• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Loops and taran
 Trade cards with Russian theme...
 A Zemstvo sideline
 The Canadian Siberian expeditionary...
 Some confusions on printing methods...
 A Soviet consular stamp in current...
 Classifying cancellations
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 A doubly rare cancellations
 The postage stamps of Southern...
 An original Soviet stamped...
 Russia's railways: Addendum
 Review of literature
 Philatelic shorts
 The collectors' corner














Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 6
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00006
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; vol. 6
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Loops and taran
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Trade cards with Russian themes
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    A Zemstvo sideline
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The Canadian Siberian expeditionary force 1918-19
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Some confusions on printing methods explored
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    A Soviet consular stamp in current use
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Classifying cancellations
        Page 30
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    A doubly rare cancellations
        Page 41
    The postage stamps of Southern Azerbaijan
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    An original Soviet stamped envelope
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Russia's railways: Addendum
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Review of literature
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    The collectors' corner
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
Full Text































































































PRINTED IN CANADP


I













THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF
RUSSIAN PHILATELY
P.O. BOX 5722 Station 'A', TORONTO,
ONTARIO, CANADA, M5W 1P2
No 6. APRIL 1980.


Contents:
2 Editorial
3 Correspondence with Canada
5 Loops and Taran
10 Trade Cards with Russian Themes
14 A Zemstvo Sideline
16 The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force
22 Some Confusions on Printing Methods Explored
28 A Soviet Consular Stamp in Current Use
30 Classifying Cancellations
31 Postage Stamps issued by the Zemstvos
11 A Doubly Rare Cancellation
42 The Postage Stamps of Southern Azerbaijan
48 An Original Soviet Stamped Envelope
52 Russia's Railways: Addendum
56 Review of Literature
61 Philatelic Shorts
72 -Collectors' Corner


P. J. Campbell
Wn. H. Slate
Andrew Cronin
Courtesy of the Canadian
National Postal Museum
Alan McKennie
Dr.D.P. Cruikshank
P. J. Campbell
A.Artuchov & G.G. Werbiaky
Rev. L. L. Tann
Andrew Cronin
R. Polchaninov
Rev. L. L. Tann


000RDINATORS OF THE SOCIETY:
Publisher and Treasurer: Alex. Artuchov.
Secretary: P. J. Campbell.
Editor: Andrew Cronin,
CREDITS:
We are again indebted to our conscientious typiste, Claude Campbell. An additional
note of gratitude is also due to Pat Campbell for again so graciously assuming
numerous additional duties associated with the production of this issue.
SPECIAL NOTES:
The views expressed in the articles herein are those of the respective authors
and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Society or of its Coordinators.
Arything contained in this issue may be reprinted without permission, provided that
the source is quoted and a copy sent to the Society.






SPST-KIDER
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? ,EDITORIAL

EXPERTISING SERVICES


Enquiries have been directed to the Society about expertising
problems and some comments are in order.

There is a multiplicity of expertising services in such countries
as the United States. This is a pity, as we have always felt
that the interests of everyone concerned would best be served by
supporting a single nationwide organization and contributing all
combined experience to it. The really shining exceptions provi-
ded by specialist societies in the U. S. are the German Philat-
elic Society and the Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society Inter-
national. Both contain erudite experts of high calibre and the
opinions they render are rarely, if ever, wrong.

Which brings us to the basic function of expertising committees.
All they can honestly do is to express an opinion, as no one is
infallible; cast-iron guarantees are just not feasible. However,
before expressing any opinion, it is incumbent on the examiners
that they must not only be able to utilize sophisticated and
expensive tools of detection; they must primarily have a thorough
grounding in the basics of philately: Know the differences between
comb, harrow, line and compound perforations; between lithography,
recess printing, typography and exotic printing processes; paper
varieties; ink compositions; the peculiarities of postmarking
devices, etc.

Among other points to be considered, it should be realized that in
analyzing definitive stamps in wide use over a period of time, the
batches of ink and paper will inevitably vary. So, too, must the
reaction under ultra-violet light or the quartz lamp.

Another disturbing factor is the current availability to the pub-
lic of many perforating devices in all sorts of formats and gauges.
In short, it has now become easy to produce near perfect forgeries
of perforations and thus reperforate stamps to create rare
varieties.

A further regrettable trend is the habit of every Tom, Dick, Harry
or Harriett to place his or her guarantee mark on items. The backs
of such stamps are now starting to look like chequerboards. And if
they overink their little devices, the marking bleeds through to
the front of the stamp, with dire results. If an expertising ser-
vice issues a certificate with a tied photograph, that should be
enough.







Finally, if the examiners are not sure of a stamp, do not avoid
the issue by condemning it out of hand. They should just say
that they do not know. It is no disgrace to make such a state-
ment.
We would welcome comments on the above remarks from our readers.
The subject will be pursued in future issues of "The Post-Rider",
with emphasis on specific items in our collecting sphere where
confusion seems to be endemic.



CORRESPONDENCE 4

S /I
WITH CANADA




"Correspondence with Canada" is a regular feature AA HAAY .I
of this journal. Anyone possessing interesting
Russian mail to Canada is invited to share it
with the readership, by forwarding a photograph
or xerca copy of the item, along with sane expla-
natory text to the Editor.







This time we are featuring a rare Soviet long-distance flight, with the
aircraft crashing on Canadian soil and the mail receiving the arrival
postmark of MISCOU LIGHTHOUSE, New Brunswick. The cards were originally
offered for retail sale by a well-known American airmail dealer,
William H. Peters, at $50.00 each. In 1939, that represented more than
two weeks wages for many employed people. He obviously had few takers
then and we can see from the map he distributed that the price was re-
duced to $37.50. Please read all his publicity material for the inter-
esting details of this rare and now much sought-after flight.
THE HEADLINES:


Soviet Fliers Crash in Canada
After successfully flying the Atlantic non-stop from Moscow,
Vladimir Kokkinaki, Soviet air hero, and his navigator-companion
crashed last night on Miscou Island, N. B., less than 1,000 miles
from their goal in New York. One of the fliers was injured.









S75 60 45' 30' 15* 15 30 45 6

STRANS-ATLANTIC-HISTORICAL-ZEPPEL1N FLIGHTS
\I DAH Y NEWS. SATURDAY, APRIL 29, 1939 I e s I\\1E
i r o.r h7il r teli s
os ow. J 4 I8-1.5- LANEt.W00DSIDE.J.L,NtWYOtKt. PHO-NE mEWIOWNs-7035
USED AIRMAILS ...
FJ fliers Downed
Russia's goodwill flight to the World's Fair-the first nonstop hop ever
"attempted from Moscow to New York-ended abruptly about 7 o'clock last
night, less than 1,000 miles from its goal, in a forced lInding somewhere near ICeELANB
Miscou Island, New Brunswick, possibly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.


Moscowv New York Express i
.. .. ...... "- .... ...-- ... ........-
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A D I A- Ceftfosow pril24./9393-41/9A.M.f
1 Crshediscou island some day- 6.19SP.. m n MCa n




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r sed to O fficils of t ,, /

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THE STORY:

MOSCOC, April 28, 1939. Brigadier General Vladimir Kokkinaki, Soviet long-
distance flyer and his navigator, Major Mikhail Gordienko, took off at
4:19 a.m. today in their red monoplane, "Moscawa," on a projected 4,600
mile non-stop goodwill flight to New York for the opening of the WORlD FAIR.

Having flown successfully 3,900 miles in about 23 hours, the flight ended
abruptly about 8:00 p.m., when they made a forced landing 700 miles from
their goal and cracked up at MISOOU Island, Eastern Canada, in marshland,
200 yards inshore from ice-filled Chaleur Bay.

General Kokkinaki set out on the great circle route in a hurried take-off
which did not permit him to wait for a consignment of mail scheduled for the
flight. According to information received from the AMITRG, they carried a
letter for President Roosevelt, letters of greeting to two World Fair offi-
cials, 32 postcards, addressed to Amtorg officials, and a few cards to same
important buyers; a total of about 50 pieces.

The route of the flight is illustrated on the enclosed map. The solid line
represents the flight accomplished and the dotted line the remainder of the
route. The address side of the postcards is shown at i size. The face of
the card has a photograph of Lenin's mausoleum.


PERSON S E R V ICE
48-29,58LANE WOODSIDE
N E W Y O RK N.Y.
PHONE NEWTOWN 9703.19
W17. Nov.1.l.1939.


*P 4 C ..






Scott No. 2773


LOOPS AND TARAN

by P.J.Campbell


Scott B.37


Petr Nikolaevich Nesterov was born on 27 February 1887 at Nizhni-Novgorod
and died on the eighth of Septenber 1914. In his short life he achieved
three noteworthy things, and they were probably all accomplished in a
total time of about one minute'








P.N. Nesterov had a military education, spent three years with the 9th
East Siberian Rifle Regiment, and then, in October of 1911, went to an
officers' flying school. He gained his pilot's certificate on 12 Septerber
of 1912, and took omnmand of the XI Corps Air Squadron at Kiev on 26 April
1913. Soon after, Lieut. Nesterov made his first significant mark by be-
coming the first man in history to loop-the-loop. The feat was accaplish-
ed in a Nieuport 4 aircraft, a French design which was manufactured under
licence at the DUX Aircraft Works. Dux had been founded in 1910 in Moscow,
and also had a factory in St. Petersburg under owner J. Moller and chief
engineer F.E. Moska. The Dux factory produced Fanran, Voisin and Nieuport
machines under licence, and later Maranes, of which more anon.

The feat accomplished by Nesterov is oc ramorated by one of a set of three
Soviet aviation stamps issued in 1963, of which the 6-kopek depicts A.F.
Mozhaisky, the 10-kopek Nesterov, and the 16-kcpek the renewed pioneer
aerodynamacist N.E. Zhukovski (or Jukovski). The Nesterov stanp (Scott
No. 2773) shows our hero and an aircraft looping in a clear blue sky.

The background design is photogravure, while the portrait is engraved; this
two-stage printing process is not uncm~on in modern Russian stamps. The
design was prepared by V. Pimenov; perforation is 11 and there are no re-
corded varieties. The major catalogues seem to agree on the date of issue
as 18 August, and on the other vital statistics, with the 1974 Soviet
catalogue adding that the print run of each of the set was 3-million copies.
Yvert et Tellier give the perforation, erroneously, as 12 and Zumstein in-
correctly shows 1886 as the year of Nesterov's birth.

The aircraft, the Dux-built Nieupart 4, is very clearly depicted on Scott
No. B.37, a lithographed, imperforate charity issue of November 1922,
with the legend "For the Hungry," and with no value indicated on the stamp.
Actually, they were semi-postals and cost the purchaser 200,000 (old)
rubles, the current rate for an ordinary domestic letter, plus 50,000 (old)
rubles for the Volga famine relief. Alternatively, one could pay 20 + 5
of the new, 1922 rubles. The design of these stamps was by Richard Zarrin
(or Zarrinsch) of the Russian State Printing Office. B.34, by the way,
was printed with a run of one-million, instead of the 4-million to 10-
million of the other values in the set. Used copies are therefore not too
common. Now you will see fran the stamp that the Nieuport 4 was a mono-
plane, with a fixed undercarriage and a central skid, ideal to prevent
students from breaking the propeller in take-off or landing accidents.
The best feature of the aircraft, however, was the system of external
bracing wires for the wing. These wires passed over a sort of quadra-
pod structure of struts above the cockpit, passed out to wing mid-span,
then back to tie into the undercarriage structure. It was this bracing
(clearly visible on B.34) that made the Nieuport strong enough to with-
stand the loads imposed by a loop. Some other contemporary aircraft
would probably have suffered structural failure in such a manoeuvre.

The immediate result of Nesterov's loop was that he was put under arrest
for "undue risk with a machine, the property of his Goverment," but he
was forgiven 10 days later, praroted to Staff-Captain, and then awarded


S
































a Russian Aero Club medal for his feat' Nesterov's loop had been accam-
plished on 20 August, a feat which was to be repeated in France on 21 Sept-
S ermber of the same year by P6goud on a Bleriot; in fact Pegoud then went on
to do a double loop on 27 Septerber. All these, of course, were what were
called "inside-loops," where the pilot pulls back the stick and the aircraft
climbs upward, passes over the top, then dives back down, always with the
pilot's head inside the loop, and his body being pushed down into the
seat by centrifugal force. The "outside-loop" with the plane starting
with a dive, and the pilot tending to be thrown out of the machine all
the way around, was not accomplished until 25 May 1927, by no less a
personality than the great Jimny Doolittle of the U.S.A.

Nesterov's second and third notable feats occurred simultaneously on
8 September of 19141, a nonth after the outbreak of war2 on the Eastern
Front. On this day, a flight of three Austrian aircraft, led by Lieut.
Baron van Rosenthal, attacked Nesterov's airfield near Sholkiv3 in
Galicia. Nesterov took off in a Morane Type "H" monoplane, and climbed
to the attack. As the Morane was unarmed, Nesterov flew straight at
the Albatros B-l, flown by Baron van Rosenthal, and rained it, with the
result that both aircraft plunged to the ground, killing the occupants.
Nesterov was subsequently buried, with full military honours, in the
tarb of the ancient Russian Prince Askold at Kiev.


lor 27 August by the Julian calendar.
2Nesterov was one of the 200 pre-war military pilots in the Imperial
O Air Service, which had 224 aeroplanes, twelve airships and 46 kite-
balloons at the outbreak of war.
3The town Sholkiv was renamed Nesterov by the Soviet authorities in
December of 1951.


7







The Russian Ministry of Cammunications issued an offset-lithographed air-
mail card (see above) on 23 February 1977, to celebrate the 90th anniver-
sary of the birth of Nesterov; the card shows the special cancel designed
by Y. Artisimenov for the event, and was issued from Gorki Postampt;
Gorki is the modern name of Nesterov's birthplace, Nizhni-Novgorod.

It sees astonishing to me that a member of the Imperial military services
should have such Soviet hcnour bestowed on him; the stamp of 1963, the
card of 1977, and a further stamp in 1979. The card shows Nesterov in his
service uniform, and his famous "Nesterov-loop" in the background. The
imprinted "stamp" of 4-kopeks shows the Morane plunging into the Albatros
B-l, both quite accurately drawn, as card designer P. Bendel based the
stamp design on an accurate contemporary painting by Artseulov. The print-
er was Gosnak, the state printing office. The card was sold for 5-kopeks,
four for postage and one for the card; print run was 200,000 copies and
the printer's reference number is L99480 22/XI-76.

As to Nesterov's feats, he was the first to use the "ramming" technique
to bring down another aircraft, he was the first to gain an aerial victory
on the Eastern front, and he was the first member of the Imperial Air
Service to be killed in action. It may be that Nesterov was also the
first aviator to destroy an enemy aeroplane in World War I, at least as
far as I can find. Previous action on the Western Front included dirigible
Z.VI brought down by ground fire (6 August 1914), the dirigible Z.VIII also
brought down by ground fire (22 August), and three British pilots who forced
an unidentified German aircraft to force-land behind the allied lines
(25 August). I hesitate to include the French airship Dupuy-de-L&ne
that was brought down at Couray by the heavy and accurate fire of the
French army! Does anyone have knowledge of previous aerial destruction
of an aeroplane, as opposed to an airship?

The ramming technique, or "taran" attack1, was used in the 'Norminhan
Incident' on the Manchuria-Mongolian border, in July of 1939, when
V.F. Skcbarikhin used his Polikarpov 1-16 fighter to ram a Nakajima
Type 97 fighter, and you can see the 1-16 an an airmail stamp issued
on 10 August 19 (Scott No. C-120). It should be noted that the 1-16
was a remarkable aircraft when it first flew in 31 December 19332 al-
though it had sane vicious and unforgiving characteristics that were to
kill many pilots. The 1-16's were quite useful in the Spanish Civil
War, but obsolete in World War II.

Unfortunately, for the Russian pilots, this was the machine that comprised
almost two-thirds of the fighter force of the V-VS at the time of the Ger-
man invasion of Russia, for it was completely outclassed by the latest
Bf.109 aircraft of the Luftwaffe. It didn't take the Russians long to
remember the past, for at 04:30 hours on 22 June 1941, about 75 minutes
after the launch of Operation Barbarossa, Lieut. Kokorev of the 124 IAP
deliberately rammed a Messerschmidt Bf.110; Kokorev made a forced land-
ing but the 110 crashed. An hour later, Lieut. Butelin armed a Ju-88,
and Lieut. Ivanov rammed a Heinkel He-111. Incidentally, the He-ill was
designed by the same Ernst Heinkel who had designed the Albatros B-l that
Nesterov accounted for in 19131


1 The Russian word "taran" was previously used for a battering ram, or 0
for the spur on the stern of an iron-clad ship used for ramming.
2 With test pilot Valeri P. Chkalov, see Scott No. 1693.






The method usually used with the 1-16 was to fly gently into the tail-
feathers of the barber, as the rudder and elevators were not too resistant
to a whirling propeller, and it was pretty difficult for the German rear
gunner to hit the fighter in that position. The Russian pilot could force
land or bail out, in fact, one Boris Kovzan of the 184 IAP claimed four
Luftwaffe aircraft by ramming, Alexander Khlobystov claimed three, and 17
other V-VS pilots claimed two each! The intrepid Viktor V. Talalikhin,
became the first nocturnal 'taran' attacker when he rammed a German air-
craft over Moscow, on an August night in 1941. This event is illustrated
on Scott Nurbers 860 and 860 A, and seems to be featured again on Scott
No. 982.

Taking these in order, we look first at the 20-kopek bluish-black (Scott
No. 860), which was one of a set honouring Russian military heroes of
World War II, or The Great Patriotic War in Russian terms. Design was by
V. Bilikova, printing was photogravure, line-perforated 12j, with the first
issue of 3-million in November of 1942 (Gibbons says, 1 Noverber). The
identical design was revalued to 30-kopeks in April 1944, and reissued
in Prussian green or blue-green (depending on which catalogue you use).
This reissue ran to 5-million copies. Identifying the aircraft on this
design is difficult, although the German barber exhibits sane character-
istics of the Heinkel 111, while the Russian fighter has an in-line
engine, and not a radial. One account I found indicated that Talalikhin
flew an 1-16, which seems probable, but the one shown on the stamp is
certainly not an 1-16, likely a Yak-1, or perhaps a MiG-1.

The other stamp depicting a nocturnal ramming is Scott No. 982, one of
a set of three issued in June of 1945 to ca rmrorate the third anniver-
sary of the battle of Moscow. The stamp this time is the 1-ruble value
black-brcwn, photogravure, line-perforated 12j, but designer Bilikov has
added a second barber, caught in a cone of searchlights and deleted any
reference to Lieut. Talalikhin, but there can't have been that many night
rammings. The German barber now looks more like a Dornier 17 or 215, but
the fighter remains the same, clearly with a liquid-cooled engine.

The identification of these two aircraft will therefore have to await a
little more data, which shouldn't be too difficult as the event was well
publicized.

This ends the tale of Petr Nikolaevich Nesterov, another interesting
chapter in the history of Russian aero-philately.




M'-


,, \. "



Scott 860 or 860A -tT .-s C Scott 982

Scott C-120
Scoot C-120







TRADE CARDS WITH RUSSIAN THEMES


by W1m. H. Slate



Trade cards are illustrated cards, with or without advertising texts on the
front and/or back and normally enclosed by manufacturers as a complimentary
gift in their products. In the case of smaller users, they would buy them
without texts from the printers or publishers and either handstamp or print
their own advertising matter on the backs. These would then be handed out in
groceries or other stores and companies. Judging from the stamps and other
subjects shown on these cards in natural colours they appear to date from
the 1880s and 1890s. With the passage of time,not many have survived and they
are therefore scarce to rare.
The first examples to be considered here are from a series issued by J.S. Kirk
and Co., manufacturers of soap in Chicago, Illinois. The set shows girls in
natural costumes, holding the national flag or standard and also a reproduction
of a postage stamp of the country concerned; all lithographed in natural colours
against a gilt background. Figure 1 shows the 3-kop. black and green stamp of
Imperial Russia in excellent detail including readable Russian inscriptions
and cancelled with crossed pairs of lines showing the word "RLBSIA" between two
of the lines. The design size is 73.5 x 110.5 mm. The text at top reads "J. S.
KIRK & CO'S Chicago SOAPS are of extra quality and strength". A further
printing, without any advertising matter, was apparently done in France, as the
stamp reproduction is cancelled with the word "RUSSIE" (see Fig. 2). This
printing has also been reported with an advertisement handstamped on the back
of "Marquette's Famous Home Made Candies of Chicago"l it would be helpful if
readers of "The Post-Rider" could send in an illustration of that text. Meanwhile,
please see Fig. 3 for the printed advertisement of R. & J. Gilchrist, placed on W
the back of one of these French-printed cards featuring Greece; it would be
useful to know if the Gilchrist imprint is also to be found on the card for
Russia.





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--Fig. 2
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102
Fig. 1

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Fig. 2
Fig. 1


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A similar series, with the artist's initials given as "C. A.", features postal
cards of various countries together with a girl in the appropriate national
costume. The Russian one in the set appears to have a design measuring 70 x
112 mm, and shows the 3-kop. city postal card of 1 May 1872 in its natural brown
colour (Fig. 4). The reproduction is so good that all the Russian inscriptions
can be read with ease and they contain only a few mistakes.
The next set to look at is "The Mail In....." series. Figure 5 shows the front
and back for a specimen devoted to Bulgaria. The card is noteworthy because the
Bulgarian stamp at top right is cancelled "SEBASTOPOL 2.IX.98". In other words,
what we have here is a Bulgarian stamp "used abroad" in the Crimea I Figure 6
shows the front and back for the Russian card for Siberia in the series,
obviously reprinted for another advertiser in Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. A. Cronin
has in his collection a fine German version of this last card, entitled "DIE
POST IN RUSSLAND / SIBERIEN" and on the back there is the German text shown in
Fig. 6a in blue. The translation supplied by Mr. Cronin goes as followss-
"LOWER PART, The "Roasted Cogfees" of C. Retelsberg of Hamburg are
unexcelled for strength and aroma.


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III 5Unuplatplia a gnp i 3 I *'uaHiveupalg ilam ap ui lesis alte qo t uiaqq 1 laZ
aIn *uaqa6B5sne Wun!llqnd si p ue 0*81 J4tf aialp u)plazlaa)13 u1lja IP alp uapan
pun 6unpuJa 3iPlllSu11 aula 11 wo4 uallzia .2lJaql Ul aijetujplIlg 11
*alAuM)4g JI10
Fig. 6a.
Uniibertroffen an Kraft und Aroma
sind die
,,Ge r6steten Kaffees"
von
C. Retelsdorf, Hamburg.




COLUMBIAN BANNER

LOW DOWN
j _3 REVERTIBLE FLUE

A STRONG, EFFICIENT Fig. 7.
AND
POWERFUL FURNACE
.- = .Fig. 6b.
Sold by







.--.- j LNl I IH GOLD BAKING I'OIWDER .

'' "t'-f atr ilfnaie "r uH i alth,, i, 'ar i,,f ll it ni mr-
The st~amp int UIi )i tits resent ortml sfigi an i ionig ad h .i v e
o, h.. k: ... .su. l .... -.I I ,,, uir ratr ai ltyad (ai toi th' e worl-'^ da% d;^ h v-'" e"-*** 't.r i *''''"" t" 1 fl:lldt :l; l p a:alpli; ir tai d t a:.-;i ( r. Fig s 8,
pI. A. t~f j
d ee,''- Sto '?- ,:.-.-'e"i it tl ...i rl e 'w i ll .a>e o -,,h


N ', *. "eCl's ihls ,,toeetc T e c.ol. t ., .hle );s a
.* -+i+' *.- *' I 1, ho. t.ii _i l t50 1 I td !u ,t s- i, t,-, ,;; t j .+


aiIrpBirl, N Y, ,nl o ToronIo, On .
UPPER INVERTED PARTi The Postage Stamp.
The stamp in its present form is an English invention and the first values
of this kind were issued to the public in 1840. Practically all countries in
the world have postage stamps at present. Their outward appearance is very
diverse. They are decorated with the portrait of the ruler, the arms of the
country, emblems, historical events, etc. The colours of the stamps are most
varied, but some uniform colours have already been introduced by the
Universal Postal Union, i.e. blue for the 25-centimes stamp (20 pfg.), red
for the 10-centimes stamp (10 pfg.) and green for the 5-centimes stamp (5 pfg.):'
An apt and precise definition of the postage stamp I
Another advertisement apparently applied to the backs of cards of this series,
although not yet seen for the Russian or Bulgarian ones, is that for the

12






Columbian Banner Furnace, as shown in Fig. 6b.
The third set is another one lithographed in two countries, this time showing
banknotes of various countries in the foreground together with coins, a person
in native costume and examples of franked mail. Figure 7 shows the particularly
beautiful card for "Russie" (Russia), printed by Bognard of Paris. It is
inscribed at bottom left: "No. 5 DE LA SRIE DE 24 BILLETS" (No. 5 in the set of
24 cards). The design size is 54 x 76 mm. and is in unbelievable detail,
showing the 3-rouble banknote with the clear monogram of Tsar Alexander III,
Series A/B 781235 and the finer Russian inscriptions clearly readable. The
artist concerned obviously knew something about the language. There is no
advertising text on the back. However, Fig. 8 shows the American version of
this card, inscribed "Russia" and in poorer detail. The design size is now 62.
x 82- mm. and advertising has been added both front and back.
An especially beautiful card from a fourth set is now featured, with the imprint
"D. HUTINET PARIS" placed below the feet of the postman pictured at left (see
Fig. 9). Once again, the French artist must have known some Russian, as the
inscription "POCHTOVAYA / MARKA" above and below the postman is rendered
perfectly. We are given six stamps in natural colours on this card, with the
years of issue given below. There are two glaring errors: the year 1858 for the
5-kop. City Post stamp (should be 1863), while the 30-kop. stamp assigned to
1875 has the colours of the 20-kop. value (orange and blue) I That would have
been a spectacular variety. There is no advertising text.
The error of colour must have been noticed, since Mr. Cronin has a corrected
card in which the 20-kop. design not only has the correct colours of orange
and blue, but all six stamps are now provided with cancellations which are
different from and more suitable than those provided for the original card.
Please compare the original card (Fig. 9) and the corrected card (Fig. 9a).





...O. .il .." ,
r;. "1C" ,,T"7.-^ -5



1~* -
Fig 9. .
": "t. ^L t / l' ; '" M : S .
:... ,' .. -'w' :. .i --.- ,'






,/ \ "' i -." "
.' '- I 1 .
-II

L~"r~ ,. : b,
I. ." ; .. ..


Fig. 9a.


rr


Fig. 10.









-AV 11
Th "ussi'; a" ,. -e cosst "l ... e i the---. .. -p ei -s o '0


Mfg Co of Peterborough Ontario (please see Fig -. 10 for front & back of card)-














Finally, to round off the discussion, we see a card with a map of European
Russ issued by the Arbuckle Bros Coffee Co. (now absorbed by General Foods)
", .. //i/ ^/^ ** ,s',,.. "-- "-' e -.** i
**5 "-_' _._ -___- :^


-J *

Fig. --

The arms of Imperial Russia were consistently included in the stamp designs of
the country and we have a card here including them on the flag of the Empire.
The back of the card has an interesting Canadian imprint ofseen so far by then
Mfg. Co. of Peterborough, Ontario (please see Figs 10 for front & eack of card)a
Finally, to round off the discussion, we see a card wth a map of European
Russia, issued by the Arbuckle Bros. Coffee Co. (now absorbed by General Foods)
in 1889. The map has several spring varieties and theistakesr cooperating Ocean, Urea Mountains,
Kishrsv for Kishinev, Pultova for Poltava and Toganrog for Taganrog (see Pig.11).
That completes the description of all the cards and sets seen so far by the
author.
EDITRIAL CO MENTt Other cards and sets must exist and our readers are
cordially invited to send in details. As some of the sets appear to havelic
originated in Europe, our French and German readers should be able to turn cities
some very interesting varieties and their cooperation would be greatly appreciated.



A ZEMSTVO SIDELINE

by Andrew Cronin


The story of the creation of the Zemstvo Posts, their
functions and their relation to the Imperial Russian Postal Service
have allcredit for this must be giaten to death by many previous writers and there
is no need to repeat the gory details here. However, it is not
generally realized that, in the 19th Century, the philatelic
interest in these issues was so great that considerable quantities
were imported by the advanced Western countries. The main result
was that the bulk of the Zemstvo stamps now in existence mas
saved from the ravages of revolution and subsequent wondrous doings.
The credit for this must be given to the leading dealers of the
time, such as Messrs. William Lincoln and Stanley Gibbons of Great
Britain, Monsieur J.B. Moens of Belgium, GebrUder Senf in Leipzig,
Germany etc.etc.






































The first clue noticed by the present writer to the
philatelic investigation of this importing function was Lot No. 3056
in the auction of 9th December, 1978, held by the Cherrystone Stamp
Centre, Inc. of New York City. This was an Imperial registered
cover No. 35 with one copy each of the current 5K,.8K,. and 10K.,
mailed atShlyusselburg (SchlUsselburg) on 10th May, 1876 and addressed
to William Lincoln, Commission Agent, 239 High Holborn, London,
(England). Mr. Lincoln had supplied his address on a printed and
boxed 4-line white label, similar to the address labels of today,
for the convenience of a reply. It is obvious what he was doing
in this particular case; he was buying the remainders of the
sole Zemstvo stamp issued by SchlUsselburg.
The writer has a further example of Mr. Lincoln's
activities in the form of a self-addressed cover sent back to him
from the Zemstvo Centre of Irbit (see illustration). Franked
with a verticalpair of the current 5 Kop. postmarked IRBIT 5th
February 1878, it also bears one of Mr. Lincoln's address labels
referred to above. Once again, he was either importing or inquiring
about Zemstvo stamps.
Other Imperial covers must be floating around from
Zemstvo towns, addressed to Mr. Lincoln or other importers and it
is up to Zemstvo enthusiasts to search them out. Such items
form a necessary and noteworthy part of any collection of these
fascinating issues. We will be happy to publish in future numbers
of "The Post-Rider" details of other covers that come to light.








THE CANADIAN SIBERIAN EXPEDITIONARY

FORCE 1919 -19


(Courtesy of the National Postal Museum, Ottawa and originally displayed at
"Stampbx Canada-78" in Toronto, Ont.).
Canadian forces have served in many campaigns overseas. Perhaps none were utilised
so poorly as the Siberian Expeditionary Force of 1918-1919. The collapse of the
Eastern Front following the Russian Revolution prompted the Allies to intervene in
Russia. This was done on three fronts, with Canadian and British troops being
committed to Siberia. Other countries, including the USA, participated in this
Expedition. Ostensibly, the C.S.E.F. was required to support the Czechoslovakian
forces fighting deep inside Russia and to keep German divisions from being
transferred to the Western Front. However, with the advent of the European
Armistice on 11 November 1918, there was no valid reason for the Expedition.
The advance party of the Force left Vancouver aboard "The Empress of Japan" and
arrived at Vladivostok 15 days later. The main body of the force, which totalled
4188 men, arrived between November 1918 and the following January. Number 5
Detachment of the Canadian Postal Corps, comprising Lieutenant J. R. Ross and
three other ranks, was responsible for the mail arrangements for the Canadian
and British troops. It was never possible to establish a satisfactory service
and there were many delays in getting the mail to and from the soldiers. Mail
was sent through a variety of channels and several countries.
On 9 December 1918, a detachment of 45 officers and men was sent to Omsk to
support British troops. At least one member of the Postal Corps Detachment
accompanied it. Mail was received at Omsk on at least four occasions, the last
arriving on 5 May 1919.
The Postal Corps Detachment left Vladivostok on 27 May 1919 and the last
Canadians were withdrawn on 3 June 1919.
*********************
illustrations:












Pig. is A view taken of Vladivostok in 1918. Fig. 2: The S.S. "Empress of
Japan, which transported the
advance party.


0






)I' '.

I el
r '

*. ..


*~~~ v,:*


Fig. 3s The earliest known
Force card, postmarked on
28 October 1918 and the only
known usage of the Hammer
No. 2 cancellation.


{k~i ~
-I


Fig. 41 These were the ships
that carried the mails to
the Canadian troops in
Vladivostok, i.e. the
"Fushimi Maru", "Chicago
Maru", s.s. "Protesilaus",
"Africa Maru", "Katori
Maru" and s.s. "Monteagle".


qd ; .i
-:s;~ ~.:


-
- -L, Mai....


I 13.


Fig. 5s 200th. Battalion of the Canadian
Rifles disembarking at Vladivostok.


I.


'a'S


Fig, 6: Cover to Canada from a member
of the Czechoslovak forces in Siberia,
showing the markings of the Czech 10th.
Rifle Regt., Czech FPO No.7 and CSEF
canceller dated May 12, 1919.



Fig. 7s A strike from the cancellation
hammer No. 1, used by the Force on
active service in Siberia and showing
the date given as 7 JUN 19.


S.


"... IR .-.L
\..-Y ., o '


1. ;


I t lit .


*e .


~d"iUL~"-


t.
'
"^'









pI


0.1




W IL u- s
i j


I .


Fig. 8s The only known example
of the "CHIEF PAYMASTER"
marking, dated 17 Dec. 1918.


U;-ll"~

.../


Kj


*r a-'


Fig. 924The earliest known
Force cover with the Hammer
No. 1 postmark dated NO 1,18.


-. IEk. a



..;. *, : .

I IL


Fig. 10: A Japanese Military Mail
Letter Card showing latest known
usage of BASE DEPOT mark (15.5.19).


,-


-,.* .... ,. ... -....
Sj
^ > .^


----- -----------.;a*

Fig. i1bs Another Canadian YMCA
cover type from the same collection.


On cjsL. iacui


I, "




*' ._ ,'. ------, ., ..^ -



Fig. 9b: A cover from the same
correspondence and with larger
FPO postmark dated NOV 15 1918.

V tc-t -

cj ; *aj*--'
QB~f '


Fig. 11as One of the Canadian YMCA
envelopes in the collection of
E. A. Richardson, of Texas, USA.


p


- I


Fig. lic: Another Canadian YMCA
cover type from the same collection.


N


S


S


I II


I


n .. I


I e


. '












'''
.r




--i


* ''.1


Fig. 131 An "On
259th. Bn. Can.
postmark, dated


Active
Rifles
FE 26,


I..,., *


Service" letter with the marking of the "ORDERLY ROOM,
(Siberia)" dated FE 24 1919 and the CSEF Hammer No. 1
19.


J 1,


Fig. 141 An illustrated Russian postcard, with an ORIERLY ROOM mark and the
CSEF Hammer No. 1 postmark, dated FE 26, 19.


1


V F- -.. 1i 11 I--_-


_ ___


--


t.... r

`j


"

.i:i
~a*~,,.


Fig. 12s The only known example of
the "RECEIVED" marking, dated
FEB 24 1919.








2.-- U: A .-

--- 4
so --
S I-"


*~ a- *: ... .., -..
a .

*'.. d%*.


- -


".4'


l^^?*^

'.4- ,'. .


.. ..


..- .. ...


-, 'a .,e *
... .. .'

-..- Fig. 15: A page from a diary
_- kept by Dr. enzies, assigned a
S*.. .--.. .."<-i... to the Advanced Hospital Unit
at Omsk. The entry for 12 Apr.
1919 confirms that a member
S of the Postal Corps was sent
Sto Omsk.
S .. '..; -. '_ ..... ,1, ,-- *


,- .- .*-*' i- -, .'* "


I

S -


f ,. .- -7 -" l :
,.. !


I&*P i" l c i ) i il t i i

-i A -


-'4'


Fig, 161 A registered "Church
Army Hut" cover, sent on
11.1.1919 and received in
London, Ont. on 6.2.1919.
This was the Protestant
type of cover,


Fig. 171 Another "Church
Army Hut" patriotic cover,
but a Catholic type this time,
The initials "K of C" stand
for "Knights of Columbus".


S


- '.4 /


.' II- j ;i.Et\ s Servitej.


- .* : 1


...:-,7.-,- \



) I
ii'




,I I '11
ii^ i i *


Itt r fl


-rrra-.--rrr~*r-~- u


- -- I,
Figs. 18a-bs Cover and card showing Censors
001 and 006.


0


LY i il- 9UCll


-----h-u*rra-pn----- --- -----L-~I~l I --~


-


-


t
I










'''


Fig. 18cs Cover showing Censor 010. Fig. 19as Back of a cover showing
tape of Canadian Censor C.458.


I,
/


(331


Fig. 19bs Front of the same cover, with Japanese postage of lOsen and sent from
Nagasaki on 3.3.1919. An enlarged drawing of the chop used by Japanese
Censor No. 3. is shown in the middle of the illustration.


Fig. 20s The latest known censored
cover from a British officer at Omsk,
sent on 15.2.1919 and with Canadian
boxed "CENSOR 003".


t"lll. I |**




A;








Fig. 211 A postcard with the portrait of
the Czechoslovak military commander Col.
Gaida (Hajda).


Z

O
S.


..


j
~.








SOME CONFUSIONS ON PRINTING METHODS


EXPLORED A

by Alan McKenzie





Now I am not saying that I am an expert in printing processes. Far from it. In
fact, the only reason I find myself involved in this article at all is due to
a chance meeting with Pat Campbell in 1975, shortly after I emigrated from
England to Canada,
Let me explain. Up to that time, I had been in the wilderness, so to speak. I
first started collecting Russian material in 1965 and, for ten years, slowly
and laboriously pieced together my collection while never coming across
another collector of Russian stamps. The local dealers never seemed to stock
much in the way of Russia. Some were positively abusive of my choice, with
comments about "Red" countries flooding the market with numerous issues. So,
my collection was accumulated mostly through the mail or auctions.
It was not until I met Pat Campbell, when he was President of the Lakeshore
Stamp Club in Montreal and which I had just joined, that I met an honest-to-
goodness real live collector of Russia. It just happened to be my good
fortune to run into an enthusiastic, totally dedicated and knowledgeable
collector and, as a result, that raised the level of my hobby from mere stamp
collecting to include specialised interests and research. It was during one of
these interesting evenings with Pat, poring over our collections (which
usually resulted in Pat discovering all sorts of interesting varieties and
postmarks, which I did not know I had), that we discussed the possibility of
some joint research. Pat later wrote me a letter suggesting we do a survey or
research of various stamp designers. Before we could get started, I decided to
link this with a personal project to join the Stanley Gibbons and Scott
catalogue numbers, since Gibbons lists stamp designers, whereas most magazines
quote Scott numbers for identification.
I really did not know what I was letting myself in for by listing all the
Scott numbers, followed by the respective SG numbers, stamp designers and type
of printing method used.I also listed cross references to Rossica, Post-Rider
and other reference material on specific stamps. This listing ran to over 120
pages and took three years on and off I
Whereas this listing was intended to form the basis of detailed research into
the designers of Russian stamps, it became clear as I proceeded that Gibbons
and Scott were not always in agreement as to the methods of printing used. So
I have sidetracked a little to produce the following list of these differences
of opinion between the experts (up to 1970), together with my own comments for
what they are worth I They have been confirmed by checking with the data given
in the Russian publication "Catalogue of the Postage Stamps of the USSR 1918-
1975", which is the most reliable source, as they are on the spot. The list
below shows the Scott and SG numbers and the printing method described by each
catalogue for the respective stamps.


I


I







GIBBONS Nos. COMMENTS


OCTOBER REVOLUTIONs
188-190 227-229
(lithographed) (typographed)


Visual appearance indicates
lithography. It would be
interesting to know why Gibbons
believes thev are tvnogranhaf-


1933 ORDER OF RED BANNER: A tough one. The black-brown
518 637 design is collotyped, with the
photogravuree) (litho. & yellow and red added on by
photogravure) lithography for the banner.
1940 AGRICULTURAL FAIRS This is tricky, but Gibbons is


794-810 920-936
photogravuree) (typographed)


right. What we have here is tri-
colour typography, including
half-tone blocks.


1943 WARs ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNs No printing dispute here.
877 1004 However, Gibbons has a printing
(typographed) (typographed) error, as it is not clear who
designed the stamp. It was
Bekhteev.
1950 AIVAZOVSKII: Gibbons is right,the coloured
1529-1531 1668-1670 centres being typographed from
(lithographed) (typographed) half-tone blocks.
1950 LEVITAN 50 KOP. VALUE; Gibbons is wrong here. This is
1528 1667 unquestionably photogravure.
photogravuree) (typographed)
1955 GARSHXNs Gibbons is basically right. The
1746 1880 Soviet catalogue says that an
(litho. & photo) (lithographed) offset litho process was used.
1957 FIELDINGI Both are wrong, as Fielding's
1946 2091 portrait has a fine background
(lithographed) photogravuree) of dots characteristic of the
collotype (phototype) process.
1957 YOUTH FESTIVALs Gibbons is right,the
1975-1978 2108-2110 centres being typographed from
(lithographed) (typographed) half-tone blocks.
1957 PEACEs The network of dots is a
1981-1982 2113-2114 characteristic of the collotype
(lithographed) photogravuree) (phototype) process, so both
are wrong.
1957 KRASNII-VYBORZHETS FACTORYs Not much doubt here it's
1987 2118 photogravure I
(lithographed) photogravuree)
1957 CONGRESS OF TRADES UNIONS: Looks photogravure to me and
1990 2124 that is confirmed by the Soviet
(lithographed) photogravuree) catalogue.


1957


ALL-UNION INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITIONs
1994 2150
(lithographed) photogravuree)


ditto.


ACTRESS ERMOLOVA:
2026
(lithographed)


ditto.
2159
photogravuree)


1957


YEAR SCOTT Nos.


1921









GIBBONS Nos. COMMENTS


ALL-UNION INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITIONs
2030 2168
(lithographed) (typographed)


JOLIOT-CURIE COMMEM.,
2171 2313
(lithographed) photogravuree,
with recess frame)


Gibbons is right; it is
typographed I


Both are wrong, as the
exceptionally fine background
of dots points to the collotype
process. Gibbons lists two
other varieties as to shade &
size.


1961 VENUS ROCKETi This is a difficult one, but an
2457 2572 offset litho process was used.
photogravuree) (lithographed)


BATTLE OF KURSKs
2757
(lithographed)


2854
photogravuree)


SOCIALIST CONGRESS
2765 2879
photogravuree) (lithographed)


Appears to be photogravure and
confirmed by the Soviet catalogue.
Tricky, as the other stamps in the
same set are done by the offset
litho process,
Once again Gibbons just gets by, as
the offset litho process was used.


GLADKOVs
2789
photogravuree)


FIRST IN SPACEi
2830-2835
(lithographed
& embossed)


MOSCOW ZOO0
2907-2911
photogravuree)


LENINGRAD POSTAL
2912
(lithographed)


ALUMINIUM FOIL
3022-3023
(lithographed)


POTEMKIN MONUMENT
3073
(lithographed)


LENIN MINIATURE
3113
(lithographed
& engraved)


2805
(lithographed)


2934-2939
(typographed
& embossed)


3002-3006
(lithographed)


SERVICEI
3017
(typographed)


STAMPS
3117-3118
(typographed)'


3161
photogravuree).


SHEETs
MS 3206
photogravuree
& recess)


Scott does not indicate any
difference in printing from the photo
stamps in this set. Compare this
stamp under a magnifying glass to see
that it was done by the offset litho
process.
The best way to identify typo stamps
is by looking for the printing
pressure marks on the backs. It is
confusing with this set, as the coat
of arms & space vehicles have been
separately embossed after printing.
Both catalogues agree that the 1 & 2
k. values are photo. The others, as
grouped here, were done by the offset
litho process.
Turn it over and look at the back.
It's typographed t

Clearly typographed, from the face of
the stamp. Not visible on the back
because of the metal foil. Combined
with embossing,
Seems photogravure. Compare to the
other litho-offset stamps in the set.


We can say that recess printing and
engraving are the same, for the stamp.
The frame part of the sheet is
photogravure.


1958


1959


*


1963


1963





1964



1964


1965



1965


1965


*


YEAR SCOTT Nos.








YEAR. SCOTT Nos.


KALININs
3116
photogravuree)


3209
(typographed)


Note the distinctive style of A. I.
Kalashnikov, who likes to specialise
in these woodcut designs. It is typo.


1966 CPSU CONFERENCEs Another Kalashnikov design and
3172 3264 typographed.
(typographed) (lithographed)


1967/ EXPO-67 MINIATURE SHEETs
3298 MS 3385
(lithographed) (typographed)


50TH. ANNIV. OCTOBER REVOLUTIONs
3357 3448
(lithographed) (typographed)


Both the stamp and surrounding sheet
are typographed.

Although the rest of the set is by
offset lithography, this final stamp
is typographed.


MEXICO OLYMPICS
3497
(lithographed
& photogravure)


MIN. SHEETs
MS 3585
photogravuree)


The whole thing is by offset
lithography, as are the stamps in the
set.


1968 MOLNIYA I MINIATURE SHEETs Done entirely by the offset
3543 MS 3631 litho process
(lithographed) photogravuree)
1969 LATVIAt It is photogravure.
3567 3658
(lithographed) photogravuree)
1969 CINE & BALLET EVENTS: Tricky, as these are a
3602-3603 3692-3693 combination of typography and
(lithographed) (typographed) the offset litho process.
1969 IVAN KOTLYAREVSKIII Everything typographed,
3611 3700 including the background.
(typo & photo) (typographed)


REPINi
3624-3628
(lithographed)


3713-3717
(litho & photo)


Not much doubt here 1 They are
done by the offset litho process.


1969 ZONDt It's photogravure I
3682 3757
photogravuree) (lithographed)


1969 OSTANKINO TOWER:
3688
(typographed)


EXPO-70 MINIATURE
3709
(engraved)


3776
(lithographed)


SHEET:
MS 3797
(typo & recess)


Both Scott and Gibbons are wrong.
It is done by offset lithography,
with the frame & words typographed.


Only the stamp is engraved (recess).
The rest of the sheet has been
done by the offset litho process.


1970 LENIN MINIATURE SHEETs This is a combination of
3711 MS 3799 typography and embossing.
photogravuree (lithographed
and embossed). and embossed)


COSMONAUTICS DAY:
3720
(lithographed)


Tricky, but the indentations on
3811 the back show that everything is
(litho, with typographed, including the
typo b'ground) background and red design.


1965


1967i


it is


1968


1969


1970


1970


'--- -- -


COMMENTS


GIBBONS Nos.









YEAR SCOTT Nos. GIBBONS Nos COMNEN~


LENIN CENTENARY
3729litho & typo
3730sphoto


3820s photo
3821s litho &
typo


The gold inscriptions have been
typographed over the designs, which
were done by offset lithography.


53RD. ANNIV. OCTOBER REVOLUTIONs
3777-3778 3866 & MS 3867
(lithographed (typographed
and embossed) and embossed)


Quite apart from the obvious
embossing, the reverse of these
stamps shows evidence of a
typographed printing.


BEETHOVENI
3795
(engraved)


3884
(recess & typo)


Another splendid Kalashnikov
design I I fail to see what portion
of the stamp was possibly
typographed unless it was the pink
background.


Here, then, are some observations. I would welcome any comments from readers,
particularly from anyone with a close knowledge of the printing business&
EDITORIAL COMMENT, From the interesting data given above, it would appear that
Gibbons' batting average is better than that of Scott's. However, we would suggest
that the editors of both catalogues should consult the Soviet catalogue, so as to
"clean up their act". The Russians have always been noted for their applications
and variety of printing techniques and, to give readers some idea of the scope
involved, we need just to look at two sets as good examples, as follows-
1927. TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE REVOLUTIONj


3 k., 8k. and 18 k.
5 k. and 28 k.
7 k.
14 k.


s typographed.
t photogravure.
i engraved (recess).
I lithographed.


1931. DIRIGIBLE CONSTRUCTION SETs
10 k. and 1 rouble a photogravure.
15 k. i lithographed (we will give plating data for this stamp).
20 k. t typographed, with the background in half-tone.
50 k. a collotype (the first Soviet, but not the first stamp in
our sphere printed by this process).
We intend to run a series of articles on printing processes in future issues 4
"The Post-Rider". The subject is fascinating and its study will help readers
get even more enjoyment out of their collections.
xOxOxOxOx0x0x0xx0xOx0xOx


S


1970


1970


1970


*


GIBBONS Nos, COMMENTS


YEAR SCOTT Nos,






RUSSIA-POLAND

SNew issues of Russia and Poland supplied at
reasonably spaced intervals at a 0% discount
from low level retail prices.

An up to date price list is available on request.
We handle specialized approvals of early Soviet
and Tsarist Russia including: various town
cancellations, errors, varieties, Zemstvos and
Offices. Please inquire.

L& F STAMP SERVICE


DIMONDALE MICHIGAN 48821



DEALERS.... J it
SYOU to adve0ti" i o



FULL Pag 535.00

HALF Ng $ 20.00



Q 393 STETE P RLIG

27
2?






A SOVIET CONSULAR STAMP IN CURRENT USE


by Dr. Dale P. Cruikshank






In 1979 I initiated procedures to secure an invitation for
a Soviet citizen to visit the United States for a few months.
Inquiries to the General Consul of the USSR in San Francisco
eventually brought by mail an official form for such an
invitation (vizov). I filled out the form with the necessary
information (name, address, age, etc., of the invitee), had
the form notarized by a local Notary Public, and then obtained
a certificate of authenticity of the notary from the Chief
Clerk of the First Circuit Court in Hawaii, all of which is
required by the General Consul of the USSR. I submitted this
notarized document with the certification, and $8.00, by
mail to the Consul, and about a month later received the
same forms with a 5-ruble consular adhesive stamp affixed to
the top of the page ( Fig. 1). The stamp was cancelled with
a purple handstamp reading rOJ-J1 EHO (polucheno--received),
and a purple stamp showing the Soviet coat of arms appeared
to the right (Fig. 2). Also at the top of the page was a
rectangular block 85 x 36 mm in purple indicating that the
document was issued by the General Consulate in San Francisco.
It was dated and signed. I mailed this certified and stamped
invitation form to my acquaintance in the USSR, where he will
present it to the authorities who grant or deny requests for
visits abroad.

This 5-ruble stamp has not been reported in the standard
literature of Russian philately, and a description may be
of interest to the readers. The dimensions of the printed
rectangle of the stamp are 15.3 by 21.7 mm, the perforation
is 12, and the printing is by lithography. In color, the stamp
is similar to the dark gray-green of the 1-kopek of the 1976
standard issue, the dimensions of which are also similar
(metalography 14.0 x 21.4, lithography 14.4 x 21.0 though the
consular stamp is printed on light green paper with a pattern
of curved intersecting lines)(see Fig.l).

It is not known if this consular stamp is one of a series of
different denominations, nor is the date of issue apparent.
In overall design, the stamp is similar to the standard postage
stamp issue of 1976 (the lithographed edition of this series
appeared in 1977).
Additional information on earlier Soviet consular stamps is
found in the British Journal of Russian Philately, No.s 53
and 54.

0













0 CCCP


"(a


.1rv .t";'


Fig. 1.


Fig. 2,


- P44l4AJ
It. 13


.4


, unenoanc>/y7 7
F ithe un.ersi. c
I, the undersigned


rDa iaHen
a citizen


Coe08TIIIeHHHLX ITSTC
of the United Stal


Fig. 3.


29


b' CaEu


~cLiP






CLASSIFYING CANCELLATIONS


by P.J. Campbell



At the recent CSRP International in Toronto, the subject of cancellations
came up, particularly the purchasing of cancellations on covers in mail
auctions. We generally agreed that more and more interesting material
appears in international mail auctions, and we must often make our bid on
a few lines of text, with no accompanying photograph. The description
might say, "tied by VladivostoK 30 Jan 24" or "circular CCNSlITEW NPI
March 31, 1864," but no real idea of whether the cancel is part or full,
clear or fuzzy, legible, or discernable only be an eagle-eyed expert with
a battery of lamps and filters. If the stamps themselves can be classified
as fair, fine, very fine, extremely fine and superb, can't we have a simi-
lar system for cancellations. This is important because a good railway,
field post office, or steamship cancel, or a first-day or special cancel,
can sometimes double or triple the price of a cover when the price of the
stanp itself is of no significance. We discussed what we would require in
such a system and one system is summarized as follows:

Legibility: A bold, clear, sharp, complete
B fully readable, slight inperfections
C mostly readable (40-80%)
D partly readable (20-40%)
E fuzzy-barely readable

Caompleteness: 1 100% complete
2 80% complete
3 60% complete
4 40% complete
5 20% complete

The catalogue would state something like the following:

1. "tied by c.d.s. A.1 Murafa Pod. 2 Oct 1918"
means a canpleteentirely legible cancel with the entire circle
included on the cover or the stamp

2. "c.d.s. D.3" means that only part of the wording can be read,
perhaps 30%, and that only 60% of the circle is present

3. "s.l E.3" means a straight line cancel, barely readable, fuzzy,
with only about 60% of the cancellation appearing

4. "c.d.s. B.5" might be a readable cancel with only 20% showing,
but thatT's sometimes enough for identification

If such a system were adopted, and used in good faith, as is ocrnenly done
in describing the stamps themselves by the reputable auction houses, it
might help us bid for choice pieces with more confidence, and perhaps re-
late quality and price more accurately.




30






POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS

by Alex Artuchov and G.G. Werbizky


MARA&S (Nizhnii Novgcrod Province)
1874


Similar to Ardatov, Nos. 1/2, 22.5 x
white gum, imperforate.


28.5 amn, lithographed on white paper,


1. 3 kcp. indigo blue


Cancellations:


RaR


in pen and ink with cross-shaped pen stroke.


1874


Similar to No. 1, new denomination, beginning and end of inscription in
oval separated by a star, 22.75 x 29 mn, lithographed on white paper in
two thicknesses 0.05-.06 and 0.08-.1 mn, white gum, sheet 5 x 6.


2. 5 kcp. indigo blue and dark blue


Cancellations:


circular postmark (28 rnm) in
AP3AMACK.yA3.3EMCKOR YnPA
crown in centre.


blue or black, inscribed
with coat of arms and


In 1889, impressions of this postmark were made on sheets of paper which
were divided into squares by pencilled lines with each square receiving
one impression. These were used for sealing the envelope flaps.




a- .7, n
^s^, ^r^


25.00






1876-77

Similar to previous issue, onamental star at top of the oval, a dotted
line added to upper shaped onament of coat of arms, 22.25 x 29 amn,
lithographed on white paper, imperforate, sheet 8 x 3 + 1 starp at the
bottan placed sideways and with top to left, each of the 25 stamps is of
a different type, differing in positions of letters and numerals and the
star at the top of the oval, as well as the horizontal centre line divid-
ing the oval, 2 printings.


First Printing (1876)

Cn white paper, 0.05 inn, white gum.


*


3. 5 kcp. indigo blue, dark blue
slate blue


50.00
RRRR (3)


Second printing (1877)
On white paper, 0.1-0.12 nn, yellowish gum.


4. 5 kop. dark red
rose red


8.00
R


1880

Similar to Ardatov No. 4, lithographed on two types of white paper, one
with watermarked horizontal lines, squared every 8-9.5 rm, and quadrilli
paper, 0.07 in, white gum, sheet unknown, largest known block 4 x 2 as
cn diagram, and 2 x 4 block without inverts known, 4 types, imperforate.

1 2 E 4 Z
S1 214


*


1 2 3. 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1 -- ---


) r-


"'






Main Characteristics of the Four Types

Type 1. The "V" shaped parts of
coat of arms do not touch any of
the oval outlines. Small break
in left frame line near bottom
"5". Large "A" in word "Yb3;".

Type 2. "A" in "Yb3TA" close to
star. "V" shaped part of the
coat of arms almost touches to
oval outline at right bottom.


Type 3. "V shaped part touches
oval outline at left bottan.




fTyp 4. Wide "A" in word
Bottom star with
four rays. "V" shaped part al-
most touches the animal's foot.


5. 5 kop. red, light and dark, on paper
with watermarked horizontal lines

6. 5 kcp. red on quadrill4 paper


75.00


RRR (6)


1882 (end)

Similar to 1877 issue, corner numerals in colour in white circles, in-
scriptio on left side of oval moved to right side and comersely,
22.5 x 28.5 nm, lithographed, on white paper, 0.06 am, white gum, sheet
of 5 x 5, each of 25 stamps famns different types; types AstinguiFsbed
by shape and position of corner numerals and lettering as well as small
stars and other minor details, imperforate.


*


7. 5 kop. red, light and dark'


3.00


Cancellations:


3 types of postmarks used
violet:

a) as illustrated above


in black, blue or gray-


1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25


IS
i:







b) single line A 3


3 1


Note: While plating of the 25 types is not exceedingly difficult,
the 25 types can be separated into two distinct groups, This
is as a result of two transfer blocks, with two stamps, (2 x 1)
each of the stamps being one of the two basic types.


Description of the Two Types


e2 1. Break in right side of NE
cice with numeral "5". Dot inside
letter "C" in the word "AP3fM C".
large break in left wavy frame line
over letters "an".


Type 2. Without break in NE circle*
without dot in letter "C".-- Small
break in left wavy frame line over
"aH". Break in centre of bottom
wavy frame line under *.


*F


1886-90


Printed by hectographic means, similar to No. 7, in different colour
and design, on different papers, white or yellowish gum, inperforate,
sheet 5 x 6, first two printings with 10 types followed by 28 print-
ings with 5 types.
The hectographic process permitted only 80 or so sheets to be printed
at any one time and each issue consisted of approximately 2,500 stamps.
Over the duration of the two and one half years that these stamps were
printed, there was a new printing every seven weeks. To determine pre-
cisely the length of each run is virtually impossible. Since few stanps
came into the hands of dealers -and since onst cancelled copies carry the
undated A3 marking, it is also virtually impossible to determine the
chronology of these printings accurately.


1 .2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1

1 2 1 12 1
1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 1 2 1
12121
12121
12121
12121


*


c) two line 3 A


a







First Printing 1886 (May 29)

Cn thin, smooth, white paper, 0.05 ran, 10 types.

S1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10


8. 5 kop. bluish-lilac 5.00

2nd Printing 1886

10 new types n smooth, white paper, 0.04 m.


1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10


9. 5 kop. bluish-lilac 10.00

3rd Printing 1886

5 new types an white paper, 0.07-0.09 ram.


S1 2 3 4 151


10. 5 kop. bright violet, light and dark 10.00
4th Printing 1886

5 new types on hard yellowish-white paper, 0.12 rmn, yellowish-white

g12n.
1 2 3 4 5I


11. 5 kcp. bright violet 10.00

5th Printing 1887

5 new types, thin, smooth paper, 0.06-0.08 rmn.





S 12. 5 kop. lilac, light or dark 8.00



35







6th Printing 1887
5 new types, stiff, smooth paper, 0.08 mn.

1 2 3 4 5

13. 5 kop. bright violet
7th Printing 1887
5 new types, stiff, smooth, thick paper, 0.11 mn.


1112131 4 5j


14. 5 kcp. bright violet
8th Printing 1887
5 new types, on hard, thick, white paper, 0.12-0.14 mn.

1 2 13 4 151


15 5 kp. reddish-lilac


9th Printing 1888
5 new types on yellowish-white paper,


1 12 3 4 15


16. 5 kop. reddish-violet
10th Printing 1888
5 new types on yellowish-white paper,.


17. 5 kop. bright violet


5.00


0.07 mn, yellowish gum.


5.00


0


8.00


10.00


3.00


*


11 2 j3 4 5


0.09 mn, yellowish- hite gum.






11th Printing 1888
5 new types on thick white paper, 0.14 nm, brittle, white gum.


1 2 3 141 5


18. 5 kcp. bright violet
12th Printing 1889 (July)
5 new types an hard, white paper, 0.11 mm.


10.00


112 131 4 15


19. 5 kcp. bright violet, light or dark
13th Printing 1889
5 new types an thin (0.08 mm) and sanewhat
paper, brownish-yellow gum.


6.00


thicker (0.09 m) smooth


1 2 3 4 5


20. 5 kop. bluish-lilac, light or dark


3.00


14th Printing 1889
5 new types on smooth, stiff paper, 0.1 m, yellowish-white gum.


1112 13 4 I1 5


21. 5 kop. bright violet, light and dark
15th Printing 18??
5 new types an smooth, hard, yellowish-white paper, 0.08 mm.


3.00


1112 3 4 s5


22. 5 kcp. bright dark violet


I


6.00







16th Printing 18??
5 new types an smooth yellowish paper, 0.09 mn, smooth yellowish,gum.




23. 5 kcp. violet, light violet 5.00
17th Printing 18??
5 new types an thick yellowish paper, 0.13 m, white gum.


1 2 3 1 4 5


24. 5 kop. deep dark violet 25.00
18th Printing 9890
5 new types n white paper, 0.09 mn, white gum.

1 2 1 3 14 jj5


25. 5 kop. bright violet 10.00

19th Printing 1890 beginning )
New types on vertically laid (0.08 m) or ordinary white paper (0.09 am),
4 types known.
26. 5 kcp. violet, light violet, reddish-lilad RR (9)
Unidentified Printings
There are 47 types known which represent sane ten additional printings.
Covers with stamps of the 1886-90 issue are forgeries. Covers were
never used in the Arzamas district for official notifications.
1890-1905
Printed by the State Printing Office in St. Petersburg; sane design as
previously but refined, 23 x 29 mn, typographed cn white paper, 0.06 amn,
white or brownish-yellow gum, perforated 13, sheet 10 x 6; 3 printings.

E^' j!





First Printing (May 1890)
27.' 5 kop. brown-violet


Issue of 12,000 stamps


1.00


a) as previous


b) round date stamp (27 am) in black or greenish-
blue, inscribed AP3AMAOC.EB3.3EMSCKA IOEAX with
the date in the centre in 3 lines, earliest known
usage, May 16, 1890.

,. ~;.. ,.AP





c) large rectangular postmark (73 x 25 mn) in violet,
inscribed in two lines AP3AMAOCKA / yi3.3EC.
Y1iPABA


d) large round postmark (35 mn),
AP3AMACK.yB3.3EMI3(CKR YIPAEB,
and crown in centre, violet


inscribed
with coat of arms


e) only year designation of 1897 in black



18976


AP3AMACCKAR

vE 3. 3 EMC.VnPABA


Cancellations:







Second Printing (October 1902)

No. 27 in new colour.

28. 5 kop. dark green

third Printing (1905)

No. 28 in new colour.

29. 5 kop. orange-yellow


Issue of 15,600 stamps (?)


*


1.00


1.00


Cancellations: a) as for No. 27

b) large oval with inscription on top AP3AMCCKA)I
YES~JHAI, below 3EMCKAR PABA, date in riddle
(?) 1905, in violet

c) unreadable, in violet





& &
& THE KINGDOM OF POLAND &
& Poland No.1 and associated Postal History
& &
& by M.A. BOJANOWICZ, RDP
& &
published by THE ROYAL PHILATELIC SOCIETY &
&
& The book is a Dag Quarto of some 170 pages plus at least 20 plates, &
& some in full colour. Additionally there is a large number of line &
& drawings in the text. It is bound in full buckram with gilt tops &
& and thus follows the standard presentation adopted for the Society's &
& major works. The Appendix contains the valuation in points of all &
& Polish cancellations on No. 1 and early Russia used in Poland. The &
& edition is limited to 500 numbered copies for sale. &
& &
& &
& The publication can be delivered by return of post after payment of &
& 30 (thirty English Founds) plus postage. &
& &
& &
& Copies may be ordered from: M. A, Dojanowicz, &
& 40 West aHll, &
& Wembley Park, &
& Iiddlesex, &
& GLAND. &


S







A DOUBLY RARE CANCEL NATION



by Rev. L. L.Tann


A few months ago, a Russian collector, Mr. A. Speeckaert of Vilvocrde in
Belgiun, wrote to me asking my opinion on two Rcmanov stamps, and he en-
closed photocopies. These, he wrote, he found in a bundleware lot he
bought, and don't we envy him his good fortune' For the two items were
a 35k Paul I and 70k Michael Feyordorovitch, both with clear cancels of
"URGA V MN1GOLII," Urga in Mongolia. At present rates, these stamps
with this cancellation are worth at least several pounds sterling or more.

Interest in one, the 35k, is increased by the fact that the postmark is a
very clear "21-12-12," that is, December 21st 1912, in fact fourteen days
before the Rcmanov stamps went on sale on January 2nd 1913.

Now of course, it is quite possible that the postal clerk was in error,
and mistakenly changed the year instead of the day. Such errors are not
unknown to Russian philately, and this then would be an example of a
clunsy clerk perhaps having consumed more than his fair share of vodka'
- muddling the date.

A 2k Roaanov stamp cancelled 30-12-12 was the subject of discussion by
Dr. Salisbury, the late giant of Russian philately. He also suggested it
as an error by the clerk, but finally expressed his opinion that it was
indeed a pre-release use. Perhaps the postal clerk, having run out of 2k
stamps at the counter, drew on the stocks of Romanov stamps rather than
the current Arms stamps.

I have the well known cover front Novgorod in December 1908, with the 1909
7k blue clearly cancelled December 1908. This stamp was thus used almost
three weeks before the 1909 Arms stamps went on sale. Likewise, the
counter clerk had run out of 7k stamps, the old 1902-6 issue, and reached
for a fresh batch. It was the new 1909 issue stocked ready for January
1909, and he used a 7k front this batch.

In my humble opinion, our Belgian friend, Mr. Speeckaert, has in fact a
doubly rare cancellation. I am prepared to accept that the clerk at
Urga had run out of 35 kopek stamps, probably at the post office desk,
and went to get sane more. Inadvertently, or because they came first to
hand, he pulled out a sheet of 35k Rananov stamps. They had probably
only been recently delivered ready for issue in January 1913. He sold
this one copy, which was affixed to the envelope (certainly registered
for such a high value) and thus it was used in December 1912. He probably
never gave it a second thought.

A rare postmark and a notable item into the bargain. And front a cheap
lot of bundleware, as Mr. Speeckaert put it!







THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF SOUTHERN

AZER BA JAN


by

Andrew Crcnin


Southern Azerbaijan, which speaks the same Turki language as the upper or
Soviet sector, is Iranian (Persian) territory. Iran is very much, and
painfully, in the news these days. Our Israeli contributor, Moshe Shmuely
of Tel-Aviv, has enquired about same of its postal emissions and the time
is now ripe for a comprehensive survey of those issued locally in Northern
Iran. Most of them can really be regarded as Soviet issues, as all but
the first set appeared when Red Army or Soviet Army units were in Northern
Iran.


I

The first set, which was never put into circulation, was supposed to have
issued in Tabriz, the capital of Southern Azerbaijan, in 1909, by a revo-
lutionary party under the authority of Satar Khan. Both Azerbaijan and
the neighboring province of Mazanderan were in revolt against Shah Mo-
hammad Ali of the Aajar Dynasty, as he had abolished the Iranian Consti-
tution.

The four stamps all have the same unusual design and colours and were
apparently lithographed in Tabriz or Teheran, with a line perforation
of 134. The design measures 35 x 24 mn, and shows the insurgent flag
attached to its pole. The top bar is in green, the middle bar white,
and the bottom bar in red (see Fig. 1). The inscriptions are as follow:

Green Bar: Figures of values (50, 100, 200, or 500), and two
words in red reading, "TAMBR POST" (sic), meaning
"postage stamp."

White Bar: PANJAH or SAD or DEVEST or PANSAD DINAR (50, 100,
200, or 500 dinars; 50 dinars = 1 shahi), with the
word MOVAGHAT (= Provisional) in the centre.

Red Bar: Green figures of value and inscription, reading
DAKHELE AZERBAIJAN (= within Azerbaijan).

This set turns up again under Section IV below.






Fig 1 .- --- -








We now cane to the Mirza Kuchik Khan interlude. This gent was a very
shifty character indeed. During WI, he was the head of the Jangli
gang of robbers, in which he took from the rich and gave unto himself.
His base of operations was at KASMA, 17 miles west of Resht, in the
province of Gilan on the Caspian Sea. There were several unsuccessful
Irano-Russian expeditions against him in 1915-16, and by 1917, he was
already intriguing with the Germans and Turks. At the same tie, he
established good relations with the Bolsheviks after the Revolution,
deposed the Iranian governor of Resht, arrested the British Vice-Ccnsul
there early in 1918, and generally made a nuisance of himself.

The bands of Mirza Kuchik Khan and Emir Moayyid cooperated with the Red
Army, when it occupied the Caspian provinces of Gilan and Mazanderan,
in May 1920. On the 15th of that month, Mirza Kuchik Khan proclaimed
a Revolutionary Republic of Iran sometimess referred to as the Gilan
Soviet Republic) in Resht, and stamps were locally printed there in
five values, with the standard in red and an underprint in bistre, as
follow (Fig. 2):

3 shahis light brown .
6 shahis light blue .
9 shahis green Fig. 2.
12 shahis dark blue
24 shahis brown

They were produced on thick white wove paper and roughly perforated 11,
with a printing of about 30,000 copies each. They are mostly found with
Resht postmarks or portions of a special cachet, which has not yet been
deciphered. The details of the design are fascinating and worth describ-
ing here.

The values are given at the top of the design. In the centre, we have a
blacksmith with his hammer and anvil and flourishing a standard, upon
which the word "Kave" appears. At left centre, there is an additional
black overprint, reading "GIIAN, 25 sura 1294" (Province of Gilan and
date of proclamation of the republic in the Iranian lunar calendar).
The bottom tablet reads, "POST INQIIABI-I-IRAN" (Post of Revolutionary
Iran).

Kave was a legendary blacksmith, whose story is given in "Shahname" or
"The Book of Kings," a famous epic relating the history of Iran in
60,000 verses and written by the great poet Firdousi (Abdul Kasim Mansur,
930-1020 A.D.). The story goes that the ruling Khan or Ashmerid, was be-
witched by a shaitan (devil), who kisses him on both shoulders and two
snakes spring therefrom. According to the devil, the only way to survive
was to feed the snakes the brains of young men. Kave was a blacksmith,
who had seven sons and lost six of them to the snakes. By this time, he
was fed up and led a revolt against the Khan. Taking off his blacksmith's
apron, he used it as a standard (hence the design on the stamps), and
killed the Khan with his hammer.

Anyway, by December 1920, the Iranian Central Government had organized
an expeditionary force under Colonel Zahedi and defeated Emir Moayyid.
In Gilan province, a split occurred between the Communist chief
Ehsanolla Khan and Mirza Kuchik Khan, the latter declaring that Carmmnism
was contrary to Islam. Ehsanolla Khan was defeated by the Government
forces and escaped to Baku. Mirza Kuchik Khan tried to flee towards the






Khalkhal district, but while crossing the high mountain pass of Masule,
covered with snow, he froze to death.


III
During the period of all these wondrous doings, it nust have occurred to
the Republican authorities in Resht, that they should improve on the
crudely printed local stamps. It seems that a handsome set in 11 values, perf.
13 and imperf, was printed in Tabriz or Teheran, and inscribed in two
languages, Russian at top, and Farsi (Iranian) at bottom (Fig. 3). The
Russian inscription reads, "PERSIAN POST" and the Iranian says, "POST
JCMHURI-I-IRAN" (Post of the Iranian Republic). The first seven vertical
stamps show a group of seven armed Persian Cossacks, and the last four
horizontal, a lone Cossack taking aim. The values and colours are as
follow:

1 shahi lilac
2 shahis dark brown ---
3 shahis green
4 shahis dark green
5 shahis carmine
10 shahis blue
12 shahis yellow

1 kran dark slate I
2 krans pale green ---
5 krans blue
10 krans orange on cream paper Fig. 3.

There is a signature looking like a capital "Q" included just below the
frame line in the bottom right corner of all values and presumably re-
ferring to the designer. Judging from the numerous microscopic white
specks observed on all these stamps, it appears that they were produced
from lithographic stones. In other words, if sufficient multiples were
available, it should become possible to work out the lithographic trans-
fers. The line perforation has exactly the same gauge as for the "Flag"
stamps described in Section I, and it seems that both were produced by
the same printer in Tabriz or Teheran. Another feature that both sets
share is they were equally prepared for use but never issued.


IV
Paralleling the existence of the Soviet Republic of Iran in the two
Caspian provinces, a certain Sheikh MohaTmad Khiabani, headed a Reform
Party at Tabriz, the capital of Azerbaijan and defied the Central
Government in September 1920. Stocks of the unissued "Flag" stamps
were still available and were all provided with a bilingual overprint
applied diagonally in black, blue or violet by hand (soretires inverted)
as follows (Fig. 4): _____:



i -IJ J & I


Fig. 4.


I:






FIRST LINE: Two Iranian words, first in brackets (illegible)
and second reading "AZADISTAN."

SECOND LINE: "AZADISTAN" in English capitals.

The word "Azadistan" apparently means "Land of the Free." Since this set
was still inscribed in the obsolete dinar values, it appears to have caused
confusion and the stamps were then additionally surcharged by further hand-
stamps in Iranian, struck below the original overprint as follow (Fig. 5):


3 shahis" on 50 dinars
6 shahis" on 100 dinars
"12 shahis" on 200 dinars (?)
"24 shahis" on 500 dinars (?)


Fig. 5.
The last two surcharges have not been seen but are presumed to exist, as
the values would then match four of those in the Gilan Soviet Republic
set. The present writer has the "3 shahis"/50 dinars and "6 shahis7100
dinars surcharges, with double vertical perforation at the left side of
the stamps.

It has been reported that these stamps were actually used for postage
for two or three days, but only mint copies have so far been seen.
Sheikh Khiabani was defeated and killed soon afterwards by the Government
forces, thus ending this episode.


V
All these adventures in the general area of Northern Iran were over by
the middle of 1921, and nothing further of philatelic significance
happened until the Anglo-Soviet occupation of Iran during W~II. The
Red Army occupied the mainly Turki-speaking areas in the north, including
the provinces of Azerbaijan, Damghan, Gilan, Gorgan, the northern part of
Khorasan, Mazanderan, Qazvin, Semnan and Shahrud.

By 1945, an "Azerbaijan Democratic Party" had been formed in the Soviet
Zone. On 16 November 1945, elements of this party attacked the Iranian
forces in Azerbaijan and a meeting, proclaiming the autonomy of the
province, was held in Tabriz on the 21st of November. The Azerbaijani
Turki language was made official, 101 deputies elected and a national
army formed under Russian instructors. The Azerbaijani leader,
Jafar Pishevari (the word "pishevar" is Iranian for "workman") began
to institute land reform, etc. and the Anglo-American forces left Iran
on 1.1.1946. To get the Soviet Army to depart also from the North,
Iran took the case to the U.N. Security Council. The Russians evacuated
Iran on 9 May 1946. By 3.12.1946, the Iranian Army had begun definitive
operations to win back Azerbaijan and, by the 12th, they had entered the
capital of Tabriz. About 5,000 Azerbaijani troops, plus members of the
Autonomous Government, and including Pishevari, escaped across the border
into Soviet Azerbaijan; the revolt was over.






During the lifetime of the Autonamous Government, current Iranian de-
finitive stamps of the 1942-1945 issue were handstamped with a two-line
overprint, reading for the first time in Azerbaijani, as follows (see
Fig. 6):



15(> ;Fig. 6.
i ,J'd.>V 6 rr


"Azerbaican Milli HUkimeti" (Azerbaijan, Its National Governent)
"21 Azar 1324" (21 November 1945)

Fifteen stamps were affected: 5d, 10d, 25d, 35d, 50d, 70d, both 75d
colours, both Ir colours, 2r, 2r50, 3r, 5r, and 10r. These were the
only values placed in circulation. The entire Riza Shah airmail set
of 1935 with the "Iran" overprint also occurs mint with the Azerbaijani
handstamp, applied by favor only.

The handstamped issue is rare on cover. Sane examples of these usages
are shown from Ardebil, Khoi, and Tauris (Tabriz), from the collection
of Mr. E. Fraser-Smith of England (Fig. 7). Further data on all the
above material would be welcomed from our readers.



ARDEB IL









KHOI













TATRTS ( h-i1 rAT T -. :


Fig. 7.





Acknowledgements:

Grateful thanks are due for illustrations and information sent by
E. Fraser-Smith, Esq. of the Iranian Philatelic Study Circle (U.K.),
and Mr. Moshe Shmuely of Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Bibliography:

General Hassan Arfa: "Under Five Shahs," W. Morrow and Co., New York,
1965.

I. Kamenkovich: "Stanps of the Gilan Soviet Republic;" in "Philatelen
Pregled," No. 9, 1969, p. 7, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Fred J. Melville: "Azerbaijan," The Philatelic Institute, Landon, 1925.

Lt. Col. G.H.C. Napier: "Persian Rebellions and Stamp Shortages;" in
"The Lcndon Philatelist," April, 1968, p. 94.
THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET.


A

'B

B



E




3





K
AZ
N
H
0

on
P


Pronunciation
a as in far


g as in go
d
ye as in yet
yo as in yore
s as in treasure


i as in hit
i as in hit
short i
k

1
m
n
o as in for


C c
T T

Y y


X x

g i




]JlU4


LI sL
lb

*t6





*e e

Y v


Pronunciation


t
u as in put
f
hard h sound
ts
ch
sh
shch as in Ashchurch

hard sign (no sound)
y as in pity
soft sign (y sound)

ye as in yet
e as in met
yu as in yule
ya as in yard

f or ph

i as in hit


* abolished in 1918.


I







AN ORIGINAL SOVIET STAMPED ENVELOPE


by R. Polchaninov



On 16 Septa*ber 1977, the rate for sending letters to the capitalist con-
tries was doubled. This was done quietly, without any anmnoznoent at the
post offices, so that neither the postal officials nor the senders of
letters knew about it for a long time. Airmail letters with the 16-kopek
stamps imprinted or affixed sometimes successfully flew on planes to capi-
talist countries, but they were more often placed in mail bags and carried
by ships. Such letters took 2 to 3 months to arrive and people wondered
whether they should send letters anew by airmail and they could not under-
stand why the letters again took so long on the way.

But the country found out by word of mouth. Sooner or later, everyone now
knew that one had to put 32 kopeks on airmail letters to capitalist coutries
and not 16 kopeks as before. The State Printing Works (Goznak), where the
postage stamps and imprinted envelopes are printed, was apparently rne of
the last to know about.the rise in the rate for sending letters to capitalist
countries. Up to now, there are no 32-kopek definitive stamps at the post
offices and it was not until 28 March 1978 that a new illustrated stamped
envelope was sent to press with a representation of the "Tu-144" aircraft
and an impression in pale blue of two stamps of 16-kopeks each (see Fig. 1).
hy the old envelopes were not surcharged and why there are still no defini-
tive 32-kopek stamps is hard to say. But we must adnit that the problan was
solved in an original way.
Editorial Ocnment:

There are other interesting facets of this question that should be brought
to light. In common with most other stamps issuing countries, the USSR is
a member of the Universal Postal Union. The UPU, amsng other things, regu-
lates mail exchanges between maener countries and that requires that mail
going abroad be counted on a certain day during the year. If a country sends
more mail than it receives from another UPU member, the difference in trans-
mission costs must be settled in convertible currency. Because of continuing
inflation in the Western world, the external Soviet rates had been increasing-
ly lagging behind those of their foreign counterparts and the imbalance in
mail exchanges had been costing the USSR valuable hard currency. The new ex-
ternal rates were designed to counteract this trend.

We are now setting out hereunder the details of the current Soviet internal
and external postal rates.










SOVIET INENAL RATES AS CF 1 APRIL 1970

(a) Ordinary letter up to 20 g. (2/3 oz.) : 4 kcp. surface
: 6 kcp. by air

Each additional 20 g. or part thereof : 2 kcp. surface
: 3 kop. by air

Postcards : 3 kop. surface
: 4 kop. by air

Registration fee : 6 kcp.

(b) Printed matter up to 50 g. (1 2/3 oz.) : 3 kcp. surface
: 10 kcp. by air

Each additional 50 g. or part thereof t 2 kop. surface
: 6 kop. by air

Registration fee : 7 kop. surface
: 6 kop. by air

The same rates apply for mail to the other Socialist countries, up to 20 g.
in weight. Above that weight, the new external rates apply also to these
countries.

SOVIET EXERNAL RATES AS CP 16 SEPTEMBER 1977

(a) Ordinary letter up to 20 g. : 15 kop. surface
: 32 kop. by air

From 20 g. to 100 g. (3 1/3 oz.): : 35 kop. surface
: 95 kop. by air

Postcards : 10 kop. surface
: 27 kop. by air

Registration fee : 30 kcp.

(b) Printed matter up to 20 g. : 7 kop. surface
: 16 kop. by air

Frcm 20 g. to 100 g. t 16 kop. surface
: 47 kop. by air

Newspapers up to 20 g. : 7 kcp. surface
: 14 kcp. by air

From 20 g. to 100 g. : 16 kop. surface
: 36 kop. by air

Registration fee : 30 kcp.









The inference is obvious, If inflation continues to rise in the West, the
Soviet external rates will go up again, to the point where Soviet corres-
pekdents will eventually demand prepayment by their partners of a reply.
It should be noted that the Soviet internal rates have been stable for many
years, as there is little inflation within the country. Many prices have
risen drastically, but this is a deliberate Goverment policy to discourage
the purchase of luxury items, especially cars.
Finally, since Mr. Polchaninov wrote his article, 32-kopek stamps have now
appeared, as well as a 32-kopek airmail envelope, which went to press sane
time in 1978 (see Fig. 2). Note the French inscription "PAR AVIC" at the
top of the stamp design, which is printed in blue.












uc S


I '--4--4


Fig. 1.






































~~4-
, As

,.. :'/ ".. -.


FRIENDS OF "THE POST-RIDER".


-.^-*' -----*^*^^
.- .-. -
-L. ^-.)
~* '~.


John Lloyd, FRPSL, of Colchester
Essex, England and Acting Hon.
Secretary of the BSRP.


Herr Herbert Giese, of
Manderscheid/Eifel, the keen
leader of the BAG Russland-UdSSR
(Russia-IBSR Study Circle in
West Germany).


A.






RUSSIA'S RAILWAYS: ADDENDUM


by Rev. L.L. Tann


One of the ways philatelic frontiers are advanced, is when a collector
writes in an article "such-and-such variety is not known," or "postmarks
of town X are unknown," and immediately a fellow collector writes to say
he has exactly that, or the writer himself acquires that very example!
As soon as I read my own article in Yamshchik No. 4 on Russia's Railways,
and noted that Moscow's Nijni-Novgorod station and the Yaroslav station
did not have their own oval railway postmarks, I suspected that was wrong.
Going through my own collection of postcards, I found one franked with a
4k Arms 1909-17 with two-thirds postmark (Fig. 1) reading: "MS (COW)-
NI3EGRCDSKI VO(KZ)." (The bracketed portions were missing.) I was also
offered a postcard with a 3k stamp with a full strike of the Nijni-Novgorod
Station, but considering the steep price asked, refused.


I recently obtained (Fig. 2) a 3k Arms stationary card with
added, cancelled "YAROSIAVL VOKZ / 27-4-16."


S


S








I noted in the article that since many areas fashioned their oval cancel-
lers similar to the ones illustrated in the post office directive, there
are sane considerable variations in oval shape and in thickness of letter-
ing. I recently obtained this card (Fig. 3), 3k postal stationary card
and a lk Arms stamp of 1902-5 with an oval cancellation of "VARSHAVA-BREST
VDO / 14-2-1909," Warsaw's Brest station. Apart fran the use of a 1902-5
stamp in February 1909, which is interesting, the style of the postmark is
the most elongated oval shape I have yet cane across. I also have a war-
time postcard with a cancellation of the Brest Station, but is a later
canceller since it conforms more closely to the general oval styles.




OTKPh!TOE HL)ICbNI'O.



14.2.o9)A)











had bilingual postmarks. A very recent purchase is this lovely card (Fig. 4)
showing a 3k stationary card with the trilingual (Russian-Finnish-Swedish)
,- ..;-.










"P. VAUNU P. V.AN P. VAGN / 1/ bis / 5-XI-14." The "bis 1" means route
1, Helsingfors-St. Petersburg, and this is a superb example of a Russian-
Finnish Railway postmark.









is
oq.O4m6TO TO-I V'-.; .:/...-


,-Fig. 4.. -
"O\ -"j**) ";y */ : ..

S*., .- ., ,'-

Fig. 4. j ,; -
-^ -y. i. "- -..





The second interesting fact is the arrival postmark, Petrograd 24-10-14,
for, set against the Finnish dispatch postmark, the card has arrived before
it was sent! Finland of course, was using the Gregorian calendar; in 1914
the difference was 13 days. Russia, still using the Julian calendar was
behind. The difference in "time" between the two postmarks is 11 days,
telling us that it was two days in transit. I would be very interested to
hear from readers of any similar Finnish items, either Finnish Railways in
the Russian period, or of the "dispatch-arrival" type.




e otea direi i t e l tp sas fo railways
/.:; Z'' "., 6^.'- .
was- sentu-t in- 10.- D.W: ,.Wo y--" +e.. i .s ,,. te
these w b l fron s c m a e(ld05 ,



My els is this m~on+-Fig. 5.
2.5-1,05; a fil ods w i sc l-ess c o ~ -t-

A.:l. '7R I. s
---- -- r ,

0 i ... :.-. .










SFi 6.





C, ,. .

Two other interesting Railway items to note here.
The postal directive instituting the oval type postmarks for railways
was sent out in 1903. Dr. Wortman and others have shown 1903 types, but
these were probably fran specimen cancellers and not actually used, or

my earliest oval strike is this one (Fig. 5) "KHARSIZSK-99-DOLINSKA.I /
25-1-05," a fairly good strike, with a second less complete one further
down. I feel certain sae readers can show items pre-dating this one.
Finally, a nice cover (Fig. 6), with three Romanov stamps, each cancelled
"KIEV wVCZ / 28-5-13." The registration label reads, "KIEnvSayE /
ZHEL. DOR. P. 0.," for Kiev Railway station post office.

54
"KIEV Z/2851. hergsrtinlblred,"
sHL O.P ., frKe ala tainps fie
5+'~li"c'







Public Auctions for the Specialist


Three catalogs available:


I.


Postal History, Stamps, Proofs & Essays of
the Russian Offices in Central & Eastern
Asia
(China, Manchuria, Sinkiang, Maritime Mail, etc.)
Also included are the Far Eastern Republic, Mongolia,
Siberia and Tannu Tuva.


Stamps, Proofs & Essays of Russia, Russian
Republics & States.
Also included are General Foreign, United States, and
British Commonwealth.


Postal History of Russia, Russian Republics &
States.
Also included are General Foreign, United States and
British Commonwealth.


Please let us know which catalogs you would like to receive.
George
Aleviios
2716 Ocean Park Blvd.
CliS ln In


Santa Monica, CA 90405 USA
Telephone (213) 450-2543


II.


III.


I -








REVIEW OF




LITERATURE. E. \ ,









RUBSISCH-SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE (Russian and Soviet Philately, No. 22 for July-
Sept. 1979). A 64-page journal by the BAG Russland-UdSSR (Russia and EUSR Study
Circle) and available from Herbert Giese, D-5562 Manderscheid/Eifel, Friedrich-
strasse 9, West Germany.
Herr Giese introduces a series of articles on the various screens used for
Soviet stamps printed by photogravure. This is a challenging field, which is
covered here in "The Screen on Photogravure Stamps", translated by G. Heermann
and "Stamps of the Soviet Union with various screens", by E. Fomin. The articles
that follow areas "Rossica Society of Russian Philately 1929-1979" and "Uniforms
of Russian Postmen in the 19th. Century", both by Walter Frauenlobj "The Forging
of Russian Stamps", Ch. Hannig (mostly about the trimming of Soviet stamps to
create "imperf" varieties); "Experiences with the 'Small Heads' unwmk'd of the
1920's", by H. Heinemann, who gives a story about forged postmarks on this scarce
issue; "Definitive envelopes with imprinted stamps of 1966", translated by G.
Heermann; "The Dots Cancels of the Russian Post" (a reprint of number assignments
from "The Post-Rider"), a review of Rossica Journal No. 93 and' "Further Varieties
on the issues of the Soviet Union", all by G. D. Mehrtens; "Propaganda for
Philately", by W. Nietsch; "Postal Rates in the USSR", "The Route of the Olympic
Flame 1980" and "Buying Stamps in Moscow", all by Prof. H. Schnenkel; "Once Again
-Airmail Services in the Soviet Union", by K. Rist; "About the Outer Space Mail
of the Soviet Union", by E. C8lle (a detailed and highly interesting study) and,
to round off the magazine, there are various Society notes, queries,
announcements of philatelic events etc. and advertisements scattered throughout.
Another creditable effort by our keen West German friends.



KAK PODGOTOVIT' KOLIEKTSIYU K VYSTAVKE (How to prepare a collection for
exhibition), by A. D. Gdalin. A paperback of 96 pages, issued by the Svyaz'
Publishers, Moscow, 1979, in an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 30 kop.
This is another title in the "Library of the Junior Philatelist" series and sound
advice is given to the aspiring exhibitor. An interesting feature is the
illustration in colour .of a beautiful registered airmail cover at the 2f, 10c.
rate, sent from French Morocco with FPO marking reading "POSTE AUX AREES -419-
26.6.25" and addressed in French to Monsieur A. Pechkoff (I.hxim Gorky t) at
Sorrento in Italy. An historic piece, if ever there was one.
An ideal booklet for the readership concerned.






THE KINGDOM OF POLANDI Poland No. 1 and Associated Postal History, by M. A.
Bojanowicz, R.D.P. Published in 1979 by The Royal Philatelic Society, London, 41
Devonshire Place, London, England WIN 1PE in an edition of 500 numbered copies.
Price 30 Pounds Sterling and available from the publishers or from Mr. Bojanowicz
at 40 West Hill, Wembley Park, Middlesex, England.
The publication of this work is the philatelic event of the season and it will
undoubtedly remain the standard reference for many years to come. The list of the
original subscribers reads like an international "Who's who" of philately.
Together with the inclusion of 4 beautiful colour plates and 36 other plates of
illustrations, the book is divided into 17 chapters, covering the early postal
history, pre-adhesive markings of Krakdw and Warsaw, the postal stationery,
Russian stamps used within the Kingdom of Poland and Russian cancellations on
Polish stamps, the designing and printing of Poland No. 1, varieties and flaws,
the retouched plates, the imperforates, the plating of Poland No. 1, forgeries
and fakes, withdrawal of the stamps and stationery, town marks, cancellations,
miscellaneous postal markings, the Warsaw Post Office, the railway postmarks of
the Kingdom of Poland, a table of rarity for the numeral cancellations, a copious
bibliography, an Anglo-Polish glossary and, finally, a comprehensive index.
Mr. Bojanowicz is the leading collector of Poland No. 1 in the world today and
the present study is the result of 27 years of concentrated work on "The Lone
Adhesive", as well as being the only definitive book to appear in the 40 years
that have elapsed since the last words written by W. Poladski. Mr. Bojanowicz has
also succeeded in saving students of Polish philately a lot of work by including
the associated postal history, as it is now all together in one place and thus
easily accessible.
He has solved many of the problems left unanswered by Polanski and Rachmanow, but
the rarity of multiples has prevented him from completing the plating of Poland
No. 1. Nevertheless, the progress has been very impressive and this reviewer
suggests that Mr. Bojanowicz should tackle the problem from an entirely new angle
S by studying carefully the disposition and characteristics of the individual pins
in the harrow perforator used to finish off the printed sheets of "The Lone
Adhesive". This novel approach was successfully tried by a Belgian philatelist to
plate the engraved 5-kreuzer Hungarian first issue of 1871.
The unearthing by readers of contemporary Polish and Russian railway timetables
would also help Mr. Bojanowicz to complete the assignment of code numbers to the
individual stations for the railway circular datestamps discussed on pp.127-130.
He also records a fascinating assignment on the cds. for Mail Coach No. 3 of the
St. Petersburg-Warsaw Railway Line, readings "1/B 25 CEH. 1862". As he has
pointed out, the first number was normally assigned to the individual stations in
rising consecutive order. However, Russian railway lines also had some "raz'ezdy"
or stopping places, which were designated in "versty" (1 v8rsta being roughly
equivalent to 1 kilometer or 5/8 mile), measured from the beginning of the route.
In short, Mr. Bojanowicz's example shown on p. 130 and on a cover at Plate 25
appears to have been applied at the "(Raz'ezd) pervoi v(grsty)", i.e. the
stopping place at 1 versta after leaving the station at St. Petersburg on 25th.
September 1862.
Quite apart from this book being a remarkable testimonial to the outstanding
abilities of Miroslaw Bojanowicz as an advanced and diligent philatelist, it has
also been the pleasant experience of this reviewer as a fellow Balkanite (to coin
a word) to have known him over many years and esteem him also as a fine and
helpful human being. Needless to say, the work is thoroughly recommended to every
serious student of Polish and Russian philately.
A.C.







THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY, No. 56 for November 1979. Published by
the British Society of Russian Philately, c/o John Lloyd, FRPSL, Acting Hon.
Secretary, "The Retreat", Queen's Road, West Bergholt, Colchester C06 3HE, U.K.
This 52-page issue contains the shortest philatelic editorial we have ever seen
(two lines 1); a study of "Estonian Mail Routes (Swedish Period)", by Arnold
Saardson: notes by B. K. E. Lewis on the "Via Naslednik" endorsement and by R.
Pitio on "Aus Russland" marks; a very valuable and exhaustive "Routing of TPO's
to 1917", by the editor I. L. G. Baillie and making it a standard reference;
"Used Abroad Forgeries', by M. Liphschutz and I. Maslowski on the recent Soviet
efforts; "TPO Marks" and "The 1916 Provisional 10 and 20 kop. Surcharges on Arms
Types and Romanovs", by the Rev. L. L. Tann; "Used Abroad Notes", by 0. Faberg4,
W, Frauenlob & S. Gibrickl "Russia used in Finland and vice versa" and
"Vertically Laid 70 kop. Variety", by W. Frauenlob; "Ship and River Boat
Cancellations", by I. L. G. Bailliel "Stamp Booklets", by S. Kelly; a meaty
article on "Machine Cancellations" and "Reply Cards used in Russia", by A. H.
Wortman, FRPSL; "1917s Portuguese Ambassador's Censored Mail from Petrograd", by
David Mushlin; data on "Italian Forces in the Far East", by Luciano Buzzettil
"The Far East Republic DVR Overprint", by G. G. Werbizky; "The 1918 Dorpat
Occupation Surcharge", by E. S. Poulterl Part 3 of the definitive "The Russian
Refugees Post", by J. G. Moyes; an informative study on "The Volga Famine Relief
Stamps, 1921", by H. Norwood; "More Soviet Varieties", by L. A. Kolot and M.
Shmuely; "Receipt Markings Registered Parcels 1973-1979", by J. J. Tovey;
"Soviet Atomic Icebreaker Cancellations 1977-1979", by L. A. Kolot; "1978s The
New Compound Envelope used in the USSR" and "1978 Ilichevsk-Varna Automatic
Ferry", by Dr. T. T. Rutkowska and, finally, "Reviews of New Publications"
bringing up the rear.
Once again, the best of the British in this issue of the BJRPI
THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA 1917-1923, Vol. 2, Ukraine, Part i The Trident
Issues of Odesa Types I & II, by Dr. R. J. Ceresa. A work of 36 large pages plus
15 plates, issued in May 1979 and available from the author at "Pepys Cottage",
13 High Street, Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 4SA, England for US $9.00, airnail
postage included,
Dr. Ceresa is the acknowledged authority on the Civil War and Inflationary
Period and this part is one of a long series destined to cover the entire field.
Ukrainian tridents are a lifetime study and he has drawn on all previous sources
including Dr. R. Seichter, C. Svenson, A. Arnold and 0. Peters of Germany, C. W.
Roberts of the U. K. and Ivan Bulat of the U.S.A.
A particularly valuable feature is the exhaustive treatment and classification
of the numerous and often dangerous forgeries. This is where the comprehensive
plates come in very handy, as Dr. Ceresa is an expert photographer and draftsman.
The present result is an up-to-date, thorough and scientific survey of this
complex field by a precise and painstaking philatelist. When completed, the
series will undoubtedly become the standard reference for many years yet.
Heartily recommended to all collectors of this historic period.
RUSSISCH-SOWJETISCHE PHILATELIE (Russian and Soviet Philately, No. 23 for Jan.
1980). A 54-page journal by the BAG Russland-UdSSR (Russia and USSR Study Circle)
and available from Herbert Giese, D-5562 Manderscheid / Eifel, Friedrichstrasse 9,
West Germany.
Herr Giese starts off with the conclusion of a comprehensive study on the screens
used for the photogravure stamps of the USSR; an ideal subject for research. This
is followed by another solid article on "The Railway Post in Russia", by Dr. R.
Bartmann; "The Registered Letters of Russian Pharmacies", by Prof. Dr. H. Gachot,
including the agency marking we recorded in "The Post-Rider" No. 3 from SfUIRSK
PHARMACY NO. 1; "Ship Mail from Soviet Merchant Vessels", by A. Gottspen; "The
Ukraine forgotten or still interesting ?", by P. Haubner; "FDC's of New Issues"







translated by G. Heermannl medals and awards to members, reported by H. Otto;
"A forgotten philatelic unique item (the 6-kop. Tiflis City Post Stamp of 1857)"
by S. Kuzovkin and reported by G. D. Mehrtens; "Description of Soviet Machine
Markings with Single-Circle Die", by F. L8hrich; notes on the Feldman Auction of
S Mongolian material, held on 26 Sept. 1979; "Why not collect Russia", by N.
Prieditisl notes on the North Pole, taken from the West German press; "Dangerous
Postmark Forgeries", by Herbert Giese, on the recent Soviet "Used Abroad"
imitations; "Varieties, Proofs and Printer's Waste", by the same author; details
on genuine varieties, expertise by Z. Mikulskil "The Perforations of the Meteor
Stamp issued on 20 Nov. 1957", by N. Vladinets; "Space Mail", "My Opinion" and
"Our Space Cover of the Month", all by C. Fuchs and, throughout the journal,
Society notes and announcements, book review, a listing of new members and
advertisements.
Last, but by no means least, the subscribers of this issue also received a 12-
page Russo-German Philatelic Glossary for the Collecting Areas of Russia and the
USSR, compiled by Friedrich L8hrich. This was a public-spirited gesture and a
very creditable effort by this keen philatelist.
All in all, a very solid magazine from our West German colleagues.
POLYARNAYA POCHTA (Polar Post), by E. P. Sashenkov. A hardbound book of 296
pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers Moscow, 1975, in an edition of 40,000
copies. Price 99 kop.
Finely printed and well produced on good quality paper, with many illustrations,
the book covers Arctic posts and philately; the centres of Polar posts in the
North; Arctic expeditions by Russia; Arctic explorers; the "Graf Zeppelin" and
the ice-breaker "Malygin" in philately; Soviet polar stamps of the 1930's; the
mails in the Russian North; Polar stations and expeditions of the LBSR in the
Arctic and, finally, drifting stations of the USSR.
S A mass of interesting data is presented by the author, which will be of great
help to the collector of North Pole material. Some of his statements are open to
question and we intend to take him up, among other things, on the postal history
of Franz Josef Land in the next issue of "The Post-Rider".
His main problem in writing this book has been the lack of sufficient access to
Western sources, e.g. the fine journal "Ice Cap News", put out by the American
Society of Polar Philatelists. As a result, there are noticeable gaps in his
information. It is hoped that these will be closed in a future edition of this
work, particularly since we understand that contacts with the West have been
widened since this study was issued five years ago.
SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER No. 17 (Soviet Collector No. 17). A paperback of 144
pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1979, in an edition of 40,000
copies. Price 90 kop.
This is a traditional "sbornik", or collection articles, by various authors. The
contents this time include "Postal cards issued by local postal services in the
BSR", by S. Blekhman and V. Pantyukhin (actually a listing of 184 slogans and
scenes added locally to Government-issued stamped cards); "About the definitive
postal stationery of the UBSR", by L. Emel'yanov, containing corrections to a
previous study by Blekhman and Pantyukhin; "The 1908-1917 issues of the
definitive postage stamps of Russia", by V. Lobachevskii, being a continuation
from No. 16 and including data from Western sources; "From the History of the
Zemstvo Post" (Tula, Zmeinogorsk and the bisects of Perm), by D. Kuznetsov;
"The Airmail Service in Estonia", by D. Slomka (a useful and surprising
inclusion); "Commentaries on the question of the story of the Airmail Service in
Estonia", by V. Pritula, referring to the previous article and based on the work
done by I, D. Braunstein of Brussels; "The number of sciences remains as before"
by M. Sokolov (a moronic polemic, summing up that philately is not a science);
"The Icaruses of Russia", by E. Velikov, devoted to early flight pioneers,
including P. N. Nesterov, as pictured on Russian private postcards;







"Commemorative Medals of Soviet Armenia", a listing by G. Sarkisian; "Soviet
Commemorative Medals", a listing of those struck at the Leningrad and Moscow
Mints in 1976-1977 and compiled by A. Shaten; "A 50-karbovantsiv proof banknote
of the Ukrainian SSR in 1919", by R. Tkhorzhevskii; "About the sequences of the
letter series on the banknotes of 1898-1912", by A. Kulakov; "Metal tokens of
the urban water mains", by A. Shishkin (fascinating 1) and, finally, "Tourist
and Alpine Badges", by M. Azarkh.
To sum up, good value indeed for 90 kopeks.
SSSR-GDR V ZERKALE FILATELII (The USSR and GDR in the Mirror of Philately). A
paperback of 272 pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1979, in an
edition of 23,000 copies. Price 1 r. 50 k.
This is another "sbornik", with the collection of 21 articles contributed by 7
Soviet and 10 East German authors. Beautifully produced on good quality paper and
with numerous illustrations, including many in colour, the contents cover themes
of interest to philatelists of both countries. Apart from the ideological and
thematic articals, those of especial appeal to us Westeners areas "1917 in Russia
and 1918 in Germany", by Dr. Alfred Stolberg (the covers of the early German
'Soviets' are noteworthy); "Airmail Stamps of the Soviet Embassy in Berlin", by
S. M. Blekhman (interesting, but the archives are bare and he cannot tell us
anything we do not already know. Also, the basic consular stamps are typographed,
not lithographed as he states)i "Together in the Antarctic", by E. P. Sashenkov
and featuring GDR participation; "The Post presents Souvenirs to Sport", by M. E.
Levin, in which he shows the 40-kop. Spartacist Games stamp affixed to a reg.
cover and sent from the Con press of Architects in Moscow in June 1937 and,
finally, "Thoughts about collecting stamps of the IBSR", by Prof. Dr. Wolfgang
Schirmer (an unusual account by a highly intelligent man and featuring, among
other things, a reg. cover with Moscow circular censor No. 24; it is addressed
to Riga and franked with the two values of the sword cutting chain set
postmarked in 1918 1).
A German-language edition, with the title "DDR-UdSSR im Spiegel der PhilLtelie",
has apparently also been published by Transpress, Berlin in 1979.
All in all, an interesting and unusual publication.
ISKUSSTVA KARTMAKSIMUMA (The Art of the Maximum Card), by N. P. Vozhennikov and
V. A. Yakobs. A paperback of 66 pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow,
1979, in an edition of 45,000 copies. Price 50 kop.
The contents can be judged from the title, the booklet is richly illustrated,
including in colour, there are lists of the basic cards issued by the Ministry of
Communications of the USSR and the international statute of Maximaphilia is also
reproduced. More than enough to turn on the collector of maximum cards I
KOSMICHESKAYA FILATELIYA (Outer Space Philately), by Ya. B. Gurevich and V. I.
Shcherbakov. A paperback of 152 pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow,
1979, in an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 90 kop.
This is the second and revised edition of a catalogue-handbook on this theme, as
applicable to Soviet stamps, postal stationery, postmarks etc. and appending
biographical notes, data on space craft, cross references, topical tables and a
bibliography. Ideal for collectors of this field.
ISKUlSTVO NA POCHTOVYKH MARKAKH (Art on Postage Stamps), by Yuo M. Klimov. A
paperback of 144 pages, issued by the Svyaz' Publishers, Moscow, 1979, in an
edition of 20,000 copies. Price 75 kop.
,This is the third part of a handbook-catalogue, this time covering the themes of
Soviet Cinema, the Circus, Music and the Decorative Arts. These are followed by
supplements to Parts 1 and 2, as well as a classification of postal stationery
under the headings of Science about Art, Illustrative Arts, Painting, Graphics,
Sculpture and Architecture and terminating with an index of names. Useful for
the collectors of this wide field.







KATALOG POCHTOVYKH MAROK SSSR 1978 (Catalogue of postage stamps of the USSR for
1978), compiled by M. I. Spivak. A 40-page booklet issued by the Svyaz' Publishers
Moscow, 1979, in an edition of 200,000 copies. Price 38 kop.
This is really a supplement for the stamps issued during the year 1978 and thus
helping to update the comprehensive catalogue of Soviet stamps for the years 1918-
1975. Biographic, thematic and other data are included, but no details on
varieties. Adequate for the scope of the basic book.






PHILATELIC SHORTS

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point that you'd like to
put across to the readership.....is there an
interesting stamp, cancellation or cover that
you'd like to describe....is there an item in o
your collection that could use some clarifying o*o
information or might there be some gems of coooo *
wisdom that you could impart on some newly
acquired item???
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom,
in the confines of a couple paragraphs, with
the rest of our readers!!



Dr. R. J. Ceresa, Cottenham, Cambe., England.
Some comments on the Pribaikal "Issue". My holdings of these stamps over the
years more or less confirm the distribution given by George Shalimoff in No. 4,
except that I have seen as many 35-kop. as 70-kop. chainbreakers mint and used
and my copies added to his would give an approximately even distribution amongst
all the perforated stamps. The 1 r., 3 r, 50 k. and 5 r. imperf, stamps seem to
be about half as common (or twice as scarce) as the perforated values, except
for the 7 r. imperf., of which I have only handled two copies, both with
vertical chalh lines. All my remaining 7 r. perforated stamps are with
horizontal chalk lines and I am pretty sure that all the 7 r. values that I have
handled were of the late Soviet issue. About five or six covers have gone
through my hands, all from Verkholensk with dates from 10.11.21 to 21.11.21 and
all backstamped Chita, serial "e", THREE DAYS later. My one remaining cover (see
Fig. 1) is franked with seven of these stamps, three of them being on the back
flap and is addressed in the usual handwriting to Chita. A pencilled manuscript
"3ak 27' has been added by way of registration. All the covers I have seen
have been registered, but without labels or cachets. I consider the whole issue
to be at best dubious and at worst completely forged.
An item of interest in my collection is a 1-kop. Arms type wrapper, unused, with
the 1-kop. imprinted stamp struck with this overprint in blue. It is uniformly
applied, but not as clear as the overprint on the stamps. It could be a
handstamp, but is more likely a small litho. plate with a single overprint, in
* which case other postal stationery must have been produced. There are sufficient
small differences between this overprint and those on the stamps for this to be
a forgery from a different source (forgery of a fictitious stamp I See Fig. 2).


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To me, the cancellations are the most damning aspect of this issue. The absence
of a serial letter on the Verkholensk cancellation is of note. Postmarkers of
this period without serials are known, but they are an exception to the general
rule. The Chita cancellation has eight-pointed stars and a central letter, again
possible but an exception to the general rule. Thick bars are known on quite a
few cancellations, but they are not too common and we have two on the same
envelope, one without a serial and the other with a central serial. To complete
my doubts, one of my used copies is cancelled "CHITA -e- 15.2.21", with no sign
of a Verkholensk cancel. The Chita cancel is a full strike, so this is unlikely
to be a stamp from the flap that "missed" the despatch postmark and collected
the arrival cancellation. Rare cases are known of the receiving clerk cancelling
stamps that had been missed at the despatching office, but these are unusual,
especially during this period. So, this is not only a case of apparently having
been used in Chita, but also used there NINE months earlier. Colour matching of
the postmarks, feasable with computarised equipment, due to the thick bars on
the cancellations of the cover, shows an exact match of shade and intensity of
the grey-black ink used for both the despatch and arrival marks. This is one too
many coincidences for me and so my verdict leans towards a complete fabrication
for the whole issue.
Fr. Huysmans, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium.
Re the article by G. V. Shalimoff in "The Post-Rider", No. 3, on the Pribaikal
Issue, I can muddy the waters even further by showing a 100-rouble banknote,
beautifully printed in the United States for the Provisional Government, but
never placed in circulation. It was put into use by the Provisional Authorities
of the Pribaikal Territory at Verkhne-Udinsk (now Ulan-Ude), with the overprint
of the "Provisional Zemstvo Authority of the Pribaikal Area". Was this really
the inspiration for the overprints on the postage stamps ? Please see Fig. 3.









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C. M. Trevers, Sydney, N.S,W., Australia.
I should like to raise the question of the date of issue of the Roumanian 1942
Transnistria commemoratives. A recently encountered cover bears the three stamps,
together with th e 6-lei Transnistria definitive of Oct. 1941, for a total
franking value of 48 lei. Posted from Odesa to Timisoara, the cover was
registered at the Odesa-I office under No. 582 and bears the "CENZURAT No. 9"
marking, plus the two despatch cancellations reading "ODESA 3 NOE. 42-8
RECOMANDATE". The arrival date was 6 Nov. 1942. Please see Fig. 4.
Gibbons indicates that these stamps were issued in Dec. 1942, this date being
concurred upon by both Michel and Scott. Because of their political connotation,
i.e. Roumania's participation in the anti-Russian campaign, these stamps are not
listed in the Roumanian catalogue. The absence of a more exact date would suggest
that no official date of issue was announced by the postal authorities and that
the month indicated by the catalogues was ascertained from the earliest
cancellations encountered.
The illustrated cover would suggest that the stamps were released early in Nov.
1942 (if not earlier), but further confirming evidence might be required. To be
noted, however, that these stamps, like most of the Roumanian war comr.emoratives,
are very seldom encountered in used condition and even more seldom on cover.















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EDITORIAL COMYENTs Transnistria, or the territory across the Nistru or Dniester
River, was the Roumanian name given to that portion of the Ukraine between the
Dniester and Bug rivers occupied by them during WW II, with Odessa as its capital
It corresponded roughly to the area of the pre-war Odessa province and was
proclaimed a new province of Roumania. The Roumanian administration lasted from
8 Oct. 1941 to 10 April 1944, when the Soviet Army retook Odessa. Please note
that there are normally no double consonants in the Roumanian language and the
capital was therefore spelt as ODESA.
The first stamps referring to Transnistria were issued by Roumania on 6 Oct. 1941
in the values of 6, 12 and 24 lei, of which the first stamp also appears on the
cover illustrated here. There was an additional printing of this first set in
blocks of four on three separate imperforate miniature sheets, ungummed and with
a marginal inscription readings "GUVERNAMENTUL CIVIL AL TRANSNISTRIEI / + /
PENTRU CRUCEA RO3lE / 1943 LEI 300" (Civilian Government of Transnistria /+/
For the Red Cross / 1943 Lei 300). Permission for their sale to benefit the Red
Cross was refused by the Government in Bucharest and they appeared on the stamp
market after the war in 1946. The same set, with an additional 3-lei value,
appeared with another watermark in 1943.
The three 1942 commemoratives, which all bear a surtax, are inscribed "UN AN DE
LA CUCERIRE" (First anniversary of the conquest). They are scarce, as only 50,000
complete sets were issued.
Your editor remembers seeing in the Kurt Adler collection a cover of this wartime
period with a typical Roumanian double-circle postmark for TIRASPOL and another
with the inscription "ODESA / OFICIALE", both censored items. Where are they now?
We would like to have details of these and other Transnistria covers, as they are
rare and should be recorded. It is impossible now to get anything out of
Roumania, as the sending abroad of such items is forbidden and their collection
within the country severely frowned upon.
John Lloyd, FRPSL, Colchester, Essex, England.
Concerning the article in No. 4 of "The Post-Rider" by the Rev. L. L. Tann on
Russia's Railways, I can now list a few of the oval railway postmarks that he
did not know about, but are in my own collection, as follows
ST. PETERSBURG: BALTIC STATION: on a 5-kop. Arms type, dated 3.8.15.
10-kop. Romanov 4.5.16.
MOSCOW, BRYANSK STATION: 1-kop. Romanov 16.9.13.
VINDAVA STATIONs 10/7-kop. Romanov 1917.
10/7-kop. Romanov 3.5.17 (POW cover).


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MOSCOWs NIZHEGORODSK
MOSCOW! NIZHEGORODSK. STATIONI on a 1-kop.Romanov with unclear d'.te.
3-kop.Arms type, dated 16.7.11 on
a postcard.
BREST STATIONs 10-kop.Arms type, dated 7.7.09.
These few examples will no doubt be swollen with similar examples from other
collections, if your readers take the trouble to look.
Morris Gutenstein, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
I would like to report the following Soviet varieties that were obtained recently
(a) Scott No. 3260, the the 4-kop. 1966 definitive stamp on fluorescent paper,
with the year date 1966 missing.
(b) Scott No. 4472, the 50-kop. miniature sheet of 1976, honouring the victories
at the 21st. Olympic Games, with the blue colour missing. I checked this out
under the ultra-violet lamp, which showed no ,indication of tampering. The
paper proved to be fluorescent both on the front and gummed side.
(c) Scott No. 4506, the 2-kop. value in the Flowers set of 1976 in multi-colour
and in imperforate condition (listed only in Michel).
(d) Scott No. 4507, the 3-kop. value in the same set, but imperforate (not
listed in any catalogue).
(e) Scott No. 4508, the 4-kop. value in the same set, but imperforate with a
slight shift of colour to the right side.
(f) Scott No. 4508, the 4-kop. value in the same set, but in an imperforate
pair with the yellow colour missing.
EDITORIAL COMMENTt Re the imperforate and colour varieties in the 1976 Flowers
set, some of these are also in the possession of your Editor. However, as "An
Observer" has already pointed out in his article on philatelic conditions in the
USSR, there is at least one person there who appears to have connections with
the printing office (Goznak) and quite a few unfinished stamps have been leaking
out lately. It would appear therefore that Mr. Gutenstein's examples also fall
into that category. There is nothing wrong with collecting such items, so long as
it is realized exactly what they are and that no great financial outlay is
involved.
Ray Hofmann, New York City, N.Y., U.S.A.
I recently acquired the cover illustrated here in Fig. 5, relating to a French
Aviation Mission in Russia during WW I. This is confirmed by the sender endorsing
the envelope at top with the words: "Lagier Mission francaise d'aviation en
Russie". As we can see from the address, M. Lagier is obviously writing to his
parents in Marseilles, France.
There is a printed designation at top left of an aircraft, with the words
"AVIATION MILITAIRE" (military aviation) above it. Below that, a circular cachet
with the inscriptions AVIATION FRANCASE EN RUSSIE (French Air Force in Russia).
I understand that this Mission was training Russian pilots with French aircraft.
Any further details on the Mission and its markings would be greatly appreciated.
Daniel Levandowsky, South Miami, Florida, U.S.A.
I have a puzzle for your readers. Dr. A. H. Wortman came to Miami in June 1979
and looked over my accumulations. When he saw the P.O.W. cover from the Russo-
Japanese War of 1904-1905 shown in Fig. 6, he became quite excited. He said that
he had another one with the same censorship marking, reading: "Prosmotreno
tsenzuroi / F. I. V. D. K. G." (Examined by the censorship / F. I. V. D. K. G.)
and knew of no other example until he saw mine. For quite some time, he had been
trying to decipher these initials without success and I myself also drew a blank
when I asked several people knowledgeable in Russian censorship marks. I suspect
that the "F." stands for "Finlyandiya" (Finland) and that the P.O.W.s were
probably Japanese civilians working for some Japanese organisation and had been





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interned for the duration, nearby in Finland. The Red Cross marking on the back
of the envelope is in French and reads: "Bureau de Renseignements sur les
prisonniers de guerre a St. Petersbourg" (Information Bureau for Prisoners of War
at St. Petersburg). There is another marking inscribed in French on the front of
the cover at bottom right and meanings Correspondence of Prisoners of War. The
letter passed through the ist. Despatch Office of the St. Petersburg P.O. on 14th
Oct. 1904 (old style).
Anyway, I would be very grateful to receive through your pages any possible
solutions that would fit those six mysterious initials in the censorship mark.
Col.Asdrubal Prado, Campinas, S. Paolo, Brazil.
I have a couple of questions generated by the articles "Tannu-Tuva and the New
Blekhman Handbook". My first one is about the alphabet. We have always trans-
literated "KbZbL" as "KYZYL", but if "b" = "Y" as in "KbZbL", then the same
should apply to the "b" in "TbBA", so that we would have "TYVA" I So where are
we going to in the end, to the Cyrillic alphabet ?
The second point is the xerox of a cover I have in my collection (see Fig. 7). As
you can see, it is registered with the framed violet "R KIZIL" marking in the
lower corner &. and the No. 804 placed therein with indelible pencil. Note that it
does not have the initial "No' before the figures 804. It was sent on 5 Mar. 1937
and, on the back, we have the oval registration mark in black of N.Y. Reg. Div.,
dated 31 Mar. and the further circular reg. cds of Portland, Maine in violet
applied a day later. My cover has the registration number 21386 in black, possibly
applied in New York. Your other letters from Tuva, as shown on p. 62 of "The Post-
Rider", No. 2, do not have such reg. numbers of U.S. origin. Any comments ?
EDITORIAL COMMENTs First of all, the Unified Latin Turki Alphabet, as devised by
Soviet philologists, was introduced into Tuva in 1931 and it contained the vowel
"b", always written in the lower case form. This sound was equivalent to the
undotted "i" in Turkish, or "brl in Russian and usually transliterated as "y" in
English. Hence, the country name "TbBA", as given on the Tuvan pictorials can be
rendered as "Tyba" in English and the capital KbZbL as "Kyzyl".
The registration No. 804 fits in with the listing of mailing dates, as given on
p. 24 of "The Post-Rider", No. 1 for 5 March. 1937 and received together with
No. 810 in New York City on 31st. March. In short, due to the relatively short
elapsed time, such items were prepared, postmarked and mailed from Moscow. The
lack of the initial "No' in the registration marking for No. 804 may have been due
to poor inking or impressing. The application of the U.S. style registration
numbers on the fronts of the Tuvan covers appears to have been an occasional
procedure and we do not know the reason therefore.


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Eng. Salih M. Kuya1, Istanbul, Turkey,
I thought you would like to see an example of genuine mail from Batum during the
Turkish Administration in 1918. Please see Fig. 8 for a 20-para Turkish card, with
an added 10-para stamp, both designs being struck with a bridge-type cds readings
S"BATUM" at top, "1-5 334. 1. 6." in the centre (Moslem date, corresponding to
the year 1918 A.D.) and "1" at bottom. There is an Istanbul-42 marking above the
Batum cancel at top right, with the part date readings "12,11 34. 1. --" and,


IIA

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to the left of the Batum strike, a rectangular cachet of Istanbul Cenor No. 5.
We see at bottom left the arrival postmark of KU]DB (Al-Kuds or Jerusalem),
dated 134.1.25. In other words, the card was 19 days in transit, which was
good service, considered those troubled times*
Sam Robbins, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A,
Re Dr. Wortman's Nikolai Railway Station marking shown on p 68 of "The Post-






Rider", No. 3, I have a letter dated 16 Aug. 1855, with the address written in
the same handwriting I

Moshe Shmuely, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
Getting back to the study of the two-line postal station markings initiated by
Alex. Artuchov, I can now advise another office, as illustrated in Fig. 9.

This is a letter sent from KOPYS, Mogilev Province, 16 October 1878 to Shmuel
Bailer in Riga, where it was received three days later
Henry Blum, Toronto, Ontario.
First days of the Romanov Tercentenary Issue of 1913 are hard to find. Here is
one of the 2-kop value paying the foreign printed matter rate to Nr. Fred



Hagen, a well-knoIn stamp dealer in Sydney, Australia (see Fig. 10). The
sender was the famous Estonian dealer Ewald Eichenthal, then of St. Petersburg

S and who moved to Warsaw after the Revolution and finally to Tallinn in 1928.
As .Ne Year's Day was an official holiday in the Russian Empire, with all post
offices and agencies closed, the envelope was postmarked "ST. PETERSBURG No.2,
2.1.13", i.e. on 2nd. January 1913. Details of the other values used on this
same day would be much appreciated.

69
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The Journal Fund

All sales benefit the Society and all orders should be made payable to "The
Canadian Society of Russian Philately". We now have new but small supplies
available of the following popular titles and prompt ordering is recommendeds-
(1) VOIKHANSKII, E.S.: "POSTAGE STAMPS OF AZERBAIJAN", Moscow 1976. This is the
second, revised edition, obviously improved by access to material published
by P. T. Ashford in the BJRP. Printed in Russian on 240 pages, with many
clear and helpful illustrations. The last word on the subject and a must forthe
Azerbaijan specialist. BU $5.50 postpaid.
(2) ASHFORD, P.T., "IMPERIAL RUBSIAN STAMPS DED IN TRANSCAUCASIA". The set of
the first three parts that have appeared so far, cover ing the Postal
History, Tiflis, Tiflis City Post and the Province of Tiflis. Richly
illustrated and the authoritative work in this field, Ideal for finding
rare postmarks on Imperial stamps. The three parts for US$11.00 postpaid.
(3) LISSIUK, Kaleniki "NOTES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONARY STAMPS 1920-1922 AND
MONCGLIA, ITS STAMPS 1924-1927". A fascinating booklet in perfect condition,
published in 1928 and many years out of print, with much valuable data and
illustrations of the Postmasters' Provisionals. US $5.00 postpaid.
(4) SOVIET 4-KOP. STAMPED ENVELOPE COMMEMORATING "CAPEX-78" AND WITH SPECIAL
EXHIBITION CANCEL IN RUSSIAN. Getting scarcer and mailed flat anywhere in the
world by air for US $2.00 postpaid,

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT

The Canadian Society of Russian Philately takes great pride in announcing that it
is in the process of publishing a definitive handbook "THE ARMS ISSUES 1902-1920"
by the Rev. L. L. Tann, B.A.
This work of over 100 pages will really put the popular Arms Types of Imperial
Russia on the philatelic map. All aspects will be covered and the price will be
right. It will become available this summer and interested readers are advised to
contact us immediately.
The highly popular handbook by the same author, entitled: "THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS"
is down to its last couple of copies at 1~$20,00 postpaid.


NOW AVAILABLE: THE=12722EDITION OF THE MAKSYI4CZU( CATALOGUE.

This is the latest catalogue of Julian Maksymczuk. It consists of a listing of
foreign private stamps and entire, cancellations, revenue stamps and flap seals
pertaining to the Ukraine. More than half of the 62-page catalogue is in the form
of illustrations.
A companion booklet to the catalogue is a 38-page "BIBLIOGRAPHIC GUIDE TO
UKRAINIAN PHILATELY, REVENUE STAMPS AND BANKNOTESI The Bibliographic Guide lists
all articles, including which language it is written in, pertaining to Ukrainian
Philately, revenue stamps and banknotes. It, like the catalogue, is a continuation
of the former catalogues and bibliographies by the author.
If you would like to receive a copy of either or both of these publications, please
send a cheque for US $4.00 for the catalogue, or U3 $3.00 for the Bibliographic
Guide tot PAUL B, SPIVAK, 58 Burrstone Road, New York Mills, N.Y., U.S.A., 13417.








THE COLLECTORS' CORNER I
DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that illusive item fron your
collection or philatelic library..... do you have same
duplicate material that you would like to trade of sell ?
We can publicize your want list and/or your duplicates for
the most reasonable rate of 25 maximum of 16 lines) excluding name and address. Ads from
collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are invited to
respond.
The Society disclaims all responsibility front any misunderstandings
that may result between exchanging parties.
* unless otherwise specified, all numbers listed are Scott.

P. J. Campbell, 17091 Maher Blvd., PIERREONDS, Qu6bec H9J 1H7.
To buy or borrow for research:
Copy of Soviet postcards No. L49271 of Sept. 1972 for Normandie-Niemen
Squadron and No. L107790 of December 1973 of B-l fighter and test pilot.
Yamshchik article will follow.

WANTED: LATVIAN SSR 1940-1941; all cards and covers of this period.
HELMUT WEIKARD, Wendenstrasse 477, 2 HACBURG 26, WEST GERM4AY.

Igor Jascolt, 674 Glenhurst Crescent, Ottatwa, Ont., Canada KIJ 7B7.
Wanted: Wrangel issues Scott 232-376 used/mint, Latvia used.
For Trade: Siberia 1-10, Russia 87G no centre, Latvia No.179 in half sheet.

Andrew Cronin, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada 1, 1P2.
Wanted: Any labels or Polar material pertaining to Franz Josef Land.
For Trade: Other Polar material,

Alex Artuchov, Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ont., Canada MNW 1P2.
Wanted: St. Petersburg stampless covers, Zemstvos, dot and numeral p-ks.
For Trade: Soviet perforation errors.

G. G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Road, Vestal, N. Y., U. S. A. 13850.
Always looking for Zemstvo stamps. Fair exchange assured.

Anatole Kaushansly, P. O. Box 232, Willowdale, Ont., Canada 1M2N 538.
I have: Duplicates of rare Soviet definitive of the 20's and 30's,
incl-ding Scott Ho. 287 (used) and many others. Material issued in the
last 20 years is available in superb condition. I will trade for
Soviet conmemoratives of the 30's or sell at very reasonable prices.

ANTMED: Russian postal stationery envelopes H & G 117 and H & G 124 mint
or used. Ship with your aslirng price.
Robert F. Min kus, M.D., 2332 Wynnewood Road, Wilmington, Delaware,USA 19810.


0








David M. Skipton, 4t1B Hideaway Loop, Glen Burnie, Maryland, U.S.A. 21061.
Wanted: The following St. Petersburg "fancy" (geometric) cancel numbers
(preferably clear strikes) on cover: No. 2 (both Types), XI, 13, 14, XV,
XVI, XVII, and XXXI (both types). Please write with description and asking
price.


Claude Lysloff, 568 Marlborough Road, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 11226.
Wanted: Russian and Russian-related Vignettes, Revenues, Fiscals,
Cinderellas, etc.
Pre-Revolutionary (Imperial Russia) picture postcards, mint and used,
views of cities, art and artists, military, naval, etc. Foreign picttLre
postcards related to Russian subjects and events.
LITERATURE: I am looking for "The Russian Philatelist" edited by A.
Rosselevitch, No. 2 (1962) and No. 6 (1965), both in English ONLY !
Also Rossica No. 60 in English.
I would be happy to purchase any of the above items. Correspondence
in English, French, Russian or German.

Mrs C. Rosselevitch, 34 Henry Drive, Glen Cove, New York, U.S.A. 115h2.
A few original copies of "The Russian Philatelist" are still available:
In Russian: Nos. 5, 7. 8. 9. 10, 11.
In English: Nos. 5, lo, 11.
Nos. 5 & 7 US $2.00 each; Nos. 8-11 $2.50 each. Xerox copies of Nos.
1, 2 & 4 (Russian) and Nos. 7 & 8 (English) $$.00 each.


James Mazepa, Box 1217, Oak Park, Illinois, U.S.A. 60304.
* I am looking for: Polish boxed postmarks of the 1870's period on cover.
Also any Polish postal history material, to buy or trade similar material.
I would appreciate information on the boxed postmarks, even if they are
not available for sale or trade.


Barry Hong, Box 869, Caledonia, Ontario, Canada NOA 1AO.
Wanted: Rossica in English Nos. W4-51, 57, 60-64, 66-69, 82-84.
"The Russian Philatelist" in English: Nos. 1, 2, 6, 8.
I have: Rossica Nos. 14-69 in Russian as exchange.


Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. 95051.
Wanted: Imperial dotted numeral cancellations on cover. Buy or trade.
Please write, describing covers) and asking price or desired trade.

Martin Cerini, 37 Wyoming Drive, Huntington Station, Long Island,U.S.A.11746.
Wanted: Russian Revenues,fiscals, vignettes, labels or Cinderella stamps,
plus revenue and legal paper, paper seals, bill of exchange cut-outs, and
any revenue documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil War
and Soviet. Will exchange or purchase.

Fred Yessis, P.O. Box 266, Manhattan Beach, California, U.S.A. 90265.
Wanted: Will buy or trade fantails, errors, varieties, philatelic souvenir
sheets and propaganda postcards of the 1930's.








BUNDEBARBEITSQEMEINSCHAFT
RUSSLANO/UdSSR im BDPh e.V.


y Mitte 1973 etablierte sich in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
ein kleiner Kreis von Sammlern, um sich intensive mit dem
Sammelgebiet Russland/UdSSR zu befassen, hierunter Herren,
deren Sammlungen auf nationalen und internationalen Ausstel-
lungen ausgezeichnet wurden. Dies war der Anfang fir die
Grundung einer Arbeitsgemeinschaft, der sich auch Sammler
'IVD aus den deutschsprachigen Landern anschlossen, die heute 400
Mitglieder zihlt, wobei das Interesse bei der standig
steigenden Beliebtheit der Marken Russland/UdSSR an
weiteren Mitgliedschaften anhilt.

In der Zwischenzeit hat die Arbeitsgemeinschaft 23 interne Mitteilungshefte
herausgegeben, die deutlich zeigen, dass gerade dieses Sammelgebiet fUr die
Forschung jungfriulicher Boden ist. Auf dem ersten Mitgliedertreffen anlisslich der
NAPOSTA '74 in Essen wurde u.a. beschlossen, dass sich die Arbeitsgemeinschaft,
weltanschaulich und von politischen Parteien unabhingig, dem BDPh e.V. anschliesst,
was ab 1.3.1975 geschehen ist.
Die Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft hat sich vornehmlich folgende Aufgaben gestellt: -
den Sammlern Russland/UdSSR vollumfanglich historisch und aktuell Informatio-
nen zu geben,
das Interesse fUr dieses grosse und interessante Sammelgebiet in der Bundesrepublik
Deutschland insbesondere bei jiingeren Sammlern zu firdern und zu pflegen,
-Verbindungen zu Vereinigungen des gleichen Sammelgebietes in anderen Lindern
herzustellen,
den Tausch der Mitglieder untereinander zu pflegen,
Ausstellungeh Uber die Philatelie Russland/UdSSR zu veranstalten und philateli-
stische Ausstellungen mit Exponaten Russland/UdSSR zu beschicken.
Ausserdem strebt sie die Vertiefung und Pflege philatelistischer Kontakte zu den
Sammlern der UdSSR und ihren Verbinden an, um auch mit ihnen auf dem Gebiet der
Forschung Erfahrung und Erkenntnisse auszutauschen.
Es ist auch der Wunsch aller Mitglieder, einen regen Tauschverkehr zwischen den
Sammlern beider Lander zu f6rdern.
Die gestellten Aufgaben wurden erfolgreich betrieben. Sichtbare Zeichen hierfiir -
bei den Philatelisten stark beachtet -- waren die gemeinsamen Ausstellungen der
Philatelisten beider Lander im 3ahre 1977 in K61n und 1978 in Moskau.

Bis zum 3ahre 1932 wurden die Briefmarken Russland/UdSSR in Deutschland sehr
stark gesammelt. Auf diesem Wege befinden wir uns lingst wieder. Die hervorragende
kiinstlerische und polygraphische Gestaltung der sowjetischen Briefmarken haben
hierfUr Vorarbeit geleistet. Es kommt hinzu, dass viele Briefmarken der Sowjetunion
noch billig auch von den jungen Philatelisten. erworben werden kannen. Bei der
rasanten Ausbreitung der Philatelie in der Sowjetunion und bei der stindig steigenden
Beliebheit in vielen Lindern der Welt, wird dies bei den kleinen Auflagen -
sicherlich nicht mehr lange so bleiben. Auch aus diesem Grunde:
Die Philatelie Russland/UdSSR ist ein Sammelgebiet mit grosser Zukunft.
Wer mehr Ober unsere Arbeit und uber die Philatelie Russland/UdSSR wissen m6chte,
der wende sich an Herrn Herbert Giese, Friedrichstrasse 9, D-5562 Manderscheid/Ei-
fel; Telefon 06572/4487
Wir informieren Sie gerne.


I




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