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Remarks from Dale Canelas, Director
University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries
It is with great pleasure that we host Salalm's 50th annual conference. I personally am delighted to have
you here for this historic meeting. Salalm's role in enhancing scholarship in Latin American Studies is
The University of Florida has had the distinct honor of hosting Salalm on two other occasions. Your
initial 1956 meeting (held in nearby Brooksville) created momentum that has literally launched thousands
of successful ideas and projects. UF's 1977 Salalm meeting carried on that tradition, with the theme of the
multifaceted role of the Latin American subject specialist.
Campus leaders here have been energized by the possibilities of Salalm@50. We worked through many
ideas and concepts to make your third visit here a great success.
This exhibit draws from the exceptional Caribbean rare books and manuscripts held in the Special & Area
Studies Collections Department of the UF Libraries. It attempts to highlight the range of cultures and
themes that make up the Caribbean Basin and its life over the past 500 years.
Many thanks to Jeffrey Barr, James Cusick, and Carl Van Ness for their leadership on creating this exhibit.
I also want to acknowledge John Ingram and Robert Shaddy as well, as they deserve special mention for
their vision in shaping our Special & Area Studies Collections Department into the dynamic and exciting
endeavor it has become over recent years!
Caribbean Collections in Special Collections
April 15 June 30, 2005
The Exhibit Gallery
Second Floor Smathers Library
George A. Smathers Libraries
University of Florida
Source material at the
University of Florida
L..JANIZATION OF AMERICAN ST,. S
UOTllA Pict fulh t 5cmi ,
PAN AMERICAN UNION
Wanhiaton 6 ., S. A.
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June 22, 195
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G0035 ax PD=FX NEW YORK NY APRIL 30 1956 1037AME .
=STANLEY WEST DIRECTOR OF LIBRARIES .
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA SGINESVILLE FL,. ;.
-- .. ---
=PLEASE REGISTER ME FBR THE SEMINAR ON LATIN AMERICAN MATERIALS TO
BE HELD JUNE 14-15 PLEASE CONFIRM=
M1SS ERTRUDE SCHUTZE MANAGER INFOIRATION DEPT
GRACE 'CHEMICAL RESEARCd AND DEVELOPMENT CO=_
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Aug t 15, 1955
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Seminar on the Acqu
of Latin American Libtr
A perusal of the files of Off
the Director of the LI F Get
Smathers Libi ii es is agrea
ration for anyone in search
ground on Salalm's earliest
and the initial meeting of 11
There are a number of fasci
ing letters and exchanges be
major Salalm pioneer s and
Library Directoi, Stanleyv A
Names of the coiiesponden
ring familial to those with a
knowledge of Salalm's histc
There are nuimellts notes a
messages from Mai ietta Da
Sheppard, one of which h \va
ten in August 155 that anr
that the Pan A.mei ican Unii
agree to cosponsoli the meel
A March 1956 letter fhomn 1
Lee Benson of the Umnversi
Texas carried the statement
ing forward to 1ll meeting
a great deal of inteiest" a,
agreed to speak on miclofil:
Latin Amercan ne\ paper:
Another letter of note is fro
Robert Vospei, Dliectol of
Libraries of the Uiniersity i
sas. Vosper calls the possibi
the 1956 meeting \ei y useri
fruitful, predicting a large ii
Today, 50 yeals lately, w\e in
can certainly loo1k back and
pride in the acco:mplishmer
our organization At the sal
we should patise and reflect
the leadership and v itility c
with the vision to jl:n toget
identify problems and need:
to work together to solve th
lenges of building Latin An
University of F I:1l ida
The War for Cuban Independence
The War for Cuban Independence, 1895-1898:
Spain, Cuba, and the United States
"Anyone who had not seen the war coming
must have been blind."
Severo Nufiez G6mez, Captain of Artillery, 1899
Text and Image Selection by James Cusick
The second war for Cuban independence began on
February 24, 1895, with an uprising in Baire, and
ended on December 10, 1898, with the Treaty of
Paris between the United States and Spain (officially
promulgated April 11, 1899). Most of the conflict was
a long guerilla campaign waged by Cuban insurrectos
against Spanish troops and garrisons between 1895 and
1897. Throughout those years, an island colony of 1.6
million people successfully carried out a war against a
mother country with almost ten times its population.
However, the entrance of the United States into the war
in 1898 dramatically changed the situation.
Although the American government initially supported
Spanish sovereignty on Cuba, Spain's inability to
restore order worried the administrations of Grover
Cleveland and William McKinley. Throughout 1897,
American newspapers advocated supplanting Spain
and suppressing the Cuban Revolution directly. The
"Spanish-American War" commenced when an
explosion destroyed the U.S.S. Maine in Havana's
harbor on February 15, 1898. The cause of the
explosion remains unknown even to the present day.
However, it resulted in an American declaration of
war against Spain, and a quick naval war against the
Spanish possessions of Puerto Rico, the Philippines,
and Cuba. The first two were soon American
territories, while Cuba achieved its independence
only at the cost of having the United States impose its
version of a republic on the island.
The leaders of the Cuban
war for independence -
La Illustraci6n Espafiola y
8 marzo 1895, No. IX,
Jos& Marti was the spirit
of the revolution. Though
he died in the opening
days of the war, it was his
work and his voice in the
United States and Cuba that laid the groundwork for
the concept of a Cuban republic.
General Maximo G6mez, veteran of the first war for
independence, was the military tactician. He adopted
a scorched earth policy, arguing that the guerilla war
in Cuba could only succeed by making conditions too
chaotic and too expensive for Spain to afford. "Blessed
be the torch" was his motto.
Antonio Maceo, the "Bronze Titan," was the
insurgents' major field commander, known for his
lightning strikes and ambushes against Spanish forces.
Spanish attempts to isolate the insurgents by dividing
Cuba into sections defended by trochas, or defensive
lines, utterly failed to stop Maceo's forces. He broke
through one line after another, hitting weak points,
and using woods and swamps to cover his troops until
they were ready to strike. Maceo died late in 1896, shot
down near Havana.
Blockhouses like the one shown here occurred
throughout Cuba. They were part of the trochas,
or defensive lines, that the Spanish military tried
to maintain to impede the movement of insurgents
between provinces. From the photographic collections
of the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History.
Destruction of railway lines in Cuba.
La Illustraci6n Espafiola y Americana, Madrid, 15 enero
1896, No. II, p. 36.
Part of Maximo G6mez's strategy to win independence
was to destroy the infrastructure of Cuba's wealth. He
targeted sugar plantations and lines of communication
(telegraphs and railways). By this means, he argued,
Spain would lose revenue and wealthy Cubans would
lose their prosperity. Ultimately, he felt this would
force them into negotiations for peace on the
The U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor prior to the
La Illustraci6n Espafola y Americana, 30 enero 1898, No.
IV, p. 56.
The fortress of El Morro looms above the entrance
to the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. From the
photographic collections of the P.K. Yonge Library of
Seen here from its sister fortification of Socapa, El
Morro occupied the eastern bluff over the harbor
entrance, about 65 meters above water level. The
crucial naval conflict between Spain and the United
States took place for possession of this strategic
point. A Spanish fleet reached Santiago on May 18,
1898. Many of the ships arrived poorly provisioned
and nearly out of fuel. By June, an opposing U.S.
squadron had blockaded the harbor bottling up Spanish
naval forces inside (see diagram of harbor). Some
10,000 soldiers and 30,000 inhabitants were trapped
at Santiago with few sources of food. Insurrectos cut
off the town by land, although cooperation between
Cubans and Americans diminished as American
military officers tried to brush the insurgents aside.
When Admiral Pascual Cervera tried to break free of
the harbor on July 3, 1898, his squadron was destroyed.
Shortly afterward, Spanish troops throughout the island
surrendered. Part of the surrender agreement was that
the United States would provide Spain's troops with
safe passage back to Europe. The loss of the fleet at
Santiago meant Spain had no means to defend Cuba
and Puerto Rico against American naval power. It also
aided American war aims in the Philippines by forcing
a redeployment of Spain's remaining navy.
Diagram of the layout of the harbor of Santiago.
Showing its narrow entrance channel, guarded by El
Morro (No. 12) and Socapa (No. 14), and the location
of the Spanish squadron inside (No. 3). From La
Illustracidn Espanfola y Americana, Madrid, 30 mayo
1898, No. XV, p. 312.
Bueno Carrera, Jos& Maria. ElEjercito Espafiol en
Cuba (1895-98), Uniformes Militares Espafioles. Grunoel
Ediciones, Malaga, Espafia, 2002.
Foner, Philip S. The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the
Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1902. Volume 1: 1895-
1902. Monthly Review Press, New York and London,
G6mez, Severo Nufiez (Capt. Of Artillery). The
Spanish-American War, Blockades and Coast Defense.
Translated from the Spanish. (Office of Naval
Intelligence, War Notes No. VI, Information from
Abroad; Government Printing Office, Washington,
Trask, David F. The War with Spain in 1898. Macmillan
Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1981.
Wilson, H.W The Downfall of Spain, Naval History of the
Spanish-American War Little Brown, and Co., Boston, 1900.
Caribbean manuscript collections
The manuscript collections of the George A.
Smathers Libraries reflect the libraries' commitment
to preserve and interpret the history of the Caribbean.
Cuba and Haiti figure prominently in the Libraries'
holdings and include some of those nations' most
important historical collections. This exhibit features
materials from the Braga Brothers Collection and the
Rochambeau Collection, two of the Libraries' most
The Braga Brothers Collection
and the Central Manati
The Braga Brothers Collection is one of the richest
archival sources on the modernization and expansion
of the Cuban sugar industry in the century preceding
the rise to power of Fidel Castro. The collection focuses
on the business of the Czarnikow-Rionda Company,
the world's largest importer of Cuban sugar in the early
part of the 20th century. In 1961, when the company's
Cuban assets were seized, Czarnikow-Rionda managed
four sugar companies that operated six mills or centrales.
The largest of the mills was the Central Manati.
The Manati Sugar Company was incorporated in
New York on April 30, 1912. The Central Manati was
located in the northwest corner of Oriente Province, but
the company's vast land holdings-over 200,000 acres-
extended into Camagiiey Province. Of those 200,000
acres, only 30,000 were in cane cultivation. In the 1950s,
portions of the unused lands were sold to a joint venture
undertaken by Manati and King Ranch of Texas.
The two companies formed the Compafiia Ganadera
Becerra, which owned 40,000 acres of land and over
7,500 head of cattle. The Manati Sugar Company also
operated its own railroad and port facilities.
The materials chosen for this exhibit focus on the
Caribbean sugar worker. A Cuban sugar mill employed
thousands of seasonal workers who labored at the
mill and in the cane fields. Cane cutters were brought
from Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and
other Caribbean islands. Among the exhibited items
are photographs of the mill and cane fields, handbills
advertising jobs for cane cutters and cart drivers, and a
map of the mill batey. The word batey refers to the sugar
mill complex that included the mill itself, warehouses,
rail yards, and the factory town. The living area included
worker houses and barracks, schools, churches, an
infirmary, and the company store or tienda.
The Rochambeau Collection
The Rochambeau Collection chronicles France's great
expedition in 1802 to suppress the Haitian Revolution
and to resist British encroachment on Saint Dominigue.
Donatien Marie Joseph Rochambeau was sent on the
expedition as second in command, but took command
early in the fight when the expedition's leader died of
yellow fever. The bulk of the collection was purchased
at auction from Sotheby's in 1958. The provenance
of the collection was unknown to Sotheby. Other
documents related to Saint Dominigue were acquired
from individual dealers after 1958 and a calendar for
the collection was compiled in 1972.
The items chosen for this exhibit are two military maps
drawn by French engineers.
Text and Image Selection by Carl Van Ness
Bordone, Benedetto, d. 1539.
Isolario di Benedetto Bordone nel qual si ragiona
di tutte l'isole del mondo, con li lor nomi antichi &
modern, historic, fauole, & modi del loro viuere, &
in qual parte del mare stanno, & in qual parallel
& clima giaciono. Con la gionta del Monte del Oro
nouamente ritrouato. Con il breve del papa et gratia
& priuilegio della illustrissima Signoria di Venetia
come in quelli appare.
[Vinegia : Nicolo d'Aristotile, detto Zoppino],
10 p.l., lxxiiii numb. 1. : ill., maps ; 30 cm.
Title in red and black within woodcut ornamental
First published, Venice, 1528, under title: Libro di
Benedetto Bordone. Nel qual si ragiona de tutte l'isole
del mondo ...
Benedetto Bordone, born in Padua, was trained in book
illustration and woodcuts. This book is divided into
three parts prefaced by an introduction to mathematics
and geography. The first part relates to the islands of
America and northern and western Europe, the second
the islands of the Mediterranean, and the third those
of Asia, including the first representation of Japan in
a European publication. It also contains a map of the
world in oval form and a city plan of "Temistitan,"
present day Mexico City, before its destruction by
Cortes. The text describes the people, climates, history
of the islands, and other information resulting from
the navigational discoveries of European expansion.
The first printed record of Pizarro's conquest of Peru
appears in the text.
Chanvalon, Jean Baptiste Thibault de, ca. 1725-1785.
Voyage a la Martinique, contenant diverse
observations sur la physique, I'histoire naturelle,
I'agriculture les moeurs, & les usages de cette isle, faites
en 1751 & dans les annees suivantes. Lu a l'Academie
royale des sciences de Paris en 1761.
Paris : J. B. Bauche, 1763.
4 p.l., viii, 192 (i.e. 238),  p. : fold. maps; 27 cm.
This copy is extra-illustrated (leaves added by a
previous owner that were not issued as part of
the book) with engravings and a manuscript copy
letter from Joseph Gaspard Tascher de Lapagerie,
father of the Empress Josephine, who was born on
Jean Baptiste Thibault de Chanvalon was involved
in the Kourou disaster that began in the same year
this book was published. France had just lost its
Canadian holdings to the British and was determined
to strengthen its last remaining large colony in the
Americas, French Guiana. An ambitious plan was
developed to bring European settlers to an area on
the Kourou River just north of the capital Cayenne.
The hope was that perhaps 2,000 colonists could be
recruited. The response was overwhelming, with over
13,000 responding from all over Europe. They arrived
in the rainy season when no construction could take
place and nothing had been prepared. Within months,
9,000 had died and over the next two years 2,000
returned to France. Chanvalon, while having little to
do with it, was one of the major figures blamed for the
disaster. The king later exonerated him in 1781.
Bellin, Jacques Nicolas, 1703-1772.
Description des debouquements qui sont au nord de
l'isle de Saint Domingue ...
Paris : Imprimerie de Didot, 1768.
5 p. 1., 152 p. : xxxiv charts (part fold.) ; 26 cm.
Added engraved title page: Description geographique
des d6bouquemens qui sont au nord de l'isle de Saint
Domingue; avec des cartes et des plans des isles qui
forment ces passages, et des dangers qui s'y trouvent.
Pour le service des vaisseaux du roi. Par ordre de M.
le duc de Praslin, ministry et secr&taire d'Etat, ayant le
Departement de la marine. Par N. Bellin, ing&nieur de
la marine ... MDCCLXVIII.
Also known as Jacques Nicolas Bellin de Trigand,
Bellin worked for the Depot des Cartes et Plans de la
Marine for over fifty years. In 1741 he was appointed
ingenieur hydrographe de la Marine. Later, Bellin
became hidrographe du roy and a member of the Royal
Society in London. Extremely prolific, he produced
hundreds of maps and numerous atlases, including the
Neptune francais, Hydrographicfrancaise, and the Petit atlas
maritime, which was specially devoted to the coasts of
North and South America. He also contributed the
maps to l'Abb& Prevost's Histoire general des voyages.
Kraus in 1952 has Frances Jane Monckton written on
an endpaper and the Hunt copy has Elizabeth Mary
Monckton. This copy has Frances Jane Monckton.
The Kraus description of the binding and the signature
indicate it could possibly be the Kraus copy, but it was
acquired in 1955 with no indication of provenance.
Wakefield, D. R.
Resistance is useless : portraits of slaves from the
British West Indies.
Goole, East Yorkshire : Chevington Press, 2004.
1 v. : col. ill., ports. ; 41 cm.
Edition limited to 50 copies. This is copy no. 18.
"The text and etchings are the work of D.R. Wakefield
... All the printing was done by the artist at his press ...
The paper covers were designed and screenprinted by
the artist. The binding of the book was achieved with
the help of Stephen Ingram and David Robinson of
A collection of exotics from the Island of Antigua /
by a lady.
[London, White, 1799]
 leaves,  leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 47 cm.
This is an extremely rare botanical work on the
Americas, with less than ten copies known to exist.
The attribution of the work to Lydia Byam comes
from a letter laid-in the Hunt Botanical Library
copy identifying her as the older sister of William
Gunthorpe, governor of Antigua, which also has
the initials "LB" handwritten at the bottom of the
dedication. Two other copies are bound with A collection
of fruits from the West indies, drawn and colored from nature
in which the dedication is signed "Lydia Byam." The
imprint comes from a review in the Monthly review, n.
s., v. 30, p. 333, November, 1799. This may be faulty as
the Collection of fruits, printed in a similar matter, does
have an imprint being the Oriental Press of Wilson
& Co. The dedicate, Viscountess Galway, was Jane
Westenra Monckton. A copy offered for sale by H.P
Paseo pintoresco por la isla de Cuba : obra artistic
y literaria, en que se pintan y described los edificios,
los monumentos, los campos y las costumbres de este
privilegiado suelo : publicada por los empresarios de
la litografia del Gobierno y Capitania General.
Habana : Imprenta de Soler y Comp., 1841-1842.
2 v. : col. ill. ; 15 x 29 cm.
Alternate titless: Paseo por la isla de Cuba
Vistas de Habana
Volume 1 contains the descriptive text for the 24 plate
illustrations of v. 2. The text was written by Antonio
Bachiller, T. Sandalio de Noda, Manuel Costales,
Ildefonso Vivanco, Cirilo Villaverde, and L. A. de
This is a fine example of the quality of hand-colored
lithograph books produced in Cuba in the middle of
the 19th century. The illustrations are by Fernando de
la Costa y Prades and Laureano Cuevas.
Parra, Antonio (Parra y Callado)
Descripcion de diferentes piezas de historic natural las
mas del ramo maritime : representadas en setenta y
cinco laminas / su autor don Antonio Parra.
En La Havana : En la Imprenta de la Capitania
, 4, 195,  p., , 73 leaves of plates ( folded):
75 ill. ; 21 cm.
Purchased in memory of Rosa Quintero Mesa, Latin
American Librarian at the University of Florida 1961-
Antonio Parra y Callado was born in Portugal in
1739 and went to Cuba in 1771 on a commission
from the Botanical Garden in Madrid. Materials he
collected went to the newly created Royal Cabinet of
Natural History. He remained in Cuba for 30 years
and established the Cabinet of Natural History, the
first such collection in Cuba. This title was the first
illustrated book printed in Cuba. The engravings were
done by Parra's son, Manuel Parra y Mufioz.
l ,-,/' ,:'z7
Marti, Jose, 1853-1895.
New York : Louis Weiss, 1891.
78 p.; 18 cm.
Inscribed to Carmen Mantilla by Marti: "A Carmita,
para que nunca de una pena. Su amigo calvo, Jose
Marti. NY, Oct. 91"
Donated from the estate of Cesar Romero by his
brother Eduardo Romero, grandchildren of Carmen
La revista del Vigia.
Matanzas [Cuba] : Ediciones Vigia, [1990-
Ano 1, no. 1 (enero-abr. 1990)-
"Esgrafiada iluminada a mano."
Each no. issued in a limited ed. of 200 copies; all issues
are handmade and reproduced on recycled paper and
include a variety of materials: cloth, string, pieces of
wood veneer, coarse white and brown paper; includes
movable and removable parts, and constructions.
Ediciones Vigia was founded in April 1985 in the city
of Matanzas, Cuba.
Text and Image Selection by Jeffrey Barr
George A. Smathers Libraries