• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondence with Canada
 Capex 78 report
 The "close setting" of ruble stamps...
 In praise of freaks
 Russian and Ukrainian currency...
 Flown Romanov covers!
 Straight line mailcoach cancellations...
 The literature of Russian...
 The post in the Russian Empire
 Postage stamps issued by the...
 Auction doings
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The collectors' corner
 The journal fund






Group Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; Volume 3
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076781/00003
 Material Information
Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider ; Volume 3
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondence with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Capex 78 report
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    The "close setting" of ruble stamps of 1919
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    In praise of freaks
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Russian and Ukrainian currency stamps 1915-18
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Flown Romanov covers!
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Straight line mailcoach cancellations of the Russian Empire
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    The literature of Russian philately
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The post in the Russian Empire
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Postage stamps issued by the Zemstvos
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Auction doings
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Review of literature
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The collectors' corner
        Page 79
        Page 80
    The journal fund
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text


































































PRINTED IN CANADA






YAMSHCHIK
C THE POST- RIDER)


No. 3 Sept. 1978



Copies of this journal are available for
$4.00 U.S. A limited number of copies
of Nos. 1 and 2 are also available for
$4.00 U.S. each from:

The Canadian Society of Russian Philately
P.O. Box 5722
Station "A"
Toronto, Ontario
M5W 1P2 Canada


Remittance should be payable to the Society.

Co-Ordinators of the Society:
Editor: Andrew Cronin
Publisher: Alex Artuchov
Secretary: Patrick J. Campbell



Contents


2
3
5
8
11
14
19
21

30
42
54
60
63
73
79


I~ rslar\ '~II P
ILS'
Pvrire rrrlli 1~", r.rl
Nv.!rvah. i~.u~riil: (I!refr Ic pJ~lc.


Editorial
Correspondence with Canada -------------------- Robert Taylor
Capex 78 Report------------------------------- Andrew Cronin
The "Close Setting" of Ruble Stamps of 1919---- Dr. A.H. Wortman
In Praise of Freaks --------------------------- Alex Artuchov
Russian and Ukrainian Currency Stamps 1915-18-- Paul B. Spiwak
Flown Romanov Covers!-------------------------- Barry Hong
Straight Line Mailcoach Cancellations of the
Russian Empire------------------------------- Alex Artuchov
The Literature of Russian Philately -----------P.J.Campbell
The Post in the Russian Empire ---------------- Fr. Huysmans
Postage Stamps Issued by the Zemstvos --------- Alex Artuchov
Auction Doings
Philatelic Shorts
Review of Literature
The Collectors' Corner


Opinions expressed in this Journal are those of the authors.
Publisher and the Society disclaim all responsibility.


The Editor,


Anything in this issue may be reproduced without permission, provided
that the source is acknowledged and a copy of the reprinted matter is
sent to us.
----------------------------------------------------------------
The Society extends it gratitude to its typist Doreen Paulin and to
Tikhon Nikolaevich Kulikovsky for more of his fine illustrations.


1








EDITORIAL



A DISTURBING TREND


Our readers do not have to be reminded that, of late, relations
between the USSR and the Western world have not been exactly
cordial. Unfortunately, this disharmony has also spilled
over into the columns of the Soviet stamp magazine "PHILATELY
OF THE USSR" during the past year, where some anti-Western
remarks have been printed.

An uncultured example of this attitude is an article "Verify
the Genuineness of the Perforation" by K. Alekseev in issue
9/1977, p.47. The subject is a mint copy of the rarest
Soviet definitive, the 15K. lemon-yellow peasant type on
unwatermarked paper, perf.14 x 143 (Scott 287) and with a
certificate of The Royal Philatelic Society, London, England.
It was offered by the well known auction firm of Richard
Wolffers of San Francisco in their January, 1977 sale. The
successful bidder became suspicious and, on investigation,
it turned out to be a copy of the common stamp with harrow
perf. 12, which had been deliberately reperforated 14 x 14
to simulate the rare variety. The overall dimensions of the
forged stamp were thus obviously smaller, as harrow-perforated
stamps are always in a standard size. Well and good.

Comrade Alekseev then accuses the auction firm of crookedness
in selling the stamp. His logic is hazy here, as Richard Wolffers
had a certificate for the stamp and thus sold it in good faith.
Nor can the Royal Philatelic Society be blamed, since the
Expert Committee of that fine body makes it clear to the
applicant that a certificate is an opinion only. That is
logical, as no one is infallible and the Committee now processes
6,000 applications yearly.

In short, Comrade Alekseev made a libellous statement and
"Filatelia SSSR" printed it. There are some lessons to be
drawn from this episode. Primarily, that forgers are becoming
more skilled and less obvious in preparing their "products".
It is apparent that the Soviet comrades in general do not
realise the extent of the problems now plaguing dealers and
collectors. Villainy in Philately is world-wide and not a
prerogative of the West. Co-operation is the name of the
game and the Soviet comrades will find themselves on very
shaky ground indeed if they allow political considerations
to blur their reasoning. The All-Union Society of Philatelists
has an Expert Committee and it would be interesting to note
its reaction if one or more of its opinions turn out not
to be infallible in the future. That will inevitably happen.

Finally, re this particular forged perforation, our member
Anatolii Kaushanskii recently found copies in New York City.
Readers will find the details given elsewhere in this Journal.


2










CORRESPONDENCE


WITH CANADA


Correspondence with Canada is
intended to appear in forthcoming issues 2
of this journal and:-deal with interesting 1
philatelic material making contact with /GAHAAYI
both Russian and Canadian postal
establishments. Readers are accordingly
invited to forward write-ups and accompanying
photographs of suitable items in their collections
for inclusion in future issues.
mmmmmmmmmmmmmm by Robert T mmmmmmmmmmmm


by Robert Taylor













The registered cover, shown herewith, was mailed from the Krasnoyarsk
railroad station on 18.4.25 to Ponoka, Alberta. It made its way
to Canada via the transatlantic route, arriving in Montreal on
May 8, 1925. It contains a Montreal transit marking of the above
date, the Calgary and Edmonton RPO cancellation of May 12 as well
as two strikes of Ponoka, Alberta, also dated May 12, 1925. It
was finally redirected to Ferrybank, Alberta where the recipient
was now located.

This cover from Siberia to Central Alberta contains cancellations
of both Russian and Canadian registration systems. It is in-
teresting to note that the cover carries 46 Kopeks in postage
and appears to be overfranked by 6 Kopeks. Does any reader
know the reason for this overpayment?











I -



..,. .









1 ,

.
C' ,,y, -






TORONTO Co

G4PEXD78 !
JUNE 918,1" w
CAPEX 78 REPORT ^hNh8 hA

by A.Cronin


This international philatelic exhibition, the first to be held in Canada
since 1951, was a resounding success in every way. Staged at the
Automotive Building at the Canadian National Exhibition grounds in
Toronto from June 9 to 18, 1978,..it drew high praise from the foreign
visitors for its superb organization and amenities. They were also
charmed by our clean and cosmopolitan city of Toronto, our hospitality and
our country in general. No praise could be too great for the selfless
and superb work done by the Executive Committee and the numerous volunteers,
both local and foreign. The Canadian judges well and truly held their own
on the International Jury and Canada now has a place in the international
scene.

Your editor had the rare opportunity of serving as an observer judge at
the show. Our group of 7 judges was assigned all of Europe except
Benelux, France, Germany and Scandinavia. It was a great privilege to be
working with our leader Sig. Renato Mondolfo, a walking encyclopedia
through whose hands many of the great classics have passed; the very
capable Dr. Enzo Diena, who comes from a famous philatelic family;
Ladislav DvordAek, who has served for many years as an international
judge and is a leading Czechoslovak expert; fellow Torontonian Mirko Raii6
* who is probably the world's leading living authority on the postal history
and stamps of Serbia; Dr.Nicolae Tripcovici, a fine linguist and expert
in Eastern European philately and another fellow Torontonian Dr. Miet
KamieAski, an authority on the postal history and stamps of Poland and
the Western Ukraine.

Looking at the sector of countries we were assigned, your editor was
particularly struck by the many and magnificent exhibits presented by the
philatelists from Spain. Despite the often tragic history of their
country, they proved that the spirit of philately had not been shattered
there. So far as our own sphere of collecting is concerned, participation
was not as extensive as it should have been; many of the leading collectors
in the BSRP and Rossica did not exhibit. However, the day was saved by the
superb displays of Russia used in the Kingdom of Poland including many
ex-Faberge items by M.A. Bojanowicz (small gold and felicitations of the
jury); a glorious display of Imperial and Soviet airmails (5 items in the
Imperial section alone-see illustration-as well as 3 copies of the rarest
50 kop. value in the surcharged Consular Airmails, showing each of the
three settings of the overprint !) by our finest Russian collector M.V.
Liphschutz (small gold); a lovely display of Estonian forerunners 1798-
1914 by Vambola Hurt (Vermeil); an equally lovely exhibit of Wenden
(Cesis) by Victor Kent vermeill); "The Estonian Philatelist" magazine
vermeill); glorious Mongolia, including the famous pre-stamp cover
of Oct.1.1875 described in "The Post-Rider" No. 1, pp. 6-7 and ambiguously
illustrated by S.M. Blekhman without acknowledgement, all the property of
Borje Wallberg (large silver and felicitations of the jury) and James
SMazepa for a marvellous display of Ukraine (silver).








The Soviet participation was small and disappointing. Anatolii Georgievskii
got a small silver for his early Soviet issues, including covers and
varieties. It was pointed out to us that such items were very rare in the
USSR, but we had to think in terms of international, not national availabi
ity. Such a collection could easily and quickly be put together for a
relatively modest outlay in North America. Two of the Soviet exhibits in
the topical (thematic) section, which we did not judge, also got small
silvers (J. Freidlin and Genrikh Brynskikh), while the third exhibitor
got a bronze for his "Ice Hockey". Mr. Freidlin, with his topic of "Hero
City-Leningrad showed some scarce partiotic cards and envelopes of World
War II, as well as very nice fieldpost and censorship markings, all of which
he made no attempt to classify or describe. Genrikh Brynskikh adopted the
same approach with his "Simbirsk-Ulyanovsk", although he had some nice
Imperial items including a beautiful cover with 10 kop. Romanov mailed
mailed at the postal agency of Simbirsk Pharmacy No. 1, 14.6.13, cancelled
in violet and with matching registration label. Your scribe has no
prejudice against topicalists but he feels they should show some philatelic
knowledge in their displays. Otherwise, they may as well use jam labels
to develop their themes. Another point was that the Soviet exhibits were
almost wholly written up in Russian. Your writer knows the language but
it is not generally understood at international exhibitions. When showing
at the combined VOF-BSRP in Moscow on June, 1976, your writer presented a
display with the write-up in Russian at the top and English underneath.
There is no reason why the Soviet exhibitors should not return the compl-
iment when showing internationally.

The noted Swedish philatelist Per-Anders Erixon showed a beautiful array
of Russia 1822-1922, which would have won a high award, but, at the last
moment, he accepted the offer of serving as an observer judge and thus his
exhibit was placed "hors concours". The same ruling applied to our exhibit
of "Yamschik", while the "Rossica Journal" got a large silver.

Turning now to Russian material elsewhere in the show, Orjan Luning of
Sweden got a well deserved small gold with felicitations for his beautiful
Pioneer flights across the North Atlantic including a 1933 Jimmie Mattern
cover via Siberia, Russia #C68 on a card addressed to President Roosevelt,
the abortive flight of 31 Aug. 1935 and the Miscou landing in 1939. The
"Airmail Stamps of the USSR" by Jif: Brejha of Czechoslovakia did not
arrive in time for the show. This happens at all internationals, resulting
in an unsightly scattering of blank frames. Kenneth Rowe, our brilliant
Executive Secretary, got around this at "Capex-78" by tapping a couple of
reserve exhibits. Thus, your present scribe filled in with the 3 frames
of his Moscow 1976 exhibit plus 2 frames of Carpatho-Ukraine. He also
had a "CYA" exhibit of world-wide items in the non-competitive Court of
Honour; it proved to be valuable as back-up material when a couple of
judgement recommendations were being spiritedly discussed.

The noted Turkish collector Salih Muzaffer Kuya amazed us all by showing
several choice postcards from the April-December, 1918 period of the
Turkish occupation of Transcaucasia with the postmarks of Baku, Batum and
Gumru (now Leninakan). We are making arrangements to have them illustrated
and described for our Journal.

There was a Soviet commercial booth at the show, primarily for the promotion
of the Olympic Stamps Programme. A special Soviet 4 kopek envelope with
appropriate design was sold at the show, cancelled by one of two machines,
which differed slightly from each other. Type "a" had the "ex" of "Capex"
clearly separate, while Type "b" had the bottom stroke of the "e" joined
to the "x" (see illustrations). There were at least four Soviet visitors at

6



















the booth, but as the publicity about them was slight, we were almost
unaware of their presence. Your writer missed meeting Lev Nikolaevich
Sharov, designer of the Soviet Olympic issues and a member of the Editorial
Board of "Filatelia SSSR"; it would have been useful to discuss the policies
of that magazine with him. However, three of us took the young interpreter
Igor Tarasov on a quick tour of theRussian material exhibited at the show.







Soviet gymnast Lyudmilla Turischeva was also available for autographs for
a limited time at the booth.

A real surprise was the presence of two Mongolians sharing the "Philatelia
Hungarica" booth. Mr. Ganguurjab Naidansuren was a middle-aged man who
spoke Mongolian and Russian and read off without hesitation the Classic
Mongolian inscriptions on Mr. Wallberg's 1875 cover. Miss Erdembileg
Oyungerel was a young lady who spoke Mongolian and perfect English. They
had a special cachet and suitably printed and numbered covers available at
the booth, commemorating "Capex-78". These must be scarce, as a total of
only 1259 covers had been sold by closing time.

Turning now to the social side of the show, it was nice meeting again
F.W. Blecher, a fellow judge from West Germany, P.J. Campbell from Montreal,
Anatolii Kaushansky, Leon Lazarev and Henry Blum of Toronto, M.and MME.
Pierre Langlois and M.V. Liphschutz of Paris, Mr. and Mrs. John Fosbery and
M.A. Bojanowicz from England, George Lindberg from Sweden, James Mazepa
from Chicago, Jacques Marcovitch and Igor Rubach from New York, Dr. Gordon
Torrey, Denys Voaden and George Turner from the Washington, D.C. area, Mr.
and Mrs Richard Weinberg from Indiana and, last but not least, speaking on
the telephone to Vambola Hurt of Sweden.

The charming Russian restaurant Barmalay of Toronto was the scene of two
gatherings. The first, on Thursday June 8, was composed of A. Artuchov,
A. Kaushansky, M. and MME. P. Langlois, M.V. Liphschutz, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Weinberg and yours truly. On Friday June 16, A. Artuchov, Pat Campbell,
Barry Hong and Jim Mazepa got together there and, once again, a good time
was had by all.

To end on a final Russian note, "Capex-78" was followed a week later by
the 10th annual presentation of Toronto's unique "Metro International
Caravan". Your writer was at the Welsh pavilion where he heard a beautiful
rendition, by a magnificent choir flown from Wales, of a piece called
"Y Fedwen Arian" ("The Silver Birch"). This turned out to be a fine Welsh
version of the traditional Russian folk song "Vo Pole Beryozinka Stoyala"
("In the Field a Young Birch Tree Stood").


THE 'CLOSE SETTING' OF ROUBLE STAMPS OF 1919

by Dr. A.H. Wortman
By a decree of the NARKOMPOCHTEL (the People's Commissariat
of Posts and Telegraphs), ordinary letters of up to 15 grams
in weight were to be carried free of charge within the R.S.F.S.R.
from 1 January, 1919. Registration and heavier packets, however,
had to be paid for and there was thus a need for the higher
denomination stamps. It was therefore decided to re-issue the
Ir, 3r.50 and 7r, for all of which there were cliches available
and in spite of the Imperial eagle in their design. There was
a supply of paper in the printing works but in sheets of a
size smaller than that formerly used for the rouble denomina-
tions. In their previous format much space was wasted, not
only in somewhat lavish margins but the arrangement in eight
rows of seven stamps meant that six spaces in each sheet were
filled by large crossed V's as is well known to most readers,
in order to keep the number of 50 stamps in each sheet for
ease in accounting.








For the 3r.50 and 7r stamps the crossed V's were eliminated
and the cliches were clamped in the printing forms with no
spaces between them vertically, so that there was about Imm
of space between the raised printing surfaces and thus between
adjacent stamps when printed. This was the "close setting"
but, in the case of the Ir., the cliches were already as
close as possible and in the same arrangement of 7 x 8 with
the crossed V's. They had been printed in double sheets of
50 and there was difficulty in keeping the line perforation
exactly between the stamps. In fact it always encroached a
little upon the design. It was this that decided the printers
to make the lr. stamps narrower, the same width as the other
rouble denominations to be re-issued. In his article in Post
Rider No.l, Pat Campbell has pointed out the absence of the
thin frame-line at the sides of the stamps, although it is
still present at top and bottom. A philatelic friend, who
is a printer, suggests that the cliches were stacked in tens,
one on top of the other, clamped together and the sides
shaved. This, however, resulted in only a very small saving
of space. A millimetre or so between adjacent stamps multi-
plied by nine gives less than a centimetre and there is a
margin of 3 cm. at each side of the sheet. The real reason
seems to have been that they wished to use a new harrow
perforating machine for all three denominations.

When complete sheets are seen, it is obvious that the perfora-
tion is of the harrow type. There is an interesting little
variety too, a missing perforation hole in the lower edge of
stamp No. 44 in the sheet, that is the fourth stamp in the
bottom row. Many blocks and sheets have been seen and it is
always present in the Ir. and 7r. but it has not been seen
in the 3r.50. This indicates that the 3r.50 was perforated
first when all the pins of the harrow machine were intact.
Then, one of the pins was broken or damaged so that it did
not function. This could have occurred late in perforating
the sheets of 3r.50 or early in either the r. or 7r. The
3r.50 should be examined for this variety, even single examples
and of course a connected piece of either the lr. or 7r. including
No. 44 with all perforation holes would prove that the damage
occurred later in perforating that denomination. All three
denominations are known imperforate but they are very rare,
especially the r. with a genuine cancellation.

This re-issue differs from previous issues in another respect.
The varnish network appears to have been turned around at
right angles so that the sharp ends are pointing horizontally
instead of vertically. It has been observed too that although
it extends right to the edges of the sheet at top and bottom,
it stops short at each side leaving a space about one centi-
metre wide.

The colours are nearly always perfectly aligned with one another
and this is due to the employment of the old device seen
in the earliest sheets of Russian stamps, viz. a coloured
spot on either side of the sheet included in the first printing
operation, usually for the background. For the next operation,
the sheet was pressed down on spikes projecting from the print-
ing form on either side so that they pierced the printed coloured
spots. The sheet was then perfectly aligned.








There are actually two coloured spots at top and bottom of
these sheets. One is above and another below the centre
line of perforations, which is between the fifth and sixth
stamps in each horizontal row and the third and fourth spots
are less than the width of a stamp away from the others to
the right horizontally. They are all pierced so there must
have been four spikes. This device was probably used for the
perforating machine too,as misperforation has not been seen.
In fact, this re-issue is singularly free from the usual
printer's waste type of variety. It is a tribute to some
unknown hero's love of good work that, in those troubled
times so soon after the October Revolution, this issue
was so well produced.

We do not know exactly when these stamps appeared. Most of
the cancellations in our collections have dates in 1920 to
1922 and we have the previous issues with 1919 dates, so
obviously there were some old stocks in hand which were used
up first. The earliest dates known to us have been reported
by a Soviet collector, V. Karlinskii, the 3r.50 with 11.6.19,
the 7r.with 27.8.19 and the r. with 10.11.19. These dates
help to confirm that the 3r.50 was prepared and issued first.






y~i.7^mT^^ INF







IN PRAISE OF FREAKS

by Alex Artuchov

To qualify as an accepted variety a given item must first
meet the criteria of being a variety that can be considered
as an identifiable type that occurs with regularity for a
clearly determined reason. The criteria becomes quite clear
once considered in the context of some well known Imperial
varieties.

The variety of No.l with an inverted watermark is clearly
the only known example from an entire sheet that was
obviously printed on paper that was inserted into the press
in an incorrect position. The well known 20 kop. issue of
1875 (Scott #30) with a T in the shape of a cross occurs
once on every sheet of the first printing and nineteen times
on every sheet of each subsequent printing. Various shifts
of centre, frame and background and for that matter, inverted
centres are the cause of a sheet being misplaced in the printing
press during one of the printing stages, resulting in the
production of an entire sheet in which a portion of the design
is consistently misplaced and affixed improperly. Some such varieties,
particularly those printed after the revolution, are.also the
product of lax quality control standards and are quite rightfully
referred to as "printers' waste". These varieties are often
described as freaks. The description should be considered as in-
appropriate since shifts appear consistently throughout
the sheet. True freaks occur inconsistently and are more often
than not unique. Such items are uncatalogued and most fascinating
to the inquistive philatelist bent on providing an explanation. Two
stamps fitting the freak category are considered below.

1 kop. 1866 (Scott #19)

A copy of this stamp, in the collection of this writer, has
a portion of the background not in the usual yellow or yello-
orange colour, but in brown (Fia. 1). The brown colour
is confined to the background in a portion of the central
oval as well as an area around the crown (Fig. 2). Surrounding
elements forming the rest of the design are of the usual
black colour and are totally unaffected by the brown colour.

The writer explains the creation of this freak as follows.
The initial part of the printing process must have involved
the printing of the background. It was at this time, that a








Fig. I Fg.2
Fig.2








portion of the cliche was dirtied by a dark foreign substance
that blended with the yellow ink to produce a brown colour
on the affected portion of the cliche. The subsequent
printing stage of the design on top of the completed background
and brown colour left a totally black and unaffected design.

It is interesting to note that the explanation most explicitly
demonstrates a two-stage printing operation and the obvious
order in which the respective stages occurred.
7 kop. 1879 (Scott #27)

The writer acquired this item at a recent auction where it
was described as a pre-print fold. The stamp itself (Fig. 3)
is missing approximately one third of its design and back-
ground along a straight diagonal line on the right side of
the stamp. There is no fold along the diagonal line separating
the printed and blank portions of the stamp indicating that
either a lower portion sheet or perhaps another piece of
paper totally unrelated to the sheet must have somehow found
its way on top of the portion of the stamp that is now blank.
There is good reason to suspect that this stamp was the 100th.
on the sheet. In other words, located on bottom row of the
column furthest right and in the lower right hand pane of 25
(Fig. 4). The separation of the design and the blank portion
is such that the obstruction must have originated from the
lower right. It is furthermore difficult to imagine how a
sheet with anymore stamps than this one (and obviously the
one directly above it) could pass through quality control
undetected.

This item is also instrumental in demonstrating that the
stamp was printed in more than one stage. The arrows
indicate that portion of the centre is to the right of
the diagonal, separating the blank and printed portions.
Accordingly, the sequence of events must have been such that
the obstruction occurred after the printing of the centre.
This would again reflect upon the order in which the various
printing stages occurred.

While the above explanations are only theories proposed by
this writer, the stamps vividly demonstrate the insights
that can be gained from freaks. Such explicit demonstrations
of the staging of the printing process are not contained on
the usual copies of the same two stamps. Freaks should
accordingly be appreciated as having a place in philately and
for providing some very interesting insights.







Fig. 3 / I
SRg
Fig.4








Public Auctions for the Specialist


Three catalogs available:


I. Postal History, Stamps, Proofs & Essays of
the Russian Offices in Central & Eastern
Asia
(China, Manchuria, Sinkiang, Maritime Mail, etc.)
Also included are the Far Eastern Republic, Mongolia,
Siberia and Tannu Tuva.



II. Stamps, Proofs & Essays of Russia, Russian
Republics & States.
Also included are General Foreign, United States, and
British Commonwealth.


III. Postal History of Russia, Russian Republics &
States.
Also included are General Foreign, United States and
British Commonwealth.


Please let us know which catalogs you would like to receive.


George Alevizos
320 Wilshire Blvd. Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90401
Tel: (213) 450-2543







RUSSIAN AND UKRAINIAN CURRENCY STAMPS 1915-18

by Paul B. Spiwak

Momentous changes to the political structure of Central and
Eastern Europe came about during the second decade of the
twentieth century. Two large and strong empires, the
Russian and Austro-Hungarian, were torn apart in a violent
upheaval brought on by the First World War, the collapse of
economic stability, and by the reawakened national aspirations
of the people under their rule.

Due to the continuing war effort and the shortage of gold,
silver, and copper for the minting of coins, the governments
of Russia and, later, the Ukraine authorized the issuance
of currency stamps in lieu of metal coins.

This article will show and talk about all the government
currency stamps (and their postage stamps which were printed
from the same plates) issued by Russia and the Ukraine.

In addition to the government issued currency stamps, there
are also numerous local issues, which I will discuss briefly
in this article. They are all extremely scarce and seldom
seen.

On January 3rd, 1913, the Russian Empire issued a set of
seventeen stamps to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the
founding of the Romanov Dynasty. They are perforated 13 and
printed on unwatermarked paper. The Ik.- 70k.denominations
were typographed, and the Ir.- 5r. denominations were engraved.










The currency stamps are six stamps from this Romanov set from
which designs both the Tsarist and Provisional governments
printed their currency stamps from 1915-1917. (Scott 88-90,
93,95,96) Catalogue numbers used throughout this article
refer to Scott catalogue numbers.

Shown in illustration 1 are the front and reverse sides of
the first of the currency stamps used in Russia. They were
printed on unwatermarked thin cardboard by the original
postage stamp dies and in the original colors. They were
typographed and perforated 13. On the reverse side in a
frame of two lines (outside line heavier than inside line),
there is the coat of arms of the Romanovs, and an inscription
in Russian (all in black ink): "Having circulation on par
with silver subsidiary coins.".

The continued shortage of metals in the Russian Empire forced
the Tsarist government to continue to print its currency
stamps. The set in illustration 2, from 1916-1917, were
from the original dies of the 1k, 2k., and 3k. denominations of
the first two stamps the Government surcharged in large black
numerals the numbers 1 (on Ik) and 2 (on 2k). On the reverse
sides of each of the five stamps there is a single heavy frame
the coat of arms, the value of the currency, and a four line
inscription in Russian: "Having circulation on par with copper
money.".









In March, 1917, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate the
throne, and his government was overthrown. The 3rd illustration
shows three currency stamps issued by the new provisional
government of Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) in 1917. This
set is identical to the previous 1916-1917 Tsarist issue, except
for several changes in the reverse side. The most noticeable
change is the elimination of the coat of arms of the Romanovs.
Also the value of the currency was put in much larger numerals
and underlined by a single heavy black line. The inscription
on the reverse side, although laid out slightly differently,
reads the same as the 1916-1917 issues.

There is no evidence that currency stamps were either intended
or authorized for postal purposes. But contrary to regulations they
were occasionally used for postage, although quite uncommon.
Illustration 4 shows a used copy of the currency stamp #140
of 1917 cancelled at Tukkum in Latvia. Genuine used copies on
cover are known, but are rare.







1 Bi... 4"










iil I t

RsOl" EOr ,
...: .. ...t .. ...... .....






On March 17, 1917, only nine days after the Russian Revolution
began, a representative assembly met in the Ukrainian capital
of Kiev, and formally broke away from Russian control. On
January 22, 1918, it solemnly proclaimed the independent
democrat tic state as the Ukrainian National Republic (U.N.R.).


0









Owing to a shortage of small coins in the new U.N.R., it was
decided to issue postage-stamp currency on similar lines to
that issued by Russia from 1915-1917. The definitive issue
listed as Scott 62-66, which was intended to be put on sale
on April 29, was not ready for sale until July 18, 1918. The
set of five stamps were typographed on thin unwatermarked paper,
and issued imperforate. The initial printing was carried out
at the New State Printing Works at Kiev (formally the private
printing works of Vasil Kulzhenko), and later at another printing
firm in Odessa. It was printed in sheets of 100 in two
impressions of 50.

The Ukrainian currency stamps, illustration 5, were printed
from the same plates as the definitive set and issued on June 18,
1918. They are ungummed, perforated 11, and typographed on
thin cardboard. On the reverse side in a frame of two lines
(for 10 shah, 20 shah, and 30 shah) or one line (for 40 shah
and 50 shah) there is the trident (coat of arms of the Grand
Duke Vladimir) and an inscription in Ukrainian: "Circulates
in lieu of coins.". They were authorized for emission in
five values in the sum of sixty million karbovanets (12 billion
shah) on April 18, 1918, and printed at the New State Printing
Works at Kiev. The 10 shah and 20 shah stamps were designed
by Antin Sereda (1890-1961), and the 30 shah, 40 shah and
50 shahstamps were designed by Yuri Narbut (1886-1920), a
master of graphic art and president of the Ukrainian Academy
of Arts in Kiev. (See Scott 67-71)


I








As with the Russian currency stamps, these stamps were neither
intended or authorized for postal purposes, but were occasionally
used and tolerated by the postal department.

It is interesting to note here that the currency stamps were
prepared before the postage stamps, so therefore were the first
real Ukrainian stamps.

Last but not least comes the area of local currency stamps.
In addition to the Hetman Skoropadsky government issues of 1918
in the Ukraine, there were some nineteen additional local issues
printed between 1917 and 1918 in the Ukraine alone. These include:
Kremenczuh-city hall, Kremenczuh-credit association, Jewish
community, Nikolayev-city hall, Odessa transit authority,
and Odessa-city government.

Illustration 6 and 7 show the front and reverse sides of the
15k and 20k currency stamps from the Odessa city government
of 1917. The inscription on the reverse side reads in Russian:
"Odessa Exchange Stamp. Forgery will be prosecuted by law.".

More local issues exist from other parts of the Russian Empire
(such as from Rostov-on-Don), but are even more scarce and
difficult to find.

To conclude, this area of philately is often overlooked, but
has proved to be a very rewarding area of study and an
interesting facet of collecting.

My sincere thanks to my good friend Michael Wojtowycz for all
his help and encouragement, and to Pat Romianelli for his help
in photographing the stamps in the illustrations.







FLOWN ROMANOV COVERS!

by Barry Hong

I have recently discovered a couple of Imperial Russia
envelopes which were definitely flown. Some of you may have
a flown Romanov cover without knowing it. However, I
must qualify this statement by saying that the flight took
place in 1931.

The flight in question is the 1931 Graf Zeppelin polar
flight. To commemorate the flight, a set of four stamps
showing the Graf Zeppelin in flight over the icebreaker
Malyguin was released in both perforated and imperforate
condition. These stamps were used on registered mail carried
to Leningrad to the icebreaker and from the icebreaker to
Friedrichshafen. A more complete description of the flight
can be found elsewhere. '

Figures 1 and 2 are covers from the flight. Although they
do not look it, they are the flown Romanov covers. Let me
explain. I was examining the Malyguin to Friedrichshafen
cover without noticing anything out of the ordinary until I
turned the cover to the light. It was then that I saw the
alternate narrow and wide zig-zag lines watermark in the
envelope's paper. Being a collector of Russian postal stationary









I immediately recognized the watermark as that found on envelopes
from 1883 to 1916. Upon closer examination, using a light
box, I could see that the stamp was 7k and overprinted KHTAE
for use in China. The envelope is H&G #RBla. I have also
seen the 10k envelope with China overprint (H&G #RB2a)
used in the same manner.

I then checked my Leningrad to Malyguin cover and found that
the same Offices in China envelope had been used. After
making this discovery I remembered finding a 4k Czarist post
card showing Peter the Great (H&G #26) in the cover. At the
time I thought nothing of it, supposing that someone had
placed the card in the opened envelope as a filler. Examining
the sealed Malyguin to Friedrichshafen cover I found the same
Imperial post card. From the number of covers I have seen,
the use of the Imperial postal stationary is not a rare
occurrence for this flight and may make up the bulk of the
covers from it.

The question is "Who made these covers?". I cannot conceive
of any dealer using sellable items to make the covers. It is
my belief that these covers were prepared by the Soviet
Philatelic Agency. Suppose that they find a supply of Imperial
postal stationary in their stock. With the revolution still
fresh in the minds of many, it would be politically 'impossible
U


'4!




1T A.. H.Rl T 19 31


L:w iL.? .t-,Gr Zeppillnh '


-:-. I *.L i ..



BO3AYWiHASI
n DM4TA
Par avion


C ft--i'43t N C 9 ~i



L /wf.bo.. : r.: i. d



I ..'-







LUF fSCiIFFBAlU
S-; -' < i (ich sh afe n
EuaSilsee
DEUTSCHLAND


"i~! 2. Tr~ rr'I" &:"k r :. >'l"ii -l to ~rri c~cri c:v a: :rr.


S









to sell these items to foreign collectors. With this in mind
the Graf Zeppelin flight provided an outlet to dispose of
the Imperial postal stationary and still make a profit.

To add further credence to my theory, one only has to examine
the markings on the envelopes. On both envelopes the rubber
stamped address, registration marking, and three line cachet
in German are printed in violet. Although the markings
are not all from the same ink pad the strong similarity in
colour suggests that they were placed on at about the same time.

Since the address is rubber stamped we must assume that a
large number of envelopes were prepared in the same way, which
indicates the hand of the SPhA. The covers are addressed
to a Professor Weise on the icebreaker and to the Airship
Hangar in Friedrichshafen. Only a group such as the SPhA
could have arranged to retrieve covers mailed to an airship
hangar and no person in particular.

The above is only my theory on the origin of these covers
based on my observations. If anyone knows where these covers
originated,I would like to hear from him.



References:

1. Aronson, H.L. "North Pole Issue" The Russian Philatelist,
No. 9, pp.22-24
2. Curley, Walter. "The 1931 Polar Flight of the Graf Zeppelin"
SPA Journal, June, 1967, pp.671-678

STRAIGHT LINE MAILCOACH CANCELLATIONS OF THE

RUSSIAN EMPIRE

by Alex Artuchov

Through the kindness of a number of readers new information
has surfaced relating to the cancellations referred to as
"straight line cancellations of the 1870's" in No.2. This
writer is indebted to those listed below for supplying the
accompanying material and comments.

Andrew Cronin Toronto
Through the courtesy of our editor, we list Fig.l with
truncated triangle number 1005. The accompanying straight
line cancellation has an unclear first letter which can be
interpreted as either an "f" for Fadeevor an "r" for Radeev.
In relation to Dr. Wortman's theory of BJRP, #38 reiterated
in No.2 of this journal, the sequence of names could be
expected in the order of the cyrillic alphabet. Since 1016
has already been identified as Siekhotsinek and an "f"






follows an "s" in the cyrillic alphabet while the "r"
proceeds the "s", Radeev in Russian or Radziej6w in Polish,
a town located northwest of Warsaw, would seem as the likelier
alternative.


Dr. Howard Weinert Baltimore
The writer is indebted to Dr. Weinert for a variety of very
interesting points and some accompanying illustrations.
Dr. Weinert points out that Fig. 2 shown in the prece ding
article as Kunafer is in fact Runafer (Fig.3). He goes on
to indicate that number 381 (truncated triangle type) is
also incorrectly listed by Prigara. There is a Runafer
(Estonia) in the 1875 postal list, but no Kunafer To
continue, there is a manuscript date of May 22, 1873 on the
front and Revel receipt cancel May 23, 1873. The Runafer
marking on Fig.3 is furthermore a completely different type
of mailcoach cancellation.
Dr. Weinert's second item shown as Fig.4 and 4a for front
and back respectively, combines Zlotoria, Lomzha province
with number 1178. Dr. Weinert notes that the sender lived
in Choroszcz which had no post office at this time.


*


0


S


Rg I
Fllhfen& ti!'0ol








































Further comments by Dr. Weinert and Mr. Ashford (noted below)
have been instrumental in the change of the title of this article.
In the previous article,the relationship between the subject
cancellations and railroads was inadvertently overemphasized.
Some markings,however, should unquestionably be attached
to railways. As examples Figs. 5 and 6 are reintroduced
from the previous article for this purpose. Dr. Weinert
clearly relates that the same does not apply to a number of
other markings appearing in No.2. For instance Fig.7
(St. Zegevold) was not on a railroad in the 1870's and Fig. 8
(St. Manzir) was not on a railroad until after World War I.
Similarly, Fig.9 (St. Brin) and Fig.10 (St. Kesemskaya)
were not located on part of a railway network at the time of
their application.


Cr S1r tBOJ^lb
5 MRP 1V


CT MBaH3apb 6ec r
Anpji30AlHl878r







The above implications clearly demonstrate that the abbreviation
st or sta for "stantsiya" or station in translation, did
not imply a railroad station. Fig.ll (Krasnoyarskoi ps) is
quite useful in illustrating this point, with the ps after
the name undoubtably standing for "pochtavoya stantsiya" or
postal station in translation.

The subject markings can also be referred to by what can
perhaps be considered as a more appropriate and encompassing
term: mailcoach stations.

In pre-railroad times, mail in the Russian Empire moved between
locations connected by road. The major road network connected
the main urban centres of the Empire and numerous smaller
locations and postal stations along the way. Until such time
as railway lines were built adjacent to established roads,
postal stations along the route were serviced by means of
horse-drawn mailcoaches. Hence the term mailcoach stations.

The possibility that a given example of the subject cancellations
might have represented both a mailcoach and railroad station
over a period of time should also be appreciated. It is known
for instance that Fig.12 (St. Yasenki) was located on a railroad
line in 1875. Whether it was located on a line in 1871, when
the marking was applied,is not certain. It is,however, certain
that the markings of this type were in active use in 1875 and
there is no evidence to indicate that the straight line
cancellations were taken out of use the moment the railroad
was extended to the given location.


Fig II Fig 12


caM r 13jo87+ na 24A 1871




Vambola Hurt Sweden
In No.2 we were very pleased to publish a number of the subject
cancellations from Vambola Hurt's "Estonian Forerunners"
appearing in "The Estonian Philatelist" No.16-17, 1975. In
this issue we are again pleased to publish some additional
examples from Mr. Hurt's continuing work in No. 18-19, 1976
and No. 22-23, 1978 of the same publication. Fig.13 is
Marien-Magdalenen, October 23, 1880.(?) Readers with a command
of Russian will note that the name of the month is badly
misspelled but contains more correct letters of the spelling
of October than any other month. Fig.14 is Didrikyul of
Lifland province, May 13, 1873. Fia.15 is station Veggeva,
June 26, 1872. Fig.16 is St. Ranna, Pungern, September 22,
1876 while Fig.17 is station Moisekyul, January 16, 1873
with an improperly placed "r" in January.





















Alex Sadovnikov San Francisco
We are grateful to Mr. Sadovnikov for Fig.18, a fine illustra-
tion of a cover in his collection clearly linking number 1011
with Sannikskaya, Warsaw province (July 7, 1873). It should
be mentioned that Fig. 18 has clear implications on the
allocation of Radeev as number 1005, given above to Fic.l.

Fig 18 -r .r


Georg Mehrtens Bremen, West Germany
We are indebted to Herr Mehrtens for a wealth of illustrations
from his personal collection. Fig.19 and 19a identify yet
another previously unknown dot and numeral allocation. In
this case, number 1106 is Koszyce in Kielce province (February 13,
1872). In further combinations is an arrival marking of the
place of destination (Fig.19b): Piaski, Lublin province
(February 18, 1872).

Fig.20 is further evidence of Dr. Wortman's allocation of
Uneiev to number 1043 as this same number is contained on the
front of the cover. Fig.20 is further significant for being
a completely different type of mailcoach station marking.


25


;75 ~Fig 15 r82

872 26 RlofA 1872r

Fig 17
CTaH WR M Oftee~oi 1,
OT'bl 6. IM1a18 73ra










O


S


Herr Mehrtens further presents us with Fig.21 which is yet
a further example E a completely different type of mailcoach
station marking. It is Zheleznovdsk.
Fic.22 shows four examples of the same marking on piece.
The marking is of St. Dyatlovo, Grodno province (April 15-16,
1877). It is interesting to note that the Russian letter
for "V" ("B") is set in an inverted position.
We are further grateful to Herr Mehrtens for the following
markings: Fig.23 St. Koleno, Saratov Prov. (May 15, 1877);
Fig.24 St. Berezovka, Saratov Prov. (May 15, 1877) and
Fig.25 which is actually from the collection of Herr W.
Herrmann of Baden-Baden, West Germany (Frampol, Liublin prov.,
August 19, 1877). While the dot cancellation accompanying
Fia.25 is unclear, the location has previously been identified
by Dr. Wortman as 1142.


'1]T. YH B1EB
17,esp1875





















1pa1ryTonb -nro6 ry6
19 a1rycTa 1877 ro


Figs.26a-c are all markings of Gorodishchye, Minsk province
dated chronologically as November 9, 11 and 13, 1875,
respectively and are all contained on the same cover. The
markings provide wonderful evidence of the variation of handset
cancellations, changing at this location on an almost day
to day basis. Fig.26c should also be singled out as being
the first marking of the subject type to have an "M"
preceding the name. This letter should stand for "Mesto",
or hamlet in English.

In Fig.27 we are provided with a cover bearing the numeral
1116 and a Tomasz6w address of the sender. The cover also
contains an unclear station marking of the same type as Fig.20
which this writer has guessed to be Rokiciny.. The task of
identifying number 1116 with Tomasz6w was consequently a
difficult one since,as readers will note above, the allocation
of Fig.4 was based on the marking and not on the sender's
address. Aid in solving the problem came from BJRP No.38,
where Dr. Wortman identifies Rokiciny as 1067 and ruling out
this location as a possibility. Furthermore Lot 273 of the
June 20-21, 1978 Stanley Gibbons Merker auction lists another
cover with Tomasz6w and 1116 in combination. A further
problem arose from Dr. Wortman's allocation of 1071 for Tomaszow.
This was however, quickly remedied by a check of locations
in the Kingdom of Poland using target type cancellations.
Since there are two Tomasz6w's and Dr. Wortman's 1071 is in
Petrok province, 1071 is Tomasz6w (Rawski) in Petrok while
1116 is Tomasz6w (Zamojski) in Zamosc province. On Fig.28
we find truncated triangle number 493 in combination with a
straight line marking of Tifliskaya, Stavropol province,
January 23-24, 1878. The minor point, is that Tifliskaya
is misspelled, showing one cyrillic "c" but requiring two.















.

















O Fig 28











.. ............. .. ..


Firstly, the original information from Bochmann relating to
493 was wrong. Secondly, 493 may have becuoen used tempo orarily
CTI3eITITOIO IO TOBOIO 3rapitoxo.
at one location and then allocated to the other. Finallyer
Apyraro nu1ICfnT.




The major point is that number 493 is listed as Kazakskaya,
Stavropol province. The possible explanations are threefold.
Firstly, the original information from Bochmann relating to
493 was wrong. Secondly, 493 may have been used temporarily
at one location and then allocated to the other. Finally,
Tifliskaya and Kazakskaya may have been located very close
to each other and may have both used the same postal facility
represented by number 493.

P.T. Ashford Chester, Encland
The author is further indebted to Mr. Ashford, our final
contributor, for some very relevant comments and supporting W
material.








As Dr. Weinert, Mr. Ashford also points out that all two-
line datestamps commencing with St. do not come from small
railroad stations. He presents us with Fig.29 Kutais
(Transcaucasia) dated February, 1851 and illustrates that
Fig.30 (illustrated in No.2 as Fig.10) is not necessarily an
early use and that usage of the subject cancellations is
hardly confined to the 1870's. Dwelling further on this
topic, Mr. Ashford provides us with Fig.31 of an Ovruch
marking dated April 21, 1858 as well as Fig.32 an October 23,
1863 marking from Orpiri, listed in Mr. Ashford's "Imperial
Russian Stamps Used in Transcaucasia", Part I.

To this list we would also like to add Fig.33 yet another
marking from the Mehrtens collections: St. Panikovichi,
March 14, 1863.

3 AODH1Woe son.ry6 Onpyri
ii 21Aerap..1859roAa 1




nE. ai cr. naHMKOBM M
TE .4 MapTa 1863r

g 329 g33

Mr. Ashford goes on to point out that the relationship
between the subject markings and the truncated type of dot
and numberal cancellations is not exclusive. As an example
he again cites Fig.29, pointing out that Kutais was later
allocated with a rectangular 496.

Mr. Ashford further wonders if an explanation can be found
for the fact that Dr. Wortman's allocation for Ozork6w is 1034
but a cover seen by this writer in the collection of James
Mazepa has Ozork6w in combination with 1054. The only explan-
ation that can be offered is that at some point in time the
wrong numeral was used, probably as the result of a postal
official distributing the wrong cancellation from the stores.


Fig 3435
60pZO'S Try6 .
18 man 1873 ro0A e.



We will attempt to provide an illustration of Mr. Mazepa's
cover for the next issue.







Mr. Ashford acquaints us with Fig.34, Borzhom, Tiflis province,
May 18, 1873 which appears in Part III of his series on
Transcaucasia and which was also assigned truncated triangle
number 517 (Fig.35).

The value of communication and sharing of material between
collectors is ever so clearly demonstrated by this article.
This writer would only be too delighted if more readers
would come forth like the above contributors and help us
expand our knowledge of this intriguing subject matter.


THE LITERATURE OF

RUSSIAN PHILATELY

by P.J. Campbell
-Continued from Nos. 1&2 --

This is the third installment of this study, and here we enter
the largest section of all, Philatelic References. While it is
possible to compile a fairly complete inventory of catalogues,
a list of Philatelic References can never be complete, for the
list is, happily, being added to frequently. The following
will therefore only touch on some of the better known, more
important, or perhaps those that the author has been able to
trace and review. In the list will be some items that could
better be described as catalogues, and probably some of your
favorite references have been omitted. In general, the list
tries to stay in the main stream of the philately of Russia,
both Imperial and Soviet, and not to attempt a total coverage
of the associated fields such as Finland, the Baltic, Trans-
caucasia, and the Mediterranean, and certain associated fields
in the Far East. The author will be pleased to receive short
reviews of significant omissions, and these will be brought
together in an addendum at the end of the series, probably in
Yamschik No. 5. Entries are given in alphabetic order of the
"key name" and the key name is underlined in the text. An
alphabetic index of these key names will constitute Section 7.0
of the article, which will appear in Yamschik No. 4.

Section 4.0 PHILATELIC REFERENCES

4.1 Postage Stamps of Armenia (In English)

This title covers a set of five booklets by the team of
S.D. Tchilinghirian and P.T. Ashford, issued by the
British Society of Russian Philately over the period 1953
to 1960.

The individual booklets are as follows:

Part I The Framed Monograms (62 pp)


Part II The Unframed HP Monograms (46 pp)


I










Part III The HH Monograms (60 pp)


Part IV The Pictorials (64 pp)

Part V Check List (16 pp)

This series is well printed and illustrated, and is an in-
valuable aid to the history of Armenia, and Armenian philately.
The early rubber HP monogram overprints, and the later metal
stamps are covered in detail, with enough information for the
extensive numbers of forgeries to be identified.

4.2 Stamps of Levant Post Offices (In English) by Dr. D.B.
Armstrong.

This is one of two books by the same author, so can be referenced
as Armstrong I. It was published in 1913, but I have not seen a
copy.

4.3 Postage Stamps Of Ukraine (In English)

The second volume by Dr. D.B. Armstrong, conveniently refer-
enced as Armstrong II. Any further information would be
welcomed.

4.4 Auction Catalogues (various languages)

One of the most important of all references available to the
philatelic researcher, auction catalogues, can also be one of
the cheapest of sources to obtain. A carefully preserved and
cross-referenced set of catalogues can be an illustrated record
of some of the great collections of the past, and the photographs
and data form a fine source from which to study material that is
rare or even unique. A few notable catalogues are:

The Agathon Faberg6 Collections. Russian Zemstvo Stamps
auctioned March 1940 by Harmers of New Bond Street, London.

The Frederick T. Small Collection of the Russian Empire.
Auctioned December 1974 by Harmers of New York.

The Kurt Adler Collection of Russia. Auctioned by Robt.
Siegel of New York in 1974.

The H.C. Goss sale by Robson Lowe of London in 1958.

The Robt. W. Baughman sale by Siegel of New York in 1971.

The Baron von Stackelberg sale by Stolow of New York, also
in 1971.








Such auctions of the classic collections, sold for sums of
up to $200,000, provide an invaluable record of the past,
but there is also much of interest to be found in the regular
new catalogues from the auction houses of Alevizos, Billig,
Cherrystone, Collectors Mail Auction (South Africa), Koerber,
Philatelhist, Russ, Siegel, Stanley Gibbons Merkur, Stolow,
Zimmerman and others. While it is necessary to winnow down
this vast mass of data, some are invaluable references and
the early catalogues are even selling now at quite respectable
prices; don't be too quick to throw them away.

4,5 West Ukrainia (In German) by J. Baumgarten

This book was published in 1919, no further details known.

4.6 Billig's Philatelic Handbooks (In English)

These were a series of handbooks published by Fritz Billig of
New York and happily still in print; we will identify them
collectively as Billig I. Several of them are of interest to
the Russian field:

Vol. I Palestine (Russian Offices), Siberia, W. Ukraine

Vol. II Batum

Vol. IV Deutsch Baltisches and Russian Levant Steamships,
Tiflis, Wenden

Vol. IX Russia (Imperial and Soviet). First flights,
special flights, numeral cancels

Vol. XX Wrangel Army Post by Haverbeck, Refugees Post
by Kethro and Ashford (see also paragraph 4.26
below)

Vol. XXX Includes the complete Zemstvo Gazetteer by
F. W. Speers (see para 4.39 below).

4.7 Grosses Handbuch der Falschungen (In German)

These were a series of studies of forgeries, compiled in 1936
by Otto E. Stiedl and Fritz Billig which we will identify as
Billig II. Two parts are of interest:

Lieferung No. 28: Sowjet Russland

Lieferung No. 33: Russland Kaiserreich und
Levante

The Soviet is really the more useful of the two as No. 22
covers only a couple of Imperial issues, whereas No. 28 is
a useful guide to expertizing a number of the early Soviet
issues which were forged extensively, such as the 1921 Volga
relief set, the 1922 "Philately for the Children" overprints
and the Rostov-on-Don famine relief set. (See also paragraph
4.11 (below) for a far more comprehensive coverage of this
subject.)








4.8 Die Postmarken des Russischen Kaiserreiches (In German)


One of the classic studies on the general issues of Imperial
* Russia, published in 1895 as a volume in the Kritzsch series
of handbooks, written by Dr. E. von Bochmann. This study was
translated into English in the Philatelic Journal of Great
Britain Vol XXIX and updated by the masterly study of Sir
John Wilson (seeparagraph 4.38 below).

4.9 Illustrated Postage Stamps History of the Western Ukrainian
Republic: 1918-1919 (In English)by John Bulat

Published in 1974 in New York, this is a 96-page illustrated
account of the short philatelic history of the Western Ukrainian
Republic, and it includes a more extensive bibliography of other
sources published in German and Ukrainian.

4.10 Soviet Special Postal Cancellations: 1922-1961 (In Russian)

This fine little 96-page handbook shows all the official special
cancels of the Soviet Union for the period 1922 to 1961, each
clearly illustrated, with day, month, and year of issue. It was
put out by Glavnaya Filatelistitcheskaya Kontora for the Russian
Ministry of Culture at 40 Kopeks, in paper covers, with a rela-
tively small print run of 15,000. The cancels start with
19 August 1922 for a philatelic event in Moscow; there was an
average of 3 new cancels a year from 1922 to 1956, except for a
gap during World War 2. From 1956 onwards, these special
official cancels proliferated to a rate of one a week for the
* late fifties and early sixties.
4.11 Manual for the Expertization of Soviet Postage Stamps
(In Russian)

This 88-page book was put out by the Svyaz Publishing House in
Moscow in 1972 at 36 Kopeks, and 40,000 copies were distributed
by the All-Union Society of Philatelists. The period covered
is from the Chainbreaker of 1918 to 1967. A surprising number
of forgeries and fantasies are shown, many of which may not be
known in the West. It covers in detail some of the more dan-
gerous forgeries that are all too well known, the 1921 Volga
relief set, 1922 "Philately for the Children" overprints, the
Rostov-on-Don famine relief, the early airmails (particularly
the Scott Cl overprint) and the Levanevski (C.68). All in all,
a most useful booklet.

4.12 The Canadian Expeditionary Force in Siberia, 1918-1919
(In English) by Edith M. Faulstich

This is a 31-page reprint of an excellent article from
"The Postal History Journal" of January 1968, and it gives a
good background of the postal history associated with the
Canadian Army contingent of the Allied intervention force that
entered Russia during the Civil War. While the actual fighting
is covered better by Col. Nicholson or John Swettenham (see
* Section 5 of this series), Edith Faulstich gives the best phila-
telic information. For the British part in the intervention,
see BJRP #36 for superb coverage. Mrs. Faulstich was Chairman
of the Postal History Committee of the American Philatelic
Society; she died in 1972.
33







4.13 Postage Stamps of Batum (In English) by William E. Hughes

This detailed examination of the Aloe Tree issues of Batum
between 1919 and 1920 was published in Great Britain in 1935.

4.14 The Combined Index and Cumulative Index

(a) In 1959 Messrs. I.G. Baillie and John H. Reynolds
compiled "The Cumulative Combined Index to the
Journals up to Autumn 1958". This index covered the
Journals of the British Society of Russian Philately
and the Rossica Society of Russian Philately. In 19
foolscap pages it covered Rossica Volumes 1 to 54 and
BJRP Nos. 1 to 24.

(b) In 1978, the British Society of Russian Philately
published the Cumulative Index of 69 pages, cross-
referencing the following journals:

The British Journal of Russian Philately
Nos. 1-53 (1946-1976)

The Rossica Journal of Russian Philately
(Yugoslavia) Nos. 1-43 (1930-1941)

The Rossica Journal of Russian Philately (USA)
Nos. 44-86/87 (1954-1975)

The Russian American Philatelist Nos. 1-24
(1942-1945)

The Russian Philatelist, Nos. 1-11 (1961-1969)

The Cumulative Index is an extremely valuable research
aid, cataloguing for the first time this expanding field
of philately. It should be noted that the Cumulative
Index has entirely superseded the Combined Index, which
is noted here only for reference.

4.15 International Encyclopedia of Stamps (In English)

This encyclopedia was published by IPC Magazines Ltd., of
London, England, in 98 parts in 1972. Two of the parts were
of particular interest to philatelists of Russian postal
history.

Volume 5, Part 13 for a fine history, from the 12th
Century birch-bark letters to modern Soviet material,
all in glorious colour.

Volume 6, Part 14 with an addendum to the above with
a few more beautiful illustrations, plus the bonus of
a good section of Zemstvos of Zemliansk and Zenkov.

The material was put together by Novosti Pressdirected by a
panel of prominent Soviet philatelists.
0







4.16 Collecting Postal History (In English) by Prince Dimitry
Kandaouroff

A fine book, published in 1973 by Eurobook Limited, comprising
8 184 pages with some 200 photographs, many in colour. While
the purpose of the book is to cover world postal history, the
Russian sphere is well represented and this is another excellent
book to add to a philatelic library at a reasonable price.
4.17 "Notes on the Russian Revolutionary Stamps: 1920-1922"
and, within the same covers "Mongolia, Its Stamps: 1924-
1927" by K. Lissiuk (In English)

This little 16-page booklet concerns a medal-winning award
of the International Philatelic Exhibition held in New York
in 1926. It is in two sections, covering the interesting
Soviet Postmaster Provisionals and the early issues of the
Mongolian People's Republic.

4.18 "Rural Posten von Russland" (In German) by Hugo Lubkert;
published in Vienna in 1882, 132 pages

This is one of the works covering the early years of the
Zemstvo stamps, and has been superseded by later publi-
cations.

4.19 "Marki" (Bilingual in Russian and French)

This was a stamp magazine published in Kiev between 1896 and
1899, and claims to be the first Russian stamp magazine. It
* was also at one time the official organ of the Moscow Stamp
Collectors Society. It seems that copies of nineteen issues
are to be seen at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington'.

4.20 "Azerbaijan" (In English) by F.J. Melville

Another reference for which we have no details at present.

4.21 Les Emissions de la Russie d' Asie by S.A. Pappadopoulos

No details known at present, brief details welcomed by your
writer or editor.

4.22 Periodicals

A great volume of data regarding the field of Russian philately
is spread among a great number of periodicals that have been
published in many countries over many years. A fine reference
library can be built up by filing originals or reprints of
articles from, inter alia, the following philatelic periodicals:

Airpost Journal American Philatelist China Clipper
London Philatelist Cinderella Philatelist Ice Cap News
Perfins Bulletin Linn's Weekly Stamp News Stamp Collecting
Stamp Lover Stamp Magazine Stamp Monthly
Journal of Chinese Philately Polish Philatelic Review
5 Stamps, Weekly Magazine of Philately

My apologies to those I have omitted.


35







4.23 Polar Post (In Russian) by E.P. Sashenkov published 1975
by Svyaz Publishing in Moscow (40,000 copies)

This 296-page book, unfortunately not available in English,
gives a relatively comprehensive coverage of the entire
history of Polar exploration, with particular emphasis on
Soviet achievements and Soviet Philately. Special sections
are devoted to the early explorers, the airships, the trans-
polar flights, Northern postal services, and the drifting
ice stations. The volume closes with a two-page bibliography.
There is also a little 76-page booklet (53,000 copies) by the
same author called Northern Ice-ocean Philately, published
in 1976 at 14 Kopeks.

4.24 The Russian Post in the Empire, Turkey, China and the King-
dom of Poland (In Russian)

This superb work of 222 pages, was compiled by S.V. Prigara
and published in New York in 1941. It has never been trans-
lated into English, unfortunately. It presents a history
of the Imperial post, the town posts, railroads, ship posts
and field posts, as well as a series of parts on Turkey,
China and the Kingdom of Poland. Included are 5 pages of
illustrations, stamps and postal stationery, and 12 solid
pages of classified cancellations. One of the masterworks
of Russian philately.

4.25 Russia Number One (In English)

Actually a comprehensive article on the 10-kopek imperforate
of 1857, by V. Rachmanov as published originally in the
Collectors Club Philatelist Vol XXXII No. 5 and later
reprinted in Rossica Journal No. 51 in 1957. A classic
article. Some of the historic background of Russia Number
One, as described by Rachmanov, has been disputed in a fine
article by B. Kaminski in Filatelyia SSSR Nos. 6 & 7 of June
and July of 1970, and reprinted in English in the British
Journal of Russian Philately No. 47 in July of 1972. Both
Rachmanov and Kaminski should be read to understand the
background of this classic issue.

4.26 The Stamps of the Russian Refugees Post (In English) by
W.E. Kethro and P.T. Ashford, published in 1951.

An interesting and comprehensive study of the cancellations
and the way lithographic transfers were used to build up the
overprinting stones. Many years out of print and a rare
book.
4.27 Scrapbooks

One of the important ways to build a philatelic library
is to keep and file the many useful items that appear in
philatelic magazines and papers, photostats of significant
data, or relevant non-philatelic matter. Built up over a
period of years, and properly filed or cross-referenced,
scrapbooks can be of inestimable help in research.







4.28 The Shagiv Issues of Ukraine (In English)

This booklet was published in England (250 copies) by the
author, Mr. Ian Baillie, in 1964 as the only comprehensive
coverage of the Ukrainian shagiv issue of 1918, including
the overprints and the currency stamps. The booklet consists
of 31 pages of text and 15 of illustrations.

4.29 Revolutionary Stamps of Russia (In English) by John L. Stroub

This was published in Vol. 40, No. 12 of the American Philatelist
in September 1927 to cover some of the 1920 overprints on
Russian stamps. See also K. Lissiuk's notes on the same
*subject (Section 4.17) and fine coverage in CPFU 1 (Section
3.3 of this series). This material is quite scarce, and
good literature even rarer.

4.30"The Imperial Romanovs" (In English) published privately by
Rev. Leonard Tann in 1978

This book is a philatelic study of the 17 basic stamps issued
in 1913 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Romanovs,
plus a history of the family, postal developments of the era,
the essays, proofs and the specimens, plus the stamps, book-
lets and postal stationery. The coverage continues with the
currency tokens, surcharges, overprints and sections on
cancellations, finishing with Used Abroads and field posts.
The result of several years of search and research, this
book will surely remain the standard work on the Romanov
Jubilee series for some time to come.

4.31 "Stamps of the Russian Ehpire Used Abroad" (In English) by
S.D. Tchilinghirian and W.S.E. Stephen

This series of six books constitute one of the most important
references in Russian philatelic literature, and probably one
of the most significant and carefully researched series ever
published in the field of philately. The books, each of
exactly 96 pages, were issued between 1957 and 1960 by
the British Society of Russian Philately.

Part 1 covering Constantinople, the Danubian Principalities,
Bulgaria and Roumelia.

Part 2 The Black Sea and Aegean Ports, Syria, Palestine,
Egypt, Crete and Ship Mail in the Levant.

Part 3 Persia, the Khanates of Bukhara and Kiva, Sinkiang.

Part 4 Uryankhai, Mongolia, China Proper, the Lyaotung
Leasehold.

Part 5 Manchuria and the Chinese Eastern Railway.

Part 6 Ship Mail to Korea and Japan, Sakhalin, Russian-
America, and a final Supplement to collect all
additional material discovered since issue of the
first part of the series.







This is truly an astonishing effort, each of the sections
being preceded by sketch-maps and a large historical
section, bibliographies, and carefully drawn cancellations,
together with appropriate check-lists and pricing guides.
The cancellations are segregated in Part 1 into 36 basic 0
types, and the six parts include no less than 921 different
cancels; a treasury of information for the serious philatelist.
My own set is accompanied by a 52-page supplement consisting
of the cancellations alone, in numerical order, cross-refer-
enced to the appropriate volume, an interesting acquisition
from the library of one of the illustrious authors, both
unfortunately now deceased.

4.32 "Imperial Russian Stamps used in Transcaucasia" (In English)
by P.T. Ashford, published by the British Society of Russian
Philately in 1972

A fine study, attractively presented with good maps and a
wealth of information. Part 1 (56 pages) is sub-titled
Postal History, and Part 2 (79 pages) covers Tiflis and
the Tiflis Post. Part 3 (70 pages) has just appeared and
covers the postal markings of offices in the province of
Tiflis. When completed, it will certainly be the standard
reference on the subject.
4.33 The Trident Issues of the Ukraine (In English) by
C.W. Roberts

There are five parts in this series:

Part I of Kiev

Part II for Odessa

Part III Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav and Poltava

Part IV Podolia and Postal Stationery

Part V Special Issues

Another fine series produced under the auspices of the
BJRP, Part I by C.W. Roberts and Dr. R. Seichter, with
illustrations by I.L.G. Baillie, was first issued in
1948, and reissued with revisions in 1962. Volume II
was also a joint effort of Mr. Roberts and Dr. Seichter,
but Parts III to V were prepared by Mr. Roberts only.
This series has been described as the definitive work on
the numerous, and complex Trident overprints and presents
a great mass of historic and descriptive information,
illustrations of hundreds of the overprints, maps and
check lists. The reputations of the authors as experts
in this field are too well known to require repetition
here.

4.34 "Ukrainian Philatelist"

This was a philatelic journal issued in Vienna between
1925 and 1939 under the editorship of Dr. Ivan Turin.
Language of issue and further details unknown by present
writer, who has never seen a copy of this rare publication.

38








4.35 "Nomenclature Internationale des Bureaux de Poste"
(In French"

This is the international list of post offices of the world,
published from time to time by the International Bureau of
the Universal Postal Union in Switzerland. The UPU have been
issuing such list, under the title of "Dictionnaire des
bureaux de poste" in 1895, 1909, 1926, 1937 and 1957, and
later under the above title. The sixth edition, published
in 1968, listed 420,000 post offices throughout the world.
A work such as this, of the period in which one is doing
research, would be anost useful guide to research on
cancellations, and it is produced at a price (about $12.00)
that makes it available to those interested in such research.

4.36 "Coats-of-arms of towns, governments, provinces and possady
of the Russian Empire" (In Russian)

This is a rare book, written by P.P. von Vinkler, and
published in St. Petersburg in 1899, to illustrate 834
coats-of-arms of the Russian Empire. It would be an
invaluable record for the study of Zemstvo stamps, as
the late Vladimir von Richter found when he did research
in that field.

4.37 "The Postage Stamp, its History and Recognization"
(In English and in Russian)

There are many books with titles such as the above, but this
one, by the team of L. & M. Williams of London, is one of
the classics, and should be in every club library. First
published in 1956, it was translated into Russian and
published by SVYAZ in 1964 as a paperback of 60,000 copies,
an unusually large printing for a foreign philatelic book
in Russia.

4.38 "The 19th Century Issues of Imperial Russia" (In English)
by Sir John Wilson

This is another case where a single article is of such great
significance that it is worth referencing as a source. Sir
John's superb study was originally published in Great Britain
in the 1940's and was reprinted in 45 pages of Rossica Journal
No. 88 in 1975 with fine illustrations. It is required reading
for any serious student of the Arms issues of 1857 to 1889.

4.39 "Zemstvo Gazeteer" (In English)

This excellent series of articles was written by the late
Fred W. Speers and they are happily available from two
different sources. They can be found in the Journal of the
British Society of Russian Philately Number 25 (1959) to
Number 41 (1967) and the series also appears in Volume XXX
of Billig's Philatelic Handbooks. Fred Speer's article
takes each Government in turn, shows which cities issued
Zemstvo stamps, and which did not, describes the area, its
trade and the stamps and their period of issue. Useful
sketch maps accompany most articles.







4.40 "Zeppelinpost und Luftschiffsbriefmarken der UDSSR"
(In German) by I. Lukanc, published in 1975 in ZUrich
by Wolfensbergen A.G.

This book contains about 70 pages of text, and illus-
trations of scores and scores of superb covers, some of
which are unique, of the Graf Zeppelin's flights to
Russia, as well as illustrations of the relevant Russian
stamps. TO BE CONTINUED -




THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF RUSSIA, 1917-23


by Dr. R. J. Ceresa


S The publication of this series of handbooks in four volumes
each of some 8 to 12 sections commenced in May 1978 with the
publication of the first two parts of Volume I (Armenia), and
part III is now available. The edition is limited to 300
numbered copies and the available sections of Volume I are:

Part I. "The 60 kopeck surcharges" 60 pages, 8 plates $8.00
posted by air.
Part II. "Small and medium Framed HP Overprints" 48 pages,
13 plates $6.50 by air.

(Extra plates, printed on one side, Part I (8), $1.00; Part II (13),
$1.50; Part III (19) $2.00)

It is proposed to publish from four to six parts, (50-70 pages
each) of Volumes I and II before the end of 1979 and to complete
the series before the end of 1981.

Volume II, covering the issues of the Ukraine, will commence
with Part I, (Odessa Types I to III) October 1978.

Volumes III and IV will cover the issues of Azerbaijan, Georgia,
the RSFSR and the Armies.

All parts of each volume contain a check list (priced) of genuine
and forged stamps.

These handbooks are intended to supplement the works of Tchilinghirian,N
Ashford, Roberts, Seichter, Billig, etc. and therefore the
content is largely concerned with identification of the genuine
and forged types. (Part I, 7 genuine and 41 forgeries, Part II,
8 genuine and 36 forgeries, Part III 2 genuine and 90 odd forgeries

Please send cash with order to the author, 13 High Street,
Cottenham, Cambridge, CB4 4SA, England.



40







WE BUY

For 50 years, we have been handling scarce and unusual stamps of RUSSIA.
We are therefore better able to appreciate your holdings than probably anyone
else. Accordingly, we offer you more cash!
We are now in urgent need of Collections, Covers, Errors, Rarities. We are
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original sheets, etc. scarce values, R. RR, RRR.
The following listing consists of 68 Districts, now available (about 15,000
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Each District is available individually, as Collection on original Album
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We are also breaking up every District and can offer separately Stamps,
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P.O. BOX 448
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THE POST IN





THE RUSSIAN










by Fr. Huysmans



--CONCLUSION --

After the appearance of the first postage stamp in England in 1840, other
countries quickly followed suit. Russia got around to it only in 1858.
The imprinted envelopes postponed the appearance of stamps for a long time.
A study of adhesive stamps began around 1854. The first proofs were
designed and engraved by Kirchner. They are all round-shaped, with
inscriptions within a double circle and a Mercury head or the Imperial
double-headed eagle in the centre. Some were printed on small slips of
paper or on envelopes and were cancelled with trial postmarks, namely with
a star in the centre and surrounded by four concentric rings of dots, which
were thicker on the rim.

Many essays were made in 1857, mostly with the kind of eagle from imprinted
envelopes, which existed from 1845. They show a double-headed eagle with
small tail. Some have a perforation provided around the stamp design.
Proofs are also to be found of designs and models by artists, who were
commissioned to suggest a model and make reproductions therefrom; proofs
that had only one detail represented of the design;proofs on various grades
of paper; colour essays and also the first prints from a press, being mostly
in imperfect condition.

The first adhesive stamp appeared in Tiflis in 1855. There are only three
copies known. It isa lightly and patchily embossed stamp, square in shape
and with a value of 6 kopeks. It showed the coat of arms of the city of
Tiflis. This is a pretty well unknown stamp, which has wrongly fallen into
oblivion in contrast with other rarities, such as those of British Guiana
and Mauritius. Up to the year 1921 there was no mention of it in the lit-
erature and the best known catalogues. Even in the Popov Museum in Lenin-
grad there was no copy that could be admired. We find the first mention of
it in No. 7 of "The Soviet Philatelist" by K.K. Schmidt, who said that a W
certain Moens wrote a letter in 1889 to the post office in Tiflis asking


I







whether the stamps were put in circulation and, if so, when. The post-
master remembered the stamp well, but knew nothing about its time of usage.
Schmidt wrote that he had looked at a copy in 1913 and that three copies
of it should exist. Requests for information yielded no results because
O of WW I. At the end of his article, he describes the stamp and gives a
photograph of it. He concludes that it was by no means a private or zemstvo
stamp, but really the first stamp of Russia and issued in 1855. The stamp
was referred to a second time in magazine no.l of 1929 by S. Kuzovkin of
Baku. He gave his findings'as follows. In the library at Stavropol, he
found in 1928 the Almanac of the Caucasus (Tiflis) of 1857, wherein the
regulations of the City Post of Tiflis and the distribution of magazines
and newspapers were spoken of. This article said that a special department
of the City Post was set up by the staff of the Province of Tiflis, wherein
the specially printed stamps would be introduced with a value of 6 kopeks.
They would be sold in strips of five. It was further stated that every
letter sent by the City Post had to have a printed stamp indicating the
value affixed, as a proof of prepayment. He concluded that these stamps
circulated in the City Post area of Tiflis and the village of Kodzhori.
Circular No. 3 of 10.12.1857 of the Postal Department said further that the
special stamps then being used would be in circulation from the end of 1857
up to March 1858.

There was some talk about the problem again in 1930. Schmidt showed the
stamp at the "Iposta" exhibition in Berlin. The Western press ignored the
stamp. In the magazine "Die Postmarke" of Vienna we find a reaction that
made a great impression. Michel put it in as the first stamp of Russia in
their 1941 catalogue. Finally, a copy was sold in 1958 for three times the
price of an unused No. 1 of Russia. The Soviet philatelists are still
looking for further information. We already know that it was printed by
typography in Tiflis in strips of five, in relief and embossed by hand.
* It has now been accepted as the first stamp of Russia in the 1973 Yvert &
Tellier Catalogue.

By decree of 20,2,1857, Tsar Alexander II ordered the manufacture of a set
of three stamps, which were to be in service as of 1.1.1858. The first
proofs were designed and engraved by the artists of the service for
Preparing State Papers (EZGB), now Goznak, namely by a top-flight team
headed by Franz Kepler, a very talented engraver. The many proofs, which
preceded the stamp issue, are masterpieces in themselves and bear witness
to an exceptional carefulness, due to the attention paid to the delicate-
ness of the design, the perfection of the colour harmony and the very high
quality of the paper adopted.

The stamps in question had to be perforated and in addition to their face
values, the weights were also given of the letters which they had to
frank:
10 kopeks for 1 Lot or about 12.5 g. ( oz.)
20 kopeks for 2 Lots or about 25 g. (1 oz.)
30 kopeks for 3 Lots or about 37.5 g. (1 oz.)
Moreover, there exist essays of the 10 kopek value, with the colours given
as orange and green, Also, the 20 kopek stamp in grey-green and lilac,
with or without watermark (Romeko 3a & 3b). We can also report an essay
of the 20 kopek value in the issued colours, without watermark and with
pen cancellation.

The first had to serve for the franking of unregistered letters for the
* interior of the country. For letters going abroad,no stamps were yet
assigned and the postage had to be paid as before during the forerunner
period. Letters for abroad had to be handed over at the post offices and






the sender was still obliged to pay the postage in cash. There were two
advantages in that method. On the financial side, because the postal rates
for abroad were very complicated and differed greatly because of the route
taken and the country of destination. Furthermore, for political reasons;
the letters could thus be held back and eventually examined by the police.

It was only from July,1864 that stamps were assigned for letters destined
abroad, but that was still not obligatory. In that way unfranked letters
could still be found in 1875. They continued to show the rate handwritten
as before.

The date of 1.1.1858 envisaged by the Imperial Ukase for the appearance for
the first Imperial postage stamps caused a problem. The perforating mach-
ine which was ordered in Vienna (*) arrived too late and, besides, was
still not assembled. The Administration then decided that the lowest
value of 10 kopeks should go on sale imperforate. Its use was authorized
only from 1.1.1858 onwards. There were only three million copies printed
in sheets of 100 (4 panes of 25). Its distribution to all cities and
villages in the Empire and to some places in the Levant required that the
sheets should be cut for the most part horizontally in strips. Vertical
pairs are thus rather rare. Blocks are certainly rarer still. Only two
blocks of four are known and these are damaged.
The set of three perforated stamps then appeared on 8.1.1858.
It therefore seems that the 10-kopek stamp imperforate, which
had appeared a few days earlier because of the defective
perforating machine, is rather an imperforate variety of the
perforated stamp and should thus bear the catalogue number la.

According to Russian official documents, there were 10,510
postage stamps sold between 10.12.1857 and 31.1.1858.

In general, the paper was thick and of very good quality. In
order to avoid the curling of the sheets by the gum and to
give the paper a soft white surface, which would also make
the colours of the stamps come out better, the front of the
paper was covered with a fine chalky layer made from whiting
and afterwards with a paste with a mixture of zinc white
(zinc oxide) and calcium acid phosphate. This layer should
have served at the same time to make impossible (?) the
erasure of the postmarks because of solubility in water.

The watermark was obtained by a thickening of the paper and
showed the figures "1", "2" and "3", which can be seen very
well against a dark background. The stamps are placed face
down with the backs showing, on a piece of black paper.

The printing of these first stamps was very carefully carried
out and there are no misplaced or inverted centres, notwith-
standing the fact that the printing took place in two operations.
That was less the case in the following issues. Fortunately
for us philatelists!

As a result of the layer placed on the stamps, which barely
existed so to speak, on the first stamps but was for Y vert
No. 8 (Scott #12) onwards and especially for Y vert No.17-23
(Scott 49-24 sufficiently noticeable, all the stamps were
very sensitive to water. Most of the Russian Imperial
stamps are therefore difficult to clean. We give here some
directions:-


I







Yvert 1-7 (Scott 1-4,8-10): Can be washed with water, but
they should still be handled carefully.
Yvert 8-16 (Scott 5-7,11-18): Keep away from water.
Yvert 11-16 (Scott 12-18): Various reactions are possible.
since in the printing process sometimes a thin and
sometimes a very thick layer was applied.
Yvert 17-23 (Scott 19-24): Very fragile.
Yvert 24-27 (Scott 26-30): less sensitive.
Yvert 28 onwards (Scott 31 onwards): They can all be washed
with water, but naturally still carefully.

Whenever it is absolutely necessary, the first issues can be
cleaned in the following way. A sheet of thick white blotting
paper should be moistened with cold water and placed in a small
dish, while care is taken that the eventual surplus of water
is removed from the paper. The stamps are then placed front
side up, where the layer has been applied and with the
backs placed on the blotting paper. An hour or so should go
by before the softened stamp is picked up by the white border
with a pair of tweezers and then laid with the front side
on a dry piece of blotting paper, leaving it to dry in the
open air. Care should also be taken that the stamps are
not squeezed, as the centres are embossed.

According to the circular of 10.12.1857, the cancellation of
the first stamp had to take place with pen and black ink,
until the new "dots" cancellers were distributed. Since the
washing away of these pen cancellations was still possible,
it was ordered by a circular of 26.2.1858 that the temporary
pen cancellation be accompanied with markings indicating the
city. This is where the old markings of the prestamp period
stood in good stead.

For Poland red ink was also used and for the Levant violet
ink.

Another circular came out in August 1858, forbidding cancellation
by pen and saying that the provisional (pre-stamp) markings
would be slowly superseded by the new "dots" cancellers in
various styles with a number in the middle, assigned to a
specific place, village or station. The date stamps were to
be placed near the stamps.

Due to all these decisions, which followed in quick succession,
many varieties of stamp No. 1 can be encountered, e.g.:-

(A) Mint with gum. This is naturally very rare.
(B) Mint with gum. There are three possibilities here:-
(i) genuine: washed, so as to keep it from curling
(ii) Pen cancellation washed off with the gum as well.
To defraud the Posts or to trick philatelists.
(iii) Uncancelled copy, which was placed on a letter
coing abroad, while that was still unnecessary
(July 1864).
(C) Postmarked, or cancelled by pen.
(i) Pen cancellation: less pretty and of lesser
value. It is, however, the oldest type of
cancellation and, on letter definitely the rarest.






It onlylasteda good month in that manner, namely
until 26.2.1858. Most of the pen cancellations
disappeared quickly, as they were washed off to
deceive philatelists.
(ii) Pen cancellation together with postmark. It may
well be the rarest type.
(iii) Postmarks in various forms according to the data:
(a) The old markings, such as from the pre-stamp
period.
(b) The "dots" cancellations in hexagonal form.
(c) The red Polish markings.
(d) The violet Levant markings.
(e) Special shapes, such as the "FRANCO' marks.
(f) (Circular) date stamps.
The "dots" cancellations comprise six different forms. The
colour is black, except for Poland and the Levant.
(1) Round: for the capitals of the provinces. Numbered
from 1 to 60.
(2) Hexagonal with sharp dots above and below: for railway
stations and mail train coaches. From 1 to 11 (**)
(3) Oval: for border points. From 1 to 9.
(4) Rectangular: for district towns. From 1 to 612.
(5) Squat Hexagonal: sharp points at left and right.
From 1 to 103.
(6) Triangular with clipped corners (hexagonal): For
postal stations and services in the Levant.
The numbers 777 to 787, 812 and 823 to 827
were assigned to the Levant; they are mostly
struck in violet.

Looking at the postal historical side, I will now have a
word to say about the so-called stamp No. 1 of the Levant,
which appeared in 1863.

The contract concluded between the Imperial Postal Administration
and the ROPIT (Russian Company for Navication and Trade)
referred in paragraph 4 to the transmission of printed matter
from the Russian ports on the Black Sea to the ports of the
Middle East. The rate for transmission by sea was fixed at
6 Kopeks for 1 lot (1/2 oz.) and it was specified that the
sending of printed matter from towns in the interior (of
Russia) would require an extra 4 Kopeks, for despatch by
land up to the (Russian) ports. So the total rate was 6+4=10 Kopeks,
which at that particular period was made up with the stamps
available at the time. The contract also declared that the
6-Konek stamps in question would only be sold at the ports
on the Black Sea, such as Odessa, Berdyansk, Kerch' etc.
These stamps must therefore be regarded as Russian stamps
and not as stamps for the Levant. The Russian postmarks
found on them are therefore quite normal, while the postmarks
of the Levant should rather be considered as Levant markings
on a Russian stamp (***). The inscription on the stamp
reads: "Despatch of Printed Matter to the East". In the
first printing we have vertical strips of four stamps on
thin paper. They are light blue in colour. In the second
printing we have blocks of four on paper of medium thickness
and the colour is dark blue.
















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Incidentally, we should mention in passing,the stamps of the
St. Petersburg City Post and the telegraph stamp of 1866,
which was later surcharged.

Great changes took place in Russia in 1855, after the Crimean
War. Alexander II said firmly that new forms of government
must be introduced. The so-called "Zemstvos" or organizations
appeared in 1864, chosen by the local nobility and large
landowners. These organizations had to take care of their
own province or administrative area. The maintenance of the
roads, schools, hospitals and (local) postal services also
laid within their jurisdiction. That was naturally a great
help to the Imperial Posts, so that these latter could serve
barely accessible places in a proper manner. These gemstvos
set up an auxiliary service linked with the Imperial Posts.

The first Bemstvo stamp appeared in 1865 at SchlUsselburg (****).
By 1870, there were already 20 places that had followed this
example. We find a great deal of documentation about this
field in the specialised literature. Let us just mention
here that the gemstvo stamp could not show any similarity
with the stamp of the Imperial Posts and that the postmen
could not wear the insignia of the Imperial Posts, but only
the coat of arms of the district they served. Of the 371
gemstvo districts, 345 of them set up their own postal
services and 162 of them issued their own stamps during the
period from 1865 to 1917 with a total of around 3,000 straight
varieties.

With the gradual extension of the Imperial Posts, the Bemstvo
activities were reduced and, by 1917, only 40 services were
left in operation.

At the end of the 19th century, envelopes of the Red Cross
Committee appeared with the consent of the Postal Administration.
These envelopes with imprinted Imperial stamps were sold in
the New Year and Easter periods for the benefit of the Danube
Army wounded, who were still to be found in the hospitals.
Odessa began with these envelopes. They bear a cachet in
on or two of the upper corners or on the flap, with the
inscription (in initials): "Administration of the Red Cross
Society in Odessa". Other cities followed that example.

How is the problem of the postal services in the USSR dealt
with today? The total length of the postal routes now amounts
to 1 1/2 million miles, of which two thirds go to the territories
which are far removed from the centre of the country, such as
the Siberian taiga, the tundras of the North, the steppes
and the deserts of Central Asia, the mountain chains of the
Caucasus and the Altai, the Kamchatka and Taimir peninsulas,
the islands of Sakhalin and Novaya Beml'ya, one and all
territories where a rough climate reigns and which are
difficult of access.

The postal service is now so organised that, in spite of the
far-flung area, practically the whole population can read a
paper on the day when it was printed. For the postal employees
the phrase "far-flung area" is a mere organisational idea which
means that the transmission of letters and packets there must
take place as quickly as possible by any manner of means
48 available for that purpose.
48












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As a rule, there is a post office in each settlement in the
USSR which has more than 44,000 inhabitants. Smaller communities,
meteorological stations, lumberjack camps, military outposts,
river stations, local airfields etc, arrange for a postal
courier, appointed by them and who ensures that people
receive their mail on time by assigned car, motorboat, bicycle,
dog or reindeer teams, horse or camel.

In the areas very difficult of access, the existing network
of post offices makes it possible for a community of 500 to
800 people that the radius of delivery be reduced to from
6 to 10 miles at the most.

Apart from the permanent post offices, there are also the
so-called seasonal post offices for mail delivery to those
who are developing the land, to woodcutters, sailors and
holiday makers in summer camps (*****)

Wherever the establishment of a (sedentary) post office
appears uneconomical, use is made of mobile post offices.
This applies mainly to oilfields and fur farms, to mountain
villages in the Caucasus and the Altai and to the reindeer
stock farms in the tundras. In these areas of development,
temporary post offices have been set up in railway cars at
the end of the railway lines.

Small settlements, sometimes with a few dozen people, receive
their mail by all sorts of seasonal routes; in the summer
by river or motorboat, in good weather by planes or helicopters
and during snowstorms by the harnessing of reindeer, dogs or
horses.

The railways now reach into the outermost areas of the USSR.
But for a quick delivery over long distances, they are not
always the best answer, taking into account that the journey
by rail from Moscow to Vladivostok still takes ten days. In
such cases, use is made of aircraft. One third of all the
mail destined for areas difficult of access is now transported
by planes and helicopters. Additional night flights are
scheduled. The air routes now have a total length of 750,000
miles.

Postal trucks now ride on 80% of the roads. In geographical
stretches such as over mountains, forests and zones which are
frozen and are places difficult to access, the mail is transported
in winter by aerosleds.

The famous troika team, traditional for old Russia, is now only
a rarity,but during long-lasting snow and sandstorms, horses
are still indispensable. It is usual that there are postal
stations in the far north with 6 to 10 horses on hand, where
they are used in combination with reindeer couples. The length of the
routes for transmission by means of horses is generally not
longer than 10 to 18 miles, while the weight of the mail there
varies from 150 to 300 kg. (337-675 lbs.) A








At the beginning of 1969 there were 80,000 post offices in
the USSR, of which 57,000 were in far-flung areas. There
are 300,000 postmen, of whom 100,000 are entitled to very
special amenities.

A postman carries on foot a maximum of 11 kg (24 3/4 lbs) in-
cluding the weight of his bag. He visits about 50 households
on his daily rounds and goes 2 to 3 miles on foot or 4 to 6
miles by bicycle.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
(a) "La Sainte Russie" by Count P. Vasili, Paris 1890.
(b) "A travers le Royaume de Tamerlan" by G. Capus, Paris 1892.
(c) "La Russie" by D. Mackenzie Wallace, Paris 1879.
(d) "La Russie" by Larousse, 1894.
(e) "Voyage en Russie" by Charles de St. Julien, Paris 1853.
(f) "The Russian Novel" by R.Hingley, 1967.
(g) Russian magazine for Philately, Popov Museum.
.h) Information Bulletin of the USSR Embassy in Holland.
(i) Magazines of the Belgo-Soviet Society in Brussels
and of the France-URSS Society in Paris



EDITORIAL COMMENT: (*) The machine was of the harrow type,
i.e. one in which the perforating head did entire sheets at
a single operation. While this simplified matters, it also
posed serious maintenance problems because of the large
number of pins involved. Also, the model made for the
Russians differed markedly from the type the Austrians them-
selves were using, as the latter were perforating sheets in
which the stamps were printed close together. The Russians,
however, printed their first and many other stamps, including
some Soviet issues, in four panes of 25 (5 x 5), leaving
a cross-like gutter between the panes.

Whatever the reason for so doing, the separation.of the harrow
perforating head into four distinct blocks of pins must have
helped considerably in maintaining the machines. Imported
and locally made models were in use at the State Printing
Works at St. Petersburg and Moscow from 1858 up to 1927 (69 years).

(**) From material that has been found, we now know that the
series went up to No. 16 at least. Those above No. 11 are
in general extremely rare.

(***) Mr. Huysmans makes an important point here, since,
in effect, Levant markings on this issue turn it into a "USED
ABROAD". As most copies were used to frank newspapers etc.,
they were often destroyed when the wrappers were torn open.
Their utilisation on this type of mail also explains why the
surviving copies often have a "rubbed" appearance. Any used
copy, regardless of condition, is a rare item. They should
all be recorded and photographed. Not a Herculean task, as
there are probably less than 75 in existence. Readers are








kindly requested to write and give us details of the used
copies in their collections. Reprints and forgeries exist.

(****) The first Semstvo Postal Service appears to have been
set up in Vetluga province of Kostroma (it originally had
no stamps). A Soviet source which delved into local Semsvo
records now claims that Khvalynsk, in the province of Saratov,
was the first to issue stamps. As for SchlUsselburg, it
issued one stamp in 1865 and then expired, probably because
the Imperial Posts had expanded into the district. The
issue seems to have been remaindered, as it is not rare
mint and we have yet to see a used copy, let alone a cover
which must be a rarity.

(*****) Seasonal post offices in the Imperial period have bden
written up in the literature. Many of the early markings
of Soviet Season post offices are just as rare. We are
illustrating here part of the back of a registered cover
with the postmark on the pair of Bamenhof stamps reading
"OZERO TAGARSKOE P.T. AG* 8.8.29*Minusinsk OKR) (Tagarskoe
Lake Postal and Telegraphic Agency, Minusinsk Region). It
has a hand written registration notation on the front and
was received in Berlin on 24.8.29. Incidentally, this
resort post office in Siberia is still in operation under
the name of TAGARSKOE-KURORT, province of Krasnoyarsk.






rr-. <. *^r'C







XL -- --.






















A) RUSSIA 1872-1972
GENUINE USED COVERS

1872: 3 fine 10K from GEODOSIA TO FRANCE.
P.D. with 2 postmarks ODESSA, Wien, etc. $65.00
1873: 10K P.M., AUSG. 14/3. ST. PETERSBURG TO
GERMANY ..................................... 20.00
1874: 10K from WARSAW, Poland to
JOSEFSTADT. Austria ...................... 30.00
1895.1905: 5 diff. Covers CARSKOE SELO 19.00
1898-1902 5 diff. Covers .............. 19.00
1901-1910: 5 diff. Covers ..'............... 19.00
1913-1916: 4 diff. Romanoff postage stomps +
...... .. ....................................... 19.00
1922-1961: 16 diff. small postcards ..... 19.00
1922-1961: same but 50 diff. ............ 55.00
1955-1961: 20 diff. large postage stamps 22.00
1955-1961: some but 100 all different 100.00
1969-1972: 16 diff. small postage + postcards
........... ...................................... 15.00

1962-1972: 20 diff. large postage ....... 21.00
1962-1972: some but 50 oil different ... 50.00



B) MINT SHEETS OF 100
or 50 (RUBLES) 1908/17


1908: #74. 740, 74x, 3 diff. sheets, watermark,
color, plate, etc. variety. .................... 19.00
1908: #76 & 76a: 2 diff. sheets of 100.12.00
1908: #77 &770: 2 diff. sheets of 100, cat. $105.00
very rare ....................................... 24.00

1908: #82 & 820: 2 diff. sheets of 100, cat. $130.
very rare .................................... 32.00
1908: #83 & 83o: 2 diff. sheets of 100, diff. plate
numbers ........................................ 15.00
1908: #84 & 84x, 2 diff. sheets of 100. color.
plate Nr. etc. varieties ..................... 18.00
1908: #85. 85o. 85x, 3 diff, sheets of 100, all
diff. plate Nr. etc. cat. $50 .............. 18.00
1908: #86 & 860: 2 diff. sheets of 100, color var-
iethes ........................................... 14.00
1917: #131: 6 panes of 50, all by color, plate
Nr. WM etc. varieties ..................... 22.00
1917: #138b: 4 diff. sheets of 50, all diff. plate,
color. WM etc. variety. ...................... 18.00
1917: #125: 4 diff. sheets of 100. diff. plate Nr.,
color, etc. varieties ........................ 20.00
1908/17: 20 diff. sheets of 100 or 50(1850 stomps)
..................................................... 55.00
1908/17: 40 diff. sheets of 100 or 50 (Rubles)
.................................. 235.00
1908/17: #87gh, 6 diff. blocksof 6, oal with great
and very rare varieties Horizontal lozenges,
IMPERF. cot. $360. plus. Must be seen. 120.00


U U I


C) RUSSIAN STATES

AZERBEIDJAN 1919/21: Specialized collection of
20!8 stamps in singles & multiples include. also
60 used good values Nr. 34 & 39 .... 180.00
FAR EASTERN REP. 1919: Scott #46: specialized
collection of varieties in multiples. cot. over $200.
.55.00
...........; ............ .. ....................... 55.00
GEORGIA 1918/19 specialized collection of 935,
including a full sheet of over 200 Nr. 15, very
interesting ..................................... 105.00
GEORGIA 1919: Nr. 82 (perf. sheet of 208), ##
BI, 2, 3 imperf.. cot. 120. .............. 45.00
TRANSCAUCASIA #2. 2 diff. sheets of 100, cat.
$150.00 ....................................... 19.00.
TRANSCAUCASIA Some but 10 sheets oil diff.
..................................................... 95.00
TRANSCAUCASIA #17 IMPERF. block of 24,
Michel cat. DM. 168 ...................... 19.00
TRANSCAUCASIA #17 IMPERF. same but pane
of 100. cat. DM. 700.00 .......... ....... 75.00
SIBERIA #43/4, 48/9, 4 d.ff. sheets of 100 cat.
$240. *v.f. .............................. .... 29.00
SIBERIA 1919: 14 diff. sheets, very many varieties
cat. $1440.00 ............................... 175.00
UKRAINE Tridents 1919: ODESSA III, 20k. sheet
of 100 w. varieties ........................ 18.00

UKRAINE Tridents same 5 diff. blocks of 25 29.00
UKRAINE Tridents mixed; Ask for approval books

UKRAINE 1918 #62-66, 8 sheets of 100. iompl.
& 3 var. incl. #640 cat. 170 ..k.'.:l 55.00
UKRAINE 1918 #62-66, 15 sheets of 100. ompl.
& 10 var. incl. #64a ................... 105.00
UKRAINE 1923: Nr. SP2, 2 sheets of 50 with "N"
missing in 46th stamp ...................... 26.00
UKRAINE 1920: Michel cat. #I-XIV, Scott
described after #74, 14 diff. sheets of 100 "Too-
Late-Issue" ..................................... 55.00
UKRAINE 1920 same but in half sheets of 50
..................................................... 29.00
WESTERN UKRAINE 1919 Vienna issue 5 vol.
comply. unissuedd) 10 sets .................. 24.00
WESTERN UKRAINE same with 3 more varieties.
10 sets of 8 ................................... 32.00


D) CARPATHO UKRAINE


(Michel cot. #81-88, Zumstein #80-87)
#81/86, (Zumstein #80/85), 6 vol. complete, in
blocks of 4, *v.f. ......................... $25.00
#81/86, some but 6 blocks of 12 ....... 75.00
#82: 20f., 3 blocks of 4, all in diff. colors 18.00
#831 40f.. 3 blocks of 4, all in diff. colors 21.00


#84: 60f. 3 blocks of 4, all in diff. colors 15.00
#82: 20f., fine .block of 8 & #84 block of 40,
(2 strips of 20 with 2 gutter pairs) (R) 45.00
#82, block of 8, & #84 block of 40 w/gutterpoirs
(48) ............................................. 45.00
#83: 40f; 3 blocks of 4 in diff. colors 21.0C
#84: 60f; 3 blocks of 4 in diff. colors 15.OC
#85: 100f; block of 8, with imp*rfs. between plus
double perforation on top ............... 40.00
#85: block of 12, 2 pairs imperf. between & double
perf. ............................................ 48.CO
#85: block of 16: 2 pairs imperf. between and
all stamps show clear offsets of the figure on back.
Very interest. .................................. 70.00
#86: 200f., 2 blocks of 4, 1 has greatly shifted
figures, I has it disappeared ............ 26.00
#86: 200f.. block ot 8, place of figure is blank
..................................................... 35.00
#86: 200f. block of 12, 2 pairs imperf. between,
but all figures over 125% shifted ....... 55.00
#86: 200f.. figures somewhere else. 2 pairs are
imperf. between. 2 gutterpairs, blocks of 12 70.00
#82/86. cpl. in IMPERF. PAIRS, 5 vol. 28.00
#82/86 some with 3 more rare color varieties,
all IMPERF. and in blocks of 4 (32) ... 155.00
#87/88. with inscription "1945", 2 fine blocks of
4 complete ..................................... 25.00
Some in blocks of 8 ...................... ,0.00
#81, 10f yellow, pone of 100, plate 1.A.
Engraver LITO-LAM 1945. partially shift-d pcerfora-
tion, o.g. ...................................... 195.00
82, 20f lightblue, pone of 100, perforation partially
broken or shifted, o.g. .................... 150.00
82, same pane of 100. but on the bottom double
perf. ............................................ 160.00
82, 20h lightblue sheet of 200 (2 po-es of 100)
with gutterrow through middle (1"), perf. partially
interrupted, very rare in sheets of 200, o.g. 475.00
.#82: 20h sheet of 200, same good condition, plus
stomps of 10th vertical row have no perf. on the
right, but hove double perform. on the left. Whole
sheet has double perf on the bottom. UNIQUE
ITEM ............................................ 625.00
83: 40f: 2 diff. sheets of 100, with plate numbers
1 and IA respectively, the laoer with engraver's
name LITO-LAM 1945, both ones marked on the
back with BULAT ............................ 425.00
84, one sheet of 200, but 10th vertical row is
attached to the gunerrow without perf. Very well
centered an entire sheet with double perf. on right
margin. ........................................ 295.00
84. 60f. sheet of 200 (2 pones of 100) with plate
numbers I and IA respectively, well centered,
large margins, o.g. ........................ 250.00
#85: 100f. darkblue & red: sheet of 200 and a
pane of 100, both w/plotenumbers I & IA.Respec-
tively and engraver's name LITO "LAM" 1945, in
right bottom corner, one underneath of lost bottom
perforotion, other above such perforation under-
neath the 2 corner stamps, thus forming two ex-
tremely rare varieties. In the middle of the gutter.
row a vertical blue double line is posted
....................................... ... sk price


ADOLPH ERNST
Telephone: Post Office Box 1118
(213) 378-5692 Palos Verdes Estates, Calif. 90274






POSTAGE STAMPS ISSUED BY THE ZEMSTVOS


by Alex Artuchov



If there is a grey area within the breadth of Russian philately,
no given sector should better represent this distinction than
Zemstvo. Zemstvo is a philatelic world unto itself, with a
seeming galaxy of independent riddles and complications.

Traditionally, Zemstvo has not ranked as one of the most popular
areas within the sphere of Russian philately. This is quite under-
standable. District names such as Zmeinogorsk, Dukhovschina,
Griazovets or Zolotonosha might alone be held responsible for
frightening off prospective enthusiasts. But, the main
sources of the problem must surely be twofold. Firstly, Zemstvo
is a complex subject matter representing a lifetime of study
with a host of unknowns that would take an article of major
proportions to simply list. Secondly, while there are numerous
catalogues dealing with the topic, none of them answer all the
questions or are as readily available as your standard Stanley
Gibbons, Scott, Yvert and Tellier, etc. Some of the earlier
catalogues such as Herrick, Moens or the joint work of Schmidt
and Faberg6 are incomplete by virtue of their publication date.
Of the later catalogues, the 1925 Chuchin publication is also
not without its shortcomings. It has a number of well known
errors and omissions, appears in an English version that is
very poorly translated besides being extremely rare. The
Schmidt catalogues oblige a collector to know the German
language and are real prizes in an original edition. In fact,
the monumental two-volume Schmidt was published in a quantity
of but fifty copies.

Russian philately has a well established tradition of research
and corresponding literature, leading to extensive coverage
and advancement of almost countless areas within our sphere of
collecting. Somehow this tradition has lead to very little
publication of new and original work on Zemstvo since the disap-
pearance of such champions of the cause as K.K.Schmidt. The
post-Schmidt work on Zemstvo has in so many cases had a tendency
to gravitate towards a reiteration of the history of the Zemstvo
post.

The underlying purpose of this article is to abate this trend
and to turn the attention of Zemstvo collectors towards other
horizons. The history of the Zemstvo post is, however, vital
knowledge for every enthusiast. For this purpose we would like
to bring readers' attention to some references. The piece
universally accepted as the best work ever done onthe history of
the Zemstvo post is K.K.Schmidt's Introduction and Forward to
"Die Postwertzeichen der Russischen Landschaftsaemter" translated
in Rossica Nos. 70-72. Another very worthy reference dealing
with the same topic is "The Zemstvo Post of Imperial Russia",
by C.C. Handford, appearing in Nos. 24 and 25 of the BJRP.








One of the basic fundamentals of Zemstvo, that has yet to be
dealt with and consequently fully appreciated by all collectors,
is the process by which these stamps were printed. For this
S reason we feel obliged to describe the basics of the printing
processes by which Zemstvo stamps were made.

Lithography- Lithography refers to the process of printing from
the flat surface of smoothly polished limestone. The basic
principles of lithography are as follows: 1) lines made with
a greasy ink adhere so strongly to the stone that mechanical
force is necessary to remove them, 2) water will be retained
and absorbed by only those parts of the surface which are free
from the greasy ink, 3) water and grease do not mix. Water on
the surface of the stone will be repelled by portions receiving
greasy ink. This will in turn repel greasy ink from reaching
the portions of the surface previously occupied by water.

In this manner,when a design is transferred on to a dry stone
in greasy ink,no water will be on the lines of the stamp
design. When the entire surface of the stone is rolled over
with greasy ink, only the design on the stone will be covered
with ink. The stone will not be marked where there is no
design since the water will prevent it from doing so.

A key concept to understand is the multiplication of transfers.
The principle is simple but, is of the greatest importance in
lithography. In building up a sheet, or initially, a printing
stone, as little as one actual rendering may be used to
produce a sheet of say 100. In this manner, a rendering would
S hypothetically be transferred 10 times on either paper or
stone. Each of these 10 individual transfers would be prone
to individual characteristics resulting in 10 specific types.
The reasons may be an inconsistency by the artist or the porous
nature of limestone which is almost impossible to smoothen
perfectly by virtue of its porous nature. A portion of the
stone being slightly lower or higher than the area immediately
surrounding it, however small, would easily be prone to producing
a slightly varying impression upon transfer. Being built up
in units of 10, our hypothetical sheet of 100 would feature 10
types, each with its unique characteristics or even flaws.
The types would appear in sequence in which they appeared on
the original transfer and in the case of our hypothetical sheet,
each of the 10 types would be repeated consistently 10 times.
The principle is illustrated below as Fig.l.

To further describe this principle, the six transfer types of
Tiraspol #2 are illustrated below as Fig. 2. The stamps and
hand drawn details were formerly part of the marvellous Zemstvo
collection of the late C.C. Handford. It should further be
mentioned that the distinctions shown do not necessarily
represent all of the characteristics of each of the given types
and that further study of any of the types may well reveal yet
other individual characteristics.







55






0








A sheet of Tiraspol #2 is composed of 48 stamps or a multiple
of 6 x 8. The horizontal and vertical pairs (Figs 3 and 4)
composed of the types shown, would indicate that the distinct
types form progressive horizontal rows across the sheet.
Accordingly, each one of the 6 types appears 8 times in a
vertical column producing the following arrangement on a
sheet (Fig.5).

Collectors having Zemstvo stamps printed by the lithographic
process in multiples are encouraged to examine their holdings
and to share their findings. Much valuable research is contained
in our collections and no greater service could be made than
to share information and to contribute to knowledge.

Other processes used to print Zemstvo stamps will be discussed
in following issues as the continuation of this article.



Fig 4 Fig 5 ,


:I 111 1111 111 1 1111
.o. 1 2 3 4 5 6
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/\n co tw'ln
/@ '(l .'. i i'1 ', 2 3 4 5 6
po=ll i lls Noviils Illsll-g
nAKET05 1b nAKCT'b A 1 2 3 4 5 /
^ ^I.%I"^^ ^^ W ..n ',' l U 111 u1111 nnniu 1111m111-min

.,:1 2 3 4 5 6

2 W1 II 4IIII"1 511" 6ii


One project that has received lengthy discussion but never
achieved reality is a new Zemstvo catalogue. We do not propose
to take a task of this proportion on our shoulders. The mere
thought of reconciling some of the discrepancies between the
Schmidt and Chuchin catalogues is enough to discourage the
effort. Furthermore, there are already two distinct numbered
references for individual stamps from Schmidt and Chuchin.
Yet another set of numbers would not only be confusing but
might also be superfluous.

Rather than suffering through the trials and tribulations of
producing a new Zemstvo catalogue, we would like to present a
finished product that we do not feel we could improve upon.
This is the aforementioned "Die Postwertzeichen der Russischen
Landschaftsaemter" by K.K. Schmidt. Commencing with this
issue an English translation of this catalogue will be featured.
Collectors able to supplement or correct any of our listings
are emphatically encouraged to come forth. The prices listed
are in U.S. dollars and are converted on the basis of 1RMilU.S.
dollar.






AKHTYRKA (PROVINCE OF KHARKOV)


1872-83: Upright rectangle; circles in the corners with the
figures of value and an oval in the centre with the inscription:
AKHTYRSK.UEZDNOI ZEMSKOI POCHTY (Stamp) of the Akhtyrka
Zemstvo Post, together with the arms of the district, with W
PYAT'KOP. 5 Kopeks. Size: 17x 22k mm. Illustration
Moens 4193: Herrick S5; Gibbons Tl; Chuchin III, la;
Senf Vol. 1, Table II. Finely lithographed on white paper,
white gum, imperforate. Two printings.









1872: First Printing on white paper 0.06 mm thick in sheets
of 8x 5
1. 5 Kop light and dark green (Chuchin 21, 23 or Gib. T32, 8-9) 1.50
2. 5 Kop blue and dark blue (Chuchin 44 or Gib. T32, 18) 1.50

1883: Second Printing on white paper 0.08 mm thick in
sheets of 7 x9.
3 5 Kop. dull green (Gibb T7, 14-15 but darker) 5.00
Cancellations: with pen and ink.
Literature: The Philatelist No. 139 for July 1874 & No. 140
for Aug. 1874 (first reference).


ALATYR (Province of Simbirsk)

1867: Horizontal rectangle made up of double circles with
small stars inside, with an inscription at top and sides
reading ALATYRSKAYA ZEMSKAYA POCHTA Alatyr Zemstvo Post
and with the value given as 1 or 2 Kop. in the centre.
Size: 29 30x 23 3/4 24 mm. Illustration Moens 4194;
Herrick S6; Gibbons Tl; Chuchin I, la: Seaf Vol. 1, Table I. 1
(all the known types). Typographed in pale ink on rough
yellowish paper (0.11 to 0.15 mm. thick), white gum, imperforate,
sheets of apparently 4 rows of 5, with 20 different types (*).
Three types are known of No.1 and 15 tynes of No.2 (**). By
means of blocks and corner pieces, the positions of types
1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17 & 18 have been determined
on the sheet. Type 3 with sheet margin at top can also be
type 4, while the positions of the other 3 types is completely
indeterminate. The types can be easily distinguished by
the position of the small stars in the circles (with 1
point at top 1; with 2 points at top 2). (Fig.A)
The three types so far found on the 1 Kop. stamps are 3 (or 4),
12 and 17.(***)














1. 1 Kop. black. RRR (3 known)
2. 2 Kop. black or gray-black R (25 known)
Cancellations: the stamps used were not cancelled.
Literature: Stamp Collecting Magazine Vol. XII, 1874 (first
reference); The Philatelist No. 149, May 1875 (stamps taken
out of circulation at the end of 1872 or the beginning of 1873).
See the ayout of the types herewith.


EDITORIAL COMMENT:
* i.e. because they were type-set by hand.
** Not all 20 types have been found. A reconstruction of a sheet
by Kaestlin, Lavrov, etc. (Table II) indicates a sheet of 15 (3 x 5)
*** The rare 1 Kop. value may have been created by altering the corner
stamps on a sheet of the 2 Kop stamp and may have never
existed in a sheet of its own.

--TO pTr m(NTINTED--






AUCTION DOINGS




The most interesting auction recently was No. 13, held by
Stanley Gibbons Merkur Ltd., of Frankfurt-on-Main, West
Germany on 20,21 June 1978. It contained a glorious array
of material in our spheres of collecting, from pre-stamp
letters onwards. Prices realized were high, despite the
additional 15% tax plus a letting fee of DM2-. Some items,
however, were not sold, apparently due to the reserves placed
thereon. The sales figures for some lots, including surtax
and letting fee and converted into U.S. dollars, are as
follows:

Lot 106: No.l with beautiful KOVNO (Kaunas) cancel $ 565
112: Pair No.l with "70" ring cancel of Sokolow 1,440
125: No.l on letter from Mariupol 1,324
128: No.l on letter from Libava (Liepaja) 1,936
146: 20K first issue on letter from SPB 3,106
147: 20K first issue on letter from Tauroggen 2,991
172: Corner block of 4 St. Petersburg local
with undescribed retouch (See Fig.l and
"The Post-Rider No.2", p.19; the bidders
obviously recognized the variety). 220
288: Mint corner blocks of 4 of 3R & 7R
"No thunderbolts" 4,371
289: Complete mint sheets of 25 of the same 23,000
295-305: 14 Imperial essays 4,946
316: 14 Kop 1889 issue used with inverted
centre 2,761
329: 15 Kop inverted centre used at Kolomna 1907 1,956
355,356: 2 &3R Romanov imperf. blocks of 4 ea. 720
614: 20K/50K Vladivostok 1923 airmail on
cover Est. $4,314:UNSOLD
629: Blockof 12 x Id. red with Crimean "0*0"
cancel of British Army. Est. $720 :UNSOLD
687: An unusual reg. cover from Shanghai 1903
via Port Arthur, TPOs 262 & 265 and Bukhara
to New Bukhara 1,813
722: 7 Kop. on piece with rare Kalgan oval cancel 576
723: Rare reg cover from Kalgan 1916 with
semi-postals 1,289
728: Strip of 2 copies 7 Kop.with large "PEKIN"
marking 921
729: Fine 20 Koo. pair on piece with boxed "PK"
mark of Peking 490
730: 20K & 30K on piece with early framed
"Pekin" marking 964
752: 1897 Tientsin cover to Hamburg with Russian
"DISINFECTED" unframed cachet 502
904: Imperf Zeppelins of 1930 used 6 years later
on Reg. cover Est. $17,250:UNSOLD
969: 1935 San Francisco flight with inverted
ovpt. (See Note No.l below) 2,934
1147: Comprehensive postal history collection of
Carpatho-Ukraine Est. $14,376:UNSOLD







RUSSIA-POLAND

New issues of Russia and Poland supplied at
reasonably spaced intervals at a 20% discount
from low level retail prices.

An up to date price list is available on request.
We handle specialized approvals of early Soviet
and Tsarist Russia including: various town
cancellations, errors, varieties, Zemstvos and
Offices. Please inquire.

L F STAMP SERVICE

393 STERLING DRIVE

DIMONDALE, MICHIGAN, 48821
* S








DEALERS.... o4 .
Y YOUS0 U ea fit 0" 1ur itc


LL Pg $35.00


HAF Pg $20.00






61
61








NOTE 1: We are often asked about the varieties of the 1935
San Francisco overprint. Please see Fig. 2 in which we
feature the normal overprint, then the small "f" variety
and finally the overprint inverted. In all cases seen so
far, the overprint always occurs in the bottom half of the
stamp, so as not to obscure Comrade Levanevskii's portrait.
That also applies to the inverted variety. A little thought
will show that, if that were a genuine printing mistake,
the overprint would have appeared inverted in the upper
half of the stamp. In other words, it seems certain that
the printing plate was deliberately adjusted to produce this
"error". As we have said elsewhere, villainy in Philately
is world-wide.

It was certainly "used" as it is known on a first-day postcard
and it always brings an even higher price with the small
"f" variety.

NOTE 2: Lots 1046 to 1050 featured the surcharges, included
inverted and double (see Fig.3) of the Roumanian occupation
of Odessa. We know who produced this "issue" and, when he
leaves the scene, we will be able to give details of this
and others of his concoctions.






.. I




Fig 3


Fig I















Fig 2











PHILATELIC SHORTS A ,1

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point that you'd like to
put across to the readership..... is there an
interesting stamp, cancellation or cover that 0
you'd like to describe....is there an item in o oo6
your collection that could use some clarifying o o0
information or might there be some gems of 0 o
wisdom that you could impart on some newly
acquired item???
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom,
in the confines of a couple paragraphs, with
the rest of our readers!!

George Werbizky, Vestal, New York

Far East Stampless Mail --- Illustrated is a stampless
envelope from Vladivostock dated 1.2.21, to Detroit,
Michigan, U.S.A. (almost Canada!). In contrast to the 3
envelopes, described in the No.54 issue of BSRP
this envelope doesn't carry a Doplatit 1250 Rub. (example 1)
and SBOR 1250 Rub, (example 2), or "1300" which can be
construed to be amount of postage collected (example 3). There
are no receiving postmarks, but the sender appears to be a
collector, based on the label on the reverse side. Question: Was the
Post Office out of stamps, so that stampless mail was created?
In theory, stamps should have been available. Readers' comments
are welcome.





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John Lloyd, Colchester, England


Please see the illustration herewith of the back and front
of an unusual postcard from ROSTOV-ON-DON. Manufactured in
colour by a Swedish firm in Stockholm, the greeting on the
back reads "A GREETING FROM ROSTOV-ON-DON". The town's
name is stamped in silver on the postman's bag, which is
made of real black leather and opens out to show ten miniature
but clear views of the city, printed by the collotype process
in black.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Because of the unusual composition of the
card, it was treated as a letter, so far as the ROSTOV-ON-DON
post office was concerned. The internal rate should have been
7 kop. rather than 3 kop. and so the card was taxed by Rostov
at double the deficiency (see the oval marking with "8k" inserted)
before being forwarded to Syzran! Other countries have also
followed such procedures with fancy postcards from time to time and
it would be interesting find out whether the Russian Imperial
Postal Service ever published any rules or regulations on the
subject.















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Moshe Shmuely, Tel-Aviv, Israel


In your fine Journal, you write about Tuva and especially
about its postmarks. In my collection I have 2 covers which
I received from my late and dear friend Ephraim Issaharoff.
He was the representative of the Soviet Philatelic Association
in Israel (and before that in Palestine) for many years,
even before 1930. The first one has the KbZbl "B" cancel
and bears the date of 28.9.38; the cancellation is in black.
The second cover has a cancellation that is not shown in your
article and is dated 15.1.40. There is a marking of the
British Censorship and an interesting thing here --- the
stamps had been lifted off the cover. The letter is from
the period of the understanding between the Soviet Union
and Germany, while Great Britain was at war with Germany.
Please note that I put the stamps back in their places for
the illustration of this second cover. Both letters are
registered, the R- marking on the second cover not being
recorded in your article and there are arrival strikes of
Tel-Aviv on the backs.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: Mr. Shmuely has two rare and amazing
letters here. His first example is now only the third known
cover with the very rare Kbzbl "B" postmark, which was
completely missing in the Blekhman Handbook and apparently
unknown to him and other Soviet collectors. His second
item is unique as it is the only known cover with the Kbzbl
TbBa postmark with filled-in bar below. A cut of this marking
taken from loose stamps was shown in the Blekhman Handbook
and also recorded in the article published in "The Post-Rider
No.1". Mr. Shmuely is to be congratulated on his two
magnificent finds.


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Anatolii Kaushanskii, Willowdale, Ontario


On a recent visit to New York, I found a misleading mint
forgery of the rare Soviet definitive Scott #287, made by
taking a copy of the common #287a perf. 12 and reperforating
it 14 x 14. It can be recognized by comparison with normal
stamps of #287a and 287 as all these were harrow-perforated
and thus cannot vary in size. The forged perforation makes
the stamp smaller, as can be seen from the illustration. Also
it was obviously done with single-line perforators, giving
irregular corners to the stamp. That can never happen with
a harrow perforating machine


287a 287 287
used


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George V. Shalimoff, San Francisco, California


E. Marcovich in Rossica #58 described a Siberian fantasy issue
consisting of a Russian and Soviet stamp overprinted with a
shield with a boxed scene of a sunrise, plow and field with
the words Vremennaya Zemskaya Vlast Pribaikaliya, or Temporary
Rural Authority of PriBaikal. The Russian special catalogue of
Baron von Scharfenburg, 1925, lists these as ficti ious issues
also found with ficti ious cancellations.

I have seen an accumulation of several hundred, many cancelled on
piece including several covers, some backstamped. All were
cancelled in November 1921 in Verholensk, some backstamped Chita.
Does anyone know anything about this Temporary Rural Authority
of Pribaikal, the circumstances of the overprinting or
cancellations?
















Ed. Kuehn, Columbus, Ohio

Re the Tuvan "REGISTERED" set of pictorials in diamond-shaped
form, the earliest usage for which is known on unregistered
covers with the full set postmarked at Turan on 2nd, April 1934
and addressed to various dealers with a Moscow transit marking
of 20th, April (see p.18 of "The Post-Rider", No.l), readers
may not know that the original designs were in rectangular
format and with the more sensible English inscription of
"POSTAGE" placed at top. These original designs were also
illustrated and described in Blekhman's recent handbook.
The values and pictures match those of the issued stamps,
but they were prepared much earlier. Photographs of these
original designs were apparently distributed by the Soviet
Philatelic Association during the summer of 1932 and notices
began appearing in the philatelic press at the beginning
of autumn. Please see the illustration herewith for the
15 kop. and 20 kop. values of these first attempts.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: It may well have been that the notorious
Bela Sekula, who was the main wholesaler of the Tuvan
Pictorials, suggested the change to the diamond-shaped
format so as to make them more readily saleable, particularly
to the juvenile trade.








Dr. A. H. Wortman, Enfield, England


See the illustration herewith of a letter I have with an early
Nikolai Railway Stn. postmark from St. Petersburg. You will
see it is 14 Sept. 1855. Curiously, HEINRICH IMHOF shows
this same mark with 15 Sept. 1855 date. Dr. N. LUCHNIK
illustrates a St. Petersburg 21 Nov. 1856 and a Moscow 26 May 1855.
I know from previous correspondence with him that this is
the earliest known date (see "Soviet Collector No. 11")





















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Thomas Farion, Transcona, Manitoba

I have an 1866 3 Kop error with 5 Kop background v's on
cover dated March 20, 1870. In an article by Gordon Torrey
Rossica No. 86/87, page 43, Mr. Torrey states that the
earliest usage known to him is March 27, 1870 from St. Petersburg.
This cover would precede the then known earliest usage.













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George V. Shalimoff, San Francisco, California


For about the last ten years the Scott catalogue has listed
a 200-ruble RSFSR stamp with olive-brown color, No. 182a.
The Cercle France-USSR catalogue 1917-1941 published in 1969
also lists a 200-ruble brown-olive variety. Both catalogues
price this colour variety at several dollars compared to a
few cents for the normal brown coloured copies.

However, when one looks at the 1924, 1928 or 1958 Soviet
catalogues, no such olive-brown colour is listed. There is
a notation in the 1928 catalogue that the 200-ruble value
in rose, violet or green are chemical changelings. The
question one asks, therefore, what is the basis for the
olive-brown listed variety in the Scott and Cercle catalogues?

I have seen a definite olive shade 200-ruble stamps, unused
without gum and an unused 200-ruble with overprint. Both
copies were signed by an accepted expert. But what is the
significance of the expertization when such a colour variety
is nowhere acknowledged as ever being issued?

There are many shades of this value, from gray, gray-brown,
red-brown, brown to dark brown listed in the Soviet and
French catalogues. But since the listing of the olive-brown
colour in Scott and Cercle, one is frequently offered all
manners of odd shades purported to be the listed high-valued
olive-brown. Yet there seems to be no evidence of their
issuance. Does anyone have any other information?


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Luciano Buzzetti, Saronno (Varese), Italy


Please see herewith the photograph of the front side of a
cover in my collection with the total postage on this large
fragment of 302 roubles 98 kopeks, namely on 13 February 1908.
This is the highest franking that I know of. Any comments
would be appreciated.
EDITORIAL COMMENT: The item appears to be an
insured letter with declared value, sent from the 16th City
Post Office in Moscow. We still have not come across any
official data on the rates applicable to insured mail but
from items so far seen, the charge for the transmission of
large amounts appears to have been 1% of the total sum. In
this case, it appears that the amount sent was in the neighbourhood
of 30,000 roubles (roughly $15,000 then) which was a huge
sum in those days.


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MSgt Stephen F. Strother, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

Congratulations on the first issue of the Post-Rider; I
found it very interesting.

The following are a few of the Moscow mailings of Turan that
I have to help fill some of the gaps in your listing:


Dispatch
Date


Registration
No.


Address


Arrival Date


Landscape Series


25.111.35



25.111.35


664



910


Zoological Set
Moscow mailing complete sets


26.111.35


883a


Turan Postmark

Mr. Charles Sekula
Lucerne
Switzerland

Address cut out but
backstamped
Budapest



Turan postmark

Mr. Charles Sekula
Lucerne
Switzerland


but you list Camillo Spingardi, Genova, 46 via Assarotti,
Italy for this registration number.


1936 Jubilees


KbzbL "C" postmark


16.3.37 1722 Herrn Paul Vogelsanger 6.4.37
gray-black Fluhmatt Strasse Nr.44
Luzern, Switzerland
Two other covers that I only have illustrations of are:

Zoological Set


Moscow mailing complete sets


26.111.35


111


Turan postmark

Monsieur L. Hermouet
47, rue d'Orsel
Paris France


Illustrated in an old advertisement from Tatham Stamp and
Coin Co., Springfield, Massachusetts:


1936 Jubilees


9.237
grey-black


141


KbzbL "C" postmark

Stamp Import &
Export Corporation
Hotel White
Lexington Ave. at 37th St.
New York City
USA


Illustrated in George Alevizos 27 October 1977 auction.


12.4.35



?.4/35


12.4.35







Hilary Norwood, Kent England


I don't think that I ever replied to your query about the
"RTD" labels; in fact they had quite gone out of my mind
until I saw your article about them in Post-Rider #1 when
there immediately came an illustrated journal of that name
published by the Russia Today Society, in England, (previously
called Friends of the Soviet Union or FSU for short,--the
Society, not the Journal). This change of name took place
in the late 1930's and the name was again changed in 1946
to British-Soviet Friendship Society,who publish "British-
Soviet Friendship". The editor of "Russia Today" in the 1930's
was a Mr. Pat Sloan, a journalist who had spent some years
in the USSR and whom I had first met about 1933-4 when he
was back in England for a while and whom I have chanced
to meet on several occasions since. I did not have his
address but I found it out (and that he lives only a few
miles from me) and I telephoned him and then wrote to him.
Unfortunately, Pat Sloan had suffered a stroke a month earlier
and cannot use his right arm so that all communication has
to be through his wife. However, he confirms that the labels
were published by "Russia Today", the journal and the society
perhaps jointly or there was no precise distinction. I have
been unable, as yet, to trace any other copies of these labels
or to find if any were ever used on covers for propaganda
purposes, but I have been referred to the Marx Memorial
Library who have custodycf these early records of the societies
mentioned above and I shall go there sometime and will let
you know if I find anything more about the labels.









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REVIEW OF '




LITERATURE












The Journal of the British Society of Russian Philately No. 54 (Dec./77)
Published by the British Society of Russian Philately, London, England.

The latest issue of the BJRP is in keeping with the high standard that
this publication has been long known for. Within the confines of 52
pages editor Baillie presents a total of 31 articles. In his editorial
Mr. Baillie singles out "The Russian Refugee Post" an article by J.O.
Moyes, pointing out that," Only after the most careful consideration
did we take the decision to publish this article, and we fully recog-
nise that, potentially, it could seriously damage the value of collect-
ions of these items." We commend and support this decision and congr-
atulate Mr. Moyes on a fine piece of work. To highlight but a number
of the articles included: a number of contributors combine to produce
Registered Mail Addendum 2 'continuing the work initiated in BJRP
52 and continued in No. 53. Some unusual items of postal stationery
are dealt with by W. Frauenlob and B. Pritt. Dr. R. Ceresa provides
further notes on money transfer and parcel receipt cards while Walter
Frauenlob points out a new variety on the 1914 charity issue. Soviet
issues are dealt with by L.A. Kolot, "Soviet Pre-War Definitives:
Varieties"; Jacques Posell, "Soviet Consular Stamps"; Dr. M.H. Gould,
L.A. Kolot and Hilary Norwood, Various Soviet Varieties"; Hilary
Norwood again with "Some Soviet Varieties in Recent Years"; Allan
Waugh, "Non-Postal Miniature Sheets of the USSR" and Hilary Norwood
writes on "Art Postal Stationery Postcards 1976". Our two Canadian
stalwarts, Andrew Cronin and Patrick Campbell contributed with "Soviet
Posts in N. Bukovina and Bessarabia 1940/41" and "Mail Steamers on the
Amur-1907", respectively. Other writers and contributors include:
V.D. Vandervelde, J. Van der Linden, A. Speeckaert, R.S. Blomfield,
L. Buzzetti, R.P. Knighton, D.W. Levandowsky, Dr. A. Wortman, Dr. V.
Stoyanoff, H. von Hofmann, O.A. Faberg6, B. Evans, M. Lamoureux, Col.
A. Prado, Dr. T. Rutkowska, Rev. L.L. Tann, I.C. MacDonald.and the
editor I.L.G. Baillie. BJRP 54 also features Russian material at
auction, Reviews, News of members, Obituaries, New members, 1976
BSRP/All-Union Society Exhibition in Moscow as well as an announce-
* ment on the Index of Russian Philatelic Literature. Our thanks to
the editor for accommodating a plug for the "Post-Rider" in BJRP 541







Cumulative Index
Published by the British Society of Russian Philately, edited by
Robin Joseph, 1978, 69 pp., price: 3 pounds (members), 5 pounds
(non-members).

This is the first index to consolidate the contents of all periodicals
devoted to Russian philately, published in the West. Compiled are:
the British Journal of Russian Philately, Nos. 1-53 (1946-1976); the
Rossica Journal of Russian Philately, Nos. 1-43 (Jugoslavia); the
Rossica Journal of Russian Philately, Nos. 44-86/87 (USA, 1954-1975);
the Russian-American Philatelist, Nos. 1-24 (1942-1945) and the Russian
Philatelist, Nos. 1-11 (1961-1969). This index is a marvellous source
of reference, short-cutting the tedious task of searching through
volume after volume for a particular reference or article. We hope
to see this index updated on a regular basis. The BSRP and Robin
Joseph are to be congratulated for their initiative Copies are
available at the abovenoted prices from: Robin Joseph, 53 Malham Rd.,
Stourport-on-Severn, Worcs., DY13 8NT, England.



KALENDAR FILATELISTA 1978: "The Philatelist's Calendar
for 1978". A 110 page paperback issued by the "SVYAZ"
Publishers, Moscow 1977 in an edition of 100,000 copies.
Price 80 Kop.

This work follows the pattern established in previous years,
including basic philatelic information as well as some
notes on Zemstvos.

"FILATELISTICHESKII SLOVAR' by Wolfram Grallert & Waldemar
Gruschke. A 272 page hard cover translated from the German
and issued by the "Svyaz" Publishers, Moscow 1977, in an
edition of 63,000 copies. Price 3R.40K. (expensive by
Soviet standards).

This Philatelic Dictionary is the most comprehensive yet
published in the USSR and a big improvement on previous
local works as it is much more international in scope. Much
interesting information is contained therein.

"SOVIETSKII KOLLEKTSIONER No. 15": "Soviet Collector No.15.
A 168 page paperback issued by the "Svyaz" Publishers, Moscow
1977 in an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 1 ruble.

This issue contains an ideological article by B. Kaminskii;
a review of the first Soviet definitive by S. Blekhman;
a specialist ed listing of Russian issues 1884-1906 by
V. Lobachevskii; a survey of St. Petersburg markings 1858-1904
(interesting but incomplete) by M. Dobin; Imperial and Soviet
booklets by K. Berngard; an Olympic article by M. Levin;
Pushkin on postcards by Yu. Popov; numismatic articles by
A. Gdalin & D. Robinson and M. Maksimov, an article on
banknote forgeries by E. Stefanovskii (now a very old man);
a bibliography by A. Mil and finally an obituary.

*


I







-HIGH QUALITY REPRODUCTIONS -
NOW AVAILABLE
(MANY OTHER TITLES PLEASE ENQUIRE!)

I. SCHMIDT ZEMSTVO, 1928 & 1934 (German, 750 pp.) $200.-
2. HERRICK ZEMSTVO, 1896 (English, 128 pp.) $ 15.00
3. LUEBKERT ZEMSTVO, 1882 (German, 132 pp.) $ 8.00
4. KAYSSNER FORGERIES, 1935 (English, 61 pp.) $ 5.00
5. MOENS CATALOGUE, 1972-73 (French,220 pp.,incl. zemstvo) $ 6.00
6. ARMSTRONG -STAMPS OF THE LEVANT POST OFFICES,
1913 (English, 128 pp., incl. map) $7.00
7. FERRAI 14th AUCTION, (French, 67pp., incl. zemstvo,illustrations) $ 5.00
8. SVENSON- UKRAINE 1926-30, (German, 298pp.) $20.00
9. STANFORD- MAIL OF THE AEF, 1917-21 (English, 55 pp.) $5.00
10. RUSSIAN AMERICAN PHILATELIST (English,all 24 issues) $15.00
(ALL PRICES POSTPAID)

A.SADOVNIKOV, BOX 612, SAN CARLOS, CALIFORNIA, 94070


Catalogue of the Russian Rural Stamps by Wm. Herrick
1978 Reprint by Giorgio Migliavacca, Pavia, Italy.
The next best thing to having an original copy of this zemstvo catalogue
is to buy a copy of this reproduction. It is in hard cover, on high
quality paper and is reproduced in the original format.
Due to its publication in the 1890's and its consequently incomplete
listings and irrelevant pricing, the Herrick catalogue has generally
been overlooked by zemstvo enthusiasts by and large favouring Schmidt
and Chuchin. This view would,however, sell some merits of the Herrick
catalogue rather short. Of the three publications mentioned herein,
Herrick is unquestionably the easiest one to follow for its organization
and its wealth of illustrations. In the confines of 127 pages, Herrick
provides a comprehensive overview of the zemstvo post dealing not
only with the stamps but also listing: seals, handstamps,postal
stationery, etc.. In general,the catalogue is very useful and a most
welcome addition to the library of a serious zemstvo collector.
Sig. Migliavacca's reproduction is one of the finest that we have yet
to come across. We understand that more will be forthcoming in the
future. Copies of this limited edition of 150 may be obtained from:
* Giorgio Migliavacca, Via Pollak, 27100, Pavia, Italy. Price: 30000 Lire.
+ 900 Lire postage by registered printed matter rate,









"UKRAINSKYJ FILATELIST" by Severino Massari. A beautifully
printed and illustrated booklet of 32 pages, obtainable from
the author at 47037 RIMINI, VIA FLAMINIA 32, ITALY.

At the end of WWII, a P.O.W. camp was established at Rimini
on the Adriatic coast of Italy, not far from The Republic
of San Marino. There were many Ukrainians in the camp,
including numerous intellectuals. This work is a thorough
catalogue of all the Ukrainian Camp Post stamps and cards
issued there in 1946-1947, together with all the background
information given to Sig. Massari at the time. The text is
in Italian but is very clear and easy to follow because of
the many illustrations. Strongly recommended to those
collectors interested in the field.

MITTEILUNGSBLATT No.17 der BUNDES ARBEITS GEMEINSCHAFT
RUSSLAND/UdSSR IM BDPh e.V.
Information Bulletin No.17 issued in April 1978 by our
colleagues in the German Federal Republic and obtainable
from Mr. Herbert Giese, FRIEDRICHSTR.9, D-5562 MANDERSCHEID/EIFEL,
WEST GERMANY.

Our hard-working German friends have produced an 84-page
issue this time, full of serious and useful information. After
referring to their upcoming Annual General Meeting and
Return Exhibition in Moscow (2-11 June 1978), Erich Dressier
writes on the topic of Palekh Lacquer Paintings on stamps,
and Walter Frauenlob gives us a magnificent survey of "The
Post Offices of the European Countries in the Levant" and
"The Chinese Eastern Railway Line and its Philatelic Aspects".
Mr. W. Herrmann follows with "Russian Imperial Single Stamp
Frankings" and Franz Jurica comes in with "The Story of the
Soviet Postage Due Stamps". Gdtz Heerman translates some
notes by L.A. Kolot on Soviet varieties and E. Born does the
same for a fine article on the 3r. & 7r. without thunderbolts
by B. Kudryavtsev. Maria Krieger adds a short note on the
Icebreaker stamps of the USSR, which F. Lbhrich supplements
and also covers the scientific stations in the Arctic. Heinz
Loeffel then features 5 interesting classical letters and
W. Nietsch talks about Moscow a city and its people.
Georg Dieter Mehrtens discusses inverted background on the
4 and 10 Kop. 1889-1904 issue (he writes excellent English
and would like to compare data on all Russian inverted back-
grounds. Address: 2800 BREMEN 3-, BUTLANDSWEG 9a) and
A.Oesterle writes about recent Olympic issues. Karl Rist
gives an interesting work on P.O.W. mail in the USSR and
some notes on "The Far East" by A. Rosselevitch are reprinted
from Rossica 52/53 (translated by W. Frauenlob).

Gitz Heerman translates R. Sklarevski's article on the Rostov-
on-Don Hunger stamps from Rossica No. 88 and Dr. Schieck
writes on the fmous SENF Brothers and their times. Mr. E.G.
Stock lists the illustrated airmail postal cards of the USSR
and Herbert Giese shows unusual Arctic material. Heinrich Thoms
breaks new ground with field post data on the Soviet P.O.W.







units incorporated in the German Army and Mr. Zrubec lists
illustrated Soviet envelopes 1953-1969. The usual Society
notes and ads wind up this most useful issue.

* IMPERIAL RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA by P.T. Ashford.
A series of magnificent booklets devoted to the postal markings
of Transcaucasia by the leading collector and student in
the field. Available through our Journal Fund, which please see.

Three sections have so far appeared, as follow: Part 1 of
56 pages covering the Postal History in general; Part 2 of
78 pages on Tiflis and the Tiflis Town Post and Part 3 of
72 pages on the post offices in the Tiflis Guberniya.
Richly illustrated throughout, this will become the standard
work on the subject. Any collector with an accumulation of
used Imperial Duplicates will find these booklets an absolute
mine of information, which could help him to make important
finds. Heartily recommended.

EESTI FILATELIST (The Estonian Philatelist) No.s 18-19,
20-21, and 22-23 for 1976-1978. Published in Sweden by the
Societies of Estonian Philatelists in New York and Sweden.
Printed in Estonian, English, German and Swedish and edited
by Elmar Ojaste, Mandolinqatan 17, S-421 25 Vgstra Fr8lunda,
Sweden, to whom application should be made for copies.

Among the subjects in these wonderful issues are:
No. 18-19 contains fine articles by C. Kahrs on "Tsarist
Estonian Censor Markings and Labels"; E. Vaher on "The
btepaa Puzzle"; R. Ahonius on Finnish-Estonian Mail Flights
O of 1921-1924"; J. Hermann on "Estonian Air Mail Data 1920-
1928"; E. Vaher on "Plate Flaws of the First Estonian Airmail
Stamp"; Dr. P. Gleason on "Estonian Airmail Forgeries";
E. Ojaste on "Estonian Airport Cancellations" and "Estonian
Red Cross Letter Cards"; V. Hurt on "Estonian Forerunners -
Part II"; K. Paid on "The Dorpat Issue of 1918"; V. Mandvere
on "Elva Local Issue of 1941"; H. Alver & E. Ojaste on
"The Forgers and Forgeries of Estonian Stamps"; E. Ojaste
on "Special Post Offices in Estonia"; O.Andersin on "Some
Estonian Medals"; E. Ojaste, H. Osi & A. Ostrat on "Estonian
Field Post Unit Cachets 1918-1920"; H. Krondstrom on "Philately
of the Exiled Estonians in Sweden" and finally "1975 Chronicle".

No. 20-21
We read an obituary on Julius Bleyer, a brave Estonian
who waged a heart-rending but apparently futile battle to
have the treasures of The Estonian Postal Museum returned
from Leningrad to Tallinn; "The Postal Service in Estonia"
by Gustav Jallajos; "Finnish Fieldpost and the Estonians in
the Finnish Second War" by Vambola Hart; "The Finnish
Fieldpost in Estonia 1942-1944" by Yrji Leivonen; "Eesti
Post 1919 overprints on cover" by H. Alver; "Postal Problems
of the British DP Camps in Germany 1945-49" by A. Ostrat;
"Estonian Booklets" by E. Ojaste; "Mixed Frankings by
V. Mandvere; "Welfare Stamps of Viljcndi & Tallinn 1914-17"
by M. Zichmanis; "Estonian Decorations" by T. Triumph; "Estonian
Forerummer III" by V. Hurt; "Estonian Postal Rates 1918-1940"
by E. Ojaste; "Estonian IRC's" by E. Kimber; "Estonian






Advertising Postal Markings" by V. Hurt; "Estonian Field
Posts 1918-1920" by E. Ojaste, H. Osi & A. Ostrat; "S.K.
Markings" by the same trio; a warning on fake semi-offical
cachets a listing of recent Soviet Estonian stationery
by E. Ojaste and finally a Chronicle of events for 1976

No. 22-23 has fine articles by E. Ojaste & H. Osi on "Railway
TPO's & Mail Transport on Estonian Railways 1918-1940";
E. Tiits on "The Raasiku Accident of 1941"; E. Kimber on
"Zeppelin and Catapult Mail from Estonia"; S. Sjoberg on
"Collecting Match-Box Labels"; K. Paid on "Money Transmission
Facilities by the Estonian Postal Services"; E. Ojaste on
"P.O.'s in Estonia as at 1.11.1915"; "Estonian Post Offices
as at 6.4.1920"; "Post Offices of Estonia in 1931"; &
"Bilingual Cancellers in Estonia 1940-1941"; V. Hurt on
"The Bogus Issue of Hummuli in 1941"; T. Triumph on "Coins
of the Estonian Republic"; P. Tammaru on "Estonian Documentary
& Revenue Stamps"; J. Bleyer on "The Estonian Postal & Communications
Museum"; V. Hurt on "Estonian Forerummers Part IV";
E. Ojaste, H. Osi & A. Ostrat on "Estonian Fieldpost Unit
Markings 1918-1920"; H. Alver & E. Ojaste on "The Forgers
& Forgeries of Estonian Stamps First Supplement" and
finally "1977 Chronicle" and Society Notes.

Journal of the Rossica Society of Philately
No. 92, issued in August 1978


Another fine journal from Rossica; No. 92 is actually the
journal for 1977, and we are told that No. 93 is well on
its way to publication.

No. 92 consists of 64 pages, and features a 30-page trans-
lation of N. Luchnik's "Russia's Railroad Mails", that first
appeared in the "Soviet Collector"in 1974. This is really
a very fine article and an invaluable aid to the collector
of railroad cancels. The journal also includes obituaries
of ex-Rossica president Kurt Adler, and that of ex-BSRP
president Charles C. Handford, both great names in Russian
philately. George V. Shalimoff has an interesting article
on the 1961-1966 Soviet definitive, discussing shades and
varieties that exist among the stamps of that period.
Ukrainian Revenue Stamps are discussed by Valentin Zabijaka,
a glimpse of an area that is perhaps the least catalogued
of all philately. The 1922 season on the Moscow-Berlin air
route is investigated by R. Taylor, and Gordon Torrey illus-
trates some of his Russian military pictorial covers. The
Rossica Bookshelf reviews Part III of P.T. Ashford's
Imperial Russian Stamps Used in Transcaucasia and devotes
five pages to S.M. Bleknan's History of the Postal Service
and the Postage Stamps of Tuva. The feature Life of the
Society by Gordon Torrey discusses several topics including
an expertization service, and advice that the US Library of
Congress can supply a copy of an 1875 list of 1750 postal
routes and postal stations! The Rossica journal will
commemorate its fiftieth anniversary in 1979, and appears
to have recently signed up member number 999. The Editorial
staff are to be congratulated upon their being awarded a
large silver medal at CAPEX '78, another in a long string
of well deserved awards stretching back to 1933!











THE COLLECTORS' CORNER


QK~


DEAP. COLLECPO S: ",-
Are you still missing that illusive item from your
collection or philatelic library.....do you have scme
duplicate material that you would like to trade of sell ?
We can publicize your .rant list and/or your duplicates for
the most reasonable rate of 25/line (minimum of $1.- ,
maximum of 16 lines) excluding name and address. Ads fromr
collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are invited to
respond.
The Society disclaims all responsibility frnm any misunderstandings
that may result between e-xchanging parties.
* unless otherwise specified, aliTnumi'bers listed are Scott.


J?~L



/
9~
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7" ^/


Mike Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, 95051, U.S.A.
Wanted: Imperial dotted numeral cancellations on cover. Buy
or trade. Write describing covers) and asking priceor
desired trade.
------------------------------------------------------------

Michael Rayhack, 10 Overlook Ave., Little Falls, New Jersey, 07424, U.S.A.
(201) 256-0703
Scandalous prices paid for the following stamps of South Russia:
Don Surcharge 3a inverted surcharge $30.00. Kuban surcharges
21a,b,c, with WIDE "0" in surcharge "50" $200.00. Also plain
21c $30.00. 25b,c,d with numeral "6" instead of letter "B" in
word "Rublya" $200.00. Plain 25c,d, $30.00. I have duplicates
of South Russia for your submitted lists.
--------------------------------------------------------------------

George G. Werbizky, 409 Jones Rd., Vestal, New York, 13850, U.S.A.
I am interested in zemstvo: will consider any material. Please
give brief description and price. Will answer promptly with price.
---------------------------------------------------------------

Martin Cerini, 37 Wyoming Dr., Huntington Station, Long Island, N.Y.
11746, U.S.A.
Wanted: Russian revenue, fiscal, vignette, label and cinderella
stamps, plus revenue and legal paper, paper seals, bill of
exchange cutouts, and any revenue documents, intact or otherwise.
All periods: Imperial, Civil War and Soviet. Will exchange or
purchase.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Dr. Heinz von Hungen,1722 "H" St., Modesto, California 95354, U.S.A.
Wanted: Used Russian postal stationery to 1927 (including
offices). Also scarcer Zemstwo stamps & stationery (used
preferred). Alsovant imperial stamps on piece with clear
cancels-common to scarce.
---------------------------------------------------------------







D.P. Cruikshank, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr.,
Honolulu, HI, 96822, U.S.A.
Have copies of Sovietskii Kollektsioneer Nos. 13, 14, 16,
Atlas-Plan of Railroads of the USSR (schematic maps showing
towns on modern routes) (Moscow 1973), recent mint Soviet
postal cards with original stamp designs, sheet of 25 (no
selvege) B5 semipostal (perf 13) with 5 kop foreign philatelic
exchange overprint. These in trade for following literature,
originals or good copies: Russian Philatelist Nos. 1 & 2
(English or Russian); Rossica prior to 1974; parts 2, 3 & 4 of
Postage Stamps of Armenia (Tschil. & Ashford); Prigara, etc.


Leon Lazarev, c/o Montreal Life Insurance Co., 620 Wilson Ave,
3rd Floor, Downsview, Ontario, M3K 1Z3, Canada
I need: Errors and varieties of the Soviet Union, zemstvo,
vignettes and cancellations of St. Petersburg on cover.
I have a quantity of #2021 (used) $2.50 @ with discounts for
purchases in quantity.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

August Leppa, Sulakekatu 1C5, SF-04400, Jarvenpaa, Finland.
Wanted: bogus, phantom, private, locals, vignettes, forgeries,
army, Ukraina, Transcaucasia etc., of Russia 1917-25. Will
trade or exchange Estonian cards/covers against the same of
Latvia, Lithuania, Imperial Russia, Fieldpost WWI & II.
-------------------------------------------------------------

M. Shmuely, 71 Sharet Str., Tel Aviv, Israel
Wanted:. Russian Post in Bulgaria and Levant, covers, postcards,
2. Russia -USSR varieties, errors. Will exchange or buy.
S~ -------------------------------------------------------------------

Ryszard Z. Poddubiuk 31 Trottier, Dollard des Ormeaux, P.Q., Canada
H9A 2C8
Literature, postal documents, covers, cancellations, stamps, postal
staionery etc., related to or used in the territories of the
Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during 18th
and 19th centuries. Will buy or exchange for other philatelic
material.
-- ----------------------------------------------------------------

Anatole Kaushansky, P.O. Box 232, Willowdale, Ontario M2N 5S8, Canada
I have: Duplicates of rare Soviet definitive of the 20's and 30's
including No. 287 (used) and many others; material issued in
the last 20 years is available in superb condition. I will
trade for commemoratives of the 1930's or sell at very reasonable
prices.
---------------------------------------------------------------

James Mazepa, Hines V.A. Hospital, Box 381, Hines, Illinois 60141
Cleaning House: Imperial postcards, lettercards, and reply
paid cards 67 unused, some duplication, unpicked for varieties -
$35.00 post paid; 85 used Imperial cards, mixed condition,
some duplication, $40.00 post paid. Both lots for $65.00.
---------------------------------------------------------------






The Journal Fund



This has proved to be a very popular feature and all sales benefit the Society.
S Please send all orders to: A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada
M5W 1P2 and make payments out to "The Canadian Society of Russian Philately:
NOTES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONARY STAMPS 1920-1922 and MONGOLIA
---ITS STAMPS 1924-1927 by Kalenik Lissiuk. A fascinating
booklet in perfect condition, published in 1928 and many
years out of print, with much valuable data and illustrations
of the Postmaster Provisionals. Sent post paid anywhere in
the world for U.S. $5.00.

IMPERIAL RUSSIAN STAMPS USED IN TRANSCAUCASIA by P.T. Ashford.
The set of the first 3 parts which have appeared so far,
covering The Postal History, Tiflis, Tiflis City Post and
Province of Tiflis. Richly illustrated and the authoritative
work in the field. Available post paid anywhere .in the world
for U.S$11.00.

THE HISTORY OF THE POSTS AND POSTAGE STAMPS OF TUVA by
S.M. Blekhman. A well illustrated work of 114 pages, written
in Russian but easily understood when read in conjunction
with the review given in "The Post-Rider No.1". A few
copies available post paid anywhere in the world for U.S.$4.00.

SOVIET 4-KOPEK STAMP ENVELOPE COMMEMORATING "CAPEX-78"
AND WITH SPECIAL EXHIBITION CANCEL. An interesting souvenir,
whose sale will help The Journal Fund (see illustration).
S Mailed flat anywhere in the world by air for US$2.00 each.





v LV"f -..' "'~,--! z--.

c,&a. 4 .. .t

PFEX78 "






Igoo". Mi I i ,, .... .. ...... .
7, ".E


~ue~.c ~







Iaor Jascolt, 674 Glenhurst Cres., Ottawa, Ontario, KlJ 7B7, Canada
To Trade or Sell: Latvia postally used postcards 10 for $20;
#59, 60, 64 with Russian cancels, strips & blocks for exchange.
Russia numerical cancels on #46 VF; covers for trade.
Siberia #1-10 mint VF $11.00. Packets of 10 each #46,47,55,
56,57,73,75,77,78,79,80,81,82,85 used cancels, col. var $3.00
(140 stamps, VF. )

Alex Artuchov, Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, M5W 1P2
I am looking for: Zemstvo for trade or sale, forged overprints
of South Russia, St. Petersburg geometric cancellations, dot
and numeral cancellations.


Victor Kent, 807 Newbury Ave., Antioch, California, 94509
Wanted: Any quantity of Wenden stamps and covers.


Dr. Josef Kuderewicz, 142 TarrytownRd., Manchester, N H. 03103
Wanted: Russian Mute Cancellations of W.W.I. from: Bialystok,
Bresc, Barnowicze, Grodno, Kielce, Kutno, Lublin, Lw6w, L6dz (4 types),
Lowicz, Lomta, Ostroleka, Pultusk, Pinsk, Plock, Piotrk6w, Plofsk,
Radom, Rowno, Miedzyrzec, Slonim, Siedlce, Wyszk6w, Warszawa, Wilno (5),
Zgierz, Zdunskawola.




Copies of the BLLRS_SSLAi H_JILLATELIST are still available in
limited quantities.

In English: Nos 5,7, 10&11
In Russian: Nos 3-11

Nos 3-7: $2.00; Nos 8-11: $2.50
Write:
Mrs. C. Rosselevitch, 171-44 Bagley Ave., Flushing, N.Y., 11358, USA






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