to the Soviet
border forces from 18th. to 20th. June of a German sergeant, a
sargeant-major and a private respectively, with up-to-date details
of the coming blow. The Soviets were taken completely by surprise
at 3:15 a.m. on Sunday 22 June 1941 and, in the ensuing German-
Soviet War, whole generations of young and not so young Soviet men
up to the age of 46 were practically wiped out. The tragic results
of this chronic population imbalance may be seen in the USSR to this
very day.

The Western World has generally regarded the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 23
August 1939 as one of the great betrayals of history. However, it
seems certain that any Russian Government, Communist or otherwise,
would have acted similarly in such circumstances to try to safeguard
the security of the country. The pact was clearly in the national
interest. However, the Stalin regime was hideously at fault because
of the unbelievably criminal stupidity it showed from Sept. 1939 to
June 1941 in ruling, or rather misruling the territories it had
newly acquired. During that period, the Soviet population grew by a
further 23 millions, with the absorption into the USSR of Bessarabia,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Northern Bukovina, Western Belorussia,
Western Karelia and the Western Ukraine. As one Ukrainian remarked
to the writer: "You know, when the Poles ruled us between the two
world wars, conditions were terrible and we were blatantly
discriminated against. But, at least, if you had a case, you could
engage a lawyer, go to court and get a hearing. Then, in September
1939, the Russians came and, all of a sudden, there was no law "
What he meant, of course, was that there was no rule of law. The
brutality of the Stalin regime enraged the population in the new
territories so greatly that, when the Germans struck, the people
were either neutral or openly collaborated with the Nazis, so that
around one million Red Army men soon went to their deaths in those
areas.

During the uneasy period that the Pact was in force, the Germans
skillfully made sure that the trade balance remained heavily in the
Soviets' favour. Germany received huge quantities of strategic raw
materials for its war effort and delayed sending to the USSR any
equipment of military significance. Readers interested in the
documents relating to this era should consult "Nazi-Soviet Relations
1939-1941; Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office"
U. S. Dept. of State, Washington, 1948 and "Falsifiers of History",
an equally damaging Soviet collection of captured German documents
showing the Western Democracies in a very poor light. It all ended
in the German Ambassador to Moscow, Count Friedrich von der
Schulenberg, presenting his Government's vituperative denunciation
of the Pact to V. M. Molotov at 4 a.m. on Sunday, 22 June 1941. The
latter bitterly remarked: "This means war. Do you believe that we
deserved that ?"

It was a very painful scene for the German Ambassador also. A
thorough gentleman of the old school, Count von der Schulenberg was
an ardent advocate of cooperation with the USSR and he foresaw that
the invasion was doomed. He was against everything that Adolf Hitler







stood for, implicated in the attempt against the latter's life on
20 July 1944 and executed soon afterwards.



The point for us collectors to remember is that there was also a
philatelic side to the era when the Nazi-Soviet Pact was in force.
The idea is to collect mail from the USSR to Germany during those
22 months. Readers will find that not many examples have survived,
but the present writer can describe three items in his collection,
as follow:

(a)A picture postcard, apparently sent by a German technician on a
business assignment for about 14 days in Moscow. Sent by airmail
with 1 r. 10 k. postage on 1 March 1940, it is addressed to
Munich and bears the red censor marking of the German Supreme
Command of the Armed Forces. It was received in Munich on 13
March (see Fig. 3).






















Fig. 3.

(b) A registered postcard with philatelic postage, sent by a
Leningrad collector, K. A. Olkhin at No. 7 Rubinstein St. on 8 Oct.
1940 to his German exchange partner Conrad Wiegang in Berlin,
where it was received 12 days later. It was still possible at that
time to send material abroad through the Soviet Philatelic
Association Exchange Office at No. 3 Nastasyinskii Lane, Moscow-50
but, after the horrible purges of the 1930s, the volume had
dropped off considerably. The Soviet collector here was indulging
in what the Germans would call "Frankaturtausch", i.e. the exchange
of stamps used on cards or letters only (see Fig. 4).
(b eisee otcr ih hltlc otg, etb










n10m .. .rmaar
L d






u uAuurl RW>xk 4 iEPAM J -

L- u c -


SflPHOB5PETAMTE 3AHMA 1936 rOAAl
n1OAb3UITECb UCAUVrA ATEAbHblX IACC HA BbICTABIE U
Bcacmma c nelo-xo3Uratemac Qa ItrSa.4rpaoP-HallshwerhCE.po BCXB
Urrp-apua Ms n. 15 ,. Y. ru,. uT 29.7.~ Tw"p, 4O= a3. 594.
T"rpaeu .,,r,,ps Pamoas,". Moe -.

I- : ..R.- O

Fig. 4.

L Un^r 13^ R CO 1 "f"41 d -f- 1 d r.. UNA^AAAA4
i A .



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iPA





V. ,., ...i r .

i,'.r 't t. ,-,'.* JienarpacnA O6Aacta r ..64 T. .p 1SO..


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Fig. 5.








(c) A registered postcard from the same correspondence, sent from
Leningrad 25.4.41 to Berlin 4.5.41 and with a message written in
German: "Dear Mr. W.; I have received both your postcards of 12th.
April. Please write me once again what franking I should utilise
(Nos. only per Michel). Please send now 2 copies of 4-pf. WH
(Winterhelp) and new issues, especially with your FUhrer" (Fig. 5).

Re this last item, it is interesting to speculate on the subsequent
fate of Comrade Olkhin, especially since he has undoubtedly been
pushing up the daisies for some time past. It might be pointed here
that, at a banquet given in Moscow on 28 Sept. 1939, J. V. Stalin
said to the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, Joachim von
Ribbentrop: "I know how much the German people love their leader.
Therefore, I want to drink his health". Comrade Olkhin was, of
course, echoing those same sentiments on his card, sent practically
on the eve of the German invasion. It was a dumb thing to do, as
the late J. V. Stalin had a horrible habit of punishing lesser
mortals for his own stupid errors. If the NKVD did not rope in
Olkhin soon after posting the card or when the war broke out, it
seems certain that the dreadful famine of the winter of 1941/42,
when at least one million blockaded Leningraders starved to death,
would have done him in. Many more men than women died in that
awful debacle, since the former have fewer reserves of body fat to
draw on.

To sum up, Soviet mail to Germany sent during the lifetime of the
Pact has a story to tell and readers would do well to examine any
examples in their possession.



(T:: r i -i ,l ii:'!' i r*i ; i i!S i i |

i. .... .. ..




The Coordinators of The
Canadian Society of Russian
Philately sincerely extend
to their readers the I
Compliments of the Season ,0 0
and best wishes for the ".
year 1982. They also wish
to assure the readership
that an interesting array of*
articles awaits them in the
coming year. I
`3 c w -1 "m rf n'mM

A) .wSir








CATHOLIC ARMY HUT COVERS

by Allan L. Steinhart.

Imagine my surprise when, on arrival home from "WIPA '81", I picked
up my copy of "The Post-Rider No. 8" for May 1981 and, while
flipping through it, came across the article by P. J. Campbell
entitled "CATHOLIC ARMY HUTS IN SIBERIA". I said to myself: these
covers illustrated in the article are from the same correspondence
from which I also have several covers. After looking closer, I
thought they were the covers I possessed. After finding the covers
and checking them, I saw that they were the identical covers
illustrated in the article.

In response to Mr. Campbell's article, I can definitely state that
there is no sign of a censor handstamp or tape. The logo at the top
of the cover is in a red-brown shade. The Union Jack is in red,
white and blue and the inscription "PX / K of C / CANADA" in red,
while the initials "C. A. H." are in blue. The registration label
is in red and black. In addition to the transit handstamps on the
reverse reported by Mr. Campbell, there are two strikes faintly
visible in red: SEATTLE (TERMINAL STA.) WASH. / MAY 27, 1920
REGISTERED" also struck on the back and a further red "REGISTERED"
cachet on the front, also applied at Seattle.

In addition to the two covers recorded by Mr. Campbell, I have two
others from the same correspondence, one registered and one
ordinary. This second ordinary cover is identical to the one
illustrated by Mr. Campbell in rate, adhesives, markings and
corner illustration, except for the date of mailing which is one
day later, i.e. 13 May 1920.

My second registered cover differs in several ways from that
recorded by Mr. Campbell. The corner illustration, franking,
registration label and postmark are all the same, but the date
is different, being 10 May 1920 (see Figs. 1 and 2 herewith).

1CA0,\DIAN !.:'i"',\ I IION -


.... ..'

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10 Fig. Z.








"-'


Fig. 2.








The cover was mailed to Capt. Horace Hume Van Wart, 71st. York
Regt., Militia Headquarters -Ottawa, Canada; a labe l was pasted
of New Brunswick. The same Seattle "REGISTERED" cachets were'
the back being dated May 27, 1920. At Ottawa, a black OTTAWA
-,,- d-- .




, val "RECORD OFFICE / MILITIA / JUN. 5, 1920 / P.O. / OTTAWA"




datestamp was struck, a black OTTAWA Jun. 5 registration datestamp
!.' -"3 ""', .. 3, ,' + 'C '
, _, : ; ',/ ....... ...







Fig. 2.






The cover was mailed to Capt. Horace Hume Van Wart, 71st. York
Regt., Militia Headquarters, Ottawa, Canada; a label was pasted
this address and the cover redirected to Fredericton, province
of New Brunswick. The same Seattle "REGISTERED" cachets were
applied o n the front and back of the cover in red, the one on
the back being dated May 27, 1920. At Ottawa, and black "OTTAWA
CANADA / 1 / JUN. 2, 20 / R" registrati on datestamp was applied









Wart was a philatelist, beit him or someone else. I have other
and the cover sent to Militia Headquarters, where a black double-
oval "RECORD OFFICE / MILITIA / JUN. 5, 1920 / P.O. / OTTAWA"
datestamp was struck, a black OTTAWA Jun. 5 registration datestamp
added and the cover forw te aadi edericton, N.B.orc o in

The dates of mailing of these four covers are of interest to us.
They are 7th., 10th., 12th. & 13th. May 1920 and thus the covers
were used well after the Canadian Expeditionary Force had returned
home. This is a short period of time. Someone close to Capt. Van
Wart wa s a philatelist, be it him or someone else. I have other
Canadian WWI to or from Van Wart, one of them being at present the

in 1917. At the present time, we know of no other covers with the
corner illustration of the "K. of C." (Knights of Columbus). I enter
here the theory that possibly these are totally philatelic covers
sent to a friend in Siberia by Van Wart, with a request that they be
sent back to him. It is possible that the C. A. H. covers were
prepared, but arrived too late for use by the Canadians, or had
never arrived in Russia at all until some had been sent over by Van
Wart. I obtained these four covers from a dealer who, in turn, got
them from an old-time trader now deceased and so the trail ends.

Can anyone come up with further information, or has anyone seen other
covers with the same corner illustration ?








REPORT ON "WIPA '81"


by Andrew Cronin

"WIPA '81" was the third great international philatelic exhibition
held under that name in Vienna, Austria, this time running from
23rd. to 31st. May 1981. The two previous occasions were in 1933
and 1965 and were memorable events by all accounts. Our subscriber
and President of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately, Dr.
Gordon H. Torrey, was an observer-judge at the show.

The 1981 affair was held in two locations: the famous Hofburg,
housing most of the competitive exhibits and the Messepalast, which
took the balance, including the trade stands etc. A distance of
almost 1 km. separated the two places and involved crossing two
busy streets. The Hofburg was also used in 1965 and the exhibits
then set off with supplementary lighting. This time around, the
judges had to be issued with torches (flashlights), as the basic
lighting there was atrocious in many spots. The writer was at the
Hofburg on the Thursday afternoon, 22nd. May, for the ceremonial
opening. Normally, when one arrives ahead of time at any
international show, the general impression is one of chaos and the
feeling that there was no way everything would be mounted in time
for the general opening day. However, everything miraculously falls
into place at the last moment; that was the case at "CAPEX '78",
"SOFIA '79", "LONDON 1980" and "BUENOS AIRES '80".

Well, "WIPA '81" was the exception to the rule. Came the opening
day on Friday, 23rd. May, there were still many exhibits missing.
That state of affairs continued into the Saturday, when the frantic
owners were running around to make sure that the jury would not
miss their entries. Various attendance figures were bandied about,
as high as 300,000. The author doubts that attendance went beyond
50,000. The hours were unusual: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily and gave
visitors a chance to get to know Vienna and its charming citizens,
who are unbelievably polite at all times.

The trade side of the show was huge, but received rather poor
patronage. The locals were clearly not in a spending mood, although
Austria is a prosperous country. If it had not been for the clients
from West Germany, Great Britain, Scandinavia and North America,
business would have been very bad. To top it all off, the
Commissioner-General for the exhibition, Herr Berndt Vogel,
resigned from his post just after the Palmares, because of promises
which he claimed had not been honoured by the Organising Committee.
The List of Awards distributed at the Palmares was found to contain
many errors and omissions and had to be reissued.

However, there were also bright spots. On Saturday afternoon, 24th.
May, there was a very enjoyable meeting in one of the rooms of the
Hofburg of the Russian Study Group in West Germany, arranged by the
genial Austrian convener, Herr Kurt Schauritsch of Linz. Your
editor had the pleasant opportunity of speaking there to several of
our subscribers and friends whom he had only known before by mail,
in particular Messrs Harry von Hofmann of Hamburg and Heinrich
Imhof of Bad Berleburg. Further subscribers present were MM.
Jacques Marcovitch of New York City and M. V. Liphschutz of Paris.








Others at that same meeting with whom the author had pleasant'and
instructive chats included the noted philatelic expert Ing. Zbigniew
Mikulski of St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Henri Gachot of Strasbourg and the
keen local collectors such as Messrs Kurt Schauritsch, Franz Jurica,
Horst Dietrich and M. Feldman. It was a pleasure to see again Ing.
Sven Kraul of Hamburg, who is a very avid student of Latvian
philately.

Familiar collections in our sphere were on view at "WIPA '81". The
Court of Honour included the beautiful array of "Russia used in the
Kingdom of Poland" by our subscriber M. A. Bojanowicz of Great
Britain, as well as a fine showing of Zeppelin Posts by Herr Ludwig
Kofler of the German Federal Republic. Of interest to us in his
display, there was a puzzling proof in typography on soft card of
the 80-kop. value in the 1930 Zeppelin set of the USSR; the stamps
as issued were printed by photogravure.

The results in the competitive class were as follow (SP = Special
Prize):-

LARGE GOLD:


M. V. Liphschutz (+SP)

Zbigniew Mikulski

"Terre-Neuve"
(William Lee of G.B.)


SMALL GOLD:


S. M. Blekhman
M. A. Bojanowicz
Norman Epstein
Pers-Anders Erixon
Yu. Lurie
J. van der Linden (+SP)
Harry von Hofmann


: Russian Posts in Danub.Principalities
and Turkey.
: Russia & USSR, including complete plating
of the Moscow-San Fran. via Nth.Pole stamp.
: Russia No. 1; a superb & beautiful
display of 33 covers & 103 picked stamps.



: Russia & USSR.
: "Kingdom of Poland-Poland No.l"(Literature).
: Russian Imperials, incl. the Tiflis 6 kop.
: Russia 1822-1922, incl. glorious No. l's.
: 1418 Days & Nights;Leningrad siege topic.
: Aus Russland (Postal History).
: Latvian Forerunners.


VERMEIL:


JiHi Brejha

R. Dedzis
Estonian Phil.Society
Vambola Hurt
Eugen Kobylanski
Sven Kraul (+SP)
Dr.J6zef Kuderewicz
Boris Stenshinskii
Dr. Gordon H. Torrey


: RSFSR, incl. doubtful cover with TUKKUM
18.12.18 pmk.The author has similar cover.
: Russian WWI mutes.
: "Eesti Filatelist" (Literature).
: Estonian Forerunners.
: Superb Ukrainian Tridents.
: Latvia.
: Russian Siege of PrzemySl(Postal History).
: Russia to 1917;early items in poor shape.
: Beautiful Russian Used Abroads(P.History).


SILVER:


D. B. Diamandiev
Kaj Hellman Ltd.
Ivo Lukanc
Dr. Walter Rauch (+SP)
Rossica Society


Russia 1917-1941, incl. many scarce items.
P. History Finnish lands ceded to USSR (Lit.)
Soviet Zepp. & Airship Posts (Literature).
Carpatho-Ukraine (see photos herewith).
Rossica Journal (Literature).
13








SILVER-BRONZE:

S. Begma : "The heavens call" (topical).
Peter Fischer :"GDR & USSR in the Mirror of Philately"
(Literature).
Eugen Kobylanski : Ukrainian Legion WWI (Postal History).
G. Malakhov : Lenin topic.
O. Sevastyanova : Flowers topic.
R. de Violini/Russen Ott: P. Hist.Russ. Antarct.Activities 1955/77
(Literature).

BRONZE:

J. G. Fluck : Austrian WWI POWs in Russia (P.History).
A. Gertsov : Automobiles topic.
M. Sviridova (+SP) : Furred Animals topic.

The USSR issued a 15-kop. stamp on 5 May 1981 to commemorate the
exhibition and this was available with special oval postmark on an
FDC at the show. A special 4-kop. envelope was also issued for the
event and cancelled at the show with an appropriate marking in
Russian. Please see the relevant illustrations for both these
items. Interesting items also seen in the exhibits are also shown
herewith, together with the appropriate descriptive texts.

The visit to "WIPA '81" formed part of a tour that took the writer
through Switzerland, Southern Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and
Liechtenstein. The trip to Wurttemberg in the Federal Republic of
Germany was especially enjoyable, as the author was very generously
entertained at short notice by Ing. Heinz Otto, the Exhibition
Chairman for the Russia/USSR Study Group and who works in the very
pleasant city of Heilbronn. We both enjoyed a tour of the beautiful
university city of Heidelberg, followed by a hilarious evening at
"Zum Besen", a wine tavern at Eberstadt near Weinsberg. The
Wtrttembergers definitely know what they are about when producing
fine wines. All that and watching an exciting soccer match between
Brazil and the Federal Republic on TV topped off a very pleasant
stay with a fine philatelist and genuinely sincere person. His
collecting interests center on the German-speaking countries and
two Soviet topics: Outer Space and Lenin. In the latter collection,
he has an amazing Imperial postcard, with a request for seats sent
to the famous Mariinskii Theatre in St. Petersburg and signed by
Nadezhda Krupskaya, who was to become the wife of Lenin. Incredible I







3, Ir. ,: ,.


-' .. . S '/

II Pr m wiFB -yi


AII. I 1893, K. rhler-?Yar


)Wien 7.



















ME)EAYHAPOJHARfl HIJATEJIH TH4ECHAf BbICTABKA
t.1". -









B3--o 'l21 rW.-
LaL-,-Z--i'. u ''' JC


*i!t~ I
., ..^.1 '.-.



[ 14

^ '


IIII BAl IIIAMI 11 IIaMaiB Af MI

-- -: El- a r -



"HAeXC npCABPHfMV9 t823H memh na~mmam


9
c; I ::
~*rr. *I;P
ira .
''Y


Sn9IA CCCP




, .>


1 _I__ ~ ~ ~I_ -~


--111~






TWO GEMS FROM THE DR.W.RAUCH COLLN.OF CARPATHO-UKRAINE AT "WIPA '81".


A pre-philatelic letter, written in French and sent "de Ungvar"
(from Uzhorod) in 1788 to Viscount Emery Horvat, Councillor of His
Royal and Imperial Apostolic Majesty at Leutschau(now Levo6a,Slovakia)


A registered local Uihorod cover of April 1945, with three Hungarian
stamps originally handstamped by the Czechs in liberated Chust with
"iSP / 1944" and further overprinted by the Ukrainian National
Council authorities in Uzhorod with the Ukrainian inscription
"Postage / Transcarpatho-Ukraine / 60" in black or red. Such double
overprints are uncatalogued rarities and this cover has been
authenticated by a leading expert, Miroslav Blaha of Czechoslovakia.


O


0


e_ 4(44


(/y^>W~Cce^^'~~c byy^y^t ^^^ta^ yr
*A. -' 4jdL.-rf /id e
7I
^^X ilc^
L 449 X #- AP*96A-&*
b -
^c^^At^L


(o6-.


O


I


I


Z 6-







rw I & X 4 a 1 a f a a a a a a a 1 11 a t I a ai 4 A ai. Oi l aa,111 a116 a a 111 a l a at 1 a am. a l a a m1 4 a 111 a ft Im 114 J 11t I i 1 1 i I ol ft I 1 l C





















An English translation of Sergei Vasil'evich Prigara's
1941 handbook entitled The Russian Post in the Empire
Turkey, China and the Post in the Kingdom of Poland "
is being published by the Rossica Society of Russian
Philately. The 220 page book covers all aspects of Russian
postal history, stationery, stamps and cancellations
(with the exception of Finland and Crete) in detail. The
original plates have been secured and will appear in the
English version, for a total of 17 pages of photographs
and illustrations. The books are expected to be available
before the end of 1981, and the charges will be as follows:

1) Pre-publication orders of 1-9 copies:
$35.00 + $2.00 postage per copy
2) Pre-publication- Rossica members:
$35.00 + postage
-non-members:
$40.00 + postage
* 3) Bulk orders of 10 or more: $25.00 + shipping costs.


There will be 1,000 copies printed. Each book will be
hardbound in a dark purple cover with gold lettering.
If you are interested in obtaining one or more copies,
please send out a cheque made out to:


"ROSSICA SOCIETY"
6212 Breezewood Court,
Apt. 202,
Greenbelt, Maryland, 20770
USA
_ ):li fm~ltrl' C) .llil(l















THE UKRAINIAN CORNER


This corner will be a
regular feature in W
tribute to the many
thousands of Ukrainian
immigrants who, by their 1
hard work, have enriched
their country of adoption,
namely Canada. As most of U "
them came from the western
provinces of the Ukraine, we "
will be featuring items from J
Bukovina, Carpatho-Ukraine & Galicia.



THE UKRAINIAN LITERARY LANGUAGE USED IN THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE

by Andrew Cronin.

As part of the Ukrainian national awakening that began in the 19th.
century, the inhabitants in the western provinces, which were then
under the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, also felt the need
to create a purified language for their literary efforts, even if
only to differentiate themselves from their Polish neighbours.
Among the early teachers prominent in this movement was the priest
Ivan Dukhnovich, who was born in the "Pryashivs'ka Rus" (Eastern
Slovakia, where many Ukrainians still live). He is regarded as the
national awakener of the Carpatho-Ukrainians and was a skilled
linguist, equally at home in his native Ukrainian dialect, literary
Russian,Slovak, German, Hungarian and Latin. Other educated
Ukrainians soon followed his example and a literary language began
to emerge, showing strong elements of Church Slavonic, literary
Russian and phrases: of the local Ukrainian dialects.

This was the language that Ivan Franko, the great Western Ukrainian
writer, wrote in and it was also used by the Austrian postal
authorities for the postal forms and stationery circulated in the
Ukrainian-speaking provinces under their jurisdiction. The examples
of the literary language applied on such items are of great
linguistic interest and their collection and classification is a
very worthwhile project. The samples shown on the following pages
are from the collection of the writer and are arranged in
approximate chronological order. Other types must certainly exist
and our readers are invited to send in details of examples in their
own collections. The Austrians called this language "ruthenisch"
("Ruthenian") and the abbreviation "Ruth." appears on the forms.









T2ame ttnb olptlnttnt beg
91bituberf :
INIA "fpiO3U1Ah It AMICTti4
ItpirktR4IIIA 110CMA6Icloro:


Ifir Keiritftdie 9it tbetiluttgAtt untb
Stttt: VNuffebett bet 1breftdcileiftn
bet Beitttnnflevirdtitntrattnt
()'rTzenoiuen
.AO Z011AVkIjHH1tA A1OHICEFHir H A0
IIARAINp 111th fIPICIA4Inl I l3Tl-
1140:11 HPH nP1AII\aT-L- I 4311TX.


PAAOKO 6 HCAO CfHCKA RKtfATZ



"O3Xef t lepeKa3'L no'ITOBLIR


nuf.................................. (BuLbulb ............ ]rciItc 0e VW,
la 30A. Kp. Al. K.
lit tuicbejoltin (bit ttibetn I itt 13urltabtt)
IIORrTOpHITH 301. RfikRdIA%
____ ___ ________ __ ii.fr. fs.
_____- -- :t0A. K ilp. 4. R.

Ile'IrI, IIJIIJHHAW0l1 ltil 1s~TM.

IIAP(CCA

cle K.....K..............................................................
ANkn tiR nA T ----- ........


8DonljntIg beg Mtnipidnglee:
d'AkTSAIrlpqleKlRoHtA
TrrHpjlAI0'r0:


b,1 oJtz~Oiorut U- 3unoTon~aIie yPivAY olronoro.
(ingetragen inn 9tttnatjtnceitldlce hunter Tlr. .
KnIHCAIO RX KHH3-L-rIA4TI IHl, 'IIICAO tI -

--------------------------------I ... I.....................................------
.I......pb...........................187
Ott~fgtb63ntttt nbc:fttftoenlfe, tnn bte
~LItttAAIltng ge~lC ei ult ntrbe: bett~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ hl~~~~~~~~:~~~~~~187

H1A41 K.cIk, rAt ttiA4'iltiO rp ijfte t:
9latne beg $ofmnbieectirn4eieirte3eg:
iASlatciI oKpbr4 tHpeKltiH nall HTOIt
ttnterideirit bet Toftbebienfteten:
11SHC Il n*r4Ol.JXZ 4Af0AAHHK6KIX:


'4 n


no



.,
044
'C 4rm











..s m

*m .6d n






C -
* ~ C
.4 42r


Cittititq bed 9-tbreCifften. IIOIeBhITOI3niItCTIIfINO '1OF.O.

Zeit auf biejer $oftatnueijtnt atiitctgeueu t3etrag Doir ber $3octauftalt
ricotig epfintge ts ita cnll, befttift Ifierutit:
ilAAdlpS4IHIstl3'I tlttlllcon t CTAtItAO RIPA1l0 CttMM5i 0oHdwlllw Ill CIMt Ax l Lnik How
TOKOM% 6TIZ 4PypA~ nO'irauorO T0110 8TOK0K1A OMK.

(Drt) .. (ame) l1.64Th 9MnAld4lIO'IO nOqTMl.
d-kCTIAi. (ilmA H H43AHStAe) .
ben............. ................. 187 .
AHA


JOKLHX tlHtIIEKA6sir foi-
TOR1JXZ 4:


ptenterhingnti fiir ben Oebrnudj Ber 6OebnwIrruitd n.
1pniulmt nin inacano'iII C11 y10ToTIc6.IIiff uoepeiaan'n4 foq1T0fl.XT,.
L. 9inlneitttniezt oul Fetr:3ge bon tnlj MO 100 (1. e 1. I1flmtalkil IIAAI 100 3n0. IltlltnHA
10tnet nur bet ben inb an bie 4iett1 e.genO MIMItlE .HdPO'lO nA0Tor t0\ Al0nIA%
erntamlittgten Witeaffen annennntnten ivetben. KACa4X It IT0RtsOKhll 11 TOAKNO NO0 CII\'


Zie tenveifungeetn terbeit ben breffaten better.
ben ffl r 5elbbsriefe tioregefff:iebttett Forlfitet
Sugefelit, u. 5. tefegrapiiid~e fantint bent (IleIb,
Etetrge, Wett bet 91bree(ft tn Stanborte bW0
l$oftamt eo tnnnt. WIfe atberen 1lntnetihieuiet
inerben bet bent $oftamnte (Tontcffie) nnlgeptfjtt.
Zte 8abttnli irb an ben Utlberbeinger bet untecr
eettigten 91ntueittteo, bet ton bet T3nftanftntt aMO
bet Zebgul 0erefftigte angefetbeit mirb, nitne
gorberung einer weiteren 2egitimation unb oine
tnettre Jaftuno geteiftet.


8. 8ugeftelli. InHeivtiftng, bie bintnen 14 Tanett,
ober post restante Itiroeiungen, bie bituten
8 93onatet niclt bebol)en Iworben finb, tueeben
nict nmefI an ben ( lbrefaten au0geaalt)t, foubern
t: irb bte 9iihitaflung be# )elbbetrageo an ben
Siufgebet eintgeteitet.


I


AIOTCA
f HkIrX
x~ KAMI


ACnflKOAVo tIOCHAATII TAl~dl lIPIEleA3l.
2. -- IfetP~lad l ttO'lr4RtH JIaVCdl`A tH TA-
Kll(l CdAMXZ CPEACTRAK% OCcTOPOA:l tOC-tH,
cletH tIpH 0111 rpOiUHJIFK AHlI:TAX OVHOTPIE;AA-
IOTCA, 4 HAAFHO 1TEAI'tIItA4ll'lFIill llepmetew
AOPS-IIO01TA KpIaix 31% rpOllltIIIt A iH eH A \1p-
CATI IIttLtKtF(M I % R'I-OAI% CAihMAlI Wkc'rlim,
'Af ficl-k OTPA.,s 110-MTCRl,(11.k 111111im
lIipfKdA3td RlllAA'IlalIOCA 8I 4pVAAk (4C-k)
HO'ITOKOAX~ IIO,%41'6AfKH Ilfp(X4:j 110-rTO-
RaCO, 3A AIOW.tI-tEIIrO [eQAuIIHCoAtI A.\3p-
CATJ. II01i Tr6A OIVRAWEACTCA ICAAdlTCAA 3A
OyViipanwiior0 o AO OTOrldHlrA H FIE WdnAdiT%
CAR MlIFIOlI A0tl4T1llTAU OAIIAKOeI. It (OPA\i,
1H1 Fl:0 AAAkllIOiI O1ttk'I-AMTEI4HOCTI Ha c(Nir.
3. 6t0e11 t0 AOPSi'lflilH tt 'PWA:411% HE OTs-
r(1IIlI4,1 C$MA1A 4lClrlll ts 4l) 7X AO 14 AEn,
1441 RI CA6'ltla1 03114tEltIl 9pOtternstnnts' I.
T-06 IE TPXEXI MtkCctlliti, TO TOrva 11011-
TORlihll OltAA. HLEPItA3s'KI% IE RM1ttAAIdC,
AMIIE1 TdKOKRI nOcAaRIIJHM i rpow" H434AA
SKEDT R. f


C







e, ~



- =


A bilingual 5-Kreuzer money order card, measuring 147 :


184 mm.


i .


:


-----I I


-' '


.............


- (Ruth.)









,, .- .

;*' *srodVm VxnaoVron Aquarnq.ndn urV bataiH
*:^ t ..',,, :: ,i"., uii. tu l



;' I i4 *4 / ', i,:|









= i "i '
=
S .- I .

.1 -:































by telegram. It contains unusual errors in the Ukrainian equivalents
for "Kreuzer" the "p" (r) is missing in the Ukrainian word, while
the abbreviation for Austrian "av" has the Russian vowel "izitsa"
4 I














(v) instead of the Ukrainian "B" (v). The form is shown in actual











size.
C 'I r.




Ji* TIci -| It^ f










for "Kreuzer" the ip" (r) is missing in the Ukrainian word, while
tfor Austrian "av" has the Russian vowel "izitsa"
(v) instead of the Ukrainian "B" (v). The form is shown in actual
size.




























































This is the back of the same telegraphic money order form and it
appears to be free of linguistic errors.



21











WS A


dpal 1 10

4r t*al-141
THnte *_.1 OY y L.ttO.




.......30 A ~ ...... ....T ......
41 ey e Ii ....... ......
S........... ...... I

W attung U"';sL-"Z ot Dtj;
Oo Pik 7A

r w *ert9 "21b I




Qnara ~ Apylrt3A
rt~ ~3~at II ;gl~'**r 111 aoo flfli3O
............................ ............ .................... rr

.kr I 1 4. 7,
~ ~ibi r III (..l.. ... .............. .. 1-




dlnm re.ci3brtt~@~e j .. PIUOM. I'
P, vladfnatpi.



.. .. ..
....... ....e 9_.'k I S
58fteur- ober seuui ber








N.J1 .
B ........








Um~~~c teL~ad eu b crdyIete g cui'..iia:.tiu'\ IHabcnIbejiatIg o
.. O 4 ,



roto~o[IRr '*'')` ~ 6~ ~ '.$orntert T-m~r
-- -~----*"AMU anal~ mis




Bi~ tpaponorci.







'4:. i(ten ub be 'i Siete en q ridfl ointa ber I"~iabe, befieut iget ebzi:
EIItde~iA-I)c n aJer i a~ie r it it pi negc n -crc! i tna RbEIOr Tif ou C~ ThrbeIeIt nO.RgJeUd
Ziie 3bU ri iiii ....dj....me. .an ..... .ii~g~ .. ..... .....dJid b9a e t )

tt bittn rn2g?1i ofoee g it rce u. ogt.
Ann ........... .. ell 0,: b -s8+









Ii o t (alciar IAic n bit iaj e'erug~ $ ,;Htat be~i eu igaocitfrnern
Migen 03e rcnn ibc Wadpge ~ia l ciimrcuben Seei Tiigbcicrci. ji~fid be -bgn

7, 6ym t a 11 iiin annoiienti bei ale IT oftimter
3alfpeII. nepeCIIAihKY nj~aO a o.tw a .aA OTOHI aLCTiT l 'oli AO)qIOIH AeIICT
63 'it MIPXTO unouemm











IIIIIT,1nhI1% no 6 lefH~iR Baanrly-.S
,~u : J, _













Front & back of a bilingual parcel card from Brody, Galicia 25.5.97
to Sadahora, Northern Bukovina 26.5.97.

































To round off the picture, the above card, which the writer picked
up while attending "WIPA '81", gives the Imperial Austrian
National Anthem with the Ruthenian version written by Vasyl'
Il'nytskyj. The author is indebted to Volodymyr Bul'ba of Toronto
for information about Father Il'nitskyj. He lived from 1823 to
1895 and was also a teacher and writer, as well as the headmaster
of the high school at Ternopil'. He spent the years from 1868 to
1892 in L'viv and headed the Russian Pedagogical Institute there
during 1884 to 1887. He wrote many historical articles in a
popular vein and also used the pen names of "Denis from above the
Seret River" and "Denis from Pokuttya".

The card pictured above may be ordered from Verlag "Zeit an der
Donau", Ottakringerstrasse 235, WIEN 16, Austria.

&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&$&

SPECIAL NOTES:

The views expressed in the articles contained herein in this
issue of "The Post-Rider" are those of the respective authors and
not necessarily those of the Society or its coordinators.

Anything contained in this issue may be reprinted without
permission, provided that the source is quoted and a copy sent to
the Society.








A MAJOR ERROR IN THE ARMS TYPES

by Rev. L. L. Tann.




















With the publication of the handbook on the Arms Issues 1902-
1920, the author made provision in the text for blank lettering
in the listings to take care of any future errors that may turn
up. Little did he dream that this provision would bear fruit
quickly and in a dramatic way.

One of the purchasers of the handbook and CSRP subscriber, Mr.
Frank Goble of Sussex, England has now come up with a major
variety in the 1902-1906 issue. It is a corner pair of the 35-
kopek value from the bottom left margin of the sheet (please see
the illustration above). Oh the stamp at left, the oval centre is
completely blank, while on the stamp at right, only about 5% of
the oval is showing.

The variety came about because of a fold in the corner of the
sheet after the frames of the stamps had been printed. This
corner pair has four albino impressions of the oval centre in
reverse; three in the sheet margins and one sideways across the
centre of the stamp at left.

The piece is not a true centre-omitted variety, which would have
come about when a sheet with the frames had failed to go through
the machine printing the centres. The point here is that while
such paper fold and other printing errors are relatively common
in the last printings of the Arms Types during the turmoil of
Revolution and Civil War, that was definitely not the case in the
1902-1906 period. Quality control then was very strict in the
EZGB (Department for Preparing State Documents) and, while errors
must have cropped up during the printing process, very few got
past the rigid surveillance of the postal inspectors.

The error described here is not what may be regarded as a
constant variety, but is still rare and a very showy itemc A
similar paper fold variety in the same 1902-1906 issue sold at
an auction in New York City in 1976 for $250.00.


I






Further interesting varieties in the Arms Issues of 1902-1920 will
be listed as they come to light in an Addendum to the Handbook to
S be published in a future issue of "The Post-Rider".



RUSSIA-POLAND
NEW ISSUE SERVICE
These are sent at three month intervals and
discounted from low retail by 20%.
*Russia $2.20/Ruble low retail or net $1.76
which is lower than wholesale of $2.00/Ruble.
*Poland- 7per Zloty or a net of 5.6 per Zloty.
ePoland at a net of 2.8t per Zloty
We also supply mint Vatican and United Nations
at 10% discount from low retail.
L& F STAMP SERVICE
393 Sterling Drive,
DIMONDALE, Michigan, U.S.A. 48821.



DEALERS.... O J

) YOU to U aVer;tse i4. 144 i V !C/



FULL Pg $35.00



HALF P $20.00



QUARTER P $112.50

25









MAIL TO THE


EMPIRE




Russian philatelists in the Western
World have many examples of Imperial
mail directed abroad and have, in B
fact, ensured the survival and l *niepDim ;
loving preservation of practically
all such items. However, mail
addressed to the Russian Empire is '"
a horse of another colour, as
terrible things have happened since
the collapse of that Empire and
many magnificent philatelic items
were subsequently destroyed.
Contributions to this section will
be welcomed from our readers.


BRITISH INDIA MAIL TO THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

by Colonel Andrew H. Hinrichs.

The writer specialises in the early postal history of India and has
two entire letters of interest to Russian philatelists, as follow:-

(a) The example shown in Fig. 1 is addressed to Christinestad
(Christianstad or Kristiinankaupunki) in the Grand Duchy of
Finland, then forming part of the Russian Empire. The letter was
sent from Calcutta, India, on 6 Nov. 1861 and bears a total of
26 annas postage (1 rupee 10 annas). According to Martin and Blair
in their "Overseas Letter Postage from India 1854-1876" (Robson
Lowe, London, 1975), the oz. rate for letters to Russia via
France and Prussia as of 1 July 1860 was 25 annas 4 pies fully
paid. The sender had therefore overpaid the letter by a nominal
amount of 8 pies, as there was no other way of making up the rate
with the stamp values then available in British India.

The letter is endorsed "Franca" (= France, in the Portuguese
language) at bottom left and, at top centre, there are two strikes
of the initials "P.D." = Paye jusqu'A la Destination (paid to the
destination). Just below them to the right there is a French
double-circle datestamp reading : "POSS. ANG. V. SUEZ A MARSEILLE,
...DEC. 61" (English Possessions, Suez to Marseilles route, some
day in December 1861). On the back of the letter we find a Paris
transit c.d.s., applied also on some day in that same month.

Turning back to the front of the letter, we note at centre right
a large Prussian marking in German with the inscription "AUS
FRANKREICH PER AACHEN / FRANCO / 14. 12" (from France via Aachen,


_ _












































I _C
4~;ryr~


i~tdil-;: C~i ;:~ L~~r -~


k -- -r:-

--I.At~I*FOIIIJI** w.


r,4
Ar

9 *1"


4 T-

III










.-,f ir / <


"A.,


0r


.43



*4( .._.




'N


;-j ,a -,"


Fig. 1.


* 4.



14







*'4


t.t


-*


vc~ur r*ur;* ~~ ~r- -.-.r..~.


. I








paid, 14 Dec. 1861). To the left centre, just above the "Franga"
designation, we see a manuscript marking in a characteristic blue
ink of what looks like the fraction "1/3". According to the noted
postal historian Denis Vandervelde, this denotes a split rate, as
calculated by the Prussians. Only applied on mail directed to the
Russian Empire, the lower figure represents 3 Silbergroschen,
being the Russian claim on a single rate letter. The upper figure
"1" denotes the Belgian claim of 1 Silbergroschen, prior to
crossing into Prussian territory at Aachen.

The next step in the journey is the transit marking of St.
Petersburg on the back of the letter, reading in Russian :
"RECEIVED / MORNING / 8 DEC. 1861". That date was given in the
Julian or Old Style calendar, which was 12 days behind the
Gregorian Calendar in the 19th. century. It reached the Finnish
capital of Helsinki/Helsingfors the same day, where it received
the familiar rectangular "ANK 20/12" marking on the front
(obscured by the large Prussian circular Franco mark). The
abbreviation "ANK." stands for the Swedish word ANKOMMANDA =
incoming, while the date is, of course, 20th. Dec. in the
Gregorian calendar. The letter then went on its way from the
capital to Christianstad / Kristiinankaupunki.

(b)This second letter, as shown in Fig. 2, is an item from the
correspondence of the noted German amateur archaeologist and
discoverer of the ruins of Troy, Heinrich Schliemann. We can
deduce from the back of the letter that it was despatched from
Calcutta, India, on 10 Feb. 1862 and this is confirmed from the
Type 7 cancellation of that city, reading "B/1" (the "B" stood
for Bengal and the figure "1" for the first post office in that
circle or area).

Addressed to St. Petersburg in Russia, the letter is endorsed
"Via Trieste" at top left. That determined the rate to be paid
which, in this case, was to Alexandria, Egypt. It was made up of
2 annas Indian inland postage to the nearest port, plus a
further 8 annas to Alexandria (see Martin & Blair, p. 36),
where it was to be handed over to the Austrian post office. The
"INDIA PAID" and "P.D." marks have almost certainly been applied
in the same red ink.

The overinked "6" marking in black on the front of the letter at
bottom centre is known to be one of a dozen rate marks struck by
the Austrians at Trieste (= 6 Kreuzer), denoting transit through
but not addressed to the Austrian Empire. The significance of the
large figure "6" in blue crayon on the back is not known. The
letter then went up into Prussia, where it received a manuscript
"2/3" in the characteristic blue ink. Mr. Vandervelde believes
that this split rate referred to 3 Silbergroschen being credited
to the Russians and 2 Silbergroschen to the Prussians. We notice
on the back the rectangular marking of the Berlin Anhalter
Railway Station, with the date 20 March (1862), 8 a.m.-9 a.m.
and, beside it, a manuscript note in ink which looks like a badly
written figure "24" = 24 Pfennig (?) = 2 Silbergroschen (?). The
letter then went on to St. Petersburg.


I I L _














r -r r---~
~ rA
%d~ ( 'j ir'~ *
i ~ *,MF+r IZ,


'1




-A


~* Ia .;*
? '* 'l



I,
.. .- '._: .
; ~ ~ ~ / /-. { ,: .;


t ,' j
*. *. '.


I -- ;



$/
;** ;
*'l //
p 'P
"/


*
t


P i


I-t



4~t ...


I -
'jI'
A


Fig. 2.


I


I


I,


'I

A..
ZK: A
I1


,
r'
-. d









That is about as far as the author can get with these two entire
letters and they demonstrate the complexity of postal charges
before the Universal Postal Union came into being. India joined that
body on 1 July 1876 and this helped greatly to standardise postal
rates. Prior to the UPU, the rates were dependent on agreements
between individual countries. A lot is still not known about all the
factors that came into play during that fascinating period, especially
with regard to the various transit charges on the European continent.
The Prussian split rate designations are particularly interesting and
it is to be hoped that German postal historians will be able to dig
into the archives and come up with the relevant background
information.

In conclusion, every pre-UPU letter was different, as the rates were
also subject to change from time to time. Early British India letters
to the Russian Empire are desirable, as that was an unusual
destination. One may imagine how much rarer would be similar
examples from the French and Portuguese Possessions in India, let
alone from other countries to the Russian Empire.



LIST OF POST OFFICES IN THE JEWISH AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE AS AT 1937.

One of the long-term projects carried out by your Editor during the
summer months was a careful examination of the 300,000-odd names
carried in the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste du Monde", Fourth
Edition, April 1937, as published by the Universal Postal Union at
Berne, Switzerland.

One of the tasks involved in that project was the determination of
the names of the post offices then operating in the Jewish
Autonomous Province of the USSR. It turned out not to be easy, as
the Soviet Union has many thousands of post offices and those in the
province concerned were all lumped in with the others located in the
"Extreme-Orient" region of the RSFSR. The designation "Birobidjan"
was only added for two common place-names VLADIMIROVKA and
VOSKRESENSKOE, to distinguish them from the several other same place-
names listed in other parts of the same "Extreme-Orient" region. A
further common name NIKOLAEVKA was determined by the designation
"Smidovich district"placed after it and known to be part of the
Jewish Province, to distinguish it from the other Nikolaevkas in the
"Extreme-Orient" region. Your Editor found a total of 22 offices:-

Alekseevka Kimkan Radde
Amurzet Lazarevo Samara
Bidzhan Londoko Soyuznoe
Birakan Nadezhdinskoe Stalinskoe
Birobidzhan Nikolaevka Vladimirovka
Blagoslovennoe Novoe Volochaevka
Dezhnevo Pompeevka Voskresenskoe
Ekaterino-Nikol'skoe

Neither NIKOLAEVKA nor VOSKRESENSKOE appear in the 1951 and 1968 UPU
listings and either one may possibly have been a former name for
OBLUCH'E, the second-largest town.in the province. Also, in the list
herewith, the names EKATERINO-NIKOL'SKOE NADEZHDINSKOE & STALINSKOE
are given in the neuter, rather than the later masculine form.


I _






POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS


by Alex Artuchov

ARDATOV (Nizhnii Novgorod Province)

1878(January 13)

21x26.5 mm, lithographed on thin white paper, (0.07mm)or somewhat
thicker paper (0.1-0.12 mm), white gum, three types, 5x5 sheet.


Sett


3 kop. blue, light blue

ing 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 2


' -- I-- I --


15.00


1 2 3 2 3

Main Characteristics of the Three Types
Type 1 Small line under p in ApgaTOB. The horizontal dividing
line in the oval points to the letter q in 3eMcKar.
Type 2 The letters Ap in ApgaTOB are further away from the
central oval. There is no small line under the p.
Type 3 Similar to type 1, but the dividing line points to the
a in 3eMcKan.




Plate Flaw ?




t*




2. 5 kop. red,

Setting


dark red

1 2 3

1 2 3


3.00


3

2

3

3

3


3








Main Characteristics of the Three Types

Type 1- The letter p in ApgaTOB is without the bottom baseline,
no period after Ybsga.
Type 2- The letter p is with a bottom baseline and there is no
period after Ybs3a.
Type 3- The letters Ap in ApgaTOB are nearer to the central oval,
period after Yb3sa, wavy lines after the lower right 5
are broken.
Note:The letter Y differs considerably on the stamps.

Varieties White round spot on the lower left stamp (7th).
Strongly bent tail (hook) on the letter Y in the
word Ybs3a (23rd stamp).

Cancellations: Pen and ink ,cross-wise stroke.


1880

23.5x26.5 mm, lithographed on various grades of writing paper
(0.07 mm), white gum, imperforate, sheet of 6x4 with one additional
stamp at bottom right which is inverted on the 5 kop. stamp only
(purchasers of entire sheets received this 25th stamp free), two
printings.









First Printing (March,1880)
Batonne paper with horizontal lines every 9mm, the 3 kop. stamp
was made from the 5 kop. stamp by changing numerals of value and
resulting in 5 types,which differ in shape and in the position
of the numeral 3.
The 5 kop. stamps do not show sufficient differences to be typed,
except for the 25th stamp in which the numeral 5 has a thin and
bent neck in the left bottom corner (right side up).

Settings
3 kop. 5 kop.


1 2 1 2 1 2

3 4 3 4 3 4


1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12


1 2 111 2 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18


19 20 21 22 23 24I SZ


*


3 14 34 3 4 5


L









RR (12)


3. 3 kop. blue-indigo, dark blue

4. 5 kop. red, light and dark


4.00


Second Printing 1880 (?)
No. 5 on white paper without watermarked lines, No. 6 on squared
paper (4x4 mm), No. 5 made from No. 6 through the change of corner
numerals, 5 types, sheet of 6x4+1 which is inverted only on the sheet
of No. 6.


Settings
3 kop.

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 4 3 4 3 4

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 4 3 4 3 4 5


5. 3 kop. blue-indigo


6. 5 kop. red, light and dark
light blue


5 kop.

3 3 2 1 2 3

1 1 1 1 1 1


Main Characteristics of the Five Types


Type 1- Dot on outline of oval over T in ApAaTOB, nick in foot of
3 in left bottom corner oval, bulge in same oval.
Type 2- Foot of 3 in right bottom corner oval is very near to the
outline of the oval, bulge in inner oval over B in
ApgaToB.


Type 1


Type 2


Type 3- 3 in left bottom corner oval with ball on end of foot.
Type 4- The head of the 3 in the left bottom corner oval is forked,
spot on oval next to curve of 3.
Type 5- Forked foot on 3 in top right corner oval.


Type 3


Type 4


Type 5


3 3 3 3 3 3 E


15.00


8.00
RRR (6)


33


ANININSESKI&M
r^-Oqm
CO









Cancellations Same as on Nos. 1 and 2.


1883

24.5x28 mm; lithographed on several kinds of paper: thin, coarse
greenish paper (0.07 mm thick), thick,coarse greenish paper (0.12
thick), white smooth paper (0.13 mm thick), white coarse paper
(0.1 mm thick), yellowish,smooth paper (0.12 mm thick); white gum
with yellowish particles; imperforated but also privately
perforated 12 ; variety with half of stamp printed over bottom
known; sheet of 4x4 in two settings; two types.


Settings


-3.-


2 2

1 1


7. 3 kop. dark( indigo) blue, light and dark

Main Characteristics of the Two Types


3.00


Type 1 Oval at the left is Imm away from the frame,
horns of the stag are downwards, size: 21ix28 mm, centre
line touches both sides of oval and points to letter 0.
Type 2 The left side of the oval touches the frame,
centre line points to the letter B but doesn't touch the
oval, the horns of the stag are pointed more upwards,
size: 24x2- mm

Cancellations Pen and ink as previously.


Type 1


--Type 2
Type 2


(-&o


1884 (January 1)

16%x23 mm, lithographed on white paper (0.07-0.12 mm), white or
yellowish-brown gum, perforated 13 or 13x12%, also known with
horizontally double or diamond shaped perforations, sheet 10xl0,
stamp No. 8 made out stamp No. 9 through interchange of value,
five types set twice in a horizontal row, composed by the position
of numerals and lettering and differing from each other in this
way.


mm








Setting ( of block of 10, 5x2)

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5


Main Characteristics of the Five Types

Type 1- Irregular white spots over the letters 3E in the word
3EMCK.
Type 2- Tiny green dot to the left of the foot of the letter T
in the word TPH.
Type 3- A tiny green dot under the right vertical stroke in the
letter H and another dot under the vertical stroke of
the letter K in TPH K.
Type 4- Two round green dots above top of numeral 3 in SE corner,
one of which touches the circle outline.
Type 5- There is a green dot under the left side of the horizontal
centre line on the coat of arms, above the hammer head.











8. 3 kop. blue-green 0.50

9. 5 kop. rose 1.00

Cancellations
As for previous issues and after 1885 round 34mm cancellation
in black, blue and dark blue, as illustrated below. Earliest
known usage:No. 8- Feb. 26, 1885 ; No. 9- March 8, 1885.





25 OEB.7 K
&3.


1887 (May ?)
Similar to No. 8 but in a softer colour, smaller corner numerals
and with a period between TPH and K. Size same as previous
issue, lithographed on white paper (0.07 mm), yellowish white gum,
strips unknown, seldom found unused, one type is distinguished
by the position of corner numerals.

10. 3 kop. olive-green and gray-green 10.00
uncancelled RRRR(2)









Cancellations Round postmark as on previous issue, in blue colour,
earliest known usage: May 12, 1887.


1891-93

Similar to previous issue, without a period between TPH and K in
changed colour, lithographed on white paper, perforated 11, sheet
unknown but was probably 10x10, six types differing in shape and


position of corner numerals


First Printing
On white paper (0.08-0.1
in a 3x2 setting.


in three settings, three printings.


mm thick), light gray gum, six types


Setting ( 3


kop. stamps
2 1 2 3


2 3 1 2 3


5 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6

3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

6 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6

1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

4 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6

2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

5 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6

1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

4 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6


12. 3 kop.


blue-green,


light and dark


13. 5 kop. red


2.00

2.00


Main Characteristics of the Six Types


The types can be identified by the differences in the shape and the
position of the corner numerals of value. Some of these differences
are rather difficult to describe.' Some are minor plate flaws which
can be used to identify the six types. These are however, minor
flaws and a magnifying glass may be required to identify them.

Type 1- The numeral 3 in the SE corner is not tipped forward as
much as on the other types.
Type 2- The bottom ball in the numeral 3 in the NE corner has a
point.
Type 3- There are several small breaks in the circle outline in
the SW cornerbetween the 3 and the T.


0


0









Type 4- The thick bottom frameline under the word TPH is damaged
and there are several green spots near it.
Type 5- The bottom ball on the numeral 3 in the NE corner is
pointed and shaped like a comma.
Type 6- There is a break in the circle in the NW corner under the
numeral 3.

Setting (5 kop. stamps)

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

3 3 3 3 3



3 3 3 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3

3 3 3

1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3

3 3 3

*1 2

Note: The transfer block for the 5 kop. value was apparently composed
of four stamps in a 2x2 setting.

Differences in the Five Kop. Stamps

The 5 kop. stamps do not show any distinct types. There are however,
several minor differences which are repeated over and over on the
sheet as noted on the diagram of the setting above. These minor
differences are as follows:

1) The upper left frame corner is open.
2) There is a break in the upper right circle and a kink in the
right frame line.
3) The letter K of KOH flows into the period at the bottom. The
right hand frame line is thicker towards the middle.


Trial Printings
On yellowish paper (0.07 mm thick), with and without gum, with
periods in the middle and edges, no period after the letter K.

3 kop. black
3 kop. dark green
3 kop. dark red






37









Cancellations

a. Beginning in 1891 the round postmark described for the previous
issues was always struck in a manner such that the date always
appears on the envelope and not on the stamp.

b. Small round markings (30 mm), in blue, blue-black or in a
combination of violet and blue-black, the two markings
illustrated as Figs. 1 and 2 contain the coat of arms and stag
in the middle with the following inscription: BbKCYHCKOrO
BOlOCT.(Horo) HPAB. (eHia) APAIAT.(oBcKoro) yb3.( (a)
HHIEr. (opoAcKog) rYB. (epHiH). In translation: (the) Vikunsk
locality of Ardatov district of Nozhnii Novgorod province.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2





':71





Second Printing ( 1892 ?)

Similar to first printing, yellowish-white paper (0.08 mm thick),
Yellowish-white gum, same types as on previous printing but with
changed setting, largest known multiple is a block of 10 (5x2)
with a setting as shown below.

Setting

Block of 10 Strip of 5

3 3 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 1 3 3

6 4 5 6 5


14. 3 kop. yellow-green 15.00

Cancellations

Previous round date stamp in blue or gray-green colour.


Third Printing (1893 ?)

Similar to previous printings, yellowish-white paper (0.0mm thick),
yellowish-white gum, same types as in previous printing withe the
types probably being the same, largest known block is of 8 (4x2)
with setting as shown below, the sheet edges are imperforate.









( block of 8 )


1 2 3 2

4 5 6 5


15. 3 kop. emerald green
uncancelled


10. 00
RRRR (3)


Cancellations
Previous round date stamp in black or blue colour.

1894
Similar to previous issue, the numeral 3 of value has a straight top
stroke, lithographed, on white paper (0.1 mm thick), brownish-
yellow gum, perforated llaxll, sheet 10xl0, distance between 9th
and 10th vertical columns is 4-4.5 mm, all the others are 3.5 mm ,
known horizontally imperforate, three types set horizontally which
differ in shape and position of corner numerals.


Setting


16. 3 kop.

17. 5 kop.


1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2


gray-green, light and dark

yellowish-rose, light rose


The Three Types
The head of the corner numeral 3 in NW corner of each type is
quite different.

S Type 1 Type 2 Type 3


1.00

2.00


Setting










Cancellations
a. A circular (27 mm) postmark in greenish-blue, ultramarine and
violet, inscribed: "APRATOBCKAH H53BH. 3EMCK. IHOTA HH). rYB. ,
with the date in the centre in three lines (Fig. 1).

b. Circular postmark (34 mm) with the Imperial eagle in the centre,
inscribed: HAJIOBCK. BOIOCTHOE IPABJIEHHE APgATOBCK. Yb3. HH)KEFOP.
ryB." .


Fig. 1 Fig. 2





1898 1 8 .-









:iillll I iii ll ii(i o I aifl gi ll 14l1,411 f 111

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT
.....................................


BY THE TIME THAT DECEMBER 1982 ROLLS AROUND, IT WILL
BE THE 125TH. ANNIVERSARY OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE
FIRST POSTAGE STAMP OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY WOULD LIKE
TO COMMEMORATE THIS IMPORTANT OCCASION BY PUBLISHING
IN ITS JOURNAL "THE POST-RIDER" ARTICLES RELATING IN
ANY WAY TO THAT ROLLS ROYCE OF CLASSIC POSTAGE STAMPS,
NAMELY RUSSIA No. 1.

S OUR READERS ARE THEREFORE CORDIALLY INVITED TO BEGIN
PREPARING WORK ON THIS SUBJECT AND TO SUBMIT ARTICLES
TO US AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE
PUBLICATION OF SUCH MATERIAL WILL ALSO BRING
CONSIDERABLE PRESTIGE TO THE AUTHORS CONCERNED.

lt m oftl fi~ f.-di' .'ttl !* i m iS S. *,, -t,' **i 5:4k li tt. i t it tt'. t uI i..i4tti,4Lg 4i5. ; .








ALEKSANDROVSKOE DE KASTRI


by John V. Woollam.

The Rossica Journal, Nos. 46/47 and 48 contained articles about
Kurt Adler's discovery of this rare postmark on the island of
Sakhalin. His cover was from the British warship H.M.S. Edgar and
postmarked 22 July 1895, and 23rd. August at Nagasaki, Japan. I
came across a second example some years later; a postcard from a
German warship. This is now in the collection of Dr. R. Casey of
England. Recently, I acquired a third such item (please see the
illustrations herewith; the well known dealer, Mr. Angus Parker,
of Argyll Etkin Ltd., of London, England, once described me as
having "sticky fingers" !).

This is a postcard written on 18th. Aug. 1899 from "Castries",
which is the spelling in contemporary atlases. It was postmarked
at Aleksandrovskoe de Kastri on 6th. & 7th. August; the latter
with the year date plug inserted back to front. It travelled
north to the port of Nikolaevsk, Maritime Province, where it was
postmarked on the 8th. & 12th. (all the Russian dates are, of
course, in the Old Style, which was 12 days behind the Gregorian
Calendar in the 19th. century). From there, it went by ship to
Nagasaki, arriving on 7th. September. Can any reader translate
the message on the card ? Surviving mail seems to consist of
naval correspondence from ships visiting the port in the summer
months.





-;.. :@ OTK. iHCTMO -:


... .,. "



I f^4 ,
Y .. .. ...
OTH.,





\r. / . 7 -
; .. .. . ;S . .. . .











-, -. ,'. ." ,.
e r
Federal Republic .The message is written'




























1 Castries (Sibirien), 18.VIII.99.
L. M. u. Schw.

,erh d. haben wir in den Baracuta Bay gele




u Post geht (5 Dies ist j alls












Grund dafr, dass ich Euern Brief so spt empfangen habe. Das.


now under Polish jurisdiction. Therabe isch anotuch in der PZeitung gelesen,
miFederal Republic of Germany, near Hamburg. The message is written.....
in thavarie Masold Gothinist, resp. Schiffch sfthe Editor .....gehefinds difficult to ch
read, evebin icwhen written beautifully. During hisesselbe vonisit to Southern 9
Germany this summerden wir jedenfalls unsere Heithat present-day Germise antretens also
Bittschools. As far as can be decipntw Mit herzlied, the text is as follows:-
.L. M. u. Schw.-
















m(Dear Mother and Sister, I received your letter of 20 June on 15th.
of erhalten. Bis zum 14 d. Mts. haben wir in den Baracuta Bay untigelegen
14th.und keine Post gehabt (5 Wochenlang)eks. That is sthe reason why I have
Ground dafyour letter so late. I have read in the newspaper about
UnEDITORIAL COMME: The card is addressed t auh in der Zeit unlea ,
es stand er Polish jurisdiction. There )to go fro h ere still to a
Federalnach einem russischen Hafen und dann nach Hakodmburg. The message is written





Russian harbin the old Gothic script, which the Editor finds difficultthen to







Hakodajetzt bin ich noch gesund ulnd hoffe desselbpe you are the same.
Nine Monate, dann werden wir jedenfall enter on our homeward voyage. Please
read, een w. Antw. itr heetilly rig his, Carl .
ofGermany this summer, have foubeen lying in the Barrauesent-da Bay until thealso
14find this scriptand hardd no mail for 5 weeks. That is nothe reason why I have
















Further comments on deciphering the missing words would help.

42
42








CRIMEAN TARTAR POSTAL HISTORY


by Andrew Cronin.

The Crimean Peninsula, with its beautiful scenery, fertile soil
and pleasant climate, has probably been inhabited since the dawn of
history. The ancient Greeks established colonies there in the 6th.
century B.C. and their presence is reflected in some of the place
names that exist to this very day. Some examples: EVPATORIYA means
"plants", MISKHOR = "middle town", SEVASTOPOL' ="venerable city",
SIMFEROPOL' = "collective city" and FEODOSIYA (Theodosia) = "gift
of God".

The Mohammedan Tartars invaded the north of the peninsula in the
13th. century A.D. and the Crimea was finally conquered in 1475,not
long after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks. With
the continued consolidation of the Russian Empire under Catherine
the Great, the last Crimean Khan or prince was forced to abdicate
in 1783.

Although the Tartars were allowed to retain some of their
privileges, a residue of resentment had always remained against the
Russians. Many Tartars migrated to the Turkish Empire throughout
the 19th. century. In the fluid situation just after the October
Revolution, the Crimean Tartars set up a "Milli Fbrqa" (Milli Firka
or "National Party") and held a"qurultai" or parliament at
Bakhchisarai from 10th. to 13th. December 1917. A Tartar government
was established and headed by Celibican Cel Bei, the Grand Mufti of
Tavrida province (this Imperial province took in the Crimean
Peninsula and the adjoining districts of Berdyansk and Melitopol'
on the Ukrainian "mainland"; see Fig. 1). This government, with its
capital at Aq-Mescid (Simferopol') did not last long and the
Crimea became completely Soviet by the beginning of February 1918.

Following upon the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the 52nd. Corps of the
German Army took Perekop on 18 April 1918, Simferopol' on 22nd.,
Sevastopol' on 1st. May and Kerch' a day later. As with the tragic
26 Commissars from Baku, the leaders of the Crimean Soviet Govt.
Akimochkin, Kolyadenko, Slutskii, Tarbatskii and others were
executed at Alushta by the Tartars. The Germans remained in the
Crimea until the end of November 1918 (field post items from this
period would be very desirable items) and the White forces then
took over. With the tide of the Civil War eventually swinging to
the Red Army, Perekop was stormed on 12 Nov. 1920 and Kerch' fell
four days later. By the way,Admiral A.V.Kolchak was a Crimean Tartar.

The Crimean ASSR came into being as part of the RSFSR on 18 October
1921, with a decree signed by V. I. Lenin (see Fig. 2 for a map of
this republic). However, there were still problems with Tartar
nationalism and armed outbreaks took place in July-August 1928
under the leadership of Vali Ibrahim. An uneasy peace was restored,
helped by the fact that the Tartars had cultural autonomy,
including instruction in their own language.

These advantages were apparently not enough since, as a result of
the German advance into the Soviet Union in 1941/42, the Crimean
Tartars gained the dubious distinction of being the most willing
collaborators during the Nazi occupation. There was an especially









Fig.l: MAP OF THE IMPERIAL TAVRIDA PROVINCE,TAKEN FROM BROCKHAUS & EPHRON ENCYCL.,SPB,VOL.32, 1901.


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.Kubb-AN RENAMING OF TARTAR PLACES. TAKEN FROM GR.SOV.ENCYCL.,2nd.EDN. VOL.23, 1953.








nasty internment camp at Kerch', guarded by the Tartars and where
thousands of Soviet POWs and Jews perished. Quite a few Tartars
also served in the Gestapo and local gendarmerie under the Germans.

The peninsula was finally liberated on 13 May 1944 and the Crimean
ASSR officially dissolved. The area was demoted to a province of
the RSFSR and practically all the Tartar settlements renamed with
new Slav equivalents (see the map in Fig. 3). This province was
transferred in 1954 to the jurisdiction of the Ukrainian SSR and
that remains the situation to date. Soon after liberation, the
entire Tartar population was deported as a punishment en masse to
new locations in Central Asia. This is not so drastic as it seems,
since the peoples in the Central Asian republics are mostly also
of Turkic stock and thus speak languages readily understood by the
Crimean Tartars.

There were, of course, other peoples deported by the Soviet
authorities, mainly for collaboration during the German advance into
the Northern Caucasus (Balkarians, Chechen and Ingush). The Crimean
Tartars have been in the news from time to time, as their cause has
been taken up by some dissidents, both within and without the USSR.
A recent report in 1981 stated that three Crimean Tartars, Mustafa &
Reshat Dzhemilev and Rolan Kadyev had been imprisoned again for
their political activities. The general impression in the Western
World has been that the Crimean Tartars have been condemned to
perpetual exile, in contrast to the Balkarians, Chechen and Ingush,
who have been officially pardoned and allowed to return to their
districts in the Northern Caucasus.

Strictly speaking, the Crimean Tartars have the legal right to move
from Central Asia to any other part of the USSR, provided that the
local authorities would assign them housing there. Some Tartars have
managed to do so. However, public feeling among the Jews, Russians
and Ukrainians living in the Crimea has understandably remained so
high that the local authorities there will never allocate
accommodation to the Tartars. What the latter are now agitating for
is an official decree, pardoning them and directing the provincial
administration in the Crimea to assign housing to them. It seems safe
to say that that will not happen in the foreseeable future.

X X X X X X X

Turning now to postal examples of the Tartar presence in the Crimea,
it is interesting to collect items from the Imperial period, taking
care to weed out the offices in the Tavrida province that were to be
found on the mainland above the Perekop isthmus. The Imperial name
of the province is of classic origin and refers to the Taurians, who
were the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Crimean Peninsula,
living around the coastal mountains.

Please refer to Fig. 4 for an Imperial cover sent from the well-
known office of KERCH' ENIKOL'. The second word in that particular
place name was the Russified expression for the Tartar phrase JENI
KALE = New Fortress. The item shown here is a registered postal
stationery envelope with an impressed 7-kop. die and two 7-kop.
adhesives affixed to pay the rate to Italy. Sent on 2 March 1880,
Old Style, the cover is backstamped again at Kerch' Enikol' in a
larger type of c.d.s., dated a day later and with an ornament at foot.








It passed through the border office at Volochisk on 7th.
was received in Milano on 24th. March, New Style.

A .-K/ e.*rC t IF


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Fig. 4.


4 V


March and


S


Iwo





yr 4


There was naturally a carry-over of Imperial markings into the early
Soviet period, as can be seen from the card shown below from KURMAN-
KEMEL'CHI 3.12.24 in Fig. 5:-


S.. y .-; ,o o ,oAl
S .1 2 Zi
"- -aio I n e-' i.:,AJd k r |7:t.,,



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S








With the foundation of the Crimean ASSR in 1921, bilingual markings
started coming into use, with the place-name at top in Russian and
the Crimean Tartar equivalent at bottom in Arabic lettering. Kindly
refer to Fig. 6 for a card from Simferopol', 2.4.27, with the
Arabic version reading SIMFIROPOL and to Fig. 7 for another example
from Yalta, on a loose stamp dated 23.2.29.


Fig. 6.


SPOSTN I< A PIT 0

*" (C Z/. 'l- P" -
Kyaa: ..... ...,. t -t9 --

( n |fv 0,.R5lll r/ .Ule l r i. F.I O 1 p. C j 11 .I 1, J *ll ,, .1 J
. . . ... ... .
(laHoH.t.II"ue CLb. r .O ,lD I .. .- .. ] --_] -J I .;..Ba-- __.
Koxy: ... .. j ^c .


Many other offices should certainly exist, but strikes must be rare
as such markings were only applied for a few years in the 1920s.

The reasons for utilising the Arabic script were mainly cultural and
religious. The Arabic alphabet is basically a form of shorthand and
is a perfect vehicle for writing Arabic. However, it is short on
vowels, while all the languages in the Turkic family have an
extensive and complicated range, based on a vital principle called
"vowel harmony". As a result, a "Unified Latin Turki Alphabet" was
devised in 1929 by Soviet philologists to transcribe all the
languages in the Turkic group. The letters that differ from English
in pronunciation or usage are as follow:-

B : written as the upper case form also in the lower case, to
distinguish it from:

b : equivalent to the Russian "bI", or as the English "y" in "pity".

C : same sound as the English "J".

: same sound as the English "CH".

J : same sound as the English consonant "Y".

6 : same sound as the German "'".

Q : hard "k", pronounced back in the throat.
S: same sound as "sh" as in "shout".
Y : same sound as the German "V". 49


JITA KPblM r
23.2.29.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.


HI BTOI crOpOHe nnullrTC rToibo aIPEc.









Another letter was created: "0J", to represent a soft "g" uttered
back in the throat.

The April 1937 issue of the "Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste du
Monde", Fourth Edition, issued by the U.P.U. in Berne, Switzerland,
listed 272 post offices functioning in the Crimean ASSR. To
facilitate the recognition of the bilingual markings introduced in
the Soviet period, the names are given hereunder in both the Russian
and native equivalents. The latter were not exclusively Tartar, as
we shall now see:-


ABle
Hacb-Atman
Hacb-IBram
Hacb-Mende
Hacb-Mugqai


Agai Agai
Aibary AiBarb
Aidar-Gazy Aidar-Gazb
Ak-Sheikh(R.Dzhankoi)Aq-Seih(Canqei
rajonasb).
Ak-Sheikh(R.Ishun) Aq-Seih(Isun
rajonasb)
Akkodzha Aq-Qoca
Ak-Mechet Aq-Meqet
Ak-Monai Aq-Monai
Ak-Chora Aq-qora
Albat AlBat
Aleksandrovka Aleksandrovka
Alibai AlbBai
Alikesh Albqeg
Alma Alma
Alma-Tarkhan Alma-Tarhan
Alushta Alusta
Alushta Rabochii Ugolok
Alupka Alupqa
Alupka-Sarai Alupqa-Sarai
Ana-Eli Ana-Eli
Angara Angara
Argin Argbn
Arma-Eli Arma-Eli
Armyansk Armjansk
Artek Artbq
Artlan Artlan
Autka Autqa
Auz-Kirk Auz-Qbrq
Avel Avbl
Bagerovo Bagerovo
Baidary Baidarb
Tabak-Sovkhoz Tytyn Sovhozu
Bakhchi-Eli(Raion Bahcb-Eli(Aq-
Simferopol'skii) Mescid rajonasb)
Bakhchi-Eli(Raion Bahcb-Eli(Qarasu-
Karasubazarskii) Bazar rajonasb)
Bakhchisarai Bahcbsarai
Baksy Baksb
Balaklava Balaqlava
Bazarchik Bazarybq


Ablesh
Adzhi-Atman
Adzhi-Ibram
Adzhi-Mende
Adzhi-Mushkai


Besharan
Beshu-Eli
Beshu-Eli-Elyak

Beisu-Kovche
Sovkhoz
Belbek
Bii-Orlyuk
Biyuk-Yashlav
Biyuk-Koban
Biyuk-Lambat
Biyuk-Onlar
Biyuk-Ozenbash
Biyuk-Toksaba
Blukhendorf
Bogai
Bogdanovka
Bogemka
Boi-Oglu-Kipchak

Bokal-Pristan
Bolek-Adzhi
Borangar
Borchekrak
Budanovka
Bulganak(R.Kerch)

Bulganak(Raion
Simferopol'skii)
Bromstroi
Chekur-Eli
Chekur-Koyash
Cherkez-Tobai
Chistenskoe
Chongurchi
Chorgun
Churbash
Dauldzhar
Degermenkoi
Derekoi
Dzhurmen (R.
Dzhankoiskii)
Dzhurmen (R.
Ishunskii)
Dzhambuldy-Komrat

Dzhankoi


Besaran
Besu-Eli
Besu-Eli-
Eljaq
Beisu-Qovge
Sovhozu
BelBeq
Bii-Orljuq
Byjyq-Jaglav
Byjyq-QoBan
Byjyq-LamBat
Byjyq-Onlar
Byjyq-ezenbas
Byjyq-ToqsaBa
Bluchendorf
Bogai
Bogdanovqa
Bogemqa
Boi-Oqlu-
Qipcaq
Boqal Limanb
Boleq-Hacb
Boranqar
Borceqraq
Budanovqa
Bulganaq(Qbrg
rajonasb)
Bulganaq (Aq-
Mescid rajon)
Bromstroi
Cequr-Eli
qequr-Qojas
Cerqez-TpBai
Cistensqoje
Conqurgi
Corqun
CurBas
Daulcar
Degermenqei
Dereqoi
Curmen(Canqei
rajonasb)
Curmen(Igun
rajonasb)
CamBuldb-
Qomrat
Canqei








Dzheilav
Dzhelal
Dzhepar-Berdy
Dzholchak
Dzhuma-Eli
Dzhurchi
Dobrushino
Dolossy
Donuzlav
Dorte
Dulat
Elbuzly
Eltigen
Emel'yanovka
Eni-Kale
Esen-Eki
Evpatoriya
Zernosovkhoz
Feodosiya
Foros
Foti-Saly
Fraidorf(Jewish)
Friling
Frunzovka
Gurzuf
Gryadushchii Mir
Grigor'evka
Ichki
Ikor
Inkerman
Ishun
Islam-Terek
Iz'yumovka
Kadysh
Kambary
Kapsikhor
Karadzha (Raion
Ak-Mechet)
Karadzha (Raion
Dzhankoiskii)
Kara-Kiyat
Kara-Naiman
Karankut
Karasan
Karasubazar
Karatobe
Kacha
Katerlez
Kazantyp-Kosa
Kekeneiz
Kenegez
" Sovkhoz
Kerch'
Kezy
Khadzhibei
Kharaks
Kheirus
Kishlak


Ceilav
Celal
Cbpar-Berdi
Colgaq
Cuma-Eli
Curgi
Dobrusino
Dolossb
Donuzlav
Derte
Dulat
Elbuzli
Eltigen
Jemeljanovqa
Jeni-Qale
Esen-Eqi
?
?-Tane Sovhozu
?
Foros
Fotb-Salb
Fraidorf
Frthling
Frunzovqa
Qurzuf
?
Grigorjevqa
Iyqi
Iqer
In-Qerman
Ipun
Islam-Tereq
Izjumovqa
Qadb
QamBarb
Qapsihor
Qaraca (Aq-
Meget rajon.)
Qaraca(Canqei
rajonasb)
Qara-Qbjat
Qara-Naiman
Qaranqut
Qarasan
QarasuBazar
Qaratobe
Qaca
Qaterlez
Qazantbp-Qosa
Qeqeneiz
Qeneqez
Sovhozu
Qbrc
Qezi
HacbBei
Haraks
Heirus
Qbslaq


Kiyanly Q
Kiyat Qb
Kirgiz-Kazak Qj
Kirk Q1
Kirk-Ishun Ql
Kitai Qj
Kiziltash Ql
Kizil-Chonrav Qh
Kodzhambak Qc
Koi-Asan Qe
Kokei Qe
Kokozy Qc
Koktebel Qc
Kolai Qc
Komintern Kc
Sovkhoz
Kommuna Krasn- Qb
ya Zvezda
Koreiz Qe
Kudaigul Qu
Kular-Kipchak Qu
Kulyoba Qu
Kunan Qu
Kurman- Qu
Kemel'chi
Kuchuk Uzen Qy
Kutlak Qu
Kozy Qo
Krasnyi Qb
Khlopkovod
Larindorf La
(Jewish)
Lenindorf Le
Leninskoe Le
Libknekhtovka Li
Livadiya Li
Lyuksemburg Lu
Mamut-Sultan Ma
Mangus Ma.
Marfovka Ma
Mariental Ma
Marino Ma
Maryano Ma
Mar'yevka Ma
Massandra Ma
Mazanka Ma
Mekenz'evye Gory
Merezhino Me
Mikhailovka Mi:
Miskhor Mi:
Mitrofanovka Mi
Molbai Mo
Molodaya Gvardiya
Monastyrskoe
Mukhalatka Mu]
Mussoli Mu
Naidorf Nel
Naiman Na


)janlb
jat
irgiz-Qazaq
rq
rq-Isun
itai
)zbltas
)zbl-gonrav
camBaq
,i-Asan
gqei
qozb
qteBel
)lai
mintern Sovhozu

>zbl Jbldbz
Komunasb
>reiz
daigul
lar-Qbpqaq
ljoBa
nan
,rman-Qemelgi

,yq Uzen
tlaq
zb
zbl Pamuq
Ciftiisi
rindorf

nindorf
ninskoe
ebknecht
vadija
xemburg
hmut-Sultan
ngus
rfovqa
rental
rino
rjano
rjevqa
ssandra
zanqa

rezhino
hailovqa
shor
trofanovqa
lbai


halatqa
ssolb
udorf
iman








Nemetskii Baryn Deutsch-Baryn
Nikitskii Sad


Novo-Burulcha
Novo-Nikolaevka
Novyi Sarabuz
Novyi Chembai
Obekchi
Okrech
Oktyabr'dorf
Oktyabr'feld
Otesh
Otuzy
Pavlovka
Peretsfeld
Rotendorf
Rykovo
Sably
Sadyr
Sadyr-Bogai
Sai
Saki
Salyn
Saraimin
Saurchy
Sary-Gol
Sasyk-Sivash
Seit-Eli
Seitler
Semisotka
Sem'Kolodozei
Sergeevka
Sevastopol'
-Gollandiya
Sevmekich
Shavkhal
Shekh-Mamai
Shiban
Shumy
Simeiz
Simferopol'
""Tabaksovkhoz
""Zernosovkhoz


Jeni-Burulca
Jeni-Niqolaevqa
Jeni-SaraBuz
Jeni- emBai
eBeqgi
eqrey
Oktoberdorf
Oktoberfeld
etes
Otuzb
Pavlovqa
Peretsfeld
Rotendorf
Rbqovo
SaBlb
Sadbr
Sadbr-Bogai
Sai
Saqb
Salbn
Saraimin
Saurgb
Sarb-Gel
Sasbq-Sbva
Seit-Eli
Seitler
Semisotqa
Jedi Quju
Sergejevqa
Aq Jar
"Gollandija
Sevmeqig
gavhal
Seh-Mamai
SbBan
Sumb
Simeiz
Aq Mescid
""Tytyn Sovhozu
""Tane Sovhozu


Skasiev-Fontan
Smidovichi
Sudak
Sovkhoz Krasnyi
Spat
Stalinshtadt
Starye Lezy
Staryi Burnak
Staryi Karantin
Staryi Krym
Tabuldy
Taganash
Takyl-Dzhabanak
Tarkhanlar
Tashkui
Tashluk-Kipchak
Tensu
Terekli-Sheikh-
Eli
Terekli-Konrad
Tishi
Togaily
Tokulchak
Tomak
Topalovka
Totman
Tsyurikhtal
Tubinstitut
Ulu-Saly
Urkusta
Uskunt
Uzun-Ayak
Vasil'evka
Vasil-Sarai
Vilor
Vladislavovka
Voinka
Voyo-Nova
Yalta
Zolotoi Plyazk
Zuya


Sqasjev-qesmesi
Smidovigi
Sudaq
Sovhoz Qbzbl
Spat
Stalinstadt

Esqi Burnaq
Esqi Qarantbna
Esqi Qrbm
TaBuldb
Tagana
Taqbl-CaBanaq
Tarhanlar
Tagqei
TaSluq-Kbpqaq
Tensu
Tereqli-Seih-Eli

Tereqli-Qonrad
Tigi
Togailb
Toqulgaq
Tomaq
Topalovqa
Totman
Zirichtal
Tubinstitut
Ulu-Salb
Urqusta
Ysqynt
Uzun-Ajaq
Vashljevqa
Vasbl-Sarai
Vblor
Vladbslavovqa
Voinka
Vojo-Nova
Jalta
Altbn Qumsal
Zuja


As some of the Tartar names are unusual, a Tartar-English glossary is
now given hereunder:-


Ajak
Alma
Aq
Bah9b
Byjyq
Can
Ceilan
Cuma
Degermen
Dere
Eqi
Esqi
Gel


foot
apple
white
garden
big
life
gazelle
Friday
mill
valley
crop
old
lake


In
Jar
Jedi
Jeni
Jesen
Mescid
Onlar
O clu
Qale
Qara
Qaraca
Qbrq
Qbzbl


den
precipice
seven
new
healthy
small mosque
they
son
fortress
black
deer
forty
red


Qerman
Qoca
Quju
Salb
Sarai
Sarb
Su
Tarhan
Tarhanlar
Tas
Tytyn
Ulu
Uzun


fortress
big, old
water well
Tuesday
palace
yellow
water
orchard
orchards
stone
tobacco
great
long








According to the statistics for the year 1936, the population of the
Crimean ASSR at that time was 875,100 persons, of whom 43.5% were
Russians, 23.1% Tartars,10% Ukrainians, 7.4% Jews, 5.7% Germans and
10.3% Greeks and other minorities. In other words, the Tartars were
not the dominant ethnic group in the area. It will have been noticed
that the list of post offices also shows place-names of German and
Jewish origin. The systematic organisation of agricultural
resettlement of Jews from the Pale of Settlement to the Crimea began
in 1923 and, by the year 1936, the number of immigrants had reached
24,012 souls. A Jewish National District was established at
Larindorf and there were further communities set up in the areas of
Evpatoriya, Fraidorf, Dzhankoi and Simferopol'. In short, the
relevant bilingual markings should also exist from this period for
the German and Jewish districts.

It is interesting to note in passing that the 3-kop. ---
value of the Soviet Ethnographic set issued from
April to July 1933 featured the Crimean Tartars
(see Fig. 8). With the dissolution of the Crimean
ASSR and the subsequent deportations, this stamp was
omitted from the post war editions of the Soviet
stamp catalogues and it was only restored in the
last 1974 issue under No. 413. Fig. 8.

In conclusion, three examples are given of the bilingual Russian-
Latin Alphabet markings. Fig. 9 shows that the Tartar name for
Gurzuf was spelt as QURZUF, while Figs. 10 & 11 demonstrate that
there was confusion in spelling the Tartar name for Sevastopol'.
The 1931 card in Fig. 10 gives it as AK JAR, while the 1936 cover in
Fig. 11 has it as AQ-JAR. Both names mean "White Precipice".

Further notes on any of the foregoing data would be welcomed.


* 4.

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r ,....,l i .' .,: .. : -
417 ""'j~~lrl


Fig. 10.


j ifff~, 1--I:2. <"



ri



0 all


'-U--
J\V ^.c ^''


("'V c2
<5^ JL-CdL .


~ lA' cI.

.-4,0
Is -


Fig. 11.


fnOlrTOBAlR KiTAPFT'"I 9, -, ; r. .. .
t. i4-
\ d:~~,\" 1\


S


S






















S


- -- --


i








MANUSCRIPT DOT AND NUMERAL CANCELLATIONS


by Alex.Artuchov.

It is the opinion of this writer that there are dot and numeral
cancellations which lie outside the standard format of numerals,
surrounded by a geomoetric pattern of dots. These are the so-
called "manuscript" or, more simply put, handwritten dot and
numeral cancellations.

The first subject item, illustrated in Fig. 1, was acquired by this
writer several years ago and was immediately included as part of
his dot and numeral collection. The item is a copy of Scott No. 8,
with a poorly written number which can as easily be interpreted to
be a No. 51 as it can be interpreted to be a No. 81. While observing
a marvellous exhibit of the Kingdom of Poland at CAPEX-'78", the
writer noticed an example similar to Fig. 1, but presented as a
Polish "target" cancellation. The exhibitor, Mr. M. A. Bojanowicz,
had a point. Fig. 1 could just as easily have been a Polish "target"
type as a dot-and-numeral cancellation. Last spring, with the
acquisition of the item in Fig. 2, the writer was at last able to
offer concrete evidence that there is indeed such a thing as a
manuscript dot-and-numeral cancellation. There is a clearly legible
No. 498 shown in Fig. 2. In view of the fact that Polish "target"
cancellations were only numbered from 1 to 345, then a No. 498 must
be a dot-and-numeral of either the rectangular or truncated
triangle type.

While the reason for the usage of the manuscript dot-and-numeral
cancellations is not definitely known, the writer does a couple of
theories to postulate. The first of these relates to the time lag
between the compulsory date of application and the actual arrival
of the canceller. In accordance with this theory, the date fixed by
the corresponding Postal Circular for the usage of one of the six
types of the dot-and-numeral cancellations may have preceded the
actual arrival of the canceller at certain localities. The
Postmaster, being a practical sort of a fellow, could have complied
with the statutory requirement by applying handwritten numbers in
the interim. Another equally possible theory is one of defect upon
arrival, or of damage through prolonged usage of the canceller.
Accordingly, there would again be a period when an actual canceller
would not be available because of repairs and an alternate method
of applying the numeral by hand would have had to be utilised.

While there may be other equally good, if not better, theories to
explain the reason for, and origin of, dot-and-numeral cancellations
of the manuscript type, it is the opinion of the writer that such
examples should be considered as legitimate dot-and-numeral cancels.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2.








MORE ABOUT THE VOLGA GERMANS.


Dr. A. H. Wortman, Enfield, Middlesex, England.

The piece on the Volga Germans caught my interest. A hurried search
of my material drew a blank, except for a POW card, a photocopy of
which I enclose. The postmark is that of one of the VOL. PRAV.
(Volostnoe Pravlenie or District Administration) villages and is
unfortunately unreadable. The card was sent on 3rd. Jan. 1916 and
addressed to Munich in Germany. The sender identifies himself on
the back as "Kriegsgefangener Franz Strobl, Wolai (Wolga?),
Hussenbach (Dobrinen), Gouv. Samara, Station Grasni Kut, Parake
No. 45, Russland". The writer was obviously referring to Barrack
No. 45 at Krasnyi Kut, the nearest station to Hussenbach. It seems
most humane that the Imperial Govt. would have placed German POWs
in the German-speaking Volga district The various dates were
probably put on by the German postal service. I doubt whether
"Liebe Sophie" ever got her card.




A,1""./ ,..,- .









Rev. L. L. Tann, Sutton, Surrey, England.
1,* ,,


these interesting VOKZAL ovals, many of which must be very scarce.






Rev. L. L. Tann, Sutton, Surrey, England.

Re the article on the Volga Germans, I can advise the existence of
the later oval "VOKZ." type of postmark for the post office at the
railway station in URBACH. The serial letter is "a" and the marking
is dated 17 Feb. 1911. A lot of work still remains to be done on
these interesting VOKZAL ovals, many of which must be very scarce.
Readers will notice from "The Post-Rider" No. 7, p. 57 that I had
already featured another card of approximately the same period
(actually 7 June 1912)with the unusual marking for TPO No. 158.
That card also originated from a German-speaking district, not far
from the Volga-German area and was also addressed to Pastor Konig's
Medicine Co. at Frankfurt-on-Main. It is interesting to speculate
as to the response the good pastor got in advertising his wares in
the German-speaking areas of the Russian Empire '






'-"-~~~C~ -~l''rrrrr~~


*1~


clMIPHrLIHO ur! Th.r POC H.
UNION POST.\ tirA1 TJ WS


C6 IIl' T !ill1 ll,.I -IAl

'. s/ .. ... ....l^ .t /. ^ M A:.:


/



-3. 5~


e~r4i'I"I'fl1iil.Ir4eM


S-_ : /'. 1


,q


' '"'vf' /mm ".


-I I.-


e It if




C2!r~ rA..rr/r


Map of the Volga River
districts from North
to South from Syzran
to Kamyshin, as taken
from the Baedeker
Guide to Russia for
the year 1902. It is
reproduced here for
the convenience of our
readers, as it takes
in a large part of
what was to become the
Volga German ASSR.


~1
1
I








Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Ont., Canada.


The writer spent most of his leisure time in the summer months at
the magnificent Public Library in Toronto, examining on an inter-
library loan the two volumes of the 4th. Edition of the
"Dictionnaire des Bureaux de Poste du Monde", issued in April, 1937
by the Universal Postal Union in Berne, Switzerland. That involved
the checking of about 300,000 place-names, including a fair number
from the Saratov province of the USSR of obvious German origin. In
other words, no offices were listed under the designation of the
Volga-German ASSR and the ones belonging to that latter area had
to be laboriously cross-checked. The names were given in the Russian
spelling and the German versions have been added where necessary.
The information set out below is probably about as close as we will
ever get to an official listing of the post offices in the Volga-
German ASSR, as at 1937 :-


Akhmat
Anisovka
Baltser
Bazel'
Beidek
Bezymyanna
Brabander
Danilovka
(Zolotoe
Dengof
Dittel'
Dreikhpits
Dyakovka
Ekgeim
Engels
""Beffabri
Erlenbakh
""Kirpichn
Zavod
""Myaso-
kombinat
F&dorovka
Frank
Frankraikh
Frezental
Gebel'
Gmelinskay
Gnadenflyu
Goffental
Grimm
Gukk
Gukkertal
Gussenbakh
""Konservo
zavod
Ilovatka
Ivanovka
Kamenka
Kippental
Krasnyi Ku
"MTS
Krasnyi


Achmat
Anisowka
Balzer
Basel
Beidek
lya
Brabander
Danilowka
Region)
Dennhof
Dittel
Dreichpitz
Djakowka
Eckheim
Engels
ka ""Rindfabrik (?)
Erlenbach
yi ""Ziegelstein-
fabrik
""Fleischkombinat

Fedorowka
Frank
Frankreich
Fresental
Gebel
a Gmelinskaja
ir Gnadenflur
Hoffental
Grimm
Hukk (?)
Hukkertal
Hussenbach
""Konservenfabrik

Ilowatka
Iwanowka
Kamenka
Kippental
it Krasnyi Kut
MTS
Roter


Tekstilshchik Textilarbeiter
58


Krasnyi Yar Nemetskii
Krasnyi Yar Russkii
Kratske
Kukkus
Laub
Lepekhinskaya
Lipovka
Lokh
Mariental
Marksshtadt
Messer
Millersfeld
Mius
Mokrous
Mordovo
Morgentau
Nakhoi
Neudengof
Neu-Gussenbakh
Neu-Valter
Nidermanzhu
Nizhnyaya Bannovka
Nizhnyaya Pokrovka(?)
Norka
Novo-Pokrovka (?)
Pallasovka
Pokrovsk (?)
"Lesozavod
Voennyi Gorodok
Preis
Reingardi
Rogatkino
Rozenberg
Rozenfeld
Savinka
""Kumyso-Lechebnitsa
Shilling
Shontal
Shtefan
Shukk
Shumeika
Sovkhoz im.
Shteingardta


Deutsch-Krasnyi-Jar
Russisch-" "
Kratzke
Kukkus
Lauwe (?)
Lepechinskaja
Lipowka
Loch
Mariental
Marxstadt
Messer
Mullersfeld
Mius 0
Mokrous
Mordowo
Morgenthau
Nachoi
Neudenhof
Neu-Hussenbach
Neu-Walter
Niedermanjou
Unter-Bannowka
Unter-Pokrowka(?)
Norka
Neu-Pokrowka (?)
Pallassowka
Pokrowsk (?)
" Holzfabrik
" Milit.Quartier
Preis
Reinhardi
Rogatkino
Rosenberg
Rosenfeld
Sawinka
""Kumyssspital
Schilling
Sch8ntal
Stefan
Schuck (?)
Schumeika
Sowchos im Namen
von Steinhardt








Staraya Poltavka Alt-Poltawka Uzmor'e Usmorje
Strassburg Strassburg Varenburg Warenburg
Turkovskii Sovkhoz Sowchos Turkowskii Vizenmiller Wiesenmller
(Baronomikhailovka)(Baronomichailowka) Zel'man Seelman
Untervalden Unterwalden Zolotoe Solotoje
Urbakh Urbach
NOTES:
(a) The offices listed under Nizhnyaya Pokrovka, Novo-Pokrovka
and Pokrovsk are a problem. We know that Pokrovsk was changed to
Engels during the lifetime of the Volga-German ASSR and yet we find
three offices under that name in the 1937 UPU Listing. Could it
have been that just a part of the town of Pokrovsk was renamed
Engels and made the capital of the ASSR, while the remaining
suburbs kept their Russian designations ? Nizhnyaya Pokrovka and
Novo-Pokrovka appear to have had some relation to Pokrovsk and may
have been situated nearby, but the writer has not been able to
locate them.
(b) There are 90 offices listed above and markings from most of
them have not yet been seen, so a great deal of work remains to be
done. Readers will find that reading the backs of the money-order
advices utilised in the 1920s will often bear fruit, as many Volga
Germans were the recipients of such remittances.
(c) The sub-office for Savinka listed as KUMYSO-LECHEBNITSA or
"Kumys Hospital" is unusual, to say the least. Kumys is fermented
mare's milk, which has been regarded in Russia as having health-
giving properties. It is mildly alcoholic and your Editor quaffed a
fairly copious draught of the same at a yurt in the South Gobi
province of the Mongolian People's Republic in September 1978. He
can testify that, soon afterwards, he felt completely at peace with
the world and that feeling continued for a pleasant length of time.
By the way, the 1937 UPU Listing also notes another sub-office in
the province of Saratov attached to a Kumys Hospital, namely at
PESHCHANKA, which is outside the Volga German area.

FURTHER POSTAL HISTORY MATERIAL FROM THE SOVIET PERIOD.

BALZER (GOLYI KARAMYSH)

Clear strikes have now been found of the first bilingual type and
it can now be stated that the inscription reads in Russian at top :
GOLYI KARAMYSH A.R.N.P. and in German at bottom : BALZER.

Examples are shown below with the code letter "a" dated 24.3.27 and
with the code letter "v" (8) dated one day before. Another strike
of the code letter "v" has been seen, not so clearly applied, but
dated 9.6.26.





Pf ''^^C J

.eL .
'1LZr3"






HUSSENBACH -

The strike shown herewith is from a home-made
cover sent by Katharina Schiffner to Melchior
Will at La Junta, Colorado, USA. The postmark
reads rYCCEHBAX-GUSSENBAH ACCPHH "a",9.4.37.
Please note that this is not a true bilingual
as the word in Latin letters is just a
transliteration of the Russian name. This may
have been caused by the tense relations then
current between the Third Reich and the USSR.


KRASNYI YAR NEMETSKII ("GERMAN RED CLIFF")
^ -- "- -- -- .-* 4
The pre-war type of registration label in red I s2-/
and black is shown herewith, affixed to a Hpac flppb,(Hm
money-order receipt card which was returned
from Krasnyi Yar Nemetskii on 14.7.23.

LESNOI KARAMYSH (GRIMM)

The registered money-order receipt card shown hereunder has the
registration label in red and black inscribed in the Soviet spelling,
as is also the new type of postmark for this locality. The latter
reads in Russian : LESNOI KARAMYSH OBL. N. POV., with code letter "a"
and the date 6.10.24.




,otLreroduc w ClK.It-iA. h legible a a

i ..

I {: ,,. ...~







not reproduce well. It is, however, legible and is a'

carry-over from the pre-Soviet period. The unusual


The marking sho n here is in grey-black and thus does ,/ *^''* ~?:
not reproduce well. It is, however, legible and is a r L%"' carry-over from the pre-Soviet period. The unusual \'^<' ''.a/. ^^
inscription reads in Russian : MED. KREST. BUERAKSKOE
SAR. "a" 28.4.26







TONKOSHUROVKA

This office does not appear in the 1937 U.P.U.
Listing, so it probably bore a German name by then.
It will be found on the Baedeker map of 1902 O.yD.
as located at a distance of 40 Km. east of J A-
Pokrovsk (see page 57 herewith) and is given the
German spelling of TONGOSCHUROWKA. The first example found by the
writer has the registration label of the village, as shown above,
affixed to the front of a money-order receipt card. The back of the
card shows the payment was destined for Johann Brack of the village
of Lipovka and that payment was made through the post office at
EKATERINOGRAD(BARONSK, MARXSTADT), where the pre-Soviet marking in
the style illustrated in "The Post-Rider" No. 8, p. 58 was applied,
but reading this time EKATERINOGRAD SAMAR. "g", 24.7.23.

It was not long afterwards that Tonkoshurovka .i
received its own distinctive marking, as can be -
seen from a further card with a postmark reading ls -
in Russian : TONKOSHUROVKA OB. N. P. "a" and
dated 19.5.24 (see the illustration herewith).



Robert Taylor, Malibu, California, U.S.A.

I have a cover in my collection with a legible date of 25.1.36 in a
clear circular cancel bilingual reading in Russian across the
top: 9PJIEHBAX MTC ACCPHn and in the Latin alphabet: ERLENBACH MTS.
There are also two clear registration handstamps. The one in Russian
reads 3pneH6ax MTC ACCPHn with capital letters just as I have
shown. The other registration handstamp is a box with an engraved
"R" for external use and the word "Erlenbach" written in Latin
script. The cover is a pre-printed (pre-addressed) envelope to "The
Managing Director, Retailers' Trust Company Limited, 812 Canada
Building, Saskatoon, Sask.". It went through the New York City
Registration Division, then the Winnipeg & Moose Jaw R.P.O. and was
finally received in Saskatoon on 15 Feb. 1936.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: News of this very interesting find reached the
Society just as this present issue of "The Post-Rider" was going to
press. Illustrations of the cover will therefore be featured in our
next issue.

The item is noteworthy in that, although there were three post
offices given in the April, 1937 U.P.U. Listing as operating at
Erlenbach in the Volga German ASSR, it shows that was a fourth one
functioning at the MTS (=Machine and Tractor Station). The only
other MTS post office we had previously known about in the Volga
German ASSR was the one at KRASNYI KUT.

We repeat once again that a lot still remains to be learnt about the
postal history of this unusual ASSR, which was the centre of German
culture in the USSR between the two world wars and we trust that our
readers will keep a sharp lookout so that further discoveries will
be brought to light.








SHAKHRISYABZ AND SHAAR-SHAUZ


by Dr. Peter Michalove

Shakhriisyabz was the location of a Russian post office in the
Khanate of Bukhara, about 50 miles south of Samarkand. The city was
at its glory in the 14th. and 15th. centuries, when it was known by
the name of Kesh. It was the birthplace of Tamerlane and is known
for its mausoleums and other architecture from that period. The
town is now in the Uzbek S.S.R. and the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia
gives the modern spelling as Shakhrisabz.

In his book, The Arms Issues of 1902-1920, the Rev. L. L. Tann
refers to cancellations known on Russian stamps reading
SHAKHRISYABZ BUKHAR. VL. and to others reading SHAAR-SHAUZ BUKHAR.
VL., both dated between 1913 and 1917. Examples of these cancels
were first reported in some of the early BJRP "Used Abroad
Chronicles" and more copies have surfaced since then. The Rev. Tann
raises some puzzling questions created by these spelling varieties.
Could Shaar-Shauz be a previously unrecorded location not mentioned
by Tchilinghirian and Stephen ? The similarity of the names within
the same location suggests that they are the same place. If this is
so, why were the two names used on cancellers within a relatively
short period of time ?

Some new information has come to light to answer these questions.

Summary of Spelling Varieties of Shaar-Shauz and Shakhrisyabz.

Name Source

Sharshauz 1911 and 1915 Postal Guides.
1914 Post and Telegraphic Map.

Shaar-Shauz 1913 cancel illustrated in "Used Abroad
Chronicle III" (BJRP No. 30).
1913 cancel in Nov. 1979 Stanley Gibbons
Auction in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Shakhrisyabz 1914 Postal Guide.
1917 cancel illustrated in "Used Abroad
Chronicle II" (BJRP No. 29).
Cancel in the Tchilinghirian Collection
on a stamp of the 1917-1918 issue-

Shakhrisabz Great Soviet Encyclopaedia.


A. Were Shakhrisyabz and Shaar-Shauz the same place ?

In the confusion of name to follow, the reader should bear in mind
that there are only two names we are trying to reconcile:
Shakhrisyabz and Shaar-Shauz. Each of these accompanied by a minor
spelling variety. The table able summarises the usages of the
various forms encountered so far.







S. D. Tchilinghirian tells us in "Used Abroad Chronicle III" that
"Mr. Kethro has established that this (Shaar-Shauz) is an
* alternative spelling of SHAR-I-SYABZ" (1), but gives no further
details of Kethro's work. The 1914 "Post and Telegraphic Map of
Asiatic Russia", which uses the spelling Sharshauz, shows the town
in a position comparable to that of Shakhrisyabz on the map of the
Uzbek S.S.R. in the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia. A further
comparison with a number of English-language maps leaves no doubt
that the names refer to the same place.

B. Why were there two names applied to the town ?

The answer to this question lies in the etymology of the names.
Tchilinghirian and Stephen state that SHAR-I-SYABZ means "City in
Green" in Persian (2). Pugachenkova and Rempel', in their History of
the Arts of Uzbekistan, describe the elaborate architectural use
made of gardens and forests in Central Asian urban design of the
14th. century. Magnificent parks and vineyards were conceived as an
integral part of the city's structure. The authors conclude : "For
good reason, Shakhrisyabz as early as the 15th. century was
referred to more often as the 'City of Greenery' (gorod zel8nyi),
which it truly was, than by its older name of Kesh". (3)

The "City of Greenery" took its name from the Persian words "Shar"
(city) and "Sabz" (green). This is the source of Tchilinghirians and
Stephen's SHAR-I-SYABZ, but the known cancels and other postal
documents show the name corrupted to Shaar-Shauz and Sharshauz.
these two spellings undoubtedly represent successive Russian
S attempts to render the name into the Cyrillic alphabet.

The name Shakhrisyabz restores the original "Sabz", but significantly
introduces a new root for "city". "Shakhar" is the Uzbek word for
city and is itself a borrowing from the Persian. The borrowing was
undoubtedly from Persian into Uzbek (and neighboring Turkic
languages) and not the other way around, since the sound "sh" in the
initial position rarely occurs in native Turkic words. Thus, the
city had both a Persian name (Shaar-Shauz) and an Uzbek name
(Shakhrisyabz).

C. Were the known cancels used indiscriminately, or is there some
logic to their use ?

This final question is the most speculative, since we do not know for
certain if the Persian and Uzbek names coexisted in the Tsarist
period, or if there was a change from one to the other at some point.
However, the philatelic evidence suggests a possible explanation.

If we may generalise from the relatively few items shown in the table
above, the Persian name seems to have enjoyed the earlier usage. The
Uzbek name does not appear until 1914, but is used exclusively from
1917 (with the Soviet adjustment to -sabz).

It may be that, at the beginning of the First World War, with all the
attendant nationalistic fervour, the locals decided to change the
Persian name to a vernacular one. Thus, Shaar-Shauz became
Shakhrisyabz, just as St. Petersburg became Petrograd.

I would like to thank the Rev. Leonard Tann for his encouragement in
the preparation of this article. 63








FOOTNOTES

(1) S. D. Tchilinghirian, "Used Abroad Chronicle III", British
Journal of Russian Philately, No. 30 (1961), p.16.

(2) S. D. Tchilinghirian and W. S. E. Stephen, Stamps of the Russian
Empire Used Abroad (Aberlour: The British Society of Russian
Philately, 1958), p. 253.

(3) G. A. Pugachenkova and L. I. Rempel', Istoriya Iskusstv
Uzbekistana (Moskva, Izdatel'stvo Iskusstvo, 1965), p. 258.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Quite apart from the problems associated with
the two variations of the place-name, Dr. Michalove's article is
also very helpful in shedding some light on the linguistic picture
in Central Asia.

Most of the peoples in the Central Asian republics speak languages
in the Turkic group. This family of languages is Asiatic, has a very
complicated grammatical structure and is also semi-tonal in nature.
Any such language is thus very difficult for a foreigner to master
completely.

On the other hand, Persian (written in the Arabic script) and its
sister language Tadzhik (written in the Cyrillic alphabet) are
members of the Indo-European group, have a simple grammatical
structure and are relatively easy for foreigners to learn. Persian
also has an extensive and rich literature and it was the language
used by the small educated classes in Central Asia until the
collapse of the Russian Empire. The rate of illiteracy was dreadfully
high and there was practically no instruction in any of the local
Turkic languages.

Turning now to the origin of the town name Shakhrisyabz, it is
Persian. "Shfkhr" is the Persian word for city and "Sabz" means
green. The two words are linked by a grammatical particle (. =i),
tacked on to the noun "city". The sign is called "zir" and the
particle is called "izafet". The particle denotes the genitive case
and also links a noun to its adjective. In other words, Shdkhr-i
sabz (j_' -4) literally means "Green City" and not "Town in
Green", as Tchilinghirian and Stephen state.

With the advent of Soviet rule in Central Asia, many territorial and
linguistic changes took place, the Turkic languages made official
and illiteracy has practically disappeared. In the 1920s, these
languages were written in the Arabic alphabet, which was not a
satisfactory medium because of its narrow range of vowels. A change
was made to the United Latin Turki Alphabet in 1929. By 1940,
another decision had been made to give each of these languages a new
and distinctive alphabet based on Cyrillic and that is the situation
to date.

Needless,to say, all these linguistic changes are reflected in the
complicated postal history of the Central Asian republics. Future
issues of "The Post-Rider" will contain articles on the subject and
will open up new vistas of collecting for our readers. Material is
so sparce and scattered that there is always a chance of
individual philatelists making new and unrecorded discoveries.










"THE YAMSHCHIK TROIKA"

COUNT KRONIN GRAND DUKE ARTUCHOV BARON KEMBELLOV









I N..
PHILATELIC SHORTS V 0

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point you would like to put
across to the readership; is there an interesting
stamp, cancellation or cover that you would like to
describe; is there an item inlyour collection that o '
could use some clarifying information, or might there C o 00 0
0 00 0
be some gems of wisdom that you could impart on some 000 oo0
newly acquired item ? o o ,

Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom, in the confines
of a couple of paragraphs with the rest of our readers

Dr. R. Casey, Orpington, Kent, England.

I am writing to you about a problem concerning the authenticity of
a postmark that has recently come to the attention of my colleagues
and me in the BSRP. The postmark in question purports to be that of
a steamship operating on the Danube River. Around the Imperial
eagle, the circular canceller (about 1 inches diameter) reads: ,
(Top) G. U. T. M. i P / RUS. DUN. PAR.
(Bottom) PAR. BESSARED
We can make nothing of the initials G.U.T.M i!P., though the "and P"
could stand for "..and shipping", Note alsoithe spelling "Bessared",
not "Bessarets". Furthermore, the Imperial eagle does not.bear the
usual orb and sceptre, though the impression of the postmark is
quite clear. Some of my colleagues think that this mark is a forgery.
My own example is on a 3k. stationery card addressed to Odessa, with
Odessa machine arrival mark 21.9.15 on the front edge. There is no
other postal marking or the card, other than the ship mark described.
I am reluctant to believe that this postmark is forged (possibly
because I paid a very high price for the item), though the fact that
the place of origin on the card appears to have:been erased from the
message does heighten suspicion. Your comments would be appreciated.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: The initials "M i P" appear;to be in the genitive
case and reading "Moreplavaniya i Parokhodstva"(of Navigation and
Shipping). There is no Russian word which is spelt BESSARED, so it
appears to be a mistake for "BESSARETS". If any reader can come up
with a reasonable explanation for the first initials "G.U.T.", then
Dr. Casey's problem will have been solved. The mark appears genuine.

Dr. Peter Michalove, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A.

Here are two more names that we can add to G. G. Werbizky's list of
trustworthy expertisers:-
Gebrdder Senf, Leipzig,.
Dr. P. Jem. (Paul Jemchoujin).
In addition, I have found the following on the back of various
overprinted Russian stamps. Perhaps your readers or you can identify
some of them:-
A. S. K.T(5 illegible letters)e,Leipzig (same as K.T. ?).
G. F. L: K: (written thus, with colons).
J.H.A. P.L.G.
K. T. Thale S. O. Paris.







Speaking of forgeries, I have also come across an example of the other
kind of fake; a postal forgery. It is a one-kopek of the 1889/1902
S type. There are a few minor differences from the genuine design, but
the most obvious factor is that it is printed on plain paper (no laid
lines). Other than that, it seems to be a very good copy.Most of the
postal forgeries described in the literature have been of the higher
denominations (at least seven kopeks in most cases). The catalogue of
the Cercle Philatelique France-URSS states, in speaking of the 1883
issue, that all the values from 1 to 70 kopeks have been imitated, but
I think that this is the first time a one-kopek forgery has been
reported in the later set with thinderbolts. At first glance, there
would seem to be little economic incentive to forge such a low value,
but the explanation probably lies in the fact that one kopek was the
rate for intra-city wrapper postage. This stamp may have been prepared
for a person or group regularly using that rate(a commercial user ?).

W. Thomas Waters, Pottstown, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

My appreciation is extended to Mr. G.G. Werbizky, Dr. Ceresa and you
for breaking the ice in the Expertisation Dilemma ("Yamshchik No. 7").
Let us continue to pursue this subject, please, and possibly develop
some guidelines for collectors to follow. I too am a Russian Civil
War buff and therefore open to every type of stamp foolery going. We
have got to make info. on this type of activity more accessible. I
wish to add to your lists of stamp signers the following:-
A.K. (Azerbaijan) Diena Mikulski
Eichental (WWII) Papadopoulo
Borek (Ukraine) Friedl Pfenninger
S Brun Gilbert (Czech Legion) R.Pyznar (German Occupns)
Buhler Jakubek Richter (Batum)
Bulat (Ukraine) Jemchoujin (Armenia) Seichter ( (Ukraine)
Byram (Ukraine) Kessler (Airpost) Siegel
(Armenia) Lissiuk U. P. V. (Ukraine)
Champion Livingstone Vaher (Estonia)
These were gleaned from various sources, as well as my collection. I
have others whose marks defy description (on Armenia), or are
otherwise cryptic (red star on Batum), or are just unreadable.

Your information on the marks questioned by Werbizky was helpful, but
not entirely satisfying. Did the Economist mark indicate an opinion
on authenticity, or just ownership ? Ditto for Kosack and Stolow. Are
any of these signers still around ? Mr. Werbizky's recommendations
are sound, I think, although on the question of photograph versus
signer's mark, I have to wonder when the forging of the latter will
start to occur. Can we start to develop a listing of signers' marks,
their descriptions and their trustworthiness ? A single publication
of past articles describing forgeries and fakes might be too large an
undertaking, but how about a listing of the sources wherein this
information might be found ? I have also written to Dr. Ceresa on
this matter and I realise that my comments ask much and offer little,
but I am a willing worker in this area with little information from
which to proceed. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

EDITORIAL COMMENT: Messrs Champion, Eichental, Friedl, Gilbert,Kosack,
b Jemchoujin, Livingstone, Papadopoulo and Seichter are now all dead
and some others on the list probably also. So far as is known, the
Economist, Kosack and Sto.lcw marks indicate authenticity and/or an
undertaking to take the item back and make a refund if it were found


I I d








not to be genuine. Signers' marks have, unfortunately, already been
forged in quite a few fields of philately, including our own. We
have a thorny problem on our hands here. So far as our Society is
concerned, we will avoid giving out information on the special
characteristics of genuine items, i.e. stamps, covers and signers'
marks, since that would only help would-be forgers to dodge those
pitfalls.The basic tenet proposed by Dr. Ceresa is the best
solution; the collector must be helped to become his own expertise.

Rev. L. L. Tann, Sutton, Surrey, England.


Ate F
e/ Suomi
I /y o tLjeaw o'mwf "-0- /' ,/,-f


C ~ ,e e. ,t"o.e -,/ E ,-r'.
/-7 ,




(-'./t ^*''-/ r. /

'ostale '"-
F~intaned [^e1' *^
^ ..
\.'n ..,i

c. .:, ": .'..
/ /
./,,.<~..., .,


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The two illustrations on the preceding page are of postcards in the
collection of Mr. Jeffrey Stone of Aberdeen, Scotland. He collects
Finland and wrote to me, asking for details and confirmation of the
Finnish cancels. I thought the items delightful enough to warrant a
write-up and am grateful to him for providing the photographs.

(a) Postcard with a 3-kop. Romanov stamp and with two grade A
cancellations of Kuokkala, dated 8 August 1913. The message and
address do not reproduce well, unfortunately.
(b) Another postcard to Petrograd, again franked with a 3-kop.
Romanov stamp and with a magnificent grade A strike (full, with
allowance for the thickness of the stamp) of the Finnish K.P.XP No.10,
dated 14 July 1915. This is the postmark of the Finnish TPO (RPO) from
Kuopio to Helsinki, from where it travelled on to the Russian capital
via the Helsinki-Petrograd railway. Finnish rail cancellations are
infrequently found on Russian stamps and even less on Romanov stamps.
The writer of this card was a Russian, for not only is it written in
that language, but the author has dated the card "1 July" in the top
left corner, while the postmark is in the Gregorian calendar and dated
14 July, which was 13 days later.


MEXFMHLIECKII M irymH O rI'TEHtYbiY ;-.',i,-b










5a aT o1 Cropot MeTR Tb aApeC4
coe ad st n 2 3 f Ki E i
r-Ii /O'crK'i^i'^----'- ."^^Vi.--


s e d, a frtr "T" in cr n wih t a oig sie i








(c = 5 gold centimes = 1 U.S. = -2d. sterling = 2 kop.,or double the
equivalent in value at that time and thus worth a little over two gold
., ;,









franc Te erman pota ato ie T nbO to coect 5

The card above is another item from the Pastor Konig Medical Company
correspondence and sen on 22 Oct. 1913 from Kichkas, Ekaterinoslav
province to Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany. Underpaid by 1 kopek, it has
an oval "Porto" marking tying the stamp in mauve, a circular "T" for
postage due, a further "T" in crayon with the amount owing beside it
(5c. = 5 gold centimes = l U.S. = d. sterling = 2 kop.,or double the
deficiency). The Russian rouble and the German mark were roughly
equivalent in value at that time and thus worth a little over two gold
francs. The German postal authorities decided to collect 5 Pfennig
postage due on the card, as can be seen by the large figure "5" in the
centre of the card and this was thus a little more than double the
international deficiency of 5 gold centimes, as computed by the
despatching Russian postal service. Underpaid mail is always
interesting, as it is fun to follow the steps taken to compute and
collect double the deficiency.








Andrew Cronin, Toronto, Ont., Canada.
----- ... ..- (a) Coming back to the
S --, '' subject of trade cards
originally raised by the
a.' .. ( late W. H. Slate in "The Post
'' Rider No.6", another card in
U "THE MAIL IN..." series can
.. now be illustrated, this
time from FINLAND. Two of
S.. ., the stamps on this card have
HELSINGFORS (Helsinki)
cancellations and the other
*f- .* 6 two FINSKA POSTKUPEN or TPO
(RPO) markings. One of the
-- .latter even gives the route
No. 10, dated 9 November
.,:r. I N1890. All the cards of this
S. iitf "THE MAIL IN..." series were
-- -made in two distinct editions.

(b) The item illustrated below points out one of the prime
advantages in collecting postcards; one can always read the message
on the backs. The example here consists of the reply half of a German
card, which the writer used in St. Petersburg to reply to Dmitrii
Friedrich, Concert Agent at Litzowstr. 11 in Berlin W. in Germany.
The message, which is completely in Russian, reads as follows:-
"St. Petersburg, 14/26 Sept. 1887.
In reply to your letter of 10/22 of this September, I hasten to
inform you that the most reliable address of Peter Il'ich Chaikovskii
is care of P. Jurgenson, Moscow, Kolpashnyi Lane, Private Home. He
always knows the whereabouts of Mr. Chaikovskii.
Always at your service,
J. Jurgenson ".








REVIEW OF




LITERATURE u










IMPERIAL RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA, PART FIVE: The
Transcaucasian Railway. A 62-page publication in demi quarto size
available from the author, P. T. Ashford, 9 Pentre Close, Ashton,
Chester CH3 8 BR, England for US $5.00 in banknotes, postpaid
anywhere in the world.

Continuing his landmark series on the postal history of Transcaucasia,
the author now covers in great detail the cancellations used on the
postal wagons of the Transcaucasian Railway. These included five
numbered lines and nine unnumbered routes. Data are also given on
branch lines where there were no facilities, notes on Postage Due and
other handstamps, a list of "Vokzal" and "Stantsiya" post offices,
plus a bibliography.

In addition to his own extensive material, the writer has had the
wholehearted cooperation of Dr. R. G. Casey and H. L. Weinert and
Messrs John Lloyd and Boris Pritt, all of whom have contributed real
gems from their collections. That, plus the excellent drawings of the
postmarks throughout the text, help to make this Part Five the best
word on the subject to date. It seems redundant to say that this work
is strongly recommended. Copies of the four earlier parts are also
still to be had from the author at US $5.00 each in banknotes. It is
hoped to produce two final parts in the future: Part Six covering the
Erivan Guberniya, Kars Oblast' and Elisavetpol' Guberniya and Part
Seven for Baku, Baku Guberniya and Zakhatali Okrug.

RUSSISCH-SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE, No. 25 for December 1980. This is
the Journal of the Russia-USSR Study Group in the Federal Republic of
Germany. Available from Herr Pitt Piacenza, D-5583 ZELL/Mosel,
Schloss-Str. 1, West Germany.

This 62-page issue was unfortunately delayed by the fatal illness of
President Herbert Giese. The subjects covered this time are Society
Notes; The 3rd. International Stamp Fair at Essen in 1980, by Walter
Frauenlob; The Stamps of Russia 1857-1879 by V.V. Lobachevskii, trans.
by Dr. R. Bartmann & G.D. Mehrtens; Soviet Maximum Cards & Moscow 1980
Olympics by P. Haubner; The Society Circuit Service, by W. Nietsch;
Special TPOs (RPOs) of Russia, cont'd by H. Imhof; Works of Art on
Stamps, by E. Dressler; Moscow 1980, by H. Kollatz; Two Impressions of
LONDON-1980, by H. Imhof & H.Meyer; The Chain-Cutter Stamps, by H.
Meisenzahl; Soviet Varieties, by F.L8hrich and,finally, small advts.








The No. 26 issue for April 1980 also contains 62 pages and treats
the following subjects: Society Notes; including the death of
President Herbert Giese; List of Awards at the Bilateral FRG-USSR
Exhibition; Continuation of Soviet Varieties, by F. Lohrich; KITAI
Forgeries, by W. Frauenlob; Russian Registered Letters & R-labels,
by Prof.Dr. H. Gachot; Moscow 1980, cont'd by P. Haubner; Building
an interesting collection, by M. Saeger and ending again with small
advertisements.

The No. 27 issue for July 1981 contains 36 pages and includes
Society News; Report on the Study Group Meeting in Vienna during
WIPA'81; Stamps of Russia 1857-1879, cont'd trans. by Messrs
Bartmann & Mehrtens; New Soviet Postmark Forgeries and Survey of
Expertisation (highly interesting I), by Ing. Z. Mikulski;
Waterways of Imperial Russia by L. L. Tann, trans. by G.Heermann;
Unusual Postal Stationery & Specimen Overprints, by J. Schneider;
Another Variety, by H. Meisenzahl; Society Problems, by W.Frauenlob;
Soviet Stamped Envelope with Special Die, by G. Heermann; Moscow'80
Olympic Postmarks, by Herr Schliessl; Expertising Problems, by W.
Nietsch & K.K. Doberer; Sheet Formats for Olympic Sets, by E. A.
Scheuermann; Letters from Readers and, once again, small advts.

These three issues are very meaty, to say the least

ZEMSTVO CATALOGUS, by Dr. G. Bordewijk. A paperbound volume of 201
+ 22 photopages, published in 1980 and available from the author
at Meester Verschuurstraat 58, NL 3132 NV VLAARDINGEN, Holland for
39 guilders, postpaid anywhere in the world.

The author is the President and Editor for the Philatelic Study
Group for Eastern Europe in Holland and also a member of the Russia-
USSR Study Group in the Federal Republic of Germany. The text is in
Dutch, making it intelligible to anyone knowing German (Dutch is
closer to High German than some dialects inside Germany, but you
should never say that to a Hollander I). His information is based
on the Small Schmidt of 1934, but he also includes Wenden. An
additional 25 pages give a specialised and very helpful listing of
the Red Cross Envelopes of Imperial Russia. The main value of the
book is probably in the 22 photopages, clearly illustrating Zemstvo
issues & types and the Soviet Zemstvos, as well as referring to the
Zemstvo letter seals and warning collectors not to confuse fiscal
with Zemstvos. The book is an interesting and worthwhile addition
to the library of every serious Zemstvo collector.

NOMENCLATURE INTERNATIONAL DES BUREAUX DE POSTE. A huge book of
1148 pages, giving a complete list of the post offices of countries
and territories included in the network of the UPU. Published in
1977 and still available from the Union Postale Universelle, Bureau
International, Case Postale, CH-3000 BERNE 15, Switzerland, at the
price of 60 Swiss francs (just over US $31.00), postpaid by
registered surface mail anywhere in the world.

The UPU listings of the world's post offices are vital tools for
the postal historian. The most important editions for us are those
of 1909 before WWI, 1937 before WWII, 1951 after WWII and this most
recent one of 1977. All the place-names are lumped together in
strict alphabetical order, regardless of location. Pulling out the
offices in a particular country, territory or province is therefore
a backbreaking and long task There were about 300,000 offices by







1937, at least 350,000 in 1951 and close to half a million in 1977.

Until the three-volume edition of 1968, the place-names were always
given in the native spellings with all the grammatical accents and
special forms of the Latin alphabet carefully added. The 1977
edition is especially helpful to us, as it has been condensed into
one large but manageable volume and the postal codes have been
included for all the Soviet offices listed. The USSR has the largest
postal network in the world (close to 90,000 post offices and
agencies), but the only suburban offices listed in the 1977 edition
are those for Leningrad and Moscow.

The 1977 work is great value for the money and also for the copious
information it contains.

EESTI FILATELIST (THE ESTONIAN PHILATELIST), No. 27 for 1981.
Published by the Society of Estonian Philatelists in Sweden and the
Estonian Philatelic Society of New York. A magazine of 216 pages,
available from Mr. Elmar Ojaste, Mandolingatan 17, S-421 45, Vastra
Fr8lunda, Sweden.

The Estonian philatelists continue to amaze us with the enormous
amount of information they keep generating about the philately of
their country. In addition to Society news, there are articles on
the Designer of the Arms Stamps, Mail Coach Stations of Estonia
1710-1915, Estonian SSR Postal Services Charges & The 'Ostland'
Epoch in Estonia, all by E. Ojaste; Estonia The Arms Issue, by D.
McDonald; Rare Estonian Covers, by V. Hurt and V. Mandvere; Zemstvo
* Mail in Estonia 1871-1913, by the late A. Ostrat; The German-Baltic
Committee in Petrograd in 1918, 'From Russia' Cachets of 1920-1921
& Estonian Scripophily, all by H. Osi; The German Occupation of
Dorpat in 1918, by W. Rtttger; Postmarks of Tartu 1918-1940, by H.
Alver; Estonian Postal History, by the late J. Bleyer; Postal
Routes to and from Estonia in 1919, by G. Bagenholm; Organisation
of the Posts in 1918-1919, by W. Soopan; Estonian Themes, by E. Raid
and, finally, a report on the ESTO 80 Philatelic Exhibition in
Stockholm.

Looking over all the numbers so far issued of this wonderful journal,
we can see that many distinguished Estonian philatelists now live
outside their country and they have been able to join together in
two organizations, so as to ensure maintaining a continuous
tradition for the philately of their native land.

Such a tradition is absolutely essential to the preservation and
recording of all the existing material and to the passing on of all
the accumulated knowledge to the succeeding generations of Estonian
philatelists. Living abroad, they have been able to continue
research on subjects that are absolutely forbidden today in their
homeland.

There is no doubt that, when the definitive encyclopaedia is
written about the stamps and postal history of Estonia, the
information published in the issues of EESTI FILATELIST will form a
5 solid basis for the work.

It is ironic that, like the Russian philatelists living abroad, the
Estonian collectors in exile know more about the philately of their
country than the people now living there.

73








STRANA FILATELIYA (The Land of Philately), by B. M. Kisin. A
paperback of 192 pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow,
1980, in an edition of 80,000 copies. Price 85 kop.

This is a neatly produced work, with many illustrations in natural
colours. Intended for a broad range of philatelists, it gives a
great deal of basic information as a guide to intelligent collecting.
The book is noteworthy in that it does not restrict itself to
Russian and Soviet philately, but helps to create an international
perspective to stamp collecting.

STRANITSY ISTORII NA POCHTOVYKH MARKAKH (Pages of History on
Postage Stamps), by B. M. Kisin. A paperback of 112 pages, issued by
the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1980, in an edition of 80,000 copies.
Price 30 kop.

This book is larger in format than the preceding title and not as
well produced, hence the lower price. Although by the same author,
its tone is completely different and entirely political in outlook.
Intended for thematic or topical collectors, attention is focused
basically on the stamps and postal stationery of the Socialist
countries and the issues of the Paris Commune.

KATALOG : KONVERTY PERVOGO DNYA I KARTMAKSIMUMY 1968-1979 (Catalogue
of First Day Covers and Maximum Cards 1968-1979), compiled by M. I. &
N. K. Spivak. A paperback of 224 pages, issued by the Soyuzpechat'
Publishers, Moscow, 1981. Price 1 rouble.

The title is self-explanatory and there are indices of thematic and
topical subjects at the end of the book.
@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@

SPECIAL NOTICE:

As the Society is being run by a small group of only three people,
all of whom are also fully occupied in earning a living, it is
normally not possible to reply to individual questions from our
readers unless a stamped and addressed envelope is also enclosed
with the request.

Problems and subjects that are judged to be of general interest to
others in our readership will be dealt with in the following issues
of "The Post-Rider".
@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@&@


STANNU TUVA
SSTAMP CO.
203 South 72nd Suite 3
1 Omaha, NE 68114 TRY US FOR ALL YOUR
(402) 397-9937 REQUIREMENTS IN THE
A A, STAMPS & POSTAL HISTORY
OF THIS UNUSUAL AND
REMOTE COUNTRY

74








The Journal Fund
All sales benefit the Society and all orders should be made payable
to A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.
Further supplies are now available of the following titles and
early ordering is recommended :-

THE ARMS ISSUES OF 1902-1920, by the Rev. L. L. Tann. When we start
getting repeat orders at the new price from the original subscribers,
then we know that we are on a winner. All you needed to know about
these humble stamps, but were too humiliated to ask. Richly
illustrated and containing 257 pages. Price postpaid US $20.00.

NOTES ON THE REVOLUTIONARY STAMPS 1920-22 & MONGOLIA, ITS STAMPS
1924-27, by Kalenik Lissiuk. This is our most popular seller,
published in New York City in 1928 and now many years out of print.
It has interesting information on the Postmaster Provisionals,
together with the relevant illustrations. Price postpaid US $ 5.00.

DIE STEMPELFORMEN IN ST. PETERSBURG VON 1766-1914 (The Postmark Types
in St. Petersburg 1766-1914), by Heinrich Imhof. Very easy to follow,
even if you do not know German, as the author has tabulated
everything. Ideal for the postal historian.Price postpaid US $ 6.00.

IDENTIFY YOUR STAMPS, by Ervin J. Felix. A 256-page hardback,
containing a lot of highly useful information in many philatelic
fields. Of especial interest to people in our sphere, as the author
includes fine illustrations of Imperial Russian stamps used in the
Far East and guaranteed pre-Shtempelgate Price postpaid US $ 5.00.

NERVOUS PEOPLE AND OTHER STORIES, by Mikhail Zoshchenko. You won't
understand the United States of Soviet Russia, i.e. the USSR unless
you read this 452-page paperback in the Vintage Russian Library
series by one of the world's great writers.Price postpaid US $ 2.50.

LEARN TO SPEAK RUSSIAN WITHOUT A TEACHER, by G. Bronskii of Moscow
State University. A 192-page paperback, containing basic Russian
grammar, many phrases and sentences for home study. An ideal manual
for "us monolingual slobs", as one of our readers bluntly put it.
Great value for the money. Price postpaid US $ 2.00.


SPECIAL NOTE: WE HAVE COMPLETELY SOLD OUT OF ALL PARTS OF "IMPERIAL
RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA". ALL FUTURE ORDERS SHOULD GO
DIRECTLY TO P.T.ASHFORD,9 PENTRE CLOSE,ASHTON,CHESTER,ENGLAND CH3 8BR.
THE PRICE PER PART IS US $ 5.00 POSTPAID. CASH WITH ORDER, PLEASE.


PLEASE NOTE THAT THE SOCIETY HAS SOLD OUT OF "THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS",
BY REV. L.L. TANN. COPIES ARE STILL AVAILABLE FROM GEORGE ALEVIZOS,
2716 OCEAN PARK BOULEVARD, SUITE 1020, SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA,
U. S. A., 90405.


THE SOCIETY HAS SOLD OUT OF ALL TITLES THAT ARE NOT LISTED ON THIS
PRESENT PAGE.











THE COLLECTORS' CORNER ,

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that elusive item in your
collection or philatelic library; do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade or
sell ? We can publicise your want-list and/or your
duplicates for the most reasonable rate of 25 / line z .
(minimum of $1.00 payment; maximum insertion of 16
lines), excluding name and address. Unless otherwise
stated, all the catalogue numbers quoted are from Scott.
Ads from collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are
invited to respond.
NOTE: The Society disclaims all responsibility for any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging parties.

FOR A BOOK on the life and work of Sergei Eisenstein, Soviet film
director and my teacher, I would like to hear from anyone who had any
personal contact with him; also correspondence or illustrated
material. I am interested in the.American influence on Eisenstein,
particularly that of D. W. Griffith.
HERBERT MARSHALL, Director, Soviet & Eastern European Studies,
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale,' Illinois, U.S.A., 62901.

WANTED: Any information on the use of German V-weapons against the
Russians during WWII. Have seen a report that the Germans fired V-2's
during the siege of Leningrad, but unable to verify this information
through any source. Please write to :
LES WINICK, 2121 Maple Road, Homewood, Illinois, U.S.A., 60430.

A FEW original copies of "The Russian Philatelist" still available:-
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, 10, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US $2.00 each; Nos. 8 to 11 US $2.50 each.
MRS C. ROSSELEVITCH, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, N.Y.,U.S.A.,11542.

WANTED: Bogus, phantom & private issues, locals, vignettes,
forgeries, Armies, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Russia 1917-1925 etc.
Will trade or exchange Estonian cards/covers against the same of
Latvia, Lithuania, Imperial Russia, Field Post of WWI and WWII.
AUGUST LEPPA, P. 0. Box 95, SF-04401, J&rvenp&&, Suomi / Finland.

ALWAYS looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fair exchange assured.
G. G. WERBIZKY, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N.Y., U.S.A., 13850.

I HAVE many dot and numeral cancellations on both covers and stamps
available in exchange for the same. Exchange for Zemstvos or South
Russia material would also be considered.
ALEX ARTUCHOV, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5W 1P2.

WANTED: Imperial dotted Imperial cancellations on cover; buy or
trade. Please write, describing covers) and asking price for
desired trade.
MIKE RENFRO, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A., 95051.




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