Title: Library collections preservation and digitisation consultancy for the University of Botswana
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Title: Library collections preservation and digitisation consultancy for the University of Botswana
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Kesse, Erich
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Africa
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076777
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

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Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


View of the campus of the University of Botswana (Gaberone) North Entrance.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 1


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Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The sky was forever light blue, matching the blue in Botswana's flag.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 2


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Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


EDDI Project Interim Report
2003 September
Erich Kesse


Travel was funded by the Education, Democracy and Development Initiative of the
University of Botswana with funding from the Republic of Botswana and the United
States of America's U.S.A.I.D. programme.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 3


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Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


If the blue in Botswana's flag is for sky (top) and water (below), the white bar is for
the ethnically European Batswana while the black bar is for the ethnically southern
African Batswana (e.g., the Setswana, etc.).


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 4


11111111111111111111111






Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


My time in Botswana was, of course, a Preservation and Digitization consultancy.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 5


...... ....
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.......... :::- ::: ... ... ..............
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Preservation & Digitisation

for the University of Botswana





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


AFRICA
Botswana


0




6


28 November 2003


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


5 September 2003


For the geographically challenged, Botswana is a southern African country.
Landlocked it is surrounded by the Republic of South Africa, Namibia, Zambia and
Zimbabwe. Like its neighbors, English is the primary language of business. But, in
Botswana, Setswana is the predominant language and is frequently mixed with
English in conversation. This presentation should begin with a traditional Setswana
"Hello", "Dumella", literally, "gieeitlig,"
If you've come here hoping to see pictures of southern African veld, perhaps you
were lured by the catchy title of this presentation, "From Ocheechobee to
Okavango". The title isn't a complete ruse, but I'll explain later. If you came
hoping to see and hear about African wildlife, let me put this in context
immediately:


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 6





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


This presentation is primarily about library materials: books, maps, aerial
photography, photographs, recorded sound and multimedia and specifically about
preservation and access.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 7


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


BOTSWANA

ANCO
Okavango Delta |


28 November 2003


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


5 September 2003


So, for the geographically challenged, my time was spent largely in the capital city,
Gaberone, with a few days in Maun.
Gaberone is the site of the campus of the University of Botswana. U.B. is the only
public university and the largest university of any kind with more than 20,000
students, in the country. Planning is underway to build a second university in
Botswana, probably in Serowe.
The University of Botswana maintains a small library, administratively separate
from the Main Campus Library, containing multimedia resources in Francistown,
Botswana's second largest city.
The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, located in Maun, houses the
Peter Smith Library and Herbarium. Though administered by the Centre, the
Library's business is supervised and directed from the Main Campus Library.
The Kalahari Desert occupies a vast land mass, most of Botswana. The climate
ranges from a California-like (75-85 F with very little humidity) climate in the south
to extremely hot (85-95 F again with very little humidity, except IN the Delta and
Chobe (NE). The Centre in Maun is located near the Delta but is physically the
more part of the desert.


The vastness of the Kalahari Desert cannot be understated. An interlibrary loan
vehicle travels between the research facilities but its route is long and hot. One
route, the route least traveled, head due West out of Gaberone before turning north
to Maun. More frequently, traffic and the interlibrary vehicle travels
Botswana's main route of commerce: 500 Km north to Francistown and another 500
Km northwest to Maun. In terms of time, 100 Km on these good roads is one hour
Kesse. EDDI tjefrifjj&r lw toward nightfall and dark when animals on the road become 8
1, 1





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The University of Botswana holds several important collections: the
Botswana Collection; University of Botswana Records; and the Peter
Smith Collection at the Harry Oppenhiemer Okavango Research Centre.


Botswana Collection
The Botswana Collection of the Main Campus Library (Gaborone)
strives to be a comprehensive library and archive of materials
about the Republic of Botswana and its predecessor government,
the Protectorate of Bechuanaland; about Batswana, their cultures,
languages, etc.; and about the ecosystems of which the they are
the custodians: the Kalahari and the Okavango among them. The
Botswana Collection contains items held nowhere else, but the
true importance of the collection is the collection itself; nowhere
else does one find its many resources together in one place. The
comprehensive nature of the Collection draws researchers to it
from within and beyond Botswana.


University of Botswana Records
The University of Botswana Records (Gaborone) are important
particularly to the University. Though many of these records may
never be open to unofficial research, they represent the history of
the University. Work with many of these records remains active,
even beyond the date by which they are removed from the active
archive store to permanent storage. Some of these records are
Kesse. EDDI Project InteYitl,0ordicpord of fiscal and institutional well-being. 9


1. Botswana Collection (Gaberone)
2. University Records (Gaberone)
3. Peter Smith Collection (Maun)
* Global Wetlands Center (Maun, Gainesville & others)
28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 9





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


IIvelstigting h MAIN CAMPUS LIBRARY



0 9y0


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 10


This landscape is typical of Gaberone: mostly flat with mountainous outcroppings.
With a drought this winter, the land itself is parched. This view is to the NW, where
the University has significant room for growth. The Limpopo River, that separates
Botswana from the Republic of South Africa is approximately 17 Km to the South
and to the East of the University. The Sun is in the North. Gaberone lays near the
Tropic of Capricorn.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 10





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


This view is from the North entrance to campus. The soccer field across the street
from the main entrance gives this view a parched look the campus is parched but
not as much as this image might make it seem.
University Administration, much like our own, sits at the gateway of this campus
entrance. The College of Education also takes a prominent position, with a well
defined structure. Botswana is driven to educate its own, to assume positions of
responsibility for national security, both military/police and infrastructural security.
Botswana currently has a population only nearing 2 million. Many employees of
the University are nationals of other countries. Until recently the Vice Chancellor,
equivalent to our University President, was an American. Library Directors are
nationals of Botswana, Rep. of South Africa, Lesotho, and Zambia. The Botswana
Collection librarian is a national of Kenya. The Peter Smith Librarian is a national
of Malawi. The Systems Librarian is a national of India. Must support staff are
nationals of Botswana. But, Botswana's economic health is luring nationals from
across Africa.
U.B. does have a library school, but it does not yet have courses in Preservation or
Digitization. It does offer courses in collection development, public services,
technical services, and archives management. The College of Computer Science
trains staff for systems positions.
The Library itself occupies a central position on the campus. The building rises
above any other and, architecturally, is a jewel on campus. It clearly embodies a
great deal of pride in and respect for the position of the Library in U.B. research.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 11


The University of Botswana
North Entrance View
Gaberone
(hahberohnee) the Main Campus Library?

College of
Main Education
Campus
Library




University
Administration
(and University
Records)



28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 11





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Old & New


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 12



The current library is not the University's first.
The first library was a one floor, flat-roofed structure with an internal courtyard and
garden. From a preservation stand point, to its benefit, this structure had thick walls
and tiny windows. But the flat roof and courtyard were less than desirable features.
This old library is typical of U.B. structures. Most are one story, very much like
this one.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 12





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The new library is a little bit old and a little bit new.
The old building was a three story rectangle; a book box. The addition is -
appropriate to the country's major export facetted-diamond shaped. Its walls are
nearly all light blue glass, to capture and reflect Botswana's blue skies. The floors
of the addition are pyramidic within the square glass shell. Collections seem to rise
upon on another symbolically: Botswana Collection (Special Collections) rest at the
foot of the structure. Reference is a half flight above on the main entry floor. The
first main circulating collection is the sciences. Above that, sociology, the soft
sciences and hard humanities. Above that, the humanities proper. And above that,
the education library.
There are also other campus libraries, departmental libraries affiliated with the Main
Campus Library across campus. An herbarium is maintained by a plant sciences
unit.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 13






Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Cataloging is completed on the library's Innovative Interfaces system, their second automated cataloging tool. The Catalog
Department generates the majority of cataloging original and derived. But, records are also generates records for materials
entering the Botswana Collection, including many records for individually analyzed journal articles and serial issues specific to
Botswana.
Periodicals holdings records are maintained, subsequently, by the periodicals unit. Periodicals, the main focal point for library
binding, also maintains binding treatment records -but only through the briefest of action notes.
There are no records, per se, for any of the digital resources created to date. But, Systems, which is responsible for the creation
of the majority of these resources, is responsible also for the addition of 856 fields -or URLs, for those of you who don't
speak MARC to the records. 856 or physical holdings information is virtually the only indication of the kind of resource
maintained. ( I I if U.B. is to retain information appropriate to digital archiving, it will have to retain additional
information whether in MARC, METS, by another method. No records are sent to the regional OCLC network. In fact,
U.B. considers its digital resources to be for the sole use of its patrons. And, its primary interest in sharing records is in the
sale of digital resources -though it doesn't currently sell any resources. (And, doesn't consider its Student Exams collection
to be marketable. In other words, U.B. doesn't yet have sufficient experience or external input to yet know the value of its
collections -but this is a far greater issue and we could spend hours alone considering options for this single point.)

Catalogers are a mix of professionals (i.e., "seniors") and paraprofessionals (i.e., "juniors"). I should explain that Botswana
observes a fairly British job hierarchy. The professional ranks have their divisions based on training and experience. And,
professional librarians -as in the U.S.A. have an undergraduate degree in a subject followed by a masters in library science.
Paraprofessionals, too, have their divisions these too: seniors and juniors, based on experience. Paraprofessionals uniformly
have a "degree" something on par with an "associates" in the U.S.A. So, paraprofessionals in Systems have degrees in
library science or in computer systems. While, paraprofessionals in other areas of the library have degrees almost solely in
library science, some with and some without specialized training.

SABINET (Southern African Bibliographic Network) is U.B.'s regional OCLC provider. U.B.'s partnerships within the broad
Network are limited to the sharing of original cataloging. Recently, however, SOLINET's Kate Nevins helped Botswana's
academic and government libraries to form a partnership that, over time, should begin to look like Florida's SUL or CCLA and
possibly like FCLA as the members determine how to share central systems like cataloging.

SABINET should not be confused with SABONET. I make a point of considering herbarium and library materials in equal
breaths. An herbarium, in a sense, is a reference library after all. SABONET, the Southern African Botanical Network, is the
cataloging system of the region's herbaria.
Partnerships within SABONET are currently limited to cataloging. Its members are looking to institutions such as the
University of Florida for guidance in digitization -and, digital support an 856 equivalent is not yet part of the SABONET
system.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 14


Innovative Interfaces
Catalog Department
Botswana Collection
Periodicals Department
Systems Department

SABINET
Botswana Cooperative





28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 14





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


In virtually all regards, the Systems Department functions much as UF's
Systems Department functions. Where it differs, U.B. Systems lacks a
liaison program. One professional and one paraprofessional service the
workstations of more than 130 staff plus more than 150 public
workstations, not to mention 6 servers and two CD jukeboxes.

As an aside, during my entire visit two weeks the library was suffering, at
first, the after effects of the Blaster worm and other viruses and, then, the
failure of its T1 line to the University's Internet POP, just one building
away. Ironically, the Library catalog could be accessed anywhere off or
on campus except in the Library.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 15


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


When we think of Preservation, we need to keep at least four things in
mind:
1. Maintaining Optimal Storage Conditions
2. Basic Repair of Damaged Resources
3. Advanced Conservation Treatments
4. Restoration or Reproduction

Many people and many librarians think of Preservation as beginning and
ending with library materials. When storage conditions are considered,
people tend to look inside the envelope.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 16


1. Maintaining Optimal Storage Conditions
2. Basic Repair of Damaged Resources
3. Advanced Conservation Treatments
4. Restoration or Reproduction
28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 16





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


I thought we'd begin by looking at the envelope or, in this case, the box or
the structure itself.

Let's take a quick walk around the building.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 17


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 18





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Storage Conditions
WEST


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 19





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 20


S I. f il
M. V w Wt.I A


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


I'd be remiss if we missed the mechanical and architectural detail of the
structure.

First, note that there are absolutely NO trees or shrubs around within several
meters of the building's footprint! No insect or rodent friendly
environments.

Second not that the building has a lot of glass. It will become apparent as
we look at more images that areas housing books are set back. In this
afternoon image, the over hanging floor will cast a shadow during the
morning.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 21


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


28 November 2003





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


28 November 2003


Optimal Storage Conditions


^ g 'I
U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.




U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


5 September 2003


To the north, the front of the building, where the sun is strongest and shines
longest, areas behind the windows are dedicated to public services and
security.

The necessity of protection can be seen clearly in this photo, taken at high-
noon.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 22


__





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Suffice it to say that there's a lot of glass!
We'll come back to it on the inside. From the outside, note that it's all tinted,
to filter some of the incoming light and that it's fairly reflective, to deflect
some light as well.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 23


al Storage Conditions


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


F





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


When it rains, water flows from the high northern elevation to the south,
where it is collected in a gutter and led away from the building.

Fire hydrants are placed for easy of access


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 24





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


We should also take note of the external features of the Heating,
and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system.


Ventilating


Rarely are such features well integrated, much less with the architectural
beauty seen in U.B.'s Main Campus Library.

Architectural plans show that the HVAC systems are capable of pushing,
heating and cooling a tremendous volume of air. And, the systems are
state of the art. They would be envied here in Florida for their capacity to
draw down humidity alone.

These photos may make it difficult to note the placement of external
features. They're positioned at various levels and almost entirely on the
building's back side or southern exposure where sunlight and the force
of heat is indirect.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 25


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.
28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Let's move inside the Library.

Glass, as I said, is everywhere.
Earlier I mentioned that the internal structure is a pyramid of learning. Here,
looking to the glass, it's important to note that the more exposure there is
to natural light, the more off-set the stacks are from that light.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 26





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


maintaining Optimal


28 November 2003


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


5 September 2003


But, what is most remarkable about natural lighting is its most obvious use.
With only two exceptions a burgeoning vertical file pamphlet collection
in the humanities and part of the reference collection, -- areas directly
exposed to natural light are used for staff offices, seminar rooms, and
student study areas.

(It should be noted that while part of the reference collection is near
windows, it never receives direct light.)


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 27





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Light has a strong bearing on the library.
Here a light well, afforded by a few skylights, illuminates a meeting area
outside the Botswana Collection and alongside seminar rooms.

As where light enters elsewhere, adjacent areas are dedicate to human
functions.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 28


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


So, what about the stacks.

A refugee from North American libraries quickly notes two things: lighting, of
course, but the impression of shelved volumes is first, strong and
enduring.

These images are typical of stack conditions. The volume NOT perfectly
shelved is THE exception. This is true even among thin volumes with
paper covers.

And, everyone seems to be well trained in the ways of shelving. Armies of
students and faculty use the collection heavily. Book returns for
reshelving are generously positioned. And, students observed reshelving
books they'd just browsed seemed to have a high regard for the books.

Still there are things that might be improved. Neither hanging nor standing
book supports are adequate. And, though patrons seem to have a high
regard for books, one of the problems most frequently reported by library
staff is damage done by the index-finger removal method.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 29





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.



Shelving of bound newspapers, in particular, leaves something to be
desired. Newspaper volumes are just too tall and too heavy.

Let's take a look at some of the effects of gravity:
* It pulls textblocks from cases; and
* No book support is tall enough to keep a newspaper volume from wilting.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 30





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Horizontal shelving, more appropriate for newspapers, is practiced on
bottom shelves. Ideally, however, the stacks should be no higher than
three volumes. Stacks of greater number, as seen here, become difficult
to negotiate.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 31


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The Botswana Collection Reading Room is the perfect place to begin a
review of internal unnatural? lighting as well as fire detection and
suppression.

Three kinds of lighting are present in the library: natural light for human use
areas; halogen light for task areas such as circulation and public services
desks where it is used to draw attention to the tasks; and fluorescent
lighting for stacks.

As seen here, fluorescent lights are universally covered with mirrored, egg-
crate type diffusers. The job of a diffuser, ostensibly, is to spread light
over a wide area. These diffusers do the job quite well. Diffusers also
spread the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum in fluorescent light. -- While it
means that more books are subject to UV, it also means that the amount
of UV reaching any single book is far less than might be received with
more direct exposure, that is without diffusers.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 32


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Not withstanding my camera's compensation for the lighting, the lighting
could be said to be dim in the stacks.

The architects and engineers, followed by the building maintenance staff,
chose a lighting design that called for minimal wattage. Whether
intentionally or as a power savings measure, my camera's light metering
system indicated that the levels of stack lighting fell within U.K. museum
lighting standards for items on display.

That was a remarkable finding. It appears the architects went out of their
way to build a facility optimized for human use and for book storage.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 33





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The primary means of fire detection are smoke detectors and heat activated
sprinkler systems.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 34


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Fire extinguishers are also liberally placed throughout the Library and
periodically inspected by fire marshals.

Two issues:
1. Some of extinguishers are used as door stops, others are obstructed by
furniture most extinguishers in public areas are deployed appropriately.
2. Staff have never had hands-on training in use of fire extinguishers.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 35


Optimal Storage C


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Vertical files form a large part of the Botswana Collection's storage. Vertical
storage is optimal for items too thin to be bound.

While the file cabinets are more or less appropriate for this use, the method
of foldering leaves something to be desired. Too many items are housed
in any single hanging file. No more than three thin items or one large
item should be housed in a single hanging file. Too many items results in
the failure of the file or in items crushing one another within the file. The
disorder of items reaching above the top of the hanging file is a symptom
of the practice. Items reaching above the top will be clipped when the
drawer closes.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 36


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The thinnest of items will be stapled inside files. (The paper of these pink
and yellow files, produced locally for U.B., appears to be non-acidic.)

But, that's probably okay. Many of these thin items are photocopies of
journal articles or prints from the web. In the U.S.A., court rulings have
interpreted this practice to be a violation of copyright law. In Botswana,
the practice has not been challenged; and Botswana's copyright law
appears to be more sympathetic than U.S. law to the cause of
librarianship and the dissemination of information within an educational
setting. Librarians, under Botswana's copyright legislation are given
special status and, with it, special authorizations to make and retain
copies for research use.

For fear that I'll forget later, I'll mention here that other Botswana legislation
requires deposits of both materials published in Botswana and of
research permitted in Botswana.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 37


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


d~itziC nu )1-al 111)tit),





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


U.B.'s Botswana Collection acts as a depository library for resources
published in Botswana. Registered works will be deposited here.
(Copyright registration is not required but is encouraged.) This special
relationship may exist because U.B. is THE educational institution in
Botswana and the Main Campus Library is THE repository of Library
resources. But, it may exist also because the Chancellor of the
University is THE president of the Republic of Botswana.

(The Vice Chancellor, the equivalent of U.F.'s University President, runs the
University from day to day.)

The bulk of resources being deposited is by government agencies and is in
paper format. The outstanding question, with much of it printed from
digital files, is why not collect these digital masters as well? With only
paper, resources have to be converted back into digital formats before
they can be made available electronically.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 38


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Research conducted in Botswana must be permitted a condition perhaps
uncommon only in the U.S.A.

A condition of permitting is that research: data, photographs, field notes,
publications, etc. must be copied to the Botswana Collection. The
majority of permits is issued for research in the Okavango Delta, where
the U.F. connection is a newly formed, shared UB/UF Global Wetlands
Center.

The resources being collection are extremely diverse. Many are take paper
formats, but others and ever more are born digital. Plans exist for the
collection of these digital resources, but none for data assurance or
migration.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 39


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


i tic z C





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


My primary assignment was in the Botswana Collection. The only microfilm
surveyed during this visit was found there.

The microfilm housed is entirely commercial product and is stored in metal
cases typical of microfilm storage almost anywhere in the U.S.A.
The order of microfilms was is disarray but, the Botswana Collection is
paged.

Disarray probably has more to do with the few numbers of microfilms than
with poor filing practice. Nearly all of the film boxes were covered with a
thin film of dust Botswana earth. Dust storms are common every year
as winter yields to spring. But the presence of dust is something of
concern. The Botswana Collection is on separate systems. When were
they cleaned last? Is their a cleaning schedule? What kind of filtration
systems are used? Answers to these questions weren't apparent on
building schematics.

Another point of note can be taken from the visual queue of the box labels.
On inspection, it appears the adhesive has been thoroughly dried -
oddly, with very little residue left on the box to indicate that the labels had
ever adhered to the box. This suggests a climate too dry for microfilm -
and perhaps, for paper storage.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 40


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Though a bit dated, the information on this box identifies the maximum
optimal environment for patron-use microfilms.

The more ironic is the microclimate fostered by this particular box type.
Seen here in a side view, the reflection on the box flap is indication of a
plastic coating. In humid environments, this coating would trap moisture
inside the box, leading to detrimental secondary effects. It is possible to
think that, in a dry climate, those effects may be beneficial.

In any case, further exploration of environmental conditions in the Botswana
Collection storage vault is in order.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 41


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


At least some of the boxes, such as this Conservation Resources box -
meet preservation standard for storage of first generation microfilm. (It is
overkill and an expensive option for a patron use microfilm, but it was
nice to see that someone gave the box some thought at some time.)

Of greater concern are the reels on which film is stored and the methods of
restraining film on reels. All things considered, this open walled reel isn't
bad though it may not be inert. An open walled reel of this sort is
preferable (though, it too, may not be made of inert plastic).

(Inert plastics are less volatile than other plastics. They off-gas less and
remain durable longer. Anything that off-gasses inside the closed box is
potential detrimental for the film.)

The majority of reels in the collection are closed walled reels that trap in
gasses including those resulting from the natural aging of films. Such
reels should be replaced.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 42


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Film retainers such as this Conservation Resources paper tie are optimal,
but only this torn one was surveyed.

A small number of less desirable plastic arrows was surveyed as was a
greater number of rubber bands. Still, the rubber bands may be the
canary in the mine: if the microclimates inside the boxes were dry, one
would expect the rubber bands to be inflexible. They were still flexible.

An even greater number of reels had no restraint whatsoever.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 43





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Why is an optimal climate important for microfilm?

Film emulsions are gelatin. And, like the gelatin you might eat, they require
a cool, low humidity environment. Humidity doesn't seem to be a
problem in the Botswana Collection.

Another reason, the film base, the film itself is plastic. Hot and fluctuating
climates advance deterioration, particularly among less stable plastic
types like acetate.
Twenty percent of films in the Botswana Collection are acetate.

Acetate films, seen left yellow reel, tear easily (and are opaque in light).
Because these are commercial films, they might be used with care and
not replaced until damaged. It might be advantageous to label such
films, "use with care brittle film".

Polyester films, seen right blue reel, are more stable, don't tear easily and
age well (and are translucent in light).


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 44


Maintaining Optimal Storage Conditions













28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 44





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Library schools offer little preservation training to librarians. Little if any
attention is paid to microclimates created by storage boxes for film or for
paper.

These plastic boxes are used for archival storage both in the Botswana
Collection (Gaberone) and the Peter Smith Collection (Maun). Though
the inert plastic of this box may be good in that the box is unlike to
contribute harmful gasses into the storage environment, the single hole in
the box wall may be insufficient to allow the release of acids from
naturally aging paper.

The position of Archivist has gone unfilled for two years. Trained specialists
in southern Africa are few. It will fall within the responsibilities of the
archivist to process collections such as those seen here, as well as, to
lay the foundation for advancing preservation care.
(It's the perfect opportunity for a sabbatical project!)


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 45


e Conditions


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The use of these book shoes for loose periodicals is somewhat problematic.

The plastic used in their construction volatilizes rapidly. Some materials
stick to the box walls as an effect of this volatilization.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 46





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The Library's commercial binding contract has been awarded to the
Tshwarango Book Bindery in Ramotswa, 14 Km from Gaberone. The
facility is one long room not larger than the Marston Science Library's
Conference Room. It is open air and, though it has electricity and
overhead lighting, it is lit entirely by natural light. -- There's an
abundance of natural light everywhere in Botswana.

The Bindery was established with assistance and training from Zimbabwe.
Some of its methods, as you'll see, reflect U.S. and U.K. standard. Other
methods reflect short-cuts originally made popular by German binders
early in the age of bindery automation -- for reasons of time, I won't draw
identify which practice is which. Appropriately applied, no practice is
inherently bad.

As regards the bindery, both its staff and U.B. librarians are eager to learn
new methods. But, as you'll see, standard U.S. and U.K. methods need
to be adapted to 3rd world conditions, e.g., through-the-fold binding
without binding frames. Training videos in English that could be dubbed
into Setswana or any of Africa's seemingly countless languages -
would be useful across the continent.


The Bindery is one of four in Botswana. None provides better quality of
binding. And Tshwarango is the only to use cloth book-covering
materials. More than 90% of the bindery's business is from U.B.


Kesse. EDDI PojlliIMiaimpA~pdit.als, U.B. also sends monographs for rebinding after 47


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Instead, all volumes head to the guillotine, where dog-ears and bindings are
removed before heading to the sewing station.


That's right: you're looking at a Singer sewing machine. It passes as a suitable
oversewing machine. As in oversewing, segments of the volume are side sewn.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 48


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


We can see the sewing here in this early work for U.B.
The Bindery has since learned to whip-stitch these sections together. The result is
more like that of automated oversewing; and it produces an exceptionally strong
binding.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 49


Hj




SBR



28 November 2003


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 49





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Of course, this type of binding is often too strong.
Here, in this first image, we see the effect of side-sewing without whip-stitches.
Note how pages lay flat between sections, but how pages also lift in sections. With
additional whip-stitching, the effect is more even.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 50


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


This type of binding consumes valuable margin if not text time prevents me from
showing an example. And, it also forces users to push the pages down for both
reading and photocopying.


More resourceful readers, as we've seen here, may loosen the binding by slitting the
threads. This practice meets a user's immediate goal, but also has the effect of
disbinding the volume over time. Natural disbinding is also a concern particularly
with newsprint and acidic papers. The sewing holes are like stamp sheet
perforations.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 51


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


But, back to binding!


End sheets are applied; then sewn structures are glued down the spine; and mull or
crash a fabric mesh that will strengthen the textblock when it eventually rests in
its case is applied. All of this is done with PVA (poly-vinyl acetate) adhesive.


This is standard U.S./U.K. practice.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 52


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Volumes then pass to a casing-in station.


Boards and bookcloth, imported from England at considerable expense It remains
to be seen if an alternate, less expensive supply can be found, are prepared. In an
appropriate concession to economic reality, expensive PVA is used only on
moveable parts: spines, hinges, etc. Less expensive animal glue is used for other
parts. This worker, for example, uses animal glue to glue-up the bookcloth.


After she has placed the boards: front cover, spine, back cover, she passes the cover
to a coworker across the table who folds the cloth over, making library corners. The
textblock is nestled in the cover and passed to another coworker who will glue out
the endsheets and completes the casing process.


The worker shown is very experienced: she places the board used for covers with
out guides, by simple sight. It is the rare case that is off by any fraction of
perfection! It should also be noted that all of the bindery's staff is almost equally
skilled. For its semi-automation, a book can be bound here in about as much time
as the same book would be bound in a fully automated plant. And, the quality
doesn't seem to suffer.


Production costs are similar to those paid by U.F.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 53


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The cased-in text block is immediately pressed; then passed off to a stamping press,
where volume information will be added.


On the shelves the gold foil, particularly under the Main Campus Library's lighting
will in some cases be difficult to read. The Library might consider asking the
bindery to switch to white stamping foil.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 54


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


As I've implied, U.B. currently has no book repair, no conservation and no
digitization. It would very much like to develop these; therefore my visit
as a consultant.

Before we move on, I wanted to look at the architect's floor plans,
anticipating preservation.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 55


resources












55





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The importance of the Botswana Collection is clear.
It may not be as clear that conservation and digitization are envisioned to be
a supporting service of the Botswana Collection.

Again, the position of archivist is intended to open the door to these services.

These three rooms are dedicated to Preservation as we know it. I've
changed the functional names of the rooms slightly. The Book Repair
room was designated for binding. But this is now outsourced as we've
seen, with no plans to bring it back into the Library.

It makes sense to think of this room as a book repair room.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 56





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 57


Book Repair Room











28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 57





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 58


Advanced Conservation Treatments











28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 58





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 59


Restoration or Reproduction











28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 59





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 60


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 60





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


28 November 2003


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 61


5 September 2003


Warning, pictures can be deceiving. My camera failed both days that I spent in
University Records. This photo is ephemeral periodical storage in the Humanities
Collection.


Cataloging in University Records: Forget it!
Most of the collections are under the control of a records administrator who has a
single copy of an inventory of records for each record collection on paper.
One collection student records still belongs to the Office of the Registrar which
keeps every scrap of paper. Its inventory is a list of names associated with
graduation dates.


We spoke most of the need to redundant, separately stored inventories and for
automation to facilitate creation and retrieval. University Administrators and the
Records Administrator need to visit universities with automated systems and
preservation/disaster recovery plans.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 61





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


For purposes of this talk, alliteration in the title and Gainesville's location suggested
the Ocheechobee Swamp. But, the Okavango Delta has the look of the Everglades.
Scratching your head, wondering: what is this then that I'm looking at? Some of
you may have seen a recent BBC report on the possible damming of the Okavango
River in Namibia. Damming the river has the potential to make the Okavango Delta
look like the land immediately surrounding the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango
Research Centre, that is like the a woody Kalahari.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 62






Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


The University of Botswana

Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre


H.O.O.R.C.
(hawk)

Maun
(mah' oun)





Science
Center
& Research
Facilities


Can you identify
the Library?



A ...






b Herary
Herbarium


5 September 2003


28 November 2003


U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


The Centre is not at all like the Delta studied by the scientists based at the Centre.
There are tourist camps in the marshy delta.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 63





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Let's take a quick walk around the Library, noting structural features and the
surrounding environment.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 64


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


---....... D;,-0 -.. a






Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Note the proximity of shrubs, of earth; the overhang of the roof line; the placement
of air conditioners and windows.


What you can't see here is that the walls are about two inches thick.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 65


I I:


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.


1_______








Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


The library shares the Main Campus Library's Innovative Interfaces system and its
connections to SABINET. And, the majority of catalog practice is set in Gaberone.
The Librarian here is literally the librarian; his duties include and he is fully
qualified to perform cataloging at all levels. He sometimes receives interns from
the Library Science program.


SABONET, of course, is the cataloging system of the Peter Smith Herbarium. The
keeper of the collection is trained in the botanical sciences but is not a botanist. He
employs a group of student interns from plant sciences; but, they are not always
sufficiently well trained to make accurate identifications.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 66


Innovative Interfaces
Shared with the Main
Campus Library
A Location

SABINET

SABONET



28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report. 66





Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Let's take a quick walk around the Library, noting structural features and the
surrounding environment.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 67


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.




Library Collections Preservation and
Digitisation Consultancy for the University
of Botswana


5 September 2003


Let's take a quick walk around the Library, noting structural features and the
surrounding environment.


Kesse. EDDI Project Interim Report. 68


I2--
z Y -, a


28 November 2003 U.B. EDDI Project Interim Report.




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