• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Belgian Armoured Cars in Russia...
 The Post in the Russian Empire
 Tannu Tuva Catalog
 Advertising
 Russian Paquebot Mail at Gensan...
 The Literature of Russian...
 Obituaries
 Philatelic Shorts
 Review of Literature
 The Collector's Corner
 The Journal Fund














Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
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Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Belgian Armoured Cars in Russia 1915-18
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The Post in the Russian Empire
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Tannu Tuva Catalog
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Advertising
        Page 44
    Russian Paquebot Mail at Gensan (Wonsan, N. Korea)
        Page 45
        Page 46
    The Literature of Russian Philately
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Obituaries
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Philatelic Shorts
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Review of Literature
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    The Collector's Corner
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    The Journal Fund
        Page 72
Full Text





































No. 2






S







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*







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*I








YAMSHCHIK
CTHE POST-RIDER)


No. 2 March, 1978
Your copy of our Journal may be obtained k
by sending US $3.50 (postpaid anywhere in
the world) payable to the Canadian Society .
of Russian Philately and mailed to:
Alex Artuchov
P.O. Box 5722
Station "A" e
Toronto, Ontario,
Canada, M5W IP2
Copies of No. 1 are still available at the
original price of US $3.50 The quantity
is becoming limited
Co-ordinators of the iSocie:

Editor: Andrew Cronin
P.O. Box 5722, Station "A". Toronto,
Ontario, Canada, M51s 1P2
Publisher: Alex Artuchov
P.O. Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto,
Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2 PyCcKie THni. Types russes.
Secretary: Patrick J. Campbell 9MUAHX'b. Yamstchik (cocher de poste'.
17091 Maher Blvd., Pierrefonds, Quebec,
Canada, H9J 1H7



2 Editorial
2 Correspondance with Canada .................................. Andrew Cronin
4 Belgian Armoured Cars in Russia 1915-18 .. ..................... P.J. Campbell
7 The Post in the Russian Empire .......... ....... Fr. Huysmans
19 Strai htL Cancei--c tons of the 1870's '.................. Alex Artuchov
25 Tannu Tuva Catalog ................................. Richard C. Kanak
45 Russian Paquebot Mail at Gensan ............................. Andrew Cronin
47 The Literature of Russian Philately ................ ... P.J. Campbell
57 Obituaries
59 Philatelic Shorts
63 Review of Literature
69 The Collectors' Corner


Opinions expressed in this Journal are those of the authors. The Fditor, Publisher
and the Society disclaim all responsibility.

Anything in this issue may be reproduced without permission, provided that the
source is acknowledged and a copy of the reprinted matter is sent to us.






EDITORIAL
This is primarily by way of reviewing the progress we have made since launching
the first issue of the "Post-Rider". The response has been overwhelming. Our
Canadian venture is already on a par with the established societies in our
spheres of collecting, both in size and the quality of the studies being
published.
As the saying goes, a big Russian thank you to all who have given us such
generous support and encouragement. Our distribution is world-wide and we have
already established fraternal ties with the British Society of Russian Philately,
the Russia-USSR Study Group in the Union of German Philatelic Societies and the
Russian Group in the Royal Philatelic Society of the Region of Waas (Belgium).
This last circle has already published sane important studies in Flemish, one
of which we are serializing herein, Its author, Fr. Huysmans, has kindly sent
a beautiful period postcard with the picture of a "Yamshchik" or Post-Rider,
which we are happy to use on our title page. George Shalimoff of San Francisco
wrote a fine review of "The Post-Rider No. 1" in "Stamp Collector" resulting
in orders from south of the border. Richard Kanak of Chicago sent us his fine
Tannu-Tuva catalogue ready to print for inclusion herewith in this journal.
Dr. A. Orth and Herbert Giese of the West German Group have also been very
helpful with articles, publications and publicity material, especially on their
recent combined show with Soviet philatelists in Cologne. Rostislav Polchaninoff
wrote a great review of us in Novoe Russkoe plovo in New York City. With kind
friends like these, how can we go wrong ?

Thanks are also due to our diligent typist Teresa Artuchov, our artist at large
Tikhon Nikolaevitch Kulikovsky, our advertisers and all other contributors to
this number of "The Po,'t-Rider".

The Journal Fund proved extremely popular and we soon sold out. We have
two more useful titles available this time, one by the courtesy of the Rev. L.L.
Tann and your support will be much appreciated.
The third number of "The Post-Rider" in the space of twelve months is projected for
the end of September of this year. With that kind of progress, we are on our way !




CORRESPONDENCE r!: ^1;1-

WITH CANADA W1


Correspondence with Canada is
intended to appear in forthcoming issues
of this journal and deal with interesting V
philatelic material making contact with AA HAAY I
both Russian and Canadian postal
establishments. Readers are accordingly---
invited to forward write-ups and accompanying
photographs of suitable items in their collections )
for inclusion in future issues.


andrew Cronin, Toronto, Ontario, Canada







For our second example in this series we are featuring here a registered letter
sent from Moscow sometime during May, 1926. Franked with the correct rate of
28 gold kopeks in the Soviet "small heads" issue for a registered surface letter
going abroad, it is also of special interest to our Francophone colleagues, as we
will see hereunder.

The letter arrived in Montreal on July 17, 1926 en route to an address in Lachine
where the cover received a bilingual commemorative cachet in violet reading in
French and English: "250th Anniversary, Lachine, P.Q,, 4-5-6 September, 1926"
and stamped over the registration label.

Unfortunately, the lady to whom the letter was addressed had apparently moved
to the United States. The cover went back through the MontrIal G.P.O. on July
20, 1926 and was forwarded on to the new address in Alpha, New Jersey where it
was received a couple of days later.
Thus, we can sei that, from the postal history viewpoint, the cover is of
interest to both Russian and Quebec specialists. There was a sizable Russian
colony in Montr6al and environs at the time, including a budding collector of
Imperial postal history by the name of Leonid Snegireff. He was later to make
a very important contribution to the study of Russian "Used Abroads", among
many other discoveries.

In other words, further interesting covers to the Russian immigrants in Montreal
should still be around and we would be pleased to publish any more unusual
discoveries submitted by our readers in future issues of "The Post-Rider",
let us hear from you!







;''



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BELGIAN ARMOURED CARS IN RUSSIA 1915-18

by P.J.Campbell

A picture postcard with a view of the Samson fountain at
Peterhof, with a 4-kopek stamp, did not seem a great
acquisition until the message written on the back gave a hint
that the card could be of considerable interest. The message,
in French, was as follows:







(It" ++'L+Y2,. 1 ,
A" ". .. .+ i















UNION POSTAI.H UN VERSEL.t: RUS1r..
r4,.








-. -.




@,.'s ,

I ++ S








"Have arrived near Petrograd, and will go on further. Love
to all. I will send you photos of Russian Soldiers, you will
see how 'chic' they are." The card was dated 9/22 October
1915 (9 October by the Julian Calendar, 22 October by the
Gregorian), and was signed by a name that looks like F. Depas,
followed by "AMC Belges en Russie."

At the top of the card the writer had put "O.H.M.S." (On His
Majesty's Service) and the card was addressed to Paris, but
with an error in the street name that caused the postal
authorities some difficulty, as various notations show.

Here are a total of five different handstamps, as illustrated
below:






OFig. 1 Figp 2 Fig. 3












Fig. 5

Fig3 i





The mention of Belgian soldiers in Russia seemed familiar, and
a little digging came up with several articles;

a) .John Barry in the British Journal of Russian Philately,
No. 21, page 645, December 1956.

b) Emile Marcovitch in Rossica Journal No. 64, page 43,
of 1963.

c) Frederic Patka's article in Rossica No. 72, page 16
(1967), which was a reprint from the War Cover Club
Bulletin.


5







Two other useful references were:


d) John Barry's "Russian War Censored Covers 1914/1918",
in British Journal of Russian Philately No. 20 of May
1956.

e) Baedeker's "Russia, 1914" page 178.

From these references I found that Belgium had sent four
batteries of armoured cars, and 371 officers and men, to
Russia in 1915 as a gesture of help. The group embarked at
Brest on 20 September 1915 and arrived in Archangel on
15 October; they went by rail to arrive at Petrograd on 19 or
20 October (varies between sources a) and c)). They were
then billeted in the barracks of the Imperial Guard at Peterhof,
a palace built by Peter the Great in 1720, and located 18
miles from Petrograd. The picture postcard shows the fountain
with a large status of Samson, executed by Kozlovski, and well
described in Baedeker.

While the writer could have sent his card free, it seems
apparent that he mailed it at a civilian post office, hence
the 4-kopek stamp, appropriately a Romanov Tercentary (Scott
No. 91) showing Peter the Great! Best of all, the stamp is
cancelled "Peterhof-Petrogr. 11.10.1915." with cancel 27-10mm,
two stars, serial "ghe". The same handstamp is applied on
the back of the card, and illustrated as Fig. 1.

The back of the card received also the handstamp of Petrograd
military censor No.94 in violet (see Fig. 2), of the 1915/1916
type No. 4 in John Barry's article (Ref. d)).

Two other handstamps of Petrograd are shown as Figs. 3 and 4,
and a small oval surrounding the letters 9 over 6 occurs
twice, (See Fig. 5).

The interest of this card is that none of the literature lists
a Peterhof cancel, and the careful dating 9 October (Julian)
and 22 October (Gregorian) plus the words of the message, make
it clear that this is one of the earliest dates known and the
only Peterhof. Note that all the cancels give dates in the
Julian calendar, while the articles referenced above seem to
have converted everything to Gregorian. It is essential that
the difference be appreciated, and noted, in dealing with
these matters,

One or two other interest points are the words "AMC Belges
en Russie", this almost certainly is short for "Auto Canons-
Mitrailleuses ", a title used on the correspondence in Ref. c).
The "O.H.M.S." seems odd, unless the writer thought it might
help the card along, for the initials would mean little to
the Russians.

The last puzzle was the oval with the numbers 9 over 6;
a letter to Dr. Wortman in England brought the response
that this would be a postman's number, applied in France,
usually accompanied by some remark like "absent" when a
missive could not be delivered. This fits the case well,








as the little oval, or rather two of them, are adjacent to
some of the remarks when the postman had trouble locating the
address 17 "quon" de Grenoble, and someone has added
"17 Quai, XV" underneath (fifteenth arrondissement) in blue,
and someone else has written "inconnu au 17" in purple.

The future of the Belgian armoured cars was somewhat involved;
they left Peterhof on 28 December, after having been reviewed
by the Czar, and were involved in a great deal of heavy fighting
on the South Eastern Front. After the Revolution, they managed,
with great difficulty, to travel home via Vladivostok, San
Francisco, New York, arriving at Bordeaux in July 1918. Their
travels are well described in References a), b) and c).
III I|II I INN I I|||hII I IIIHIIIII |I I ||III so l ogo||||h I




THE POST IN




THE RUSSIAN










by Fr. Huysmans



INTRODUCTION
-------------------------------------
'Mi~ferr Fr. Huysmans is a member of the Royal Philatelic Society
lof the Waas Region in Belgium and a Master Pharmacist in the city of
Sint-Niklaas. He is the editor of the Society's magazine. The'
president of the Society, Mijnherr Leo de Clercq of the Academie de
IPhilatelie and our present author have been publishing over the past
Ifew years a series of monographs on philatelic subjects in our spheres
lof collecting. This Flemish Society is celebrating its 50th anni-
versary in March 1978 and we wish them many more years of fruitful
activity. We are proud to publish here the first half of this
excellent survey on the Post in the Russian Empire, translated from
the original Flemish. We are sure that our readers will find it of
acreat value in studying Russian Imperial Philately. J









There are numerous possibilities that one can encounter in studying the
postmarks on prestamp letters and the cancellations on the first postage
stamps of the Russian Empire. There -has always been very little material
in that area that has survived because of wars and revolutions and moreover,
the script itself also presents sane problems. Furthermore, it is almost
always a question of stamps in small size upon which these markings are
only to be seen in part. On pieces, the situation is naturally better.
Finally, the towns in Russia change their names quite, frequently and in
looking for a place one can run into quite a few difficulties. Because of
all the problems enumerated above, the study of this area is fascinating.
Since there is little to be found about the subject in the philatelic
literature, I have decided to devote this little brochure to it.

Before going over the specific markings themselves, I should like first of all
to discuss now the communications on land and sea and after that to be able
to place more emphasis on the quite great rarity of the items from the
first period of the Russian postal system.

The postal services in Russia date right back to the Middle Ages, to the
time when the country had still not been unified by the Grand Duchy of Muscovy.
In this initial period, everything was still in a very primitive state. It
was only under the administration of Peter the Great that the postal
services,like most of the other public facilities, were run better.
From that moment there was more attention devoted to the means of communication
which until then were in a pitiful state. One can rightly say about this
Tsar that he was the Great and that he was the founder of the later Great
Russia with its capital of St. Petersburg, founded by him in 1703.

In this early period there was very little transportation by land. Rarely
did travellers venture to go far. The means of transportation were very
rudimentary and besides,there were few stopping places, where the
horses could be changed. These stops were frequently the setting for
situations, as we can read in the old novels. In these relay systems or
stopping places, the names of the travellers were written in special registers
and they received new horses or troikas, according to the "Podorozhnaya"
(order for post horses) they presented, of which three types existed. The
most important one, with three seals, was for the couriers of the Court
and the postal services were also on a par with them. These had precedence
over those orders with two or one seals. The two-seal orders were reserved
for officers and higher government officials. They had precedence over those
with one seal. This last category with one seal was given to the public,
who could thus be served only with difficulty in the relay system. The
rates to be paid were naturally in proportion with this grading. Without a
" podorozhnaya ", no one could travel anywhere. Here is an example of such an
order:
By order of His Majesty the Emperor Alexander, Tsar
of all the Russias etc., etc.,... from the city of
... to ... to the French subject G. Capus, three
horses to be given with a postilion, upon the
payment of the fees, without delay. Given at ...
on ... signed by the Governor of the Province "
( See La gloire des vaincus by H. Troyat, p. 237
and Au royaume de Tamarlan by G. Capus, p. 18 )
o






People, who were under an obligation to conclude carmercial transactions,
would do so by preference also with their own or hired means of transportation.
Private undertakings quickly came into use therefore with the idea of setting
up specially arranged services.

We find the first reference to the postal system in Russia in the Legal Code of
1497 of Tsar Ivan III, namely that the postal installations included at
that time the following present-day routes: Arkhangelsk ( Archangel ),
Yaroslavl, Kaluga, Kostroma, Nizhnii-Novgorod, Novgorod, Ryazan, Smolensk,
Tver and Vladimir.

In the 17th Century, under the Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich, the first postal
link abroad was arranged in 1665 under the direction of the Dutchman van
Sweden. The exchange of mail was then brought from Moscow by horse via
Novgorod and Riga, from where it was forwarded on to Berlin and Hamburg.
This was the first regular postal service in Russia. In 1667 we see a
second route which ran from Moscow via Smolensk to Vilnius. The role
here came into the hands of the Dane Leonce Marcelis.

An Imperial decree was issued in 1672 whereby all government officials
were obliged to send the official correspondence by the postal service
and no longer by private couriers as was the case previously. A regular
postal link between Moscow and Arkhangelsk ( Archangel ) was set up in
1693.

Finally, it was Peter the Great who extended the postal routes by land and
sea in all directions. In 1696, after the campaign against, Azov, he set up
the postal links between Moscow and voronezh and in 1698 between Moscow
and furthermost Siberia, to Tobolsk and Kamchatka. This last travelling
route was covered completely in 14 days.


I .... .,. .J ... A. 'y


0. .
P:_.fl-T-A- -t S :I I.. SI R -.:'. .

POSTAL RELAY SERVICE IN SIBERIA







After the founding of St. Petersburg in 1703 by Peter the Great, the
foreign mail from Moscow was also naturally moved to the north. A new
Postal Directorate was set up in this new capital, to which the original.
one in Moscow was subordinate. New foreign services to Poland, Austria,
Germany and Turkey came into being in 1781. Finally, the year 1797
was very important. The whole of the postal administration was then
unified under the general direction of Count Bezborodko,

Unfortunately, the land communications did not come up to the same level
of development as the waterways. It was only in 1816, after the Napoleonic
campaign of 1812, that there was more attention paid to transmission by land.
The existing routes,which were in a pitifully bad state, were gradually
transformed into gravel roads. The taxes were therefore markedly increased.
Each peasant was taxed 25 kopeks and 5 % charged on every piece of merchandise.
In addition to that, a toll was levied on the usage of the roads. These
duties served exclusively for the maintenance of these new woutes.

Transportation in those times was a real nightmare. The roads were quite wide
enough, but they possessed no firm surface apart from the road bed itself.
Ruts and potholes there were aplenty and since the waggons generally had no
springs, pillows were used and even straw so as to cushion the shocks.

F -^-__ R ^ ^


TRANSMISSION BY IAND
However, the so-called highways were an exception as they had a hardened
road surface, but their total length in 1850 only came up to some 5000
kilometers ( 3107 miles ) and in 1900 barely up to 16,000 kilometers
( 9942 miles ). This is all beautifully described in the old Russian
literature. The bridges were also extremely dangerous and the coachmen
preferred driving through the fordable places of the rivers or going
across by ferries.


S-. -.* -^ W -
^, ... isa _' r i, ?_ ..... .( ,- ''-_ 1, l


0










In the initial period, there were two known highways. There was the
Georgian Military Road, which ran from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis through the
Daryal Pass and with a length of 190 km. ( 118 miles ). This was well
described by Pushkin in his work Journey to Erzerum' In the second
place, there was the highway, 6500 km. ( 4039 miles ) long, from
St. Petersburg to Siberia via Novgorod, Moscow, Nizhnii-Novgorod, Kazan,
Perm and Irkutsk, Chekhov called this the longest, but also the worst
road in the world. Pushkin described it also in his work Eugene Onegin ".

Let us examine now the transportation by water, Russia was watered by the
longest streams and rivers in Europe. As already stated, it was Peter the
Great, who realized the great potential of the system and therefore saw
to it that the great water basins such as the White, Caspian, Azov, Black
and Baltic Seas were linked with each other by canals. At the beginning of
1900, there were 160,000km. ( 99,420 miles ) of navigable waterways.

The Volga was the most important communications link. Almost half of the
goods which were conveyed went along this route to their destination,
namely to St. Petersburg. But commerce still did not go quickly enough.
The severe winter period still remained a disruption. It was common for
the goods and especially the grain to remain in winter storage before they
could be delivered. The main wintering place on the river was Rybinsk.

Transmission by water originally took place with barges which were moved in
various ways, among other things by the current itself, with sails, pulled
by horses or by boat haulers themselves ( see the painting by Repin
" The Volga Boatmen ) Frequent use was also made of anchors and capstans
( anchor and rope dropped into the water and the boat drawn forward by the
capstan).









When steamers were introduced into Russia things went a little better
and quicker, but the long winters still remained a big disadvantage.
Winter storage was still necessary in most cases, or the goods were sent
onwards with caravans. Even in the best case, a quarter of the merchandise
always remained undeliverable in the winter season.

Moreover, there was a law enacted that forbad the steamers to sail on the
canals. This remained in force up to the reign of Nicholas II. The
first steamer sailed on the Neva in 1815, while quite soon afterwards
the rivers Kama ( 1817 ), and Dnieper had their turn. Many boats
could be pulled forward by one of these steamers.

So far as comfort was concerned everything was set up poorly. In this
respect, the literature gives as an idea, above all the lack of hygiene.
Also, the sandbanks in the rivers formed a great obstacle. Any Cossacks
could then generally also travel without charge on the ship,when they could
free it from any stranding that occurred.

Finally, there were the railways, which could definitely clear their way
through these obstacles. Here again the beginning was also primitive.
In the copper mines on the upper Kama river, wooden rails were utilized.
In 1788 iron rails were used for the first time. Horses were also employed
for pulling purposes. The first steam engine appeared in 1834 in the
metalshops of the Urals. This was the work of Cherepanov.

The first working railway line in Russia was opened in 1836 between St.
Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo. It was built by a private undertaking. The
Government itself decided to link St. Petersburg with Moscow. This line,
which was called the Nikolai Railway, was opened in 1851 ( ). It
already presented some solutions and opened up new prospects. Thereafter,
the St. Petersburg Warsaw line came into being more rapidly, but
unfortunately the onset of the Crimean War delayed this project. It
finally came into being in 1862.

When the great advantages were realized, it was decided to set up a
Grand Company of Russian Railways with Russian and French capital and under
the direction of French engineers and entrepreneurs. Little by little,
the costs of laying down the lines also decreased. However, the charges
remained markedly higher than in the other European countries.

We can sum up some disadvantages and typical facts linked with these
Russian lines. The travellers were quite few in number, while on the other
hand, the volume of goods to be transported was very great, so that high
expenses were incurred. On top of that the rail gauge was also much wider
than in the other European countries.

The great variations in the seasons also by no means promoted travelling
by train. However, the travellers themselves had it comfortable. The
carriages had double windows and doors on account of the cold and were
provided with stoves. Here it was possible to utilize the traditional
samovars for coffee and tea during the stops, which lasted for quite
a while. The stations were also situated far from the town centres.
All of this is described in ample detail in Russian literature.

After the sale of Alaska to the United States in 1867, the network of
railways was widened further to quite an extent. Here are some data
supplied by the Ministry of Transport. In 1884, the passenger trains
travelled a total of 585,624 versts( about 548,851 km. or 388,159 miles )

12






of which 140,236 versts were with an average of only two passengers per
carriage. The freight trains went to a total of 6,128,460 versts
(6,539,066 km. or 3,985,529 miles ) of which 1,460,000 versts were with
almost empty waggons ( full to St. Petersburg and almost empty into the
interior ). The passengers were divided into three classes with the
8 fares of 1 h, 2 and 3 kopeks per verst respectively. The freight on the other
hand was divided into five categories with charges of 1/12, 1/18, 1/24,
1/30 and 1/40 kopeks per pud ( 1 verst = 1.067 km. = 0.663 mile; 1 pud=
16.372 kg. or 36 lbs. ).
So far as the significance of the various lines was concerned, we can say that
the Nikolai Railway was by far the most important. The Moscow Ryazan line
moved the most freight. Most of the passengers took the line from Peterhof
( Petrodvorets ) to Tsarskoe Selo. Most of the pilgrims were to be
found on the Yaroslavl' line. The lines yielding the most profit were
the Riga Dvinsk and Moscow Yaroslavl lines. Finally, the least
profitable stretch was the St. Petersburg-Warsaw line.

It would be well and good to understand that because of all the difficulties
enumerated here and the slow development of the means of ccaTmmication,
both in the early period and later on, very few letters were sent in Russia.

Originally, the postage was always paid by the addressee. A regulation of
6.12.1839 and a similar one dated 1.1.1840 fixed the following postal
rates for transmission by carrier or coach as a function of distance,
i.e.: 1 to 300 versts= 5 kopeks; 300 to 800 versts = 10 kopeks; 800 to
1100 versts = 15 kopeks; 1100 to 1800 versts = 20 kopeks. Above 1800
versts, the postal rate was 25 kopeks. These rates were on the high side.
Fortunately, a definitive ukase of May 1834 and a similar one of 30.7.1843
brought the postal rates down to a uniform 10 kopeks, which was also the
case with the distance.

S A word or two now about the telegraph service in Russia. Originally the
optical telegraph was in service, just as in all the other European
countries, for that matter. The first such line was laid in 1834 between
St. Petersburg and Kronstadt and later on to Warsaw. This first line
comprised 149 Stations and could deliver a telegram in 2 h hours. This
original system remained in operation until 1853. The first electric
telegraph line was then opened between St. Petersburg, Warsaw and Konigsberg
( Kaliningrad ). Since the network was extended, the telegraphic service
quickly comprised 108 sections. These latter did not,however, coincide
exactly with the administrative districts.

The problem of the reorganisation and perfection of the postal communications
showed up very sharply in Russia at the beginning of the 19th Century,
because of the increase in population and the development of trade and
industry. It was just at the start of the 1830's that a fundamental
restructuring of the Postal Administration took place. This also took into
account the regulations which had been in force from the reign of Catherine II.
The postal communications in the cities themselves functioned very badly
and the people who lived in a particular town could not very well let their
correspondence lapse because no city post existed then. People had to use
their own resources so as to be able to send their letters. That was
quite difficult especially in the large cities such as St. Petersburg,
Moscow, Kiev, etc. The large commercial houses hired many carriers in
order to overcame the problems. While the rich could have their lackeys
and servants carry the letters to the post office in the city or take
tthem to their destination, the majority of the inhabitants could not
arrange for such comprehensive measures and they exchanged letters by
means of messengers. Such correspondence was naturally very slow and

13







frequently lost in transmission. The situation was also not the best for
the inhabitants an the outskirts and in the cottage district (dacha area )
where the postillions did not distribute the city correspondence and where
no post offices existed.

There were suggestions on several occasions from private persons to
organise a city post, but they all came to nought. In 1828, there was an
attempt by an official of the Ministry of National Enlightenment ( Education ),
namely S. Aller, who asked the military governor of St. Petersburg to
arrange for a city post as a private initiative. The salt carriers could
ensure the transmission in the city, after being selected under strict
controls. S. Aller proposed the following rates:
40 kopeks for a letter delivered within 6 hours.
80 kopeks for an express letter delivered within an hour.
1 rouble for a letter with paid reply.

These rates obviously had no link with reality and the project was abandoned.

Notwithstanding these numerous proposals, the Postal Administration hesitated
for a long time to set up a city post from the fear that such an undertaking
would not pay its way. Moreover, it could not be said what would be better:
whether the city post should be a branch of the Government Post or whether
it should be placed in the hands of a private undertaking.

In 1830 permission came for setting up a city post for a trial period of
two years. The preparations lasted more than two years and the first
city post came into being in St. Petersburg on 17 January 1833. This news
could be read in the daily St. Petersburg News and it was also announced
by means of notices in the most prominent places,being drawn up in Russian,
German and French.

The city was then divided into 17 districts, each of which included a centre
for the receipt of correspondence. The small shops served as centres in
that way and bore the designation Receiving Place ". They were chosen
over all other spots on the basis of being open daily and above all easy to
find. They were like a kind of club, both for the buyers and the visitors.
An unceasing stream of servants, coachmen, couriers, messengers of the
Public Service, merchants and artists could be found here. It was in
such places that news was exchanged and where the unlettered could ask the
owner to read a letter or even to write one in their name. Originally,
there were 45 centres opened throughout the city. By May of the following
year they rose to a total of 108. At the entrance of these small shops
there hanged the following notice: "Receipt of letters of City Post No...."
and inside there were announced the regulations for the receipt of letters
and bills to be handed over to the city post.

Before a letter could be placed in the box, the owner had to be informed so
that he could get the correct amount, ie. 20 kopeks in paper money or
5 kopeks in silver for each letter,which also covered the weight thereof.
For the dispatch of a visiting card the charge was 10 kopeks in paper or
2 kopeks in silver. It was only then that the letter could be dropped into
the box provided for that purpose and that always in the presence of the
storekeeper. The appearance of these boxes differed greatly from that of
present day types. Their shape was also very diverse and included two
compartments: the first one officially locked with a key for the receipt
of letters and the second one open, wherein letters were stored which had
been sent back by the postal service whenever their destinations could not
be found or reached. Two messengers ( so called to distinguish them from the
postillions ) did their rounds of the small shops three times daily to
open the boxes and empty them. The letters were then handed over to the

14
































U


Tnni.1 PurI-ii.- l yI",' .it Ii- I -; *
I J 1LII ,1I I.I,,i.


IMPERIAL POSTMAN


LOCAL MESSENGER


/ 1 1m.1i l '. rill. fi d e l a i lill .1
no,(Tai bO HI.- Po i in.









#rl


c*












'.s.~F?
~ah~

1, )
zC ~~SI/ .' *TL~
::


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postal administration where they were sorted according to district and
distributed three times daily, namely at 8 a.m., 1p.m. and 6 p.m. At
the end of each week the owner of the small store handed over an itemised
statement of the mail and money received. Out of every rouble, the owner
got 10 kopeks and the carriers 20 kopeks respectively.

The great profit derived from the city posts quickly became evident, not-
withstanding the fears of the postal administration. There were 7917 letters and
4759 bills delivered in the first year. The net profit thereof amounted
to 1251 r. 51 k. From then on the success of the service always increased
steadily. Naturally,at the end of the two year trial period, it was
immediately decided to accept definitely the City Post Service in St. Petersburg.
It was the first official City Post in Russia.

From November 1838, when the first railway was opened, letters were also
accepted from places along the line and in accordance with the same rates.
Originally, transmission took place twice and later three times daily. In
the same year, distribution was begun of the local newspapers on subscription.
The first daily which was delivered in that way was "The Northern Bee" .
Later on, the magazines "The Circulation Library" and "The Agricultural Daily"
came on in their turn. By 1841, sixteen dailies and magazines had already
appeared which could be subscribed to by mail. The Agricultural Daily"
alone had a circulation of 221,400 copies, all of them being delivered by the
City Post.

A second office of the City Post was opened in 1842 on what is now Mayakovskii
Street in Leningrad. The two offices were mutually linked by means of
postmen who travelled by horse in the summer and by light sleds in the winter.

Because of the ever increasing volume of correspondence, the system of
paying in cash and against handing over a receipt became rather cumbersome,
not only for the population but also for t :e postal employees. So, by
1843 onwards, changes were already made. The so-called entire or envelopes
were introduced. Die impressions with the values were printed on the flaps.
These were the forerunners of the later adhesive stamps.

On 23 November 1845 a report appeared in The Northern Bee that, for
the convenience of the public, the Postal Service had found it necessary
to introduce s ecial envelopes with impressed values. The selling price to
the public came to 6 kopeks, i.e. 5 kopeks for transmission and 1 kopek for
the envelope itself. This naturally facilitated greatly both the acceptance
of mail and the accounts.

The transmission of this type of mail began on 1 Deceim'r 1845. These
envelopes were only valid for the city itself and in summer for the
cottage ( dacha ) districts which lay in the immediate surroundings.

These envelopes soon justified their use. In 1848 we also see Imperial
envelopes appearing, which were now valid for the whole country.

In 1845 the first letter boxes appeared in the streets of St. Petersburg.
They were made from thin boarding and covered with a thin layer of iron
sheeting. Robberies were therefore frequent. Also, people who did not

S









ENVELOPES FOR THE ST. PETERSBURG LOCAL POST









agree with this type of acceptance, frequently went along just the same.
Quick usage was therefore made of massive cast iron boxes with a weight
of about 3 puds ( 108 lbs. ) This type was, however too dear and its usage was
not extended Since the compartments inside were made of wood or metal, they S
were later replaced with sacks made of rough linen.

For a long time, St. Petersburg was the only city that possessed a City Post.
It was only in 1844 that a regulation was drawn up for the City Post in
Moscow. This was opened on 1 January 1845. There was 23 districts there
including three centres for the receipt of the correspondence, which was
handed in at the small shops. Originally, there were two city post offices
but, during the summer period, a third one was opened in the Petrovski and
Sokolniki parks. The letters were brought in by 85 postmen, who were
recruited by the Postal Administration from free and educated persons.
From 1 January 1846 there appeared in Moscow the rare envelopes with a design
and value impressed in red. Letter boxes were also placed in the streets of
Moscow in 1848.

By 1850 the distribution of mail by a local post service was taking place in
only four cities, namely St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan and Warsaw. In the
1860's city posts appeared in 47 cities. By the beginning of the 20th century,
such services were functioning in practically all towns in the Empire.

A special stamp appeared in 1863 for the City Post in St. Petersburg and
Moscow ( ** ). On 1 May 1869, envelopes were also issued for the cities of
Kazan, Kiev, Odessa and even other places.

The City Post, which was set up in Russia in 1833, proved to be a very
useful installation, in spite of its original primitive organisation. It
improved the function of the Postal Service and supplied new means of
communication with a greater effectiveness.
TO BE CONTINUED -
EDITORIAL CCMMENT: ( ) Please see hereunder an early strike of the
marking for the Moscow Station P. 0. on the Nikolai Railway during the
pre-stamp period ( Cronin Collection )







This is struck on an entire letter from the Heinrich Schliemann correspondence,
sent from Moscow 27 April 1857 to St. Petersburg. Does anyone have an
earlier type or strike from this office ?

( ** ) This City Post local appears in all the general catalogues, since
it can be found in general usage in the Empire during the early 1880's. It
is a great rarity, properly used on local letters and covers in the 1860's.
Its application on cards and covers during the 1880's is a horse of
another colour, as such usages were almost always philatelic, but such
items still fetch respectable prices at auction. Used stamps off cover
are much easier to come by and the postmarks should be carefully examined.
The commonest markings are those of St. Petersburg and collectors are
urged to look for the much scarcer dots and handwritten numeral
cancellations.







The stamp itself was typographed and due to the many small flaws found
on individual positions in the sheets, as well as the varying shapes of
the numeral 5 it should be possible to plate this issue. Sir John
Wilson was the first to advise the existence of an interesting retouch
to the background just below the T S of TSENA on some, but not
all of the sheets. ( No. 46 on the sheet reading across, or stamp No. 21
bottom left position on the top right pane ). It would be very worthwhile
trying to find this same position showing the original damage to the
background, but on MINT copies only; used copies of this issue are often
found rubbed and may give rise to false hopes. Happy hunting '


STRAIGHT LINE CANCELLATIONS OF THE 1870's

by Alex Artuchov
Straight line cancellations are among the most interesting and rarest markings
to be used in the pre-revolutionary period of Russian philately. They are
known on the earliest pre-stamp covers (Fig. 1) and throughout the pre-stamp

"s MOCKBA 6 RIEB%
a'2ee~.s g s 19 Ainpf, d 1825.
FIEBPAX.1859 N 185 .
Fig3
Fig 2
period (Figs. 2-3). Their usage was extensive on early mail originating from
the Kingdom of Poland ( Figs. 4-6). Furthermore, sane of the classic used abroad


SCZYCA l POZ6N IP AMCzj


cancellations (Figs. 7-9) are of the straight line type.



5 rAA AA A 20 1 8, 3 B

Fig 7 I Fig 8 Fig 9







While the above types are fairly well known by collectors, the specific
straight line cancellations that are the subject of this article, are still
quite untouched by philatelic literature. From what can be determined by the
accnopanying illustrations (Figs. 14-29), they occurred during the 1870's.
An interesting forerunner of this type, illustrated in the Prigara handbook,
is shown below (Fig. 10). It differs from the type under discussion by: its
date of usage, slightly larger type and slightly different numerals. Without
the availability of more examples of this forerunner type, particularly with
dates bridging the gap between 1859 and 1870, it is very difficult to establish
a direct link on the basis of more than just appearance.

SrtroRWoe son.ry6
21Aela6p..1859roAa

Fig 10

With the exception of Fig. 15,the straight line cancellations of the 1870's
are confined to two lines. They were handset from standard type that no doubt
originated from St. Petersburg along with a holder that the type was assembled
on. From a perusal of the accanpanying illustrations,it can be established
that the holder must have been just slightly under 40 nm. in length. This,in
fact, represented a constraint on the number of letters and numerals that postal
officials could set in any given line. The result is that many cancellations
have no spaces between words and the use of less space-consuming lower case
letters is extensive. Furthermore,abbreviations are very camon. This would
include: st and sta for "stantsiya" (station), g or go for "goda" (year),
d or dn for "dnya" (day) and g, gu or gub for "guberniya" (province). The
names of months and provinces are also abbreviated, One cancellation, on the
other hand (Fig. 23), bearing a short town name,is set in capital letters to
occupy more space. Strangely enough, only sta is used for "stantsiya" despite
the fact that there would have been sufficient room within the holder to accommodate
the full word. The name of the province is also missing. Perhaps, the
distribution of type to some of the post offices was very measured and the amount
and variety of letters and numerals distributed were just enough to cover the
non-constant portions of the cancellation only, specifically being: the day,
month and year. Interestingly enough, the cyrillic letter U required in the
spelling of "stantsiya" is not required in the spelling of any of the twelve
months.

It should also be noted from Fig. 23, that the level of, literacy among ,sae
of the postal officials responsible for handsetting these cancellations may have
been suspect. The last e appearing in the abbriviatedform of September should
in fact have been a cyrillic ff. Similarly, a R is incorrectly put in the
place of a X in the spelling of Kalisz (Fig. 21).


For the convenience of readers not having a command of the Russian language, many
of the discrepancies noted above are highlighted in a translated and transcribed
listing to the immediate right of Figs. 14-29.

The general format of the subject cancellations was to list the full name of the
"iven post office and the usually abbreviatedname of the province on the first
line, while the second line was used for the date. Of the examples available to
this writer, only Fig. 21 is an exception. wThile the bacic components of
information are all present.those usually listed on the top line are sh.on on
the bottom and conversely. Furthermore, in accamrrdating the standard components
of information, some deviation from the general format was sometimes necessary







and very possibly due to the handset nature of these cancellations. Some information
usually appearing in the top line accordingly overflows onto the second (Figs.
15,16,27). On the example listed below (Fig. 20a)there is evidence of a change
within the same cancellation. In Fig. 20 also from Loch6w in Siedloe province,
but applied some two and a half months earlier. The first bit of information
to be listed on the bottom line is "dnya" (day). This word is of course totally
absent from Fig. 20a.


13nos 1871



In addition to the abovementioned fig. 23, the name of the province is also
missing on Figs. 14, 18 and 29. While the two former illustrations may only be
partial impressions, Fig. 29 contains the word "gorod" (city) which leaves no
further space for the name of the province, which in this case is Kalisz.

As a general rule, the subject cancellationsoriginate from smaller locations
at various corners of the Russian Fnpire. This does not however, apply to
Figs. 17 and 22. Fig. 17 is "chastnaya ekspeditsiya", being the division of
the post office responsible for private mail while, Fig. 22 is "pochtovoye
otdeleniye" meaning sub-station or station of secondary importance. Both
of these two cancellations should originate from the city rather than the
province of Warsaw. It should again be mentioned that the approximately 40 mm.
length of the holder imposed a constraint on the number of letters that could
be accommodated and Figs. 17 and 22 are abbreviations that were probably well
known and understood to their contemporaries. Fig. 17 is probably "CHASTNAYA
EKSPEDITSIYA VARSHAVSKOI POCHTOTVI KONTORI", or in translation: Private (mail)
Despatch (of the) Warsaw Post Office.Fig. 22 on the other hand, may have been
"POCHTOVOYE CTDELENIYE (pri) VARSHAVSKOT ZHELEZNODOROZHNOI STANTSII" meaning:
Postal Station (of the) Warsaw Railroad Station in translation. There was,of
course, more than one railroad station in Warsaw at that time. The specific
station, was the one from which Postal Wagon No. 25-26 (Warsaw-Granitsa)
originated, since an appropriate marking is found on the same cover with Fig. 22.
Without this indication of route on the same cover, Fig. 22 may have
been interpreted to be: "POCHTOVOYE OTDDELEIYE (pri) VARSHAVSKOI ZHELEZNOI DOROGI"
being the Postal Station (of the) Warsaw Railroad Line. In contrast to Postal
Wagon No. 25-26, the Warsaw Railroad Line ran between Warsaw and St. Petersburg.

Similar to Fig. 22, many of the subject cancellations belonged to stations
along railroad lines, as indicated by the abbreviation st or sta. The cancellation
from Yasenki in Tula province (Fig. 28), appears in the Prigara handbook in
combination with another standard railroad cancellation (Fig. 11) indicating
Postal Wagon No. 15-16 thereon (Moscow-Kharkov).






norwo omthaite
CeT 3 esBOJf^ab apall anripl IWa pochto otdeleniye
5 MAP 1 st zegevold
Fig 14 5 MAR Ir Fig22 wars 1januarl872
Coll.: P.J. Campbell Coil: J. Mazepa
A. Artuchov
as HeeyprW"I g4 Ta BPUni
Kyp .ryOi Af annenburg st 10 cexTe6 1870 rO Sta BRIN

Fig 15 kurl prove dec 13 Fig 23 10 septemb 1870 ye
Coll.: S. Emison 1878
Coll: A. Cronin

exnixMU mapwias E eoKtRxNr.y6
ry6pipals261874 osieciny worsa 44aetaa6ps I75 buskokielceprov
provfebruary261874
Fig 16 Fig 4 4december1875
Coll. J. Mozepo Coll: J. Mazepa

4CcTHrKCOcneAH4iR rcmaH3Ipb 6ec r
eapwu30I oHo 1871r chostnekspeditsiya asip~it30aH 1878r st monzir bes p

Fig 7 wars30July 1871y april30da 1878
Fig 17 Fig 25
Prigaro book Coll: A. Cronin

MoH.crTbripnte pqWeeb ato6 rJ6S
7' espana Monastirischye ID6 19,.A 1876)r fishev lubl prov

Fig 7 february Fig 26 novb 19 do 1876y
Fig 18
Coll.: A. Cronin Coll: J. Mazepo

et fteceMcRaal TBep cliaaoi t a
11 OKTr,6p.1876 riA st kesemskoyo tver caM r 13i'lon 1874 krosnoyarskol p s

Fig 19 II Octobr. 1876 year Fig 27 sam p 13july1874
Prigara book Coll: A. Cronin

AoxoSecha& eKgON CT *ceNetMtyHAytf
AR27laBrycTal871 lochowsiedlce anptaI 24A 1871 st yasenki tul prov
Fig 20 day 27august 1871 Fig 28 april 24d 1871
Coll.: J.Mazepa
Prigara book

5Hoa&pal871r^r VopDA'bO P06 *0p
5 on6p187t 'r 5.opooaisop iAoAasa KaA im ry 5novemberl871 11ma1~,7.roA cityOzorkow

Fig 21 klodawo kalis pr Fig 29 I may1872year
Coll: A. Cronin Coll: J. Mazepa


*







In contrast to the railroad stations referred to by the abbreviated forms of
station preceding many of the illustrations shown herewith, Fig. 27 has a p s
referring to a postal station ("pochtovaya stantsiya"). This writer would
also like to note, for the sake of Russian speaking readers, that Krasnoyarskoi
is in fact the correct name shown on Fig.27 and not a spelling or grammatical
error on his part. Krasnoyarskoi is in the incorrect genetive case and
Krasnoyarskii is in fact the correct form that should actually have been used.
Through an atlas published in Tsarist times, this writer managed to locate
(fort) Krasnoyarskoi in Samara province, an outpost along the western banks of
the Ural river.

The most interesting and exciting aspect of these straight line cancellations
relates to the fact that they are found on covers in combination with the
truncated triangle types of dot and numeral cancellations (Fig. 12). Of the
1700 numbers allocated to this dot and numeral type, only the first 843 were
listed. Only a small of numbers beyond 843 have since been identified, primarily
through the work of Dr. Wbrtman of the BSRP. Hence, straight line cancellations
are the key to identifying the place of origin of these hundreds of unlisted
numbers.
..





Fig 12

In gathering examples of the subject cancellations, this writer has managed to
make one correction and three new allocations of unlisted numbers of the
aforementioned dot and numeral type in cooperation with two friends. During a
recent visit to Chicago, this writer had the pleasure of visiting James Mazepa
and examining the cover bearing Fig. 29. This writer concurs with the owner
that the dot and numeral cancellation is undoubtably No. 1054. Ozorkow had
previously been identified as No. 1034. From three covers in the collection
of Andrew Cronin it was determined that:
No. 854 is Krasnoyarskoi, Samara province (Fig. 27)
No. 869 is Brin, Kaluga province (Fig. 23)
No. 1031 is Klodawa, Kalisz province (Fig. 21)

In dealing with the matter of identifying locations with numbers beyond 843,
Dr. Wortman, in BJRP No.38, develops a most fascinating theory. He surmises
that the suppression of the target type of cancellations used in the Kingdom of
Poland (Fig. 13) led to the inclusion of Polish towns among the truncated triangle
dot and numeral type with numbers above 843. Dr. Wortman goes on and correlates
the alphabetical order of towns in Kalisz province spelled in Russian and formerly
being allocated to the target types with a numerical sequence. To the credit of
Dr. Wortman, No. 1031-Klodawa is where he predicted it would be. The re-allocation
of Ozorkow, to No. 1054 however, removes this town also located in Kalisz, from
a neat numerical sequence. --






Just prior to press time, an exciting discovery of ten more examples of the subject
cancellations was made. 7ll of these cancellations are from Estonia and are listed
as mail coach stations in "The Estonian Philatelist" No. 16-17 of 1975 pp. 36-38 by
the prominent philatelist Vambola Hurt. This writer would like to point out that
the title of this article might have more appropriately been, "The Straight Line
Cancellations of the 1870's and 1880's". The examples listed below furthermore,
contain all of the characteristics listed above and provide further evidence of the
close links between the subject cancellations and the truncated dot and numeral types.
They are summarised below:


Truncated
Dots No.

372


377


378


Tsarist
"Name

Verder


Leal


Liva


Estonian
Name


Period
of Usage


Virtsu 13 July 1883


Lihula 23 July 1876


Liiva


12 Jan. 1872
21 Mar I 88n


Figure


CT Bepep' eCTr
13 ilom 1883

CT neanb 3CT ryd
23 iaroi 1876 r


CTaBHaR JMBB


il





q


S ....""" 12 mHsapa 17Z sj
CT J1HBa. acra ryT
21 MaA 1880
34 Turpel Turpla 20 Apr. 1882 CTMHUi Typnejib
20 anptia 1882
397 Menzen M niste 1875


398 Moisekyul TMoisakiila 22 July 1875 tOCeK5Onb u 4-
22 Ioia 1875
408 Teilits Tolliste 14 Apr. 1882 CT TeIj4H1.b
Ia anp 1882


410 Udern


Uderna 1877-1886


YAAepHB aJnid
19 OKTH6 1877


Comments


ye" instead of "e"
n "estl" prov





station Liva
t. liva estl prov


Marien-
736 Magdalenen Koeru


CTaH ilKi yHHaBvep
? Kunnafer Konuvere 17 Apr. 1873 17 anptra 1873


Paks Pakke


24 Aug. 1877


palI n c 're r7b
24 a. rycr 1817


"i" instead of "n"
tin "stantsiya"

"ets" instead of
,"est" in prov.
Abbreviation


In closing, this writer does not wish to conclude the topic under discussion
but rather to expand and enlarge upon it. This cannot however, be done without
the participation of our subscribers. Readers are accordingly invited to submit
impressions or xerox copies of interesting cancellations that are the topic of
this article. Readers are furthermore encouraged to search through their
covers to see if they have any of the same with straight line and dot and
numeral cancellations in combination. We would be pleased to use this journal
to list any new discoveries.


1880


*


..........l----- C--





S' T

S3 TANNU
a CATALOG V


B 0 12811 9
z O 5 31 /


o u N sa- .

ye ad.l 10

A t4 U tin

All







Researched, compiled and edited by:
Richard C. Kanak
P.O. Box 395
Berwyn, Illinois 60402

TANNU TUVA


TUVA, Autonomous Soviet Socialistic Republic, or Uriankai
Territory as it was called until 1921, is located in the very
center of the Asiatic mainland. To be geographically accurate,
it is situated between the 50th and 53rd degrees of northern
latitude and the 89th and 100th degrees of eastern longitude,
thus covering an area slightly less than that of Missouri. It is
bounded on the north by Khakass Autonomous Region,
Krasnoyarsk Territory, and Irkutsk Region, on the east by
Buryat-Mongol, A.S.K., on the south by Outer Mongolia, and
on the west by Oirot Autonomous Region. The extensive
valley lies between the Tannu-Ola mountains on the south
and the Savinsky Range on the north. The latter ridge, lying
north of the Sayan mountains, is a part of the Dzhebash range.
Originating within the confines of the Tuva Valley are the
Khua-Kem and Bei-Kem, two streams that unite to form one
of the world's longest rivers, the mighty Yenesei which rises
and flows through the only outlet, the Kemchik Bom, a
narrow gorge in the Sayan Mountains, and out to the Artic Sea.
Practically all Russian explorers, travelers and occasional
tourists who visited Uriankhai, concurred in the opinion that
the territory was extremely rich in all kinds of natural resources,
in addition to its great scenic beauty. A traveler would find
there wild virgin forests taigaa), besides the usual type of
woods which very often covered the entire northern slopes
of the mountainous area, lakes encircled by luxuriant meadows
and wide fertile valleys rich in flora and fauna. The territory
is likewise rich in mineral springs, mainly carbonic and sul-
phuric; there are also hot springs and hot mineral lakes.
The area also abounds with birds, of which there are 370
different species, including buzzard, capercaillie, duck, hazel-
grouse, partridge, pheasant and goose; the rivers and lakes are
rich with burbot, lenok, salmon-trout, sheat-fish, sturgeon,
catfish, carp, omul and some 45 other species making this
region a true hunter's and fisherman's paradise.
Tuva was elevated to Autonomous Republic status on
October 10, 1961 and today is known as TuvA, Autonomous
Soviet Socialist Republic.
An interesting point not known to many people, philatelists
included, is the fact that Tannu Tuva was the first country
prior to World War II to declare war on Germany.
RECENT GENERAL INFORMATION (1970)
Area (sq. mi.): 65,810
Population: 217,000
Capital: (65,000) Kizil
Located at the junction of Bei-Kem and Ula rivers in Imperial
times it was known as Byelotsarsk ("Town of the White
Tsar"), then later as Khem Belder, Krasnoye, Kizil Khoto,
and, finally, Kizil. The last three names mean "Red Town"
or "Red" in Russian and Tuvan respectively.
Mountains: Sayan and Tannu Ola
Nationalities: Tuvan and Russian


Administrative Areas: Bay-Tayginskiy, Barun-Khemchickskiy,
Dzun-Khemchikskiy, Erzinskiy, Kaa-Khemskiy, Ovyurskiy,
Piy-Khemskiy, Tandinskiy, Tes-Khemsckiy, Todzhinskiy,
Ulug-Khemskiy.
Industry: Mining of gold, coal (Kizil, Turan), platinum,
uranium, salt (Dus-Dag), copper (Chadan), cobalt (Khovu-
Aksy), asbestos (Ak-Dovurak); building stone, bricks, ferro-
concrete; furniture; meats, fats, wool, and dairy processing.
Agriculture: Animal husbandry-157,300 cattle, 745,300 sheep,
crops include wheat and maize; hunting; timber.
Airport: Kizil (to Krasnoyarsk)
iRailways: None; nearest station to Kizil is at Abakan some
130 miles away by road.
Press: Tuvan language papers include Shyn (Truth), Syldy-
schigash (Little Star), and Hostug Arat (Free Herdsman).
Language and Script: The old Mongolian language and
vertical script was used officially until the Latin alphabet
was adapted to Tuvan with seven (later six) additional
letters under a decree issued in June, 1930. The Cyrillic
alphabet, with three additional letters, has been used since
1941.
Industrial Production:
Coal (tons) 319,000
Asbestos (tons) 16,600
Timber (cu. yds.) 265,000
Electricity (Hydro-electric stations) 47
Bricks 21,000,000
Ferro-concrete (cu. yds.) 13,000
Footwear (pairs) leather 37,000
Footwear (pairs) felt 59,000


Agriculture:

Sales:



Stock:




Farms:

Schools:



Doctors:


Area under crops (Hectares) 356,800
Grain yield (tons) 284,000

Meat deadweightt tons) 17,300
Milk (tons) 55,200
Eggs 11,300,000
Wool (tons) 1,778
Cows 68,800
Sheep and goats 947,400
Pigs 39,400
Meat products (tons) 5,445
Milk products (tons) 8,441
Butter (tons) 644
Collective 36
State 18
Grammar and High (55,100 pupils) 194
Technical Colleges (3,570 students) 5
Institute of Linguistics, Literature
and History (1,468 students) 1
450


c Copyright 1977, Richard C. Kanak


COPYRIGHT NOTICE

Permission is hereby granted for the use of Richard C. Kanak
catalog numbers and material contained in this catalog by
publishers of newspapers, magazines, periodicals and stamp
dealers in advertising material, circulars and price lists
provided proper acknowledgement is made to Richard C. Kanak.


0


1





100 Kopecks 1 Rouble
100 Kopecks 1 Tugrik
100 Kopecks 1 Aksha


Watermark Type I


1926, October
Watermark Type I
Perf. 13-1/2 Size:







"T.IrT....l.


KANAK NO.


Watermark Type II


20x26mm.


f t :"
1 -



i.



^" ,; '.*y',.^.
I^ i', "!. ... *- *r ,'_
"' ; ,.., ..,

.I/
1^t. ^^,^:*;
1L1 'j-^
^ t';^^1


TYPE DESCRIPTION


1K
2K
5K
8K
10K
30K
50K


Perf. 11


Red
Light Blue
Orange
Yellow Green
Violet
Choc. Brown
Gray Black


Type Al


Size: 22-1/2x30mm.
n 1R Blue Green
3R Claret
5R Deep Blue


NOTE: Official reprint was issued on paper having smooth
gum. A white crackly gum was used for the original.
27


1926
1935
1936


i

i.4
'7
L
i,,.,







TOVVA

K181
POSTAGE


1927, June
11
lla
llb
12
12a
12b
13
13a
14
14a


8K on 50K Gray Black
inverted overprint
double overprint
14K on 1R Blue Green
inverted qverprint
double overprint
18K on 3R Claret
double overprint
28K on 5R Deep Blue
double overprint


NOTE: Original surcharge in bright laquer type ink.
Official reprint is dull and smudged.


1927, June
Perf. 12-1/2,







Type A2


12-1/2x12, 10-1/2







Type A3 Type A4


- -- w r 1
Type v .. ,r


Type A7


Type A6


Type A8 Type A9


Type A10 Type All


V,~

SiType AI- Zf

Type A12Z


0


28














Type A13


Type A15


15 A2 1K Black, Red & Red Brown
15a figure "1" 1.5mm. wide
16 A3 2K Violet, Emerald & Red Brown
17 A4 3K Black, Yellow & Blue Green
18 A5 4K Ultramarine & Red Brown
19 A6 5K Orange, Black & Deep Ultramarine
20 A7 8K Olive Brown, Red Brown, Blue
21 A8 10K Green, Black & Red Brown
22 A9 14K Orange & Deep Violet
23 A10 18K Maroon & Deep Blue
23a Perf. 10x10-1/2x10-l/2
23b 10x11x10-1/2
23c 10-1/2x10x10-1/2
23d i 10-1/2x11x10-1/2
24 All 28K Emerald & Black Brown
25 A12 40K Rose & Blue Green
25a Perf. 10
25b lOx10-1/2
26 A13 50K Red Brown, Blue Green & Black
26a Perf. 10
26b 10x10-1/2
27 A14 70K Ochre & Scarlet
28 A15 1R Orange Brown & Violet
28a fantail margin

1932, April 1
Perf. 10-1/2, 12-1/2x12
ThBA



HOP ffp

29 A12 1K on 40K (Black)
29a Perf. 10
29b 10x10-1/2
30 A13 2K on 50K (Brown)*
30a Perf. 10
30b 10x10-1/2


Type A14







31 A14 3K on 70K (Blue)
31a n inverted overprint
32 A7 5K on 8K (Black)
33 A8 10K (Black)
34 A9 15K on 14K (Black)

*NOTE: A 2K on 50K surchared in Black was prepared but
not issued.


1932, September
Stamps of July, 1927 issue surcharged by
numbering machine in Kizil, Tuva








Z d .' IB',['l l fnm ,_in 'It alm


35 A7 10K on 8K
36 A9 15K on 14K
37 A10 35K on 18K (Black)
37a Perf. 10
37b inverted overprint
37c pair, one without overprint
38 All 35K on Z8K (Black)
38a pair, one without overprint



1933
Russian fiscal stamps surcharged in Kizil, Tuva
Perf. 12x12-1/2










Type A16

"15" 6-3/4mm. tall
39 A16 15K on 6K Orange Yellow
39a postt" omitted
40 35K on 15K Red Brown


NOTE: Second printing in shiny laquer type ink.


















"15" 5-1/4mm. tall
41 A16 15K on 6K Orange Yellow
41a "posta" omitted
41b inverted surcharge
41c "15" omitted
42 35K on 15K Red Brown

NOTE: Second printing in shiny laquer type ink.



1934, April
Watermark Type II
Perf. 12










Type A17 Type A18
42 ''"! !/ 1^
















-Ayp I9 iA
Ty p A7 Type A 1














Type A19 Type A20












a l I t a i iuut i s











Type AZZ Type AZ3






Type A24


43 A17 1K Red Orange 0
44 A18 2K Bronze Green
44a Perf. 11
45 A19 3K Rose Red
46 A20 4K Slate Purple
46a Perf. 11
46b I 11-1/2 (color trial)
47 A21 5K Bright Blue
48 A22 10K Chocolate
48a n Perf. 11
48b n 11x10
49 AZ3 15K Brown Lake
50 A24 20K Black

SAME IMPERFORATE
51 A17 1K Red Orange
52 A18 2K Bronze Green
53 A19 3K Rose Red
54 AZO 4K Slate Purple
55 A21 5K Bright Blue
56 A22 10K Chocolate
57 A23 15K Brown Lake
58 A24 20K Black






1934, April
Perf. 14


Type A25


Type A27











Type A29


59
59a
60
60a
61
61a
62
62a
63
63a
63b
63c
63d
64
64a


A25
It


AZ27

A26

A28
It
tI
Ii

A25
It


Type A26


-r i



Type A



Type A30


1K Orange Red
Perf. 11-1/2
5K Emerald
Perf. 11-1/2
10K Purple Brown
Perf. 11-1/2
15K Rose Red
Perf. 11-1/2
25K Slate Purple
pair, imperforate between
one side imperforate
two sides imperforate
Perf. 11-1/2
50K Deep Bluish Green
Perf. 11-1/2






65 A29 75K Lake
65a Perf. 11-1/2
66 A25 IT Royal Blue
66a Perf. 12-1/2
66b 11-1/2
67 A30 2T Ultramarine (55x27mm.)
67a (60x30mm.)

NOTE: Imperforate and in colors other than listed above
are color trials.



1935
Stamp of April, 1934 surcharged by numbering
machine in Kizil, Tuva
Watermark Type II

68 A23 20K on 15K Brown Lake
68a inverted overprint


1935, March
Pert. 14
Watermark Type II








Type A31









Type A32 Type A33









Type A34




















Type A35 Type A36


69 A31 1K Yellow Orange
70 A32 3K Emerald
71 A33 5K Rose Red
72 A34 10K Red Violet
72a pair, imperforate between
72b imperforate
73 A35 15K Olive Green
74 A36 25K Royal Blue
75 A37 50K Sepia

1935, March
Watermark Type II
Perf. 14





^ -- := .. ,




Type A38 Type A39 Type A40







_-, A- t $ '
4, #A F A .t


TypeA4Typ-e a 42.. TpA4 3...
Type A41 Type A42 Type A43


Type A37











t{f. Vt, ,44 N "<



Type A45 Type A44 Type A46









Type A47

76 A38 1K Orange
77 A39 3K Emerald
77a fantail margin
78 A40 5K Rose Red
78a fantail margin
79 A41 10K Crimson
79a pair, imperforate between
80 A42 25K Orange Red
81 A43 50K Deep Blue
82 A44 IT Red Violet
83 A45 2T Royal Blue
84 A46 3T Red Brown
85 A47 5T Indigo
85a pair, imperforate between


1936, November
15th. Anniversary of Independence
Watermark Type 11
Perf. 11, 14








k. .. ..

\^^ye~ "-r^^ ;" ;
1 p


Type A48 Type A49


Type A50



















Type A51


Type A53


Fir






Type A54


Type A56


Type A55 Type A57


Type A58


r4.
,',- -- i- "- *i- .' ,

V. -


',,1 -< t 'ruai t.
Type.'A5" '9 '" ^TO:'" r u jr -
LU-aTlyp A-5--9----
Type A59


.......... ~ ~ 01vv -. . .




















Type A60


Type A61 Type A62


86-1 A48 1K Bronze Green Perf. 14
86-la imperforate
87-1 A49 2K Sepia Perf. 14
Type I Heavy shading above head
Type II Faint shading above head
87-2 Sepia Perf. 11
88-2 A50 3K Indigo Perf. 11
88-2a imperforate
88-2b fantail margin
89-1 A51 4K Orange Red Perf. 14
89-la imperforate
89-1b fantail margin
89-2 Orange Red Perf. 11
89-2a fantail margin
90-1 A52 5K Brown Purple Perf. 14
90-la imperforate
90-2 Brown Purple Perf. 11
91-1 A51 6K Myrtle Green Perf. 14
91-la imperforate
91-1b fantail margin
91-2 Myrtle Green Perf. 11
91-2a fantail margin
92-1 A52 8K Plum Perf. 14
92-la imperforate
93-1 A53 10K Rose Red Perf. 14
93-la imperforate
93-2 Rose Red Perf. 11
94-1 A54 12K Agate Perf. 14
94-la imperforate
95-1 A53 15K Bronze Green Perf. 14
95-1a imperforate
95-2 Bronze Green Perf. 11
96-1 A54 20K Deep Blue Perf. 14
96-la imperforate





0



38


^h^ *I\~~E~~ y::~
.1


I INol aI vi
.'ji^^w 'Melva

W -~M -..41 -M-AW-1 .Li


* -r tqr 3LS
WS
*,,,,- U u%^ --;. --'P
,-,.>.y-a 'F() & ~'^ A


(.if l'^ ? ;A *O









97-1 A55 25K Orange Red Perf. 14
97-la imperforate
97-2 Orange Red Perf. 11
98-1 A56 30K Plum Perf. 14
98-la imperforate
99-1 A55 35K Rose Red Perf. 14
99-la imperforate
99-lb fantail margin
99-2 Rose Red Perf. 11
99-2a fantail margin
100-1 A57 40K Sepia Perf. 14
100-la imperforate
100-2 Sepia Perf. 11
100-2a fantail margin
101-1 50K Indigo Perf. 14
101-la imperforate
101-2 Indigo Perf. 11
101-2a fantail margin
102-1 A58 70K Plum Perf. 14
102-la imperforate
102-2 Plum Perf. 11
102-2a fantail margin
103-1 A59 80K Green Perf. 14
103-la imperforate
103-2 Green Perf. 11
103-2a fantail margin
104-1 A60 1A Orange Red Perf. 14
104-la imperforate
104-2 Orange Red Perf. 11
104-2a fantail margin
105-1 ZA Rose Red Perf. 14
105-la imperforate
105-2 Rose Red Perf. 11
106-2 A61 3A Indigo Perf. 11
106-2a imperforate
107-1 A62 5A Agate Perf. 14
107-la imperforate


EDITORS NOTE:

No explanation can be given as to why a few values exist only
Perf. 11, others in Perf. 14 and the majority of the values in
both Perf. 11 and 14.


1







1936
Perf. 14


Type A63


.r Pro I,. j










Type A65


Type A67


Vk I I 1 "
T-J 5







Type A66


5K Indigo & Flesh
imperforate
10K Purple & Cinnamon
imperforate
fantail margin
15K Agate & Pale Gray
pair, imperforate between
imperforate
25K Plum & Cream
Perf. 11
pair, imperforate between
imperforate
50K Rose Red & Cream
imperforate
75K Emerald & Light Yellow
imperforate
1A Green & Pale Green
imperforate
ZA Rose Red & Cream
imperforate
fantail margin
3A Sepia & Flesh
imperforate


108
108a
109
109a
109b
110
ll0a
S10b
111
Illa
Illb
11lc
112
112a
113
113a
114
114a
115
115a
115b
116
116a


A63

A64
It
It
A63
is
it
A65
It
ot
It
A66
It
A65
tn
A67
It
It
It
it
11


0






1938, August
Previous stamps surcharged with large
numerals with old values obliterated


5K on ZA
5K on 2A
10K on IT

20K on 50K
30K on 2A
30K on 3A


Rose Red
Rose Red & Cream
Royal Blue Perf. 14
Perf. 12-1/2
Sepia
Rose Red & Cream
Sepia & Flesh


1938, December
Previous stamps with
and colors changed
Perf. 12-1/2

123
124
125
126
127


designs modified


A40
A53
A63
A54
A59


5K Green
10K Indigo
15K Red Brown
20K Orange Red
30K Maroon


NOTE: On numbers 123 and 127 the dates have been removed;
number 125 the dates and "Airmail" both were removed.


1939
Surcharged Provisionals
Handstamped in Kizil, Tuva
and old values obliterated
Perf. 14


128
128a
128b
129


A25
nA

A37


1940-41
Previous stamps surcharged
in Violet, at Kizil, Tuva.


with small numbers
(On numbers 66 and 75)


10K on IT Royal Blue (Black)
Perf. 12-1/2
Violet surcharge
20K on 50K Sepia


with small numbers,


10K on IT Royal Blue
Perf. 12-1/2
20K on 50K Sepia
20K on 50K Deep Blue
20K on 50K Indigo
20K on 50K Rose Red & Cream
20K on 75K Emerald & Light Yellow
20K on 80K Green


117
118
119
119a
120
121
122


A60
A67
A25

A37
A67
n


u s c 6

e..= -. s e


No. 126


130
130a
131
132
133
134
135
136


AZ5

A37
A43
A57
A66
A65
A59








25
1942 25
Numbers 106-1 and 107-'1 surcharged at Kizil, Tuva,


137
138


A61
A62


25K on 3A Indigo (Black)
25K on 5A Agate (Black)


1942
21st. Anniversary of Independence
Imperforate


. T 0. ... i 4 .

Type A69


NOTE:
A 25K (Tuva man) and 50K (sol
prepared but never issued.


Type A70


25K Steel Blue
se-tenant with
se-tenant with
25K Steel Blue
se-tenant with 1
se-tenant with
25K Steel Blue
se-tenant with 1
se-tenant with 1
strip of 5

dier with horse) were


140
141

39
141

139
40


*


*


fft>\lll~~l


139
139a
139b
140
140a
140b
141
141p.
141b
141c


A68
it

A69
II
ii
A70
It
ti


_ ______ I


Strip of 5 (141c)






1943
22nd. Anniversary of
Independence
Perf. 11

















ThiA 25 l
. .










Type A71 No. 142a Type A72
(Reduced)


142 A71 25K Slate Blue
142a vertical strip of 5
142b pair, imperforate between
142c printed both sides
143 Black
143a vertical strip of 5
143b partial double impression
144 Blue Green
144a block of 4
145 A72 50K Blue Green
145a block of 4

NOTE:
Numbers 142 and 143 were printed in vertical strips of 5, sepa-
rated by a single line of perforations, thus are found with top
or bottom or both top and bottom of each stamp perforated.
Numbers 144 and 145 were printed in blocks of four comprising a
vertical pair of the 25K and a vertical pair of the 50K each
stamp separated vetically and horizontally by a line of per-
forations se-tenant pairs exist. Stamps are known with and
without gum on both white wove or yellowish paper.



Award winning album pages are available with spaces for all of the
major issues. Consists of a glossy cover, 3 pages of historical and
* geographical background, 2 pages of bibliography, 2 blank pages and
19 pages for mounting stamps. Fully illustrated and annotated.
Available from the publisher Richard C. Kanak, P.O. Box 395, Berwyn,
L11inois-60402
43
Rev. ,10-2-77







Public Auctions for the Specialist


Three catalogs available:


1. Postal History, Stamps, Proofs & Essays of
the Russian Offices in Central & Eastern
Asia
(China, Manchuria, Sinkiang, Maritime Mail, etc.)
Also included are the Far Eastern Republic, Mongolia,
Siberia and Tannu Tuva.



II. Stamps, Proofs & Essays of Russia, Russian
Republics & States.
Also included are General Foreign, United States, and
British Commonwealth.


111. Postal History of Russia, Russian Republics &
States.
Also included are General Foreign, United States and
British Commonwealth.


Please let us know which catalogs you would like to receive.


George Alevizos
320 Wilshire Blvd. Suite 306
Santa Monica, CA 90401
Tel: (213) 450-2543


i






RUSSIAN PAQUEBOT MAIL AT GENSAN (WonsanN. Korea)

by A.Cronin
In the August 1977 issue of Philately of the USSR, pp. 47-48 Prof. K. Eerngard
of Moscow discusses Russian Ship Mail to Korea, taking his background information
S fram Part Six of Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad ", by S. D Tchilinghirian
and W. S. E. Stephen. He also illustrates a 3 kop. Imperial postcard, with
additional 1 kop. postage, now in his collection. It was written by a Japanese
and since Prof. Berngard does not tells us what the written message contains,
it is assumed that the sender wrote it upon boarding a Russian ship at Vladivostok.
The card was handed over as Paquebot mail to the Imperial Japanese Post Office
in the port of Gensan ( Wonsan, North Korea ) on July 17, 1899. It received
there the well-known Japanese I. J. P. O. marking and was sent on to Osaka, to where
it was addressed in Japanese.

Further material with the arrival marking of this Japanese Post Office abroad in
the Korean Empire is held here in Toronto, namely:-

(a) An Imperial 1 trouble stamp horizontally laid and perf 13 1/2, in the A. I. Artuchov
collection, with the Gensan I. J. P. O. marking dated 5 July 96 ( ? ) see
Fig. 1. The last figure in the year date is not clear, but this is a previously
unrecorded value, all the others being in the low kopek range. A rouble
was a lot of money in those days and so this must be quite a scarce usage,
possibly from a parcel card.

(b) A four kopek Imperial postal card in the Cronin collection, addressed to
England and endorsed Via Japan and Vancouver ". It was cancelled by the
Gensan I. J. P. O. arrival dated 8 Aug. 00, as well as by a framed Paquebot
cachet, measuring 10 x 38 1/2 mm. and struck in exactly the same shade of
black ( see Fig. 2 ). In other words, this is an unrecorded Paquebot cachet,
specifically for the Japanese P. O. at Gensan and it also appears on Prof.
Berngard's card, although he did not realise its full significance. The
card in Fig. 2 reached Nagasaki on Aug. 12, Yokohama on Aug. 15, Bedford on
Sept. 11 and was redirected to Sharnbrook, arriving the same day.

The written message on the back is noteworthy and reads as follows:- Vladivostok,
August 7th 1900, Yamashiro Mard'.

My Dear Tots,

I posted a card at Vladivostok last trip for Cyril, but I hear it is still lying
there on account of the trouble on the Amur River and the borders of Siberia.
The Russian Govt. having taken all the river steamers to carry troops, so there
is no mail going thro' at present, but as soon as the route is opened again, it
will be sent on. Probably by the time we get back it will be open, when I will
send you and Rrnest one also by that route. There is no definite news about the
people at Pekin yet. I hope they are all right. I am glad to say that I am
well and I hope this will find you all well, having enjoyed your holidays so far
and that you all had good records at the term time. Give my love to Ernest and
Cyril and lots of the same for your dear self.

Ever your loving and affectionate father "
We can see that the message is important on at least two points : -

(a) It contains obvious references to the Boxer Rebellion in China.

* (b) Prepaid Russian mail was being handed to a Japanese vessel in Vladivostok,
( maru is the Japanese word for ship ) and then treated as Paquehot
mail when off loaded at the Gensan T. J. P. O. This was not exactly in
accordance with U. P. U. regulations since the nationality of the stamps
and the ship should be the same and all previous pieces of Paquebot mail
45






must have been posted aboard Russian ships. But, of course, the circumstances
were now ( 1900 ) exceptional.

Further data on the Gensan I. J. P. O usages would be appreciated from readers of
The Post-Rider ".


lJ^r BCEMIPHLIJ fOn TOB3br f co6i3'1
UNION IPSTALE IWVERS'EIISLLE.


-ii







An up to date price i.st available on rt.











and eharist Russia including: various townu i
Offs. Please inquire.g. 2





















L& F STAMP SERVICE
SUDIMONDALE MICoIGANI 488




- NWe handle specialized approvals of early teviet
and Tsarist Russia including: various town

uuuu






THE LITERATURE OF

RUSSIAN PHILATELY

by P.J.Campbell
CONTINUED FROM No. 1-
This is the second part of a series of articles on the basic literature of
Russian philately. In Part 1 of the article, which appeared in YAMSHCHIK No. 1
of September 1977, it was pointed out that this article does not attempt to review
or evaluate the material, only to list it with comments as to origin and scope,
so that those interested will know where to look for information to support their
researches. It will be remembered that the first part of this article included
the Introductiona and Section 1 "Journals of Philatelic Societies". As before,
the underlined word in the titles below is the "key" which will be used in
Section 7 of this article to cross-reference all literature described.

While some of the catalogues described below may be in unfamiliar languages,
out-of-date copies can usually be purchased for a couple of dollars and can
often supply cross-references of additional data of interest. It is really not
necessary to know the various languages, as illustrations, plus the chronological
layout, make identification clear and the amount of text is very limited. Most
foreign catalogues give a list of terms in other languages, which must constitute
some sort of tribute to the English language, for catalogues in English generally
give no translation aids at all, except for Scott.

One final point of interest is the size of the illustrations. Most catalogues,
including Minkus, Pochtovye Marki SSSR, Scott, Gibbons and Yvert et Tellier reduce
the size of the stamp by about 30% for the illustrations. The Borek, Michel and
Zumstein make a 50% reduction in the size of the stamp. Perhaps, all catalogues
will have to go to the smaller size as the number of stamps grows.

2.0 GENERAL STAMP CATALOGUES

2.1 Borek-Katalog "Sowjetunion", Verlag Richard Borek; Braunschweig, West Germany
Tin German)
This is a general catalogue of Russian stamps, from the imperforate "arms"
issue of 1857 up to date, well illustrated, clearly printed, and with
pricing shown in Vest German marks. The introduction points out that it is
a stamp catalogue and not a philatelic handbook, meaning that the stamps are
simply shown in the correct order without additional information other than
type of printing, watermark, perforation, and colour. The numbering system
is very close to Michel, but does not correspond exactly. Souvenir sheets
and airmail stamps are shown in their chronological position rather than
segregated as in some catalogues. A small section at the back lists official
stamps, revenues, Wenden, some basic Civil War issues, Offices Abroad and
Eastern Republics.

2.2 Michel Briefmarken Katalog, Europa (in German)
Published annually by Verlag Das Schwaneberger Album, Eugen Berlin GmbH,
Munich, West Germany.
This is one of the most widely used stamp catalogues in the world, and gives
all pricing in Deutsche Mark. It covers the usual range of Tsarist and
Soviet stamps and gives the usual information. Illustrations are clear
although rather small and many varieties are shown, although not all. Michel
is one of the few catalogues that gives the name of the designer of the stamp
and the name of the engraver when appropriate. The subject of the stamps is
also stated and in some cases the quantity of the stamps printed. A section
at the back shows sane of the more common postage dues, official revenue and
control stamps, with current pricing as well as Wenden, Civil War, Offices
Abroad and Far East. Michel quite frequently mentions or illustrates some of









the fantasies or spurious issues, a most useful feature for both dealers
collectors. Another interesting section of Michel is one of the most
extensive pricing studies of the various types of Trident issues of the
Ukraine, complete with many illustrations; one entire page is devoted to
variations of the Podolia Trident Another feature of Michel is an extremely
comprehensive four-page listing of philatelic terms in five languages
( German, French English, Spanish and Portuguese ), as well as a three
page translation chart for colours.

2.3 Minkus Stamp Catalogue ( in English )

This catalogue is put out annually by Minkus Publications of New York.
In recent editions, Russia shares a volume with Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Poland and Roumania. The numbering system corresponds to those of the
various stamp albums put out by the same company. Illustrations are good
and printing clear, with excellent little historic write-ups at the start
of the various sections. Minkus lists nearly all of the generally known
varieties and differentiates between perforate and imperforate is their
pricing, unlike the other popular American catalogue Scott. In the back
of the book Minkus shows the usual Civil War Offices Abroad, Wenden, Far
Eastern Republic etc., as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and one
of the best listings of the Ukraine, including the Tridents and the Wrangels
and an extensive listing of the overprints of the Russian Company of
Navigation and Trade. It is most convenient to have all these peripheral
areas of Russian philately in the same book as the Tsarist/Soviet material
rather than scattered through several volumes as in some other catalogues.

2.4 Katalog Pochtovye Marki SSR 1918-1974 ( in Russian )

This is the standard stamp catalogue of the USSR and it is printed by
the Central Philatelic Agency Soyuzpechat in Moscow. It has been
issued irregularly since it first appeared in 1927, with new issues in
1933, 1948, 1951, 1955, 1958, 1963 and the current edition of 1976.
Supplements appear between reprintings in order to list the latest
issues. The original 1927 issue listed all the Tsarist stamps
back to what we know as Russia ob. 1 the imperforate issue
of December 1857 as well as the territories and the possessions in the
Near and Far East and the provisional governments. The 1933 issue,
however, omitted all stamps prior to the revolution as though philately
began in 1917. Some varieties were listed, but not all. The 1948
issue showed rather more varieties, but the reissue of 1951 omitted
all errors and varieties and covered stamps only from 1921 to 1950. The
1955 edition still showed the 10 August 1921 issue as the first stamps, giving
the designation of No. 1 to what we know as Scott # 177 ( Gibbons # 195 ).
The catalogue cave names of designers, methods of printing and perforations,
an improved listing of errors and varieties, as well as a cross-index of
themes, useful, to the topical collector. The 1955 catalogue and its
three supplements were produced in a print run of 20,000 copies which seems
to be ridiculously low for a country of 260 million inhabitants. The
Soviet catalogue was issued again in 1958 with 620 pages and 25,000 copies.

The issue current at the time of writing is the catalogue dated 1976,
which includes stamps up to December 1974. It is interesting to note
that this latest catalogue now shows Russia No. 1 as the 35 kopek chain
cutter ( Scott # 149, SG # 187 ) and indicates 25 October 1918 as date of
issue. Pochtovye Marki FSSR 1918-1974 is well printed with good illustrations









and consists of 837 pages with a print run of 100,000 copies, better than
before, but still relatively low. The catalogue gives the name of the
designer and figures as to number of stamps issued; perhaps the most
valuable feature of the catalogue. The back of the catalogue lists the
Consular Airmails, postage dues, the philatelic overprints on the chain
cutter ", charity stamps, sane revenues, etc. that had postal usage plus
a 37 page thematic cross index of 26 themes ( sport, space, philately
on stamps, etc. ) also a 14 page index of the people named on the stamps
of Russia ( including Robert Burns, O. Henry, Bernard Shaw and Mark Twain ).
These last two indexes would be a useful addition to our Western catalogues.

2.5 Sanabria's Air Post Catalogue ( in English )

This catalogue published by Nicholas Sanabria Co. Inc. of New York
( and also in London, England ) lists only the stamps issued for air
mail usage, although there are some exceptions to this general rule. The
modern tendency to send all mail by air, franked by ordinary definitive
or commemoratives will result in the demise of the air mail stamps so
popular in the 1930's to the 1950's. Sanabria covers air mail stamps in
rather more detail than other catalogues, with a few words about each
stamp or set of stamps and giving prices ( in US dollars ) for the stamps
mint, used and on cover. Sanabria has unfortunately devoted little research
to identify the aeroplanes or airships on the stamps and errors abound.
The Sanabria airpost catalogue has little to offer that is not available in
general catalogues.

2.6 Scott Standard Postage Stamps Catalogue ( in English )

Published annually by Scott Publishing Company of New York; now in its
133rd. edition. Scott is the standard catalogue of North America and the
standard numbering system for all North American auctions, articles and
exchanges. Pricing is in US dollars although, historically most dealers sell
the more caomon stamps at either 50%, 60%, 70% or 80% of the Scott valuation
depending on condition and dneand. The Scott Publishing Canpany, which does
not sell stamps itself, states that prices represent an estimate, based on
study of current wholesale and retail offerings, together with recommendations
and information submitted by leading philatelic societies ( including
Rossica ). The estimated value shown represents a proper price basis for
a fine specimen when offered by an informed dealer to an informed buyer.
Exceptionally fine specimens, covers or unusual postmarks, etc., can result
in sales far above Scott's estimated value. Tsarist and Soviet Russia
currently occupy over one hundred pages in Scott and there is no attempt to
list the designers or engravers. Airmail issues are listed separately at
the back, together with semi-postals, postage due, Wenden, Aunus,
Ostland, Offices in China and Turkey and the Wrangels. Separate listings
are made for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Batum, Estonia, Far East Republics,
Georgia, Farelia, Latvia, Lithuania, Siberia,South Russia, Tanna Tuva,
Transcaucasian Federal Republic, Ukraine, Western Ukraine and White Russia,
which means that these allied areas of interest are scattered through
more than one volume, unfortunately. Scott lists some varieties, but misses
many that are well known and causes same problems by inserting a note








exists imperf" after many sets for which the imperforate copies are
available in substantial quantities, although they were printed in smaller
numbers. This policy means that no price is quoted for the imperforate
and the stamp albums put out by Scott generally leave no space for these
collectable items. Notwithstanding the above, Scott is one of the great
catalogues of the world and an essential item for any serious North American
collector, even though it is not necessary to purchase a copy every year.

2.7 Stanley Gibbons ( in English )

This catalogue issued annually by Stanley Gibbons Limited of the Strand in
London, England is another of the great catalogues of the world, its
numbering system and pricing being one of the recognized norms of the
philatelic scene in England and in many other countries. Reproduction is
excellent and there are brief, but clear, historical notes. The number
of errors and varieties listed are reasonably good and it is the only
English-language catalogue that indicates the name of the designer of the
stamp and the engraver if appropriate, The Civil War issues, South Russia
(including the Wrangels) the 1941-45 German Occupation and Polish Consular
Post in Odessa are listed behind Soviet Russia, all other related fields
being scattered in other volumes. Stanley Gibbons are one of the few
publishers of catalogues who actually sell stamps I

2.8 Catalogue de Timbres-Poste Yvert et Tellier (in French)

Another classic, standard catalogue for the francophone world and basis for
a series of stamp albums. The Y&T is used for the Cercle Philat6lique
France-URSS catalogue (see section 3.2 of this article). One of the most
helpful features of this catalogue is an alphabetical index of the stamps
of Russia and the USSR, classified by subject, most useful to locate specific
subjects among the nearly 4500 different stamps issued; there is also a
Cyrillic alphabet, to aid transliteration. One feature that is unique is a
pair of parallel lines at the head of the section listing imperforate stamps.
This device represents the space which separates adjacent imperforate stamps
and is a good guide as to the margin one must have to be certain that a
single stamp is actually an imperforate rather than a cropped version of a
perforated stamp. Y&T has a good philatelic lexicon, a table of numerals
in six languages, also a table which lists all colours and chooses a single
European stamp as a sample of that colour. Y&T groups airmails at the back
of the catalogue as does Scott and also lists souvenir sheets all together
which is useful. The Russian section closes with Wenden, German Occupation,
1914-18 and 1941-45, Batum, Ukraine (including tridents), some Civil War,
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Siberia and Far Eastern Republic, which saves
a lot of searching. Yvert and Tellier is certainly one of the finest
catalogues printed and has certain features which make it well worth having.

2.9 Briefmarken Katalog Zumstein (in German)

Published by Zumstein et Cie. of Bern, Switzerland and one of the best of
our list of classic catalogues. This catalogue is much used in Europe and
has excellent listings of recognized issues, with their perforation varieties
and a few of the usual varieties,although many known varieties are omitted.
One particularly interesting feature is the inclusion of certain of the more
doubtful issues (the Phrygian bonnets of 1917, the Odessa Famine of 1922,

:0


1









the 1925 Soviet Philatelic Association overprints on the 1914 and 1915
charity sets ) in their proper chronological places, with notes discussing
their status. This policy is continued at the back of the book where various
local 1941 42 issues are shown ( Odessa, Alexanderstadt, Luga, Pleskau,
etc. ); such notes are most useful to collectors and dealers alike. The
back of the book also shows postage dues, the Consular Airmails, Wenden,
some Civil War and Russian Post in China and Turkey.

2.10 Lipsia Briefmarken Katalog ( in German )

Published in Leipzig, German Democratic Republic,at irregular intervals as
a catalogue of the world's stamps. It is rarely seen in the West and appears
to be the successor of the pre-war SENF catalog. That latter catalog had
an intelligent listing of Russian and Soviet issues including some rare
provisionals and it is assumed that the LIPSIA has followed in the same
footsteps. Its numbering system has been referred to frequently by philatelic
journals in Fastern Europe.

Section 3.0 SPECIALIZED STAMP CATAALOUES

3.1 Grosser Ganzsacher Katalog by Dr. Ascher ( in German )

This is the great work on postal history, published in two volumes between
1925 and 1928 by Robert Noske, of Leipzig, Germany and consisting of over
1,000 pages. The catalogue contains valuable lists of Russia, Russian
Post in China, the Levant, Armenia, Far Eastern Republic, Ukraine, Poland
and Finland. The listings of Zemstvo postal stationery were translated and
republished in BTRP No. 46, pages 16 24. The Ascher numbering system
is carmonly used to identify particular items in auctions and literature,
but this is not very helpful if one doesn't have the catalogue. Higgins and
Gage ( see 3.12 ) is more useful as it is still available and because it
covers material up to date.

3.2 Catalogue of Soviet Special Postal Cancellations ( in Russian )

This 96 page catalogue was published in 1963 by Glavnaya Filatelistitcheskaya
Kontora for the Russian Ministry of Culture in Moscow. It covers the
period 1922 to 1961, listing all the 360 special official cancels of the
Soviet period up to 1961. There were no special cancels between the revolution
and 19 August 1922, when a cancel was issued in Moscow for Philately Day.
Fifteen thousand of the catalogues were printed in paper covers at 40 kopeks.
The illustrations are clear and can be related to the date of issue without
being able to read Russian.

3.3 Les Timbres-Poste, Marques Postales-Etiers Varietes-Oblit&rations diverse,
etc. Russie Imperiale ( in French )

This is one of a group of two catalogues issued by the Cercle Philatelique
France-UPSS, so we will identify it as CPFU I to distinguish it from the
other ( see 3.4 below ). This extremely fine specialized catalogue was
issued to all members of the Cerce Philatelique in May of 1964 and it
covers the philately of Imperial Russia up to the revolution. A slim
volume of 100 pages, it has chapters on geography, history, postal history,
data on printing, postal rates, the Cyrillic alphabet, aids to translation,
brief sections on postal envelopes and cards and then a detailed listing of the









various issues of adhesive stamps from 1857 to 1917 finishing with the
Phrygian bonnet overprints. There is then a series of articles on pre-adhesive
postal markings, cancellations ( including railways dot and timn cancels )
and it finishes with a few pages on wartime mute "cancels and Zemstvo
issues. What more could one ask ? This is the catalogue that changed
many collectors into philatelists The numbering system used is based on
the French Yvert et Tellier catalogue, but somewhat expanded.

3.4 Timbres-Poste:URSS (in French)

This is the second of the two specialized catalogues put out by the Cercle
Philatelique France-URSS and it covers the period from 1917 to 1941; it is
dated March 1969 and there have been no revisions, only a post-printing
errata sheet. We will identify it as CPFU II. The catalogue runs to 125
pages, starting with sane history, sane translation aids, a particularly
detailed section on postal tariffs then the regular listing for all Soviet
stamps after 1919. The listings start with the postal use of Savings Stamps,
then the "Chainbreaker" stamps of the RSFSR (now recognized as Russia No,l
by the Soviet catalogue) and continue up to the last stamps issued before
World War II, in June of 1941. Included in the above are three extremely
fine sections on the"provisional issues" of 1920, 1921 and 1922 when all
available stamps were overprinted or hand-stamped in a period of Civil War
and inflation. The catalogue lists great numbers of varieties not seen
elsewhere, including all sorts of fantailss" perforation varieties, printing
varieties, etc., all priced in French francs. The prices, although outdated,
form a useful idea of relative value, although sane are open to argument
of course. Airmail stamps are then listed followed by souvenir sheets,
postage due and the overprints used by the Soviet Philatelic Association to
tax philatelic material being sent abroad; finally there is a small section
on Soviet postcards, special cancellations and mixed frankings. A very fine
and useful publication and let us hope that it will be updated and reissued.
The two fine CPFIJ catalogues have never to my knowledge been translated into
English, but the Imperial Russia issue was translated into Norwegian in 1965.

3.5 Catalogue of the Ukrainian Postage Stamps. P. Chastin ( in Ukrainian )

This catalogue was published in 1950; I have not seen a copy.

3.6 Catalogue of Russian Rural Postage Stamps ( Zemstvo-Post ) F. G. Chuchin
( in Russian with an English Edition ) Chuchin I

This one of the classic works on the Zemstvo ( rural or local issue )
stamps of Russia and original copies fetch a high price. F. G. Chuchin
was the Soviet Canrissar for Philately. Offset copies of this catalogue
were reprinted in Syracuse, New York in 1973. The book known simply as
Chuchin was compiled by a committee of Petrograd philatelists and published
by the Soviet State Philatelic Organization in 1925 to update and replace
the Schmidt-Faberqc Catalogue of 1910 ( see 3.9 ). Chuchin is in octavo
format; it lists and illustrates Zemstvo stamps alphabetically from
Akhtyrka to ZoFotonosha in 191 pages, recording the stamps of 163 different
Zemstvo districts. There is a most useful alphabetic index of 163 districts.
While it can be said that there are inaccuracies and anissions in Chuchin, it
is certainly the most authoritative Zemstvo catalogue available.in the English
language.









3.7 Catalogue of the Postage Stamps and Entires of Ukraina, by F. G. Chuchin
( in Russian )

Another catalogue published in 1927, which I cannot review from personal
knowledge. Suggest it be identified as Chuchin II.

3.8 Description of the Russian Zemstvo Postage Stamps, Envelopes and Wrappers,
by Dimitrii Nikolaevich Chudovskii ( in Russian )

This was a descriptive handbook of Zemstvo stamps and it was published in
Kiev in 1888. The preface has been translated into English and published
in Rossica Journal No. 72. A copy of the catalogue is said to be in the
Yudkin Collection in the American Library of Congress.

3.9 Katalog aller Postwertzeichen der russischen Landschaftsimter or Katalog
Russkikh Zemskih Pochtovykh Znakov by K. Schmidt ( bilingual in German
and Russian )

One of the earliest catalogues of the Zemstvo stamps of Russia was that
prepared by A. C. Faberg6 and Karl Schmidt and generally known as Faberge
and Schmidt. It was issued in 1908 and was printed in Russian and German.
It covered the towns and cities alphabetically from A to K. The balance
of the work was interrupted by the turmoil of war and revolution. Chuchin
published his work in 1925 ( see 3.6 ) and Schmidt put it all together in his
masterwork ( see 3.23 ).

3.10 Catalogue des Timbres Fiscaux, Third Edition, by A. Forbin ( in French )

It is a remarkable fact, but this is the most recently published work on
revenue stamps and this 800-page edition came out in 1915 The various
fiscal stamps of Russia are covered on pages 675 through 694 and considerable
detail is given regarding paper, watermarks, perforations and varieties of a
wide range of stamps issued for consular, general tax, tobacco, passport,
the courts, police, hospital, alcohol, mineral water, local taxes, work
permits, funds for lost children, Red Cross, medicines, etc.. The Forbin
catalogue was first published by Yvert et Tellier in 1905 to replace the
earlier catalogue of Moens (see paragraph 3.17 below). Original Forbins are
scarce and expensive so most use the reprint from Zinkel of Madison, Wisconsin
or simply photostat the pages required if one knows a lucky owner. Talk of
a world-wide revenue catalogue seems to have come to nought and it would
surely be a daunting prospect!

3.11 Illustrated Catalogue of Postage Stamps by Dr. John Edward Gry (in English)

This was a catalogue published in London, and it apparently included 35 pages
on Zemstvos in its 500 pages. The sixth edition was published in 1875, but
I have no further details.

3.12 Priced Catalogue of Postal Stationery of the World. Edited by E.G. Fladung,
Published by Higgins and Gage,Inc. of Pasadena, California (in English)

This fine catalogue is happily split into different sections, which means only
the required sections need be purchased. Section 15 ( Reunion to Ryukyu)
includes Russia and current price is $6.00. There are 62 pages covering
formulaa, postal and letter cards, wrappers, envelopes, letter sheets, money
orders, etc., well illustrated, although a little difficult to use. It is
possible, nevertheless, to locate virtually all one's postal stationery
treasures and to establish a fair price basis for sale or trade.
53








3.13 Russian Rural Stamps by William Herrick

The literature mentions this 1896 catalogue in connection with Zemstvos. I have
never seen one and the editor would welcome a brief summary as an addendum to
this article.

3.14 Handbuch Postwertzeichen der Rural-Posten von Russland, by Hugo Lubkert
(in German)

This is one of the earliest catalogues, variously reported as 1872-73 or 1882;
perhaps there were different editions.

3.15 Catalogue of Foreign Private Stamps and Entires, Cancellations, Revenue Stamps
and Flap Seals pertaining to the Ukraine, by J.G. Makymczuk ( in Ukrainian)

With a title like that, who needs a review? These little 5x7 inch booklets
are put out by J.G. Maksymczuk of Chicago, They were first issued in Germany
in 1950, updated by supplements in 1957 and 1960 and republished in 1962 and
1966, covering different or additional ground. They are important references
for they cover material that does not appear anywhere else except in sane
cases by Marcovitch (see 3.16) and by Stefanowsky (see 3 24). The 1962 booklet
covers three main fields:
1. Private Stamps: a description roughly equivalent to the term cinderella or
erinnophilia, including all sorts of non-postal charity, propaganda,
exhibitions and fund-raising labels. This section also covers a few special
cancellations and it is further broken broken down into the various periods
of occupation of the Ukraine by Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia.
2. Revenue Stamps: again segregated for the various periods of occupation.
3. Flap Seals: A wide range of small circular seals used on the flaps of letters.
The first breakdown is by the period of occupation, then further into the
issuing agencies (government, institutions, private firms) and then finally
by the type of usage (administration, treasury, courts, banks, etc.).
The 1966 booklet covers further material in the same fields, but adds a
considerable section on special cancellations. These are important catalogues
for, while they concentrate on material issued in the Ukraine, they cover the
period from 1897 into the 1960's and list much material that can be found
nowhere else. The illustrations are excellent, but is to be regretted that the
catalogues are not available in English.

3.16 Vignettes of Russia, by Emile Marcovitch (in English)

This little catalogue of the non-postal stamps of Imperial Russia covers the
period up to August, 1914. It was issued in Pittsburg in 1971 by Willian
Ittel. Emile Marcovitch was the one who favoured the use of the word
"erinnophilia" for the collecting of non-postal labels and vignettes and this
catalogue of 94 pages represents one of the few published works in the field.
As a supplement to the above volume, an astonishing series of articles in the
Rossica Journal was written by Emile Marcovitch; Volumes 48 to 64 carried the
series on erinnophilia (vignettes) and Volumes 55 to 58 continued with the
stamps known as "fantasies". These are of tremendous value and are unequalled
in their field,

3.17 Catalogue Prix-Courant de Timbres-Poste, by J.B. Moens

This catalogue covers telegraphs, envelopes and wrappers, cards,money orders
and revenue stamps. Part 5 of Volume III covers revenue stamps, with eleven
pages of text and illustrations to cover the revenue stamps of Russia. The
catalogue was issued once in 1893 and is not as complete as the later Forbin







(see 3.10 above), but the illustrations are far clearer in Moens.


3.18 Special Catalogue of the Postage Stamps of Russia, Part 1. Imperial Section,
by J.H. Reynolds (in English)

This catalogue was published by the British Society of Russian Philately in
1957. I have not seen this catalogue, but it was reviewed in Rossica #52/53
where it is described as an excellent catalogue for the specialist, with a
careful outline of forgeries, fakes and bogus issues of Imperial Russia. It
seems that all the "arms" issues are well covered, plus all the general issues
along with essays, proofs, colour trails, paper and plate varieties. The
Charity issues and the Romanov Trecentennary issues are also well handled
and all are profusely illustrated, tabulated and documented in detail; all for
a 1957 price of $2.15. With such a description, it is surely time for a reprint!

3.19 Catalogue de Russie et des Etats Issus de 1'Ancien Empire Russe, by Rcmeko
(in French)

This catalogue was issued in France by the famous philatelic house of Romeko
in 1927. It is said to have been one of the principal sources for the CPFU
catalogues (3.3 above). It is useful, as it lists many varieties of Russia
and States, not found in general catalogues.

3.20 There was an 1886 Zemstvo catalogue known as Roussin, another of the group of
the early catalogues that were superseded by the works of Schmidt and Chuchin.

3.21 Sammlung Russischer Landschaftsmarken im Reichspostmuseum (in German)

This is one of the works of Karl Schmidt which describe the Zemstvo stamps of
Russia. It can best be identified as Schmidt I, as suggested by the late
Fred Speers. This volume was published in Berlin in 1934 by the German
Ministry of Posts, after Schmidt had donated his huge Zemstvo collection
to the Reichsmuseum. This work was also the basis for a 1973 reprint, entitled
"Landschaftsmarken Semstvo Katalog", issued by Nikolai Sorokin of Syracuse,
New York.

3.22 Landschaftsmarken Semstvo Katalog. This is a reprint of Schmidt I ( see 3.21 )

3.23 Die Postwertzeichen der Russischen Landschaftsaemter, by Karl Schmidt (in German)

This is the monumental work which is best identified as Schmidt II. The
first volume (Akhtyrka to Luga) was published in Berlin, Charlottenburg, in
1928 and the second volume in Dresden in 1934. Perhaps, the finest article
written on Zemstvo stamps is the forward and introduction to Schmidt II,
which was translated into English and published in the Rossica Journals Nos.
70 and 72. It is well worth reading for anyone in that field. Schmidt
based his work on the catalogues of Moens and Herrick and on the 1896 Gibbons,
on his own huge collection and by correspondence with many of the best known
European collectors of the period.

3.24 Sonderkatalog Ukraine 1918/23 von Dr. R. Seichter (in German)

This specialized catalogue (Sonderkatalog) of the philately of the Ukraine
between 1918 and 1923 was actually a series of handbooks published by Dr.
Seichter in Soltau, Hannover, West Germany. The first came out in 1947,
followed by a reissue in 1956, a supplement in 1957 (for Poltava), a further
supplement in 1961 (for Kharkov) and a reissue in 1966. The various parts of
the series cover the Skoropadsky Regime under German Occupation, the Petlura







Regime and Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic before the amalgamation with
the USSR as well as covering Polish Occupation issues, field posts, postal
stationery, tridents, mutes, philatelic and fantastic issues, provisionals,
Wrangels, etc.. The late Dr. Seichter was well known as an expert on the
stamps of the Ukraine and as president of the Ukraine Philatelisten Verban W
of Germany.

3.25 A Listing of the Fiscal Stamps of the Soviet Government (RSFSR and USSR),
by E.E. Stefanowsky (in English)

This is actually an article published in two issues of The American Revenuer "
in June 1961 and April 1962, but it is virtually the only source anywhere
that attempts to list fiscal material after the revolution ( see also section
3.15 of this article ). The article starts with some additions and corrections
to Forbin, then goes on to cover RSFSR and USSR fiscal stamps ( with 36
illustrations ), then the fiscal of local governments and local authorities
( 30 illustrations ). There is room here for a more caoprehensive listing,
for there is a great deal of interest in the post-revolutionary revenues.

3.26 The Postage Stamps of the Soviet Republics, 1917-1925 by Godfrey M. White
( in English )

This interesting little catalogue was printed in 1925 by Harris Publications
of London, England, as Philatelic Magazine Handbook No. 7. It consists of
54 pages and it starts with the Chainbreaker of 1917 and continues with
definitive and ccrmemorative issues, charities, airmails and provisionals,
as well as a considerable section on the Soviet Republics. The illustrations
are accaopanied by a good deal of descriptive text rendering this a useful
source for research.

This completes the list of specialized stamp catalogues for the present. In
writing this section, the author has included sane articles or listings that
are not strictly catalogues, as it is rather difficult to categorize some items.
The next portion of this article will appear in Yamshchik No. 3 and it will conmence
with section 4.0 Philatelic References. In that section will be included some
publications that could well have been listed in section 3.0 as catalogues, so
that if one of your favourite references has been missed,it might well appear in
the next issue.
-TO BE CONTINUED -


TORONTO -4

EAPEX78 5
-JUNE 9-18,19781



ARE YOU COMING TO CAPEX-78 ?
The Canadian Society of Russian Philately is considering to present two colour slide
displays to coincide with CAPEX-78 as follows:
1) P.J. Ca'mbell: Exploration of the Eurasian Arctic".
2) A. Cronin: Selected Tannu Tuva Items ".

PLEASE WRI TO IET T KNOU IF YOU ARE COMING






2BITJARIES

Kurt Adler 1903 -1977

Kurt Siegfried Adler was born in 1903 in Bohemia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire and now in Czechoslovakia. He was thus bilingual, as he was fluent in
Czech and German. Educated in Vienna, he visited other European countries while
in his 20's, including the far north of what was then Finland and especially the
unusual monastery of Boris-Gleb, now in Soviet territory and close to the
Norwegian border. A musician by profession,he conducted the German Opera in
Prague and was assistant conductor of the Berlin State Opera until the advent of
Hitler. He was Chief Conductor of the Kiev State Opera from 1933 1935 and of
the Philharmonic Orchestra in Stalingrad 1936 1937. He came to the United States
as a pianist in -1938,farewelling a pregnant wife in Stalingrad and conducted in
Canada and Mexico. His parents,who had stayed behind in Vienna perished in the gas
chambers. He was on the Metropolitan Opera Staff from 1945 1973 and made his
debut there as a conductor on January 12, 1951. He was Chorus Master until his
retirement in 1973 and published several books in his field, including a definitive
work on the art of opera singing. He died in Butler, New Jersey on September
28, 1977, leaving a former wife and married daughter in the USSR and his present
widow and two young children in the United States.

KurtZigfridovitch.as the Russians called him,was one of the giants of Russian aad
Soviet Philately. Collecting from childhood, he was one of the old school of
philatelists, who regarded Philately as a universal brotherhood. He started his
famous collections while conducting in the USSR and met Lothar Schinauer, a fellow
Austrian, former WWI P.O.W. in Siberia and designer of the first issue of Mongolia.
He was a bulwark of the British Society of Russian Philately for many years and
also of the Rossica Society, of which he was President 1968 1972. He became a
roving philatelic ambassador, spreading goodwill in Bulgaria, Romrania and the USSR.
Generous to a fault, he made a present of mint copies of the rare Tokyo Olympics
souvenir sheet of 1964 to leading Soviet philatelists during one visit to Moscow.
This is an item practically unobtainable in the USSR, as most copies were sold
abroad. He was more interested in expanding philatelic contacts than in gaining
awards, although he could have run rings around many gold medal winners as the
1974 auction catalogue of his collection will show. The BSRP made him a honorary
life member in 1976.





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He was a true Viennese by temperament and would listen sympathetically to the
self-pitying tales of Russian immigrants, although he had personally gone through
far greater horrors. To know him was a great experience. May his memory be
everlasting I

In the photo from left to right in Bucharest: Prof. S. Rageev, an eminent expert
in steel technology; Dr. Nicolae Tripcovici, a leading Roumanian philatelist and
a CAPEX- 78 judge; two unidentified officials of the Association of Philatelists
in Roumania; Reserve General Constantin Smirnov and Maestro Kurt Adler.

Dr. Rudolf Seichter 1889-1977
The death occurred at Soltau in West Germany on 19.10.1977 of Dr. Rudolf Seichter,
two days after his 88th birthday and after a long illness.

Dr. Seichter was also a giant, but this time of Ukrainian Philately. He joined the
leading Ukrainian philatelic society, the UPV, in Germany in 1927, was awarded its
Shield of Honour and eventually became its leading figure. He published many
brochures and studies in his field and they have became almost the last word on the
subject.

He was for many years a respected member of the British Society of Russian Philately
and also of the Rossica Society. He also maintained a lively interest in the
stamps and postal history of the former German Colonies.

Our sympathy goes to his family and the UPV in this their great loss. May the
latter society find a worthy successor to step into his shoes and solve the
remaining mysteries of Ukrainian Philately.


I 1118181 18g8IIe e1111 11111111111 211 levellll i8 lls$ 1 1 8 I N818go 81181Ig lI 181I II18 1188 1 1 I lll8I I18 11111ll11I10


R .I A I1917-10K/7K RT corner Block with 2 193-- R, Red Army, Imperf. (635) .. 70.00"
I I SIA vertical pairs, se-tenant (1170 ...... 293.00 1939-60K, dark green (762) .......... 1400
I lRU SSIA Il91i 1R--Groundwork only (131) ......... 18.00 AIRMAIL .
R-horlz. Lo. pair (87gh) ......... 1000 1931-50K blue (C23a) ......... 40.00
1864-1K perf. 12/ lock of 20, Incl. 2 Same o air, center misplaced 50% 15.00 15K-pf. 14 (C2b) ... 35.00
gutter pairs-possibly largest known 1918-5 w/o Lozenges (149) ......... .00 194--P ate Errors-once In sheet In
multiple POR21-2R ble Impres. (178) .......... 6.00 Blocks of 9, used (C80/11) ............ 16.00
multiple............ ... ........ PO 103 -Dbe Impress. (181a)2000 1922 onsu 12m (
1866- Bloc of 2, n.h. (19) ....... -- ure paper, g er pair (4a .00 o-24m (C2) (COI)...... ............ 30.00
SK-2-Mrror, used (20 ) ........... ... r. 1 R--Por4r 1op)y ....................... 302.00
3K--imperf. used (22b) ............. 155.00 0R-corner copy (A45) ............ 10.00 Available diff. Types, Pairs, sgnd.
1875-2K, vertical, used (26a) ......... 15.00 5C30R/2R--onverlted (p92) ............. 00 P.O. 1924-14K, Inverted (J8) ........ 26.00
1875-2K, vertical, used0K-n (29)......... 15.00 7500R-horlz. overprInt (201) ..........6.N
10K--n.h. ( "9).........8;........... 2.00 1922-7500 Dble. Impress. (205) ........ 40.00
1883-7K Impr., v.f. used (35a) ......175.00 SR-printed on gum (211) .......... 15. 00
1902-3.50R Block of 4, n. (69A) ..... 14.00 volga-red surch. on 70K, inverted ZEM STVO
1906-SR pert. 11'/i superb corner block (B19) .. ....................... 25,00
with imprints (71a) ................ 380.00 do-Black such. on 35K Inverted, (B21) 20.00
Same-superb corner copy .......... 85.00 1923-1R 2R, mpert. in Blocks of 4 800 We are breaking up a large collection-in-
5R-Original sheet of 25 (71) n.h... 260.00 5R-imperf. pair (240b) ...00 cluding R's and Covers.
1910-5R Early printing, sheet of 25 10R-imperf. pair (241b) ..... 00 Sorry no WANT LIST service-Individual ap
with green Imprints, scarce (108) ... 113,00 15K-perf 15 used vf (287) 16000 proval selections. Please give preferred DIs-
1910-1R, 3 sheets of 40 stamps, diff. 2R, 3SR 5R-Imperf. (291/3) ....... 28.00 tricts. Our stock is arranged according to
Plate No. and shade, scarce Michel 1924-10K Imperf. Block of 4 (274) .. 6.00 Schmidt cat.
78 $6.03 ea. stamp (87) .............P.O.R. 1925-8K, Litho T2 large "8" (311) 5.00 -
Same-3 Blocks of 4, ea. with verti- do-T3 Small head (horiz. perf.) .. 40.00 W B U
cal imprints on margins (87)....... 36.00 Academy-unwatermarked, cpt. scarce W E B U
*Same-IR marge. pair with imprint, (326/7 ...... 75.00
imperf. vertically ................. 90.00 1926-Lenin, as child-Essaye, 20K (SP2') For 50 years, we have been handling
1909-7K w/o Lozenges (78) ........... 15.CO blue 6.00 scarce and unusual stamps for specialists.
20K-w/o groundwork (82b) ......... 10.00 1927-Esperanto, Imperf. (374) ...... 80.00 We are therefore able to probably appre.
25K-w/o Lozenges (83) ............ 4.00 1931-15K-Imperf. paiT, v.f. used (464) 16.00 clae your holdings more than anyone else.
do-center misplaced (83) ........... 5.00 .1934-Lenin, 10K mperf. (525 ........70.00 Accrinly, we offer you more cash
-SK-w/o Lozenges (5) ............ 4.03 Fedorov-40K, imperf. (530) 70.00 We are now in urgent need of Specialized
1R-Center misplaced 100% (87) ...... 18.00 1935-Frunze, 2K Imperf. (580) 90.00 Collections and Scarce Varieties of ROTARY,
do-Center Double 87F .............. 30.00 do-Perf. 14, pair 2K (580a) .... 5.00 LION, U.P.U., CHESS, etc.
5R-perfor. 11'/, Michel 128c ........ 40.00 Bauman-4K, perf. 12, block of 4 (581) 6.00 Also interested In all other Collections,
1914-1K, imperf. at margin (85) ..... 22.00 do--mperf. ..................... 50.00 Estates, Rarities of the whole world.
do-2 diff. Plate Blocks (B5) ........ 10.00 do-light violet ...................... 60.00 Selections will be kept Intact pending ac.
1916-20K/14K pair, one w/o surcharge Klrov-40K, Imperf. (582) ........... 90.00 ceptance of our check (or returned, at our
S(111) ............................. P.O.R. 19-Pioneers, 5K, perf. 11 (586a) .... 7.00 expense, insured Minimum $100.
Paper Money, tK, 2K, (114/15) .... 22.00 1937-30K. imperf. pair (618) .......... 40.00
We accept U.S. Postage at face, (no Spec. Del.) Cash with order
Satisfaction Guaranteed or Refund. Subject to prior sale.

S. SEREBRAKIAN, INC.
P.O. BOX 448, MONROE, NEW YORK 10950
I I I II g III I i IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII











PHILATELIC SHORTS

DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point that you'd like to
put across to the readership.....is there an
interesting stamp, cancellation or cover that ,
you'd like to describe .... is there an item in o "o
your collection that could use some clarifying o 0o o
information or might there be some gems of 0oo0
wisdom that you could impart on some newly
acquired item???
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom,
in the confines of a couple paragraphs, with
the rest of our readers!!
Geore G. Werbizky, Vestal, New York, .USA

I have recently acquired an unrecorded variety of South Russia. This is a variety
of the 25 kop. on 1 kop. issue of the Kuban Government (Scott #20). The variety
is overprinted on front and back like Scott #27a. The stamp has been expertized by
the British Philatelic Association and has been issued with a certificate dated
Oct.19, 1953. The stamp is unused, with full gum. I have notified the Scott
Publishing Co. submitting photographs of the stamp and a copy of the certificate.
When listed,the variety will became Scott #20c. It is reasonable to assume that
more copies of this variety may exist, A note from readers on additional copies
will be of interest to us all.

















Barry Hong, Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada

A NEW SOVIET ERROR
Recently, a friend of mine, Allen Cairns, who shares our interest in Russian stamps,
gave me two souvenir sheets from the 1971 paintings issue (Scott #3902). The
sheet cammemnorates the centenary- of the Russian Artists' organization. The first
sheet is normal, but the second has the gold colour doubled. The second printing
of the gold is displaced 1.7 mm. down so that it covers the top of the artist's
S hair and is only 0.5 mm. from the first line of printing on the stamp. The souvenir
sheet is one of two found in a lot of 25 sheets which were purchased at auction.
















,"





James Mazepa, Chicag, Illinois, USA

A very interesting item appeared in the Oct. 27, 1977 Robson Lowe auction in
Basle. Lot #1602 was.described as, "Russia, 1858 10 kop. imperf., superb example
from Riga to Switzerland tied by a triangular dotted type, showing 'Franco' and
'P.D.' all in red on obverse and boxed Piga d.s. on reverse. A rare and splendid
cover". The cover ( folded letter ?) was pictured in colour and sold for 3500
Swiss francs (+ 10% ) or about $1900. US .

A foreign use of a No. 1 must be exceedingly rare. During the first years of use of No.
1, I believe it was not valid for foreign use, but only for internal mail. The
same is true of Poland No. 1. However, one lone example is known on a cover sent
to France in 1864 or 65. Possibly the same could happened to a Russia No. 1.

The triangular dotted cancellation is illegible. The Riga date stamp must, if
anything, be a transit as Riga used a circle of dots cancellation, not the
triangular type. If the item was sent later than the initial period of No. 1
which was not demonetized until Dec. 31, 1884, why was the Riqa d.s. "boxed"
rather than the circular d.s. of the later period? A picture of the reverse of
this letter would be heloful,as would internal evidence of any dots. All in all,
it seems a very suspicious "cover". Let buyers beware ''

Rev. L.L. Tann, Sutton, Surrey, England

In Rossica No. 80, 1971, Fred Speers wrote an article on Russia's Air Mail Cachets.
I was excited to read that there was a cachet used in July, 1916 by the 7th.
Aviation Division stationed in the field west of Petrograd. As the Imperial Russian
Air Force numbered some 2000 planes, and this cachet is known on a cover of 1916,
it gives rise to the intriguing thought- though a flight of fancy! of Russian
Imperial Air Mail. Are any covers known franked with stamps and bearing any type
of air mail cachet of the period 1914 up to the Revolution ?

Alex Artuchov, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

A recent letter from Morris Gutenstein of los Angeles advised that Mr.
Gutenstein has a copy of Scott #29 on unwatermarked paper. From theories
proposed for the existence of unwatermarked varieties in my article appearing in
the previous issue of this journal,there is no reason why a copy of #29 should
also not exist on this kind of paper or for that matter any of Nos 19-30. The
existence of two copies of #35 with the"fine horizontal lines" variety in my
collection would suggest that the papermaking process for the 1883-88 issues was
not yet 100% foolproof and that unwatermarked varieties may not be out of the
question on these later issues.

60







Barry Hong, Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada

AN UNDERFRANKED COVER
2he figure below shows the front of a cover carried on the 1930 Graf Zeppelin flight
* from Moscow to Friedrichshafen. The registered letter is franked with the 80 kop.
Graf Zeppelin stamp ( Scott #C13), the 14 kop. Red Army Cavalry stamp (Scott #434),
and the 1 kop. worker definitive (Scott #413). The 95 kop. on the envelope
leaves it underfranked by 20 kop. as the rate was 1.15 roubles.

On July 1, 1930 the rates for international correspondence were 10 kop. for postcards,
15 kop. for ordinary letters and 20 kop. for registration. For this flight there
was an additional fee of 40 kop. for postcards and 80 kop. for letters. You can see
then, that the letter rate has been paid but not the registration fee. How is it
that a postal clerk who had to attach a registration label could forget to collect
the 20 kop. registration fee? Let us consider the situation.

The events are well publicized and there were probably many people waiting to mail
letters when the windows in the Moscow G.P.O. opened at 8am. At 10:45 the post
office stopped accepting mail to be franked with the Zeppelin stamps. This short
period of time must have been quite hectic for the postal clerks. The clerk was
the only person permitted to affix the Zeppelin stamps at the window. The clerk
also had to issue a receipt. Assuming that the envelope was already franked with
15 kop. when it was presented to the clerk, the clerk had to collect 80 kop. for
the stamp, affix the stamp and the registration label, issue a receipt for
registration label and probably a second receipt stating that the cover was being
sent on the flight. With all this to do for one envelope and a line of waiting
customers, the clerk can be excused for not collecting and adding a 20 kop. stamp.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aronson, H.L. The Graf Zeppelin Issue Sept. 7,1930 The Russian Philatelist,
O No. 10, pp. 28-31.

Karlinskii, V.A. Soviet Postal Pates Rossica, No. 75, 1968, pp. 56-70.








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14K








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Herman Z. Hirsch, Dunedin, Florida, USA.

0 I am enclosing a copy of a Tannu Tuva cover I prepared and had mailed to myself.
It carries the postmark of mailing April 12, 1939 at KYZYL (genuine usage) and
the New York registry posntmark of May 4,1939 and that of Mason City, Iowa of
May 6, 1939.
Miay 6, 1939.





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HF-AN Z. HIR3sCH

215 IuORTH F=iERAL AVM-L-,E

A--.OIi CITY, I0T7A

UNITED STATES of AR2ICA


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Alex Artuchov, Toronto, COtario, Canada

As a supplement to the P.J. Campbell article dealing with the dot and numeral
postmarks of Imperial Russia, the writer would like to introduce two cancellations
in his collection.

The first cancellation is handwritten (Fig. 1 ). The handwritten figures do not
resemble characters of the Cyrillic alphabet and are accordingly considered by the
author to be numerals. Furthermore, the cancellation is on the perf 12 10 kop.
issue of 1858 ( Scott #8 ), probably the most common stamp on which dot and
numeral cancellattions are found. The poor quality of handwriting as well as the
Presence of what is apparently an 8 which is of course the same right side up or
upside down, leaves more than one possibility for the numeral indicated. The
writer would suspect that the handwritten numerals were substituted in the absence
of a canceller. The canceller may have arrived sometime after the announcement of
the regulation ordering the use of the dot and numeral cancellations.


Fig. 2

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The second cancellation, contains a series of dots boxed within the confines of
a square or rectangular frameline and has no interior numeral (Fig. 2 ). The
writer initially considered the possibility of this cancellation being a trial
predecessor of the dot and numeral types. The P.J. Campbell article, pointing
out the definite geometric sequence of dots in each of the six types would suggest
that this cancellation with a random scattering of dots might very well be
private in origin.

Readers having any further information on either of the above cancellations are
invited to contact this writer.

Michael Rayhack, Little Falls, New Jersey, USA

I read with interest the croments of Alex Artuchov appearing as a "philatelic short"
in No. 1 of Yamshchik on the 5-rouble Denikin issue with a double centre. From
Mr. Rosselevitch I learned that all Denikin rouble values with double or triple
centres, inverted centres, double frames, printed on the back with centres or
frames, all he declared are printers waste. As Mr. Rosselevitch collected South
Russia long before my time, and was in touch with Romeko and Eichenthal, both
knowledgable dealers, who handled a lot of South Russia material, I think as we
have not seen any covers or cancelled stamps of the abovementioned errors, it
declared flatly that they are printers waste. Although Mr. Rosselevitch sold 4
Denikin stamps with the errors noted previously to Mr. Donald Polon, who is now
deceased and his collection sold via Siegel's, the stamps were cancelled fraudulently
and,to my knowledge,no authentic cancellations or covers have ever been seen with
these Denikin errors. There is one exception, a 5-rouble Denikin an a piece of
money order form, with the centre and numeral of value missing. This stamp along
with two 35 kop. Denikin and two 15 kop. Denikin, is cancelled "Novocherkassk
29.10.19". This philatelic gem is now in my collection and it has been extensively
publicized and inquiries if anyone else had this error have been to no avail. I
conjecture that it may have been one stamp, where a piece of paper fell between
the type and the stamp paper while being lithographed, or perhaps it was a full
sheet of 130 and all used up at the post office. Conversation with printers in
the lithographic trade produced a consensus of opinion that the Denikin issues were
printed very nicely despite the climate under which they were produced.. The 7-
rouble value plate was destroyed after the first printing and this may be the
scarcest value of the Denikins printed. I have blocks of 4 of the Denikin values
perforated all around, with vertical and horizontal perforations missing on the
inside. They were sold to me by Oleg Faberge and were part of the elder Fabergd's
collection. Both Mr. Faberg and I agree that they were printers waste, as many of
the blocks contain penciled guidelines for the perforation machine.



REVIEW OF




LJIERBATURE






The Imperial Pccanovs


A philatelic study of the 1913 Romanov Jubilee issue of 103 pages by the Rev. L.L. Tann,
this book isavailable from the Canadian Society of Russian Philately (see The Journal
Fund).

The Rev. Tann's book is a must for every collector of Imperial Russia. This is the
most comprehensive treatment ever given to the 1913 Pomanov Tri-Centenary issues
and a very noteworthy continuation of the work initiated by the late Dr. G.B.
Salisbury. The broad scope of this book gives useful historical data; provides
invaluable information on essays and proofs, listing prices realized for many such
items at recent auctions; expounds on the regular issues including varieties thereof,
the 1916 overprints, currency tokens and revolutionary overprints; considers
cancellations appearing on these issues at length including wartime markings, railway
and steamship cancellations as well as the postmarks of offices abroad and field post
offices.

The Pev. Tann should particularly be carnended for consolidating so much information
between a single pair of covers. This trend should be encouraged from all quarters.
rMhile much information is already contained in the journals of Russian philatelic
societies, it is becaning increasingly scattered as the number of journals grows
and becomes correspondingly inaccessible to new recruits to the field of Russian
philately.

A very small criticism that might be attached to this book would relate to the quality
of the illustrations contained therein. It should however be noted that illustrations
are subservient to the text and are included for the simple purpose of complimenting
the text and illustrating a point.
THE OCCUPATICM OF RIPSIIA BY THE POLISH I CORPS

A Polonus Handbook of 38 pages edited by James Mazepa and obtainable from the
Polonus Philatelic Society, 864 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60622 at $ 7.50
per copy.

This is the first and a very commendable attempt to bring together much of the
information on the overprinted Russian stamps and Polish markings used by this
Corps under the ccTrmand of General DowbIr Musnicki, in what was basically a
Polish occupation of part of the territory of Belorussia. In other words, these
issues and cancels, as well as the associated postal stationary,are of interest to
Belorussian, Polish and Russian collectors.

The basic work in the Handbook is done by the noted Polish philatelist Tadeusz
Gryiewski and this is followed by valuable notes on the forgeries by Dr. Stanley
Kronenberg. These issues were actually the forerunners for the Local Post of the
German Tenth Army, which operated in an expanded version of the same Belorussian
territory .

We salute our fellow Slavs, the talented Polish philatelists, who worked so hard
to gather and present all this information.

THE JOURNAL OF THE PCOSSICA SOCIETY OF RUStSITAN HITTLATELY bo. 90 91 for 1976

Published by Kennedy L. Wilson, 7415 Venice St., Falls Church va. 22043.

The well known Rossica Journal is now basically a production by two hard-working
people, the noted philatelists Dr. Gordon H. Torrey and Kennedy L. Wilson. After
a review of the Life of the Society, we are treated to a fine topical approach to
The Exploration of the Eurasian Arctic by our fellow Canadian, P. J. Campbell.
Martin Cerini then follows with a useful Name Changes of Russian Cities and Towns






and R. Sklarevski gives us a fundamental approach to The Lenin Mourning Issue of
1924 ( an entire issue of the BJRP was devoted to a much more detailed study of
these same stamps ). Mr. Sklarevski also gives details of an interesting cover franked
with Scott No. 268 and a good study of The Aloe Tree Stamps of Batum 1919 1920 ".
Jacques Posell gives us a good listing of Russian's Musical Envelopes ", H. L.
S Weinert explains The 'tI Russian Calendars and Dr. Torrey sets out several important
articles on A Postal Mystery, Poland to Tibet ( together with Dr. D. Voaden ),
A letter from Grand Duke Aleksy Mrihailovich ", Russian Related Phantasies ",
Russian Troops on the Salonika Front in World War I and Paris Siege Balloon
Post Covers to Russia 1870 1871 Our countryman, P. J. Campbell gives us an
excellent background on the well-known Chelyuskin set. Further Notes on Bank
Transer Forms and their Postal Rates are presented by Dr. R. J. Ceresa, a
similar subject is treated in Money Transfer Cards and Postal Pates by Dr. Shneidman
and we have translations of The First Cancels of St. Petersburg by M. Dobin
and The Grandiose Stamp Scandal by A. Vigilev. Other articles are by D. Heller:
Postage Stamps Prohibited Importation into Russia Why ? and by R. L. Trbovich
First Moscow New York Flight ( 1929 )

This double issue of the Journal ends with a book review by E. Wolski from The Rossica
Book Shelf ".
MITIEILUNGS BLTITER No. 15 UND 16 BUNTES ARBEITS GEMEINSCHAFT RUSSIAND / UdSSR IM
BD Ph E.V.
( Journals of Information Nos. 15 & 16 of the Federal Study Group Russia USSR
in the Union of German Philatelic Societies ).

Completely in German, No. 15 is a very fine 50 page Journal put out by our West
German colleagues under the guidance of such conscientious philatelists as Herbert
Giese, Heinrich Inhof, Arnold Seiler etc. The Group also has a strong Subsection
in Austria and Switzerland under the direction of Walter Frauenlob and other
members in Canada, Denmark, England, France, Holland, Italy, Norway and the USSR.

S After a preview of the combined exhibition of the ,West German and Soviet
philatelists to be held in Cologne on 22-23 nct. 1977, there are Society notes
and then an excellent article on Perforation Forgeries by Hartmut Erben.
That veteran Russian specialist Walter Frauenlob follows with the first part of
The Stamps of the Russian Empire and A letter as a Document of the History
of the Times ". This was sent from Margelan in 1908 and there is a learned
comment on it by Prof. H. Schmenkel. Mr. Frauenlob continues with further data
on the security overprints for sheets of the Rouble values of 1904 1917, G6tz
Heermann features a Soviet RPO ( TPO ) cover, a variety of the Shevchenko envelopes
of 1961, an account of philatelic impressions during 14 days in the USSR and data on
the philatelic exchange control regulations there. Alfred Kreutzer follows with
Topical articles on the La"onossov stamps and a Stamp Journey through the USSR ".
Friedrich Ibhrich writes about the 40 years of Soviet Drifting Stations and
Trans-Polar Flights ", A. Oesterle about The First Postmaster in Russia ",
Polarphila 77 in Moscow and two Previews for Moscow 1980 ". Two articles
are then reprinted from Soviet Union Today on Philately in general and about the
forthcoming bilateral show in Cologne, followed by a clarification from the
Michel Catalogue. A classic article on the 7 kop. Arms type varieties by
Waldemar Pohl is then reproduced from the Berner Briefmarken-Zeitung of Dec. 1949
and another page on Imperial cancels and Eagle varieties by Walter Frauenlob from
the same magazine, issue of Jan. 1975. Arnold Seiler describes an error in the
Second Palekh set of 22.9.76, First Day usages of the 25th Party Congress in
Moscow and Postal Stationary Cut-outs on a Cover. Michael de Sperandio writes
about a colour variety of the 4 kop. Russian Post in China during 1910 and Prof.
H. Schmenkel gives a useful correlation between the Michel and Soviet catalogues.
S This interesting issue ends with an article on Space Covers from Baikonur in the
USSR by Ernst Georg Stock,Club notes and adlets.








Journal bN. 16 starts off with a short report on the Bilateral Show in Cologne,
together with an illustration of the private sheetlet issued for the occasion and
a Radio Interview. Short notes follow by Herbert Giese on Chemical Forgeries and
the 4 kop. Russian Post in China colour variety. News is given about the upcoming
Bilateral Show in Moscow at the beginning of June 1978.

An excellent article comes from the pen of the late Eugen Arciuk on Russian and
Soviet Definitives with special emphasis on the small Heads issue of the 1920's.
Walter Frauenlob concludes his article on the Stamps of the Russian Emnire,
illustrating sane of his gems and following with notes on Imperial varieties and
nostmarks. Mr. W. Herrmann writes an extremely interesting article on Handwritten
Notations, Markings and Labels on Registered Sendinas before 1918. Two topical
studies on Russia the Land of Pelts and The Icon Painters of Palekh "
then appear from the hand of the late Alfred Kreuzer. Mr. A. Cesterle illustrates
one of the traditional triple-franking cards from Myslowitz-Granitsa dating from
24.9.1902 and gives a preview of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. Friedrich IiShrich
writes about the Atomic Icebreaker Arktika at the North Pole and Wolfgang
Nietsch gives a bibliography on Moscow and Leningrad. Arnold Seiler lists the new
rate increases for foreign mail sent from the USSR and shows a registered letter
from Moscow with the Brezhnev souvenir sheet uncancelled. Boris Pritt writes
about the numbered censored cachets of Siberia during World War I. Mr. G. Zimmer
gives us a long article on The Post of the Wranael Arnv, there is an obituary on
Dr. Rudolf Seichter and a notice on a proposed looseleaf Specialized Catalogue of
Russia by Anton Cesterle. This fine number ends with the usual Society data and
adlets. A warm welcome is also given to the CSRP. Many thanks I

BRIEFMARKMSALON BIDES REPUBLIC DEVISCHIAND SIJTET ITNION 1977


This is the title of the official catalogue issued in German on the occasion of the
Bilateral West German Soviet Stamp Exhibition held in Cologne on 22-23 Oct. 1977.

Besides the introductory messages of greeting, this nicely pointed and produced
brochure contains interesting articles by Heinrich Imhof on The Establishment of
the First City Post in Russia in St. Petersburg and The Postmark Types in St.
Petersburg from 1766 to 1914 ", an excellent study by Horst Aisslinqer on The
Russia Flight of the L Z 127 ( which The Post-Rider will eventually publish in
translation ), two publicity articles on the city of Cologne, notes on the West German
Group and its activities, facts about Russian and Soviet Philately and a listing of
the exhibits, in which 20 West German, one Swiss, one British and 12 Soviet collectors
took part.

A private souvenir sheet in a printing of 5,500 copies, a special postcard and
an official postal cancellation were provided for this event. For these and
information about this enthusiastic West German Group, please apply to: Herbert
Giese, 5562 Manderscheid / Eifel, Friedrichstrasse 9, West Germany.

Eesti Filatelist ( The Estonian Philatelist ) Nos. 16 17 for 1975. Published
in Sweden by the Societies of Estonian Philatelists in New York and Sweden.
Printed in Estonian, English, German and Swedish and edited by Elmar Ojaste,
Mandolingatan 17, S -421 25 Vistra Fr8lunda, Sweden, to wiom application should
be made for copies.

This beautifully produced paperback of 132 pages contains authoritative articles on
Estonian Forerunners ( with wonderfully drawn illustrations of postmarks ) by V. Hurt;
the Elva Local Issue of 1941, by V. Mandvere; a Review of Estonian Forgeries by
Dr. P. Gleason; Accounting of Postage Due Receipts at Estonian Post Offices in
Earlier Years and later, by' K. Paid; P. 0. Box Mail, by E. Ojaste; Estonian






Advertising Postmarks by V. Hurt; Estonian Armed Forces Field Post during the War
of Independence 1918-1920, by E. Ojaste, H. Osi and A. Ostrat, Estonian Armed
Forces Censorship of Civilian Mail 1919-1920, by the same authors; Personal
Recollections of my work as censorship Clerk at the Military Censorship Centre
in Tartu, by M. Rand; Tallinn Publicity Machine Cancellation used in Canada,
by V. Mandvere; Various Society notes and an article on Mail of the Estonian Workers
Ccmnune during the Estonian War of Independence, by A. Ostrat.

All in all, this publication is highly recannended.
Stamme Stempels ( Mute Markings ) by Fr. Huysmans, member of the Royal Philatelic
Society of the Waas Region ( Belgium ) and editor of its publications.

This is an 8-page study of the mute cancellations applied in the Russian Empire
during the early part of World War I, It is obvious that Mr. Huysmans has a fine
Collection of these fascinating markings. The illustrations are clear, the text
is in Flemish and we will soon be reproducing this excellent work in an English
version in the pages of our Post-Rider "

Aus Russland ( From Russia ) by IAo de Clercq, President of the Royal Philatelic
Society of the Waas Region and member of the Belgian Academy of Philately.

This is a wonderful 22-page study in Flemish of Austrian, Prussian and German
markings and labels applied to mail originating from the Russian Erpire in the
period from 1827 to 1922. The excellent illustrations feature covers and cards from
the collections of Messrs. Bulang,de Clercq, Huysmans, Rombaut, Stibbe and
van der Linden.

Our sincere congratulations to our Flemish colleagues. This masterly work will
also soon be reproduced in an English Version in our own Post Rider ", as it
will be a valuable cuide to our readers.

Rode Kruiskaarten Van Rusland ( Red Cross Cards of Pussia ) by Fr. Huysmans.

This 16 page study in Flemish was issued in Sint Niklaas,Belgium on 8 Nov, 1977
by our hard-working colleague. It is devoted to a classification of the cards
sold by various benevolent organizations during the last years of the FrDire.
Many of us have seen a few examples of these cards, but Mr. Huysmans has some
rare types and supplements his listing with some analogous postcards, including
a glorious patriotic of the Russo-Japanese War.

Once again we will have the opportunity of reproducing a fine study for the benefit
of the readers of The Post Rider ".

Latvian Collector No. 22 Issue of July October-77 of the Latvian Philatelic Society.
Edited by M. Tirurs, 189 Homestead Avenue, Albany, N. Y. 12206 with the managing
editor given as A. Petrevics, P. 0. 314, El Cajon, California 92022. Price
$ 2.00 per copy post paid from r. Petrevics.

Richly illustrated and containing 28 informative pages, this issue includes articles
on the Imperial Russian machine roller cancels of Riga, The Postgebiet ob. Ost.
German issues of World War I, the date of issue of the Riga Liberation series (
Scott 43-45 ) and a specialised listing of the Latgale Liberation set ( Scott
68-69 ). The journal is intended to present information on every aspect of
Latvian philately and is the only publication of its type in English.

Pochta Speshit K. Lyudyam ( The Post hurries to the People ) by E. B. Sorkin.
B Issued by the Znanie Publishers, Moscow 1977, as a paperback of 128 pages.
Price 30 kopeks and printed in an edition of 100,000 copies.






This work covers the history of the Post from earliest times to the present by
the various means of communication, There are some aspects of information
throughout which are of interest to collectors in our sphere,in particular
about the activities of the ROPi T, the posts in the early Russian Soviet Republic
etc.
Flot Nashei Podiny ( The Fleet of Our Motherland ) by V. A. Orlov. Issued by the
" Svyaz" TPiFlsTiers, Moscow 1977 as a paperback of 168 pages. Printed in an
edition of 40,000 copies and priced at lr. 10 k. ( abnormally high by Soviet
standards ).
This is a thorough topical guide to the subject, as reflected by Soviet stamps,
illustrated entire and special cancels, giving all the necessary information for
collectors specialising in this area.
Istoriya Otechestvennoi Pochty ( The History of the Post ip the Fatherland ) by
1. N. Viqilev.- ssuedbfy the Svyaz' Publishers, "oscow 1977 as a paperback of
160 pages. Printed in an edition of 50,000 copies and priced at 90 kopeks.
This is the first part of a fine and well illustrated ,wrk on the Russian
Posts, starting from the 9th Century A. D. This subject has been covered before by
several Russian writers, rost recently by M. N. Vitashevskaya. The present
author brings the work uptodate by including data on the birch-bark letters
discovered at Novgorod-ellikii and other rare documents. This first part brings
the story up to the end of the 17th Century. Four mre parts will follow.
Kalendar Pilatelista 1978 ( Calendar of the Philatelist for 1978 ). Compiled
by A. Mil_ from the7 contributions of 16 collectors. Issued by the Svyaz' "
Publishers, '.oscc~. 1977, as a paperback of 112 pages. Printed in an edition of
100,000 copies and priced at 80 kopeks.
Set up in calender forn and aired at the general Soviet collector, this ;work
contains a range of inforrvtion and notes, including a couple of interesting
snippets on Zerstvo issues.


DEALERS....0 Jo0 ^44

A YOUA oadveie v in k. 0t" t isuc_!


FULL PN4



HALF P.4


$20.00


QUARTER P4g_


$12.50


S68
68


0


3s.oo00











THE COLLECTORS' CORNER


DEAR COLLECIORS:
Are you still missing that illusive item from your
collection or philatelic library.... .do you have some
duplicate material that you would like to trade of sell ?
We can publicize your want list and/or your duplicates for
the most reasonable rate of 25 maximum of 16 lines) excluding name and address. Ads frmn
collectors only will be accepted. Dealers are invited to
respond.
The Society disclaims all responsibility front any misunderstandings
tiat iay r-esiult beaten exchanging parties.
^n "o-s henridse spiec .Ifed, all numer-s ? isted are Scott.


Barry Hong, 806-50 Jerone Cres.,


Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada, L8E 116


anted: Soviet postal stationery from 1920 to 190. Please write first, giving
H&~ nTrbers or descriDtion for my offer.
X 00C0Z"O 00"000 0 0000"000(0000X0000000 000000000XXO

:.. Petrerics, P.O.Box 314, El Cajon, California, 92022, U S A
an,.ted-Latvia: philatelic material: stamps, covers, postcards, rarities, unlisted
;' -.t,- collections, accumulations, seals, banknotes, VW I and 1W II occupation
issues of Latvia, just everything issued or used on Latvian territory.


Ta.r Jasoolt, 674 Glenhurst Cres., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, KlJ 7B7
'%-: trade or sell: Soviet ussiaT 241a&b 241 ac, Am-erf. panes o 25, mint, NI
i,,lr .c.; :..,fi..T -.r T -10, f 1"it, F; Latvia: postally used postcards 5 lots
of 10, $20.00 each.
XXXX)00X002&3QO(XXXXXXXXXXXX000Q0XMQ(00XXX?

Alex Sadovnikov, P.O. Box 612, San Carlos, California, 94070, U S A
For Sale.: hiThf quality reproductions of the follig philatelic literature:
1. Prigara $25.00
2. huchin, 1924 Catalogue $10.00
3. SA 1933 Catalocue $10.00
4. Rossica Nos. 1-20 $3.00 each, 10 or more $2.50, $80.00 for all 40, Nos. 41-43
$4.00 each or all 3 for $10.00
5. Soviet Philatelist $3.00 each, $25.00 for 10 different
6. -:,.1o C' .:'-:, : Paberge (all 4 catalogues with prices)- $15.00, Stibbe and
Go;s- $5.00 each
7. Chuchin Zemtvo_ $10.00
8. Chuchin 1928 Cataloaue (Russia, USSR 146 pages) $10.00
9. uc3 26 ~ ttAe e (Caucasus-all republics-144 pages) $10.00
L "..... --- C:i..o-L,: ".Ec. ..Abroad 56 pages) $5.00
11. Cmn:,^ ,- ^ C..^ (Ukraine 103 '.--.},s) $10.00
12. Chuchi- 1927 Catalogue (Civil War all armies 132 pages) $10.00
all prices postpaid -
\-.FC^^\:C


'borontoC, Cntrio, Canada, M5W 1P2


W i -ve: 25M. Karia b 1-22 iiIt Ix n.eed 10'M. and sore pennia values to
".- ... .r. mint set. Pair trade assured.


AndK?.. Cronin, Box 5722, A'- c^;: "A",








Victor Kent, 807 Newbury Ave., Antioch, California, 94509, U S A
Wanted: 2ny quantity of Wenden stamps and covers.


Mel Renfro, Box 2268, Santa Clara, California, 95051, USA
Wanted: Imnerial dotted numeral cancellation oncover. -uy or trade. Write
describing covers) and asking price or desired trade,
XXXXX XXXXXCOMCXXTOO 300U

Alex Artuchov, Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2
Wanted: Forged overprints oTSout~iTh uia dot and nuIerai cancellations on stamps,
St. Petersburg "geometric" cancellations on stamps. Will trader buy. One
remaining copy of Schnridt and Faberge zerstvo catalogue (xeroxed) $10.00.


lichael Rayhack, 10 Overlook Ave, Tittle Falls, New Jersey, 07424, USA, (201)256-0703
Scandalous prices aid for the -fo617ing stams ofSouth uss-ia-: Don surcharge 3a
inverted surcharge 30.00.. Ku-an suircarTes 21ah ,c,7i Nh ifE "0" in surcharge
"50" $290.00. Also plain 21c $30.00. 25b,c,d with numeral "6" instead of letter
"B" in word "RPhlya" $200.00. Plain 25c,d $30.00. I have duplicates of South
Russia for your submitted lists.


Gregory Whitt, 308 T'-est Delaware Ave, Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA
Wanted-- Rogus, phantom, privateissue and unliste stai ps of Russia and States (all
periods) as well as forgeries of these stamps.


Anatole Kaushansky, .On. Pmx 232, ,illcdale, Ontario, 122' 5S8, Canada
I have: Puolicates of rare Soviet defintlT es of the 20's and 30's including No. 287
(used) andr many others; material issued in the last 20 years is available in sunerb
condition. T will trade for comCremoratives of the 1930's or sell at very reasonable
prices.


eorge G. Perhizky, 409 Jones Pd, Vestal, ew York, 13850, UST
I am interested in zetstro: will consider any material. Viile give brief description
and price. Pill answer promptly with price.


Robert F. "inkus. 2332 !INvnvod Pd, Wilnrinqton, Delaware, 19810, USA
wanted: Pussian postal stationery envelopes i&G #117 (4'50 vkrietifes) and I&G f124
(900 varieties) rint or used. Please with your asking price.


Leon Lazarev, c/o "ontreal Life Insurance Co., 620 Pilson Ave, 3rd floor, Dorwnsview,
Ontario, !13K 123, Canada
I need: Errors and varieties of the Soviet Union, zemstvo, vignettes and cancellations
of St. 'etersbura on cover.
I have: a ouantitv of #2021(used) $2.50 @ with discounts for purchases in Guantitv.


James M'azepa, Hines V.A. Hospital, Hines, Illinois, 60141, USA
Wanted: Poland fl used with cancellations other than "1" on loose stamps or covers.
Also, Russian stands used in Poland and to 1880, covers only.
,0000XXXX:XXX KX}00000000CL000mCTO0^^KW^^ 00







Salvador Bofarull, Av. Bruselas, 70, Madrid -28- Spain.
Wanted: American involvement i RusPsia, Postal HiFstory, Military Missions, AEF
in Siberia, etc.


Martin Cerini, 37 aning Dr., Huntington Station, Long Island, New York, 11746, USA
Wanted: Russian revenue, fiscal, vignette, label and cinderella stamps, plus
revenue and legal paper, paper seals, bill of exchange cutouts, and any revenue
documents, intact or otherwise. All periods: Imperial, Civil War and Soviet. Will
exchange or purchase.


Dr. Fredrick G. Bean, 619 Wakanda Circle, Menamonie, Wisconsin, 54751, USA
Russian Philatelist Nos. 3,4,5,7,9,10 and 11 to trade for other Russian area philatelic
literature. Will trade any two of the above for a Rossica Journal I need. Please
write me with your offer.
XXMXXXXXXXX??CXX){5!XXXXMXM)XXOOC

Copies of the RUSSIAN PHILATELIST are still available in
limited quantities at the original price.

In English: Nos 5,7, 10&11
In Russian: Nos 3-11
Nos 3-7: $1.50; Nos 8-11: $2.00
Write:
Mrs. C. Rosselevitch, 171-44 Bagley Ave., Flushing, N.Y., 11358, USA






The Journal Fund



This has proved to be a very popular feature and all sales benefit the Society.
Please send all orders to. A. Cronin, Box 5722, Station "A", Toronto, Ontario, Canada
M5W 1P2 and make payments out to "The Canadian Society of Russian Philately.
Here we qo
b tfl n hA l
THE IMPERIAL ROMANOVS


S4. (see Review of Literature)





A) The latest word on the subject and you can save time by ordering from us at the
publisher's nrice of US $20.00 postpaid anywhere in the world.
B) 7\ historic set of 63 actual size detailed maps in Pussian of each province of the
Russian Empire, taken from the rare Atlas of the Russian Empire ( Atlas
Possiiskoi Imperii ) of 1835 and including a beautiful map of Russian America
( Alaska ). Invaluable for the study of pre-stamp letters. 1'rice TI $8.00 postpaid
and mailed flat to anywhere in the world.




W ,




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