Title: International focus
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Title: International focus
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Publication Date: February 2009
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SPECIAL EDITION!


February 2009

International




Focus


Vol. 20, No. 1


UF UNIVERSITY of
UFLORIDA
IFAS

Spotlight on IFAS Worldwide


UF/IFAS International Programs Office of the Senior Vice President for Agriculture & Natural Resources Gainesville, Florida


FROM THE
DIRECTOR


6B Daido Sammons
Director


\\ el con I ihs spli c il edioin of I nliterni11ion l
FOC US. iccoLnint I lie n\\iincis of the 2' IS LIF IFAS
InItelniinlonal Fcllo an.ld .Aclc\cnlu ien1 .\\i ids The
:in\iad has I\\uo lcls senior facIlli and Iioni-lenllrc or
nc\\ l -icnircd faciulh Tinu s \ car iscnor-lc\ cl
(Initcrilaionial Fcllo\\ % nin ici is Joe Finderbuik. an
enomioloIoisi located al lth LiF IFAS Nollli Florid:i
Resc.rcli and Educaion C entir in Qtinic Florida The
tlnllelired or nic\\e \ Ienilred Inicinallionail .cluc' eneni
A\\:idl \ inner is Ra.l'el MNTullo/-C i pena. LF IFAS
A2Agic llIlrl l;nd Biolotic;al E it.L'ec II'n .
One of fie \\a s \ c build our iniii.eatonil pIOrniam is to
IccounIj/c tK oiiitsandiInI iiCITniioInl ICII IlIes of outi
flcuilh\ \c do lhal iIouiihi annual a\\ards for oul-
slandini_' contribuons to10 inCrnaiional icsallch. ,ichluin
and E\Icnsion
Noninccsaic caicliullh sciccncd b ilhc IInctnaiionail
Pio,,_aius Adi\ soni Te;ian IP.AT \\ luch ilmkes he final
slectiions \\ innIeis reien c an eiia\ ed pliqntc
SinIIes :ire a lso noiiinaied loi thc c:Linlpus-\\ id c LF
Inli n:iilonal Educator of Ihc Ycear .A\\;d The LIF IFAS
Initci n:ilonjl Fcllo\ and .cl i\ enic tl A.\\jid \\ ininers
\\Cic official\ iccoiini/cd :il lihe LF IFAS Adniiiiisr:i-
Ili\ C oiluncil Cecini on Jaiut n 15. 2'11'11 *.* Contact:
David Sammons, sammons@ufl.edu


Dr. Joseph
Funderburk, the
UF/IFAS Inter-
national Fellow
for 2008, is a
world-renowned
expert on thrips,
an insect with
5,000 species
worldwide, 87
of which are
serious
agricultural
pests. Funder-
burk is an ento-
mologist at the
UF/IFAS North
Florida Research
and Education
Center.


J!,


Joe Funderburk Named

UF/IFAS International

Fellow for 2008
Dr. Joseph Funderburk, an entomologist located at the North Florida
Research and Education Center in Quincy, Florida, has been honored
by the University of Florida as the UF/IFAS International Fellow for
2008.
Funderburk is a world expert on thrips, an insect with 5,000 species
worldwide, 87 of which are agricultural pests. Funderburk's programs
in the management and identification of thrips species, which threaten
U.S. crops when they enter the nation through Florida, are of great
domestic and international significance. Since significant quantities
of agricultural imports into the U.S. arrive through the Port of Miami,
it is critical to identify thrips in agricultural imports and to control
them in other parts of the world, reducing the likelihood of importing
them into Florida or elsewhere in the U.S.
Funderburk's work, carried out in many countries on a wide variety of
crops, has benefitted the citizens of Florida, the U.S., and the world.
His research, extension, and teaching programs are focused on the
ecology, management, and taxonomy of thrips.
His ability to turn taxonomy research into new agricultural inspection
procedures in the U.S. and abroad helps protect crops and many
national economies from the invasion of new thrips species and the
viruses they carry. For example, the European Union and the U.S,
have zero tolerance for import of certain types of thrips from Latin
America, which makes identification of these insects critical, both to
Latin American exporters and to the U.S. and European countries
seeking to protect their own crops while importing needed produce.
Funderburk also developed integrated pest management programs that
are effective, economical, environmentally friendly, and sustainable.
It was once thought that biological control of thrips with natural ene-
mies would be ineffective due to thrips' short generation time, a broad
host range, and an ability to reproduce without mating.
However, Funderburk demonstrated that biological control could be
effective, using minute "pirate" bugs, Orius insidiosus, that occur
from Canada to Patagonia including the Caribbean, as well as using
parasitic nematodes specific to thrips and parasitic wasps. Funderburk
also developed natural insecticides and reduced-risk insecticides that
conserve the populations of minute pirate bugs and other natural
enemy species, which is an effective integrated strategy that is widely
used now throughout the world.
One reason these insecticides are so critical is the host interaction
between thrips and the tospoviruses they carry, such as tomato spotted
wilt virus. The interaction makes the anDlica- See Funderburk, p. 2


Telephone: 352-392-1965 FAX: 352-392-7127 Website: http://international.ifas.ufl.edu
Visit the e-version for complete stories and even more International Focus news! http://international.ifas.ufl.edu/focus_newsletters








Rafael Muiioz-Carpena Named International

Achievement Award Recipient for 2008


Dr. Rafael Mufioz-Carpena is one of the
most internationally active young
faculty members in the UF/IFAS
Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Department. He has collaborated with
scientists in Europe, Latin America, and
Africa for many years. Educated in the
U.S. and Spain, he is naturally comfort-
able in multiple cultures.
Mufioz-Carpena collaborates on research
projects and co-publishes with interna-
tional colleagues. For example, a recent
book on an integrated approach to soil-
water-solute characterization was
co-authored with a professor in Spain
with contributions from 53 international
authors across 3 continents.


tural and Biologi- His dedication to international engage-
cal Engineering. ment began early in his career, when he
worked for the government of Spain to
develop and deliver short courses in South and Central Amer-
ica, such as a series of intensive 7-day "train the trainer"
courses, delivered over three years in Argentina, Bolivia,
Colombia, and Guatemala.
At UF/IFAS, Mufioz-Carpena initiated a program with Dr.
Bruce Schaffer (TREC-Homestead) that brought undergraduate
students from EARTH University in Costa Rica to UF/IFAS to
complete internships required for their degrees, with the hope
of attracting them as graduate students. The EARTH collabo-
ration grew into a well-established CALS short-term scholars
program that helps recruit top Latin American students to UF.
Working with Dr. Michael Dukes, also of UF/IFAS Agricul-
tural and Biological Engineering, Mufioz-Carpena expanded
that program in 2007 to launch an undergraduate/graduate pilot
exchange program that teams up EARTH undergraduates with
UF graduate students. They develop joint research that is
conducted in both the U.S. and Costa Rica. The students also
create Extension programs delivered in Costa Rica that benefit
local communities. This pilot program has been given contin-
ued funding by UF, through the Vice President for Research,
for three years.
To provide teaching internationalization for undergraduate
students, Mufioz-Carpena worked with Virginia Tech to secure
a 4-year U.S. Department of Education FIPSE/CAPES program
with Brazil, allowing UF and Brazilian students interested in
water resources to take courses in both Brazil and the U.S.
Water resources and planning in Africa offers critical research
opportunities for UF/IFAS faculty and students. Mufioz-
Carpena currently chairs a Ph.D. student whose work is
focused on assessing the impact of uncertainty in the trans-
boundary management of the Okavango Delta, a Ramsar
Wetland of International Significance.' The future of the envi-
ronmentally sensitive site depends on collaboration between
three countries with different goals and needs: Angola (post-
war reconstruction), Botswana (conservation), and Namibia
(agricultural development). Mufioz-Carpena traveled with col-


leagues and a Ph.D. student to southern Africa during the sum-
mer of 2008 to establish contacts and gather information for the
three-nation project. While there, Mufioz-Carpena established
other collaborations in the region, with two new projects now
under development.
Additionally, BAYER Crop-
Science in Germany and its
U.S. division are adopting the
modeling system Mufioz-
Carpena designed for vegetative
filter strips (VFSMOD) to
develop pesticide pollution
control management plans. The
Muiioz-Carpena, center, European company funded par-
does joint research with ticipation for Mufioz-Carpena's
international students and group at a European Union
colleagues in Costa Rica. stakeholder's workshop (AIM)
in October 2008 in Brussels to inform the European Union on
the use of the technology, as part of the development by the
European Union of a new European Directive on Pesticide Use.
Rafa Mufioz-Carpena serves as an excellent international
ambassador, actively promoting UF and IFAS throughout the
global agricultural and biological engineering community..
CONTACT: Rafael Muioz-Carpena, carpena@ufl.edu

Funderburk, from page 1
tion of broad-spectrum, toxic pesticides ineffective at stopping
the spread of the viruses, partly because the thrips, themselves,
are resistant to these pesticides. Another reason is that spray-
ing these broad-spectrum insecticides allows population explo-
sions of thrips, because natural enemies and other competing
non-pest species are eliminated, allowing thrips pest popula-
tions to expand explosively.
When these two reasons are combined, the result can be catas-
trophic, such as last year's total loss of Ecuador's onion and
asparagus crops or the 1996 loss of $600 million in table grapes
in Chile due to damage by the western flower thrips. That one
species has spread from the western U.S. to become a world-
wide pest species, damaging crops in multiple countries.
Because the western flower thrips has developed resistance to
spinosyn insecticides, more than $100 million dollars' worth of
vegetable crops in just two Florida counties are now at risk.
Funderburk has responded with education and management
plans tailored both to Florida and to other areas of the world,
combating these pests and the viruses they carry.
Funderburk presents his research results in extension publica-
tions and websites to provide a continuous connection to end-
users. He also presents workshops in Florida, the USA, Central
America, South America, and the Caribbean, teaching the prin-
ciples and practices of integrated pest management from his
research.
The success of Joe Funderburk's research and extension
program is reflected in his 2004 USDA Honor Award for
Excellence, USDA's highest recognition for service to agricul-
ture and the public. CONTACT: Joe Funderburk,
jef@ufl.edu


2 1A Ramsar wetland is one covered under the Ramsar Convention, which was signed in Ramsar, Iran, 1971. It was the first
intergovernmental, global treaty on wetlands conservation, designed to support global sustainable development.


Dr. Rafael
Muiioz-Carpena,
UF/IFAS Inter-
national Achieve-
ment Award
winner for 2008,
is on faculty with
UF/IFAS Agricul-


February 2009





Wildlife Research in Brazil


On the Trail of

Brazil's Big Cats
Martin Main, Ph.D., Professor in the Depart-
ment of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation an
his PhD graduate student, Emiliano Ramalho,
are on the trail of Brazil's big cats, the elusive
ecologically important jaguars. With their
range shrinking in a north-south squeeze play
jaguars are caught in the middle, where human
development is fragmenting their habitat.
Those facts make the Amazon Basin critical t
the conservation of jaguars. According to
some estimates, it holds the largest population
of jaguars, contains the largest non-fragmente
stretches of habitat, and maintains connection
with other ecosystems critical to jaguars'
survival.
Jaguars function as top predators, regulating
the populations of their prey and of smaller
predators. That fact makes jaguars important
to the health of their native ecosystems. How
ever, no one knows how many jaguars still
exist. They are solitary animals and their pre
ferred habitat is dense tropical forest with ac-
cess to plenty of water. They are hard to find
and hard to count.
Populations of jaguars have been studied in
other biomes, but not in the Amazon varzea

UF/IFAS

International

Programs Office

Activity in 2008
Thle LF IFAS Inrinlitionil Pro-ranis iIP
office lhd a bus-\ \au iIn 2",s Hc.ic arie
hlidiwhls of ihc nc\\ pIojccis iiiiai d b\
or in collabout iotn \\ ill i1, IP office in
calcndar \Lar i i
*Improving incomes of smallholder
rice farmers in coastal Ecuador;
*Florida-Spain partnership to
strengthen organic agriculture re-
search and education;
*Uganda organic coffee certification
training program;
*Collaboration with Brazilian universi-
ties through the Fund for the
Improvement of Postsecondary
Education (FIPSE) program, U.S.
Department of Education;
*Vietnam Codex Office Internship to
the U.S. Codex Office on seafood
safety standards training;
*Grant to strengthen agribusiness
training in the FacultB d'Agronomie


UNIL III IIl I ICII I CI -IIII CI LI CIF )
flash, this jaguar carries a caiman,
n which is related to crocodiles.
(flooded rainforest). The jaguar's plight
o brought Main to Brazil, where he is working
with Ramalho, a CAPES/Fulbright scholar
1 and native Brazilian. Together, they are
:d working to estimate density and study the
is ecology of jaguars in the Mamirauh Sustain-
able Development Reserve in the varzea.
Ramalho has worked for several years at the
Mamiraud Reserve and is tracking the big
cats in two ways. Infrared-triggered cam-
eras are strategically placed across an area
- of some 350 km2 to estimate jaguar density.
The cameras have revealed a high density,
roughly 13 jaguars per 100 km2, with many
females and cubs, suggesting the habitat is
an important breeding ground.
Ramalho and Main also captured the first of
what they hope will eventually be eleven
jaguars. They fitted the female with a GPS

et de M6decine V6tBrinaire (FAMV)
of Haiti's National University;
*44th Annual Meeting of the Carib-
bean Food Crops Society (CFCS),
Miami Beach, July 13-17, 2008;
*Training program on Crop Growth
Simulation Models, Tegucigalpa,
Honduras, August 25-28, 2008;
*Study tour of biofuels industry in
Sao Paulo state, Brazil, June 2008,
with eight UF/IFAS faculty and five
Florida county commissioners;
*International Conference on
Research & Educational Opportuni-
ties in Bio-Fuel Crop Production,
EARTH University, Costa Rica,
November 17-19, 2008
*Scientific Cooperation Exchange
Program linking the People's
Republic of China to the Interna-
tional Distance Diagnostic and
Identification System Network.
For additional Imnfoirnjlion about thel pro-
lects lisled :;bo c ;ind :Ibout the niiu1n
Oiioingi projects jI the IP office. t Io to lche
\\%b \ Ciion of FOC LIS listed blo\\ *-'*
http://international.ifas.ufl.edu/
focus_newsletters/january2009
Contact: David Sammons,
sammons@ufl.edu


Sleeping Beauty: Dr. Main's team
captured the young jaguar above,
dubbed Elvira, which may be pregnant.
The team will track her movements
through a GPS-system collar. Left to
right: Joana Macedo, project assistant;
Martin Main, UF/IFAS faculty; Emiliano
Ramalho, Ph.D. student; and Dairen
Simpson, wildlife capture specialist.
No one knows for sure if jaguars migrate in
the flooded forests or where they go if they
do. In an effort to find out, the team is col-
lecting information on density and movement
of jaguars, their diets, and the availability of
prey for jaguars in the study area.
A UF/IFAS travel grant helped set up the
study in collaboration with Mamiraud
Reserve, which assists with funding, equip-
ment, and a "floating camp" from which
Main and Ramalho stage their research ac-
tivities. Local village trackers provide im-
portant assistance with all phases of the re-
search, including collecting jaguar "scat" so
Ramalho can determine which animals the
jaguars have consumed.
Main and Ramalho hope to gather data cru-
cial to the conservation of the jaguar, which
comes into conflict with humans outside the
Mamirauh Reserve. The main conflict is
with cattle ranchers and villagers, who often
shoot jaguars on sight. Ramalho is educating
local villagers about jaguars in efforts to
change these behaviors.
Unfortunately, human presence in the varzea
has expanded enormously, as the region is
important in the local economy and in the
economies of major cities. The increasing
human population in the region spells trouble
for the varzea's top predator. Main and Ra-
malho hope to gather information that will
give the jaguar a fighting chance. 4* Contact:
Martin Main, mmain@ufl.edu


See the full version of the IP story at: http://international.ifas.ufl.edu/focus_newsletters/february2009


collar that will record her location every 2
hours for the next year. The data will deter-
mine her range and possible migration pat-
tern as water levels change with the pulse
floods from the Amazon River.
The floods change water levels by 11 vertical
meters (-36 feet), driving the lateral move-
ment of wildlife, possibly including jaguars.


Focus





UF/IFAS Office of International Programs, University of Florida UNIVERSITY o
P.O. Box 110282 U T
Gainesville, FL 32611-0282 A L
http://international.ifas.ufl.edu/focus_newsletters
Editor
Linda Evans
Communications
Coordinator, IP Office
evanslin@ufl.edu
Executive Editor
Don Poucher
Assistant Vice President
info@ifas.ufl.edu
International
Programs Personnel
David Sammons
Director, International
Programs
sammons@ufl.edu
Walter Bowen
Associate Director,
International Programs
wbowen@ufl.edu
Florence Sergile
Faculty Coordinator,
Haiti Project
fsergile@ufl.edu
Marti Dettman-Kruse
Program Coordinator
martidk@ufl.edu
Kaye Bough
Accountant
kbough@ufl.edu
D. Allen Thames
Project Development-
Haiti
athames@ufl.edu

UF/IFAS Student Conducts Potato Economic Research in Peru


Small potato producers in Peru are receiv-
ing help in the production and marketing of
a native potato known as the yellow
Tumbay, thanks to a joint agreement be-
tween UF/IFAS and the International Po-
tato Center (Centro Intemacional de la
Papa or CIP).
UF/IFAS and CIP are jointly coordinating
a study through CIP's Program Papa
Andina ("Andean Potato") to study pro-
duction and marketing costs of the yellow
Tumbay, a variety identified as having the
greatest commercial potential of any
native potatoes in the region. The yellow
Tumbay was identified by ADERS, the
Association for Sustainable Development,
a non-profit group that works extensively
with small potato producers.
The UF/IFAS researcher on this project is
Mike Jones, an undergraduate student in
the Food and Resource Economics
Department, studying under Dr. James
Stems. Jones traveled to Huinuco and
Cayna, Peru from June 24, 2008 to July 15,
2008, collecting data for the study. Jones'
research is a cost analysis of yellow
Tumbay potato production in this region.
He is looking at both economic feasibility


and at the additional information needed
from producers to increase the accuracy of
the cost analysis, since some of the data-
such as production expenses-simply do
not currently exist due to cultural factors.
Jones conducted much of his research
during the multi-day Festival of Saint Peter,
which drew a large number of people from
the countryside, concentrating them in
Cayna's main square. The concentration of
farmers in Cayna greatly helped Jones
locate farmers meeting the parameters of
his study.
Once farmers qualifying for the study had
been identified, Jones administered a 16-
page questionnaire compiled with help from
CIP and their consulting associates. Inter-
viewing farmers from dawn to well past
darkness, he asked producers about a wide
variety of economic factors such as cost of
soil preparation methods, seed type and
cost, chemical input costs, labor costs, etc.
A surprising number of producers did not
know their production costs nor did they
see the significance of knowing them. They
buy; they sell; but they do not track
expenses: that's just the way it's always
been done. Some of the information could


Mike Jones, UF/IFAS undergraduate
student, conducts native potato
economic research in Peru, where
farming is largely done on steep
slopes, like the ones behind him.
be reconstructed, which helped Jones' task.
Much of the labor is done by hand, partly
due to the steep terrain. The terrain, small
farm sizes, and lack of credit make the pur-
chase of a tractor impractical and far too
expensive to justify the cost. So manual
labor is the norm, much of it unpaid family
labor. Access to credit is extremely limited
outside membership in cooperative organi-
zations such as ECOMUSA, the Empresa
Comunal de Servicios Agropecuarios. For
more on Jones' project, visit the website
listed below!.:. CONTACT: Mike Jones,
mikeiones2010(amail.com~(ufl.edu


4 Visit the web for full version of Mike Jones'article-and many others! http://internationaLifas.ufl.edu/focus_newsletters FOCUS




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