• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Correspondance with Canada
 Tannu-Tuva and the New Blekhman...
 The Literature of Russian Philately...
 Is the paper wove? Or is it laid...
 A stamp for a rouble by P....
 The dot postmarks of Imperial Russia...
 Obituary A. M. Rosselevitch...
 Philatelic shorts
 Review of literature
 The journal fund
 The collector's corner






Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
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Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Series Title: Yamshcik = Post-Rider
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Publisher: Canadian Society of Russian Philately
Place of Publication: Toronto
Publication Date: September 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Stamp collections -- Russia   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076781
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial
        Page 2
    Correspondance with Canada
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Tannu-Tuva and the New Blekhman Handbook by Andrew Cronin
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    The Literature of Russian Philately by P. J. Campbell
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Is the paper wove? Or is it laid and watermarked? by Alex Artuchov
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    A stamp for a rouble by P. J. Campbell
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The dot postmarks of Imperial Russia by P. J. Campbell
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Obituary A. M. Rosselevitch 1902-1977
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Philatelic shorts
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Review of literature
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    The journal fund
        Page 61
    The collector's corner
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text


































Sept. 1977


PRINTED IN Canada


IA


TWE


No. 1


__ __ Y-IYI~YQ


I


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~,"~,~".

























0









YAMSHCIK


( THE POST-RIDER)


No.1 SEPT/77

Your copy of our journal may be
obtained by sending $3.50 (postage
paid anywhere in the world) payable
to the Canadian Society of Russian
Philately and sent to: -s--
Alex Artuchov, Box 5722, Station A -'----
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5W 1P2


Contents
2 Editorial

3 Correspondance With Canada ....................... Alex Artuchov

5 Tannu-Tuva and the New Blekhman Handbook............ Andrew Cronin

28 The Literature of Russian Philately ................ P.J. Campbell

34 Is the Paper Wove? Or is it Laid and Watermarked? .. Alex Artuchov

9 39 A Stamp for a Rouble ............................. P.J. Campbell

46 The Dot Postmarks of Imperial Russia ............... P.J. Campbell

53 Obituary

55 Philatelic Shorts

58 Review of Literature

62 The Collectors' Corner


The Society wishes to acknowledge and commend the "behind the scenes"
efforts of a number of individuals whose aid was instrumental in the
production of this our first issue. We would firstly like to thank
our advertisers: August Perce of "Stamps", Leo J. Zaikowski of L & F
Stamp Service and Marvin Pehr for showing faith in our venture and for
providing the advertising revenue which significantly offset our
printing costs. We next express a very special note of gratitude to
our typist Teresa Artuchov, for her long and tedious hours behind the
keyboard. We applaud the efforts of our two artists: Tikhon Nikolaevich
Kulikovsky for his very fine illustrations and gracious cooperation and
John D. Sherratt who among other things was primarily responsible for
the design of our cover, managing to endow it with a distinctly Russian
character. Our final expression of gratitude goes to Valentina Petrovna
Artuchov for so kindly performing a variety of miscellaneous tasks.











EDITORIAL


A group of us here in Canada had often felt there was a need for
a society here in our country,which could classify and distribute
information about the philately of the areas now forming part
of the USSR.

The reasons are obvious. First of all, this land is stiff with
Slavs, to put it plainly; from the Dukhobors who fled religious
persecution in Tsarist Russia at the turn of the century to the
many thousands of honest and hard working Western Ukrainians
arriving soon after and whose back-breaking toil has made the
prairie provinces the bread basket of the world.

In short, there must therefore be all kinds of interesting
philatelic material floating around. It is up to us Canadians
to dig it out and to recognize it for what it is.

The name of our group is: THE CANADIAN SOCIETY OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY".
The society is apolitical, with a soope that is strictly philatelic.
The approach we are proposing is entirely new and based on the
facts that we are all primarily concerned with earning a living
and that the main benefit any intending enthusiast would get
out of the Society would be its journal.In other words, the
Society has no members as such and it has been formed primarily
to publish and circulate its Journal" Yamshchik" ( Post-Rider )
to all interested readers. Its regularity of issue will depend
on articles contributed by readers and the appearance of each new
number will be announced in the philatelic press. As support
grows,additional measures will be taken to bring enthusiasts
together. We have at present three co ordinators handling
the main functions of the Society:


EDITOR: Andrew Cronin, Box 5722, Station A,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, I5W 1P2

PUBLISHER & TREASURER: Alex Artuchov, c/o
Box 5722, Station A, Toronto, Ontario,
Canada, M5W 1P2

SECRETARY: Patrick J. Campbell, 17091 Maher Blvd.,
Pierrefonds, Quebec, Canada H9J 1H7

To keep operations as simple as possible, readers are requested
to enclose a stamped and self-addressed envelope when writing
to any of the co ordinators named above. If any writer
raises a point of general interest, it will be dealt with in
the following issue of the Post-Rider "

Let us now close with the stirring motto: Collectors of Russia
in Canada unite k


I








CORRESPONDENCE

WITH CANADA '


Correspondance with Canada is
intended to appear in forthcoming issues
of this journal and deal with interesting /3
philatelic material making contact with IAAAHAAY I -
both Russian and Canadian postal
establishments. Readers are accordingly
invited to forward write-ups and accompanying
photographs of suitable items in their collections
for inclusion in future issues.
immmmmmmmmmmmmmmmemmememmmmmmmmmmmmmm

Alex Artuchov Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Several years ago, while rummaging through an accumulation
of Canadian covers, I came across the subject letter.
Being mailed from the USSR, I immediately decided that this
item is obviously misplaced. I examined the front of the cover
more closely, making note that it was mailed to a person in a
small northern Ontario community and addressed only in the Cyrillic
alphabet. ( Fig. 1 ). When I turned the cover over to the reverse
side I immediately realized the reason for this inclusion among
Canadian stock. The reverse side ( Fig. 2 ) contained 16 postmarks
-" ._ .-^ ... .. ~. ....... '* -" .: .... ,..- .... I .
"t :' *". ':.. .. ." ... '": ...... ... '" "" ', .- ". "


." .- ... '*'. .' .






.,+ ._ ./ '. ,-A1. :. .,,, 1
--



S. ., .. .... .Z .. ... ,,
ZFig I














3
O ,) ; ..2:. .,. ,. .. < C"r'- ,;.,, ., <,
c ,..; ; -. -IC
~~i



-', .,, ,'-.. .- -: ., .- .. ,.. ,- .. ,, .- ,..L
i ~ .L ~3











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were R. P. O's. The story accompanying this cover turned out to be




rather interesting. ;. -
"
3-. *^:- *-.. L -'^ ^
/.,5 .., -: ,; .' _. L / -- '- --' '"






























20, 1941, the letter reached Vancouver on April 22, 1941. An
ongoing Second World War in Western and Central Europe undoubtably
Upon its arrival in Vancouver, the Canadian port of entry, the

















letter was opened and examined for reasons of wartime security.
All mail, incoming from abroad, was apparently censored in this
manner during the Second World War.

One or more postal clerks or possibly .a railroad employee having
knowledge of the Cyrillic alphabet, must have been responsible
for directing the letter on a smooth and uninterrupted journey
east to Winnipeg and from there into northwestern Ontario. It
was here in northwestern Ontario, on the 24th or 25th of April
that the confusion began. The letter rode on the railroad
*.'..-. ,-, *-...,-I.j











































for 3 or 4 days, in different boxcars, probably bound in both
eastern and western directions in search for its destination or
more precisely a person that could read the address. The break

















finally came on the 28th of April in the tiny railroad town of
.2 11 tr re on A pril.22 1941.- An


disrup.te. w r-dte oSi psl muc o












mangoner duringSthScond World War .ab




forn diretingutheleeoasohnuinterrut jo










east trn Wandpes and dinorthiasern Ontarion or i





more precisely a person that could read the address. The break
finally cam theo e 28th of Aril in the tiny railroad town of


I










Reddit, located a few short miles outside the Manitoba border.
S n the 30th of April the letter finally reached its intended
destination in Smooth Rock Falls.

The letter still contains a handwritten note ( Fig. 3 ) with
an April 30, 1941, Reddit postmark:

I -
-: .. t : .. "-, .-.Ji. ** ,b .';. : i ,. .


T-t6
,r .- .. "-- ,- -: r'.; '
[sl"nL- ;-, ... ,. ,.- ..'1- .- : .'.
.Fig 3 .3 '.



-













by Andrew Cronin
,-+--, i PO



























* obtain a copy of the work History of the Post and the Postage Stamps
of Tuva by S. M. Blekhman. This was issued in Russian as a paperback
of 112 pages at the end of 1976 by the Svyaz Publishers in Moscow,
with a selling price of 47 kopeks.--













The object of these notes is to act as a guide to this handbook for
Tuvan collectors in the West and to add information and/or corrections
where required. The work is divided into six sections; 1. Preface
S 2. The History of the Post 3. Postal Markings 4. Postage Stamps
5. Postal Stationery and 6. Bibliography. Each section will now
be considered in turnronin
Through the kindness of some friends, the writer has been able to
obtain a copy of the work History of the Post and the Postage Stamps
of Tuva by S. M. Blekhman. This was issued in Russian as a paperback
of 112 pages at the end of 1976 by the Svyaz Publishers in Moscow,
with a selling price of 47 kopeks.

The object of these notes is to act as a guide to this handbook for
Tuvan collectors in the West and to add information and/or corrections
where required. The work is divided into six sections; i. Preface
* 2. The History of the Post 3. Postal Markings 4. Postage Stamps
5. Postal Stationery and 6. Bibliography. Each section will now
be considered in turn.











After giving some statistics about this autonomous republic, now
forming part of the USSR, Comrade Blekhman states in the preface
that the scarcityof material was due among other things, to the low
percentage of literate people in pre World War II Tuva, the destruction
of much of the archives and the complete absence of philatelists
there up to the year 1945. We will see below that the last statement
is not true. He then says that the rare provisionals, issued mainly
during the war years, have not been described in foreign catalogues.
That is not correct as, due to the valiant efforts of James Negus
of England, all the known ones have been listed for sometime in the
Stanley Gibbons catalogue ( S.G. Nos. 109 130 ) and also in the new
" Tannu Tuva Catalog ( Nos. 118 139 ) just issued in 1977
by the U. S. enthusiast Richard C. Kanak of Berwyn, Illinois, USA.
Comrade Blekhman also notes that Scott and Minkus have excluded
some of the stamps printed in the USSR ( he means the 1934 1936
pictorials ) because they allege that they were not placed in
circulation ". Actually what the editors of Scott give as their
reason is that they do not consider them to have been issued
primarily for postal purposes ". There is adequate information in
the foreign philatelic press ( e.g. Albert H. Harris of London, England
in his Stamp Collectors Annual for 1938 and 1939 and A. Eugene
Michel in Stamps of May 20th and December 16th, 1939 ) to
support that last contention Finally, foreign catalogues such as
Michel, Yvert etc. have listed these pictorials for many years now.

Comrade Blekhman ends his preface with a short survey of his
historical and archival sources, naming and thanking Soviet philatelists
" and others for help and information received for the handbook.
The first chapter begins with a historical survey starting from S
the 9th century, based on Arab, Chinese, Italian, Mongolian and Russian
sources and having to do with postal relay services, which were
Mongolian in origins Discussing special delivery ( express )
arrangements, Comrade Blekhman illustrates a native envelope at the
top of pg. 14 and any reader would assume that it originated from
or was addressed to Tuva. Actually, this is a retouched cut of an
envelope, originally sold by Robson Lowe Limited in their sale of
May 1, 1968 ( see Fig. 1. below )





Fig ..' -* r .. :' '
Fig 1



o ... 0

14



J ma"











Through the kind help of the Mongolian Society Inc. of Bloomington,
Indiana and other renowned Mongolists in the U. S., it has been
determined that the inscriptions are in classical Mongolian and
read as follows: 1-2-3-4 ( inside horseshoes ) : Morin degegur
dobtulga yabugul ", i.e. horse on top of rush cause to go",
5. dotur a nigen dzUil i.e. inside one item". 6. Badaragultu
Torb yin terigun on namur un dumdada ", i.e. first year (1875)
of Badaragultu Tord ( Mongolian title for the reign of the Manchu
Emperor Kwang Su 1875 -1908 ) autumn middle ".
6a. sar-a-yin shin-e-yin nigen ", i.e. of the month of the new
first ( day ) 6 plus 6a therefore fix the date as; the first
day of the middle autumn month or October 1, 1875.
7. bichig ene metu nis nis nis ", i.e., letter ( inside rectangle
held by bird ) thus like fly fly fly ".

Since it is not known what is on the other side of this envelope, it
cannot be assumed that this item is of Tuvan interest. There are
eminent Mong-olists in Moscow who could also have translated the
above illustration for Comrade Blekhman.

He then continues with data on Russian settlement in Tuva, quoting
official sources for the establishment of a post and telegraph
office at Belotsarsk ( the original name for the Tuvan capital of Kyzyl )
Further information is given on the development of the postal network
during the Tsarist, independent and Soviet periods with rates and
official statistics for mail carried and exchanged in the period
1926 1943. The latter look very impressive but seem irrelevant
* as the number of surviving pieces held by Soviet and foreign philatelists
is infinitesimal. He also notes, that by 1935, the total number of
city, provincial and postal agencies had grown to 13 offices.
However, a 1938 letter from Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga to Bela Sekula, the
New York wholesaler for the Tuvan 1934 1936 pictorials gave a
list of 8 post office in operation. as follows:

Kyzyl ( General Post Office )
Chadan, in the Barun Kemchik province
Shagonar, in the Ulu Kem province
Turan, in the Bii Kem province
Znamenka, in the Kha-Kem province
Balgazik, in the Tandi province
Samagaltai, in the Tes-Kem province
Kyzyl Mazhalyk, in the Dzun-Kemchik province
Comrade Blekhman also knew of the above listing from an article by the
present writer in the 1954 New South Wales Philatelic Annual, so
which figures are correct?

The second chapter is taken up by pp. 24-49 and covers the postmarks
of Tuva. From a partial strike of a recently discovered arrival
marking, Comrade Blekhman has been able to reconstruct tentatively
a double-circle date stamp reading Belotsarsk P.-T.K. 19.7.17"
The serial letter is not known.

An early Soviet collector, V. K. Golovkin, also noted the existence
of a single line marking with the same inscription, but his collection
has since disappeared.











The usage of the name KRASNYI YENIS double circle marking is then
noted. The earliest known date being 3.12.25 and always applied on
Soviet postage stamps. Comrade Blekhman and others have missed the
fact that this marking and its successor, which is crudely inscribed
" Kizil Touwa" both have the same diameter of 30mm and the same
serial letter a in exactly the same position at bottom. In
other words it seems certain that the Russian word Krasnyi Yennis "
were cut out of the original Soviet postmarker and the new inscription
engraved therein after the Tuvan native Postal Administration took
over. Plenty of such instances have taken place elsewhere in
Russian and Soviet philately.

The earliest date known for the new marking is 8.2.27 on the first
issue. Already by the beginnings of April, the new stamps had run
out and Comrade Blekhman shows examples of Soviet stamps used
thereafter, from 5.4.27 to 24.1.28. They occur on a bank correspondence
to Moscow and quite a few examples are held by Soviet and foreign
philatelists. The latest strike of this cancel held by the present
writer is dated 27.4.28 on a bank cover with Tuvan postage to
Harbin Manchunia.

Next we have the familiar bilingual Franco Mongolian type Kizil -
Touva dating from 30.10.27. It was still being applied there on
an official postal card dated 15.3.30 to Berne Switzerland and
it was also locally applied on 4.4.34 on a series of covers addressed
abroad to dealers, passing through Moscow 1 16 days later and
franked with complete sets of the first air mail issue.





S. ;".' 4. -- -- .. .






; mmmxa4jiy 0e.AOPpOBW4S' y Jw.JI.j 0< &..





I ,: :Sr.XAPIBIM a yD.
S -
-7 __ ... -








r\. ..:,. fi ...f- ,i ." ...-- --.* .,. .- .*. -
'' ,, -.-. 1 .;, --











This bilingual marking also occurs as a c.t.o. on many Tuvan
stamps from the first issue to the Zoological set, but it may have
never left Kyzyl. The latest genuine local usage seen is on the 15
and 35 Posta provisionals and dated ...Xl.35 ( November 1935 )

The next type for the capital is the double-circle type also described
by the late W. S. E. Stephen and A. Cronin in Rossica with the
inscription Kizil/Touva. The earliest known date is 30.5.31 on a
registered cover originally in the Dr. F. M. Tolman collector and
now in the possession of the present writer. ( see Fig. 2. )

This amazing item has mixed Soviet Tuvan franking and Comrade
Blekhman thinks it was not normal usage for Soviet stamps as the
cover is addressed to the well known dealer M. F. Shuliack in
Harbin, Manchuria. However, it can be seen that the rate was
correct ( 35 kop. ) and it does not appear philatelic as the
stamps are stuck haphazardly on the cover. The Soviet stamps were
certainly accepted without question and the cover received in
Harbin on 17,6.31.

Although Comrade Blekhman has not noticed the fact, the marking
in his Fig. 27, reading Tzadan 18.8.36 Touva belongs to the same
postmark type, as does another example in the present writer's
collection, struck in violet and reading Schagonar 31.8.31 Touva "
on Scott's No. 22 ( 14 kop. 1927 pictorial issue )

Comrade Blekhman then describes the KIZIL TOUVA/KOHTROL double
0 circle type referred to by us as on a bank cover to Moscow. He
is confused about the dating, but it is 1.7.35 and this item was
originally in the collection of the late Harry Tamer of New York
City. The present location of this cover is unknown, but in the
meantime, the present writer has located two more envelopes with
this cancel, as follows:

a. Registered cover with the Latinsation of the alphabet set sent
on 7.10.32 and received in Harbin on 18.12.32 ( see Fig. 3 )

b. Declared value letter sent on 10.6.33 and received in Harbin
on 15.7.33


Thus, we now know of 3 covers with this marking, which was apparently
originally intended for the control or checking of money orders.

Comrade Blekhman's Fig. 19 shows another Kbzbl TbBA type with
blocked in segments above and below the date bridge and thick
curved bar filling the bottom 2/3 between the circles. He gives
the period of usage as 16.5.38 to 28.3.42 but the present writer
has a partial strike dated November 1942.

He next shows the well-known Kbzbl a and c postmarkers,
which were also used as cancellations to order. Kbzbl a never
S left Kyzyl and lasted at least until 1945 when Tuva was already
part of the USSR. The Kbzbl c type has an unusual and fascinating







Fig 3





postM-1 4dte '" w .Ic.i Us7
-. P ...A A<
SJB..- I l-t-. -- -.
K- *' ''i !





h app-.e 6 Lr- ,eo a r 9 T "'C po-tare

Ma rch:5 6, 7Lo,,, 93.




S- -.- .t ...
I" ,., -- /*^ ^ : ^^ .. '.






Vi o e r' 1 3 15 1, 17, 2 7
,'.-. -'. .. .. ; / ,.... .







history. The earliest example in the possession of the present
writer is on a registered cover, struck in violet and the
postmark is dated 6.4.35, which is a mistake as the OUSIKSKOIE "
transit marking on the back is 10.4.36 and it was received in San
Diego on May 5, 1936.

Although Comrade Blekhman does not mention it, something strange
happened around the end of January 1937. The C postmarker
was apparently sent to the Soviet Philatelic Association in
Moscow and used there, to cancel registered covers franked mainly
with the 1936 Jubilees for despatch abroad. The postmark colours
and dates were as follows:

Grey-Black : February 9, 10 and 11
March 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
and 20.
May 12
June 8

Violet: February 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 27.
kt) n~l. E*












Judging from the subsequent material seen, the c marking was
never sent back to Kyzyl.

With regard to the KbzbL a marking, it was originally applied
in violet. However, by the beginning of 1938, black ink was
being dumped on the pad. The subsequent colour sequences known
to the writer are as follows:


Date


Colour


Date


Colour


black
black
black
violet-black
violet
black
black


15.8.40
24.12.40
25.3.41
24.4.41
19.2.44
21.7.44
27.2.45


violet
violet
violet
violet
blue-black
blue-black
black


Moreover, Comrade Blekhman does not record the existence of the
rare KbzbL b cancel, of which only a few strikes are known as
follows:

a. Dated 6.4.36 in violet on a cover to San Diego ( See Fig. 4. )
b. Dated 22.9.37 in black on a registered cover to Ipswich, England.
Originally described by James Negus and now in the writers collection.
c. Dated 3.8? 37 in black on the 35 K. Jubilee stamp perf. 14,
which was originally on a registered letter


Fig 4


21.1.38
9.2.38
22.2.38
17.3.38
14.2.39
20,5.40
20.6.40








Before leaving Kyzyl we can record that an official post-office
cachet, inscribed in Tuvan T. A. R. Kbzblda Posta Telegraf
Kontorazb ( Literally" Tuvan People's Republic, in Kyzyl Post
and Telegraph, its office ) and arms in the centre, has been seen
in a 3 circle type with outer diameter of 37 mm. and struck in
violet on some postal certificates dated 25.3.33 ( See Fig. 5 )


Sota

Fig 5 ;






Comrade Blekhman then considers the cancels for Turan. His Fig. 25
showing the rare type with filled-in segments above and below the
date-bridge is wrong, as it should show the incorrect inscription
" Turam See Fig. 6 below for a registered express return receipt
cover in the writer's collection with the earliest known strike of
this marking, dated 3.2.34 and received in Harbin on 10.3.34


*


S


Fig 6


CneuufioeCQ NJ^^l -s' iE 7'

^ ^ '' 1CL'linJ
rj





to^ JC'r, o. qb
X J R 12- 7
wY 00p

^^^^ y-'^''-162,l
'^T^7^^^^ ) a^i ".^










Comrade Blekhman shows a similar type in his Fig. 31 for KbzbL -
MAZALbK ( Kyzyl-Mazhalyk ) so they should be grouped together.
In his Fig. 28, he features a rare SARbG- SEP marking, which
should be grouped with his Fig. 19 reading KbZbL-TbBA. He also
notes the Palgazan and Sagaan ARbG cancels, which are found in
violet as c.t.o.'s on the 1936 Jubilees. However, the present
writer has the last named in black as a postally applied
marking with illegible date on the 10 kop. pictorial of 1927
( Scott No. 21 )

He then concludes this section with a survey of the post-incorporation
cancels ( Soviet types ) used in Tuva.

The registration markings have been ignored in the Handbook, which
is a great pity, as they are very interesting. Those known to the
present writer are set out hereunder for the record. They have
so far been seen only for Kyzyl and Turan, as follows:-

1. KYZYL

a. During the period of the Krasnpi Yenis, cancel, Comrade Blekhman
has a cover dated 20.12,26 and MSS endorsement in ink at the bottom
reading in three lines: N 425 / Kyzyl Khoda / Tannu-Tuva "
( see fig. 8. )

b. Covers with the first issue of Tannu-Tuva, mailed on 8.2.27
have the registration number normally written indelible pencil
beside the confirmatory Kizil Touwa marking. The present
writer has seen covers with the numbering running from 218/22 to
218/167.

c. By April 5, 1927, covers with Soviet postage had a 2 line hand
written endorsement with the registration number and the phrase
" Kyzyl Tuv. Rep. See his Figs. 12 and 13 for ## 206 and 463.

d. By August of that year a framed rubber stamp was in use in
violet entirely in Latin characters and reading No/Kizil Tuva "
See Comrade Blekhman's Fig. 15 for a cover with this marking with No.
384. The present writer has another such cover with Soviet
Postage, cancelled 9.1.28 and # 39.

e. It occurs in black in a worn state on two covers dated 17.5.28
and must have expired soon after, as we go back to a violet MSS
endorsement R N 707 / Kyzyl t.r. on 26.7.28. The writer also
has two covers sent on 27.4.29 with written endorsements in Latin
script: N52 and 55 Kizil-Touva A further endorsement in indelible
pencil just says N 476 on the cover with mixed franking sent
on 30.5.31 to Harbin.

f. Bj 8.10.32, due to the Latinisation of the alphabet, a new
handstamp came into use reading R No..../KbzbL TbBA (.see fig. 3
showing the KOHTROL cover ) and it was in use at least until
5.12.32.

g. By 16.2.33 we get a hand written Latinised drawing on the
covers as shown in Fig. 7 and this was still being done one month later.

































(l' \ -Y i"



Tit.Grine Sammlerwelt

Niebill /Schleswig/






I I












I K bZbL TbA
Fig 7






On 10.6.33 we are back to a framed written endorsement in Russian,
reading N 22 / Kyzyl Tuva ".

h. On 12.9.34 a batch of registered covers with the new registration
set was mailed abroad, with numbers written in violet and a circular
" R marking 32mm. in diameter added in blue ( see Fig. 8. )

The writer has seen numbers 562, 634, 636 and 678 in this series.

i. A series of registered covers mailed from Kyzyl on 24.10.35 has
a new framed marking as shown in Fig. 9 and it remained in use
there at least until 9.1.37.




Fig 9





What happened thereafter is puzzling. Either it was sent by the
end of January 1937 to Moscow for application by the Soviet Philatelic
Association, or a duplicate made from the same mould was applied
in Moscow. Whatever the case, it was still being applied genuinely
in Kyzyl in a warm and buckled state on 3.8.37 and 22.9.37 in black,
together with the KbZbL b postmark, so it appears that the R "
marking was sent back by Moscow around July 1937 to Kyzyl

j. Soon thereafter and certainly by 21.1.38 a new metal and
unframed type made its appearance, reading R No..../Kizil Touva
( please see Fig. 14 )

Corresponding in colour to the postmark applied, this sturdy
marking seems to have lasted until the end of the People's Republic
era on October 13, 1944.

II Turan

a. By a strange coincidence, the first type seen for this town
( refer to Fig. 5 ) is the same unframed kind of steel marking
finally applied by Kyzyl, but preceding it by about four years and
reading R. N..../Touran Touva It can be noted as struck on the
registered express return receipt letter sent on 3.2.34 to Harbin,
Manchuria.














b. A new rubber framed type, similar to that for Kyzyl ( Fig. 9 ) and
described under ( i ) above has only appeared on covers prepared by
the Soviet Philatelic Association in Moscow for the Landscape and
Zoological Sets on 25.3.35 and 26.3.35. It would be interesting to
know if it were ever subsequently forwarded to Turan for genuine
application there.

In his third chapter Comrade Blekhman turns to a study of the postage
stamps. The values were originally given in mo'n'gun or kopeks
( literally meaning silver ) of which there were 100 to a
" togerik or rouble ( literally something round ). Covering
the first stamps he lists the known colour proofs and follows with
the Specimen perforations now held in the Goznak Museum in Moscow,
as well as illustrating two parcel cards franked with examples of the
first issue.

Practically all the stamps on cover originate with the well known
registered batch sent from Kyzyl on 8.2.27 to Moscow. He states
these are always franked with the correct rate of 28 kop but this is
not true. The present writer has a registered cover No. 218/59
from this lot franked with 1 + 30 kop., and another with No. 218/96
franked with 1 + 50 kop. The only cover so far known from this
period addressed elsewhere has a total of 20 kop. postage; it left
Kyzyl on 5.4.27 and went by way of Minusinsk 16.4.27 to Harbin
2.5.27 ( now in the present writer's collection ). The latest
usage seen is of the 5 t. value on 25.3.41 from Kyzyl on a registered
cover to the United States.

Missing perforations are noted, as well as varieties on the next
( surcharged ) issue. Data is then given on the 1927 Ethnographic
pictorials including essays, the Obrazets ( Specimen ) punches,
perforation varieties and fantail margins. See Fig. 10 below
for an unlisted fantail on the 1 r. value








Fig 10








SoS











The Latin alphabet surcharges then follow and these also exist in the
* Goznak Museum with the Specimen punch. The present writer can
antedate the earliest known usage to 7.10.32 on a cover from A. I. Yashin
in Kyzyl to M. F. Shuliack in Harbin. By the way, the 10 kop.
exists with surcharge distinctly doubled ( rare ).

Next we have the rare"l0"on 8 kop and"15"on 14 Kop. surcharges on
the Ethnographic pictorials and these are followed by the familiar
35 surcharges on the triangles ( Scott Nos. 35 36 ). The same
basic stamps also exist as handwritten surcharges in indelible
pencil, which Comrade Blekhman says should only be collected on cover.

The earliest usage seen by this present writer for these handstamped
surcharges is on a registered bank cover with 35 on 28 kop. from
Kyzyl 27.9.32 to Moscow 11.10.32.

Around the same period, there were 4 OKTE surcharges on fiscal
stamps which have appeared on mail, but served no postal purpose.

The familiar Posta surcharges and their varieties are then covered,
including the large figures 15 plus Posta surcharge on a 1 R.
red-lilac fiscal, known mint in two copies and probably an essay.
It should be pointed out here that the original fiscal ( 10 Values)
are themselves very rare, so that the possibility of forged or bogus
Pogta surcharges applied on them is remote.

We now come to the controversial pictorials, which have clouded the
* philatelic reputation of Tuva. They were circulated in the republic,
but the surviving genuine postal usages are rare and, to judge from
the transit times noted, many of the philatelic covers appear to have
been cancelled and deposited in the mails at Moscow by the Soviet
Philatelic Association. Comrade Blekhman does not examine this
controversial aspect of Tuvan postal history. The wholesaler for
these issues in the West was the late, but certainly not lamented
Bela Sekula, who started dealing in Hungary then in SWitzerland and
the United States. About the kindest thing that can be said
about this character is that he was motivated by unenlightened self-
interest and his ideas on ethics were elastic to say the least.

The first of the controversial pictorials was the set of 8 Registered "
stamps, imperforated and normally line perforated 12 1/2. A
mysterious perforation 11 is also found on the 2 kop., 4 kop. and 10 kop.
values. There was a known Soviet perforated 11 machine during this
period, applied on the Tol'stoi and Dobrolyubov stamps, but
comparison shows that the gauge is not the same, since that on the
Tuvan stamps is closer to 11 1/4. Comrade Blekhman says that this
perforation is unknown used, but that is not true since several covers
are known where these stamps were affixed by foreign philatelists
and then sent to Kyzyl to be returned as registered covers, often
bearing the last genuinely applied and unframed registration
cachet ( j ). The first postal usage for the perforated set was
on a series of covers sent on 2.4.34 from Turan to various dealers
S in the West and passing thru Moscow 18 days later ( see Fig. 11 )


17





*


*


I .;* < .'
- -r "..'- ^ ''^ ^ ^ :

nli i .. ra
;' ii, ':I ,.,..

Bela S e k u 1 a
Sonnenhbf


Laze rn-


Sc hw e i z


*


I-
SI











The imperforated set shows up on a series of registered covers from
SKyzyl, sent to foreign dealers on 12.9.34 ( see Fig. 8 )

Next we have the first set of nine airmails which first appear
on covers with the Kyzyl bilingual postmark, sent to foreign
dealers on 4.IV.34 and passing through Moscow on 20.4.34. Comrade
Blekhman does not list the Itug value in the scarce perforation
in used condition, but here again a U. S. collector, Aaron Binder,
made up a cover with this variety and the rest of the set, sent it
to Kyzyl for servicing and it was returned to him under registration
No. 264 on 20.5.40 Were it not for the traditional American
respect for covers from remote countries, we would not have
today quite a few of the Tuvan gems that have survived.

The rare provisional 20 surcharge of 1935 on the 15 kop. perforated
registration stamp is then listed and this is a variety well worth
looking for. This is followed by the 7 Landscape stamps ik to 50 kop.
and Comrade Blekhman questions the existence of the 10 kop. value
imperforate mint and used. The present writer has seen copies
of both and a used example with a genuinely applied KbZbL cancel
( Blekhman's illustration 19 ) is shown herewith. ( See Fig. 12 )





Fig 12




The same value exists with distinct double perforation along the
left side, actually sent by registered mail from Kyzyl on 24,10.35
29,10.35, 1.11.35 and 5.11.35. Comrade Blekhman attributes to the
late W. S. E. Stephen and the present writer the existence of the
50 kop. value imperforate, but we have not seen this variety.

It was with this set that the first of the Moscow mailings was
conducted by the Soviet Philatelic Association with the Turan "
postmark and Turan" framed registration cachet. A tabulation of
the covers seen by the present writer is now given:-

Despatch Date Registration Nos. Foreign Address Arrival
Date

25.111.35 11 29 Maria Stutzer 11.4.35
Luzern
Pilatus Str. 23
Switzerland

25.111.35 210-252 Monsieur 11.4.35
L. Hermouet
S47 Rue D Orsel
Paris, France





19












25.111.35





25.111.35






25.111.35






25.111.35





25.111.35






25.111.35





25.111.35



25.111.35






25.111.35


321-361





471






585-598






605-645





736-799






825-827





856




935-952






923-927


Dr. Desider
urmenyi
137 Fulton Street
New York, U.S.A.

Monsieur
F. Del Tarre
Claris 12
Barcelone
Spain

Herrn Paul
Guttmann
Hamburg
Nenerwall 67
Germany


Dr. Desider Urmenyi
137 Fulton St.,
New York, U.S. A.

Herrn Victor
Kneitschel
Prag
Strasnic A 276
Czechoslovakia


19.4.35





15.4.35






11.4.35


19.4.35




11.4.35


Franz Bonkar 12.4.35
Real Tanoda
Utca 9
Budapest,
Hungary
address usually partially
erased


The location and classification of the missing numbers and addresses
is left as an exercise for the reader.


Camillo Spingardi 11.4.35
Genova
46 Via Assarotti
Italy

Herrn Paul
Fabian
Wien
Horlgasse 12
Austria

Herrn R. Kormos
Haag
A. V. Solmstraat 21
Holland


I











We now come to the 10 stamps of the Zoological set, in which several
misperforations ex[st. Here again we have Moscow mailings, but
divided into two portions, as follows: -


a. Registered covers with the Turan
the 50 kop. value:-


" postmark and franked with


Despatch Date


Registration No.


Address


Arrival Date


26.111.35






26.111.35





26.111.35


B 42






B 186





B 424


Other examples doubtless exist,

b. Registered covers with the Turan
of these stamps:-


Grune Sammlerwelt
Niebull
Gather Land Str.
Scheleswig
Germany

Mekeel's Weekly
Stamp News
P. O. Box 1660
Portland, U.S.A.

Herrn Rudolf Friedl
Wien-l
Wollzeile 8
Austria


" postmark and complete sets


26.111.35



26.111.35


78a


1


Franz Bonkar(?)
Real Tanoda Utca 9
Budapest, Hungary


Herrn Victor Kneitschel
Prag, Strasnic A 276
Czechoslovakia


26.111,35



26.111.35


26.111.35


26.111.35


165a-177a



306a-308a
377a-397a


324a


519a-532a


Monsieur F Del Tarre
Claris 12, Barcelone
Spain

Maria Stutzer
Luzern, Pilatus Str. 23
Switzerland

Stamps Import &
Export Limited
Sonnenhof, Luzern
Switzerland

Herrn Paul Guttmann
Hamburg, Nenerwall,67
Germany


11.4.35






19.4.35


2.4.35



11 .4.35


15.4.35



12.4.35


12.4.35


11.4.35











26.111.35



26.111.35



26.111.35





26.111.35


26.111.35


612a-656a



729a-757a



832a-887a





905a-931a
982a-995a


954a-962a


Monsieur L. Hermouet
47 Rue D'Orsel
Paris, France

Herrn Paul Fabian
Wien Horlgasse 12
Austria

Camillo Spingardi
Genova
46 Via Assarotti
Italy

Herrn R. Kormos
Haag
A. V. Solmstraat 21
Holland

Dr. Desider Urmenyi
137 Fulton Street
New York, U.S.A.


The reader is left the task of finding and classifying the missing
numbers and addresses.

Various values of the Landscape and Zoological issues may be found
genuinely used on registered letters from Kyzyl on 24.10.35, 29.10.35
1.11.35 and 5.11.35, with the appropriate OUSINSKOIE bilingual transit
backstamp and addressed to Ernest or Thomas Cliffe, Colwyn Bay, Englan
Two of these were sent to Comrade Blekhman by the present writer and
are illustrated in his Figs. 68 and 69.
The final set of controversial pictorials is the 1936 Jubilees,
which were issued in a new currency, namely 100 Kopeks+ 1 aksha
( this last word originally meant money in Tuvan ) There
has been some confusion in the past as to the value of the aksha ",
but in its English language circular # 17 of December 1936 to
dealers abroad, the Soviet Philatelic Association gave the following
equivalents: -

1 Aksha = Rouble 0,30 = 6 U.S.A cents

From its English language circular # 2 of the same month we also see
that Comrade Blekhman's description of the designs is not accurate
and the corrections are as follows:


25 and 35 kop:
40 and 50 kop:
70 kop:
80 kop:
3 a:
50 kop. airmail:
3a airmail:


Herd of cows
Competitive racing games at the National Festival
Competitive games at the National Festival
Partisan detachment in 1921
Confiscation of cattle from the enemies of the people.
The feast of the Women
Allegory ( the wivern thrown down and an aeroplane )


11.4.35


11.4.35



12.4.35


19.4.35


I












The earliest genuine usage of these stamps seen by the present writer
S has been on a cover with the KbzbL C postmark in violet, dated
2.7.36 on a pair of the 20 kop. value and examples are rare, as
this issue had extensive mailing from Moscow in 1937 with the KbzbL-C
cancel, as follows:-


Despatch Date

10.2.37
grey-black


10.2.37
grey-black


10.2.37
grey-black

11.2.37


11.2.37
grey-black


12.2.37
violet

12.2.37
violet

13.2.37
violet

15.2.37
violet

16.2.37
violet

16.2.37
violet

17.2.37
violet

27.2.37
violet


Registration Nos.


228-233


242



275


305


368


399


427-432


506


566-585


603-617


653


706-710


776-780


Address


Stamp Import &
Export Corporation
Hotel White
Lexington Ave., at
New York City, USA


Herrn Paul Vogelsanger
Eluhmatt Strasse Nr.44
Luzern, Switzerland

Thomas Cliffe
Colwyn Bay, England

Stamp Import & Export
N. Y. C., U.S.A.

Grossman Stamp Col.,
102 W. 42nd. Street
N. Y. C., USA

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import & Export
N. Y. C. USA

Stamp Import & Export
N. Y. C. USA

Stamp Import & Export
N.Y.C. USA

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import $ Export
N.Y.C. USA

Stamp Import & Export
N. Y. C. USA

Stamp Import & Export
N. Y. C USA


Arrival Date

5.3.37


37th St.,


25.2.37



25.2.37


5.3.37


5.3.37


5.3.37


14.3.37


14.3.37


14.3.37


5.3.37


14.3.37


14.3.37


31.3.37











5.3.37


5.3.37
grey-black

5.3.37
grey-black

6.3.37


6.3.37
grey-black

7.3.37
grey-black

7.3.37
grey-black

8.3.37
grey-black

9.3.37
grey-black

10.3.37
grey-black

10.3.37
grey-black

11.3.37
grey-black

13.3.37
grey-black

14.3.37
grey-black

15.3.37
grey-black

16.3.37
grey-black

17.3.37
grey-black


810


833


854-878


909


958


991-1025


1047


1096-1103


1162-1190


1211


1214


1337


1466-1496


1562


1604-1632


1676


1740-1749


Grossman Stamv Co.,
102 W. 42nd. St.,
N.Y.C. USA

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import & Export
N. Y. C. N. Y.

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import & Export
N.Y.C., N.Y.

Stamp Import & Export
N.Y.C. N.Y.

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import & Export
N.Y.C. N.Y.

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import & Export
N.YC.,N.Y.

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Stamp Import & Export
N.Y.C., N.Y.


31.3.37


0
23.3.37


31.3.37


23.3.37


31.3.37


31.3.37


23.3.37


31 .3.37


27.3.37


5.4.3 *-


27.3.37


31.3.37


31.3.37



31.3.37


31.3.37


6.4.37


12.4.37


I










18.3.37
grey-black

19.3.37
grey-black

20.3.37
grey-black

20.3.37
grey-black

14.5.37
grey-black


1832-1851


1949


1971-1973


1985-2000


Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland


Stamp Import & Export
N.Y.C.,N.Y.

Paul Vogelsanger
Switzerland

Viktor Indra
(private collector )
Chomoutov
Czechoslovakia


An analysis of the above transit times, in comparison with those for
items genuinely posted in Kyzyl should show that the former must
have been mailed from Moscow. However, they are all now scarce,
mainly because of subsequent topical demand, especially for covers
bearing the airmail stamps with the Zeppelin designs.

Turning to the varieties of these stamps Comrade Blekhman questions
the existence of the 2 kop. Gyrmittazi stamp perforate 11. Please
see Fig. 13 for three used copies of this variety from the Richard
C. Kanak Collection of Berwyn, Illinois, while the Stanley Gibbons
catalogue prices this variety both mint and used.






II
Fig 13 I






Readers should be on the lookout for the 20 kop. bear-hunting stamp,
perforated ll,as it is apparently very rare. The postage set also
went on sale imperforate in the U. S. during World War II, coinciding
with the dispersal of the well known Soviet imperforates from the
Postal Museum stock. An additional variety is the 25 kop. airmail per-
forate 11, c.t.o. and with one vertical perforation doubled.

Postage stamp shortages began to manifest themselves in Tuva by early
1938, resulting among other things in handwritten surcharges on the
remaining stocks. Comrade Blekhman does not record this fact, although
it was shown in Rossica, but please see Fig. 14 for an amazing example
genuinely sent by registered mail from Kyzyl on 22.2.38 and with the
new value 12 written in violet ink on the 6 kop. triangle.


6.4.37


6.4.37


12.4.37


6.4.37


31.5.37









Fig 14


2223d
.. _. .. ,




Wallace Selligman
S- /Kentucky Hotel
\ A,. ', ..... Louisville, Kentucky,
S iUnited States of America







The rare handstamped provisionals, modified reissues of five pictorials
and the locally printed-sets of 1942 and 1943 then follow. Comrade
Blekhman repeats the information on the printing sequences and printer'
rule varieties of the 1943 stamps originally published in the Possica
Journal by the late W. S. E. Stephen and the present writer. He also
says that there was only one type of the 50 kop. value. That was, what
we had originally stated, but further material has since come to licht
and the revised findings are now given.

Looking at the left frame, we find that all the upper stamps were
printed first and we find that the pieces of printer's rule measure
as follows, looking down the frame:
9mm,6 1/2mm, 3mm, and 9mm. ( 4 pieces Type I all on yellowish paper
without gum, white paper with gum and white paper without gum.

In the same pairs, the lower stamps have the pieces of printer's rule
measuring as follows:
16mm, 3mm.and 9mm. ( 3 pieces Type II )

In further printings of this value, the left frames are all in Type II
for the upper and lower stamps. They are printed on white paper with and
without gum.

Looking at the 1943 issue in general, the following additional varieties
have been found:











25 Kop. Slate-blue, no gum:

S a. Printed on both sides, on white paper
b. Imperforated between, on white paper
c. Skewed position of cliche, stamps number 4 on white paper
d. Skewed position of chiche, stamp number 3 on yellowish paper
e. Offset, on white paper
f. Offset, on yellowish paper
g. Double perforated, on white paper

25 Kop. black, with gum, on white paper:

a. Partial second impression, stamp number 5
b. Double perforation, stamp number 2

25 Kop green, no gum

a. offset, on white paper, upper stamp
b. Offset on white paper, lower stamp; these two varieties were not
found toge their
c. Double perforation horizontally, on yellowish paper

50 Kop. green, no gum:

a. Offset, on white paper, upper stamp
b. Offset, on white paper, lower stamp, these two varieties were not
found together.
* c. Offset, on yellowish paper, upper stamp
d. Offset, on yellowish paper, lower stamp; these two varieties were
not found together
e. Double perforation vertically, on white paper
f. Double perforation horizontally, on yellowish paper

50 Kop. green with gum;

Offset, on white paper, upper stamp.

Finally, Comrade Blekhman rounds off his book with a straightforward
listing of the postal stationery in Chapter four and ends with a
bibliography.

The present writer has reluctantly written the above notes, since he felt
they should have been unnecessary. The fact is that everything described
above was exhibited at POLSKA 73 in a bilingual Russo-English
display ( Russian first ) to assure maximum comprehension. Gaining
an award was not even considered and the idea in exhibiting was for
what the Russians themselves call obmen opytom ( an exchange of
experience ) as it was felt that the Soviet specialists present would
have noted the items new to them. Tuvan material is so rare that it is
only by drawing from all sources that anything like a reasonable
picture can emerge.











We have seen that a great contribution has been made to Tuvan philatelu
by the Harbin dealer, M. F. Schooliack, through his Kyzyl corresponde
A. I. Yashin. This link was unfortunately broken early in 1934, other e
it is certain that he would have been able to salvage for philatelic
posterity the later Tuvan provisionals, which are all great rarities.
A lesser, but also important role was played by the American philatelist
Aaron Binder through his Kyzyl contact, W. Tundok, A somewhat less than
glorious role was played by the Soviet Philatelic Association in their
handling of the 1934 1936 pictorials and that explains the so-
called deficiencies in foreign catalogues etc. It is sincerely
hoped that objective Soviet specialists will be able to produce in the
near future a comprehensive Tuvan handbook. If they can break out
of their isolation, they will find many foreign sources upon which
they will be able to draw.




THE LITERATURE OF

RUSSIAN PHILATELY

by P.J. Campbell


When one first gets interested in philately, all efforts are concentrat-
on acquisition of stamps, postal stationery, cards, covers or Dostrar:
depending on the type of collection. Before long, however, the need
for information becomes apparent, first a generalized catalog, then a
specialized catalog, and finally it is discovered that really good
literature is more difficult to locate than the stamps themselves.

Literature is essential to classify material, to arrange it in an
appropriate order, to detect gaps in the collection, and to
establish some measure of value. Later on, information regarding
varieties, errors and quantity printed becomes important, as well
as local and historic conditions which must be studied to assess
cancellations on individual stamps, or all the various clues one can
find to trace the pedigree of an envelope or cover. Probably the
next stage is when one passes beyond the scope of available literature.
and begins collating data from various sources, interpolating or
extrapolating to create new information; a process known as research.
The final stage of all is to publish the fruit of one's studies for the
judgement of others, and to encourage further research.

Such a process has formed the basis of our hobby, and new material
seems always to be coming to the surface to be examined and recorded.











In my own case, my early finds were duly reported to more knowledgeable
persons who said, There is something on that variety in the literature "
When I tried to find a definition of the literature I was quoted
names and initials that were at first meaningless......PRIGARA,
ROSSICA, BJRP, SCOTT, GIBBONS, CHUCHIN... which confused me further.

In time I laboriously collected all these, and other wondrous things,
and was able to find valuable items among my own trading material, and
to make interesting discoveries in dealers' stock books.

This article is intended to list as much as possible of the basic
literature of Russian philately in a systematic fashion to guide
those who may be missing some useful research material. This
article is not aimed at reviewing or evaluating published material,
only to list it with comments as to origin and scope. The field of
our hobby is so immense that there will certainly be important omissions
which can hopefully be filled by letters to the Editor. The article
will appear in serial form, in the following order.

Introduction

1.0 Journals of Philatelic Societies

2.0 General Stamp Catalogues

3.0 Specialized Stamp Catalogues

4.0 Philatelic References

5.0 Non-philatelic References

6.0 General Supporting Literature

7.0 Alphabetic Index of Key Names and Descriptions

The last-named above is intended to provide a convenient cross-reference,
as well as a means of identifying items by a key word ( or words )
that is generally used by those familiar with the literature, for
example:

KEY WORD REFERS TO:

PRIGARA A classic work published in New Yqrk in 1941
entitled The Russian Post in the Empire, in
Turkey, in China, and the Post of the Kingdom
of Poland. etc.

ROSSICA The Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian
Philately.

MAKSYMCZUK Catalog of Foreign Private Stamps and
Entires, Cancellations, Revenue Stamps, and
Flap Seals pertaining to the Ukraine ".











The above should illustrate the need for a single word to refer to
a particular source. Where more than one key word has become accepted,
then both are given in the alphabetic index at the end of the article.
T:2e key word ( or words ) is underlined in the title at the head of
each section of the article, and the basic language (s) used in the
printing of the work is stated thereafter.

The editor will appreciate comments and/or additional data in the
basic field of Russian philately, but it must be understood that
peripheral fields ( such as the philately of Sweden, Bulgaria, Finland,
China, Japan etc. ) cannot be covered without resorting to a listing
running to several volumes.

Section 1.0 JOURNALS OF PHILATELIC SOCIETIES

1.1 The British Journal of Russian Philately BJRP) ( in English )

In 1936 a group of British philatelists inaugurated the Russian
Study Circle ", and this was the base on which the British Society
of Russian Philately was formed in 1946. The official organ was en-
titled The British Journal of Russian Philately ", and it has
appeared regularly ever since. The current issue is No. 53 ( :ov. 1976 9

The BJRP regularly runs to 50 pages or more, containing absorbing
articles, excellently researched and well illustrated. Volumes
1 to 24 were cross-indexed ( in common with Rossica journals 44-54)
in 1958, and a new comprehensive BJRP index is understood to be in
course of preparation.

The Society has recently undertaken a program of reprinting unobtainable
back numbers,so it will be possible for those interested to form
complete sets,

Another important activity of the BJRP is the publishing of a series
of books on the Stamps of the Russian Empire used abroad, the stamps
of the Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Armenia, etc., see section 4 of this
article.

1.2 Filatelia SSSR ( In Russian )

This magazine is the organ of the Ministry of Communications of the
USSR and of the All-Union Society of Philatelists. It was zirst
issued in 1966, with a print run of 50,000 copies, and has appeared
monthly ever since. The magazine is well printed in colour, about
50 pages per copy and is primarily concerned with stamps, although
articles occasionally cover numismatics, medals, match-box labels
and the little lapel badges so popular in the Soviet Union. Over the
years the print run increased several times, and the magazine has
encouraged philatelic research, although with the emphasis almost
exclusively on post-revolutionary material.











Each magazine has a page which describes the contents in Russian,
S French and English, but the balance of the text is in Russian only.
Filatelia SSSR is available in Canada at a relatively low price.

1.3 France-URSS Philatelie ( in French )

The organ of the Cercle Philatelique France-URSS, published three times
a year since Issue 1 in January 1964 and averaging about 14 pages. It
replaced Le Timbre Sovietique which was the previous official
organ of the Cercle.

France URSS Philatelie lists all the new issues of both
France and the USSR and features articles specially written, and
some translations from Soviet sources.

The magazine is available to all members of the Cercle Philatelique
in Paris, members are also entitled to purchase the extremely valuable
Cercle Philatelique catalogs ( see Section 3 of this article).

1.4. The Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately
( in English and/or Russian, see below )

The international Society for Russian Philately or Rossica was
founded by Eugene Arkhangelsky in Jugoslavia in 1929.

In the following year Arkhangelsky began to publish a journal with
the above name, written entirely in Russian, and volumes 1 through
S 40 appeared up to just before World War II. Numbers 41 through 43
were printed in Shanghai, bilingually. The Journal bear. publiEhing
again in 1954 in the USA, with two versions, one in English and one in
Russian. This policy was continued for volumes 44 to 69, when the
diminishing number of the older Russian emigrees no longer justified
a separate Russian edition. Numbers 70 90 ( the current edition) are
therefore found only in English.

As far as subject content, the Rcssica Journal is certainly one of
the most important refereces in the world of Russian philately, for
while pre-war volumes were generally of about 20 pages, the journal
published in the USA consisted of 50 to over 100 pages, giving a
huge total volume of interesting and informative data on our hobby.

This survey cannot give even a summary of the contents of Rossica
although it is worth noting that a combined index of Rossica
Journals ( Vol. 44 to 54 ) and BJRP ( Vols 1 to 24 ) was published
in 1958. Numbers 55 -90 of Rossica have never been cross-indexed.

There are a number of complete or near complete sets of Rossica in
North America, and the Society's library has a set and has some back
numbers available. These journals have been awarded many international
prizes at philatelic exhibitions over the years and are available to all
members of the Rossica Society.











1.5 The Russian-American Philatelist ( In English )

This was the organ of the Russian American Philatelic Society in
New York; twenty-four journals were published between 1942 and 1945.
Some of the articles were reprints, and some were written for the
journal. S. V. Prigara was one of the leading lights of what may be
considered as a wartime chapter of Rossica in the United States.

1.6 Russian Philatelist ( In English and Russian )

This journal was initially issued by the New York Chapter of the
Rossica Society of Russian Philately under the editorship of
A. M. Rosselevitch. Eleven issues were released between 1961 and 1969,
with the last ten actually titled the Russian Philatelist and
published by the Russian-American Philatelic Club.

1.7 Soviet Collector -i( In Russian )

The Soviet Collector was originally published in the nineteen-
twenties and reappeared again in 1963, published in Moscow by Svyazizdat
and is the organ of the Moscow Collectors Club. It normally runs about
150 or more pages in a handy ( 6" x 8 1/2 ) format. The articles
reflect considerable research and generally quote bibliographies,
including a number of Western sources. Coins and other subjects are
touched on from time to time, but the main preoccupation is with postage
stamps and associated matters, generally Soviet, but some on earlier
material ( Zemstvos, Imperial era railways, etc. ) These volumes
are described as sborniks" or collections of articles, and what a
shame it is that they are not available in English. They appear
approximately annually, at about 1 ruble each and the demand must
be great for the number issued doubled in the first few years of
publication.

1.8 Other Journals ( generally in English )

Material regarding Russian philately is published from time to
time in the journals of other societies, including the following:

The American Philatelist
Holy Land Philatelist
Journal of Chinese Philately
The Cinderella Philatelist
The American Revenuer
Ice Cap Philatelist
The Airport Journal
The Aero Philatelist Annals

as well as many others, particularly those with a common subject of
interest, or where there exist geographical or historic associations
with Russia.

Unfortunately no cross-index of this valuable data has been compiled.


To be continued ............


I






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IS THE PAPER WOVE ? OR IS IT

LAID AND WATERMARKED?

by Alex Artuchov

The Tsarist period of Russian philately still offers the inquisitive
and studious collector extensive opportunity for study and research.
One of the major, contributing factors results from the existence of
a whole array of puzzles for which definitive answers and explanation
have yet to be given. The subject example is the longstanding
question of whether certain issues, confined to date to stamps printed
between 1866 and 1879 on paper with horizontally or vertically laid
lines and with the watermark containing wavy lines and the initials
of the state printing office, actually exist on paper that can indeed
be classified as wove.

There is reason to consider the varieties in question as being
rare. Their appearance on the market has been about as scarce
as the proverbial hen's tooth ". Furthermore, very few collections
seem to contain a copy of this variety ". In fact, not even the
celebrated collections of Goss, Boughman or Faberge seemed to have had
one.

Philatelic literature relating to these varieties"seems to be
as scarce as the stamps themselves. Caption acknowledgement is
given to wove varieties contained on the 8 kop. issue of
1875 ( Scott # 28 ) and the 7 kop. issue of 1879 ( Scott # 27) in
the Romeko catalogue, published in Paris in 1927. The same
" variety on the same stamps is again listed in the 1964, Cercle
Philatelique catalogue. Question marks are however, placed beside
each listing.

In his well known series of articles published in the London Philatelist
in the early 1940's, Sir John Wilson mentions the existence of a
# 28 on wove in his possession. Sir John goes on to say that his
copy is kept, In cold storage ", apart from the rest of his collection.
With these brief words, Sir John succinctly captures the sense of
doubt and uncertainty that has prevailed towards this wove "
variety among collectors. Perhaps the celebrated collections
of Goss Boughman and Faberge also contained their copies on the
same basis.

Another source, listing this variety, on the same two stamps as
mentioned above, is a catalogue type article entitled Imperial
Postal Stamps of Russia of Issues of 1857 79 ( transl. ) by
V. V. Lobachevsky in No. 14 of"The Soviet Collector ", published in
1976.

Some interesting comments towards this variety on # 28 came
from the late Anatole Rosselevitch of New York. In corresponding
with the writer, Mr. Rosselevitch mentions that he too once had a
copy of this stamp, but sold it at an auction in Europe, in 1948.
Due to the intervening years he was not positive, but seemed relatively
certain that as the author's, his copy was also cancelled in Yaroslavl.
Mr. Rosselevitch accordingly speculates, that perhaps the circumstances
surrounding this stamp are directly parallel to those of the classical
variety of # 27, on paper with a hexagons watermark and with nearly
all known copies cancelled in Perm.










Affirmative and negative theories for the existence of a wove variety
can both be developed. A theory supporting the existence of this
variety could be evolved on the basis of wove paper being accidentally
substituted for the standard laid lines and watermarked paper.
Perhaps, this wrong paper was the wove paper used in the printing
of the preceding issues.

The high level of quality control practiced by the Imperial printing
office however, and the fact that only one variety is known as the
result of printing on the wrong paper ( the above mentioned # 27
with hexagons watermark ) strongly discourage the probability of
this hypothesis.

An alternative theory would suggest that the wove paper
is really a paper of the standard type which simply has a wove appearance
The late Serge Rockling of Romeko was an exponent of this theory,
offering the explanation that this supposedly wove paper resulted
from the poor fabrication of the standard laid and watermarked paper.

The Rockling theory gains considerable credibility upon examination
of the 19th century papermaking process. Prior to the turn of the
twentieth century, rags were used as the basic, raw material
in the making of paper. Old cast offs bought from rag merchants
were first cleaned and dusted by machinery. The clean material
was then boiled with a solution of caustic soda, ridding the rags
of most of their impurities. The rags were next bleached and then
beaten, breaking the material down to individual fibres, producing
S a white semi liquid pulp. Following the use of dye and
straining, to rid this mixture of insufficently disintegrated
materials and impurities, the pulp was at last ready for conversion
into paper.

The actual papermaking was done by hand, by way of a mould process.
A frame, a wire cloth stretched across it and a deckle acting as
a second frame and determining the size of the paper sheet, were
the three major utensils used in papermaking. The pulp was poured
into the frame and through the wire cloth which acted as a sieve. The
pulp then settled into paper leaving the impression of the wire
cloth. Watermarks were created by introducing a design into the
wire mould. Laid paper on the other hand, was produced by use of a
wire cloth with regularly spaced strands of wire. Wove paper
however, was made using an evenly interwoven wire cloth.

The united, but still moist pulp was removed from the mould and
laid between felt sheets. It was pressed under hydraulic pressure and
pressed again without felt. The paper was finally hung to dry.

Several individual factors could have lead to the poor fabrication
of laid and watermarked paper manufactured by means of this process.
A poor impression could have been produced by a defective or
worn wire cloth. The same effect could have also resulted from
a dirtied wire cloth Through constant use the wire cloth could
have acquired an accumulation of fibres, built up on the surface
* of the wires. Such wires would have transferred a poor impression
of the cloth. Papermakers may have been forced to use such
defective or deteriorating apparatus for various periods at various










times, all depending upon the regularity with which the Imperial
printing office replaced them.

A further cause of poor fabrication is suggested in the above
mentioned article from No. 14 of the Soviet Collector ". The
author suspects that paper may have been removed from the wire
cloth and deckle apparatus before it had been given sufficient time
to dry. The subsequent pressing of wet paper may have completely
flattened the laid lines and watermark impression left by the wire
cloth.

This cause of poor fabrication is most feasible, but only in the
technical sense. It is doubtful whether a well trained papermaker,
who had probably served an earlier apprenticeship could have been
guilty of such outright negligence. The time interval between the
pouring of the pulp into the frame, deckle and cloth apparatus
and its removal from the same was undoubtably a standard period,
closely timed and strictly adhered to. It should again be noted that
the Imperial printing office practiced high levels and strict
standards of quality control.

A further theory is contained in an article entitled; Stamps of
the Russian Empire 1875, Litle Known Varieties ", published in
No. 9 of the Russian Philatelist in July of 1967, presumably
written by the resident expertisation committee. The article
concerns itself with yet another variety of paper found on
stamps issued between 1866 and 1879. Rather than containing
13 horizontal stripes as found on the normal paper, this variety
contains 25 30 fine horizontal lines. The article goes on
to describe the varying degree to which these fine horizontal lines
are apparent and that none of the known copies have the impression
of a watermark. Due to the degree of varying apparency of these
fine horizontal lines, it is concluded that the wove variety
is on paper where these lines are invisible. Finally, by virture
of the absence of a watermark from any of these known fine horizontal
line varieties it is concluded that the stamps were part of a
special issue printed on this particular type of paper.

This theory suffers from excessive speculation. The poor fabrication
theory is in fact just as good if not an even better explanation
for the appearance of the fine horizontal lines. The expla-ation
would of course lie in the production of this type of paper by
means of a defective wire cloth. Fine horizontal lines can furthermore
be found on at least one stamp of the 1883 1888 issue. The
subsequent printing of this last issue post dates the printing
of the known values of the 1866 1879 issue with this variety. 'This
would imply that the variety was not the result of a single special "
and concurrent issue of several stamps on s5ch paper, but had in fact
most likely resulted from random production due to random circumstances;
the random circumstances again most likely being a defective wire
cloth. It should finally be noted that the degree of apparency
also varies on stamps with the usual 13 laid lines. A direct
link between wove and fine horizontal line varieties is consequently
not necessarily true.


I~~~--~











In coming to grips with the very essence of the issue, the
writer subjected the two wove varieties in his collection to
a series of procedures. One of these stamps being the 1875, 8 kop.
issue, the other a 1 kop. value of 1889 1902 or 1902 1905, the
specific time of issue being unclear due to the absence of the
distinguishing horizontally or vertically laid lines. The first
procedure was the most basic, involving the soaking of both
stamps in benzine. Neither stamp showed the impressions of laid
lines or a watermark. The 1 kop. stamp was particularly interesting.
Unlike the 8 kop. value which showed a blank impression, the 1 kop.
stamp very vividly displayed a paper containing an almost regular
network of indented spots. This paper is very clearly not at all
like the laid lines and watermarked type, but in actual fact a
completely different type of paper.

The next procedure involved the use of the thinnest grade of tracing
paper and a soft pencil. The stamp was placed face down and the
tracing paper on top. The tracing paper was rubbed with the soft
pencil in anticipation that the impression of laid lines would be
transferred. The method produced poor results and was accordingly
abandoned.

A microscope was next used. It was observed that the fibres
composing the paper were quite different on the 8 kop. and the
1 kop. stamps. The fibres of the 8 kop. value were coarser and packed
less tightly. This would seem to indicate that this later issue,
produced sometime between 1889 1905 was printed on machine made
paper. No other significant observation were made due to the microscope's
inability to display any details beyond surface of the paper.
Two stamps were next turned on edge: the subject 8 kop. variety "
along with another of the same issue, but with a clear impression
of laid lines. It was hoped that this procedure would display
a wavy pattern with visible indentations where the wire cloth had
left the impression of laid lines. Neither stamp displayed a
wavy cross section.

The thickness of paper was the next matter to be dealt with. The
stamps examined were those issued between 1866 1879. In comparison
to the preceding wove issue of 1865, the stamps of 1866 1879
were comparatively more uniform in the thickness with variance
being less pronounced and less frequent. It was further observed
that the impression of laid lines did not corellate with thickness.
Somewhat thinner stamps were found to have poorer impressions of the
laid lines while the impression was clearer on other slightly thicker
stamps. The thickness of the subject 8 kop. wove as well as
that of the abovementioned variety with fine horizontal lines
was not found to be atypical of the thickness generally prevailing
among the issues of 1866 1879.

Despite the use of all the above noted procedures no evidence demonstrating
that the subject 8 kop. wove variety was really on laid and
watermarked paper was found. Could this consequently be considered
as sufficient grounds by which the paper could be declared as actually








being wove? One would think not. The theory of poor fabrication
and a resulting wove impression cannot be dismissed. The enigma
will accordingly continue to prevail among philatelists so long as
it remains uncertain whether the paper is wove and manufactured
as such or merely has a wove impression resulting from accidental
production. Unlike the # 27 with hexagons watermark where there is
no doubt as to what kind of paper the stamp is on or that it was
manufactured to be exactly that type of paper, wove paper with
its blank appearance, possibly resulting from accidental manufacture
lends itself to inherent uncertainties. Herein lies the problem that
has plagued the recognition of the subject variety.
If the theory of poorly manufactured laid and watermarked paper can
be accepted, then the resulting variety should be similarly treated
and in fact legitimized. The provision being that this variety
not be referred to as wove but rather described as one without
an impression of laid lines or a watermark.



U I I Ito IIi IgIli I I I I I I I I I I II I I V I I I I I Ii I i goll o 18i 13i l 8l ossI I s I |g I Ig o a I I |I I Igogo I I I It I I Igo III egi st s I I IgoIl lli 1I 1 Bi gsI I I | I I g I Iglo


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A STAMP FOR A ROUBLE


by P.J. Campbell

The postal rate in Russia for regular inland mail was ten kopeks from
the issue of their adhesive postage stamp in 1857, until Russia
joined the Universal Postal Union in 1875, whereupon the rate dropped
to 8 kopeks and later to 7 kopekss and this relatively low rate was
also sufficient for letters sent abroad, as long as the weight did
not exceed one lot (equivalent to 13 grams). Even registered letters
required only 14 kopeks, so there was little need for high values.

In January 1884, however, increased use of money orders and parcel
post resulted in the issue of 3 1/2 and 7 rouble values. It soon
became clear that an intermediate value was required and a 1 rouble
stamp was first placed on sale to the public in May of 1889. This
classic stamp, with minor changes in paper and perforation, remained
in continuous use for the next thirty-one years, before its design
became politically unacceptable, and rampant inflation made its
value inappropriate.

The design was based on drawings by Arnold Baldinger; proofs and
essays from the Fabe ge collection were sold with the 1958 Goss
auction. Franz Kepler and Richard Zarrigs rere probably also involved
in the design.

I. BACkGROUND
BURELAGE
AND INNER
.....A-[TTE-kRN OF
FINE HORIz
-ONI L LINESS'




Fig 1
1Z. LETTERING,,
VALUE AND
STHE FRAME




3. EMBOSSED
ARMS A
C ENTR H L
OVRL AND
THE VALUE









The paper was horizontally laid with a watermark incorporating the
letters EZGB in a fancy Cyrillic script between undulating lines.
A 13 1/2 perforation was adopted, the same as that which had been
introduced for the first 3 1/2 and 7 trouble values of 1884.

The basic design and the sequence of printing can best be described
from an enlarged photograph of the stamp (Fig. 1) It would appear
that the paper was cut into sheets large enough for five rows of
eight stamps (Fig. 2) with large margins all around; the sheets
were then gummed prior to their first pass through the printing
presses.





Fig 2 Fig 3







1. In the first pass, the background was printed in a pale brown ink,
it consisted of two basic elements: the first element is a burelage
made up of loops (Fig. 3), the loops drawn in overlapping rows ( Fig.4)
to give the general background design for the area outside the frame.
The second element of background design was a pattern of fine horizonta
lines (Fig. 5) with plain paper showing through in certain areas.








Fig 4 Fig 5








The printing of these two elements in a single pass completed the
background, which is so cleverly woven into the final design that
it can only be studied on a stamp where the background has been erron-
eously printed with a shifted background.











2. The second pass through the printing press, done after a suitable
* interval to avoid smudging, or offsetting, particularly in hot and
humid weather, added the dark brown frame; beautifully designed
with graceful arabesques in the upper quarters so that the frame is
in dark brown and the arabesques are unprinted, so that the fine
pale brown lines of the background show through ( Fig. 1 ).

At this stage of printing there would appear a large central oval,
and two small ovals at either side, which are not inked at all, and
it is clear that the printing press would have to be in perfect
register to meet the demands of the design. The frame also included
the words "POCHTOVAYA MARKA" (postage stamp) in Cyrillic script in a
horseshoe shaped panel surrounding the central oval. The letters
RYB roublee) were also printed below the oval and small figures
inserted in the little ovals on either side (Fig. 1).

3. In the third pass through the printing machine, two things happened
simultaneously; firstly the orange ( or sometimes vermilion
central oval was printed, together with the figure 1 below the
oval, secondly, the double-headed eagle coat of arms was embossed,
and note that the coat of arms was not in ink, but was the uninked
original paper showing through in bas-relief.

This three-step method of printing called for precision machinery
and meticulous craftsmanship,and anyone with experience with such
work must realize that large quantities of printer's waste must
have been created and thrown away. It can be stated with certainty
S that the State Printing Office must have employed the most skilled of
printers, and the most stringent security measures because very few
misprints are found in the early issues. Later, the First World
War, and then the Revolution, lowered the standards and, in time,
every imaginable type of printing error escaped from the print shop.

Before leaving the subject it is worth taking a final look at the
coat of arms embossed into the central oval (Fig. 1). In this
context, it represents the arms of the Imperial Post Office
Department, and incorporates the arms of the Tsars, and the posthorns
and thunderbolts which symbolize the amalgamation of the postal and
telegraphic services. The double-headed eagle is surmounted by the
Imperial mitre crown, and it carries in one claw a mace, and in the
other an orb, representing power and authority. On the chest of the
eagle is a shield, and on the shield is St. George, driving a lance
into the body of a dragon. Embossing on early copies of the one
rouble stamps is so perfect that details of the crown, the eagle's
feathers, and even the shield stands out in clear relief.

We will now ex mine the various issues of the one rouble stamp between
1889 and 1923.

May 1889
First trouble stamp:21.5 x 25.5 mm.,perf.13 1/2, horizontally laid
paper, watermarked (Fig. 6) typographed, and embossed by the State
Printing Office EZGB (Expeditsia Zagotovlenia Gosudarstvennykh Bumag ).
S under F. M. Kepler. Variants: also known in pale brown and orange,
dark brown and orange, centre omitted or displaced, and imperf between.
Essays and small sheets exist but they are rare.








This stamp was part of the tenth issue of Imperial Russia of 1889-94
and was the first with posthorns and thunderbolts, representing the
amalgamation of the postal and telegraph offices (Fig. 7)

Fig 6 Fig 8
Fig 7










1904 Issue
Reissue: on vertically laid paper; size and perforation unchanged.
Watermark Cyrillic EZGB as before, typographed and embossed, brown
and orange; same sheet arrangement of 5x8.
Variants: also in pale brown and orange, pale brown and red brown,
with centre omitted, inverted, displaced and background displaced.
Perforation varieties include 11 1/2 and combinations of 13 1/2 and
11 1/2, may also exist imperforate as well as imperf. between.
This stamp was part of the eleventh issue of Imperial Russia and
it was in use for from five to eight years.

1909-1919
The fourteenth issue of Imperial Russia was comprised of six different
printings of which five included the 1 rouble stamp.
1. First printing of 1910: Printed on wove paper (watermarked) with
vertical lozenges of varnish (Fig. 8) to prevent removal of cancel-
lations and re-use. Size: 21.5x25.5 mm. Perforation still 13 1/2.
Printed in stages:
i. paper cut to size and gummed
ii. back printed
iii. frame printed
iv. centre and figure of value
v. varnish net of lozenges overprinted
iv. comb perforation
There were two distinct varieties of this printing:
a. First 1910 variety:
First variety chocolate brown and orange with one orange stripe each
side (Fig.9).
b. Second 1910 variety:
This variety is brown and orange, and sheets feature three brown
stripes on each side in frame colour (Fig. 10 ). Possibly this variety
was first printed in 1911 and not 1910. The two varieties are
similar off-sheet, but the earlier has a yellow-orange centre. Both
first and second varieties generally have a margin watermark at the
top or at the bottom of the sheet (Fig. 11).
Varieties: centre offset on back, centre misplaced and double, irperf.
between.
2. The second printing of the fourteenth issue did not include the
1 rouble stamp.






Orange Stripe Three Brown Stripes




* F

t EDGE or SEET.

S- U Fig 11
Fig 9 Fig 10

3. Third Printing of 1917
This printing was again typographed on wove paper with a vertical net
of lozenges printed in varnish on the face of the stamps, but the
sheet layout was changed to fifty stamps per sheet, with upright and
inverted "V" symbols in the colours of the background and the frame
interlaced in the four corners of each sheet and in the middle of the
upper and lower rows (Fig. 12). These stamps retained the 13 1/2
perforation. Four small dots at the top and bottom of thesheet, two
in the background colour, and two in the colour of the frame,allowed
the printer to establish the correct vertical register when adding the
frame to the previously printed background. These were wartime
printings and the lack of aniline dyes from Germany resulted in hard
and brilliant colours instead of the soft chocolates and oranges of
earlier issues. The centre was now in a shade of vermilion and the
embossing of the eagle became less apparent, and printing errors
more common.
Varieties: centre displaced and inverted, double impression of centre
O or the frame, imperf. between, displaced or inverted background, no
varnish net.
4. Fourth Printing of 1917
A strike in the printingworks between April and June of 1917 resulted
in production of large numbers of impezforate sheets, similar to the
previous issue, but in dark brown and vermilion sheet layout as
before, but imperforate. Varieties as before but more errors as war
and the revolution affected quality.
The earlier examples of this printing were on a creamy wove paper
with a chain watermark (Fig. 11) running vertically on either side
of a double sheet. This issue continued to feature the vertical
varnish net. It should also be noted that the dark brown "V" is
inverted at the top of the sheet and upright at the bottom, and
there exist two other varieties: one with the dark brown "V" of
27 mm. in height and the other with the dark brown "V" of 29.5 mm. in
height (Fig. 13)
Fig 12 Fig 13


T
27mtnp E 29.5 7.



TYPE I. TYPE Z.









5. Fifth Printing of 1918

This printing was identical to previous issues, again printed in sheets
of 50 and with interlaced "V "s and the vertical lozenges of varnish,
but perforated 12 1/2 in the city of Perm in the Urals.

6. Sixth Printing of 1919

This printing was a complete change in sheet layout with redesigned
background ( 25.7 instead of 26.6 mm. wide ) so stamps could be printed
in five rows of ten with no "V "s ( see Fig. 14 ). This reduced
width of background meant that the pale brown line surrounding the
background on previous issues was found only along the top and bottom
of the background. These sheets had the varnish net horizontal ( see
Fig. 15 ) with respect to the stamp; the new layout saved paper.
The stamps were typographed in dark brown and vermilion and perforated
13 1/2 as usual, or were imperforate.

Varieties: this issue is known with the centre displaced, omitted,
inverted or with the background displaced, reversed, or double impression.
Also known with the frame double, the centre double, or without
the varnish network. Printer's proofs are known with background
in green, black or brick-red, but these are considered rare.
Fig 14

Fig 15




-I






This marked the end of the regular issues of the one-rouble stamp.
On March 15, 1917, Czar Nicholas II had abdicated, and a provisional
government had been formed, first under Prince Lvov, then under
Alexander Kerensky, who was in turn removed from power by the Bolsheviks
in November 1917 the country remained in a continuous uproar, further
complicated by the Allied intervention nd Civil war.

For the first period, from 1917 to 1918, the price for mailing a
simple inland letter rose from 15 kopeks to 25 kopeks. From January
1919 to August 1921, all inland letters up to 15 grams could be
mailed free-of-charge, but heavier letters, registered letters and
parcels continued to require stamps. In early November 1919, postal
fees for letters over 15 grams were raised to 1 rouble T his forced
the Soviet government to order an extensive reprint of the one rouble
stamp; this was the sixth printing referred to above with horizontal
lozenges.

*







The one rouble stamps of 1917 and 1918 ( vertical lozenges and 1919
horizontal lozenges))remained in service up to December 1921 at
face value
During this period, some of the Russian stamps were used as
provisional issues ( first period ) after the March 1920 revaluation
the one rouble stamp was overprinted with the Cyrillic letters GM,
( meaning fiscal stamp, see Fig. 16 ) but they were used postally.
After the Red Army occupation of Ashabad, the one rouble stamp was
surcharged in Volsk with the numerals 0100 vertically ( see Fig. 17 )
with a black handstamp used postally. In August 1921, inflation
raised the cost of mailing a simple letter to 250 roubles, then to
400,000 roubles in 1922 and peaked at 20,000,000 roubles in October
1923.
In March 1923 the stamps of Imperial Russia were demonetized to end
the philatelic history of a classic issue.

Fig 16 Fig 17

FM. 2

o
* o

BEST WISHES!
To the Canadian Society of Russian Philately
From: Manhattan Beach California


RUSSI
Starter or SIecialist
3500 different Mint and sed. Single and sets,
also errors,varieties. Postal stationary and
offices and States. Want list filled. Intro offer
15different 25c with Russian approvals.
Box 3012 Oceanview Br.
C. PEH Miami Beach Fla. 33140
.11.11. ..1..!IIIIIIII I IIIII II IIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIII






THE DOT POSTMARKS OF IMPERIAL RUSSIA

by PJ. Campbell

On December 10, 1857, the post office of Imperial Russia issued
a decree introducing adhesive postage stamps for general use on
private mail. The stamps went on sale in European Russia on January
1, 1858 and in Siberia and the Caucasus 1 March.

Paragraph 6 of the decree ordered the post office to cancel the
stamps on all the letters posted by putting a cross of black ink
on the face of the stamp with a pen. This was to continue until the
introduction of special cancellers, promised in a decree dated
September 10, 1858.

Pen cancelling was abolished by Decree No. 138 on February 26, 1858
and the stamps were to be cancelled with postmarks used previously
on stampless mail. Many varieties of single line, ovals,
single and double circle and boxed town cancels were used with and
without date. Postal Decree 138 also authorised the first of the
promised new series of uniform cancellers, to be used in the main
post offices of St. Petersburg and Moscow, and consisting of the
numerals 1 or 2 respectively contained in concentric circles of
dots. Subsequently the Post Office issued a series of circulars
( No. 58 of April 12, 1860, No. 18 of May 11, 1860 and No. 72 of
January 1861 ) ordering that only black ink was to be used to
cancel stamps, although cancels in other colours are known.

Circular No. 147 of May 31, 1858 expanded the use of the circular
pattern of dots to 58 other cities, generally provincial capitals
and introduced a new rectangular pattern for county towns. The
next group to be issued included an oval pattern for border crossings
and a pattern of dots forming a flat-sided hexagon for use on the
railway's travelling post offices.

By Decree No. 157 of August 18, 1858 two final types of dotted
cancellers were introduced hexagonal shapes with pointed sides for
post offices in smaller towns and hamlets and truncated triangles
for smaller post offices and for certain steamship routes.

These dotted cancellers were in use until officially withdrawn
on February 11, 1863 except for the truncated triangles, which
remained valid until they were abolished by a postal circular of October
20, 1877. The reason for withdrawal was that the dotted hammer
was being used to cancel the stamp and another hammer to indicate
the place and the date of receiving, thus duplicating effort. The
dotted cancellers were therefore gradually superseded by more
conventional circular cancels showing name of the town and the
date and with a fleuron or posthorn for the single circle. By
late 1877 the last of the dotted cancellations had finally disappeared.

Editor's Note- The stamp could not have been used on 1/1/58, since
New Years Day was a public holiday and the post offices were closed.
Usage of No. 1 is known prior to the above, official date of issue
ie.: No. 1 on cover with December 1857 postmark- collection of K.
Liphshutz of France.













It should be added that a complete list of known dot cancellations with
identification as to usage can be found in the following places, but
it is much too lengthy to be included in this article:

1. S.V. Prigara's monumental work The Russian Post in the
Empire in Turkey in China and the Post in the Kingdom of
Poland published ( in Russian ) in New York in 1941 ( pages 77-98 )

2. E. von Bochmann's Die Postmarke des Russischen Kaiserreiches ".

3, The Journal of the British Society of Russian Philately, Volumes
25 to 30 Dots Postmarks of Imperial Russia by W. E. C. Kethrp.


1. Circle dot cancels

The circle cancels after numbers 1 and 2 for St. Petersburg and
Moscow were allocated alphabetically ( in the Cyrillic order so No. 3
was for Archangel and No. 60 Yaroslavl). The cancels were mainly
for capitals of Gubernil in European Russia, six for Siberia, three
for Caucasia, but none in Poland. They were in use officially until
February 11, 1863 and occasionally thereafter. There were three
basic types.


.660
66 *
S 0 *
... :.
* *
* 0.*60 6
* .0 0 *
T* 9- I
6
6


TY(PE 2


** 60
0.* ** *

6* 66 6 6
*6. *

TYPE 3~


TYPE 1. TYPE 2. TYPE 3


OUTER CIRCLE 2_4- DOTS IN 20 -mm.-DIA. CIRCLE

MID-CIRCLE 18 DOTS IN 15 rnm. DJA. CIRCLE


12. DOTS. RLL 10 DOTS IN 10 DOTS IN
REGULARLY HORIZONTAL HORIZOINTAIL

INNER CIRCLE SPACED IN ROWS OF 3 ROWS OF 2

A 10 mrr. AND VERTICflL AM4D VERTlCAL

CIRCLE. ROW/ OF 2. "ROWS OF 3.


TYPE 1


















No. 1 known oversize and No. 56 is known undersize. Moscow has a
variety with two extra dots each side of number.
IN SIBERIA:
CHITA 58
IR1 RI<\urSK is
KRASNQIOIRSK Z3
'- TOBOLSIK 50
SToA1?CHANGEL3 Toit&K S
SPETRo zAVODSK 31
o REvEL37 0 ST. PETERSBURG I
oVOLOGDA S oVIATKA 10 oPERM 33
o PSKOV 36 o KOSTROMA 2.0
-39o RIGA oNOVGORODZ8 o YAROSLRV 60
24 -MIT|TAU oVITEBSK6 o VLF DIM(R 7
o KovNO 19 o'rTVR 480 NIJNI-NOVGOROD 27
oVILNA 5 oMOSKOW/ o KAZAN 16
44- SMOLENSK orULA 52 o UFA 53
oMOGtLEV26 o KAELUGA 17 oSIMBIRS5I 42.
o MINSK 2.5 o RYI ZrAM 39 o SMRRql 4.0
oGRODNO i\ oOREL 30 op&NZf 32.
"TAMBOV47 o ORENBURG 2.9
56 CHERNIGOYo o KURSKI 21 oSRRATOV 41
18 KIEV o o VORONZH 9
ZHITOMARo L4-
o KHARRIOV .Sf.
PODOLSK3t 0 o POLTAVA 35
o eKATaR KISHINEV220 KkeHRSON 55
E~ RTERINoDAR 13
I5 SImv1F:RPO' o SAVRoPOL. 46:
0 Q CHCRK'5SSK57-

z +90 TPIFLIS S


CIRCLE "DOT" CANCELS FOR GUBER.NIYA CAPITALS.


TYPE t. 1-9 1, 1 16,18, 19, 2- 25, 27,30,
31, 3 2, 40 50, 051, 52,53, 60.
TYPE 2 11-13, 15,17, 2.0,26, 28, 29,
33-39 41 -44,49,53, 55- 57.
TYPE 3 10, 18, 4.1-4-8, 54 58.
NOrT' THAT NUMfER.AL 18 OCCURlS
IN TWO L-IT5 ABovE.


1


S
















0
















6


ll


I


1










2. Rectangular dot cancels

* The second pattern introduced by circular 147 consisted of a
rectangular shape with fifty-four dots each Imm. in diameter in
seven horizontal rows and nine vertical rows. Nine dots were
omitted in the centre making room for the number identifying the
post office: (see Type 1 below)

-r- 0- fouA- extra- co0b-s
Yin)te rows L c o'n.e.s
17.5>nm.

e******** a.** .**
."* **" Seven rows$* *,* *
*** *** **S
.*.*. ****-.n **** ..***


TYPE 1 TYPE 2

A variation was introduced for the single numbers 1 to 9 where four
extra dots were added on either side of the numeral to fill the
empty space; see the sketch Type 2 above.

The rectangle cancels were allocated essentially to all the chief
towns of each uyezd or district within the Gubernia or governments
with numerals 1 to 612. Numbers 1 through 12 were allocated t towns
in the Saint Petersburg Gubernia, numbers 13 through 25 to towns
in the Moscow Gubernia and thereafter in ( Cyrillic ) alphabetical order,
starting with Archangel Gubernia...numbers 26 through $2 down to
Yaroslav Gubernia, numbers 600 to 608. The numbers 609 to 612 were
issued later out of the alphabetic sequence.

The rectangular cancels were abolished in October 1877 and are known
in red, green, brown and blue, as well as the official colour of
black.

3. Oval dot cancels

Oval dot cancels were for use at frontier crossing points as seen
on the map on the next page. Of the nine numerals the rarest were
No. 4 Kiakhta where mail was exchanged between Russia, China
and Mongolia and No. 5 Nikolaevsk on Amur, a small Cossack fort
at the mouth of the Amur. Number 6 for Odessa can be distinguished
from No. 9 ( Taurogen ) by the straight back of the 6 and the ball "
at the tail of the 9. Oval cancels are known in black and blue.


-y-.-'.u1.,










(o-R.Vrv




o *



VLADIMIR (vo7L wSK) 2.















The oval pattern consisted of two rows of dots, 22 outer and 16 inner,
with three extra dots either side of the numeral.

4. Hexagon with flat sides
This is the least understood of the dot cancels created for use at
railway terminals and on the travelling post office from 1858.
Only numbers 1 to 16 were used.
There are forty dots in vertical lines of 4,5,6 and 7 on either side
of the number as shown and lines of 2,3,2 or 3,3,3 above and below
the number giving either 58 or 62 dots in total.The latter arrange-
ment for numbers 12 and 14 only.
Numbers 1 and 2 were for the St. Petersburg and Moscow stations on
the Nickolaevsk Railway and other single digit numbers were for the
travelling post offices on that line. Numbers 10 and 13 are unknown
the latter probably considered unlucky.
The odd numbers 11 and 15 were used on the St. Petersburg-Warsaw
line westbound and are found on Russian stamps, while the even numbers
12, 14 and 16 were used on the eastbound line and are known on Poland
No. 1 as well as on Russian stamps. Cancels are known only in black;
withdrawn by decree on February 11, 1863.









5. Hexagon with pointed sides
This was one of the last pair of dot cancels issued by Decree 157
O of August 17, 1858; numbered from 1 to 103 for small towns and
hamlets and geographically important villages. Numbers were
released gradually not alphabetically. One special case was No. 30
for the temporary postal office of the Nizhni-Novgorod Fair which
ran from July 15 to August 25. The cancels were withdrawn on 11 of
February, 1863 and are known only in black.
A pattern of forty-six dots arranged in vertical lines of 1,2,3,4
and 5 from the outside and lines of 2,1,2,1,2 above and below the
numeral.

*<- 20--













6. Truncated triangle
These cancels were also released by Decree 123 for use in postal
agencies, branch post offices, in the Levant, for certain factories
(ZAVODI) and monasteries and for the Riga railway station; after the
SPolish rising of 1863, some of this type were allocated to Polish
towns to replace their concentric ring cancels. The numbers 1 to
1700 were reserved but records exist sequentially only up to 847.
Numbers 1 to 622 were allocated alphabetically (in Cyrillic script
by Gubernia up to 1858 and from 623 to 847 on an "ad hoc" basis.
Number 847 was issued in September,1863 and few higher numbers
have been identified, mainly the ones used in Poland. The highest
known number known is 1409. Between 1858 and 1863 a total of about
42 of the towns using truncated triangle cancels changed their number,
so that absolute identification could only be made when the date of
use could be established. Dots are usually arranged in two rows around
the numeral with one or two extra
,** dots each side and either one or
o ** I three extra dots above the numeral.
*"T0* 20 This type of cancel is known in black,
To T .. mm. blue, violet-blue, violet and purple.
.. T hey were the last type of dot cancel
Sin use as they were not withdrawn
until October 20, 1877.






SUMMARY DOT CANCELS 1858 TO 1877


S












S






-7









OBITUARY

A.M. Rosselevitch 1902-1977

Few serious collectors of Russia have failed to come into contact
with stamps signed Ross. .This signature belonged to Anatoli
Rosselevitch of New York, a dealer, collector and connoisseur
of Russian philately. We are very saddened to report that
Mr. Rosselevitch passed away on March 24, 1977, succumbing to
a lengthy respiratory illness.

Anatoli Mikhailovitch Rosselevitch was born in Wlodawa in the Kholm
province of the former Kingdom of Poland in 1902. Having a father,
who was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army, the family moved
among the various military locations to which the senior Rosselevitch
was assigned. In 1906, they left for St. Petersburg and from there
to the far eastern city of Khabarovsk in 1910.

Upon the outbreak of the First World War, Anatoli Mikhailovitch, who
was studying at a Khabarovsk military academy returned to St. Petersburg
in order to continue his education. He was to remain there until
November of 1917, when the school was disbanded. By this time,
the remainder of the Rosselevitch family was living in the southern
city of Yeisk. It was here that Anatoli Mikhailovitch joined them
and also enlisted in a special detachment of the White Army.

In 1919, Anatoli Mikhailovitch resumed his studies in an Odessa
military academy. The rapid advancement of Red forces however,
* made his stay rather brief. Time did not permit evacuation by
water,so the entire student corps marched to Romania on foot.

From Romania, Anatoli Mikhailovitch travelled to Sarajevo, Yugoslavia,
where he completed his military education and remained until 1924.
He proceeded to Belgium, settling in Brussels by 1926, staying there
until 1958 when he finally moved to New York.

Mr. Rosselevitch's philatelic interests were first aroused at an
early age. While living in Khabarovsk, his mother presented him
with a collection, she had herself accumulated during her youth.
Unsettled times however, did not permit Anatoli Mikhailovitch to
pursue these interests further, until his arrival in Belgium.
For several years, Anatoli Mikhailovitch held an evening job in a
Brussels stamp shop. It was at this time that he began accumulating
his own collections and become a contributing author to the pre-war
Rossica Journals. The outbreak of the Second World War caused
Anatoli Mikhailovitch to lose his full time job. He consequently
opened his own stamp shop in Brussels, remaining in business
until the conclusion of the War.

Upon his arrival in New York, Mr. Rosselevitch played a very active
role in Rossica. He soon became chairman of the expertisation
committee and contributed to the Rossica journal with characteristically
comprehensive and often serialized overviews on a variety of Russian
philatelic topics. He utilized his professional skills as an
artist / designer to produce exceptional illustrations of overprints
and cancellations. In 1958, his graphic talents led him to design
a vignette commemorating the centenary of the first Russian Stamp.







In 1961, Anatoli Mikhailovitch became editor of the journal of the
New York chapter of Rossica. This publication was subsequently
renamed to the Russian Philatelist and released eleven issues
through 1969.
Since arriving in the United States, Mr. Rosselevitch established
himself as a prominent figure in the field of Russian philately.
Collectors and dealers alike often turned to him for advice and
expertisation. Amoung the writer's correspondents, a well-known,
American dealer describes Anatoli Mikhailovitch's death as a
great loss to Russian philately Another collector goes on at
length to describe the time and care Mr. Rosselevitch always took
in responding to his many questions.
The passing of Anatoli Mikhailovitch marks the near extinction of
the early, emigre, Russian philatelists, who were not only responsible
for the organization of our specialized field, but also contributed
significantly to the knowledge presently contained therein. Vau
we endevour to do Russian philately the same justice'
We extend our deepest sympathies to Mrs. Rosselevitch and family
and thank her for providing us with the above biographical data.


DEALERS....4 JoL d e

) YOUL to avertie U4 our lt 4 !0


FULL PN'


%35.00


HALF P4g


$20.00


QUARTER PgS


12.50


0


IF


I












PHILATELIC SHORTS )


DEAR READER:
Is there a question or point that you'd like to
out across to the readership...... is there an
interesting stamp, cancellation or cover that c 0
you'd like to describe....is there an item in ,o o0
your collection that could use some clarifying o o
information or might there be some gems of o o 0
wisdom that you could impart on some newly
acquired item???
Share your questions, thoughts and wisdom,
in the confines of a couple paragraphs, with
the rest of our readers!!

A POSTCARD VARIETY: Barry Hong, 806-50 Jerome Cres., Stoney Creek,
Ontario, Canada, L8E 1K6
I have in my collection a variety of the 1889 3+3 kopeck postcard
with paid response, H&G #10, Ascher 10, which is unrecorded in either
catalogue. The period at the end of the instruction line at the
bottom is missing on the front card but does exist on the reply half.

The printing of the black letteringis raised on the back of the'card.
However,on this card the back is not raised where the period should
be. Also the top line is 55 mm. long compared with 56 mm. on the
regular card. These would suggest that there was a second printing
of this card. Can any reader supply an answer?

George V. Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Drive, San Francisco, California,
9412/, U.S.A.

'The 1 kopek worker and 3 kopek peasant values of the 1929 definitive
or standard series on watermarked paper are listed in Scott and Cercle
catalogs as existing used, perfed 14 x 14 ( Scott 413 b, 415a ). Gibbons
list them existing used perfed 14. However, these perf varieties were
never mentioned in Soviet catalogs and last year in Philately of the
USSR # 5, 1976, Sh. Karapetian very convincingly showed that such
perforations could not exist on that issue. From measurements of size
and with existing perforation machines of that period, it would have
been technically impossible to produce and therefore the perfs 14 x 14
must be fake, created from the imperf stamps.

The sizes of the 5 examples that I have makes me, too, doubt them. In
addition they meet most of the criteria of fakes described by Karapetian.
But since these perf varieties have been listed in western catalogs for
such a long time, one must ask does anyone possess these stamps perfed
14 x 14 ( really 14% ) on cover ? Or does anyone have joined multiples,
blocks or large pieces, or mint copies ? Or are they only found as
loose single stamps and therefore suspect ? Can we finally say the
catalog listings are wrong ?










BRITISH RTD PENNY LABELS Andrew Cronin, P. 0. Box 5722, Station A,
Toronto, Ontario. Canada M5W, 1P2

The present writer recently picked up the 22 labels shown herewith and
immediately turned to the Cinderella Stamp Club of Great Britain for
an explanation of their origin. A most courteous reply was received
from the Hon. Secretary, Mr. Leo Harris, but they were also unknown
to his members and he was not able to enlarge on what the writer had
deduced already.

The deductions are as follows. The labels are nicely printed in
royal blue by photogravure, apparently by Harrison and Sons Limited,
are comb-perforated 14 x 14, have a face value of Id. each and bear
the initials RTD ( = Russian Trade Delegation ? ). As the labels
are all in the same colour, it is assumed they were all printed together
in the sheet. For ease of calculation, the sheet of labels nust have
consisted of some multiple of 12, so that it could be sold for an
amount in shillings. Judging from the photographs reproduced on the
labels, these latter appear to have been issued in London in 1939, after
the end of the Spanish Civil War.

-"D I I.. V..... -I



aror,*ru~ou rvrru* ~ NLXLUI:I D ~ i~










Looking at the illustration, we can see that the following scenes were
reproduced ( not necessarily in the order shown ) : -


Red Square Moscow
Soviet seamen
Pioneer Camp, Artek
Papanin at North Pole
( Arctic topic )
Gas -generating tractor
Clinical Institute, Sochi
Uzbek girls
Red Army men
Voroshilov & Budyenny
Bridge on Moscow River
Okhotny Ryad, Moscow


12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.


Sportswomen on parade
Gorki and friend
J. Vissarionovich Stalin, Esq.
Revolution Square, Metro Station
Blast Furnace
Bashkir Folk Dancer
Soviet Airwoman
Soviet Pioneer & Grandfather
Leather Institute, Moscow
Soviet Steelworker
Spanish Youth on Red Square
( with placard of Dolores Ibarruri )


It would be useful to have details of the missing designs as well
as the authority, date and reason for issuing these labels. Can any
reader help ?

AN ERROR FROM SOUTH RUSSIA Alexander Artuchov, P. O. Box 5722, Station


A, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5W, 1P2


The rouble values of the Denikin issues of South Russia are known with
a variety of spectacular errors. The known examples would include:
double and triple centres, double frames and shifted and misplaced
values and centres.

r


The above No. 69 ( Scott ) with double centre is just one of many
stamps which are assumed to have leaked from the printer in some
unauthorized manner. The stamp contains no gum on the reverse
side. Since these stamps must have first been printed and gum applied
secondly, the absence of glue would suggest that this item was
rejected and is little more then undestroyed printer's waste.

Similar to the Post 1917 Imperial rouble values, the wartime
conditions and internal instability lead to sharp decline in degree
of quality control and consequently spectacular errors.


CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL PHILATELIC EXHIBITION, JUNE 9-18, 1978
Registered as an approved organization for Canadian tax purposes #0431338-22-13


IPE(78 / SUPPORT
I CAPEX!


Box 204, Postal Station Q

Toronto, Ontario, Canada


M4T 2M1


57


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.










REVIEW OF





LITERATURE
No. 53 for November 1976. Published by the British Society of Russian-

I: *-- "'-- .-- ,- "- "



hilately, London, England. -






editor ship of L. G. Baillie a noted postal historian and student of






Ukrainan and other issues. After a short editorial, he prints some data
j i __






THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN PHILATELY




. 53by David Mushlin on a campaign cover from the British Society of Russian Bay
Philately, London, England.

This is a type-set and well printed magazine of 52 pages, under the
editor ship of I. L. G. Baillie a noted postal historian and student of
Ukrainan and other issues. After a short editorial, he prints some data
by David Mushlin on a campaign cover from the British Navy in Riga Bay
during 1812. This is then followed by a very solid article from the
Editor on The German' Aus Russland Marks ", expanding the research
done by 4 previous philatelists Then come short notes on pre-adhesiv
cancellations, the Vilna Par marks, the Odessa transit marks on
mail from Sea of Azov ports to the West, Addendum No. 1 on registered
mail and the 7 kop. Arms type 1875 issue. Next we have an excellent
survey on the village cancellations of the VOLOSTNYE PRAVLEN.IYA by
that grand old man ( figuratively speaking ) of Russian Philately,
Dr. Alfred H. Wortman. Another noted investigator, Eric G. Peel, then
studies the St. Petersburg Town Post Otdyels from 1880 and another
spate of short notes follow on an 1895 German reply card used in
Russia, three Levant notes and new information on the T. P. O. route
No. 115-116. The Rev. Leonard Tann writes an important article plus
a note on The Romanov Jubilee Issue and there are further notes
by Dr. R. J. Ceresa on the Postal Savings Bank Issue. Three Estonian
specialists combine forces to write about the censorship and censor
marks during the Estorian War of Independence and a noted expert on
Transcancasia, Peter Ashford, writes about Georgia the mystery year
1921-1922. Allen S. Waugh follows with Soviet Turkestan a historical
dissertation 1917 -1929 with much interesting data and again we have
short notes on forged overprints of the Far Eastern Republic, unissued
stamps of 1926-1927, consular stamps and Soviet varieties 1948 -
1952. Hilary Norwood then contributes a useful classification of the
Art postal stationery cards issued in 1975 and this is followed by
reviews of new publications, news of members, disinfected mail, obituaries,
lists of new members, a stop press listing of awards at the BSRP-VOF
joint philatelic exhibition in June 1976 at Moscow and a final note on
the Expertising Committee.










Looking back over the ground covered in this issue, we can see we
have been treated to a wonderful overview of Russian and Soviet philately.

SPRAVOCHNIK AKTIVISTA VSESOYUZNOGO OBSHCHESTVA FILATELISTOV

( Manual of the Activist of the All-Union Society of Philatelists ) a
paperback of 168 pages, issued by the Svqaz Publishers of Moscow
in 1975 in an edition of 25,000 copies. Price 47 Kopeks.

This is the second and expanded edition of a work intended for ,the
guidance of the chapters and members of the Society and the State
philatelic stores, giving all the relevant rules and regulations. The
section on the requirements for international exhibitions is
particularly useful.

NASH KRENKEL ( Our Krenkel ) a paperback of 176 pages, issued in
Leningrad by the Gidrometeoizdat Publishers in 1975 in an edition of
155,000 copies. Price 41 Kopeks.

The book is a collection of 14 articles collected by N. Ya. Bolotnikov
and B. A. Kremer as a tribute to the late Ernst Teodorovich Krenkel,
a Baltic German born in Tartu, Estonia and the first president of
the All Union Society of Philatelists. He was a famous polar
radio operator and a general stamp collector. The last tribute in
this work is devoted to his philatelic activities and he has appeared
on Soviet stamps issued in 1938 and 1973.

* POLYARNAYA POCHTA (Polar Post) a hardcover of 296 pages by E.P.
Sashenkov, issued in Moscow by the Svyaz Publishers in an edition
of 40,000 copies. Price 99 kopecks. Devoted to the philately and
postal history of the Northern Polar Circle, it mostly covers the
Soviet aspect of the subject, although there are also references to
foreign Arctic Posts and related stamps. The book is especially
noteworthy for the research showing that the flight from Franz-Josef
Land dated 26.8.32 to Archangel on the mainland apparently never
took place, as no announcement of this special event has ever been
found in the press of the period. A.very useful list of Soviet
post offices in the Arctic Circle is also included.

ROZHDENIE MARKI (The Birth of the Postage Stamp), a paperback by
E. Sorkin with 176 pages, issued in Moscow by the Svyaz Publishers
in 1975 in an edition of 40,000 copies. Price 32 kopecks.
The title is self-explanatory and the work is intended for junior
collectors. It has 20 short chapters plus a preface and epilogue,
devoted to specific aspects of Russian and Soviet philately, including
an introductory piece on the famous Penny Black.

SEVERNIY LEDOVITIY-V OKEANE FILATELII ( The Northern Ice in the
Ocean of Philately) a paperback by E.P. Sashenkov with 80 pages
issued in Moscow by the Svyaz Publishers in 1976 in an edition of
53,000 copies. Price 14 kopecks.
Slanted once again to the junior collector, it gives him a good








introduction to the subject and covers the stamps and postal history
of many countries relating to the Arctic area. A useful section is
devoted to the Weyprecht-Bayer stamps issued for the Franz-Josef
Land Expedition of 1872-1874;these issues were also on view at the
VOF-BRSP Exhibition in Moscow during June, 1976.

FILATELISTICHESKII SLOVAR (Philatelic Dictionary), a paperback by
0 Ya. Basin with 128 pages, issued in Moscow by the Svyaz Publishers
in 1976 in an edition of 57,000 copies. Price 39 kopecks.
Once again, the title is self-explanatory and this is the second
and improved edition of the work. It is interesting in that most of
the philatelic terms can be explained with Russian or Soviet examples,
so wide is our field of collecting.

POCHTOVIYE MARK AZERBAIDZHANA (The Postage Stamps of Azerbaijan),
a paperback of 240 pages by the late E.S. Voikhanskii, issued in
Moscow by the Svyaz Publishers in an edition of 18,500 copies. Price
84 kopecks.
Once again, this the second and expanded edition of a work which
originally appeared in Baku in 1971. The late author has now in-
cluded the first printings by the Musavat Government in 1919 and has
realized that the flaws in the designs were due to the transfers
used in the lithographic process. All these flaws and their layout
on the sheets had been previously worked out by P. T. Ashford, the
leading British student of the issues. The book is profusely illust-
rated and the bilingual money-order cards show that the official
language of.the Musavat Government written in Arabic script was in
fact a pure form of Ottoman Turkish. Among the appendices is a very
useful listing of the 76 known cancellations used in the country
during 1919-1923.

KATALOG POCHTOVIKH MAROK SSSR 1918-1974 (Catalogue of the Postage
Stamps of the USSR 1918-1974), a handbook of840 pages, issued in
Moscow by the Svyaz Pechat publishers in 1976 in an edition of 100,000
copies. Edited by M.E. Ginzburg and M.I. Spivak and priced at
5r. 78k,
This is the latest edition of the traditional catalogue which has
now appeared in the middle of 1977 despite the publishing date. It
is basically no more than an update of the previous edition and, as
no prominent Soviet philatelists are listed as consultants, there
is also no evidence that any attempt has been made to correct any
obvious errors or to include all worthwhile varieties. Right at the
very beginning of the listings, the statement is made that the 35k.
"swordcutter" imperforate variety was never used postally. That is
simply not true since genuine postal use of this variety is known
from NYANDOMA i.n the OLONETS province and PRONSK in the RYAZAN
province. Furthermore, many interesting varieties are omitted, such
as the RUDCHEV error of March, 1958 and its corrective retouch. How
are Soviet collectors going to collect the stamps of their country
intelligently when they are not even given the chance to acquire the
basic philatelic knowledge common to philatelists in the international
scene? It is not a question of encouraging speculation, but one of
elementary logic. Also, the lack of realistic pricing just encourages
sharpshooters to fleece the unsuspecting local philatelist.
In addition to the listing of Soviet stamps, the Tsarist reissues
in the early Soviet period are also featured, as well as the Consular
Airmails and the Philatelic Tax stamps. Contrary to the last date
given for these as 1938 in the catalogue they have been seen on
philatelic sending as late as 1940.


60








The catalogue would have been a great deal more useful if all the
stamps in the Soviet sphere had been listed, such as Carpatho-
Ukraine, the Siberian issues and those of the Transcaucasian
Republics.

POCHTA I FILATELIA (The Post and Philately), a paperback of 174
pages by M.N. Izraelit, issued in Moscow by the Svyaz publishers
in 1975 in an edition of 25,000 copies. Price 63 kopecks.
This is a handbook for topicalists, collecting stamps with the theme
of the postal services and issued by the Socialist countries. It
is richly illustrated and the author also shows the watermarks used
in these areas.

ISKUSTVO NA POCHTOVIKH MARKAKH (Art on Postage Stamps), part 1 of a
paperback of 240 pages by Yu.M. Klimqv issued by the Svyaz publishers
in 1975 in Moscow in an edition of 20,000 copies. Price 78 kopecks.
This is another topical paperback, well-illustrated and surveying
the subject as relating to Soviet stamps. Unfortunately, no
attention is paid to the philatelic aspects of these issues and their
varieties and thus no real challenge is presented to the collector
of these stamps.

ISKUSTVO NA POCHTOVIKH MARKAKH 2 (Art on Postage Stamps), Part 2 by
Yu.M. Klimov, a paperback of 128 pages issued in Moscow by the Svyaz
publishers during 1977 in an edition of 20,000 copies. Price 44 kopecks.
A continuation of part 1 reviewed above, it is devoted to Soviet
stamps issued in this topic under the headings: prose, poetry, drama
and theatre and the subheadings of cinema and circus. It is amply
illustrated and has numerous cross-references.





The Journal Fund

We have for sale, limited copies of the following interesting works
of reference. All profits will go to the publication fund of our
journal Yamschik ". The prices include postage anywhere in the
world. CASH WITH ORDER. Remittances should be sent to:
Andrew Cronin, Box 5722, Station A, Toronto, Ontario,
Canada, M5W 1P2

1) Chuluungombo G. Postage Stamps of the Mongolian Peoples'
Republic", Ulan Bator, 1959. An unusual catalogue-album printed in
Mongolian and now a rarity. $17.50
2) S. D. Tchilinghirian & P. T. Ashford, The Postage Stamps of
Armenia ", Part 5-Check List. A valuable listing of stamps and
postal stationary of this difficult country. $3.50

3)Voikhanskii, E. S. The Postage Stamps of Azerbaijan ", The first
edition of 1971, printed at Baku in Russian. Many useful illustrations.
Long out of print. $5.00
4) White, G. M. ," The Postage Stamps of the Soviet Republics,
1917-1925 ". A comprehensive and contemporary survey of RSFSR,
USSR, Far East, Ukrainian SSR and Transcaucasia with much unusual
information and many illustrations. Many years out of print. $5.50


61












THE COLLECTORS CORNER

DEAR COLLECTORS:
Are you still missing that illusive item from
your collection or philatelic library.... do you
have some duplicate material that you'd like to
trade or sell? We can publicize your want list '
and/or your duplicates for the most reasonable
rates of: 25/line (minimum of 4 lines) excluding 4
name and address. Ads from collectors only will
be accepted. Dealers are invited to respond.
The Society disclaims all responsibility from any
misunderstandings that may result between exchanging
parties.

* unless specified otherwise, all numbers listed are Scott

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Igor JascoL.t, 674 Glenhurs Cresc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, KlJ 7B7
Want List: Latvia-used-l-ll0 in blocks or strips of 2-4; Imperial
Russia-mint-31-38,41-70,in singles,19-87 in strips of 2 or blocks
of 4; Offices in Turkey- used- 8-231.
To Trade: Far Eastern Republic -42-46 in mint blocks of 2-10.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

P.J. Campbell, 17091 Maher Blvd., Pierrefonds,Quebec,Canada, H9J 1H7

I have a spare copy of Tchilinghirian and Stephen "Russian Empire
Used Abroad", Part 3 (Persia,The Khanates, Sin Kiang) to exchange
for Part 2. I also have spare copies of BJRP Nos. 21,43,44.
What offers?

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Sam S. Emison, 5716 Shady River Rd., Houston,Texas,77057, USA
Want List: Tannu Tuva 38; N.W.Army-9(red surcharge), ll(inverted
surcharge), 13,mint or used; Russian Offices in China- 8,13,72,76,
79a,80a,80c,mint or used, 42,47,51,mint.
Zemstvo: inexchange for zemstvo.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXxxxxxxxxxx

Andrew Cronin, Box 5722, Station"A", Toronto, Ontario,Canada, .5W 1P2
I need: The"Soviet Philatelist/Collector" for 1926, 1931-33. I can
offer other years and early Soviet philatelic literature.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

S


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Barry Hong, 806-50 Jerome Cres., Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada, L 8E 1K6
Wanted: Russian postal stationary commemorative envelopes. Will
* pay up to $1.00 for each envelope with an imprinted commemorative
stamp design I need. eg: H&G #150 printed with Scott design A1471.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

P.J. Campbell, 17091 Maher Blvd., Pierrefonds,Quebec, Canada, H9J 1H7
I have : Russian Revenues using Forbin, 1915 as a reference. I have
revenues, Moscow and St. Petersburg police, Krondstadt hospital tax,
permis de sejour, etc. to exchange.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Leon Lazarev, c/o Montreal Life Insurance Co., 620 Wilson Ave.,
3rd floor, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, M3K 1Z3
I need: Errors and varieties of the Soviet Union, zemstvo, vignettes
and cancellations of St. Petersburg on cover.
I have: B23 with inverted surcharge -$25.00 or trade.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Anatole Kaushansky, P.O. Box 232, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada, M2N 5S8
I have: duplicates of rare Soviet definitive of the 20's and 30's
including No. 287'and many others. Material issued in the last 20
years is available in superb condition. I will trade for commemmorat-
ives of the 1930's or sell at very reasonable prices.

* XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Alex Artuchov, c/o Box 5722, Station A, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,M5W 1P2
I need: dot and numeral cancellations, St. Petersburg geometric
cancellations Nos. XV-XXXI; Tien Tsin postmarks T&S #'s 485,486,488,
489,492; South Russia- fantasy set of Denikin issues with rosettes
for values.
I have: South Russia- 31 mint-$15.oo, 55(shifted surcharge) $3.00;
xerox copies of Schmidt/Faberge zemstvo catalogue (localities A-K)
$10.00 each or trade.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

George Shalimoff, 20 Westgate Dr., San Francisco, California, 94127,USA
Wanted: socked on the nose St. Petersburg and Moscow Numeral Town
Post cancels; Arms type rouble values with margin "V"s in attached
selvedge. Correspondence invited from'modest collectors for exchange
or sale or exchange of information of mutual interest.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

P.J. Campbell, 17091 Maher Blvd., Pierrefonds,Quebec,Canada, H9J 1H7
For sale: genuine, unused Soviet stamp album 1928-50. Originally
cost 135 roubles. Covers slightly damaged. What offers?

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James Mazepa, Hines V.A. Hospital,Box 381, Hines, Illinois, 60141. USA
Wanted: Russian stamps, covers,stationery used in Poland to 1875.
Also pre-stamp material. Will buy or trade similar material.
For sale: original edition of "Sammlung Russischer Landschaftmarken
im Reichmuseum" by C. Schmidt, 1934. $100.00 (with price list).

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Copies of the RUSSIAN PHILATELIST are still available in
limited quantities at the original price.
In English: Nos 5,7,9-11
In Russian: Nos 3-11
Nos 3-7: $1.50; Nos 8-11: $2.00
Write:
Mrs. C. Rosselevitch, 171-44 Bagley Ave., Flushing, N.Y., 11358, USA



Any article appearing in this journal may be reprinted upon obtaining
permission from the respective author. The Society would request
that no article be reprinted until one year after its original date
of publication.
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