PRINTED IN CANADA
No. 4 April, 1979
Copies of this journal are available for $ 4.00 US.
A limited number of back issues are also available
for $ 4.00 US each from:
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately
M5W 1P2, Canada.
Remittance should be payable to the Society.
Co-Ordinators of the Society:
Editor: Andrew Cronin
Publisher: Alex Artuchov
Secretary: Patrick J. Campbell
3 Correspondence with Canada...........Dr. A. H. Wortman
5 Normandie-Niemen.......................P. J. Campbell
14 Is the Paper Wove? Or is it Laid and
Watermarked? A Significant Find.........Alex Artuchov
16 Russia's Railways...................Rev. L. L. Tann
22 Pribaikal Overprints Fact or
Fantasy........... ....... ......... George V. Shalimoff
27 A Few Siberian Expeditionary Covers
from Canadians........................A. L. Steinhart
32 Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos...Alex Artuchov
and G. G. Werbizky
45 The 1941 Slovak Overprints on
Soviet Stamps.. ...................... R. Polchaninov
47 Romanov Portraits .................. Rev. L. L. Tann
50 One Period or Two? .................... G. G.Werbizky
51 The Literature of Russian Philately... P. J. Campbell
56 Italian Troops in the Far East ...... Luciano Buzzetti
63 A Real Romanov Flown Cover: ........ Dr. A. H. Wortman
64 Reutilized Romanov Postal Stationery ...... John Lloyd
68 The Great Dot and Numeral Hunt ........ Alex Artuchov
72 Review of Literature
77 Philatelic Shorts
83 The Collector's Corner
Some Basic Truths
Ye old sage, to wit thy editor, has been seriously collecting
the postal history and stamps of Russia and successor states
for more than 33 years. Without any feelings whatever of mod-
esty, he has felt that the time has now come to propound, with
the utmost gravity, some great pearls of wisdom, which are
hereby solemnly designated as CRONIN'S LAWS OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY.
They are as follow : -
CRONIN'S LAW NO. # 1. Any Russian card or cover, no matter how
common and of whatever period, is worth at least 50 cents.
That's inflation for thee, my good fellow.
CRONIN'S LAW NO. # 2. Learn the Russian language. A Russian
collector without the Cyrillic alphabet is like bread without
the traditional salt. When thou canst not understand what is
writ upon the cancellation, or stamp, or card or other great
potential treasure, thou shalt weep and thou shalt wail and
thou shalt gnash thy teeth and thou shalt cry out: "Wherefor
can I not read this blanketty blank blank inscription ?".
CRONIN'S LAW NO. # 3. No matter how many copies thou already
hast of a particular variety, or cancellation or useful stamp
or piece of postal stationery, thou shalt buy it if the price
is right. For example, how many times has one heard a fellow
Russian collector say he saw a copy of the "V" background on the
3 kop. stamp in a dealers stock at a reasonable or nominal price
and passed it up because he already had it? Or taken only one
cover when he could have bought the entire correspondence?
Such twits should be taken out and.shot (without mercy) before
their crying wives and children. Is it greed to grab all these
duplicated things? A thousand times not Thou art rescu ing this
material for the greater honour and glory of Russian Philately.
Thou shalt benefit also, thy name shall be blessed and thy con-
science shall be clear. No matter how many such items thou accu-
mulatest, thou shalt be surprised to see how quickly they go in
mutually .beneficial exchanges with thy fellow enthusiasts.
Otherwise, some uninformed dolt buys it as a "cute" item from
the dealer for his little nephew Freddie or, if for himself,
starts pestering his Russian, Ukrainian or Byelorussian friends
for explanations. Said friends, even when they understand the
significance of the inscriptions, may not have enough English
to explain them to him, or they may misunderstand the import of
the material partly or completely. Either way confusion is
caused and the item is lost to Russian philately.
The Editor reserves the right to propound further Laws of
Russian Philately on these pages whenever he thinks fit.
However, he does not necessarily want to hog the whole show.
If readers have any of their own profound pearls of Wisdom,
worthy of being included in the Laws of Russian Philately,
they are welcome to send them in for publication.
~~~~~*^ -, S-A-~ I.
CRKKE S PONDE NC
Correspondence with Canada is
intended to appear in forthcoming issues 05
of this journal and: deal with interesting ~
philatelic material making contact with IA HAAY
both Russian and Canadian postal
establishments. Readers are accordingly
invited to forward write-ups and accompanying
photographs of suitable items in their collections
for inclusion in future issues.
Immmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmm
Dr. A. H. Wortman
This is a registered cover from Harbin to Victoria, B.C. and there can-
not be much mail in existence between Manchuria and Vancouver Island.
It was sent during World War I from the Russian Post Office in Harbin
and is therefore a Used Abroad item, the first of a number of others
to be contributed under this heading, it is hoped. The sender is a
Russian but gives his address as c/o Chinese P.O, which is rather
curious. At the top the direction "via Vladivostok and Japan" in
Russian may be seen and on the reverse there is a TSURUGA 30.11.15.
JAPAN transit mark in the usual violet colour and the arrival mark,
partly torn away when the flap was opened; VICTORIA B.C. DE 22,15 CANADA.
The cover is franked by a strip of four 2K and four 3K stamps to make up
the registered postage rate of 20K and the cancellation HARBIN 12.11.15.
(= 25.11.15) handstamp "b" in the double circle type with narrow spacing.
It was probably taken from Vladivostok to Tsuruga in a ship of the
Volunteer Fleet or possibly one of the Chinese Eastern Railway steamers,
taking five days from Harbin, which is normal. If the arrival date were
December 22 and although the part strike of the mark is not clear it
seems likely, the journey from Japan took three weeks.
$**C' u t2. c
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J 1K.1: NORMANDIE
Although the Soviet Union issues a great number of stamps,
study of some of them can reveal surprising results. A case in
point is the pair of stamps at the head of this article, both of
6 kopek value, and both depicting fighter aircraft carrying
Soviet markings, with a heraldic shield with "Normandie-Niemen"
in Cyrillic script and two lions 'gardant'.
The earlier of the stamps, Scott C100, was issued on
30 December 1962 in a quantity of two million to celebrate
the twentieth anniversary of the forming of the Normandie-Niemen
Squadron. -The stamp design was by J.V. Riachovsky, and printing
was photogravure.. The aircraft shown are sketchily .drawn, but
appear to be of the Yak-3 type, of which further details will
appear below. The stamps also include the emblems of the Soviet
Air Force. The aircraft that can be seen most clearly has a red
and white propeller spinner, a red bolt of lightning on the side
of the fuselage, and a word that is not quite legible*; all text
is in Cyrillic script.
The second stamp, Scott 3380 was issued on 14 October 1967
to celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the squadron, it
is photogravure, and the designer of the stamp was A. Axamit.
This time there was a printing of four million stamps, and the
text is bilingual; the wings and propeller motif has been omitted
and the lions on the shield redrawn. The shield also now incor-
porates a white bolt of lightning, which is more representative
of the colour scheme of the actual aircraft. The drawings are
even more sketchy than before, but probably represent the Yak-1,
and again the red tip of the spinner can be seen.
One other stamp, although one from France, not Russia, should
be added to our study, and it is Scott No. 1253, issued on
S18 October 1969 to honour the
... ... aviators of the Normandie-Niemen
Squadron. The 0.45 centimes stamp,
S- designed and engraved by P. Gandon,
-: shows a French pilot shaking hands
r-___ 2 with a Russian mechanic. The pilot
r. wears a flying helmet and goggles,
...... .......... and a seat-type parachute, while
* Footnote: It is possibly Krasavets or beauty, an early
nickname for the Yak 1.
the Russian wears a fur hat, and carries a wrench. Behind them
can be seen no less than 12 aircraft, probably representing the
Yak-9M type. The aircraft carry the usual Soviet red star on
the fuselage, plus the white thunderbolt, and there is a white
Cross of Lorraine on the fin of one of them. The propeller
spinners are painted in blue, white and red, in that order,
rather than the colouring seen on the Soviet stamps, but
painting of details on wartime aircraft is known to have varied
a good deal from one to another, so that members of the squadron
could recognize each other's planes. I am fortunate enough to
have this stamp on a numbered first-day-of-issue sheet, of which
14,000 were printed in French, 500 in English, 500 in German,
and 550 in Italian. These sheets were done by Editions CEF in
Nice. They bear a nice cancel for 18 October 1969, at Paris,
and include a short history of the squadron and an imaginative,
but rather inaccurate, view of nine Yaks in flight, drawn by
P. Gandon, the designer of the stamp. The stamp itself includes
various locations and battle honours of the squadron during the
war: Moscow-Ivanovo (1942) Orel-Smolensk (1943) Vitebsk-Berezina-
Minsk-Vilno-Kovno-Niemen (1944) Insterburg-Koenigsberg-Dantzig
Dans la s6rle consacrde, cette ann6e, aux grands 6venements de la RFslstance et de la
Liberation, apr6s la bataille du Garlgliano, les d6barquements de Normandie et de Pro-
vence, les combats du maquis du mont Mouchet et la liberation de Paris par les troupes
du g6n6ral Leclerc et les FFI, ce timbre Illustre I'importance du r6le jou6 par I'escadrille
Normandie-Nlemen dans la lutte de la France aux c6t4s des Allies. aux heures les plus
sombres de la guerre.
L'historique de Normandie-Niemen oblige B relire les Memoires du g6n6ral de Gaulle. On
y d6couvre, nettement formul6e des juln 1941, la preoccupation du chef de la France libre
de se mettre aux c6t6s de tous ceux qul luttent contre I'ennemi : Le people frangais
est avec les Russes contre I'Allemagne; nous souhaitons en consequence organiser avec
Moscou des relations militaires.
Aprbs n6gociations, le Comit6 national de la France libre propose I'envol de pilots et de
personnel technique sur le front sovidto-allemand. La mise sur pled de cette formation
s'est faite au Liban, oi stationnent des groups de chasse, r6duits depuis juin 1940 A une
douloureuse inaction. Aussit6t. les volontaires affluent. Un de leurs chefs 6crira : A
I'appel du g6ndral de Gaulle, lis voulaient que la France meurtrie, mais non abattue, solt
repr6sent6e dans tous les clels..
En novembre 1942, I'escadrille quite le Liban, gagne Moscou. puis Ivanono : pendant que
les hommes s'acclimatent, on leur donne le droit de choisir le type d'avion sur lequel IIs
souhaitent combattre. Pour ses performances, son 6quipement, sa maniabilitd, c'est le
Yak I, sur lequel ils poussent leur entrainement, ndcessite par la nouveautd des conditions
de vol. Enfin. I'escadrille, baptisee Normandie ., arrive, le 22 mars 1943. sur le front
oriental, pour .tre incorpor6e a la 1" Armee aerienne du 31 Front bidlorussien.
Les noms qui entourent la figurine ne mentionnent que les titres les plus prestigieux.
Pendant la champagne de 1943. ce fut la dure bataille d'Orel, oi disparut la moitid de
I'effectif; puis I'arrivde de renforts permit la participation aux batailles de Briansk. de
16Inla, de Smolensk.
Pendant I'hiver 1943-1944, la premiere formation est devenue regiment A quatre esca-
drilles : cette second champagne s'illustre par les noms de Vitebsk, de la Berezina, de
Minsk. de Vilno et du Nidmen.
La champagne d'hiver se ddroule en territoire enneml, et, aprbs la prise de Koenigsberg,
voici I'approche exaltante de la victoire, et. le 9 mal 1945. la grande joie commune a tous.
L'esprit si particulier de Normandie-Niemen est bien traduit par le motif central du
timbre, oD I'on remarquera les couleurs frangaises peintes sur I'hdlice des avions soviA-
tiques et la poignee de main chaleureuse 6changee par le m6canicien russe et le pilot
Les survivants parent avec emotion de cette fraternity d'armes, de I'amitiA et de la
confiance de tout un grand people pour ces hommes qui n'etaient pas venus par Iddologie.
curiosity ou goOt de I'aventure, mais B cause du m6me amour pour leur patrie capable
de leur fair partager les memes pines et les m6mes espoirs : tous les hommes de
bonne volontd peuvent admirer et chercher a suivre ce bel example de fraternity.
illustration de GANDON
qEtvs *g!iOrr-uo4** iLMOLn5~r.I9Alfl~h
18 OCT. 1903t
My research into the history behind these stamps has uncovered
some most interesting facts, and an altogether fascinating story of
men and machines.
The machines came from the drawing board of one Alexander
Sergeevitch Yakovlev, born in Moscow in 1906, who had been
engaged in design and construction of gliders and light aircraft
in the 1920's and early thirties. In 1938 the Soviet Government
has issued specifications for a fighter to replace the aging
Polikarpov 1-16 (the I stands for Istrebitel or fighter).
Yakovlev was one of five designers who entered the competition,
and the 1-26 (later called Yak-1) was his first fighter design
(see box 1). The aircraft first flew in March 1939 and was so
successful that Yakovlev was awarded 100,000 roubles, a Zis car,
and an Order of Lenin (see Scott 1032). On May Day of 1940 a
Yak-i squadron was seen in a flypast at Moscow, and the type was
exhibited on the ground at an air fete near Moscow on 7 Nov 1940.
1-26, Yak-1, Yak-lM and UTI-26 BOX 1
The aircraft that started life as the 1-26, but soon came
to be known as the Yakovlev Yak-1, was the best of the three
Russian fighter aircraft of its time, and like them used a
great deal of wood in its construction. The Yak-i and its
derivatives were in production from 1940 until some time after
the war, with a total of about 30,000 built including the deri-
vatives; an amount exceeded only the Messerschmitt Bf-109 series
among the fighters.
The Yak-i had an all-wood wing, plywood covered, with fabric
over that, and a mixed wood and steel tube fuselage, covered
with plywood and fabric except for the metal engine cowlings.
The engine was a Klimov M-105PA and armament was a 20 mm cannon
firing through the propeller boss, and two 7.62 mm machine guns,
later replaced by 12.7 mm guns in the production version.
Manoeuverability was excellent, but range short and rear vision
poor. The first derivative was the Yak-1M that had the rear
fuselage cut down to allow an all-around vision canopy to be
fitted,a more powerful engine, and a constant speed propeller,
among other changes. Early in the development, a 2-seat
trainer version was built, originally designated UTI-26 or
Yak-7V. This was the trainer used by the Normandie squadron.
In the meantime, elsewhere in Europe, war had broken out on
3 September 1939 between Britain, France and Germany, and the first
French aerial victory was scored on 8 September. By 25 June 1940
it seemed all over for France as the surrender was signed after
the loss of 201 French pilots killed, 231 wounded and 31 imprisoned.
In June of 1941, however, the National Committee of Free France made
the decision to send pilots and technicians to the Russian front
from among the fighter groups stationed in the Lebanon.
Meanwhile, the Yak-i had gone into series production, to be
stepped up in tempo after 22 June 1941 when Germany struck into
Russia in the massive Operation Barbarossa. An improved version,
designated Yak-lM (M = modified) appeared, and a two-seat trainer
version, originally designated as UTI-26, or Yak-7V, which will
come into our story later (see box 2 for details).
Yak-9 and Yak-3 BOX 2
The short range of the Yak-i series necessitated a redesign
of the wing to include metal spars, and increased fuel capacity.
In a series of developments, the Yak-7B led to the Yak-7DI, with
the new wing, and finally the Yak-9 series of which there were
many derivatives. This was the aircraft most used by the
Normandie-Niemen squadron. The Yak-9 entered service at the
battle of Stalingrad in 1942 and continued service to the end
of the war, and, with its improved range, rugged construction
and excellent manoeuverability, was generally popular with its
Another variant, but developed directly from the Yak-lM, was
the Yak-3, which began development in late 1941, but did not go
into service until 1943 at the battle of Kursk. It was specific-
ally designed with a reduced wing span for relatively low alti-
tudes, and was particularly suited to close ground support. It
was said to be more responsive in roll than the Spitfire, and
had better speed and initial climb. This made it a good match
for both Bf-109G and FW-190A.
The decision to send French forces to the Eastern front really
started with a telegram from De Gaulle to General Catroux in
Beyrouth on 12 January 1942. In this telegram it was planned to
send an expeditionary force to Russia composed of a light division
of French troops and two batteries of artillery plus various
support elements, and also a detachment of 40 French fighter
pilots, which were in England at that time.
As it turned out, the plan to move the force via Tabriz on
15 March, 1942 did not transpire, and the troops were later com-
mitted in North Africa.
The new squadron was formed, however, on 28 March at the
Rayak airbase in Lebanon, and named the Normandie squadron.
On 29 November they were ready to move and set out via Teheran,
Baku and Astrakhan to Moscow, and arrived at Ivanovo in December
to begin a three-month acclimatization and training period on
the Yak-7 two-seat trainers. It seems that they were allowed to
choose any type of current Russian-built or Lease-Lend aircraft
for operational use, and they chose the Yak-i fighter that was
now well into production at the huge State Aircraft Factory
No. 153, which had been established east of the Ural Mountains
under the direction of Lisicin. Into this plant went Yakovlev
and his design team, and from it came half of the more than
30,000 Yak-series fighters built, mostly of the Yak-9 type. In
one period, the first three months of 1945, this factory produced
1500 Yak-9M aircraft, a fantastic rate of production. The Yak
series fighters were the most commonly used of all in Russia,
exceeding in numbers the Lavochkins (22,000) and the MiGs
(3400). The only aircraft built in greater numbers was the
Polikarpov PO-2/U-2, which will be discussed in a later article
in this series.
While the Normandie squadron was training, the great battle
for Stalingrad was in progress, from the first major Russian
counterattack on 19 November 1942 to the final surrender of the
encircled German forces in Stalingrad on 2 February 1943.
On 22 March 1943 the Normandie squadron went into action and
their first victory was scored on 5 April when Lieut. Prezioso
was credited with an FW-190. The squadron commanded by Major
Jean-Louis Tulasne, was part of the 303 Fighter Air Division of
the Russian First Air Army. Over the next few weeks of action
a total of seven victories were claimed, but for a loss of three
pilots. On 17 July Major Tulasne shot down two FW-190s before he
himself was killed, one of 5 pilots killed in the battles of 16
and 17 July. The new commanding officer was Col. Pierre Pourjade
who was credited with six victories. The Normandie squadron, also
known as the Groupe de Chasse GC-3, became the Normandie Air
Regiment on 5 July, and they saw action in this, their first
campaign, at the Battles of Kursk, Orel, Bryansk, Yelnia and
Smolensk (see map). By October of 1943 over twenty pilots had
fallen, and only five of the original pilots remained, so they
were taken out of the line to reorganize during the winter at
Tula. This was a time when the Russian drive westward was under-
way, with Kiev recaptured on 6 November and beleaguered Leningrad
finally relieved on 27 January. Now was a time of general re-
grouping for the spring offensive of 1944.
The regrouped Normandie Air Regiment, now strengthened to
four squadrons, and re-equipped with Yak-9 aircraft, went back into
r":::i .'- ^y FIRST AND SECOND CAMPAIGNS OF THE NORMANDIE
0^'.. SQUADRON AND THE NORMANDIE-NIEMEN REGIMENT
S'KOVNO VITEBSK MOSCOW
ANTZ o INSTERBURG o
DATZIG oVILNO ) o SMOLENSK TULA \
SILAV 0 MINSK YELNIA .
NIEMEN. FIRST '
o BRYANSK CAMPAIGN %
SECOND \ OREL MR-OCT
CAMPAIGN 1942 A
MAY 1944 KURSK ARRIVAL
TO JUNE 1945 o Dec 1942
ASTRAKHAN b- .
( FROM RAYAK,
,JC/79 -. A--
action on the 3rd Byelorussian front in May 1944. During this
campaign, in support of a major Red Army offensive, the Yak-9s
of the Normandie were supplemented by Yak-3 aircraft (see box 2).
The two types of aircraft, one optimized for low level, and one
for higher levels, were most likely used in teams, with the Yak-9s
flying above to protect the low level and ground attack of the
This second campaign began at Vitebsk, then continued tp
the battles of the Berezina river, Minsk, Vilno, Kovno and to
the Niemen river. This was considered a real achievement, for
beyond the Niemen the battles were to move out of Russia and into
Northern Poland (see footnote)and East Prussia. The Red Army's
October offensive into East Prussia signalled a period of intensive
activity for all, and the Normandie Air Regiment flew 450 missions,
and claimed 87 victories, during the period 16 to 23 October. As
a tribute to this, and previous efforts, the name "Normandie-Niemen"
was awarded to the air regiment on 28 October as a battle honour.
This is the name on the stamps, and the name by which they are
generally known today. By now the basic Yak-9 was getting out of
date, and later versions were being developed. In Northern Poland and
and East Prussia the Normandie-Niemen had a mixture of Yak-9M and
Yak-9D aircraft (see box 3) as well as the faster, more manoeuverable
Yak-9M and Yak-9D BOX 3
The basic Yak-9 led to the Yak-9M (modified) in May of 1943,
with an additional 12.7 mm machine gune. This was the main
product'of Factory 153, with a production rate of 500 a month,
and. was one of the mainstays of the Normandie-Niemen in their
Further modification introduced larger fuel tanks for the
Yak-9D (Dalnaya or range) although weight considerations
deleted the second machine gun. The Normandie-Niemen used-
the Yak-9D, with its range of nearly 900 miles and four-hour
Some of the later Normandie-Niemen aircraft carried individual
markings over the standard brown and green camouflage paint, red
stars, and pale blue undersurfaces that were used on all Red Air
Fleet machines. The individual markings included the white
lightning bolt on the fuselage, white and red, as well as red, white
and blue spinners, and even an all-yellow spinner. Some of the air-
craft carried a large number on the side, some had a small French
rondel and some had the '"sharkmouth" symbol painted under the nose,
around the oil cooler. While this symbol is generally associated
Footnote This article does not mention another foreign squadron,
the 1st Polish Fighter Regiment, that entered action
over the river Vistula on 23 August 1944, also with Yak-1, Yak-3
and Yak-9 aircraft. Strangely enough, no Russian stamp has ever
been issued for these Polish pilots, although at least four such
air regiments (1st, 9th, 10th and llth) were formed.
Also not covered was the 586th Fighter Regiment, consisting entirely
of women fighter pilots. This unit, also equipped with Yak fighters,
was in action from the autumn of 1942 to the end of the war.
,in North America with the Flying Tigers of China, the sharkmouth
motif is much older, going back to German Roland C.ll aircraft of
1916 as well as dozens of other aircraft types of France, Germany
and Britain during both World Wars, and between the wars. Many
of the Normandie-Niemen aircraft also had a name painted on the
cowling, as was quite common in all air forces.
In November of 1944, Charles De Gaulle was on a visit to Russia,
and Stalin had the whole squadron brought from Insterburg by train
for a review, and for congratulations and awarding of decorations.
At a dinner during the visit, De Gaulle was complaining about the
shortage of trained French airmen available for the battle in
France. Stalin, probably in jest, offered to send the Normandie-
Niemen squadron to help, but De Gaulle, taking Stalin seriously,
replied that this was unnecessary, particularly because they were
contributing so nobly to the common cause while in Russia.
The final Russian offensive of the war resulted in the occupation
of Warsaw on 11 January, and entry into Berlin on 22 April, with
its capture on 2 May, followed by the final surrender on 7 May.
During these final months the Normandie-Niemen moved from Inster-
burg to Koenigsberg and to Dantzig, and the final day of the war
found them at Ilava in East Prussia. During this second campaign,
the most successful pilots were a Captain Marcel Albert with 23
victories, and Cdt. Louis Delfino, Sub-Lt. Jacques Andre, Sub-Lt.
Roger Sauvage and Capt. Roland de la Poype, all with 16. Other
high scoring.pilots were Littolf, Cuffant, Perrin, Marchi, Lemare,
Moynet, Risso, Lefevre, Durand, Challe, Carbon, and Castin with
from 10 to 14 victories. Some of the above are total scores,
which include some victories scored earlier in the battle of France.
In total, by the end of the war, the Normandie-Niemen was officially
credited with 273 enemy aircraft destroyed, 32 probably destroyed,
and 45 damaged. Some of these claims, made in.the heat and confusion
of battle, can be questioned today, but the score does not really
reflect the primary purpose of the squadrons, which was support of
the troops advancing on the ground. The accompanying map is some
measure of the contribution that this relatively small group made
to the general cause.
Statistics show that a total of 96 pilots served with the regiment,
of whom 79 received decorations and 42 died in action. Losses of
over 40% and the long periods during which the squadrons were
engaged, are a measure of the prolonged and bitter fighting that
was typical of the period.
As a final, unprecedented gesture, each of the pilots was given his
own Yak-3 aircraft, and forty of them flew back to France on 15 June
1945. Once there, however, they were not allowed to keep their own
private fighters, and some of the aircraft finished up in museums,
where at least one can still be seen. A medal was struck in France
in 1948, showing the pilots in winter flying suits with two aircraft
and a coat of arms on the reverse side.
Some Yak-9 versions were used in the short Russo-Japanese campaign
at the end of the war, in Italy and Jugoslavia, and some escorted
USAAF-B17Gs in shuttle raids in Roumania.
Later Yak versions such as the Yak-9U soldiered on in the post-war
airforces of Poland and Czechoslovakia as well as a two-seat trainer
version, and the Yak-9P was used in Korea in 1950 where one of them
was captured and it can now be seen at the Wright Patterson Air
Force Base Museum in the USA.
As a final philatelic salute to this notable aircraft, we will
finish with a Yak-3 downing a Bf-109F on Scott 992A (or Scott 995)
and a Yak-9 attacking a Ju-88 on Scott 992 I (or Scott 994.)
These stamps were part of a set, designed by B. Livanov, and issued
on 19 August 1945. They were valued at one rouble each, and two million
of each were printed. The set was reissued on 26 March 1946, with
face values from 5 to 60 kopeks and a print run of three million
each. Both sets are photogravure, and both are perf. 12 1/2,
although incorrectly listed otherwise in several catalogues. Even
the current Soviet catalog seems to have erred in stating that the
second set was issued in April, rather than March.
IS THE PAPER WOVE ? OR IS I
LAID AND WATERMARKED?
A SIGNIFICANT FIND S
by Alex Artuchov
As a supplement to an earlier article appearing in No. 1 of this journal,
entitled "Is the Paper Wove or Laid and Watermarked?", the writer is
pleased to share a most interesting and significant find with the reader-
ship. For this, we are indebted to our colleague Georg Mehrtens of
Bremen, West Germany. An item from his collection, a block of ten of
the 1866 1 Kop. (Scott #19) with gutter and margin attached (Fig. 1)
forms the basis of the article.
The subject block contains varying impressions of the laid lines and
watermark. The margin does indeed contain the appropriate impressions.
They are however, quite difficult to distinguish. On the stamps them-
selves, the writer was unable to make out any sign of either the water-
mark or the laid lines.
The first conclusion that one can draw from this block is that unlike
the general rule, a "wove" variety does not necessarily imply that the
sheet from which it originated had 99 other "wove" stamps.
The technical explanation for "wove" and laid and watermarked on the same
sheet is a simple one. To briefly digress, readers will recall the above-,
mentioned article and the discussion of the papermaking process therein.
Pulp formed from old rags was poured into a wire cloth, which acted as a
sieve. Once dried the product solidified into paper, bearing an impres-
sion of a given pattern built into the wire cloth as a watermark.
Readers will also recall that the possible explanation given for the
lack of laid lines and a watermark, was that an accumulation of pulp had
built up on the wire cloth and that this extra layer prevented the pos-
sibility of any impression coming through on to the paper.
Using this explanation, a sheet such as Herr Mehrtens' block comes from
containing varied impressions of the lines and watermark, was produced
as the result of a wire cloth with varying accumulations of pulp residue
on it. This in turn may have well resulted from the way the pulp was
poured into the cloth.
Apitchertype container holding the pulp may have first been dumped onto
the wire cloth and then spread about to cover the surface. Continuous
dumping of pulp concentrated by coincidence on certain areas of the cloth
could have easily led to some greater random accumulations of pulp and
consequently the production of paper with varying impressions of laid
lines and watermark.
Herr Mehrtens' block goes beyond demonstrating that sheets can occur
with varying impressions of laid lines and watermarks. It demonstrates
that a seemingly wove variety could have been produced on paper that was
manufactured to be laid and watermarked. It can therefore be established
that there is now unquestionably such a variety as "wove-like impression".
While it would be tempting to dismiss the possibility of actual wove paper,
the counter argument that the one subject block does not exhaust all pos-
sibilities must be acknowledged. By virtue of Herr Mehrtens' block and
the fact that the Imperial Printing Office had a proven record of high
quality control, the scales might be tipped more in favour of the wove
impression and less towards the wove.
While the wove or watermarked debate may never be resolved to the
state where there is not a single shred of doubt, we remain very grate-
ful to Herr Mehrtens for sharing his material with us and for bringing
us a step closer towards an answer for this interesting and longstanding
by Rev. L. L. Tann
This article hopes to present a very general look at Russia's
Railways, and of course the railway postmarks, of that most
interesting period 1909-17,during the currency of the final
issue of the Arms stamps, supplemented by the Romanov Jubilee
Russia's railways started somewhat hesitantly in the reign of
Tsar Nicholas I, in the 1820s and 30s. Some very high authorities
opposed the building of railways in Russia on the grounds that no
good could come from such a step. It would only encourage a
wanderlust among people, stirring discontent, facilitating the
swifter spread of harmful ideals, and thus become a direct threat
to the Established Order' But even powerful opposition failed to
prevent the spread of Russia's rail network. Railways boomed in
America, the United Kingdom and Europe, but in Russia there is
more space than in any other country. Even today there are vast
areas of Russia untouched by railway track. For those who sadly
persist in the belief quite untenable in face of the facts -
that Imperial Russia was backward and totally undeveloped, the
fact that such an undertaking as the Trans-Siberian Railway was
completed satisfactorily and in regular operation before World War
I, and that its operation today has not appreciably improved with
all modern contrivances, speaks for the level of competence of
Though many railway locomotives were purchased from both France
and Germany., Russia constructed the vast majority herself. Many
of the Tsarist locomotives were still in service in 1945, and many
of the very early RSFSR locomotives still operated on industrial
lines in the 1950s. For railway buffs, Tsarist locomotives were
powerful 0-8-Os or 0-10-Os, though on local lines engines were
generally 4-4-0s or 2-6-0s. The powerful Trans-Siberian and Trans-
Caucasian expresses were generally double-headed, and even till
quite recently that is the early to mid 1970s the steep in-
clines of the Trans-Siberian round Khabarovsk were still steam-
From the borders of Poland to the Pacific coast, from the Gulf of
Finland to the borders of Persia and Afghanistan, Russian Railways
stretched, many trains with mail coaches carrying letters to and
fro. At the opening of our survey, 1909, letters posted in, say,
Shanghai, China, could be transmitted to Paris and London without
difficulty, and, considering there was no air mail, within a
reasonable time. The railway from Vladivostok crossing into
Manchuria on the branch known as the Chinese Eastern Railway,
crossed the Russian border again to Chita, and from there across
Russia to Moscow, Warsaw, and Wlstern Europe. Western Europe had
equal access to the Far East, to Japan and China, and even to the
West Coast of America by virtue of Russia's railways.
In the period 1903-4, the Imperial Postal Authorities issued a
circular directing that railway cancellations both for stations
and for postal wagons attached to trains, were to be a double
oval. It would seem that the local postal authorities made their
own cancellers similar to the illustration in the directive, which
would account for some of the double oval postmarks being longer,
higher, with date 'bars, without date bars, with dotted areas or
not. By 1909, the double oval types were in almost exclusive use,
though on occasion one finds the old single-circle type. This
might have occurred when volume of mail was so heavy, extra
cancellers were needed, and old types pressed into service.
The great cities of the Russian Empire had, of course, more than
one station. St. Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw had several stations,
and, as far as we know, the principle mail depots of each terminal
station had its own cancellation. In addition to the word "Vokzal"
(station) appearing in the lower section of the double oval, the
specific name of the station appeared too.
1. The Nicholas Station.
2. The Warsaw Station.
3. The Vitebsk Station.
This was the railhead for the line to
Moscow and the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Postmark read: "S. PETERBURG/NIKOL.VOKZ."
and date across the centre.
This was the railhead for Warsaw, and
hence to Germany and France. Postmark
read: "S.PETERBURG/VARSH. VOKZ."
The line ran through Tsarskoe Selo, the
Tsar's residence, on to Kiev and Vitebsk.
Postmark read; "S.PETERBURG/VITEB.VOKZ."
4. The Baltic Station.
5. The Irinovka Station.
6. The Finland Station.
Railhead for Lithuania. )
Railhead for a short )
line to the north. )
Railhead for Finland.
The St. Petersburg-Helsingfors (Finland) railway used a bi-lingual
1. The Nicholas Station. This was the southern end of the line from
St. Petersburg. Postmark read; "MOSKVA/NIKOL.
VOKZ" and the date across the centre.
The Kazan Station. Railhead for the east. Postmark read;
The Alexander Station. This was sometimes called the Brest Station.
It was the railhead for Brest and the north-
west. Postmark read; "MOSKVA/ALEKS.VOKZ".
The Bryansk Station. Railhead for the south-west.
Kursk & Nizhnii-Novgorod Station. for the east.
The Vindava Station. Railhead for the north.
The Savolovo Station. Railhead for the north-west.
The Saratov Station. Railhead for the south.
The Yaroslav Station. Railhead for the west.
The stations above numbered 5-9 did not have individual cancellers as
they were not the major mail depots. Number 4, the Bryansk Station,
may have had its own mail depot and canceller, but the present writer
has not seen such.
2. The Kovel Station.
3. The Brest Station.
This was on the west side of the Vistula river,
and was the railhead for Vienna and central
Europe. Postmark read: "VARSHAVA/VYENSK.VOKZ."
Also on the west of the Vistula, but on the
north side of the city. Postmark reads:
On the east side of the city and the Vistula,
it was the railhead for traffic into Russia.
Postmark read: "VARSHAVA/BREST. VOKZ."
4. The Kalish Station.) The present writer does not know of postmarks
5. The St.Petersburg for these stations, but may exist.
Of course, there is no shortage of stamps, pieces and covers with station
postmarks and travelling post offices in the area of European Russia. For
quite modest sums nice covers and items can be had, but the beauty of
philately is that pleasing items with good strikes of postmarks need not
be very expensive. Of course, rare postmarks do cost a great deal, and
material emanating from further east, where population was more sparse,
and thus mail more limited, will cost more.
Considering the vastness of Russia's rail network, the collector is
presented with an unparalleled opportunity for railway philately.
And not only the railways within the Russian Empire. Several areas
were "protectorates", semi-independent internally, but under the
control of the Tsar, such as Bukhara in Central Asia. The rail net-
work passed through the area, and stamps used there listed as "Used
Abroad", outside Russia proper. The same applies in practical terms
to the Chinese Eastern Railway, the branch from Chita cutting across
Chinese Manchuria to link up again with Russian territory at Vladivos-
tok. The "Manchuria Station" or "Harbin-Manchuria" postmarks are
interesting and costly.
Another aspect of Russia's railways worth mentioning, though not
strictly in the philatelic field, was that several railways were
still privately owned, until the Bolsheviks 'nationalized' them
(without compensation)! The Imperial Government owned or controlled
most of the railways, and had shares in some of the smaller private
Much of the money for railway building came from foreign investment.
Large and brightly coloured certificates were issued denoting shares
and investments in the various companies. On the Bolshevik takeover,
these certificates became worthless. For decades they have lain in
attics and deed boxes, interesting and attractive, but still worthless,
as the Bolsheviks repudiated all debts incurred by the Imperial Adminis-
tration, and refused all compensation.
But now these share certificates are becoming collector' items. Still
valueless in terms of actual value, they are being snapped up by
collectors partly as examples of superb printing and partly as actual
historical documents. The same is happening to the old Russian bank-
notes. When the Bolsheviks demonetised the Imperial currency, particu-
larly because emigres had taken suitcases full of notes abroad, the
notes became worthless. Yet they are magnificent in style and colouring,
and though still a fraction of their old face value, collectors are
becoming interested in them.
Looking at past auction catalogues, prices realized for railway material
are climbing steadily. Seasoned collectors will not be waiting for my
advice, but a tip to others. There is a great deal of reasonably priced
railway covers and material around. The field is vast, and is worth
while, in all senses.
Illustrated here are several items showing station postmarks and TPOs.
1. 4k Romanov card with two good strikes of Warsaw-Vienna Station,
2. 3k Arms postal stationary card, with two strikes of the Alexandrov-
28- Warsaw railway, 27-2-08.
3. 7k and 3k Arms stamps with two strikes Warsaw-274-Kalish railway,
4, 4k postal stationary card with two good strikes of Kharkov Station,
Kharkov station used a double circle pmks with a network of dots,
rather than oval postmarks.
K .g ":-
UNION POSTAL UNIVELI?' j
POCCII P*USSI .. ,"
1 E1 i 'lT I:K C
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E tII- IIIII
/(0 f Cot
5. Pair of Romanov 10k with full strike of the Omsk-Chelyabinsk
railway, part of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
r : ..r.. .-'-? .......
i T .. I
6. 1916, 10/7k Romanov with full strike of Vladivostock Station, Far
Eastern terminal of the Trans-Siberian.
PRIBAIKAL OVERPRINTS-FACT OR FANTASY ?
by George V. Shalimoff
Recently I had the opportunity to examine a large accumulation of
overprinted Russian and Soviet stamps. The overprint transliterated
is Vremennaya Zemskaya Vlast'Pribaikal'ya, or translated, the Temporary
Rural Authority of Pribaikal. The overprint appears in four lines
within a frame of a shield with a smaller boxed scene of a sunrise,
plow and field. Although these overprints are occasionally offered
at auction under a Siberia listing, references about them are scarce.
(See fig. 1).
In Rossica journal #58, E. Marcovitch's article "Russian Erinnophilia"
described them as Siberian fantasies. No details of origin were given,
though apparently they were once listed in Michel's catalog in the 20's.
The Russian Special Catalog of Baron Carl von Scharfenberg, 1925, lists
some of them with the statement that the issue is fictitious and never
put into circulation. This statement itself is slightly disturbing be-
cause if something is fictitious then there could never have been any
intention of putting them into circulation. But if for some reason an
issue is not put into circulation although authorised to be produced
by some legal entity, then it really isn't fictitious. The lack of
postal validity makes this all moot, of course.
Von Scharfenberg's catalog also stated the overprint represented the
design on a Siberian banknote and that so-called genuinely used letters
are cancelled with fake cancellations, though no hint is given about
the time or place of these fake cancellations.
The accumulation I examined consisted of nearly 400 items, almost half
of them cancelled. Most were cancelled on pieces which appeared to be
parts of envelopes. The most interesting, and suspicious, thing is
that all the items were cancelled at one place on various days during
November, 1921. The place of cancellation was Verkholensk which is
located on the western side of Lake Baikal.
Only one intact cover was included. It was cancelled Verkholensk 17,
11, 21, within the typical 29 mm. double circle and bridge. (fig. 2).
It was backstamped Chita 23, 11, 21, the addressed destination, (fig. 3).
Though there appears on the face the handwritten word "zakaznoe" meaning
registered, there is no evidence of any registry label or mark. The
return address on the back flap briefly says "sent by Muranov, Veholensk
A folded piece was similarly cancelled Verkholensk 17, 11. 21,and back-
stamped Chita 23 .11. 21. (figs. 4 and 5). Most of the items cancelled
were single stamps on pieces. (as in fig. 6).
I I~~fllB~i~' I
The stamps were all the unwatermarked ruble values of the 1909-21 period
as well as the 35 kopek and 70 kopek, sword cutting chain, or what is
now called the first Soviet issue. The table below gives the approximate
breakdown of the mint and used values.
1 R 3.5 R 5 R 7.5 R 10 R 35 K 70 K
perf. 33* 18@ 40* 24@ 40* 15@ 19* 27@ 18* 14@ 6* 17@ 30* 26@
imperf. 12* 6@ 9* 8@ 7* 13@ 3* -
The overprints on the 1 ruble perf. and imperf.(Scott #87 and #131) appear
on all the shade varieties. But I am not certain it appeared on the hori-
zontal varnish lozenge varieties. The overprint colors were gray-black,
blue-black or greenish blue-black.
The overprint on the 3.5 ruble perf.and imperf. (Scott 137, 137b and 132)
was gray-black or blue-black. It alsooccurredinverted on an unused
imperf piece of three. (fig. 7) This variety was mentioned in the
Scharfenberg 1925 catalog.
The 5 ruble overprint is generally blue in color on both the perf. and
imperf. stamps (Scott #108 and #133).
Fig. 9 Fig. 10
On the perf. and imperf. 7-ruble values (Scott #138, 138b and 134),the
overprint colors are blue-black and greenish blue-black. Marcovitch
does not list the imperf. value which occurred in this accumulation.
The overprint occurs on the perf.10-ruble value only (Scott #109). No
imperf.overprints were mentioned in the von Scharfenberg or Marcovitch
references and none was found here. The overprint colors were gray-black,
blue-black and greenish blue-black.
The 35 kopek sword cutting chain (Scott #149) was overprinted in red only.
The 70 kopek sword cutting chain (Scott #150) overprint occurredin various
shades of blue.
On the several multiple pieces of 2, 3 or 4 stamps, the overprint is
regularly spaced and does not appear to be a single hand stamp but rather
overprinted in multiples. The lack of uniformity suggests it may have
been lithographed. It does not appear rubber-stamped. There were no
distortions one might expect with rubber stamps. The lack of indenta-
tions seems to rule out typography as the means of overprinting. (See figs.
7, 8 and 9.)
One other variety that was present in this accumulation was a margin copy
of the perfed 3.5 ruble value that apparently was folded over during the
overprinting which splits the overprint when the stamp was unfolded, (fig.
10). The margin is stamped STOLOW, the New York auction firm. Many other
mint overprints were similarly stamped on the reverse sides.
~--' ,s j
I proceeded to contact STOLOW by letter on Dec. 16, 1975. I pointed out
the presence of their mark and inquired into its significance as well as
requesting any details or sources of information they may have pertaining
to these issues. A reply was received on Dec. 29, 1975. None of my
questions were answered. The letter stated: "The only information we
can give you is that the overprint exists on both stamps and currency.
The stamps were issued in 1918 but in our opinion they were never sold
at the Post Office. They are,in our opinion, an interesting addition
to any Russian collection." In other words, there was nothing to be
learned from Stolow on these issues in spite of their mark on the stamps.
Four pieces with multiple stamps cancelled were included in the accumula-
tion. One had a 7, 5 and 1-ruble stamp. The second had a 1, 10 and two
3.5 ruble stamps. The third had three 1R, two 3.5R a 5 and 7-ruble value
plus two 70 kopek values. The fourth piece had a 35 and 70 kopek stamps.
All were cancelled Verkholensk as given above.
From an East Coast collector I received xerox copies of two covers with
used Pribaikal stamps.
One of the examples was a cover with two perfed stamps on the front and
three imperfs on the back. The stamps were canceled Verkholensk 18.11.21.
with a double circle canceller. The cover was addressed to Chita but the
name and street were marked out. There is a hand drawn registry box with
"Bepx" (for Verkholensk) and a handwritten number. The reverse side is
stamped with a Chita double-circle canceller dated 23.11.21.
The date of the cancellation fits within the period of the cancels on the
stamps I examined here in the accumulation of around 400. The date of
the Chita backstamp is identical to the dates on the Chita backstamps on
the examples in the large accumulation. It's a strange coincidence that
the backstamps are all the same date.
The other example was a postcard with a single perfed stamp pasted over
the position of the printed stamp on the postcard. This stamp was canceled
Selenginsk but the date was not legible. The card was addressed to Zhigalovo.
There was no backstamp and the message on the back was marked out.
The most disturbing thing about this card is the handwriting. It appears
to be the same as the cover I photographed in the accumulation out here.
Many characteristics of the writing are so identical that one must conclude
the card and the cover were written by the same hand. This is why it is
most unfortunate that the date on the postcard is not legible. It would
be highly suspicious if both had the same date, indicating the writer was
in two places on the same day.
Nevertheless, regardless of the handwriting or the identical Chita backstamp
dates, two more used examples have appeared, on cover.
Other than the two cited references I know of no other details of these
issues. Some collectors I've asked call them pure fakes but offer no
evidence or explanation. By November 1921 Chita was in control of the
Red Army and probably Verkholensk as well. So, we ask, did some temporary
rural authority actually exist as stated on the stamps? Did this authority
undertake the overprinting of stamps and later ruled illegal or without
authority? Or was some entrepreneur simply taking advantage of the rash of
overprinted stamps by the various Russian Civil War governments to create
an issue of his own, passing it off as an issue of the obscure real or
unreal authority? Are the Verkholensk and Chita cancels fakes or were
they stolen hand-stamps used to create these used items?
It would be nice to document the origins of this spurious issue. Can
anyone help shed information on these questions?
A FEW SIBERIAN EXPEDITIONARY COVERS FROM
by A.L. Steinhart
We have not tried to give a comprehensive history of the Canadian
Siberian Expeditionery force here. We are only going to illustrate
the following covers and describe them.
Cover #1 has the steel date stamp FIELD POST OFFICE CANADIAN 1 -
DE18 18 SIBERIAN EXP. FORCE, 29 M.M. in diameter, black ink
with the manuscript endorsement "On Active Service". It has a
purple boxed handstamp in the lower left "PASSED BY CENSOR 005"
which is counter signed by the censoring officer. This is a fairly
Cover #2 has the standard F.P.O. handstamp as Fig. #1 dated Jan. 25,
1919, a similar censor handstamp from censor number 014 and the ad-
ditional unit handstamp "ORDERLY ROOM JAN. 23, 1919 259th, Bn.
Can. Rifles (Siberia)" in purple, probably rubber, 36MM in diameter.
It is interesting to note there is a manuscript endorsement on the
reverse "Rec'd Feb. 24, 1919". The contents are with the cover and
are written on Canadian YMCA stationery dated Jan. 20, #2007396
Pioneer Sec., H.Q. Coy, 259th Btn. C.R., C.E.F.S., Siberia. Some
of the letters are interesting; "am writing this letter by the light
of a candle.... there is no electricity around this part of the
country. This was the first letter I have received in over 3 months
.... I also received one from my brother in Palestine. (referring to
a letter) .... I am writing a lot of letters these days because that
is all there is to do. We cannot go out any place because there is
no place to go. I cannot write very much to anyone because all our
mail is censored and you have to be careful what you put into them
.... We only had one mail so far .....
L. I I .-L
I- ..- .- lik, 't.
..,~~ ~~ ,.L fLr^& &
IrA g, J(.PS e
Cover #3 was also mailed on Jan. 25, 1919 and bears the same steel
handstamp and censor handstamp from censor 004. The return address
is on the reverse as H.T. Symons, 85th Battery, Siberia. The letter
is with the cover and is headed 85th Battery, C.F.A., Jan. 19/1919.
Some excerpts from the letter follow: "We headed north after we
left the straits and made a circular course following the shore line
of Canada, Alaska and Russia but of course keeping a long way out.
It seems that they avoid bad currents or icebergs that way ....,
the Teasta is a 4000 ton freighter which they have fitted up for a
troopship during the war and they certainly figured the square feet
per man down to the last inch .... On the evening of our seventeenth
day we sighted land. We were to stop in Japan for coal..... we
pulled into the harbour of Muverain, a small city of about forty
thousand on the south coast of the island of Yezo.... We spent two
and a half days there ... having spent twenty-two days at sea, we
at last arrived."
"The trouble is the base of the money and they vary in value every
day. There is an awful lot of bogus money around."
Cover #4 is dated Feb. 8, 1919 and has again the same steel date
stamp and the same censor handstamp in purple from censor 002
while cover #5 is dated Mar. 26, 1919 on a Canadian Y.M.C.A.
envelope and is the exception with no censor handstamp.
I -- *- "r
..... D r O-r-
III IIli ail ll Il o NINi amI giIIIl ll lll
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QUARTER Pg $12.50
POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS
by Alex Artuchov land G.G. Werbizky
In the preceding issue of this journal, a translation of
Schmidt's "Die Postwertzeichen Der Russichen Landschaftsaemter"
was initiated. In this, the second instalment, we continue by
dealing with the districts of Alexandria, Amur and Ananievand
also consider the typographic printing process.
As readers will note, the translation appearing in this issue
does not follow the original text to the letter. Other than
where it was considered necessary and relevant, certain port-
ions of the original work have to be eliminated. This would
include the comprehensive description of every issue, references
to literature and the correlation of colour description with
colour charts. It should be noted, that the reference to col-
our charts was mistakenly translated as Chuchin and Gib(bons)
in the previous issue. This occurs on p.58, immediately follow-
ing the description of colours.
Schmidt's listing of the illustration, cross-referencing his
work with that of other catalogues has been retained but appears
in abbreviated form. Accordingly, M.is for Moens, H. for Herrick,
G. for Gibbons, Ch, for Chuchin and S. for Senf.
Along with lithography, typography was one of the two printing
processes by which Zemstvo stamps were most commonly printed.
Typography is a printing process done in relief. The portion
to be printed is raised in relation to the portions which are
not to printed. Ink is applied by running a roller across the
surface and is deposited evenly over the those parts which are
standing in relief. Parts below the relief surface do not receive
Many zemstvo stamps were printed locally Their design was
composed by means of typesetting. The various portions making
up the design including type, framelines, ornaments, etc.
were assembled to make up a forme from which they were printed.
The forme may have been the composing stick on which the parts
were actually assembled,or the impression of the composing stick
reproduced a number of times producing a printing plate.
The composing stick would have contained only a portion of the
sheet. If the original composition contained five stamps, then,
five types should have resulted. Unlike lithography, where the
design was produced by hand and every rendition of the same letter,
for example, may be different, typeset lettering would be uniform
since it would be assembled from prepared type.
The type however, may be positioned at varying distances from
one original stamp composition to the other. Further discrep-
ancies could result from variance in framelines, in the vert-
ical positioning of letters, a letter or value accidently missed
and so on. One such interesting example is No. 1 of Bobrov. The
types shown below appeared in sheets of 20 arranged 5 x 4.
The four types appear in vertical rows, with the last row being
tete-beche. It is interesting to note that the discrepancies
between the four types here may have been the result of certain
letters and elements not being available in sufficient quantity
to suffice for all four compositions.
The last row appearing inverted or tete-beche in relation to
the preceding four is quite intriguing, One's first impression
would be that the sheets were printed directly from the compos-
ing stick. A forme with the last row in an inverted position
is otherwise somewhat difficult to explain. What may have happened
is that the stamps were printed row by row. Moving the paper
progressively from right to left as the rows were printed in
order from left to right, would have left sufficient room to
produce a fifth row but too much paper already off the printing
bed, dragging the sheet off by gravity. To compensate for this,
the printer could have placed the sheet back on the printing
bed with the unprinted row in the only position in which he
could print it, on the extreme left side of the printing bed.
But to do so however, the printer would have had to invert the
Another vivid example, is again from the Bobrov district. It is
No.6 issued in 1879. The six recurring types are again arranged
in vertical order. They are so clearly apparent in the strip
nf five illustrated below.
1=1 =1 ,q l = ,m ,.-' n, "g i
T". o j
o DS o l 1I 3 s E '
A more sophisticated process of printing zemstvo stamps by
means of typography was done at the State Printing Office in
St. Petersburg. A good number of districts turned to the State
Printing Office for the printing of their stamps. Of the result-
ing examples, perhaps, the best known design is the one Chuchin
refers to as the Ardatov type. Stamps from a number of districts,
all using this same design, are illustrated below.
Ardatov Cherdin Chistopol Kadnikov
Kholm Konstantin -
The printing of these stamps was technically, more sophisticated
than anything local printers could produce. The formes or print-
ing plates were made of copper plate. These forms were prod-
uced by electrotyping. The process done by electrical and chem-
ical means left a growth of copper on a collection of moulds
struck from a master die. Such moulds were produced via a coin
press from the master die which was in turn produced from an
A couple of the principal characteristics of typography are
listed below as follows:
(a) There is a typical "bite" or relief impression on the
backs of the stamps.
(b) When viewed under a glass, the printed impression shows
that the ink has been squeezed out to the sides of the
details of the design.
Other less often used printing processes will be considered
as they become relevant.
Alexandria (Kherson Province)
1869 (September 1)
Horizontal format, 24.5 x 25mm, finely lithographed on white
paper (0.11 1.13mm), unclear yellow gum, imperforate, sheet
6 x 4.
Illustrations: M.4195; H.S6; G.T.1;
SCh.I; S.Vol.I, Tab.II, 1.
1. 10 kop. blue, light and dark 10.00
30.5mm, typographed,.black letters on coloured paper (0.07 -
0.15mm., depending on gum), unclear yellow gum, imperforate,
sheet 5 x 8.
I f H.3.X Illustrations: M.4196; H S 6; G.T. 2;
%4 Ott; Ch. 1,2; S. Vol.I, Tab.II, 2.
2. 10 kop. black on reddish brown 15.00
black on yellow brown
the second yellow brown shade was probably created as a
result of exposure to light.
34 x 34.75mm., finely lithographed on white paper (0.1mm.),
white gum, imperforate, sheet 9 x 4.
Illustrations: M.4197; H.S 6; G.T. 3;
)I% Ch. I, 3; S. Vol.1I, Tab.II, 3.
3. 10 kop. blue and dark blue
23 x 26mm., type-set on smooth or rough gray paper (0.08mm.),
white gum, imperforate, sheet 6 x 3 with right half inverted.
The 3 types at the bottom right are green (No.5) while the
others are blue (No.4).
SIllustrations; M.1498; H.S 6; G.T. 4;
Ch. I, 4; S. Vol.I. Tab II, 4.
4. 10 kop. blue, dark blue
5. 10 kop. yellow green
light blue green
pair of 4 and 5
R (25 known)
RR (II known)
Main Characteristics of the Three Types
Type 1. Outside ribbon ornament wayy, period after X,
pearls to the right of the crown are incomplete.
Type 2. Ribbon ornament identical to type 1, pearls to the
left of the crown are incomplete.
Type 3. Outside ribbon ornament straight, no period after
27 x 41mm., type-set on smooth coloured paper (0.06 0.08mm),
white gum, imperforate, sheet 6 x 3 with left half inverted;
3 types, horizontal handstamped overprint in blue and later
1 I g Illustrations: M.4199; H. S 6; G.T.5;
.S Ch 1,5; S.Vol I, Tab.II, 5.
6. 10 kop. orangered. on violet paper, value in blue overprint
7. 10 kop. orangered on violet paper, value in violet overprint
overprint omitted RRR(6 known)
overprint inverted RRRR(1 known)
Main Characteristics of Three Types
Type 1. The first three links of the frame on the left have
the shape of an S.
Type 2. The first links looks like the very 'same as (?).
Type 3. The first and third line have the shape of a (??)
while the second the shape of an S.
1882. Similar to Nos 6 and 7, 28.3 28.5 x 45.3mm., type-
set on smooth coloured paper (0.08), white gum, imperforate,
4 types, sheet 4 x 5 with some variations.
Illustrations: M.4200; H S 7; G.T. 6;
S S. Vol. I, Tab II, 4.
8. 10 kop. carmine red on lilac paper with greenish blue
9. 10 kop. carmine red on lilac paper with violet overprint
overprint omitted RR (10 known)
overprint inverted RRR (4 known)
Main Characteristics of the Four Types
Type 1. Period after Y E 3. Large, halfway up after r Y 6
Type 2. Period after X E P C halfway up.
Type 3. Period after F Y 6. too low, halfway up after Y E 3.
Type 4. All 3 periods correctly placed.
21 x 42mm., two-colour lithography on white paper (0.06mm.),
white gum, perf. 12, sheet 6 x 7, crosses on the small crown
have minute differences.
Illustrations: M.4201; H. s 7;G.T.7;
Ch.I, 6; S.Vol I, Tab.III, 5.
black-brown and green
black-brown and blue
black-brown and red
black-brown and yellow
black-brown and red brown
Although originally intended for postal use, as the word
Pochta (post) would indicate, these stamps were only used as
emergency money.* In December of 1919, they were put into
circulation in the amount of 18,000,000 rubles. When the currency
was devalued in 1920, only 27.5% was exchanged, while the
remaining 13,000,000 rubles disappeared and presumably remained
in the hands of the local population.
23.5 x 41.75mm., fine lithographic printing on thick white
paper (0.13mm.), no gum, perf.11, value shown on reverse
side of all issues except 50 kop.
K ?~~'* .
*55 S *S5 "
1. 50 kop. brown orange
2. 1 Rub. slate brown
3. 3 rub. light olive green
olive green, imperforate
4. 5 rub. dark blue
11 ~.. .
The issues of Amur raise a number of interesting questions.
Should,for instance, these stamps be categorized as currency
or postage? In size and by the presence of the perforations,
the issues distinctly resemble postage stamps. Their values,
however, did not correspond to prevailing postage rates. While
Schmidt contends that these issues were used as emergency
money only*, we list below a copy that was postally used
(fig.1). There is also the question of the herald appearing
on the stamp. The herald depicted is that of the Amur region
oblastt) and not that of the Amur zemstvo.
References: N. Navolichkin, "Stamps of the Amur Zemstvo",
Soviet Collector No.7, Moscow, 1970, p.66.
E. Sachkov, "Local Postage Stamps" Soviet Collector No.5,
Moscow, 1968, p.42.
Ananiev (Kherson Province)
Five-line inscription with ornament below surrounded by two
thin circular rings. Concentric inscription between outside
ring and double ring of interior contains an eight-rayed star
at the top.
18.25 and 19.0mm inside rings, 25mm outside ring, enclosed
within 29 x 28,3mm rectangle, type set, imperforate, on white
or pinky white thick paper (0.09), yellow or light brown gum,
entire sheet unknown,
n Illustrations: M.4202; H.S 7; G.T. 1;
S. Vol.I, Tab.,III, 6.
1. 5 kop. blue or light blue 5.00
cancelled with pen and ink
a) dark blue, white paper, yellow gum
b) brown yellow gum
c) dark blue, white glazed paper, yellow gum
d) brown yellow gum
e) light blue, white paper, yellow gum
f) ", brown-yellow gum
g) light blue, glazed white paper, yellow gum
h) brown-yellow gum
Centre inscription in smaller type, dash added at end of third
line, fourth line shortened by two letters, no ornament below
centre inscription, one thin ring around centre inscription,
two rings on the outside,the outermost being thicker; smaller
six-rayed star at the top.
16mm inside ring, 24.25 and 25.25mm outside rings, within
29.5 x 31.9mm rectangle, type set on white paper (0.07 0.09mm),
brown-yellow gum, imperforate, sheet unknown complete but larg-
est known multiple is 3 x 5,margins on 3 sides.
S e ~ Illustrations: S. Vol.I, Tab.III, 7.
2. 5 kop. carmine-pink, bright or dull 2.00
cancelled with handwritten dates
Generally poor printing, star omitted, value in same type as
the rest of the inscription in the centre, second and fourth
lines shortened by one letter, two thin rings around interior
and one thin ring around exterior. 28 or 29mm outside ring,
type-set, white yellowish paper (0.10 0.13mm), yellow gum,
imperforate, sheet 2 x 6 with bottom 2 x 3 inverted hence,
2 tete-b&che pairs per sheet, 6 types.
Sae OVLop. Illustrations: M.4203; H.S 7; G.T.2;
SepecueoiePr. Ch.I,2b;S.Vol I,Tab. IV 2 and 4.
3. 5 kop. light or dark blue 15.00
Cancelled with handwritten dates
Main Characteristics of the Six Types
Type 1. Outside ring 28mm., and slightly deformed, period omitted
at end of circular inscription and after 5 kop.
Type 2. Outside ring 28mm and slightly deformed,,period omitted
at end of circular inscription only.
Type 3. Outside ring 29mm., period at end of circular inscription
and after 5 kpp.
Type 4. Outside ring 29mm., period at end of 5 kop. is high.
Type 5. Outside ring 29mm., no period after 5 kop.
Type 6. Outside ring 29 mm., period after 5 kop. placed half way
No dash at the end of the third line, no period at the end
of the fifth line in the central inscription, two thin inner
rings and one thicker outer ring, circular inscription modified.
24 and 24,5mm inner rings, 28.5mm., outer ring, type-set, yellow-
ish white paper (0.10mm), white gum, imperforate, 2 types,
et nepeeIA ^ Illustrations: M.4204;H.S 7; G.T.3-4;
SpecnoBAes Ch.I, 3-4; S.Vol. I, Tab IV, 3.
4. 5 kop. light and dark blue 6.00
cancelled with handwritten dates
Main Characteristics of the Two Types
Type 1. The type used for the central inscription is small
Type 2. The six-rayed star is larger.
Printed on the back of official Ministry of Justice paper.
27.5 29.25mm., type set, white paper (0.10 0.12mm.),
white gum, imperforate, sheet 5 x 3, 3 types with the two
top rows in an inverted position forming five tete-beche pairs.
ea nepeemx- li
A M, I Wt
.p 82.7B2At %
Illustrations: M.4207; H.S 8;
S. Vol. I, Tab. IV, 1 and 5.
5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
5. 5 kop. pink, red pink
Cancelled with handwritten dates
Main Characteristics of the Five Types
Value is further from the word kop., the first two
letters of the second line are raised and the last two
are omitted. There is a period at the top of the
third line, the fourth line is shortened with the last
two letters omitted and the period is half way up.
In the fifth line,two letters are omitted and there
is a period at the end.
The first letter of the second line is raised, the last
two letters are omitted, a period is at the end.
The third line contains a period positioned halfway up.
The fourth line is three letters shorter and has a periodA
at the end. V
The whole row on the sheet is tilted to the left. The
second line is very close to the inner circle. The last
two letters of the third line are raised. The period is
raised. The fourth line is three letters shorter.
The value is further from the word kop. There is no
period at the end. The second line is two letters
shorter. The third line ends with a dash. The first
two letters of the fourth line are raised. The fifth
line is three letters shorter and the second last letter
is partially missing.
No period at the end of the first line. The last two
letters of the second line are raised and there is a
period at the end+ The last three letters of the
third line are raised and there is no period at the end;
the fourth line is three letters shorter.
All five types contain frameline distortions.
Similar to No.2, one ring surrounding centre inscription,
two rings surrounding outside perimeter, some slight modifications
in the central inscription, the value is in larger type, the
fourth line contains two additional letters.
17.0mm., inside ring, 25.75 mm., outside ring, lithographed,
white paper with small transparent snuares (0.08mm.), yellow
gum with impurities, imperforate:; sheet of 6 x 11.
" 3A nlK.PZC1,1AKV
Illustrations: M.4205; H.S7; G.T. 5;
Ch. I, Ib; S. Vol. I, Tab.III, 8.
6. 5 kop. ultra marine
Cancelled with handwritten dates
New rectangular design. The unused stock of this issue was
reintroduced in 1903 when the stock of the 1896 issue was
depleted. 18.5 x 26.0mm., lithographed, white paper (0.06 -
0.07mm.) perf. 12.5 13.5, sheets of 10 x 10.
I ] most
1 12.5 I; 12.75
__ __ 11--
> Illustrations: M.4206;H.S 6;G.T. 6;
i Ch, I, 4b; S. Vol I, Tab III, 10.
7. 5 kop. dark maroon on blue silver and gold 1.50
Cancelled with handwritten dates or crossed diagonally.
- 5 kop. black imperforate
- 5 kop. red imperforate
- 5 kop. maroon black with light blue and light maroon,
- 5 kop. dark maroon with light blue and yellow maroon, perf.
12.5 x 13.25
- 5 kop. green, perf. 11.5
Similar to preceding issue,.herald is hatched by network of
crossed lines, inscription below herald and laurel decor is
in smaller type.
18.5 x 26.0mm., lithographed, on white paper (0.10 0.12mm),
white gum, perf. 12.5 13.5, sheet of 10 x 10.
Il.... most frequent.
Illustrations: S. Vol I, Tab.III, 11.
8. 5 kop. green, light green
cancellations: handwritten, with the names of the postal off-
Similar to preceding issues, crown is larger and slightly
different, there is a white line under the cross in the middle
of the crown, the right portion of the laurel decor touches
the top right circle with value, the ribbon tying the brooches
of the laurel decor is smaller, the inscription between the
herald and the value is smaller, the crossed lines of hatching
in the herald are more closely spaced.
Illustrations: M.No. 2355 57;
G.T. 7; S. Vol.I, Tab.III, 12.
9. 5 kop. brown-violet
10. 5 kop. carmine-red
11. 5 kop. yellow-green
Essays imperforate with no gum
5 kop. brown-violet
5 kop. blue
*The so-called "official stamps" listed in the catalogues are
just paper seals and used by all the Zemstvo issuing offices
A, Illinsky and M. Lada-Jakugevic' "A study of the local Post
(Zemstvo) of Russia". Part I, Filatelie, Prague,December 1975;
Part II, Filatelie, Prague, January 1976.
THE 1941 SLOVAK OVERPRINT ON SOVIET STAMPS
by R. Polchaninov
In the collection of Dr. Leonid Fedorovich Kvetan-Chenakalo
there are some very rare stamps with the overprint of the
Slovak coat of arms (A double-arm cross on three hills)
applied in 1941 on the 5-kopek definitive of 1939, without
any indication of the new face value.
The overprints were applied by hand apparently by means of
a hand-carved seal and done in the black ink used for cancell-
ing stamps. I had the opportunity of seeing a postal card of
the Slovak fieldpost service, upon which there was affixed
a 5-kopek stamp. It is cancelled with the marking of the
Slovak Field Post Office No.16, with the subscript "b" below
the date. It is interesting to note that the stamp was cancelled
on 23 July 1941, ie. on the 32nd day of the outbreak of war
This particular card is a philatelic production. It was never
used, it has neither a message nor the addresses of the sender
and addressee, so that, philatelically speaking, it cannot
be said to have "gone through the mails". The last circumstance
does not diminish its significance either as a historical
document or as a rarity.
It should be noted in passing that none of the stamps listed
in "Michel" for the Legions fighting on the Eastern Front
served for the prepayment of mail and they were only devoted
to propaganda or charitable causes. Each sending of ordinary
letters and cards through the field postal service was free of
charge; only registered mail had to be paid for and, even then,
only the registration fee. For this reason there was no rec-
tangular box in the upper right corner of the fieldpost cards,
but a circle instead for the postmark.
Editorial Comment: Dr. Kvetan-Chenakalo has three other
Soviet stamps on cards with this overprint, namely the 10 &
*20 kopeks of the 1939 definitive issue and the 15 kopeks of
the 1940 Perekop commemoratives (See Fig.2). They all bear
exactly the same date while the cards have no addresses or
messages on them.
Material is being prepared on the markings of the Slovak
Fieldpost Service during W W II for publication in a future
issue of "The Post-Rider". Finally, our thanks to Mr.
Polchaninov for allowing us to reproduce his article, originally
published in "Novoe Russkoe Slovo" of New York City.
00FiSlA POni[ POST0YE SLONBY .
... .. .
OFiSItCA FPOLEJ POSTOIVE SlU.BY '5'
.s ) .. 3. .-
OOlrrlPOt PSOV IUB ,..^J
by Rev. L.L. Tann
The Romanov Jubilee series of stamps issued in January 1913 took
about four years of preparation. In 1909 when the first essays
were produced; in 1910-11 the adopted designs went through the
process of finalization of the dies and the colour trials; and
in 1912 the process of specimens, and finally the printing of
the sheets ready for issue.
The portraits of the Tsars and Tsarinas used for the stamps exist
as single strikes in various colours. These are from the trial
stage and they exist in various colours. All rank as rare and in
recent years only examples of the 3k head portrait of Alexander
III have appeared at auction, fetching from US $50 up to $150.
It is interesting to note that in three cases the "heads" were
borrowed from the current banknotes of Imperial Russia.
The 3 kopek portrait of Alexander III is identical to the portrait
appearing on the 25 rouble note of 1909, though there is some very
minor detail adjustment to the uniform. The portrait of Nicholas I
that appeared on the 50 rouble note of 1899 has been used, but again
with minor adjustment.
In 1912, a 500 Rouble note was issued, a very high figure, being 50
or US $250, but with far greater buying power than those equivalent
sums have today. The note is magnificent, with a delicate green
background and with purple and orange-brown colouring. The reverse
of the note, in green on white, shows a portrait of Tsar Peter the
Great identical to that of the 1k Romanov stamp. (Quite a come-down
from 500 roubles to 1k!) Since this note was issued in 1912, it would
seem reasonable that the portrait was used for both banknote and
In 1910, a 100 rouble note (E 10 or $50) was issued, with a portrait
of the Tsarina Catherine the Great. This is taken from a famous
portrait of the empress, but bears no relation to the 14k stamp bearing
UOF5ISIOCA .PM J ~OSTOYEJ SLUIOY
,t ,,,| ,ct- i ,* h wr, W ,,,
,..-,25r note of 1909 with portrait of Alexander III. '
4 'T *
;'; .L .,',' ; I .,4,,.: x ._ r. '. .. .,..' .,, .I r "..
I do not know of any other Russian Imperial banknotes with portraits
of Romanov rulers, the 5r and lOr notes simply bearing the double
eagle. One might have expected a banknote of Russia bearing a portrait
of Nicholas II.
This is an interesting connection between Russian philately and
.'"- /*-,O.A ,
.' It K..
"'H" A .
,,. ,o. 1, AC 606049 AC.606049
^-. '" __ 50r note of 1899 with portrait of Nicholas I._
1910 banknote showing portrait
of Catherine the Great.
1912 banknote for 500r, showing
portrait of Peter the Great
identical to the Romanov 1k stamp.
ONE PERIOD OR TWO?
by G.G. Werbizky
Stamps of Batum, 1919-1920 issues, represent a fascinating and
challenging field of Russian Philately. With few exceptions,
the number of stamps issued (and overprinted) was very small.
The overprints were crude, done by hand and contain usual
wide variations in clarity which is to be expected from this
production method. Further more all the stamps have been
extensively forged and material, which appears on the market
today, unless signed by a well known expert, is suspect.
It is safe to say that over 90% of overprinted Batum stamps,
unless expertized, are forgeries. The literature on Batum
stamps is scarce and catalogues only warn that forgeries exist
and cannot be used by a serious student to help him distinguish
"the good from the bad". Therefore, one is left to rely on help
from experts, a few published articles and one's own research
One of the questions that needs answering is the following:
Is there a period after right and left hand P (Rubles) on
all stamps of November 27, 1919 issue (Scott Nos. 21, 25-32)?
The problem is compounded by the statement in "Russian Philate-
list" ,No. 9 in the article "Batum" by Mr. A.M. Rosselevitch,
which reads (Page 25, Russian Edition): "In marking the new
price, there is a period only after the last "P", but after
the first, there is no period". Illustration in Scott, Michel,
Romeko and Chuchin confirm this statement, while Zumstein
shows periods after both P's. In W.E. Hughes' excellent work
"Postage stamps of Batum", he illustrates the 10 Rubles
overprint with one period. Incidentally, it is the opinion
of this writer that both Scott and others use Chuchin illust-
rations, while Zumstein does not. In any event, all five
illustrate only the 10 Rubles value and leave out the 50 Rubles
overprint. The "Stamp Collecting Magazine", April 9, 1921,
issue No. 391, carries the article "Batoum: issues and totals
printed" by "Ennate" which also illustrates the 10 Rubles
overprint (not a reproduction of the overprint) with one
period the right-hand one. In the same article the statement
is made with respect to January 12th, 1920 issue (the 50 Rubles
overprint): "The overprint on these stamps is very similar to
that on the 10 R. on 3 K., imperf., (it being Scott No. 21)
of November 27th, 1919.
In the January 20th issue, there is a stop after the left-
hand "P", which stands for Roubles, and another after "Batum".
No similar mention is made with respect to the 10 Rubles
overprint and one is left to assume that the made-up illustration
is correct. i.e. one period for 10 Rubles and two for 50 Rubles.
Based upon the review of material available to me articles,
catalogues, stamps in my collection, signed by Mr. Rosselevitch
himself and private correspondence with Dr. R.J. Ceresa, I
conclude that it is only the 10 Rubles on 3 kop. imperforate
(Scott No. 21), that has one period, only after the right-hand
P. The rest of the stamps with this overprint (Scott Nos. 25-32)
Attention: Mr & Ms Specialist!
We have been serving Philately for over half a cen-
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We are particularly strong in RUSSIA, (XIX, XX), incl.
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have two periods, after each P. One should note that this
overprint appeared first on one stamp only, namely the 10 rubles
on 3 kop. (Nov. 27th, 1919 issues), supplemented in January 12th,
1920 with the 50 rubles overprint of the same design.
Finally, in a personal letter to me, Dr. Ceresa states: "With
regard to the Batum query, I agree with you that it is only the
10 ruble on 3 kop. which has only one period. (Some.of the forg-
eries also only have one period). I have seen a genuine copy
with just the possible faintest hint of a period, suggesting
that it may have initially been present, but was 'lost' at an
early stage". I welcome comments on the few remarks I have made
and suspect that my firm conclusion, stated above, will revert
to a less firm one that of Dr. R.J. Ceresa. As with all hand
overprints, there are many exceptions to the rule, and this
should be expected.
S1a% :j ..-
~. J ji~*
1) Michel, Scott, Romeko, Chuchin and Zumstein catalogues.
2) Russian Philatelist, Nos. 8, 9 & 10.
3) "Postage stamps of Batum,"W .E. Hughes, June 1935.
4) Stamp Collecting, issue NO. 291, "Batoum: Issues and total
printed' April 9, 1921.
THE LITERATURE OF
Continued from Nos. 1, 2 and 3
This is the final installment of this study, and it will
consider non-philatelic references, general supporting
literature and give the promised index of key words.
It may be noted that all these features are presented
in Yamschik No. 4, rather than being printed in Nos. 4
and 5, as previously planned.
Section 5.0 NON-PHILATELIC REFERENCES
5.1 Gazetteers and Atlases
Any serious study of Russian philately inevitably
runs across the problem of the great number of cities
that have had their names changed, rendering research
very difficult at times. The usual solution is to
locate a good modern atlas, prefer ably with a good
indexing, or gazetteer of place names, and then look
around for one or more good atlases of between 1890
and 1914. I was lucky enough to find a practically
mint copy of a Harmsworth Atlas and Gazetteer of 1909
with several fine maps of European and Asian Russia,
and an extensive index of place names, as well as
indicating major railway routes, and some steamship
lines. I also have a Phillips Student's Atlas of
about 1914 and a couple of early maps of about 1786
and 1806, removed from early atlases. Such maps and
books can be picked up quite cheaply if you look around
enough, and with a bit of luck. For Soviet Russia, there
are many maps available at reasonable prices. See also
section 4.35 of this article for UPU list of Post Offices.
Correlation of the old and new maps can usually unscramble
the old and new town names.
5.2 Baedeker's Russia 1914 (in English) by Karl Baedeker.
After searching a number of North American and European
bookstores for an original copy of a Baedeker travel
guide to Imperial Russia, I found that they were printed
in very small numbers, and would be very expensive. This
is not a problem, because David and Charles of Newton
Abbot or Geo. Allen & Unwin Ltd of London, England,
have done a superb reprint of nearly 600 pages with
22 pages of index and many maps. It is an exact
replica of the 1914 guidebook, and you can determine
price of rail tickets, distance between stations,
prices of rooms and restaurants, steamers, museums,
everything. At about $15 you will seldom find a
5.3 Guide to the Great Siberian Railway (1900) (in English)
For the real "dyed-in-the-wool" railway fanatic, this
David and Charles reprint of a copiously illustrated
book describing the Trans-Siberian Railroad, may be
just the thing. Over 500 pages of text, maps, descrip-
tion of every station, timetables, tariff tables, and
even a section of commercial advertisements There is
also a reprint available called "Russian Steam Locomo-
tives" by Fleming and Pricel
A good Russian-English and English-Russian dictionary
is very useful, and you can look up words either way,
even if you don't speak a word of Russian. The little
pocket-size Collins dictionary is about $1.50, but
there are many to choose from. My own bookshelf
includes a Golovinsky dictionary of uncertain date,
using the old orthography, for on 10 October 1918
the Soviet Government cut three letters and a sign
out of the language, which can cause confusion on
Section 6.0 GENERAL SUPPORTING LITERATURE
The dividing line between the specialist philatelist
and the scholar is very thin, and study of classic philately
can often lead to some very interesting and enjoyable reading.
In the 1950's there were some fine stamps issued showing
authors and scenes from their books; Tolstoy, Lomonosov,
Pushkin, Gorky, Shevchenko, Chekhov, Gogol, to name but a
few. Many of their works are available in translation, and
well worth reading. Try Turgenev or Dostoevsky, or maybe
you can put together a collection of Authors on Russian
Stamps; Charles Dickens (Scott 2589), O. Henry (2635)
Shalom Aleichem (2164), Fielding (1946) Benjamin Franklin (1875)
George Bernard Shaw (1878) etc. etc.
The last type of literature to be mentioned is the fictional
and non-fictional accounts of Russian history.
Siberia by Yuri Semyonov
The File on the Tsar, Summers & Mangold
Shadow of the Winter Palace, Crankshaw
Journey into Revolution, A.R. Williams
And Quiet Flows the Don, Sholokhov
and so on and so on. Two very worthwhile references to
the period of the Intervention are John Swettenham's
"Allied Intervention in Russia 1918-1919" and Chapter XVI
of Nicholson's "Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919".
And perhaps we can add "Under Ten Flags" for the Eastern <
end of the Intervention, and "iThe White Generals". These
are only a few of hundreds of items of supporting literature.
No matter what field you want to enter, diligent searching
will lead to useful and enjoyable hours of study that will
enhance your knowledge and pleasure.
ALPHABETIC INDEX OF KEY NAMES AND DESCRIPTIONS
Y3-4.1 means reference is found in Yamschik No. 3, paragraph 4.1
Key Word Reference Key Word Reference
Armenia Y3-4.1 CPFU II Y2-3.4
Armstrong I Y3-4.2 Cumulative Index Y3-4.14 b
Armstrong II Y3-4.3 Dictionaries Y4-5.4
Ascher Y2-3.1 Encyclopaedia Y3-4.15
Ashford Y3-4.32 Expertization Y3-4.11
Atlas Y4-5.1 Faberge and Schmidt Y2-3.9
Auction Catalogue Y3-4.4 Falschungen Y3-4.6
Azerbaijan Y3-4.20 Y3-4.7
Baedeker Y4-5.2 Faulstich Y3-4.12
Batum Y3-4.13 Forbin Y2-3.10
Baumgarten Y3-4.5 Filatelia SSSR Yl-1.2
Billig I Y3-4.6 France-URSS Y1-1.3
Billig II Y3-4.7 Gibbons Y2-2.7
BJRP Yl-1.1 Gray Y2-3.11
Bochmann Y3-4.8 Herrick Y2-3.13
Borek Y2-2.1 Higgins & Gage Y2-3.12
Bulat Y3-4.9 Hughes Y3-4.13
Cancellations Y2-3.2 International
Y3-4.10 Encyclopedia Y3-4.15
Cercle Philatdlique Y2-3.3 Kandaouroff Y3-4.16
Y2-3.4 Landschaftsaemter Y2-3.22
Chastin Y2-3.5 Lipsia 'Y2-2.10
Chuchin I Y2-3.6 Lissiuk Y3-4.17
Chuchin II Y2-3.7 Lubkert Y3-4.18
Chudovskii Y2-3.8 Lukanc Y3-4.40
Combined Index Y3-4.14a Maksymczuk Y2-3.15
CPFU I Y2-3.3 Marcovitch Y2-3.16
Key Word Reference Key Word Reference
Melville Y3-4.20 Scott ~--Y2-2.6
Michel Y2-2.2~ Scrapbooks Y3-4.27
Minkus Y2-2.3 Seichter Y2-3.24
Moens Y2-3.17 Shagiv Y3-4.28
Other Journals Y1-1.8 Siberian Railway Y4-5.3
Pappadopoulos Y3-4.21 Soviet Collector Y1-1.7
Periodicals Y3-4.22 1Speers Y3-4.39
Pochtovye Marki Stanley Gibbons Y2-2.7
SSSR Y2-2.4 Stefanovsky Y2-3.25
Polar Post Y3-4.23 Stephen Y3-4.31
Prigara Y3-4.24 Tchilinghirian &
Rachmanov Y3-4.25 Stephen Y3-4.31
Refugee's Post Y3-4.26. Transcaucasia Y3-4.32
Reichspostmuseum Y2-3.21 Trident Issues Y3-4.33
Reynolds Y2-3.18 Turin Y3-4.34
Roberts Y3-4.33 Ukrainian Y2-3.15
Romanov Y3-4.30 Y3-4.34
Romeko Y2-3.19 Universal Postal
Rossica Y1-1.4 Union Y3-4.35
Roussin Y2-3.20 Vinkler Y3-4.36
Russian-American White Y2-3.26
Philatelist Yl-1.5 Williams Y3-4.37
Russian Philatelist Y1-1.6 Wilson Y3-4.38
Sanabria Y2-2.5 Yvert et Tellier Y2-2.8
Schmidt I Y2-3.21 Zemstvo Gazetteer Y3-4.39
Schmidt II Y2-3.23 Zeppelinpost Y3-4.40
Schmidt (& Faberge) Y2-3.9 Zumstein Y2-2.9
THE ITALIAN TROOPS IN THE FAR EAST
by Luciano Buzzetti
(Italian Association of Postal History AISP)
Italian historiography is extremely sparse with regard to the
activities of national units during World War I on the Albanian.,
Macedonian, Palestinian and Russian Fronts. Only the participation
of the Second Army Corps on the French front has been studied
fully and documented by the Historical Office of the Ministry
When I concerned myself with the postal history of the Italian
Detachment in Palestine (Milan 1976 Sorani Publishers), it was
necessary to refer to the personal recollections of the Adjutant
Major of the Detachment and get the help of the General Armed
Command of the Carabinieri, as an official Italian report did not
exist on this unit and there was a complete silence on its activity
in the records of the British Ministry of War.
The reconstruction of the postal history of the participation of
an Italian contingent in the military operations decided upon by
the Allies against the Bolsheviks in Siberia is even more complic-
Italy was too involved on the national front to disperse its
resources so as to be able to dend them to other fronts so far
away from its own political interests. Its participation in the
expeditions to the Murmansk area, Palestine and Siberia were there-
fore exclusively restricted to "showing the flag" and whenever
in each case the Italian soldiers were involved in armed conflicts,
they did not give a bad account of themselves.
Re the actual state of our knowledge of the motives which impelled
the Italian Government to send an Expeditionary Force to the Far
East in the summer of 1918, it must be s&id that it was primarily
its interest to give assistance to the thousands of ex-Austrian
POW's who were natives of the lands which Italy intended to annex
and which the Italians called "The Redeemed Territories". These
men were in need of help from the military and diplomatic author-
ities of their new country.
On 19 July 1918, the I.S. "Roma" left with 2 senior officers,
10 officers, 1 medical officer, 14 junior officers, 13 NCO's and
15 'soldiers, as well as the mobilised 159th section of Royal
Carabinieri (1 officer and 52 soldiers) and an artillery section
with 2 officers and 166 men.
The I.S. "Roma" made a stop at Massawa where a company of
infantry of the 85th Regiment, two sections of machine gunners
and other services also embarked. Other men were taken from the
Italian Concession in Tientsin. According to, Sig. Bernadelli,
an "Italian Military Mission" had begun by 2 September 1918,
the consolidation of the ex-Austrian prisoners of war.
According to Sig. Maravigna, one of the few historians who had
written up the story, the Italian soldiers were in Kharbin on
25 October 1918, and in Irkutsk by 17th November from where they
were transferred to a miserable camp at Krasnoyarsk. Again
according to Sig. Bernadelli, the Italian Mission operated at
Omsk, Verkneudinsk, Cita, Blagovescensk, Kabarovsk, Nikolajevski
Sull'Amur and finally set up a base at Vladivostok. The spelling
of the names of these cities is reported according to the version
most current in Italy and differs from that of the Anglo-Saxon
system of spelling place-names.
The number of prisoners "recovered" varies from the absurd
figure of 92 men given by Sig. Bernadelli in "Filatelia"
No. 92/93 in January 1976 to that of about 700 men according to
The Italian soldiers participated in some armed clashes between
17 May and 20 June 1919. Returning to the Camp at Krasnoyarsk,
they remained there up to 8 August 1919. The return to the home-
land via Tientsin began from that date.
According to Sig. Maravigna, the return of the Italian soldiers
to Naples took place on 2 April (1920 ?) but this date should
The Royal Italian Troops in the Far East were not supplied with
a postal marking but each unit arranged to apply franking cachets
or used their own administrative markings to certify the right
to free franking.
The Italian Postal Service relied on the diplomatic representation
at Peking and on the Royal Italian Naval Base at Tientsin.
The 159th Mobilized Section of the Carabinieri used the Oval
Cachet illustrated in Fig. 1. Up to now, there are less than
ten examples known of this correspondence. The markings illust-
rated in Fig. 2 were in all probability used by the base units
SlU -TOE ItKO c b g
,r^. -, / .L .
.... .* r ,'.;/t ': '; /1 ,.. ft ..,
f i 4! r'
^ _'.,-" ., I' '. -
./ .. r .
P T" ^ '- P1
. .. ... ,^ .^.. .7...
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i ,t r-. i...' ..- ...- :
2 '> *, o ......r
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. .. ...........
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MISSION MILITARY ITALIANA
pr I FR Oallt01 ER DI OUELP*L IN
IL CAPO MISSION
Nro 47/ 172 dl Prot.
0 g g e t t o. Prig
VlaAlvetek, 27 Bettmbre 1919.
Lonieri di guerrla, lIkel.s-Useurlsk
The oval cachet "R R POSTE/LEGIONE/REDENTA
has been found on mail coming from Siberia and was probably
applied at Vladivostok (Fig.3), where the Italian Military Mission
in Siberia also carried out its work (Fig.4). The postal service
for the Italian troops at Krasnoyarsk probably stamped the
postcards and letters of the soldiers with one of the cachets
in three lines, which are illustrated in Fig.5.
T 9 1" S H A 3 C a T
",! VIA OTUILT& 37 III
F .I 5 ,
The Italians printed two free-frank postcards, one for the
"Troops in the Far East" (Fig.6) and the other for the "Redeemers"
With this I terminate my sketchy article. I think that it has
served to make English-Speaking collectors aware of the exist-
ence of this material which is much sought after in Italy, extremely
difficult to dig out and of great rarity.
I should add that the cachets of the Italian soldiers in Siberia
applied on Russian stamps or postal stationery acquire a higher
grade of rarity than the free frank material.
1 ,; *t,,*" '*.': S C t:. '.. !-'* *.
" -- \". . ; .* -., < "'
oos. ''' *h "a ''/f" -'''*G an 'y te frteN~dee
l(* f<... ,^-i>< g'.- -*--* *^t-; > '. .
| it hi ...iat -y -k th r -. t h ink *'a t '
1 .ve t** 'aeE gis-p airf** ,-..**--ifi. awar of" '-'*< ** -,''-
1neo hi maeil'hc ^ **c L;" gh afte *' Itly < '/ "'
t .* f..^Lt .,:.- -o ^;;- ,-_. an .*w^. .r a ..ri ',.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Please see Fig. 8 for the illustration of
a cover in the Cronin Collection sent by an Italian through the
Kharbin Station Post Office on 20.8.19 (one-rouble rate paid by
2 x 15k. & 70k. Arms) to Lieutenant Arturo Musicco with the
1st Battalion, Italian Troops in Siberia, c/o Royal Italian
Consulate in Tientsin. This letter was censored at Kharbin and
received at the Russian Post Office in Tientsin ten days later.
It was obviously received by the addressee in Siberia, as it has
been opened roughly on the right side, but there are no Italian
Siberian arrival markings on the cover.
/?f~r:' ..-~PBL f/f #4-
,---- ---- 47
A REAL ROMANOV FLOWN COVER I
by Dr. A.H.Wortman
There is no doubt that the Soviet Philatelic Assoc-
iation used up whatever stocks were left of old Imperial
postal stationery for the covers they prepared specially
for collectors as surmised by Barry Hong in this Journal
No. 3 pp.19/20. That they also used them for their own
correspondence is shown by an item mailed in 1933. It is
a Romanov 20/14 k envelope with two parallel lines across
the top of the front extending over the printed stamp and
also with a legend in English denoting the exclusive use
of the envelope for Air Mail. It is therefore a Romanov
cover really flown,although during the Soviet period. The
two parallel lines, the underlined VOZDUSHNOI POCHTOI
and ZAKAZNOE and the box headed Air Mail are all in red.
The 30k adhesive stamp is only partly stuck down.
It covers the printed 20/14k green Romanov stamp and it
is possible to see the underlying stamp and surcharge by
lifting the lower corner. On the flap the S F A have their
name and address printed in Russian in red and with a rubber-
stamped version in English over it. One wonders whether
they had a series of hand-stamps in other languages. The flap
is sealed with one of their own foreign exchange control
stamps, a 1 ruble denomination cancelled by the usual
rubber stamp with attesting signature. It is possible that
both the 10/7k and 20/14k Romanov stationery envelopes got
out of official hands since they are listed in Higgins and
Gage but the writer has not seen them.
,*W ---.... -->,., \ -- -r .
.--f .., .
M. ., '. l." t-l -,, J.......-...... ... .--
.. i i
X 11') CI1 I.,
Sl .:, r ,, t V,-
li'i I r : l ,-,lI ,,* .I,- h
fI, Air .M'ni
COBETCKUA R q C' lH':fM'4LOiILmr\U
a, ia TiEe L f C:Pr .
t .. r. 3-
_. 91'1-~'4. -*-5-
REUTILISED ROMANOV POSTAL
by John Lloyd
Re the Barry Hong "Flown Romanov Covers".
Having been a student of Russian and Soviet Postal History
for many years, the fact that these were from unused Postal
Authority's stock has been also known for many years. There
was at the time of the Revolution a mass of postal stationery,
envelopes and postcards, both at the State Printing Works
and Head Post Offices of Moscow & Petrograd. From 1922 to
1942 all philatelic exchanges with foreign countries were done
through the S.P.A., the Soviet Philatelic Association. As we
know,there were envelopes produced of differing sizes; this
particular one was suitable, with ample room for all the cachets
etc., for the occasion. It was a large operation, mounted by
the Postal Authorities and in particular the Soviet Philatelic
Association, with in fact Ivan Papanin being appointed rep-
resentative of the Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs and
in charge of Mail carried on the ice-breaker Malygin to be
exchanged at Tikhaya Bay off Hooker Island with the Graf
Zeppelin. In view of the shortage of paper at this period,
many official bodies and indeed private individuals used up
existing stocks of Romanov and other Imperial P.S. in this manner.
Herewith a few samples of this usage:-
1.) The earliest of Soviet interest in Special covers and
cancellation used on the watermarked 14 kop. postal stat-
ionery envelope 19.VIII.22 (Fig.l).
2.) The 2 kop. Imperial wrapper used by the Soviet Philatelist,
organ of the Commissioner for Philately and addressed to
Kazan; datestamped on arriv.3.XI.26 (Fig.2).
3.) Smaller size:- Romanov watermarked postal stationery
envelope, imprinted 7 kop., cancelled Moscow November
1934 and addressed to London from the Soviet Philatelic
Association. Fig.3. shows the lifted 15 kop. Soviet
These above three covers were, to my mind, used in the same
way as those used for the Graf Zeppelin Polar.flight, by..the
Philatelic Association. I think too the fact thatthe American
submarine,due to rendez-vous,was in trouble in the Atlantic
and towed to Plymouth. After lengthy repairs she made
Bergen where she broke down again. After more repairs she
made Spitzbergen, where she broke down a third time. She was
finally scuttled to everybody's relief in Bergen Fjord. It
must surely have been known to the Russians that the rendez-
vous would not take place, and they possibly presumed that all
the mail she carried would not be serviced by the Graf Zeppelin,
so extra covers...!
i1AATEJNfl-AETflM : 1
14 an rIfr E.1- 122 r. I'
-- ---- -- -----
i,.g. 1. "
~ _~~..-~,I--g.- 1. ----- -
S. S n-s
Y rvt ; +.."':'; ..'- +-. ,:; ,b+'.'ai ,'+:; '' r -
pOi .C .CM '/u:...:C? e CC. T.t.1,".T
l* ;A~.' -1 .,C ';
( ,ic-i ErrEVii Ciiol\T F.'iuC T.
I a. 0,4p. f asr '. eit C' s: *0C ae i Py'sP a';
x p n r.1 a L. ,
^* i. 4"Yle.i '-.Br ai.,, ,'.r.A
Y; 4!1,t I T Ig4
y' i .. :. 1 T I:' I o '.I4
TO. i "- .' '-" AW p''', ir ,k V
,j;y -a' ,, : ,K CR |-
rpI.!li & -'rr- ., i r. I a:( r.
P ',r, --.. -.. ... .. .,
-'r a.B '
i..' + C c ;>+.in,n p.< Ei .t- J
Tr c.c" ]-;8-1. i 'l
T711. -. lil'.%- T [-, T.
i .. 0i
If 4,- *' .q.' .
,.L... ...... .. .
1 h,"i i<[i-' l-', \' nl'[l+ F.I13-l ^-M.
But as I have said earlier, some private individuals did
possibly possess surplus Pomanov postal stationery, cards
and envelopes. They therefore used them in a similar manner
to the Official Bodies. Cover 4. is an example with the 20 kop.
Romanov imprinted stamp under the Lenin 6k. stamp posted
from the Moscow Philatelic Exhibition and cancelled on the
first day of opening. Backstamped on arrival KRASNODAR 18.12.24
(F.D. opening was 14.12.24) See Fig.4.
/ 2 ." ... .-
yv.L. 'Z .--,;,l',?
A:" ^< ^
fl""~ ~~~~ '~~- I~~~~"~-'`'~~~'-~~~-~ -------- - ----------------
H. A. VIKHIREJ;'- .
M o.rwc, t ^ '. .. I '
.' .'- --
.. r .. ,. -1 ,
THE GREAT DOT AND NUMERA HUNT
by Alex Artuchov
The great dot and numeral hunt is onl It actually begannin
the second and third issues of this journal as the offspring
of "mailcoach" cancellations. In the previous issues, "mail-
coach" cancellations were the subject and dot and numeral
cancellations the by-product. Henceforth, the attention is
squarely focused on the truncated triangle type of dot and
numeral cancellations numbered between 848 and 1700.
The present article is in essence a compilation of previously
known information with data received in response to a quest-
ionaire circulated as part of our last publication announcement.
It must be said that the number of responses was not over-
whelming. The writer must accordingly conclude that much infor-
mation has yet to surface and "the great dot and numeral hunt"
must therefore continue.
It was pleasant to see some recent interest in this topic.
In BJRP No. 55, Alex Sadovnikov and I.L.G. Baillie combine to
present a cover from the Sadovnikov collection. This cover is
of course the same one that was featured on p. 25 of No. 3
of this journal and matches 1011 with Sannikskaya, Warsaw
province. The same article also makes reference to a cover
identifying the location of 1055 which is listed in the chart
below. It is noted that a portion of the "mailcoach" canc-
ellation reading "Pochsta" contains an intrusive Polish style.
"S". This writer would have to disagree. In his opinion,
"Pochsta" is a compound of pochtovaya stantsiya meaning postal
station. The article furthermore, refers to Chenstok province.
The actual name is Cze stochowa.'A final note would relate to
the authors' assumption that there is still an alphabetical
order to the known location between 1046-- 1071. There is now
evidence to indicate inconsistency. Firstly, 1052 is not
Zgierzh, Petrok.province as originally assumed. That number
belongs to Gorszkowice, Petrok.province and this is not in
keeping with the order of the Cyrillic alphabet. Furthermore,
this writer is now in a position to conclusively identify
1054 as Ozork6w. This location would not only deviate from
the order of the Cyrillic alphabet but is also an exception
because Ozorkow is in the Kalisz province and not Petrokwhich
was originally assumed as the province to which the block lying
between 1046 and 1071 was assigned. The cover tying 1054 with
Ozork6w is illustrated below as Figure # 1. and is from the
Fr. Huysmans collection.
The fact that the allocation of numerals above 847 was done
more randomly than first assumed is a point that is now
shared by the father of this subject, Dr. A. Wortman.
In fact, Dr. Wortman, being the outstanding student of philately
that he is,has maintained an ongoing list of known locations.
We are indebted to him for sharing this list with us. The
writer would like to single out Harryv.Hofmann of West Germany;
Michel Liphschutz of France; Fr. Huysmans of Belgium;
Fig. 1 '
. 0!' .;-',1 .-/ .7 ....." "'
S. -- '-. .' i
s: ~, .- -, '.:
"i!: ..^ --.-- ^ ^ /
\\ I,-. yV ^ ^
1 H .. l I. ,.- r ^ *" *. '' **"1
Alexander Kotlar, Igor Rubach and Norman Epstein all from New
York for their particularly significant contributions. There are
another dozen or so collectors to whom the writer is indebted
for sharing the contents of their collections with us. It
is hoped that this article will stimulate yet others to come
forth and reveal new information.
We now have evidence of over 130 of the numerals between 847 '
and 1700 as being active postal offices. Of this total, 59
can be identified. This would represent a total of 18 new
allocations since our last issue. One location is not without
some question attached to it. Dr. Wortman identifies 1130 as
Opole, Lublin while Harry Hofmann gives the same location
to 1135. A cover bearing this numeral would be appreciated.
Furthermore, a number of readers previously persisted that 1034
was Ozork6w. Could one of them come forth with a cover?
It would certainly provide for an interesting twist to the
number (or then numbers) assigned to Ozork6w.
A final observation would relate to the highest number recorded:
1663, from the collection of Norman Epstein. This should not
be taken to demonstrate that 848 through 1663 were actually
assigned. As has already been mentioned, the locations seem
to have been assigned randomly. Could the numbers have also
been picked randomly? Until we have more information we will
not be able to tell with any certainty. Perhaps the most that
can be said at present is that the numbers to 1300 appear
with some consistency and that gaps become much more apparent
above that number.
The present compilation was initiated some 30 years ago and
is a not able credit to the persistent efforts of Western
Philatelists. This might serve as an example to Soviet Philate-
lists, who have of late been pounding their chests and telling
us that their knowledge is greater because they have the
archives... Perhaps they might devote some efforts to see if
the very same archives they boast about, contain an official
list of the numbers under discussion here.
Shown below are some covers identifying new locations and a
consolidated listing of all known locations and numbers known
I **, "* 1i
Fi~g. 2 Collection of M. Liphschutz
1109 Sel...aya Stantsiya, ? prov.
.,962 Prichi Mink pv. I
S:: ,Y -_ ', '
-',. .. .. -. .
Fig. 3 Collection of A. Geiser
962 Parichi, Minsk prov.
St. Khimenki (or Fimenki)
Brest Kuiavski, Warsaw
Zdunska Volya, Kalisz
Klech...V (Smaiev) Kalisz
Sel...aya St., ?
Tomasz6w (Zamojski), Zamosc
Opole, Lublin (?)
Opole, Lublin (?)
LOCATIONUSED LOCATE ON
The British Journal of Russian Philately No.55
Edited by I.L.G. Baillie, this publication of our British
Confreres covers further information on Dots Cancellations;
Doplatit' postage-due marking connected withPoland No.l; Levant-
the 8s and 7s; Numerical List of TPO's 1872 1917; TPO Route
115; Postal Wagon cancels with inverted route-number plug;
Used abroad notes; Registered Mail Addendum 3; 1914 War
Charity Variety Addendum; Reply Cards used in Russia; Small
Locality Cancellations; Money Tranfer and Parcel Receipt Cards;
10 and 20 kop. surcharges on Arms types and Romanovs; 1918
Dorpat occupation surcharge; TPO's during 1918 23 period;
Batum a new Postmaster handstamp; The basic stamps of Azerbaijan -
additional data 2; Azerbaijan stamp forgeries; Russian Refugee
Post Part 2; Denikin issue with and without Wrangel surcharges;
1921 23 stampless mail; Far Eastern Republic DVR Overprint;
Georgia 1921 22 additional comments; Georgia 1963; General
Issues of the Transcancasian Republic (Part 2); Carpet wmk
on USSR postage stamps; More Soviet varieties; Art postal stat-
ionery postcards 1977; Reviews and obituaries.
The contributors include leading students in our field, such
as P.T. Ashford, M.A. Ayer, I.L.G. Baillie, M.A. Bojanowicz,
Dr. R.J. Ceresa, W. Frauenlob, G. Harris, H. Imhof, R.L. Joseph,
L.A. Kolot, Dr. N. Luchnik, D. Morrison, J. Moyes, H. Norwood,
SE.G. Peel, Col. A. Prado, Dr. T.T. Rutkowska, A. Sadovnikov,
G.V. Shalimoff, J. Tovey, Dr..H. Weinert, G.G. Werbizky and
Dr. A.H. Wortman. The articles are of the usual high BJRP
standard and, among other things, the complete understanding
of the workings of lithography by several authors shows that
Philately is indeed a science.
Stanley Gibbons Overseas Stamp Catalogue Part 4 P-Z,
Second Edition 1978, published at 17.50 (roughly U.S. $15.00)
by Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd, 391 Strand, London WC2R
This famous firm is well on the way towards publishing the most
comprehensive, clear and systematic series of catalogues of
the world in the world. For collectors in our sphere, the section
on TUVA is particularly valuable, as it lists everything that
was issued, including the controversial pictorials of 1934 1936
and the results of the researches of the Soviet and foreign
philatelists. Catalogue revisions are a never-ending process
for the publications Dept. and each succeeding edition brings
further important improvements. Strongly recommended and available
from leading dealers in Canada and the US.
At War With the Bolsheviks by Robert Jackson. Issued by
Universal Tandem Publishing Co. Ltd., 14 Glancester Road,
London SW7 England, at 45p. and available in Canada at $1.75.
This was a well-documented and fascinating paperback about the
Allied Intervention in Russia 1917-20 and it contains rare
photographs from the Hulton Picture Library, Illustrated
London News, Imperial War Museum, Novosti Press Agency and Frank
Yeoman. Drawing on regimental histories and many other sources
in English, French and Russian, this book of 304 pages quotes
many facts which will be of use to postal historians collecting
The picture that emerges is one of the White and Allied Forces
led by experienced and well-trained professional officers. They
quickly found, to their shocked surprise, that the original
Bolshevik rabble soon learned the art of modern warfare and kept
fighting back, no matter how heavy the losses sustained. The
outcome was a foregone conclusion. In short, an excellent source
DIE POSTSTEMPELFORMEN IN ST. PETERSBURG VON 1766 1914
(The Postmark Types in St. Petersburg 1766 1914) by Heinrich
Imhof. Issued in German by the Russia USSR Study Circle in the
SUnion of German Philatelists (West Germany) as a 50-page study
and available at US $6.00 in banknotes from the author, Heinrich
Imhof, Erlenwiese 2, D-5920 BAD Berleburg 18, West Germany.
This is an amazingly comprehensive study of the postal history
of St. Petersburg, the largest city of a huge empire. Because
of the extent of the field, it may never be complete, but the
author has done extremely well. Using a compact method of
tabulation, he has listed a staggering number of markings in thes
50 pages and thus has surpassed the researches of M.A. Dobin, his
It is obvious that the German presence in the city, which began
in force during the reign of Catherine the Great, has had a
lot to do with the availability of postal history material in
Germany. Thus he lists four different automatic registration
markings,.where only one had been recorded before. However, there
was a WWI mute appliedthere (ex ZarriIs & Adler Collections)
which he does not list, as well as another "Chancellory" cancel
used in the early 1900's. Also, it appears that his type 220.127.116.11.
is a marking for the office accepting parcels, and not sending,
as he suggests.
Summing up, our readers are urged to buy this wonderful work,
so that we can help in making the information as complete as
MITTEILUNGS BLATT DER BUNDES ARBEITS GEMEINSCHAFT RUSSLAND -
UDSSR IM BDPH e.V. NO. 18 (Magazine of the Russia USSR study
Circle in the Union of German Philabelists No.18). A 42-page
journal in German, available from Herbert Giese, D-5562
Manderscheid/Eifel, Friedrich STR.9, West Germany.
Another fine issue from our West German Colleages, this magazine
contains reports on the 1978 USSR-GFR show in Moscow by
Friedrich Giese and Heinrich Imhof; a survey of "NAPOSTA-78"
by Herr Giese; a report on circiut books by Hartmut Erben;
translations by Jean Kacher on the contemporary difficulties
of buying Zemstvo stamps and the Russian Imperial Postal
Service; notes by Friedrich LBhrich on the atomic ice-breaker
"Sibir" and the "Arktika" Souvenir Sheet; reviews and articles
by Georg Mehrtens on recent philatelic literature, forgeries
and the inverted backgrounds; a translation by Eugen Born on the
3% r, and 7r. no thunderbolts; Varieties on Soviet souvenir
sheets from 1945 by N. Vladinets; airmail notes by Karl Rist
and finally Society news.
Keep up the good work,friends!
MITTEILUNGS BLATT DER BUNDES ARBEITS GEMEIN SCHAFT RUSSLAND
- UDSSR IM BDPH. e.V. No.19.
The 19th issue of this fine West German magazine contains a
translation of the Russian report of the USSR GFR show; an
article on W W I censor marks by Dr. R. Bartmann; a translation
of an article on Siberian Civil War issues by S.M. Blekhman
(this contains puzzling errors and omissions which we hope to
correct in a future "POST-RIDER"); articles on the woodcuts
of A.S. Kalashnikov by Herr Dressier; a review of Russian
postal stationery listed in Michel, by W. Frauenlob; the Olympic
stamp programme for Moscow 1980 by H. Giese; a translation of
Rev. L.L. Tann's article on Russian Postal History, notes on
forgeries, an interview of L.M. Sharov and a literature review,
all by Georg Mehrtens; Registration labels of the Russian
Post in Mongolia by Dr. A. Orth; the JASPIC Outer Space Project -
unsigned; noted on topicals, airmails, a wonderful study of
the POW Post during W W II in the USSR and a review of Postal
History, all by K. Rist and, finally, a variety of Society notes.
thus rounding off a very interesting issue.
This energetic West German Study Group now has 300 members,
mainly in West Germany, Austria and Switzerland. They are aiming
for 500 and we wish them all the best in their endeavours.
NOTIZIARIO A.S.I.F. DI STORIA POSTAL (Postal History Journal of
the Italian Association of Postal History). Issue No. 176.
Available at 2000 Lire postpaid per issue Via Manzoni 31, 20121
Milan, Italy. This beautifully produced issue of 64 coated pages
has a magnificent and richly illustrated article of 14 pages by
our Italian contributor Luciano Buzzetti on the postal history
of the Grand Duchy and republic of Finland. The treatment of the
prestamp markings, many in Cyrillic, is especially fine, as well
as the rare frankings of classic Finland, TPO's, sea mail and
Finish occupations. He even features a beautiful North Ingermanland
cover from Kirjasalo to LepAi with the correct 80-pennia rate.
What more could you ask from this competent postal historian?
SOVETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER 16 (Soviet Collector No.16). A 128-page
paperback, issued by the SVYAZ' Publishers, Moscow 1978 in an edition
of 40,000 copies. Price 75 Kop.
The subjects covered are "Philately about the Soviet Constitution";
"From the history of the St. Petersburg Post" by M.A. Dobin
(interesting, but not as good as the Imhof work and he leans
heavily on foreign philatelic sources); "Philately a science
or not?" (see comment at the end of the BJRP review); "On the
postal circulation of the screen varieties of photogravure stamps"
by N. Petrov; "The statewide Postage Stamp Issue of Russia 1884-1906"
- a specialised treatment by V.V. Lobachevskii and borrowing
heavily from Western sources; notes on the Yelets Svoiet issue by
E. Stefanovskii and A. Ipshtein; "Postcards issued by the Museum
of the Revolution of the USSR" by M. Zabochen and A. Artem'ev;
article by K. Merkin on a 1928 badge; "Some problems of collecting
Soviet coins" by D. Moshnyagin and N. Dashevskii and finally a
listing of Soviet commemorative medals.
KATALOG POCHTOVYKH MAROK SSSR 1977
An up-date for 1977 on the Soviet stamp issued during that year
after the appearance of the last general addition of the Soviet
catalogue. Topical data are also included.
Issued as a 40-page booklet by the "Soyuzpechat" Publishers,
Moscow 1978 in an edition of 1275000; price 36 Kop.
KATALOG FLORA NA POCHTOVYKH MARKAKH (Flora on Postage stamps).
A 128-page paperback issued by the "Soyuzpechat" Publishers,
Moscow 1977 in an edition of 45,000 copies. Price 74kop.
This is a topical work arranged on the same lines as the one
SLUZHENIE VELIKOMU DELU (Serving in a great work) by Z.
Nemchikova. A 128-page paperback issued by the North-West
Publishers, Vologda 1974 in an edition of 3,000 copies.
This rare booklet is a biography of F.G. Chuchin (1888 1942),
professional revolutionary and the first Commissioner for
Philately and Paper Money in the early years of the Soviet era.
He was even at the 1926 International Philatelic Exhibition
in New york and the best Soviet datalogues were issued under
his authority. They still stand up well today, although he
himself was not a serious philatelist, nor was he originally
It is safe to say that Russian and Soviet philately had wider
horizons under his stewardship up to 1928 than it has ever had before
KATALOG FAUNA NA POCHTOVYKH MARKAKH (Fauna on Postage stamps).
A 222-page paperback issued by the "Soyuzpechat" Publishers, Moscow
1978 in an edition of 43,000 copies. Price 1 r. 7 K.
This is a straight forward topical work on the relevant stamps
issued by all the Socialist countries, including Tannu Tuva.
POD PARUSAMI FILATELII ("Under the sails of Philately") by
A.E. Kornyukhin. A 96-page paperback issued by the "Svyaz'"
Publishers, Moscow 1975 in an edition of 40,000 copies,
Price 19 Kop.
This is an introduction to Philately for young collectors, mainly
on topical lines, but with interesting illustrations of two rare
covers and a card stamped by V.I. Lenin from France and Switzerland
during his underground revolutionary period.
KALENDAR FILATELISTA (The Philatelist's Calendar for 1979).
A 112-page paperback issued by the "Svyaz" Publishers, Moscow
1978 in an edition of 100,000 copies. Price 1 rouble.
Following the format of previous years, it contains some
useful snippets of information including data on the earliest
Russian postal marking dating back to 1698. These calendars
are basically of most use to beginners in Philately.
MEDITSINA NA POCHTOVYKH MARKAKH (Medicine on postage stamps)
by O.E. Chernetskii. A slick and well-produced paperback of
128 pages issued by the "Svyaz" Publishers, Moscow 1978 in
an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 65kop.
The title is self explanatory and the topic is treated well.
One of the items illustrated is of particular interest, being
an Egyptian postcard sent in 1900 to L6dd, Russian Poland
and receiving the unframed straight-line cachet "Obezzar-
azheno" (disinfected) on crossing the Russian border. The only
2 previous usages known to this reviewer were from approximately
the same period and originating (a) in Iran (probably dis-
infected at the twin border town of Gaudan) and (b) in Tientsin,
China, Does any reader have further examples of this interesting
and apparently standard marking?
Is there a question or point that you'd like to
put across to the readership.....is there an
interesting stamp, cancellation or cover that oo a
you'd like to describe....is there an item in o*
your collection that could use some clarifying o0.O
information or might there be some gems of o0 o "
wisdom that you could impart on some newly
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom,
in the confines of a couple paragraphs, with
the rest of our readers'
Fr. Huysmans. St.-Niklaas, Belgium
Re the note by John Lloyd on p.64 of "THE POST-RIDER"
No.3, I have an illustrated postcard in my collection
of exactly the same type as his for Rostov-On-Don. However,
my example has the word "KRONSHTADTA" (from Kronshtadt)
stamped in silver on the postman's satchel. Please see the
illustration of the address side shown here in Fig. 1,
as it demonstrates some interesting points.
First of all, it appears that this series was printed for
various Russian cities by Ernst G. Syanstrom of Stockholm,
Sweden. Secondly, it was mailed from Kronshtadt on 3.9.13
Old Style to Belgium with a 3 kopek stamp. It was apparently
underpaid for that destination, as it is marked "T5" and
five centimes postage due was collected on arrival in Ghent,
Belgium 24.9.13 New Style, as shown by the affixed due stamp.
L V -" k
SFig. 1. .
to one U.S. cent or one English halfpenny or 2 Russian Kopeks.
paid by one kopek for the 4-Kop. foreign rate. We can now assume
t t t w d b h t
hypothesis and also to find out what other Russian cities
'-'.. --.-. .- .. .... ,-* .. .....>... ,' .2 ,,.... .. -, ,. ...,-....., ,-ic ..o
Henry Blum, Toronto, Ontario
Postage due was always double the deficiency then and w(as
shown in gold centimes for international mail. Going by the
exchange rates valid at that tsme, 5 gold centimes was equal
to one U.S. cent or one English halfpenny or 2 Russian Kopeks.
In other words, the card was regarded in Russia as being under-
paid by one kopek for the 4-Kop. foreign rate. We can now assume
further that by 1913, no distinction was now being made so far
as rates were concerned between these fancy illustrated cards
and plain cards (ir. Lloyd's example had been treated as subject
to the intercity letter rate). It would be helpful to hear
of other examples held by readers to confirm or correct this
hypothesis and also to find out what other Russian cities
were featured in this series printed in Sweden.
Henry 1Blum, Toronto, Ontario
Fig. No. 2 shows a card written in Estonian and sent in Nov.
1907 to "Port Imperatora Aleksandra III" at Libava (Liepaja in
Latvia). It has the transit marking of Libava "d" 30.11.07
and the port arrival of the same day with serial letter "b".
A clear drawing of this last marking is shown along side for
comparison, as well as the same marking with serial letter
"a", dated 21.11.11.
This port was the Imperial Naval Base built at Liepaja by
the Russians and it received this distinctive name on 6 Dec.
1894. The serial letter "g" is also known, the date being
18.1.11 and the name being followed by the abbreviation "KURL'',
denoting the Kurland province. To the Latvians, it was known
"Kara Osta" (Military Fort) or "Kara flotes baza" (Naval Base).
t~ ~ ~a~JL NA % -
......I Fig. 2
During 1917, consideration was given by H.M. Govt. in Great
Britain to evacuate Tsar Nicholas II after his abdication,
together with his family. The plan fell through, but it was
supposed to take place at Port Romanov, in the St. Petersburg
area. This may have been a naval base too and possibly had
an appropriate postmark. Does any reader have further information
or even a strike from this office?
O MOSHE SHMUELY, TEL-AVIV, ISRAEL
-. ., 'S::^ ;^ -|^
,J.j. ::..A .... ./ < -: -. "...
-"" .. "i -
S .. -..Fi g 3 -
.... i, .. "- ..." "
F/g. 3 7 .i
(a) Referring again to Tuva, the nearest large town in the
area in Imperial times was MINUSINSK in Siberia. Please see
Fig. 3 for the front and back of an insured declared value
letter for 17 roubles, sent by Helen Vilner on 13.8, 1901
to a Grand Rabbi in Jer usalem, going via Odessa (27 August)
and arriving at the Russian P.O. on 10th Sept. Please note
that in paying the transmission and other fees for insured
letters, no stamps had to be affixed on the envelope. The
letter did NOT originate from Tuva.
(b) I can advise another Tuvan letter from the Issaharoff
correspondence with the rare "KbZbL-b" cancel. Please see Fig. 4
for the back of a registered cover No. 119 with a total of 15
Tuvan pictorials, all cancelled on 28.9.38 and received in
Tel-Aviv on 20.9.38. We now know of a total of four covers
and a few loose stamps with this marking, PLEASE see Fig. 4.
6- .i.. ,&- ., -A
T.N. KULIKOVSKY, MISSISSAUGA. ONT.
The cover illustrated below (fig.5) is correspondence
received by my nursemaid from her godmother who lived
in Byezhetsk. Note that the envelope is Danish (crowns
on the inside fig.6). Since very little was available
in the USSR at that time, my nursemaid enclosed envelopes
for return nail as part of her letters to the USSR.
Fig. 5 "
$ 2 .. ,!, "
-C, iCeZson2 XI1, -
A. TIESEL.S A
PAPlRFORRETNiNG OG PAPIRVAP FABR;'
G.G. Werbizky, Vestal, New York
Enclosed is .a 5kop blue issue of Akhtyrka (fig.7). Note
how the upper portion of the herald on the stamp (fig.8)
differs from that of a normal copy (fig.9). It would be
interesting to establish if this is a recurring variety.
Can any reader provide some information?
M.V. Liphschutz, Neuilly Sur Seine, France
"Romanov Flown Covers" represents an extremely interesting
finding. My congratulations to Barry Hong! I have perused
my own covers and have found two such items of my own.
Furthermore, one of them (fig.10) is not a Malygin but
contains a 1 ruble stamp (2nd International Polar Year -
1932). Both covers contain a lOkop. issue of the Offices
S. .. :
IlterRatioIal Airpost .
ar.d Publishing Express Jervice
sui L'.LI a m
Pa' r vicn
Dr. A. Wortman, Enfield England
The 3K with error of background V's
The earliest dated cancellation for this stamp can be put
back another week. I have it on a letter together with a
10K and 1K making up a 14K rate to Berlin. The stamps are
cancelled BW in rings for the Bydgoszcz Warszawa railway
line (Bromberg Warsaw). There is a single circle mark on
the front reading EKSPEDYCYA POCZT 13 3 DWORZEC WARSZAWA of
the Warsaw Station with no year but the letter is clearly
dated "Warsaw 13.3.1870". There is a Berlin Ausgabe mark
AUSG. 14 3.
THE COLLECTORS- "ORNER 7
Are you still missing that illusive item from your
collection or philatelic library.... do you have sane
duplicate material that you would like to trade of sell ?
We can publicize your want list and/or your duplicates for
the most reasonable rate of 25
maximum of 16 lines) excluding name and address. Ads frnm
collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are invited to
The Society disclaims all responsibility from any misunderstandings
that may result between exchanging parties.
( 'tr(. iW.
.i_ -- ...
", ,. ./^ie -" /
.. *' 3r -'
-B-tI3..'- i ,. \. ."
SPar avion -
101=i1O A lA-1; '.y .t1s
* unless otherwise specified, all numbers listed are Scott.
Martin Cerini, 37 Wyoming Dr., Huntington Station, Long Island,
N. Y., 11746, U. S. A.
Wanted: Russian revenue, fiscal, vignette, label.and cinderella
stamps, plus revenue and legal paper, paper seals, bill of
exchange cutouts, and any revenue documents, intact or otherwise.
All periods: Imperial, Civil War and Soviet. Will exchange or
Anatole Kaushansky, P.O. Box 232, Willowdale, Ontario M2N 5S8,
I have: Duplicates of rare Soviet definitive of the 20's and
30's including No. 287 (used) and many others; material issued
in the last 20 years is available in superb condition. I will
trade for commemoratives of the 1930's or sell at very reason-
Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, 95051, U.S.A.
Wanted: Imperial dotted numeral cancellations on cover. Buy
or trade. Write describing covers) and asking price or
Andrew Cronin. Box 5722 Station-A, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
Buy: Used quantities Romanov Rouble values socked on the nose.
Horace S. Mazet, 26760 Paseo Robles, Carmel, California, U.S.A.,
For a book on the Russo-Japanese war, I would like to receive
data and facts concerning the treason by Russian officers
leading to the fall of Port Arthur in 1904.
G. G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Rd., Vestal, New York, 13850, U.S.A.
Would like to purchase parts 2,3,and 4 of "Russian Empire Used
Abroad" by Tchilinghirian and Stephen. Will trade for stamps
if possible. Also always looking for zemstvo material.
James Mazepa, Box 1217, Oak Park, Illinois, 60304, U. S. A.
Wanted: Poland #1, mint, used, and covers. Also, Russian
stamps with Polish numeral cancels and Russian Railroad
routes in and through Poland. Will buy or trade similar material.
Also any Polish Postal History material.
Vsevolod Popov, P.O.Box 149. Nyack, New York, 10960. U.S.A.
I have: Copies of the "Soviet Collector" No.'s 14-16 for sale.
I also need a copy of C68.
Sam S. Emison, 928 Teetshorn St., Houston, Texas, 77009, U.S.A.
I am looking for all Russian states: Armenia through Ukraine.
Offers for exchange/sale welcome. I also have zemstvo duplicates
to exchange for zemstvo.
Alex Artuchov, Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto. Ont., M5W 1P2, Canada.
Wanted: A copy of Baedeker's "Russia 1914" for purchase or
exchange. Also, always looking for zemstvo, South Russia and dot
& numeral cancellation-(on or off cover). Will purchase or exchange.
The Journal Fund
All sales benefit the Society and all orders should be
made payable to "The Canadian Society of Russian Philately".
We now have new but small supplies available of the
(1) CHULUUNGOMBO. G.: "Postage Stamps of the Mongolian
People's Republic", Wan-Batar 1959. An unusual catalogue
printed in Mongolian and now a rarity. US $ 17.50 post-paid.
(2) TANN, L.L.: "The Imperial Romanovs", the last work on
the 1913 issue. US $ 20.00 post-paid.
(3) LISSIUK, K.: "Notes on the Russian Revolutionary
Stamps 1920-1922 & Mongolia its stamps 1924-1927".
Many years out of print, with much valuable data and
illustrations of the Postmaster Provisionals.
US $ 5.00 post-paid.
(4) ASHFORD, P.T.: "Imperial Russia Stamps used in
Transcaucasia", The set of the first 3 parts so far
issued, covering the Postal History, Tiflis, Tiflis City
Post and Tiflis Province, Richly illustrated and the
authoritative work in the field. US $ 11.00 post-paid.
(5) SOVIET 4-KOP. ENVELOPE COMMEMORATING "CAPEX 78"
& WITH SPECIAL EXHIBITION CANCEL: An interesting
and scarce souvenir. US $ 2.00 post-paid.
NOTE: All other previously listed titles now SOLD OUT
and cannot be replaced.
Copies of the RILIlAM M _Plh-AT-_.ISjT are still available in
In English: Nos 5,7, 10&11
In Russian: Nos 3-11
Write: Nos 3- 7: $2.00; Nos 8-11: $2.50
Mrs. C. Rosselevitch, 171-44 Bagley Ave., Flushing, N.Y., 11358, USA
AN URGENT WARNING ON POSTMARK FORGERIES
We have just received word from an English source that
postmark forgeries of the rare Chinese Eastern Railway
offices have recently been sent out to the West by a
Soviet hospital doctor, Shenberg by name. They came to
light when rejected by a leading British auction house.
At the last Sunday meeting of the BSRP, a very good
"Chalainor" (DZHALAINOR) marking struck bang on a 10-
rouble stamp was shown, but the cancellation date was 1917,
while the 10-r. stamp was the one issued in 19191 The
same date appeared in the arrival mark of another station
on a loose stamp and was again a forgery. The forged
cancellations_are a little toogood to be real; they are
clean and clear, with the ink a little blacker and not so
rough and grey as in the originals. We do not know if
Dr. Shenberg himself made these forgeries, but our readers
are hereby warned.
Since we in the West have done all the work in investigat-
ing, classifying and recording the postmarks of the stamps
of the Russian Empire used abroad, it seems ironic that
one or more of our Soviet colleagues are returning the
compliment by forging these rare markings. There have been
frequent comments in "Philately of the USSR" and"Calendar
of the Philatelist" about the prevalence of forgeries and
philatelic speculation in the West and we feel that such
attacks deliberately obstruct the spirit of Detente and the
implementation of the Helsinki accords. We would respectfully
suggest to the Soviet comrades that their Philately would be
better served if they cleaned up the mess in their own back-
Opinions expressed in this Journal are those of the authors.
The Editor, Publisher and the Society disclaim all
Anything in this issue may be reproduced without permission,
provided that the source is acknowledged and a copy of the
reprinted matter is sent to us.
The Society extends its gratitude to its typists Victoia
Lee and Joye Parres and to Tikhon Nikolaevich for more of
his fine illustrations.