• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Family percidae
 Family ichthelidae
 Family sparidae
 Genus sargus
 Family scombridae
 Family squamipinnidae
 Genus ephippus
 Family sclaenidae
 Family elopidae
 Genus elops
 Family scopelinidae
 Family esocidae
 Genus esox






Group Title: Icthyology of South Carolina. Vol. I.
Title: Icthyology of South Carolina
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076623/00001
 Material Information
Title: Icthyology of South Carolina
Physical Description: viii, 205 p. : xxviii col. pl. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Holbrook, John Edwards, 1794-1871
Publisher: Russell & Jones
Place of Publication: Charleston S. C
Publication Date: 1860
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076623
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001849034
notis - AJS3349

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Family percidae
        Page 1
        Family percide E.
            Page 1
        Genus perca
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
    Family ichthelidae
        Page 6
        Genus pomotis
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 8a
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Genus ichthelis
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 16a
        Genus centrarchus
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Genus labrax
            Page 20
            Page 20a
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Genus grystes
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 28a
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Genus serranus
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Genus diplectrum
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 36a
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Genus pomoxis
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Genus rhypticus
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 44a
        Genus centropristes
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 52a
    Family sparidae
        Page 53
    Genus sargus
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Genus lagodon
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 60a
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Family scombridae
        Page 63
        Genus temnodon
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Genus cybium
            Page 68
            Page 68a
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Genus seriola
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 76a
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 80a
            Page 81
        Genus bothrolaemus
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
        Genus caranx
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 92a
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 96a
        Genus elacate
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
        Genus echeneis
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 104a
            Page 105
    Family squamipinnidae
        Page 106
    Genus ephippus
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112a
    Family sclaenidae
        Page 113
        Genus pogonias
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 116a
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
        Genus haemulon
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 124a
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
        Genus otolithus
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 132a
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 136a
        Genus umbrina
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 144a
            Page 145
        Genus micropogon
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
        Genus corvina
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 152a
            Page 153
        Genus larimus
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 156a
        Genus pristipoma
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
        Genus leiostomus
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
        Genus homoprion
            Page 164
            Page 164a
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
        Genus lobotes
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 172a
            Page 173
        Genus pagrus
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 176a
            Page 177
            Page 178
    Family elopidae
        Page 179
    Genus elops
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Family scopelinidae
        Page 185
        Genus saurus
            Page 186
            Page 186a
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
        Genus trachinotus
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 196a
    Family esocidae
        Page 197
    Genus esox
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 200a
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
Full Text









ICHTHYOLOGY




OF


DUPLICATE
B16IOSED OF BY THE
BI9AM4" OF COMPAIlATIVE ZOOLOGr


SOUTH C AROLINA.







BY JOHN EDWARDS HOLBROOK, M. D.,

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA ; MEMBER
OF THE ROYAL MEDICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH ; OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NORTHERN
ANTIQUARIES, COPENHAGEN; OF THE SOCIETY OF NATURFORSCHENDE FREUNDE, BERLIN;
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; OF THE
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES ; OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA ; OF THE NEW YORK LYCEUM OF NATURAL
HISTORY; AND OF THE BOSTON NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY.








VOL. I.








CHARLESTON, S. C.:
PUBLISHED BY RUSSELL AND JONES.
1860.





S/






CIRCULATION






























































University Press, Cambridge:
Printed by Welch, Bigelow, and Company.




















PREFACE.


THE great delay in the publication of the Ichthyology of South Carolina
has been caused by the destruction of all the plates, stones, and original
drawings, in the burning of the "Artists' Buildings," in Philadelphia, several
years since.
This made it necessary to have new drawings made of all the different fishes,
which has been done at great expense; so great, indeed, that the work could
not have been carried on without the aid of the State, which has been freely
given. The new drawings are from nature, and have been made by the best
artists, -as A. J. Ibbotson and A. Sonrel. The colour of the fish has been,
in almost every instance, taken from living specimens, by J. Burkhardt, an
artist of great merit.
The delay in the publication of the work has, however, enabled me to give
more accurate and highly finished plates, and to correct some errors in the
letter-press.
As but few numbers of the work were distributed previous to the destruction
of the original plates, &c., and the present edition is so much improved, I
have decided to recall the former numbers, and to replace them by those of
the new edition, without expense to the present holders.


/1 ,003











iv PREFACE.


Subscribers in Massachusetts having numbers of the first edition, will please

return them to Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, from whom they will

receive numbers of the new edition. Subscribers in Pennsylvania will return

their numbers to John Penington and Son, Philadelphia; and all others hold-

ing copies, to Russell and Jones, Charleston, South Carolina.


JOHN EDWARDS HOLBROOK.
Medical College of the State of South Carolina,
July 1, 1860.

























CONTENTS.


PAGE
1
1
2

6


FAMILY PERCIDE .
GENUS PEA .
Perca flavescens

FAMILY ICHTHELIDE .
GENUS POOTIS .
Pomotis vulgaris
GENUS ICHTHELIS
Ichthelis incisor .
Ichthelis rubricauda
GENUS CENTRARCHUS .
Centrarchus irideus
GENUS LABRAX
Labrax Americanus
Labrax lineatus .
GENUS GRYSTES
Grystes salmoides
GENUS SERRANUS
Serranus erythrogaster
GENUS DIPLECTRUM
Diplectrum fasciculare
GENUS PoMoxIS
Pomoxis hexacanthus
GENUS RHYPTICUS
Rhypticus maculatus.
GENUS CENTROPRISTES .
Centropristes atrarius
Centropristes trifurca


28
31
32
35
35
S39
39
S 42
'42
45
45













CONTENTS.


FAMILY SPARID.E
GENUS SARGUS
Sargus ovis .
GENUS LAGOON
Lagodon rhomboides

FAMILY SCOMBRIDLE
GENUS TEMNODON
Temnodon saltator .
GENUS CYBIUM
Cybium maculatum
GENUS SEIOLA .
Seriola Carolinensis
Seriola zonata .
Seriola Chloris
GENUS BOTHROLSEMUS
Bothrolmmus pampanus
GENUS CARANX .
Caranx defensor
Caranx hippos .
Caranx falcatus
Caranx Richardi
GENUS ELACATE
Elacate Canada.
GENUS ECHENEIS
Echeneis vittata.

FAMILY SQUAMIPINNIDIE
GENUS EPiHIPPUS
Ephippus gigas
Ephippus faber

FAMILY SCIANID2E .
GENUS POGONIAS
Pogonias cromis
Pogonias fasciatus
GENUS HMULON .
Hoemulon chrysopteron
Haemulon arcuatum
GENUS OTOLITHUS
Otolithus regalis


53
53
54
S59
S 59

S63
64
S64
68
S68

S. 72
72
75
79
S 82
S83
86
S87
90
94
96
97
97
S102
102

106
106
107
110

S113
114
S114
119
121
121
124
128
129














CONTENTS.


Otolithus thalassinus
Otolithus nothus
Otolithus Carolinensis
GENUS UMBRINA .
Umbrina alburnus
Umbrina littoralis .
GENUS MICROPOGON .
Micropogon undulatus
GENUS CORVINA
Corvina ocellata
GENUS LAIMBUS
Larimus fasciatus
GENUS PRISTIPOMA. .
Pristipoma fulvo-maculatum
GENUS LEIOSTOMIUS
Leiostomus obliquus
GENUS HOMOPRION
Homoprion xanthurus
Iomoprion lanceolatus
GENUS LOBOTES
Lobotes Surinamensis
GENUS PAGRUS
Pagrus argyrops
Serranus nigritus

FAMILY ELOPID-JE
GENUS ELOPS
Elops saurus

FAMILY SCOPELINIDIE .
GENUS SAURUS .
Saurus fcetens
GENUS TRACHINOTUS
Trachinotus glaucus
H-Imulon quadrilineatum

FAMILY ESOCIDE .
GENUS Esox
Esox affinis
Esox Ravenelii.


S133
134
136
137
137
S144
146
146
150
S150
154
S154
. 157
157
160
S160
164
164
167
S169
169
174
S174
S177

179
179
180

185
186
S187
192
192
195

197
197
.198
201














ICHTHYOLOGY

OF


SOUTH CAROLINA.




F A M I L Y P E R C I D E. Cuvier, Richardson.

CHARACTERS. Body oblong, more or less compressed, and covered with ctenoid,
adherent scales, generally hard, with their exposed surfaces roughened, and their
free posterior margin ciliated or serrated; opercular bones serrated or spinous;
cheeks not cuirassed; no barbels at the chin; superior margin of the mouth
formed by the intermaxillaries; teeth on the intermaxillaries, the inferior maxil-
lary, vomer, palate, and pharyngeal bones; dorsal fin single or double, anterior
part spinous; ventral fins thoracic, with five articulated rays; stomach coecal,
with its pyloric orifice lateral; pancreatic appendages small, and few in number;
intestinal canal but slightly folded; branchiostegal rays, seven.

REMARKS. Sir John Richardson, one of the best ichthyologists of our day, has
restricted the family Percidse of Cuvier and Valenciennes within the limits above
mentioned; and that arrangement has been followed in this work.


GENUS PERCA.-Lin., Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Body elongated, sub-compressed; intermaxillary, inferior maxil-
lary, vomerine, palatine, and pharyngeal teeth villiform, equal; tongue smooth;
internal surface of the branchial arches armed with minute teeth; two dorsal
fins, distinct, separated, anterior spinous; free margin of the pre-opercle serrated;
opercle ends in a flattened point; branchiostegal rays, seven.














ICHTHYOLOGY

OF


SOUTH CAROLINA.




F A M I L Y P E R C I D E. Cuvier, Richardson.

CHARACTERS. Body oblong, more or less compressed, and covered with ctenoid,
adherent scales, generally hard, with their exposed surfaces roughened, and their
free posterior margin ciliated or serrated; opercular bones serrated or spinous;
cheeks not cuirassed; no barbels at the chin; superior margin of the mouth
formed by the intermaxillaries; teeth on the intermaxillaries, the inferior maxil-
lary, vomer, palate, and pharyngeal bones; dorsal fin single or double, anterior
part spinous; ventral fins thoracic, with five articulated rays; stomach coecal,
with its pyloric orifice lateral; pancreatic appendages small, and few in number;
intestinal canal but slightly folded; branchiostegal rays, seven.

REMARKS. Sir John Richardson, one of the best ichthyologists of our day, has
restricted the family Percidse of Cuvier and Valenciennes within the limits above
mentioned; and that arrangement has been followed in this work.


GENUS PERCA.-Lin., Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Body elongated, sub-compressed; intermaxillary, inferior maxil-
lary, vomerine, palatine, and pharyngeal teeth villiform, equal; tongue smooth;
internal surface of the branchial arches armed with minute teeth; two dorsal
fins, distinct, separated, anterior spinous; free margin of the pre-opercle serrated;
opercle ends in a flattened point; branchiostegal rays, seven.












PERCA FLAVESCENS.


SPERCA FLAVESCENS. Mitchill.

Plate I. Fig. 1.


SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body above dusky, tinted greenish-yellow, sides golden;
belly white; six or eight dark vertical bands descend from the back, and disappear
at the belly; central and anal fins orange-colour; tongue smooth. D. 13- 1-13.
P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 2- 8. C. 17.


SYNONYMES. Morone flavescens, Mi1tch., Report in part, &c.
Bodianus flavescens, Mitch., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 421.
Perca flavescens, Ctv., Reg. An., tom. ii. p. 133.
Perca flavescens, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 46.
Perca acuta, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 49, pl. 10.
Perca granulata, Cuw. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 48, pl. 9.
Perca serrato-granulata, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 47.
Perca gracilis, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tor. ii. p. 50.
Perca flavescens, Rich., Faun. Boreal. Am., iii. p. 1, p1. 74.
Perca acuta, Ricl., Faun. Boreal. Am., iii. p. 4.
Perca gracilis, Rich., Faun. Boreal. Am., iii. p. 4.
Perca flavescens, Storer, Report, &c., p. 5.
Perca flavescens, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part iii. p. 3, pi. 1, fig. 1.
Perca granulata, DeKay, Zoil. N. Y., part iii. p. 5, pl. 68, fig. 220.
Perca serrato-granulata, D KC.. Zo6l. N. Y., part iii. p. 5, pi. 22, fig. 64.
Perca acuta, DeKay, Zool. N. Y., part iii. p. 6, pi. 68, fig. 222.
Perca gracilis, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part iii. p. 6.
Bodianus flavescens, Kirt., Rep. Zool. Ohio, pp. 168 190.
Perca flavescens, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 250.
Perca flavescens, Kirt., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. v. p. 337, pl. 27, fig. 2.
Perca flavescens, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 269.
Perca flavescens, Storer, Synops., p. 17.
Perca flavescens, Agassiz, Lake Superior, &c., p. 291.
Perca flavescens, Storer, Meem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 53, pl. 1, fig. 1.
Red-finned Perch, Vulgo.


DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish is elongated, moderately compressed, with
the dorsal outline arched, somewhat gibbous in front of the dorsal fin, and the











PERCA FLAVESCENS.


ventral outline nearly straight. The head is large, sub-depressed above, or so
flattened -as to make the facial outline slightly concave; and the snout is full and
rounded. The anterior nostril, which is the smaller of the two, is round, and
placed midway between the eye and snout; the posterior is oval, and both are on
a line within the orbit. The eye is very large, and is longest in the horizontal
direction; its posterior margin is equidistant between the angle of the opercle
and the snout, and its inferior margin is about the median plane of the head;
the lower jaw, though apparently longer than the upper when the mouth is open,
is in fact shorter, and received within it when the mouth is shut.

The mouth is large, though the posterior margin of the upper jaw scarcely ex-
tends beyond the orbit; the upper jaw, the margin of which is made up entirely
of the intermaxillary bones, is armed with a large band of rough, villiform, equal
teeth, and the inferior maxillary with a narrower band of similar teeth; there
is a narrow chevron-like group on the anterior extremity of the vomer, a more
slender band on each palatine, and there are a few minute teeth on the transverse
bones, where they join the vomer; the internal faces of the branchial arches are
furnished with rows of minute teeth, and the pharyngeal bones are armed in 'a
similar manner; the tongue is thin, rounded in front, smooth, and tolerably free.

The pre-opercle is rounded at its angle, and is serrated in nearly its whole free
margin, both behind and below, where the serratures are largest and directed
forward; it is naked or uncovered with scales. The opercle is sub-triangular,
pointed and spinous behind, with its upper side rounded; it is naked or without
scales on its lower half, which is marked with radiating strike more or less distinct.
The sub-opercle is sub-triangular in form, with its apex behind, and its inferior
border rounded and serrated, and is covered with scales. The inter-opercle is
broad, and rounded below. The head above in front of the eye is smooth; the
cheeks are covered with scales.

The dorsal fin is double, or is so deeply cleft as to appear so, the connecting
membrane between the two portions being so slightly elevated. The anterior is
long, and is equal in elevation to more than half the height of the body; it











PERCA FLAVESCENS.


begins just behind the opercle, and has thirteen spines, partially received in a
groove when the fin is closed; of these spines, the first is short, and the third,
fourth, fifth, and sixth are longest. The second or posterior dorsal is shorter and
less elevated than the anterior; it arises rather in front of the anus, and has two
spines, the anterior very short, and fifteen articulated rays. The pectoral begins
nearly in a line vertical with the spine of the opercle, and extends to the root of
the ninth dorsal spine; it is broad, rounded behind, and has fifteen rays. The
ventral arises near the anterior fourth of the pectoral, and extends one fourth of
its length behind it; it has one long spine and five jointed rays. The anal begins
in a line with the root of the sixth dorsal soft ray, and terminates with the dorsal
fin behind; it has two spines and nine branched rays. The caudal fin is large,
sub-crescentic, with its horns broad and rounded; it has seventeen rays, and is
covered with a few scales both above and below. The scales are small, very ad-
herent, unguiform, rounded and ciliated behind, serrated in front, and marked
with seven radiating lines. The lateral line begins near the supra-scapular, and
runs along the superior fourth of the body, and parallel with the dorsal out-
line as far as the middle of the second dorsal fin, when it descends to the
median plane, and thus is continued to the base of the tail; the duct of the
scale is nearly in its middle.

COLOUR. The back above is more or less dusky, and tinted with greenish-
yellow; the sides are golden-yellow, and the belly of a paler tint; six or eight
vertical dusky bars descend from the back on the sides, but they disappear at
the belly; the membrane of the anterior dorsal fin is transparent, more or less
clouded, and has a dark spot near its posterior extremity; the pectoral is trans-
parent; the rays of the ventral are orange-colour, but the membrane is trans-
parent; the anal is orange.

DIMENsIONs. The length, from the opercle to the tip of the caudal fin, is equal
to three heads and a half; the greatest elevation without the dorsal fin, to one
head; total length, from ten to twelve inches.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The peritoneum is thin and of a silvery colour. The stomach is very large, and
when distended with food it fills nearly the whole cavity of the abdomen; its walls are thin. The











PERCA FLAVESCENS.


pyloric branch is exceedingly small and short, though it has thick walls; it leaves the stomach
near its middle. The small intestine is larger and more capacious than the pyloric branch of
the stomach; it runs first towards the vent, is then reflected to the pylorus, whence it returns to
end in the rectum, which is long, slender, and has a very prominent valve; there are three
large, short coecal appendages. The liver is small, and seems but a single mass, as there are
no marks of separation into lobes. The spleen is short, flattened, narrow, and of a very dark colour.
The air-bladder is large, and extends the whole length of the abdominal cavity; it is of a conical
shape, broad in front, and pointed behind, with a beautiful vascular ganglion on its inferior surface
within. The ovaries are large, and united closely together behind. The kidneys are large, but
the urinary bladder is small.

HABITS. The Perch is a voracious animal, although its teeth are but small; it
is solitary in its habits, for even in ponds and rivers, when most abundant, it is
never seen in shoals, like many other fish, but each one seeks its own dwelling-
place. In cold weather it is found in deep water, but in the summer months it
may be seen swimming slowly, and most generally against the current of the
stream; suddenly it stops and remains stationary for a minute or two, and often
in a position almost perpendicular, with its head near the ground, as if seeking
nourishment; it now suddenly darts forward, swims rapidly for some distance,
and then again comes to a stand. In July and August it approaches the surface,
allured, doubtless, by grasshoppers and such other insects as may fall into the
water; and at this time it rises to the fly, though in general it is baited with
worms. The flesh is white, firm, and delicate, and is much esteemed.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. This fish has a very widely extended geograph-
ical range. It has been observed in nearly all the Atlantic States; in the great
Northern lakes; and, according to Professor J. P. Kirtland, of Cleveland, it has
lately found its way into the tributaries of the Ohio River.*


GENERAL REMARKS. Previous to the time of Cuvier, all ichthyologists sup-
posed the American Perch to be identical with, or at least a simple variety of, the
European, so great is the resemblance between them. Cuvier, however, proved it
not only to be a distinct species, but he went still further, and described the sev-


* Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. v. p. 337.










FAMILY ICHTHELIDiE.


eral varieties of the American Perch as so many different species; and in this he
has been followed by several ichthyologists. But it should be remembered, that
fishes common to a geographical region of great extent are subject to individual
variations, which can only be recognized by a comparison of many individuals,
and from very distant places; then we shall see, as in the animal now under con-
sideration, that a snout more pointed, a head more wrinkled, or dentations of
the opercular bones equally marked, are not constant characters." Dr. Storer, in
his Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, was the first naturalist who rightly
referred all the known varieties or supposed species of our animal to the Perca
flavescens.



FAMILY ICH THELID E .-Holbrook.

CHARACTERS. Body in some, elevated, oval, compressed; in others, compressed,
but more elongated; intermaxillary, inferior maxillary, vomerine, and pharyn-
geal teeth in all; palatine and lingual teeth in some; dorsal fin single; ventral
with one spine and five articulated rays; anal spines vary from three to nine;
scales ctenoid.; intestines rather more convoluted than in Percide ; branchios-
tegal rays, six.

REMARKS. Sir John Richardson, in restricting the Family Percide of Cuvier and
Valenciennes, removed from it a large number of fishes; all such, for instance, as
differ from the normal type of that family as it now stands, in the number of
their branchiostegal rays, or in the composition of their ventral fin, or in its
position, or in some other external peculiarity by which they can be distinguished
into minor groups or families, though they differ but little from Percida in their
internal structure. For such fishes, and they are many, he established the
Family Theraponide. But further investigation shows that this family contains
also the materiel for other and minor groups or families; so that it requires, in
turn, subdivision. I have abstracted from it a very natural group of American
fishes; these are widely spread and are very numerous, making, perhaps, the
majority of our fresh-water species; they are all of beautiful forms, and many are
of brilliant colours, and are known under the common name of Sunfish. The










GENUS POMOTIS.


Family Ichthelide, as characterized above, embraces several genera, most of
them established by Rafinesque, as Pomotis, Ichthelis, Pomoxis, Ambloplites, Cal-
liurus, &c., with the genera Centrarchus and Bryttus of Cuvier and Valenciennes.



GENUS POMO TIS.- Rafinesque.

CHARACTERS. Pre-opercle more or less denticulated; opercle with a membra-
nous appendix at its angle; intermaxillary, vomerine, and inferior maxillary teeth
villiform; tongue and palate-bones smooth, or without teeth; pharyngeal teeth
paved; dorsal fin single; anal with three spines; branchiostegal rays, six.

REMARKS. This genus was first established by the naturalist above named;
though subsequently it was adopted by Cuvier and Valenciennes, and later ichthy-
ologists have followed their example. In fact, this is the only genus established
by Rafinesque, among all our fishes, that has been received by the authors of
the Histoire Naturelles des Poissons; nor is this very remarkable, for the char-
acters he gives are so short and so vague as to render it impossible to determine
his genera and species without the aid of plates, or of the original specimens
from which his descriptions were taken; and as no such collection of these fishes
existed for study and comparison, the labors of Rafinesque consequently fell into
disrepute. Many years afterwards, Professor J. P. Kirtland,* of Cleveland, an
accurate naturalist, investigated the fishes of the Ohio River and its tributaries,
the very region of the labors of Rafinesque; and of course he had the same
animals for study and comparison, and was thus enabled to recognize several of
his genera and species, and was the first ichthyologist to do justice to his merits.
Agassiz,tf still more recently, by a study of the great number of fishes of our
Western waters contained in his Museum at Cambridge, determined others of the
genera and species described in the Icthyologia Ohiensis ; and thus does it
happen that the work of Rafinesque, after having been overlooked or neglected
for nearly forty years, now becomes one of authority in our science.

Vide Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iii., iv., v., for his very interesting remarks on this subject.
t Vide Silliman's Journ., vol. xvii., 2d Series, March and May, 1854.











POMOTIS VULGATRIS.


POMOTIS VULGARIS. Cuvier.


Plate I. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body sub-ovoid; brown, with a greenish tint above,
and with brazen or yellow tints and spots below; head dusky above, with pale
blue, waving, horizontal lines on the pre-opercle and opercle; opercular appendix
dark, with a bright red blotch on its posterior margin. D. 10- 11. P. 13. V.
1-5. A. 3-10. C. 17.


SYNONYMES.


Perca fluviatilis gibbosa venture luteo, Catesby, Carolina, &c., vol. ii. p. 8.
Labrus auritus, Mitchi., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 403.
Pomotis vulgaris, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iii. p. 91, pl. 49; id. vii. 465.
Pomotis vulgaris, Rich., Faun. Boreal. Am., iii. p. 24, fig. 76.
Pomotis vulgaris, Jardin., Nat. Mis., i. p. 162.
Pomotis vulgaris, Storer, Report, &c., p. 11.
Pomotis vulgaris, Kirt., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iii. p. 470, pi. 28, fig. 2.
Pomotis vulgaris, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part iv. p. 31, pl. 51, fig. 166.
Pomotis vulgaris, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 258.
Pomotis vulgaris, Thomp., Hist. Ver., p. 130.
Pomotis vulgaris, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 292.
Pomotis vulgaris, Storer, Synops., p. 40.
Pomotis vulgaris, Agassiz, Lake Superior, &c., p. 293.
Pomotis vulgaris, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 60, pl. 3, fig. 1.
Perch, Bream, or Sunfish, Vulgo.


DESCRIPTION. This fish is of an ovoidal form, convex above and below, but
straighter and thicker at the belly. The head is large, broad, though not thicker
than the rest of the body; it is smooth between the eyes and snout, which is full
and rounded. The eye is large, and is placed with its inferior margin above
the median plane of the head, about one diameter of its orbit from the snout,
and two and a half diameters from the extremity of the opercle; the pupil is
dusky with a black tint, and the iris is brazen. The nostrils are rather nearer the
mesial line than the orbit, and the upper is about the median plane of the eye;
both are round, but the posterior is the larger.







































7,E


I',., .. ... ... L ,,, .. "_,


A.J.'bbotson, del.


P1 1









































































T. Sinclair's lthPlnl











POMOTIS VULGARIS.


The mouth is rather small, very protractile; the lower jaw is slightly the longer,
and both have very thin lips. The intermaxillary is armed with a broad group
of small, pointed, thickly set, card-like teeth, with an outer row of conical, point-
ed ones, of much greater size, and nearly all of the same length; the lower jaw
has similar teeth; the anterior superior, as well as the posterior, pharyngeal bones
are small; the former are armed with a few small, pointed teeth; the latter are
covered with minute villiform teeth; the middle pharyngeals are massive and
broad; they are paved with large teeth, some of which have their grinding sur-
faces smooth, others rounded, or slightly depressed; the inferior pharyngeals are
equally large, and have similar teeth, though the grinding surfaces are mostly
flat; there are a few pointed, conical vomerine teeth. The pre-opercle is rounded
and finely serrated at its angle; its surface is. smooth or without scales, though it
has a scalloped appearance. The opercle is broad, and covered with large scales;
it is sub-triangular in form, with its apex behind, from which proceeds a loose
fleshy appendix. The sub-opercle is long, narrow, rounded below, rather pointed
behind, and is covered with large scales. The inter-opercle is quadrilateral, broad-
est behind, and rounded below.

The dorsal fin is large; it begins with the posterior extremity of the opercular
appendix, and has ten rather stout spines placed in a groove of scales; the
soft portion of the dorsal is more elevated than the spinous, and has eleven
branched rays. The pectoral begins with the termination of the opercle, or
rather before it, and extends to the root of the third anal spine; it is broad,
long, and has thirteen rays. The ventral arises just behind the root of the
pectoral, and terminates beyond the vent; it has one short, stiff spine, and five
branched rays, the anterior slightly prolonged by a filament. The anal fin is
large, elevated; it has three stout spines, the anterior short, and nine articulated
rays, much longer than the spines. The caudal is broad, slightly lunate, and
has seventeen rays.

The scales are large, semicircular behind and ciliated, slightly prominent be-
fore, with twelve radiating strike. The lateral line begins at the upper margin of
the opercle, and runs along the upper fourth of the body concurrent with the
2











POMOTIS VULGARIS.


dorsal outline to the root of the tail, when it descends to the median plane; its
scale is slightly unguiform in shape, with the duct opening near its middle.


COLOUR. The head is dusky above, with pale-blue waving lines running from
the snout to the eye; the opercle, pre-opercle, and sub-opercle are also marked
with five or six bands of similar colour, more or less undulating; the appendix
is black, with a bright scarlet blotch on its posterior part. The body is olive-
brown above, with a slight shade of green, and is marked with irregular spots of
reddish-brown; the sides and belly are yellow, more or less clouded, and below
the lateral line are numerous brazen spots, or at times they may be bright reddish-
brown, arranged with some degree of regularity. The dorsal fin is transparent,
with dusky shades and dusky spots on its soft portion; the rays of the pectoral
fin are yellow, though the membrane is transparent; the ventral is transparent,
but with a strong yellow tint; the anal is transparent, though it is shaded with
blue in places, and has a row of yellowish or brazen spots near the origin of the
rays; the caudal is semi-transparent, with dusky shades and spots; it is bordered
with dirty white behind, which is only well seen in water, when the animal is alive.


DIMENSIONS. The length of the animal from the opercle to the tip of the tail
'is equal to two heads and three quarters; the elevation without the dorsal fin, to
one head and a half; total length, eight inches.


SPLANCHNOLOGY. The peritoneum is silvery. The liver is large, and without subdivisions into lobes
on its inferior aspect; it is placed mostly on the left side, and extends more than half the length
of the abdomen backwards. The gall-bladder is small, pyriform, and the bile is of pale colour.
The stomach is broad, tolerably large, though short; the pyloric portion begins near its middle, and
the sphincter at the pylorus is well marked. The small intestine is capacious, and makes several
convolutions before it ends in the rectum; there are eight cecal appendages. The air-bladder is
large, broad, full in front, and slightly subdivided into pouches; it is smaller behind, and prolonged
in two horns for some distance along the sides of the inter-spinal bones of the anal fin. The kidney
is large, though the urinary bladder is small.

HABITs. This fish prefers still and clear waters. In the spring of the year
the female prepares herself a circular nest, by removing all reeds or other dead










POMOTIS VULGARIS.


aquatic plants from a chosen spot of a foot or more in diameter, so as to leave
bare the clean gravel or sand; this she excavates to the depth of three or four
inches, and then deposits her spawn, which she watches with the greatest vigi-
lance; and it is curious to see how carefully she guards this nest against all in-
truders; in every fish, even those of her own species, she sees only an enemy, and
is restless and uneasy till she has driven it away from her nursery. We often find
groups of these nests placed near each other, along the margin of the pond or
river that the fish inhabits, but always in very shallow water; hence they are
liable to be left dry in seasons of great drought. These curious nests are most
frequently encircled by aquatic plants, forming a curtain round them, but a large
space is invariably left open for the admission of light.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Pomotis vulgaris is found in the great
Northern lakes; in the Atlantic States from Maine to Florida; and, according to
Dr. Kirtland, in the tributary ponds and streams of the Ohio River.

GENERAL REMARKS. In giving such a wide geographical range to this animal
the identity of the Northern and Southern animal is presupposed, and of this
identity I have little doubt, after the comparison and examination of hundreds
of individuals. It is true, if we take a single Northern and a single Southern
specimen for comparison, differences may be observed between them that might
lead us to believe they were of different species; but in a comparison of many,
these apparent differences are confounded or lost. We have then, in this instance,
as in that of the Percaflavescens, an animal widely extended in our fresh waters,
both North, South, and West, with certain minor differences in different regions,
but agreeing perfectly as a whole. The specific name vulgaris was first applied
to this animal by Cuvier, and it is here retained, because I do not believe that
this fish is the Labrus auritus of Linnaeus, as many naturalists have supposed;
nor is it possible at this time to determine the animal on which he imposed this
name in the tenth edition of the Systema Nature, in which it first appears, for
his description is short, his sole reference is to the Museum of De Geer, -
and his "habitat" Pennsylvania. The Labrus auritus of the twelfth edition is
a different animal, for here the opercula apice membranaceo, elongato nigro,"










ICHTHELIS INCISOR.


first appears; and this description may possibly apply to one of the two suc-
ceeding species; for in 1772, four years before the publication of that work,
Dr. Garden sent the Swedish naturalist, among other things, the dried skins of
two fishes, Fresh-water Red-bellied Trout" and Fresh-water Bream." Now
each of these has a black and more elongated fleshy auricular appendage than
exists in any other of our fishes. Linneus, however, receiving these fishes from
the very scene of Catesby's labors, refers to the plate Perca fluviatilis gibbosa,"
&c. of that author, not with certainty, but with doubt; and in his description he
does not speak of the red spot at the opercle which Catesby says distinguishes
his fish from all others;" so it appears to me certain that the specific name auritus
was not applied to the animal now under consideration, but to some other, at
present unknown.




GENUS ICHT HELIS.-Rafinesque.


CHARACTERS. Body elliptical or oval, much compressed; mouth small, armed
with small teeth; pharyngeal teeth not paved ; branchiostegal rays, six.



ICHTHELIS INCISOR. Valenciennes.

Plate II. Fig. 1.


SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body very convex, deep blue above, lighter and bronzed
below, with a cupreous spot above and behind the eye, and a dark spot near the
posterior border of the dorsal fin. D. 10- 12. P. 13. V. 1 -5. A. 3 11. C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Pomotis incisor, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. vii. p. 466.
Pomotis incisor, DeKay, Zool. N. Y., part iv. p. 33.
Pomotis incisor, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., vol. ii. N. S. p. 293.
Pomotis incisor, Storer, Synops., p. 41.
Bream, Blue Bream, or Copper-nose Bream, Vulgo.










ICHTIIELIS INCISOR.


DESCRIPTION. This fish, without the head and tail, is so much arched, both
above and below, as to be nearly sub-round, like the Chetodons. The head is
short, not much elevated, smooth above, and the snout broad and full. The eye
is very large, with its inferior border above the median plane of the head, and is
less than its diameter from the snout. The nostrils are midway between the eye
and snout, but on a line within the orbit; the posterior is ovoid, the anterior round.

The month is of moderate size; the teeth of the intermaxillary are similar to
those of the Pomotis vldgaris, though the outer row of larger teeth are not so long,
and in the old animal they are frequently blunt at their extremities; the lower jaw
has an external row of similar teeth, and within these are numerous others, slender,
pointed, and recurved. The superior pharyngeal bones are small, and covered with
conical teeth, more or less pointed, and of various sizes ; the posterior are minute,
closely set, and villiform; the inferior pharyngeal has minute teeth on its outer
half; and moderately strong conical teeth, more or less pointed, along its inner
half. The pre-opercle is rounded at its angle. The opercle is sub-triangular, with
its posterior angle rounded, from which hangs a long fleshy appendix. The sub-
opercle is long, and broadest below; the inter-opercle is broad.

The dorsal fin begins behind the tip of the bony opercle, and extends to the
root of the tail; its anterior portion has ten spines, compressed and ensiform;
the posterior portion is the more elevated, and has twelve articulated rays. The
pectoral is broad; it begins near the angle of the opercle, extends to the root of
the anal fin, and has thirteen rays. The ventral is broad; it begins about the
anterior fourth of the pectoral fin, and reaches beyond the origin of the anal; it
has one spine and five branched rays, the anterior of which is prolonged in a fila-
ment. The anal is broad, elevated, ends behind the dorsal, and has three spines,
the anterior small, the others large and long, with eleven branched rays. The
caudal is broad, slightly forked, and has seventeen rays.

The lateral line begins with the appendix of the opercle, and runs parallel with
the dorsal outline to the end of the root of the dorsal fin, when it descends to the
median plane; its scale is unguiform, with the duct in the middle.











ICHTIELIS INCISOR.


CoLoUn. See Specifc Characters. Yet it varies much in different waters, and is
sometimes marked with dusky bars: the black spot in the soft portion of the
dorsal fin does not encroach on the rays, but is confined to the membrane uniting
them.


DIMENSIONS. The head is one fourth the length of the animal; elevation, one
head and a half; entire length, eight inches.

SPrLCHNOLOGY. The peritoneum is silvery. The liver is large, and consists of two lobes, though
the separation is slightly marked in front; the left lobe is much the larger; the right is short, and
gives off a small lobule at its right and anterior extremity. The stomach is large, curved, with thick
walls; there are eight ececal appendages, large and long; the small intestine is very capacious, and
makes several convolutions before it ends in the rectum, which is smaller, though its walls are
thicker; it has well-developed longitudinal folds, but no rectal valve. The air-bladder is very
large, and extends throughout the abdomen, and subdivides behind into two horns, which are con-
tinued some distance behind the vent; at its posterior and superior part is a well-marked vascular
ganglion. The kidney is bulky and well developed behind, and the urinary bladder is large.


GEOGRAPHICAL DisTRI rTLior. This fsh is common in the rivers and ponds of
::'1-. water in the lower --" ...: : :',. -, and extends even to Louisiana.


HALBITS. 1_-:--i:-- in .. --- K': t': Pomotis vulgaris, feed on the same
:.- .I and are taken ---1-' _-: same : .". :-._a I am not aware that they have the
same curious \--. : f constructing a nest for their spawn.


GE- NERAL R I. r iT-. This animal bears some resemblance in form to the Pomo-
tis .li'..1,1.'i ; but that is a smaller animal of a different colour, wanting the
..1-,::: spot in the dorsal fin, and inhabiting a different geographical region. This
fish is held in great estimation as food.











ICHTIELIS RUBRICAUDA.


ICHTHELIS RUBRICAUDA. Storer.

Plate II. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body dusky above; sides and belly red; appendix to
the opercle very long; black, bordered above and below with pale greenish-blue.
D. 10 11. P. 12. V. 5. A. 3-10. C. 17.

SyONYMES. Pomotis rubricauda, Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 177.
Pomotis appendix, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 294.
Pomotis appendix, Storer, Synops., p. 42.
Pomotis appendix, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 62, pl. 3, fig. 4.
Red-bellied Perch, or Red-tailed Bream, VYulo.

DESCRIPTION. This fish is of an ovoidal form, but more elongated and less
arched than Pomotis vulgaris. The head is large, broad, and rather prominent
between the eyes, with the snout full and nearly semicircular. The eye is moder-
ate in size, and is placed about one diameter of its orbit from the snout, and two
diameters and a quarter from the tip of the opercle, with its lower margin
above the median plane of the head. The nostrils are on a line within the orbit;
the posterior is the larger; the anterior is tubular, and both are above the median
plane of the eye.


The mouth is rather small; the intermaxillary teeth are numerous, pointed, and
thickly set, with an outer row of larger teeth, conical, pointed, and recurved; the
lower jaw is armed in like manner; the palatine and vomerine teeth are very
minute; the pharyngeal bones are covered with teeth, similar to those of the outer
row of the lower jaw, with a few smaller ones behind. The pre-opercle is rounded
and but slightly serrated at its angle, with its ascending border directed a little
backwards; it is smooth, though the cheeks above are covered with scales. The
opercle is triangular, with its apex below, and its posterior angle rounded, and
sustains a long fleshy appendix. The sub-opercle is an isosceles triangle in shape,
long, narrow, rounded below, with its basis before and its apex behind. The











ICIITHELIS RUBRICAUDA.


inter-opercle is nearly a parallelogram, narrow, and covered with a single row
of scales.

The dorsal fin begins on a line with the middle of the appendix of the opercle,
and has ten short, rather stout spines, and eleven branched rays considerably
longer than the spines. The pectoral is broad, and begins in front of the termi-
nation of the bony opercle and ends at the middle of the vent. The ventral is
long; it arises at the root of the pectoral and extends beyond the vent; it has
one short spine, and five soft rays, of which the anterior ends in a filament.
The anal begins nearly with the soft dorsal rays, and terminates with them be-
hind; it has three spines, the anterior very small, and the third very long and
strong; there are ten soft rays, much longer than the spines. The caudal is
large, broad, slightly lunate, and has seventeen rays.

The lateral line begins at the upper margin of the opercle, and runs near the
upper third of the body, concurrently with the dorsal outline to the root of the
tail, when it descends to the median plane.

COLOUR. The head is dusky above, and has often a greenish tint; the opercles
and cheeks are red, with blotches or waving lines of pale blue running from the
upper lip towards the orbit; the appendix of the opercle is dark, bordered above
and below with pale greenish-blue; the body above the lateral line is more or less
dusky, with cupreous tints; below the lateral line it is red; the pectoral fin is
transparent, with a pale bluish tint at its posterior extremity; the anal is of a
bluish colour near its tip, and has occasional cupreous spots at its base. The
caudal is dusky at its root and reddish at its tip.

DIMENSIONS. Head one fourth the entire length of the animal; elevation with-
out the dorsal fin equal to one head and a half; total length, ten inches.


SPLANOHNOLOGY. The peritoneum is silvery. The liver is large, and without fissures on its inferior
face, though its left portion is longest, and extends even behind the stomach. The gall-bladder is
in size and shape like a small olive; its walls are Thin, and the bile is very light-coloured. The












F]. II.


T Sminclair's lii, Phlad-











GENUS CENTRARCHUS.


stomach is large, for, though small at first, it suddenly increases in dimensions, and, as the pyloric
portion goes off from its anterior part, it is so bent as to appear heart-shaped when distended; the
pyloric valve is well developed; the small intestine is at first very large, yet it soon decreases in
size and runs to the vent, whence it is reflected to the last ccecal appendage, and then again turns
backwards to end in the rectum, which is less capacious and has no valve. There are seven cmecal
appendages, increasing in length to the last, which is two inches long. The air-bladder is large,
as it extends not only the length of the abdominal cavity, but is prolonged in two broad horns for
an inch or more behind the vent; it is rather heart-shaped in front, and has thin and silvery walls.
The kidney is well developed behind, though it is small in front.


HABITS. This fish lives with the Pomotis vulgaris, and feeds on the same prey,
but is always found in deeper waters.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. From Massachusetts to Georgia.


GENERAL REMARKS. The specific name rubricauda," first given to this fish
by Dr. Storer, has here been retained, because it does not appear to me certain
that this animal is identical with the Labris appendix of Dr. Mitchell; for that
is a much smaller fish, with the body more arched, its colour is dusky above,
and white below, its auricular appendix is always black, and has never a border
of bluish-green, and it has only as yet been found in New York. The specific
term rubricauda is perhaps not well chosen, for the colour indicated is not always
present; at least that is the case with our Southern fish.




GENUS CENTRARCHUS. Cuv. et Val.

CHARACTERS. Body very broad, oval, greatly compressed both above and below;
dorsal fin single, very large, elevated, with no depression between its spinous and
soft portions; spinous portion the larger; anal large, in form and size like the
dorsal; anal spines more than three; mouth small; intermaxillary, inferior max-
illary, vomer, palate, pharyngeal bones, and tongue, with minute teeth; bran-
chial rays, six.











CENTRARCHUS IRIDEUS.


REMARKs. This genus was established to include several fishes, having certain
forms in common; as, Body oval, compressed; dorsal fin single; teeth on the
tongue," &c.; but several of these fishes differ from each other in so many re-
spects, that it became necessary to refer them to other genera, and even to restrict
the genus itself. This has been done by Professor Agassiz, with great clearness
and precision; and, furthermore, he has distributed some of these fish among
genera long since established by Rafinesque.



CENTRARCHUS IRIDEUS.

Plate III. Fig. 1.

SPECFIC CHARACTERS. Body sub-elliptical, dusky-green above, sides white,
with bluish-green spots; dorsal fin with a dusky spot, bordered with orange
near the posterior extremity of its soft portion. P. 11. V. 1-5. D. 11-14.
A. 8 15. C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Le Labre iris, Lacip., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iv. p. 716, pl. 5, fig. 3.
Centrarchus irideus, Cuw. et eil., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iii. p. 89; id. vii. 458.
Centrarchus irideus, DeKay, ZoSl. N. Y., part iv. p. 31.
Centrarchus irideus, .;... MIem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 291.
Centrarchus irideus, Storer, Synops., p. 39.

DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish is nearly elliptical, its dorsal and ventral
outlines being arched alike, and is much compressed. The head is small, though
broad above, and the facial outline slightly incurved, with the snout broad. The
eye is very large, prominent, and is placed half the diameter of its orbit from the
snout, and rather more than one diameter from the tip of the opercle, with its in-
ferior margin at the middle plane of the head. The nostrils are very near the eye,
and are on a line within the orbit.

The mouth is very small, and the lower jaw is longer than the upper, though
its teeth are received within this when the mouth is closed. The groups of inter-











CENTRARCHUS IRIDEUS.


maxillary and inferior maxillary teeth are small, closely set, pointed, recurred, with
an outer row of slightly larger teeth; the pharyngeal bones are closely studded
with minute short and pointed teeth; the vomerine teeth, as well as the palatine,
are equally minute; and the tongue has a small patch of similar teeth. The
pre-opercle is but slightly rounded at its angle, where it is naked, and minutely
serrated. The opercle is rather broad, and sustains a short fleshy appendix.
The sub-opercle is long, narrow, and has a single row of large scales ; the head
above, from the middle of the orbits, is smooth, but the cheeks are covered with
scales.

The dorsal fin arises behind the root of the pectoral, is very large, and elevated,
especially in its soft portion; it has twelve spines and fourteen branched rays.
The pectoral begins at the opercle, ends at the root of the sixth anal spine, and
has twelve rays. The ventral fin begins rather in front of the dorsal, and termi-
nates with the root of the fifth anal spine; it has one spine and five soft rays,
the anterior of which is prolonged. The anal is as large as the dorsal fin, and
is of the same form; it has eight spines and fifteen branched rays. The caudal
is large, broad, nearly entire, and has seventeen rays. The scales are large. The
lateral line corresponds to the curve of the back, and is placed about the superior
fourth of the body.

COLOUR. The cheeks and sides of the head are of greenish-yellow; the head
above, and the back, are dusky, with a greenish tint; the sides are white, with
bluish-green spots, arranged in interrupted lines; the pectoral and ventral fins are
transparent; the dorsal and anal are semi-transparent, and marked with numerous
spots of yellowish-brown; the former has a remarkable dark spot bordered with
orange near the posterior extremity, which grows more indistinct with age.

DIM\ENSIONs. The length from the opercle to the tip of the tail is equal to three
heads; the greatest elevation, with the dorsal fin, to two heads; total length, six
inches.

HABITS. This fish is found in rather deep water of ponds and rivers, in com-
pany with the Pomotis vulgaris, and is taken with the same bait.











LABRAX AMERICANUS.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. For the present, South Carolina only can be
given as its place of abode.


GENERAL REMARKS. This animal, which we will regard as the type of the
genus, was discovered by Bosc in the neighborhood of Charleston, and he sent it,
with a drawing, to Lac6pede, by whom it was first described.



GENUS LABRAX.*-Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Opercular bones covered with scales; the opercle terminates be-
hind in two spines; sub-opercle ard inter-opercle not serrated; there are palatine,
vomerine, and maxillary teeth; tongue armed with minute teeth; branchial rays,
seven.


LABRAX AMERICANUS. Gmelin.

Plate III. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body oval, much compressed, silver-gray, more or less
dusky above; silvery at the sides and belly; neither spots nor stripes. D. 9 1 -
12. P. 14. V. 1 5. A. 3 9. C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Perca Schoepf, Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund., b. viii. p. 159.
Perca Americana, Gmel., Ed. Syst. Nat., tom. i. pars iii. p. 1308.
Perca Americana, Lacep., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iv. p. 252.
Morone rufa, Mitch., Report in part, &c., p. 18.
Bodianus rufus, Mitch., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 420.
Labrax mucronatus, Guv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 86, pl. 12.
Labrax mucronatus, Storer, Report, &c., p. 8.
Labrax mucronatus, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 257.
Labrax rufus, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part iv. p. 9, pl. 3, fig. 7.
Labrax rufus, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 274.
Labrax rufus, Storer, Synops., p. 22.
Labrax Americanus, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 57, pl. 1, fig. 1.
White Perch, or Silver Perch, Vulgo.


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LABRAX AMEIRICANUS.


DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish, without the caudal fin, is ovoidal; it is
compressed, arched and thin along the back, less arched and slightly thicker at
the belly. The head is rather long, but not much elevated; the facial outline is
nearly straight, and the head is flat above, very narrow between the eyes, though
the snout is tolerably full and round. The eye is very large; it is one diameter
of its orbit from the snout, rather more than two diameters from the spine of the
opercle, with its inferior margin rather below the median plane of the head. The
nostrils are closely approximated; the posterior and larger is sub-round, and very
near the orbit; the anterior is round; and both are on a line without the orbit,
and near the middle plane of the eye.

The mouth is of moderate size, the posterior extremity of the upper jawbone
extending but slightly beyond the anterior margin of the orbit. The lower jaw
is shorter than the upper, and both are armed with a group of numerous, small,
pointed, villiform teeth, closely crowded together, and nearly of the same size.
The palate-bones have each a long, narrow patch, and the vomer an angular
group, in front, of still more minute teeth than those on the intermaxillary bones.
The tongue has a band of minute teeth at its edges, and many more are scattered
about -its tip; the pharyngeals are covered with teeth, similar in size and form to
those of the jaws.

The pre-opercle is rounded at its angle, and its whole free margin is serrated,
the largest serratures being at the angle. The opercle is longest vertically, and
terminates behind in a crescentic margin with two spines, of which the inferior is
the longer; between these spines the skin is extended. The sub-opercle is irregu-
larly quadrilateral, elongated, and narrow. The inter-opercle is rather broad, and
is rounded below. The whole head above and on the sides is covered with scales,
to the anterior margin of the orbit; the scales on the opercle are very large, those
on the posterior extremity of the superior maxillary bone are minute; the sub-
opercle and inter-opercle have each a single row of scales. The gill-openings are
large; there are seven branchial rays. The supra-scapular and humeral bones are
slightly serrated.











LABRAX AMERICANUS.


The anterior dorsal begins at the most prominent part of the back, and on a
line behind the origin of the ventral fin; it has nine spines, partially received in
a groove when the fin is closed. The anterior spine is very short, and the fourth
is longest and very stout; the posterior dorsal is rather more elevated than the
anterior; it has one spine and twelve soft rays, protected at their root by a wall of
scales; smaller scales also ascend for some distance on the connecting membrane
of the rays. The pectoral begins near the spine of the opercle, and extends be-
yond the root of the eighth dorsal spine, and has fourteen rays. The ventral
arises behind the root of the pectoral, extends slightly beyond it, and has one
spine and five soft rays, the anterior of which is slightly prolonged into a filament.
The anal fin begins about the middle of the soft dorsal, and extends beyond it, and
is very slightly crescentic; it has three spines, the anterior minute, and the second
long and very stout, and nine soft rays, with scales like the posterior dorsal. The
caudal is large, slightly crescentic, and has seventeen rays; its membrane is cov-
ered with scales for some distance.

The scales are nearly quadrilateral, straight before, rounded and ciliated behind,
and marked with twelve radiating lines. The lateral line is very slightly arched
at first, but is soon nearly concurrent with the dorsal outline to the end of the
second dorsal fin, and is placed about the upper third of the body; its scale is
four-sided, sub-cordate and ciliated behind, with its excretory duct near the
middle.

COLOUR. The back and sides above are pale silver-gray; the sides below the
lateral line, and the belly, are silver-white, and without spots or marks.

DIMENSIONS. The entire length, from the opercle to the tip of the tail, is equal
to two heads and three quarters; the greatest elevation without the dorsal fin is
one head and a quarter; total length, ten to twelve inches.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver is short, but thick, and appears as one mass on its lower surface, though
it is separated into three lobes behind, of which the left is longest, and the right is very short. The
stomach extends about half the length of the abdomen, and is pointed behind; it has thin walls,
and the pyloric branch begins near its middle, is short; and has much thicker walls. The intestine











LABRAX AMERICANUS.


runs nearly to the vent, and is then reflected to the base of the pylorus, whence it returns to end in
the rectum; it has an indistinct valve, and its walls are thin ; there are five rather long and very
slender coecal appendages. The air-bladder is large, and extends the whole length of the abdomen;
it is sub-oval in shape, and larger before than behind.

HABITs. The White Perch inhabits various bays and inlets of salt water along
our coast, and ascends for some distance up those rivers that open into the sea;
although this is really a inarine species, yet it has been transplanted to ponds and
lakes of fresh water in the Northern States, where it thrives very well.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The range of the Labrax Americanus is very
great, extending from Massachusetts to South Carolina, which must for the present
be considered its extreme southern limit; and even here it has only been observed
in the neighborhood of Georgetown, whence I have received specimens from Dr.
Sparkman and from Dr. Cheves.

GENERAL REMARKS. This animal was first described by Schoepff, under the
simple name of Perca, Perch, or River Perch of X',Y' York ; which, he says,
approaches nearly in size the European Perch ; but it wants the six black bars,
and the black spot, at the extremity of the dorsal fin." Gmelin's description of
our animal is taken entirely from Schoepff; but he first applied to it the specific
name Americana, probably from its native place; and this must be retained. -
Dr. Mitchill, long afterwards, described it first as the Morone rufa; and subse-
quently as the Bodianus rufus. Cuvier and Valenciennes arranged it in the
genus Labrax, and applied to it the specific name mucronatus, supposing it to be
identical with the Perca mucronata of Rafinesque; but neither this specific name,
nor that of Dr. Mitchill, can be retained, as that of Gmelin, though perhaps
badly chosen, has the right of priority.











LABRAX LINEATUS.


LABRAX LINEATUS. Block.

Plate IV. Fig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body above dusky, sides and belly silvery-white; sides
marked with seven or eight longitudinal lines of bluish-black colour. D. 9 2 -
12. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-11. C. 17.


SYnoNT3uEs.


Sciena lineata, Bloch; Ichth., pars ix. p. 53, pl. 304.
Perca -- 7. ,- Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund., b. viii. p. 160.
Perca saxatilis, Schneid., ed. Block, Ichth., p. 89; id. P. septentrionalis, p. 90, pl. 20.
Centropome ray6, Lactp., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iv. p. 225.
Perca Mitchilli, ''.. .: Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 413, pl. 3, fig. 4.
I: ., !-rL. 3Mease, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 502.
Labrax lineatus, COw. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 79.
Labrax lineatus, Rich., Faun. Boreal. Am., iii. p. 10.
Labrax lineatus, Storer, Report, &c., p. 7.
Labrax lineatus, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 257.
Labrax lineatus, DeKay, Zoil. N. Y., part iv. p. 7, pl. 1, fig. 3.
Labrax lineatus, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 273.
Labrax lineatus, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 54, pl. 1, fig. 4.
Labrax lineatus, Storer, Synops., &c., p. 21.
Rock-fish, Striped Bass, Vulgo.


DESCRIPTION. The body is elongated, subcylindrical, moderately compressed,
with the dorsal outline regularly, though gently, arched; it is thin along the
back, and almost carinated in front of the dorsal fin; the ventral line is less
arched than the dorsal, and the fish is thicker at the belly than along the back,
but its thickest part is near the lateral line. The head is large, long, thick, and
very broad between the eyes, where it is so depressed as to make the facial outline
slightly concave. The snout is very full and rounded. The nostrils are closely
approximated, and much nearer to the orbit than to the snout; they are about
the median plane of the eye, and on a line within the orbit; the posterior is
larger and sub-oval; the anterior is round. The eye is very large, rather longest
horizontally, and is one diameter and one eighth of the orbit from the snout, and
three diameters and a quarter from the angle of the opercle, with its inferior
margin about the median plane of the head.











LABRAX LINEATUS.


The mouth is large, though the upper jaw extends only to the middle of the
orbit; the lips are tolerably thick and fleshy; the lower jaw is longer than the
upper, and both are armed with numerous small, villiform, pointed, slightly re-
curved and card-like or closely set teeth; they are nearly of the same size in both
jaws, but those of the outer row in the intermaxillary bone are rather largest.
The palate-bones have each a long, slender patch of minute teeth, and the vomer
an angular group in front. There are two bands of minute teeth at the root of
the tongue, separated slightly from each other in the mesial line; the sides of the
tongue are also armed with small teeth. The pharyngeal bones are thickly cov-
ered with teeth, similar in size and form to those of the upper jaw.

The pre-opercle is rounded at its angle, and is serrated throughout its free
border, though minutely so above. The opercle is sub-triangular, with its apex
behind, crescentic, and ending in two spines. The sub-opercle is very long, nar-
row, and covered with a single row of large scales; the inter-opercle is narrow,
and rounded below. The whole head above, as well as at the sides and posterior
extremity of the superior maxillary bones, is covered with scales, except in front
of the eyes. The gill-openings are large; there are seven branchial rays. The
supra-scapular and humeral bones are slightly serrated.

There are two dorsal fins ; the anterior begins rather behind the root of the
ventral, and has nine spines, of which the third is longest, and all are partially
received in a groove when the fin is closed. The posterior dorsal is more elevated
than the anterior; it is slightly crescentic at its superior border, and has two
spines and twelve soft rays, covered with a few scales near its base. The pectoral
arises very near the gill-openings, and extends to the root of the sixth dorsal
spine; it is broad, very long, and has fifteen rays. The ventral begins at the
anterior fourth of the pectoral, extends one fourth of its length beyond it, and has
one spine and five branched rays. The anal fin commences with the middle of the
soft dorsal, and terminates beyond it; its inferior margin is sub-crescentic, and it
has three spines, the anterior very short, and eleven soft rays. The caudal is
large, crescentic, and has seventeen rays, the connecting membrane of which is
covered, for some distance, with scales.











LABRAX LINEATUS.


The scales are nearly semicircular, with the diameter in front, round and finely
ciliated behind. The lateral line begins at the supra-scapular, and runs straight
to the tail; its scale is sub-pentagonal, round and ciliated behind, with the ex-
cretory duct nearly in its middle.


COLOUR. The body above is a dusky silver-gray, the sides and belly are
shining silvery-white, and marked with seven or eight longitudinal dark bands,
one of which includes the lateral line. These lines are sometimes interrupted, or
broken at intervals; and sometimes are undulating with frequent curves.


DIMENSIONs. The entire length, from the opercle to the tip of the tail, is equal
to three heads; the greatest elevation without the dorsal fin, to one head; total
length, twenty-one inches. Rock-fish are sometimes taken of much greater size.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver is very large, thick, and without divisions into lobes; it extends much
the farthest back on the left side, and is very full in front; it is of a very pale colour; the gall-
bladder is of great size, and conical in form, reaching more than half its length behind the right
lobe. The stomach is long, cylindrical, not very broad, and has enormously thick walls; its pyloric
branch begins near the anterior fifth, is very short, but stout, and has a well-marked contraction.
The small intestine runs at first nearly to the vent; it is then reflected to the pylorus, whence it
returns to end in the rectum, which has thick walls; the rectal valve is remarkably full, projecting
far into the intestine; its surface next the small intestine has large plaits radiating to the centre; its
rectal surface is smooth; the spleen is very large, and of darkest purple colour. The air-bladder is
of great size, reaching the whole length of the abdomen, is rather pointed behind, broad in front,
with fourzor five large sacs on each side.

HABITs. The Rock-fish inhabits not only our Atlantic shores, but it also enters
those rivers that open into the sea, and is often found many miles from the coast;
yet, on the whole, it must be regarded as a salt-water fish, at least in the northern
parts of our country. Dr. Mitchell says, they only ascend fresh-water streams in
the spring to breed, or for shelter during the winter; and Dr. Mease observes,
that, after heavy rains, or the sudden melting of snow in great quantities, these
fish are forced from their abodes back again into the salt water, but when the
freshet subsides they invariably reascend. Many of the larger kind never run up
streams of fresh water, but live along the shore, and only enter creeks and inlets











GENUS GRYSTES.


with the flood tide, and chiefly at night, in search of food, returning with the ebb.
In Carolina the habits of this fish are somewhat different, as it is seldom taken in
salt water, and is constantly seen in the rivers of fresh water, and at a distance
from the ocean. It feeds on various small fish, as well as on crustaceous animals.
It is esteemed one of the most savory fishes.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Labrax lineatus is found along the coast
from Maine to Georgia.

GENERAL REMARKS. The first account of this fish may be seen in the Ichthy-
ology of Bloch, who placed it in his genus Scicena with the specific name lineata,
which is still retained. Bloch, however, does not seem to have been acquainted
with the native country of the animal he described; on the contrary, he supposed
it an inhabitant of the Mediterranean, where it is never seen. Schoepff, in his
Memoir on the Fishes of New York, gives an accurate description of this animal,
and says it is called Rock-fish, or Striked Bass (Streaked Bass) ; and from this de-
scription Schneider, in his edition of Bloch, established his Perca saxatilis, which
specific name cannot be retained, as that of Bloch has the right of priority. Dr.
Mitchill, many years after, gave another description of'the Bass or Rock-fish, as
the Perca Mitchilli, being probably unaware that it had been previously described
more than once, and under different names. Cuvier and Valenciennes have given
the best description of our fish, arranging it in the genus Labrax, and retaining
the specific name first applied to it by Bloch.




GENUS GRYSTES.- Cuvier.

CHARAcTERs. Dorsal fin single, though deeply notched; intermaxillary, max-
illary, vpmerine, and palatine teeth small, and thickly set, or card-like; pre-opercle
not serrated; branchiostegal rays, seven.*


* Sometimes there are but six rays.











GRYSTES SALMOIDES.


GRYSTES SALMOIDES. Lacedpce.

Plate IV. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Head and body dusky above, often with a greenish or
bronzed tint; lower jaw and belly white; opercle with a bluish-green spot at its
angle. D. 9-14. P. 14. V. 1- 5. A. 3-12. C. 19.

SYNONYMES. Labrus salmoides, Lacp., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iv. p. 716, pl. 5, fig. 2.
Grystes salmoides, Czu. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iii. p. 54, pl. 45.
Grystes salmoides, DeKay, Zool. N. Y., part iv. p. 26, pl. 69, fig. 223.
Grystes salmoides, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 288.
Grystes salmoides, Storer, Synops, p. 36.
Trout, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. This fish is of. an elongated, oval form, arched, thick and
rounded along the back; thinner and nearly straight at the belly. The head
is very large and thick, especially between the eyes, and the snout is full and
rounded; the facial outline is nearly straight, though the prominence of the inter-
maxillary bone gives it an incurved appearance. The eye is very large; it is
placed one diameter and a quarter of the orbit from the snout, and two and a
quarter diameters from the posterior extremity of the opercle, with its lower
margin slightly above the median plane of the head. The nostrils are round;
the anterior and smaller is rather nearer to the eye than to the snout, and both
are on a line within the orbit.

The mouth is very large, the posterior extremity of the upper jaw extending
behind the orbit; the lower jaw is the longer, and so projects as to make a part of
the facial line when the mouth is shut. Both jaws are armed with numerous
small, conical, pointed, recurved, card-like teeth; they are all nearly of the same
size, except some in the upper jaw, which are directed inwards and backwards.
The vomer has in front a large arrow-headed group of minute villiform teeth;
and the palate bones have, on each side, a long and rather broad patch of similar
teeth. The pharyngeal teeth resemble those of the jaws in size and form. The





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GRYSTES SALMOIDES.


tongue is large and thick behind, thin, narrow, and rounded in front, smooth, and
tolerably free.

The pre-opercle is nearly semicircular at its angle, which is smooth, or not
serrated, but the ascending border is slightly emarginate above the angle. The
opercle is sub-triangular, with its base before and its apex behind, and emarginate.
The sub-opercle is quadrilateral, and extends as far back as the opercle. The
inter-opercle is rounded below, and ascends for some distance between the pre-
opercle and the opercle. The head is covered with scales above, and at the sides
as far as the posterior margin of the orbit ; but the superior maxillary bone is
naked. The gill-openings are very large; there are seven branchial rays.

The dorsal fin is very large and long; it begins rather behind the base of the
pectoral, and is single, though deeply emarginate; its anterior portion has nine
spines, partially received in a groove; the posterior or soft portion of the dorsal
fin is much more elevated, and has fourteen articulated rays. The pectoral is
broad, but short, and rounded behind; it arises rather before the termination of
the opercle, and has fourteen rays. The ventral begins nearly with the pectoral
fin, and is shorter; it has one spine and five soft rays, the internal of which is
bound to the belly for half its length. The anal arises nearly in a line vertical
with the root of the third dorsal soft ray, and has three spines and twelve branched
rays. The caudal is large, broad, slightly crescentic, and has nineteen rays.

The scales are nearly semicircular in shape, with the diameter in front, straight,
and marked with twelve radiating lines. The lateral line is concurrent with the
back, and runs along the superior fourth of the body; its scale is narrower be-
hind than the others, and its excretory duct is placed obliquely.

CoLouR. The head is dusky above, and silvery though slightly clouded at the
sides, with a bluish-green blotch at the opercle; the body is also dusky above, or
of a bronzed colour with a greenish tint; the belly is silvery, and along the flanks
runs a dusky band, more or less evident according to the age of the animal; it is
remarkable in the young. The dorsal fin is transparent, with only here and there












GRYSTES SALMOIDES.


dusky shades; the membrane of the pectoral is transparent, but the rays have a
yellowish tint; the ventral is yellowish, and the anal is slightly tinted with the
same colour; the caudal is dusky, with a very obscure yellowish shade.


DIMENSIONs. The entire length, from the opercle to the tip of the tail, is equal
to two heads and a half; the greatest elevation is seven eighths of a head; total
length, fourteen inches; specimens have been observed nearly two feet in length.


SPLANCHNOLOGY. The peritoneum is silvery. The liver is large, and of a very pale colour; it con-
sists of a single rhomboidal mass, as there are no marks of lobes; it is placed mostly in the left
side, and projects but slightly into the right. The gall-bladder is large, round, and is in a great
measure uncovered by the right margin of the liver. The esophagus is large and broad. The
stomach is large, and has thick, firm, muscular walls, with deep folds of its mucous membrane within;
the pyloric portion is short, thick, stout, and departs at a right angle from its posterior third. The
intestine runs to the vent, whence it is reflected to the pylorus, and then it turns backwards to end
in the rectum; its walls are remarkably thick and firm, and its mucous membrane is beautifully
reticulated, and presents numerous small areola for two thirds of its length, and beyond this longi-
tudinal folds begin, which are continued into the rectum. There are eleven primitive cccal ap-
pendages, which soon divide into two or three others, so that as many as twenty-eight may at times
be counted. The spleen is rather small, very pale, and is situated so far back that its anterior
extremity hardly reaches the stomach. The air-bladder is large, and extends throughout the
abdominal cavity; it is full in front, but is partially subdivided into two small pouches behind;
within, it is bright yellow at its superior and posterior part. The ovaries are sub-oval, rather
broad, and unite in substance behind, before they open.


HABITs. The GQystes salmoides has somewhat the habits of the common Trout
(Salmo fontinalis); it lives in ponds or streams of running water, and chooses for
its abode deep holes, or the shelter of logs, or the roots of trees that may project
into the water; here it remains perfectly quiet for hours, while other fish are
roaming about in search of food; but should any of the smaller fish, on which it
feeds, approach its lurking-place, it suddenly darts out, seizes its prey, and again
returns to its favorite spot. It is very voracious, and takes the hook freely when
baited with small living fish; it will also rise to the fly, and being a strong and
active fish, its capture affords much sport to the angler. The Giystes salmoides,
or Trout of South Carolina, when in season, is esteemed our best fresh-water fish
for the table.











GENUS SERRANUS.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Grystes salmoides is a Southern fish, and is
abundant in the waters of Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas, but has never,
so far as I know, been found north of Virginia. Cuvier and Valenciennes sup-
posed this animal to have had a much wider range than is here given, because
they received specimens of it from New York, through Milbert; but he must have
procured them from more southern localities. The Trout has, however, its repre-
sentatives both in the North and West, with which it is closely allied; as Grystes
nigricans (Huro nigricans) of Cuvier and Valenciennes, and Grystes fasciatus
(Cychlafasciata) of Lesueur, both of which have been referred by Agassiz to the
genus Grystes.* Cuvier also speaks of having received this animal, through
Lesueur, from the Wabash River, in Indiana; but it was probably the Grystes
fasciatus, as the Trout is not an inhabitant of those waters.

GENERAL REMARKS. The Trout was first described by Lacepide as the Labrus
salmoides, from a drawing and specimens sent him by Bose, from Carolina, under
the name of Perca trutta.




GENUS SERRANUS.-Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Canine or long and pointed teeth distributed among the smaller
teeth of the jaws; pre-opercle denticulated; opercle with one or more spines;
dorsal fin single; branchiostegal rays, seven.

REMARKS. This genus embraces a great number of species; more' than one
hundred have been already described, and arranged in sections, according to the
scales on the head; those with the jaws naked, or uncovered with scales (Serra-
nus scriba); those in which both the upper and the lower jaws are strongly
scaled (Serranus anthias); and those in which the lower jaw alone has minute
scales (Serranus gigas).


* Lake Superior, &c., p. 295.











SERRANUS ERYTHROGASTER.


SERRANUS ERYTHROGASTER. DeKay.

Plate V. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Head and body above reddish or olive-brown, with
large, pale ash-coloured blotches; lower jaw and belly salmon-colour; dorsal,
ventral, and caudal fins bordered with blue, more or less distinct. D. 11- 17.
P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3 10. C. 18.

SYNONYMES. Serranus erythrogaster, DeKay, Zool. N. Y., part iv. p. 21, pl. 19, fig. 52.
Serranus erythrogaster, Storer, Synops., p. 30.
Serranus erythrogaster, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 282.
Grouper, Vzlgo.


DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish, without the caudal fin, is nearly sub-oval,
more arched and thinner at the back than at the belly. The head is large; the
facial outline is a gentle curve to the snout, which is full and rounded. The eye
is large and very near the facial outline, with its inferior margin rather below the
superior fourth of the head; it is twice its diameter from the snout, and three and
a half diameters from the posterior extremity of the spine of the opercle; the
pupil is deep blue, and contracted in front; the iris is reddish-gray, with an inner
golden margin, very narrow. The nostrils are nearly of the same size; they are
round, and the anterior has a slightly prominent fleshy border, and is nearer the
eye than the snout; they are placed below the middle plane of the eye.

The mouth is very large, with lips thick and fleshy; the upper jaw is protractile.
The lower jaw is longer than the upper, though its teeth are received within it
when the mouth is shut. Both jaws are armed with numerous card-like teeth,
pointed and curved backwards; those near the middle are the largest; there is
also a posterior row of longer and very sharp teeth; and in front of these are
from two to four canine teeth in both jaws. There is a chevron of card-like teeth
on the vomer; each palate-bone is armed with a long group of similar teeth, and
each group has an internal series rather longer than the others. The tongue is











SERRANUS ERYTHROGASTER.


small, thin, rounded in front, and but slightly movable. The superior pharyngeals
are studded with numerous card-like teeth; the inferior have similar teeth, but
those of the internal row are longest.

The pre-opercle is but slightly rounded at its angle, with its posterior border
serrated finely above, and with larger serratures below. The opercle is irregularly
pentagonal, with a long, straight margin before, and a concave margin behind,
between two flat spines, in which it ends; the upper spine is rounded and the
longer, the lower is sharp-pointed; and from them is extended back a triangular
fold of skin. The sub-opercle is long, large, sub-pyramidal, with its apex behind
and base before. The inter-opercle is sub-triangular, with its apex before and
truncated. The whole head is covered with scales, except between and in front of
the eye. The gill-openings are very large; there are seven branchial rays.

The dorsal fin is long, large, single, but emarginate; it arises with the ventral,
and ends near the caudal; it has eleven stout spines, the first very short, and the
third longest; the soft portion has seventeen rays. The pectoral is broad and
rounded behind; it begins before the fleshy termination of the opercle, but does
not extend quite as far back as the ventral, and has sixteen rays; both the spinous
and soft portions are covered with small scales for some distance. The ventral is
very large and broad; it arises behind the root of the pectoral, and has one spinous
and five soft rays, the internal of which is joined for half its length by skin to the
belly. The anal is large and elevated; it begins nearly opposite the root of the
third dorsal soft ray, and extends as far back; it has three spines, the anterior very
small, and ten branched rays, and is covered with small scales for half its length.
The caudal is large, broad, and nearly entire, or but slightly lunated, and has
eighteen rays, covered for some distance with minute scales.

The scales are small and regularly unguiform, rounded and ciliated behind,
nearly straight, but with a scalloped margin and eight radiating lines in front.
The lateral line is concurrent with the back and about the superior fourth of the
body; its scale is pyriform, pointed behind; its duct is nearly in the middle, and
begins very broad in front.
5












SERRANUS ERYTHIROGASTER.


COLOUR. The roof of the mouth and pharynx are bright salmon-colour, except
the pharyngeal bones, which are white; the inner margin of the lower jaw is also
salmon-colour, and the tongue has the same tint, except at its tip, which is white;
the head and body above are reddish-brown, with irregular blotches of palest ash-
colour; the belly is salmon-colour; the soft dorsal, caudal, and anal fins are bor-
dered with blue, more or less marked.


DIMENSIONs. The length, from the spine of the opercle to the tip of the tail, is
equal nearly to three heads; the greatest elevation, nearly to one head; total
length, three feet.


SPLANCHNOLOGY. The small intestine is rather capacious, and is longer than the fish itself; it runs
at first nearly to the vent, where it makes a number of short convolutions, and is then reflected to
the pylorus, whence it returns to end in the rectum. The liver is of a dark colour, and small for the
size of the fish; it consists of two lobes, united by a short transverse portion; the left lobe is more
than twice as long as the right, and more than three times its bulk; both have thin margins, and
both terminate pointedly behind. The peritoneum is exceedingly thick, firm, and satin-like, re-
sembling in structure the air-bladder of many fishes. The gall-bladder is but a long tube, extend-
ing behind the right lobe of the liver towards the vent; it is only connected to the lobe by its ducts,
and empties into the intestine very near the pylorus. The stomach is very large, and extends three
fourths of the length of the abdomen, and has exceedingly thick muscular walls. Its pyloric portion
begins about its posterior fifth, and is short. The spleen is short, small, and lies above the small in-
testine. The rectum is more capacious than the small intestine, but has thinner walls, with minute
longitudinal folds; the rectal valve is broad and circular. There are twenty-eight long and rather
stout coscal appendages, nearly surrounding the intestine beyond the pylorus. The air-bladder is
large, conical, rather flattened, with its apex behind and base before; it has exceedingly thick
walls, and on its inferior face is a vascular ganglion, and numerous vessels are seen on its superior.
The urinary bladder is very large. In the empty state, the testicles are long, slender, and have
their margins lobulated.


HABITS. The Grouper is so seldom seen on our coast that nothing can, at
this time, be said of its habits; but in confinement, as it is brought to us from
Key West, it appears very voracious and bold, taking its food even from the hand,
when offered, and always injuring such other species of fish as may be its fellow-
captives.












DIPLECTRUM FASCICULARE.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Grouper is very abundant in the Gulf of
Mexico; it is exceedingly rare on the Carolina coast, though, according to DeKay,
it is sometimes taken as far north as New York.


'GENERAL REMARKS. This fish was first made known to naturalists by Dr.
DeKay, in his Zohlogy of New York.




GENUS DIPLECTRUM.*- Holbrook.


CHARACTERS. Pre-opercle armed with two rounded groups of radiating spines;
sub-opercle with a membranous prolongation behind; jaws without scales; max-
illary, intermaxillary, palatine, and vomerine teeth small and villiform; a few
larger teeth in the lower maxillary and intermaxillary bones; body much elon-
gated, sub-compressed; dorsal fin single, very long, and slightly elevated; bran-
chiostegal rays, seven.



DIPLECTRUM FASCICULARE. Cuv. et Val.

Plate V. Pig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Pre-opercle with two groups of radiating spines; sides
marked with longitudinal lines of ultramarine blue. D. 10 12. P. 15. V.
1-5. A. 3-7. C. 16.


SYNONTMES. Serranus fascicularis, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ii. p. 245, pl. 30; idem,
tom. ix. p. 431.
Serranus fascicularis, DeKay, Zohl. N. Y., part iv. p. 23.
Serranus fascicularis, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 280.
Serranus fascicularis, Storer, Synops., p. 28.
Squirrel-fish, Vulgo.


* Alr, twice, and 7rAXKrpov, a spur.











DIPLECTRUM FASCICULARE.


DESCRIPTION. The body is elongated, sub-compressed, and slightly arched
along the back. The head is large, broad above, though rather contracted between
the eyes, but the snout is full and rounded. The eye is very large, longest in the
horizontal direction; it is placed one diameter and a quarter of the orbit from the
snout, and three diameters from the posterior margin of the opercle, with its infe-
rior margin above the median plane of the head. The anterior and smaller nostril
is midway between the orbit and snout; the posterior is sub-round; both are be-
low the median plane of the eye, and on a line slightly within the orbit. The
mouth is large; the posterior extremity of the superior maxillary bone extends
behind the orbit; the upper lip is tolerably thick and fleshy; the intermaxillary
bones are armed with a group, broad in front, of minute, villiform, pointed, and
card-like or closely-set teeth, with several much larger or canine teeth in front,
and in an outer row. The lower jaw is armed with a patch of teeth similar to
those of the upper, but it has an internal row of larger teeth; these teeth are
largest towards the commissure of the mouth. The vomer has a triangular patch
of minute teeth in front; and the palate a long, narrow group of similar teeth on
each side. The pharyngeals are armed with numerous small, pointed, and slightly
recurved teeth.

The pre-opercle is large, and has two rounded projecting groups of radiating
spines, like spurs, the first at its angle, and the second near the middle of its as-
cending border; between these two groups the margin is incurved, and armed
with a few teeth, and above the superior group it is minutely serrated. The oper-
cle is broad, and terminates behind in two flat spines, the lower one the longer,
and from them projects the skin. The inter-opercle is broad and rounded below.
The head above is covered with scales only to the posterior margin of the orbits,
but nearly to their middle on the sides; the snout, jaws, &c., are naked.

The dorsal fin is single, long, and nearly of the same elevation throughout; it
begins with the pectoral, and ends before the base of the caudal fin; it has ten
delicate spines, the first and second shortest, and twelve soft rays. The pectoral is
rather broad, rounded behind, and has fifteen rays. The ventral arises with the
pectoral fin, and extends rather beyond it; it has one spinous and five soft rays, of












1. 5.


---
;. ;
~i* (1L;
-



C~L~P~i~

~s~-
h._r ..


- r-





6 ~- .7.'.~


T Sinclair's lit, Ph:il


~orrolrur Mu~i~p-~c U











DIPLECTRUM FASCICULARE.


which the second and third are slightly prolonged. The anal begins nearly with
the soft dorsal, but is not as long; it has three delicate spines, the first minute,
the second twice as long, and the third double the length of the second; it has
seven soft rays. The caudal is large and crescentic, with the extremities of the
horns prolonged by two or three of the outer rays; it has sixteen rays.

The scales are small, oblong, unguiform, rounded and ciliated behind, nearly
straight before, with an undulated margin caused by twelve radiating lines. The
lateral line corresponds with the outline of the back to the root of the tail, when
it descends to the median plane; its scale is sub-triangular, with the apex behind,
rounded, and ciliated; the excretory duct terminates in three smaller tubes be-
hind.

COLOUR. The ground colour along the back is brown, with a tint of fawn-
colour, or it is bronzed; the sides are fawn-colour above, silvery below the lateral
line, and are marked with seven or eight horizontal lines of ultra-marine blue;
the first begins at the occiput, is slightly arched inwards, and ends about the sixth
dorsal ray; the second goes from the superior angle of the opercle, and is less
arched; the third departs from the middle of the posterior border of the opercle;
and the fourth from under its angle; the three others become paler and paler, and
finally disappear in the white colour of the belly; the head above is marked with
two or three lines of a similar colour, which run transversely; or they form chev-
rons, with their angles directed forwards; the dorsal fin is semi-transparent, and
marked with alternate lines of pale blue and pale yellow; the anal is trans-
parent, and marked with pale yellow spots; the caudal has numerous cupre-
ous spots arranged in vertical lines; the ventral is pale yellow in front, and
white behind; the posterior part of the palate and the branchial arches are pale
yellow.

DIMENSIONS. There are three heads and a half between the angle of the opercle
and the tip of the tail; the elevation is less than a head without the dorsal fin,
and a head and one eighth with it; total length, fourteen inches.











DIPLECTRUM FASCICULARE.


SPLANCIINOLOGY. The liver is of large size, and the left lobe, which makes the greater portion of
its bulk, extends half as far back as the stomach; the central portion is thick, joins the left lobe
without a fissure, and seems to be continuous with it. The gall-bladder is a long tube, extending
almost as far back as the stomach; it is narrow, and only becomes considerably developed at the
right lobe of the liver. The stomach extends through nearly two thirds of the abdominal cavity;
it is sub-cylindrical, pointed behind, with thick muscular walls; the pyloric portion goes off from
behind the middle, and is short, sub-conical, with very thick walls, and has a remarkable contrac-
tion at the pylorus. The small intestine runs half-way to the vent, and then returns to the pylorus,
whence it is reflected to end in the rectum, with an indistinct rectal valve. There are seven concal
appendages, an inch or more long, though one is often in a rudimental state. The spleen is long,
slender, closely connected to the small intestine and coecal appendages. The air-bladder is large,
as it extends the whole length of the abdomen; it is a little broader before than behind, and has
exceedingly thin and transparent walls.


HABITS. Little can be said of the habits of this fish; it however appears in
our waters in May or June, and remains until November; it is occasionally taken
with the hook on the Black-fish grounds, but is never abundant.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Squirrel-fish is found along the Atlantic
coast of America from Brazil to the Carolinas, which must for the present be
considered as its extreme northern limit.


GENERAL REMARKs. This animal was first described by Cuvier and Valen-
ciennes, in the second volume of their great work on Ichthyology, as the Serranus
fascicularis; and subsequently, much more fully, in the seventh volume, from
specimens taken in Carolina. Although the Squirrel-fish has many of the charac-
ters of the true Serrani, yet it differs from them in so many others, as in its
elongated form and but slightly compressed body, its long but slightly elevated
dorsal fin, with the spinous and soft portions of the same height, and in the
two rounded groups of radiating spines at its pre-opercle, that I have estab-
lished for it the genus Diplectrum.











POMOXIS HEXACANTHUS.


GENUS POMOXIS. -Rafinesque.

CHARACTERS. Mouth large; lower jaw very prominent; maxillary, palatine,
and vomerine teeth small, villiform; tongue armed with minute teeth near its
root; pre-opercle minutely serrated; opercle bifurcate at its angle; anal spines
more than three; body sub-oval, elevated, compressed; dorsal fin single, large,
elevated, no depression between the spinous and branched rays; anal large, soft
portion larger than the spinous; branchiostegal rays, six.

REMARKS. This genus was established by Rafinesque to receive his Pomoxis
sideration. The fishes of this genus have several characters in common with those
of Centrarchus; yet they may each be easily recognized, for in the one the mouth
is small; in the other it is large, and the lower jaw is heavy and prominent.



POMOXIS HEXACANTHUS. Valenciennes.

Plate VI. Fig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Anal fin with six spines; body above dusky, tinted
with bluish-green; sides and belly silvery, and marked with oblong bluish-green
blotches, disposed without regularity. D. 7-15. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 6 17.
C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Centrarchus sparoides, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iii. p. 88.
Centrarchus hexacanthus, Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. vii. p. 458, pl. 48.
Centrarchus hexacanthus, Kirt., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iii. p. 480, pl. 29, fig. 2.
Centrarchus hexacanthus, DeKay, ZoSl. N. Y., part iv. p. 31.
Cichla Storeria, Kirt., Rep. ZoSl. Ohio, p. 191.
Centrarchus hexacanthus, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 296.
Centrarchus hexacanthus, Storer, Synops., p. 38.
Goggle-eye, or Goggle-eye Perch, Vuigo.











POMOXIS HEXACANTHUS.


DESCRIPTION. This fish is of an ovoidal form, much compressed, arched, thin
both at the back and belly, the thickest part being just above the lateral line.
The head is long, thin, elevated, but incurved above the eyes, and the snout is
rounded, though narrow. The eye is very large, and near the facial outline, with
its lower margin at the median plane of the head; the nostrils are round, very
near together, and about midway between the eye and snout, though on a line
within the orbit; the posterior is the larger.

The mouth, though compressed, is large, as the broad posterior extremity of
the upper jaw extends beyond the middle of the orbit. The lower jaw has a lip
of tolerable thickness, and is so much longer than the upper as to make part of the
facial outline above when the mouth is shut. There is a large pore on each side
on the inferior face of the lower jaw. Both the upper and lower jaws are armed
with broad patches of small, short, conical, pointed, and slightly recurved teeth,
all nearly of the same size, except a few in front, which are a little longer than
the others. The tongue is round and free in front, with two parallel groups of
very minute teeth near its base. There is also a small patch of similar minute
teeth on the vomer; and an elongated, extremely narrow group on each palate-
bone. The pharyngeals are furnished with closely-set teeth, similar in form to
those of the jaws, but some of them are rather larger.

The pre-opercle is but slightly rounded at its angle, where it is marked with
minute serratures. The opercle is rather small, sub-triangular, its apex behind,
and bifurcated in two nearly equal-sized flat spines. The sub-opercle is long,
narrow, four-sided, and extends a little farther back than the opercle, and from it
hangs most of the fleshy appendix. The inter-opercle is narrow and semicircular.
The jugal bones are minutely serrated. The head is smooth above, but the
cheeks, pre-opercle, and opercle are covered with scales; the sub-opercle has
but a single row of large scales. There are several large pores along the sub-
opercle, pre-opercle; and above, behind, and under the orbit; and below the in-
ferior maxillary bone.

The dorsal fin is single, with its soft portion greatly elevated; it arises in a line










POMOXIS IIEXACANTHUS.


nearly vertical with the middle of the pectoral, and has seven spines, the anterior
minute, and fifteen soft rays. The pectoral begins at the opercle and extends to
the root of the third dorsal spine; it has twelve rays. The ventral begins nearly
in a line with the pectoral, and terminates with it at the first anal spine; it has
one stout spine and five soft rays. The anal begins with the soft dorsal, though
it continues farther back, and is more elevated; it has six spines and seventeen
soft rays. The caudal is large, broad, slightly crescentic, and has seventeen rays.

The scales are nearly semicircular, with the diameter in front, rounded behind,
and not ciliated. The lateral line is well marked; it corresponds with the dorsal
outline, and runs near the junction of the middle and superior thirds of the body;
its scales are sub-triangular, the bases before and the apices behind, and rounded
or very slightly cordate; the excretory tube is single and large.

COLOUR. The head and body above are more or less dusky, and shaded with
bluish-green; the lower jaw, sides, and belly are silvery, and marked with bluish-
green blotches, more or less distinct, and placed without much regularity. The
pectoral is of the faintest yellow tint; the ventral is yellowish, but very pale near
its root, and bluish at its extremity; the dorsal is semi-transparent, rather dusky,
and with numerous yellowish spots, more or less bright, in the connecting mem-
brane of the rays, those near the root of the fin being brightest; the anal is col-
oured like the dorsal; the caudal is like the anal, but more dusky.

DIMENsIONs. The length from the opercle to the tip of the caudal fin is equal
to two heads and a half; the elevation, to one head and a quarter; total length,
twelve inches.

SPLANOHNOLOGY. The liver is of moderate size, and without any marks of lobes in front; but its
posterior margin is subdivided into three lobes, of which the left is longest and the right shortest.
The gall-bladder is large, round, with very thin walls, near the right lobe, and partly concealed by
it. The stomach is large, broad, thick, and with firm walls, especially behind the pyloric portion,
which is short and goes off at a right angle rather beyond its middle. The pyloric valve is well
marked. The small intestine runs nearly to the vent; it is then reflected to the pylorus, whence it
returns to end in the rectum without a valve. There are eight long, slender, delicate ccccal
6











RHYPTICUS MACULATUS.


appendages. The spleen is small, flattened, very dark, and is placed mostly on the left side. The
air-bladder is very extensive, with thin walls; it is rounded in front, but behind it bifurcates, and
the two horns are prolonged for some distance on each side of the origin of the anal fin. The
ovaries are large, conical, and rather flattened. The urinary bladder is large.

HABITs. The Goggle-eye inhabits ponds and streams of running water, though
perhaps it prefers the former; it feeds on various insects.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Pomoxis hexacantaus has a wide geographi-
cal range. Sir John Richardson found it in Lake Huron, Lesueur in the Wabash
River, Bosc in Carolina, and Professor Agassiz has received it from Lake Erie.

GENERAL REMARKS. Cuvier and Valenciennes gave the first description of this
animal, and, supposing it to be identical with the Labrus sparoides of Lac6pede,
which is also a Carolina fish, they continued his specific name. But subsequent
examinations convinced them of their error, when they applied to it the specific
name hexacanthus, which it now bears.




GENUS RHYPTICUS.*- Cuvier.


CHARACTERS. Opercle and pre-opercle furnished with spines, but neither is ser-
rated; teeth small, villiform; scales minute, and imbedded in the epidermis; dor-
sal fin with never more than four spines; branchiostegal rays, seven.



RHYPTICUS MACULATUS. Holbrook.

Plate VI. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Dorsal fin with.two spines; head and body above olive-
brown, with whitish spots scattered above the median plane; lower jaw and belly
pale drab-colour. D. 2 25. P. 15. V. 1- 5. A. 15. C. 16.


* Family Percidoe.











RHYPTICUS MACULATUS.


DESCRIPTION. This fish is of a semi-oval form, compressed, very regularly
arched above, from the snout to the root of the caudal fin, and nearly straight
below; it is rather thicker at the back than at the belly. The head is long, nar-
row, not much elevated, especially between the eyes, and the snout is rounded.
The eye is very large, prominent, near the facial outline, with its inferior margin
above the median plane of the head; it is about one diameter of the orbit from
the snout, and two diameters and a half from the posterior border of the bony
opercle; the iris is reddish-brown, with a greenish tint, and the pupil is dark.
The nostrils are very small, round, and near the orbit.

The mouth, though compressed, is large, and the broad posterior extremity of
the superior maxillary bone extends beyond the orbit. The lower jaw is longer
than the upper, and projects so far beyond it, when the mouth is shut, as to make
part of the facial outline; both are armed with numerous crowded, villiform teeth.
The vomer is furnished with a large, sub-triangular group; and the palate-bones
have each a large, slender patch of similar teeth, and the pharyngeal bones are
armed with teeth of the same form. The tongue is rather long, narrow, smooth,
and very free. The pre-opercle is rounded both behind and below, and is fur-
nished with two stout spines near the superior part of its ascending border. The
opercle is sub-quadrilateral, with three spines behind, of which the central is
longest, and from them is extended a triangular fold of skin. The sub-opercle
is quadrilateral, though rather rounded behind. The inter-opercle is semi-lunar.
The gill-openings are large.

The dorsal fin is single, entire, and very long, as it begins nearly on a line
vertical with the anterior fourth of the pectoral, and extends almost to the root
of the caudal; it has two short spines, that are so far removed from its soft por-
tion as to represent an anterior dorsal, and it thus differs entirely from the
R1/,,ilXw;' saponaceus of Cuvier and Valenciennes; it has twenty-five soft rays,
mostly covered with skin. The pectoral is large, broad, and rounded behind; it
begins at the soft appendix of the opercle, and has fifteen rays. The ventrals are
very small, near together, and begin rather before the pectorals, but are only about
half as long; they have each one spine and five soft rays. The anal is very











RHYPTICUS MACULATUS.


short, though as much elevated as the dorsal, with which it is conterminal behind;
it has fifteen rays, but no spine. The caudal is broad and rounded behind, with
sixteen rays.

The scales are minute, and are deeply embedded in the epidermis, and are at all
times covered with a thick mucous secretion. The lateral line is arched, and ele-
vated opposite the dorsal spines, but it gradually descends to the median plane.


COLOUR. The head above, as well as the upper half of the body, is olive-brown,
with several whitish spots above the median plane; the lower jaw and belly are
pale drab-colour; the pectoral fin is dusky at its root, and reddish-brown at its
margin; the ventral is pale reddish-brown before, and white behind; the roots of
the dorsal and of the anal fins are olive-brown, and the external half of each is
olive-colour; the caudal is olive-brown.


DIMENSIONs. The entire length, from the spine of the opercle to the tip of the
caudal, is equal to three heads and a quarter; the greatest elevation, without the
dorsal fin, is one head and one third; total length, eight inches.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver is very large, compressed, and appears as one mass at first sight, since
the marks of separation into lobes can be seen from above only, where the left lobe sends a small
lobule upwards and forwards; the right lobe is about half as long as the left, and terminates behind
in two lobules, while the left ends in a point. The gall-bladder is slender and rather long. The
stomach is large and long, as it extends three fourths the length of the abdomen, and is pointed
behind; its walls are very thick, and there are strong longitudinal folds on its inner surface; the
pyloric portion is small, slender, short, and has thinner walls ; the intestine runs to the vent, and is
then reflected nearly to the diaphragm, whence it returns to end in the rectum, which is very short,
and has a remarkable rectal valve; there are four small coecal appendages. The air-bladder is
very large, extending the whole length of the abdomen; it is sub-conical in form, the base is ante-
rior and rounded, and the apex behind and pointed; its walls are thin.


HABITS. Nothing is known to me of the habits of the RhyIpticus maculatus.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. This fish has been observed only on the coast of
South Carolina.













PIN'.

















































- 1.Tf


T Smclair's ~i Phl-











CENTROPRISTES ATRARIUS.


GENERAL REMARKS. The Rhypticus maculatus is the only species of the genus
hitherto observed in our waters; and of this species I have only seen one, which
was taken off Cape Romain. At first sight, it bears a striking resemblance to the
Rhypticus saponaceus of Cuvier and Valenciennes, yet it differs from that animal
in its colour, in the number and disposition of its dorsal spines, and in the form
of its air-bladder.




GENUS CENT ROPR ISTES.*- Cuvier.


CHARACTERS. Maxillary, intermaxillary, palatine, and vomerine teeth villiform,
and nearly of the same size; pre-opercle dentated; opercle with two spines;
dorsal fin single; branchiostegal rays, seven.



CENTROPRISTES ATRARIUS. Linceus.

Plate VII. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Head and mouth very large; back arched; sides bluish-
black above, lighter below; membrane of dorsal fin dusky, with irregular whitish
lines. D. 10-11. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3 7. C. 17.

SYNONYIES. Perca atraria, Lin., Syst. Nat., tom. i. p. 485.
Perca atraria, Gmel., Ed. Syst. Nat., tom. i. pars iii. p. 1314.
Lutjan trilob4, Lacep., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iv. p. 137.
Black-fish, Vulgo.


DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish is somewhat oblong, but when its capacious
mouth and large gill-openings are extended, it appears almost sub-triangular. The
head is very large, and more or less elevated between the eyes, with the snout full


* Family Percide.










CENTROPRISTES ATRARIUS.


and rounded. The eye is large and prominent; the pupil is deep sea-blue, and
the iris a dusky gray, with an inner margin of bright yellow. The nostrils are
closely approximated, and on a line within the superior border of the orbit, though
on a plane rather below it; the posterior is sub-round, the anterior and smaller is
round, and about half-way between the orbit and snout. The mouth is very large;
the lips are thin; the upper jaw is protractile, the lower is rather the longer; and
both are furnished with numerous irregular series of small, closely set, conical,
sharp-pointed, and recurved teeth, all nearly of the same size, except those of the
external row, which are larger, farther apart, and less pointed. The vomer has in
front a triangular group; and the palate-bones have an oblong patch of similar
teeth, the latter being rather shorter and more scattered. The pharyngeal bones
are covered with teeth of similar form, but directed more backwards, and some few
along their inner margins are rather longer and more slender.

The pre-opercle is rounded at its angle, with its ascending border vertical, or
directed slightly backwards; both angle and border are finely serrated, the serra-
tures being rather larger below. The bony opercle terminates in two flat, exposed
spines, the superior larger, the inferior very small, but the skin is continued be-
yond the superior for some little distance, and ends in an obtuse point. The
whole head is covered with scales, except the cheeks, snout, and the space between
the eyes; those on the opercle are nearly as large as the scales of the body. The
gill-openings are exceedingly capacious; the supra-scapular bone is rather large,
and serrated behind.

The body is short and thick; the shoulders are much elevated, but descend
rapidly towards the tail. The dorsal fin begins above the root of the pectoral, and
ends about an inch before the caudal, though, when folded, the tips of the last
rays reach it; it has ten spines, the anterior very short, and the third longest, and
each has a small delicate filament near its tip; there are eleven soft rays, the
seventh, eighth, and ninth prolonged to make the fin end in a point. The pec-
toral is rather large, broad, rounded posteriorly, and extends beyond the vent; it
has eighteen rays. The ventral is broad and strong; it begins with the pectoral,
and terminates in a point before the vent, and has one spine and five soft rays.










CENTROPRISTES ATRARIUS.


The anal arises nearly opposite the junction of the spinous and soft portions of the
dorsal fin, and has three spines, the anterior very short, and seven soft rays; the
third and fourth are prolonged, and give a pointed form to the end of the fin. The
dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins are covered with scales for nearly one fourth of their
extent. The caudal has seventeen rays, and is trilobate when perfect, as the upper
and lower margins are prolonged, and the central portion is rounded and project-
ing; this shape of the tail is not, however, always present; when not, its border
is irregular.

The scales are large, sub-pentagonal, rounded behind, and finely ciliated. The
lateral line is concurrent with the back, and runs along the upper third of the
body to the extremity of the origin of the dorsal fin, where it descends to the
median plane; its scales are smaller than the others, sub-round, with the ciliated
portion prolonged, and more or less notched.

COLOUR. The Black-fish presents considerable variety in its colour, but is in
general dusky-brown, or even bluish-black along the back. Each scale has a
dusky margin, with a transparent spot in its middle, that allows the black skin to
be seen under it; the dark margin in the scales below the lateral line is very
small, and consequently the sides and belly are of a much lighter colour than along
the back, where the transparent spot is but small. The head is dusky above, often
tinted with green or olive. The tongue is white, though the roof of the mouth
and the fauces both above and below are pale yellow. The membrane of the dor-
sal fin is dusky, often with a bluish tint, and has several series of elongated spots,
of a pale olive-colour or dirty white, which are so disposed as to make three
longitudinal interrupted lines in the spinous, and five in the soft portion. The
anal fin is also dusky, with similar lines, but less distinct and regular; the other
fins are more or less dusky.

DIMENSIONs. The length from the opercle to the tip of the tail is equal to
three heads ; the elevation, without the dorsal fin, to one head and one twentieth;
total length, twenty inches.











CENTROPRISTES ATRARIUS.


SPLACIINOLOGY. The liver is large, and of rather a pale colour; the transverse portion is thick, and
joined without a fissure to the left lobe, which is tolerably thick and subtriquetral in front, slender
and pointed at its termination, which is rather beyond the anterior third of the abdomen; the right
lobe is about half as long, and both project pointedly into the hypochondriac regions at their supe-
rior part. The gall-bladder is large, and situated behind the right lobe, even as far back as the
posterior extremity of the left. The stomach is large, and ends in a point at the posterior fourth of
the abdomen; the pyloric branch is short, goes off at an acute angle from its posterior third, and is
nearly as broad as the stomach itself; it has thick walls, and is greatly contracted at the pylorus.
The small intestine runs to the vent; it is then reflected to the pylorus, whence it returns to end in
the rectum. There are seven coccal appendages. The spleen is small, dark purple, sub-oval,
flattened, with acute margins, and is concealed by the last convolution of the small intestine. The
air-bladder is large, oblong, with two or three small pouches or sacs on each side of its anterior
part; the most anterior of these are the largest. The testicles are oblong, pointed before, and unite
far back. The kidneys are narrow; and the ureters are slightly developed behind, and make a
small urinary bladder.


HABITS. The Black-fish is very voracious; it feeds on any animal substance
whatever, whether dead or alive, and is consequently easily taken with the hook.
In its stomach I have often found small fish of various genera, and parts of such
as were too large to be swallowed whole, as well as small crabs, shrimps, &c. It
abounds in shallow, as well as in deep waters, even of twenty-five fathoms or
more, where the largest were taken; but fish of a smaller size are caught in
the mouth of our river, or even from the wharves of our city. It is so abundant,
that it may be found every day in our market, and is always sold alive; and yet,
notwithstanding the many thus destroyed, it is so prolific that its numbers ap-
pear undiminished.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Centropristes atrarius inhabits the Atlantic
coast of the United States, from Cape Florida to Cape Fear in North Carolina,
which must for the present be considered as its northernmost limit.


GENERAL REMARKS. This animal, it appears to me, is the Perca atraria of
Linneus, which, he says, was sent him from Charleston, by Dr. Garden, who
called it Black-fish; a name in fact applied to it from the earliest settlement of
our State. Nor is there any other fish of this same colour with which it could











CENTROPRISTES TRIFURCA.


possibly be confounded, the Tautoga Americana excepted; but this animal was not
introduced to our waters until about fifty years since.*

In 1788, Schoepff t described a fish that he found in the waters of New York,
there called, as he says, Sea Bass or Black-fish," and which he supposed to be
an undescribed species, for he observes: The Carolina Black-fish of Dr. Garden,
or Perca atraria, L., seems in some particulars to approach near it; but in the
number and character of its fin-rays is widely different." This fish of Schoepff
is also the Corypliena nigrescens of Bloch; the Perca varia of Mitchill; and
the Centropristes nigricans of Cuvier and Valenciennes, which they consider as
identical with the Perca atraria of Linnaeus, and in this they have been followed
by all our ichthyologists. In fact, these two fishes are so much alike in form,
colour, &c., as hardly to be distinguished at first sight; yet they are not only
different animals, but have an entirely different geographical distribution; the one
inhabits the waters north of Cape Hatteras, while the other is only found south
of it. The external mark most to be relied on, in determining these species, is
the comparative length of the pectoral fin, which is longer than the ventral in the
Southern species, and conterminal with it in the Northern.' But the most distinc-
tive character is found in the shape of the air-bladder, which is always sacculated
in the Centropristes atrarius, and never in the Centropristes nigricans.



CENTROPRISTES TRIFURCA. Linncus.

Plate VII. Fig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body marked with seven dusky bars; dorsal spines
with filaments, those of the third, fourth, and fifth as long as the spines them-
selves; tail- trifurcate. D. 10- 11. P. 16. V. 1 5. A. 3 8. C. 17.

In the year 1800, General Thomas Pinckney imported from Rhode Island several hundred Tautog,
together with many Lobsters. These he distributed in the sea at the eastern extremity of Sullivan's
Island; the lobsters soon died out, but the fish increased and multiplied, and are now common, though
not abundant.
t Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund., b. viii. st. 2, p. 164.











CENTROPRISTES TRIFURCA.


SYNONYMES. Perca trifurca, Lin., Syst. Nat. tom. i. p. 489.
Perca trifurca, Gmel., Ed. Syst. Nat., tom. i. pars iii. p. 1316.
Lutjanus tridens, Lacep., I-ist. Nat. Poiss., torn. ii. p. 137.
Centropristes trifurca, COw. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iii. p. 43.
Centropristes trifurca, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part iv. p. 25.
Centropristes trifurca, Storer, Mnem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 287.
Centropristes trifurca, Storer, Synops., p. 35.
Rock Black-fish, Vulgo.


DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish is more oblong, and the outline of the back
is much less arched, than in the preceding species; the head is also smaller, less
prominent, or is even flattened between the eyes; and the snout, instead of being
rounded, is truncated. The eyes are very large and prominent, and their upper
margin is on a plane with the outline of the head above; the pupil is black and
the iris golden, intermixed with gray. The posterior nostril is round, and about
the middle plane of the eye; the anterior is the smaller, and is placed on a line
without the superciliary ridge, and about midway between the orbit and snout, but
on a line rather within the edge of .the orbit.

The mouth is large, the posterior extremity of the upper jaw reaching to the
middle of the orbit. The upper jaw is protractile, though less so than in Centro-
pristes atrarius, and the lower projects slightly beyond the upper; both are armed
with numerous small, sharp-pointed teeth, nearly all of the same size, except the
anterior, which are slightly longer than the rest. The tongue is small, very nar-
row, triangular, smooth, thick at its root, pointed, and very free in front. The pre-
opercle has its angle rounded and minutely serrated, with its ascending border
directed a little forwards, and finely serrated. The opercle is sub-triangular, pro-
longed behind in a round fleshy appendix, and furnished with two flat spines
placed near together; the superior is large, and the inferior minute. The head is
covered with scales, except the snout, cheeks, and under the eyes to the upper jaw,
and between the eyes; those of the opercle are large, except near the angle, where
they are small. The gill-openings are very extensive; there are seven branchi-
ostegal rays; the supra-scapular is small, but strongly serrated behind.










CENTROPRISTES TRIFURCA.


The dorsal fin is long, and begins rather before the termination of the fleshy
opercle, and ends in a point at the root of the caudal; it has ten compressed,
slightly curved, sharp-pointed spines, of which the anterior is very short, the sec-
ond twice its length, and the third and fourth are double the length of the second;
from this they gradually decrease to the tenth; each spine has a delicate filament
appended to it, which in the third, fourth, and fifth are as long as the spines them-
selves; the soft portion has eleven rays; the seventh, eighth, and ninth are pro-
longed, and give a pointed form to the fin. The pectoral fin is long, broad,
rounded behind, and ends before the vent; it has sixteen rays, with a semicircular
fold of skin in the axilla above. The ventral is short, rather broad, and begins
with the pectoral, but is shorter and has one spine and five soft rays. The anal is
very long; it arises nearly opposite the root of the third dorsal soft ray, and ex-
tends almost to the root of the caudal; it has three spines, the anterior very small,
and eight soft rays, of which the fourth, fifth, and sixth are prolonged like the
dorsal fin. The caudal is elongated, with seventeen rays; those of the margin
above and below, as well as some of the central ones, are so prolonged as to give
the tail a tridentate appearance.

The scales are rather large, sub-pentagonal, with two faces of the pentagon
meeting at a very obtuse angle behind, where it is finely but strongly serrated; its
anterior margin has eight radiating strike. The lateral line is concurrent with the
back, and at about the upper third of the body; its scale is sub-triangular, with its
base before, and its apex behind and rounded; the tube is near its middle.

COLOUR. The head is of a bronzed colour above, and marked with cupreous
and bluish lines from the eye to the upper jaw and lip, which is of a coppery tint
along its inferior border; the root of the tongue, the branchial arches, as well as
the roof of the mouth, are bright yellow; the lower jaw is white; the body above
the lateral line is gray, with a purple tint; below the lateral line it is silvery; the
sides are marked with six dusky-gray vertical bars, darkest near the back; the
membrane uniting the spines of the dorsal fin is transparent in front, or shaded
with olive spots; and behind, near the root of the three last spines, is an irregular
black spot; the filaments of the spines are red; the soft portion of the dorsal is











CENTROPRISTES TRIFURCA.


transparent, with a row of cupreous spots near its base, and spots of similar colour
are disposed without regularity near its margin, which is also cupreous; the pec-
toral is transparent; the ventral is white, tinted blue in its posterior third, and
yellow in its anterior part; the lateral line is marked by a succession of oblong
dark spots arranged in pairs; the anal is semi-transparent, with a broad yellow
band passing through its middle, above which it is white, and the margin is blue;
the tail is of a pale bluish tint, more or less transparent, with many yellowish-
orange spots.


DIMENSIONS. The length from the opercle to the root of the caudal fin is equal
to two heads; the greatest elevation of the body is one sixth of a head; total
length, twelve inches.

SPLANCINOLOGY. The liver is large and of a very pale colour; it consists of two lobes, with a cen-
tral or transverse portion, so joined to the left lobe as to leave no mark of separation, and making
with it more than four fifths of the organ; the right lobe is exceedingly small, and is separated from
the central part by a well-marked fissure; both lobes send processes into the hypochondria, but that
of the right is very short. The gall-bladder is but a long, narrow tube, reaching nearly half the
length of the abdominal cavity; the stomach is large, long, sub-cylindrical, though pointed behind,
and has thick walls; its pyloric branch departs rather in front of its posterior third, is very short,
and has its pyloric contraction well marked. The air-bladder is very small, and has thin walls.

HABITS. The Centropristes trifurca, unlike the last-described animal, is never
found, so far as I know, in deep water, but is common in the harbor of Charleston;
yet it is only seen in the summer months, and is never abundant; parts of crusta-
ceous animals, as well as small fish, have been found in its stomach.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. This fish has been hitherto observed only in the
waters of South Carolina and Georgia.


GENERAL REMARKS. The Centropristes trifurca was first described by Linneus,
and succeeding naturalists have, to this time, only copied his description.










PI.VII.


- -


~-~

., k~Q~Se~i Ir~S~i-
r~a~-
~i~b~.ljt I~c~i~TI1


C.. AC1A


TE Sincair's --F1,- i I


~:::.. ~~
-~
s-~-~--


3N


~c-











GENUS SARGUS.


FAMILY SPARID E.- Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Jaws not protractile; neither vomerine nor palatine teeth; pre-
opercle and opercle without spines or serratures; dorsal fin single; scales ctenoid
and large, generally thin, and broader than long; branchiostegal rays never more
than six.

REMARKS. This family was founded by Cuvier, chiefly on the genus Sparus of
Artedi, the celebrated Swedish ichthyologist, to include only those species with
non-protractile jaws, and it comprises several genera. Prior to the publication of
the work of Cuvier and Valenciennes, there existed in no family of fishes so much
confusion; nor any in which such a number of animals belonging to entirely
different genera and families were included. Valenciennes, especially, one of the
best ichthyologists of our time, has, by his researches, cleared up the obscurity
that rested on this subject.*




GENUS SARGUS.-Klein.

CHARACTERS. Jaws not. protractile; trenchant incisor teeth in both jaws;
molar teeth in several series, sub-conical, rounded at their apices and paved;
branchiostegal rays, five.

REMARKS. Klein established his genus Sargus to receive certain fishes with
flattened, truncated, incisor teeth, and he consequently included in it many fishes
having this character in common, although they belong in reality to very different
genera. It was Cuvier who first restricted this genus within the proper natural
limits above stated.


* Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. vi. p. 1 et seq.


1 53











GENUS SARGUS.


FAMILY SPARID E.- Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Jaws not protractile; neither vomerine nor palatine teeth; pre-
opercle and opercle without spines or serratures; dorsal fin single; scales ctenoid
and large, generally thin, and broader than long; branchiostegal rays never more
than six.

REMARKS. This family was founded by Cuvier, chiefly on the genus Sparus of
Artedi, the celebrated Swedish ichthyologist, to include only those species with
non-protractile jaws, and it comprises several genera. Prior to the publication of
the work of Cuvier and Valenciennes, there existed in no family of fishes so much
confusion; nor any in which such a number of animals belonging to entirely
different genera and families were included. Valenciennes, especially, one of the
best ichthyologists of our time, has, by his researches, cleared up the obscurity
that rested on this subject.*




GENUS SARGUS.-Klein.

CHARACTERS. Jaws not. protractile; trenchant incisor teeth in both jaws;
molar teeth in several series, sub-conical, rounded at their apices and paved;
branchiostegal rays, five.

REMARKS. Klein established his genus Sargus to receive certain fishes with
flattened, truncated, incisor teeth, and he consequently included in it many fishes
having this character in common, although they belong in reality to very different
genera. It was Cuvier who first restricted this genus within the proper natural
limits above stated.


* Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. vi. p. 1 et seq.


1 53











SARGUS OVIS.


SARGUS OVIS. 3,/. I,77I.

Plate VIII.Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Form semi-oval, compressed; head dusky above; body
gray above, silvery-white at the sides, with six or seven vertical dusky bars; belly
white; mouth small, with six or eight quadrilateral, trenchant, incisor teeth in
each jaw; and two or three rows of rounded, sub-conical, paved, molar teeth. D.
12 12. P. 16. V. 1 5. A. 3 11. C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Sparus Shl .:..l:i,' -, '. :,'-, Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund., b. vii. st. ii. p. 152.
Sparus ovis, Mitch., Trans. Lit. et Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 392, pl. 11, fig. 5.
Sargus ovis, Cwv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. vi. p. 53.
Sargus ovis, 'N.... .', Report, &c., p. 36.
Sargus ovis, DeKay, Zojl. N. Y., part iv. p. 89, pl. 8, fig. 23.
Sargus ovis, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 260.
Sargus ovis, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 332.
Sargus ovis, Storer, Synops., p. 80.
Sargus ovis, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S. vol. v. p. 126, pl. 10, fig. 1.
Sheepshead, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. This fish is of a semi-oval form, compressed, thicker and nearly
straight at the belly, thinner and greatly arched along the back, with its greatest
elevation opposite the sixth dorsal spine. The head is large, compressed, elevated,
full between the orbits, which are prominent, and with the snout rather narrow,
though rounded. The eyes are large, near the facial outline, and about three
diameters of the orbit above the angle of the pre-opercle, three from the anterior
extremities of the incisor teeth, and two diameters from the angle of the opercle.
The pupil is deep sea-blue, and the iris silver-gray, with an internal golden margin.
The nostrils are double; the posterior and larger is a narrow, elliptical fissure,
nearly horizontal, but a little higher behind, and placed near the orbit, though
about the median plane of the eye; the anterior is small, round, and on the same
level, but nearer the mesial line.










SARGUS OVIS. 55

The mouth is small, as it does not extend as far back as the anterior nostril;
the lips are thick and fleshy, but not protractile. The lower jaw is rather shorter
than the upper, and both are armed with four incisor and two canine teeth; the
latter are turned inwards ; within these are two or three series of short, stout, sub-
conical teeth, round at their tips, and disposed like paving-stones. There are
neither vomerine nor palatine teeth; but the pharyngeal bones are provided with
numerous conical, pointed, recurved teeth. The tongue is soft, smooth, thick,
round in front, and but slightly movable.

The pre-opercle is rounded at its angle, with its ascending border nearly ver-
tical, or but slightly directed forwards, and is marked with depressions and radi-
ating elevations. The opercle is narrow in the antero-posterior direction, and
terminates behind in an obtuse angle; it is covered with scales, but the rest of the
head is smooth, except a patch of four or five rows of scales, which run from the
anterior margin of the pre-opercle, between the posterior part of the orbit and the
commissure of the mouth. The gill-openings are large; there are five branchial
rays. From the supra-scapular ascends forwards a remarkable row of large scales,
that marks the limit of the head; in front of this row are two or three series of
smaller scales.

The dorsal fin is single, elevated, large, and preceded by a short recumbent
spine, often concealed by flesh; it begins with the pectoral, and ends behind with
the anal; it has twelve spines, the anterior short, and the fifth longest; they are
all convex in front, concave behind, flattened at the sides, or ensiform in shape,
and all are received in a groove when the fin is closed; the soft portion is round at
its extremity, and has twelve rays, with their inferior fifth protected by a wall of
scales, but without any attachment. The pectoral is long, narrow, sub-falciform,
thick at its root, and terminates pointedly behind; it has sixteen rays. The ven-
tral fin is large; it begins nearly opposite the origin of the fourth dorsal spine,
and has five soft rays, with one spine about three fourths their length; in the
axilla above there is a long, narrow, bony plate, nearly half as long as the fin, and
covered with scales. The anal arises in a line behind the origin of the soft portion
of the dorsal, and has three spines; the anterior is very small, the second long,










SARGUS OVIS.


broad, strong, and the third as long as the- second, but more slender; there are
eleven soft rays, the anterior of which, as well as the spines, is received in a
groove when the fin is closed; but the others have their roots only protected by
scales, for one fifth their distance, making an imperfect groove. The caudal is
strong, forked, covered with adherent scales for some distance, and has seventeen
rays.

The scales are sub-quadrilateral, rounded behind, with a soft, ciliated margin,
and slightly concave before; they are large, tolerably adherent, and are so imbri-
cated as to have a sub-rhomboid appearance. The lateral line is concurrent with
the outline of the back, and runs along the upper third of the body, to the origin
of the last dorsal ray, when it descends to the median plane; its scale is smaller
than those of the body in general, and has its tube beginning with several branches
behind, and ending in a large duct in front.

COLOUR. The head is rather dusky above, and often with a bronzed or greenish
tint; the body is silver-gray above, more or less dark, and shining silvery-white at
the sides, and marked with seven transverse, bluish-black bars; the first runs from
the shoulders to the gill-openings; the second, from the anterior part of the
spinous dorsal to behind the root of the pectoral fin; the third, from the sixth
dorsal spine to the middle of the pectoral; the fourth, from the ninth spine of the
dorsal to the posterior extremity of the pectoral; the fifth passes from the three or
four first rays of the dorsal to corresponding rays of the anal fin; the sixth, from
the extremity of the dorsal to the extremity of the anal; and the seventh is placed
at the root of the caudal fin; all these bands are directed a little backward, except
the last two, which are vertical. The old animal becomes more dusky, the head is
almost black, and the silver colour of the sides of the body quite a dusky-gray.
The membrane of the spinous part of the dorsal is semi-transparent, with occa-
sional faint tints of palest olive, or bluish-brown; the spines are white at their
tip; the soft portion is semi-transparent, slightly shaded with dusky-gray; the
pectoral is black at its root only; the rest is semi-transparent, and in places more
or less shaded; the ventral has the spines and rays of a light colour, and the mem-
brane of a bluish tint, almost white behind; the second anal spine is dirty white,
the rays and membrane bluish-black, with occasional lighter tints.











SARGUS OVIS.


DIMENSIONs. The head is one fourth of the entire length; the elevation of the
body is rather more than one head and a half without the dorsal fin, and nearly
two heads with it; total length, two feet.


SPLANCHNOLOGY. The peritoneum is silvery, pointed with innumerable black dots, so as to give it
a dusky tinge. The stomach is rather small, and does not extend more than half the length of the
abdomen; its walls are not very thick; the pyloric portion begins far back, is narrower than the
stomach, and has thicker walls. The small intestine is long, more than twice the length of the
body, and makes several convolutions, connected by a loose fold of mesentery. The liver is of
moderate size; the left lobe is the largest, though it does not extend as far back as the stomach;
the transverse portion is thick, and projects backward to make a kind of third lobe ; the right lobe
is smaller, and has a deep fissure between it and the middle portion; both lobes send pointed pro-
longations to the hypochondria, especially the left; the gall-bladder is long, sub-cylindrical, and
convoluted at the place where it terminates in the cystic duct, which is also long and large. The
air-bladder is large, and terminates rather broad in front, with a small, short, delicate horn, ascend-
ing perpendicularly before the anterior rib; its walls are remarkably thick and strong; its inner
membrane is very delicate, and can be easily separated from the external; on its internal and in-
ferior face is a large vascular ganglion ; the testicles unite behind, and open into a large cavity ; the
ureters unite in one, and thus open into a large urinary bladder.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The S.r,,nls. ovis inhabits the Atlantic shores of
America, from Massachusetts, where it has been observed by Dr. Storer, to Cape
Florida, where it has been seen by Major Leconte; from this it ranges along the
northern shores of the Gulf of Mexico, even as far west as Lake Pontchartrain,
near New Orleans.


GENERAL REMARKS. Schoepff, in his Memoir on the Fishes of New York, so
long ago as 1778, gave a good description of our animal, in which he says, It is
called Sheepshead ; and he further observes, Common and well known as this
fish is, in most regions of America, it seems not yet to have been described." If
it appeared to Schoepff remarkable that no one had given a description of the
.s/,,...i/,,,,i, it is still more so to us, that a fish so large, one so sought after for the
table, and sold almost daily in our markets, should not have been noticed by
ichthyologists from that time to 1817, when Dr. Mitchill gave a good description
of it from recent specimens, and accompanied it with a tolerable figure.










SARGUS OVIS.


HABITS. The Slheepshead appears in the neighborhood of Charleston in April,
and continues until November, though farther south it doubtless remains the
whole year, as it has been taken in Port Royal Sound as early as January. It
enters shallow inlets and mouths of rivers, but never leaves the salt for fresh
water; it prefers rocky bottoms or sheltered places for its residence; the wreck of
some old vessel is always a favorite resort, either from the protection it affords, or
because barnacles and other shells, the natural food of the animal, soon collect
about it. Major Leconte informs me that these fish are exceedingly numerous
along the inlets of Southern Florida, where the roots of the mangrove-trees are
broadly extended into the salt water, and covered with barnacles.

Mr. Elliott,* in his charming little work, which I advise all sportsmen to read,
observes that they were formerly taken in considerable numbers among our
various inlets, into which large trees had fallen, to which the barnacles soon be-
came attached; but as the lands have been cleared for the cultivation of sea-island
cotton, the trees have disappeared, and with them the fish; and it has been found
necessary to renew their feeding-grounds by artificial means." Thus, logs of oak
or pine are formed into a sort of hut without a roof, five or six feet high; it is
floored, and then floated to the place desired, and sunk in eight feet of water, by
casting stones or live-oak timber within; as soon as the barnacles are formed,
which will happen in a few weeks, the fish will begin to resort to the ground."
It is sometimes necessary to protect the fish from their great enemies, Porpoises
and Sharks, and this is done either by placing two of these pens near each
other," or "by surrounding the pen with piles driven close together."

At present the best fishing-ground for the Sheepshead in South Carolina is the
Breakwater at Sullivan's Island, or the foundation rocks of Fort Sumpter at the
entrance of Charleston Harbor. The Sheepshead is a very wary fish, and takes
the bait cautiously; but once hooked, it affords much sport to the fisherman in its
attempts at escape, and it is always necessary to have strong tackle, otherwise the
line might be cut by its sharp and strong incisor teeth. The flesh is good, but

Carolina Sports, by Land and Water, by the Hon. William Elliott, of Beaufort, S. C.











LAGODON RHOMBOIDES.


by no means so delicate and savory as the Crevalle ; nor do I think this fish at
Charleston equal in delicacy and flavor to the same fish at New York, which may
depend either on the nature or abundance of its food, or on the colder waters of
the latter region.




GENUS LAGODON.- Holbrook.


CHARACTERS. Jaws protractile; molar teeth in several rows, sub-conical, with
rounded apices, and paved; incisor teeth broad, trenchant, and cleft at their cut-
ting margins; branchiostegal rays, five.



LAGODON RHOMBOIDES. Linneus.

Plate VIII. Fig. 1.

CHARACTERs. Head small; each jaw with eight incisor teeth, notched at their
summits; body sub-oval, compressed, light gray above, silvery below; sides
marked with eight longitudinal bands of purple, alternating with yellow; below
the lateral line the bands are yellow, alternating with silver; a dark spot above
the root of the pectoral fin. D. 12 11. P. 14. V. 1 -5. A. 3 11. C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Sparus rhomboides, Lin., Syst. Nat., tom. i. p. 427.
Salt-water Bream, z .. :, Schrift. der Gesells. Nat. Freund., b. viii. p. 151.
Sparus rhomboides, Shaw, Gen. Zo6l., vol. iv. p. 447.
Sargus rhomboides, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. vi. p. 68, pl. 143.
Sargus rhomboides, DeKay, Zool. N. Y., part iv. p. 93, pl. 71, fig. 228.
Sargus rhomboides, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 333.
Sargus rhomboides, Storer, Synops., p. 81.
Salt-water Bream, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. This fish is of a semi-oval form, and compressed. The head is
small, and uncovered with scales in front of the posterior part of the orbits. The










LAGODON RHOMBOIDES.


eyes are large, and rather nearer the snout than the angle of the opercle, their
lower margin corresponding with the median plane of the head. The posterior
and larger nostril is an elliptical opening, directed downward and forward to about
the middle plane of the eye; the anterior is round, and both are on a line within
the orbit.

The mouth is small, and does not reach half the distance between the snout and
orbit; the lips are thin; the upper jaw is the longer, and the lower is so received
within it as to leave the teeth of the upper exposed. Both jaws are armed with
eight incisor teeth, notched at their cutting margins; behind these are two rows
of sub-conical molar teeth, rounded at their apices, so as to resemble paving-stones;
scattered between these rows are very small teeth of similar form, which are col-
lected in a group at the symphysis just within the incisors. The pharyngeal bones
have numerous teeth, conical, pointed, and recurved.

The pre-opercle is round at its angle; the ascending border is not serrated, but
has numerous longitudinal depressions, which give a beautiful, though minute,
plaited appearance to the skin that covers it; it is without scales behind, but near
its anterior margin are four or five series of large scales, that cover the cheeks,
leaving only a small smooth space below the eye. The opercle is narrow in the
antero-posterior direction, and terminates in an obtuse angle behind, above which
it is slightly emarginate; it is covered with scales, as is also the inter-opercle,
which is very broad. The supra-scapular scale is large, round behind, with radiat-
ing stria, and from it begins a row of scales of similar form and strim, though
smaller, that ascends forward to meet a corresponding row of the opposite side.

The dorsal fin is single, and begins nearly on a line with the root of the pecto-
ral; it has in front one small recumbent and twelve erect spines; the second,
third, and fourth longest and slightly curved; the soft portion has eleven rays.
The pectoral fin is long, narrow, delicate, terminates behind in a point, and has
fourteen rays. The ventral begins at the anterior fourth of the pectoral, and ter-
minates before the vent; it is very near its fellow, and has a long, pointed, narrow,
supplementary scale in the axilla above; each has one spine and five soft rays.



















P1 Ii


!I -
k I

,~,,,.


I -.

i"' ,t < .*< t .'
,i II I ,, ',.
i t -* i .
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,,,' .. .. ., -

S,_ .

.
~ I:~~: ,-.;


A /


I j _


~;'I L'ma~











LAGODON RHOMBOIDES.


The anal begins nearly opposite the first ray of the soft dorsal, and ends with it,
before the root of the caudal; it has three spines received in a groove, the first
of which is short and delicate, and eleven soft rays. The caudal is broad, and
forked, though it appears deeply crescentic when distended; it has seventeen rays.

The scales are semi-orbicular in form, finely ciliated behind, and straight before,
with twelve radiating strike, which give it a scalloped appearance. The lateral
line is concurrent with the outline of the back, to the posterior extremity of the
dorsal, when it descends to the median plane; its scales are smaller than those of
the body, sub-round, with radiating striac before, and a tube near the middle, which
bifurcates behind into much smaller tubes.

COLOUn. The head above is pale brown, with small golden spots; the lips are
white; the sides of the head and opercles are marked with several alternate pale-
blue and golden lines; the body above the lateral line is marked with similar pale-
blue and golden lines, but more clouded, slightly arched, and concentric; below
the lateral line these are horizontal and parallel nearly to the belly, where the blue
lines disappear, and are replaced with alternate white and golden lines; the belly
is white; there is a dusky spot above the root of the pectoral fin; the spinous
portion of the dorsal fin is transparent, with an irregular, longitudinal yellow
band near its middle, bordered with pale blue. In the soft part of the dorsal, the
yellow band in the centre is more regular, with yellow blotches above, and with its
margin yellowish; the ventral is transparent, and white, except its two or three
anterior rays, which are yellow; the anal spines are white, and a yellow longitu-
dinal band passes through the middle of the fin, which is bordered with blue near
the origin of its rays, and with paler blue on its external margin; the caudal is
yellowish-brown; six or seven vertical dusky bars at times mark the sides, the
anterior of which includes the dusky spot above the pectoral fin; but it must be
remembered that these bands are often so indistinct as to be seen only in certain
lights.

DIMENSIONs. The length between the opercle and tip of the tail is equal to
three and a half heads; the elevation, to a head and a quarter without the dorsal
fin, and to a head and a half with it; total length, ten inches.












LAGODON RHOMBOIDES.


SPLANCIINOLOGY. The peritoneum is silvery, but with numerous small, dusky spots, that give the
whole a dark colour; the liver is large and trilobate; the left lobe is irregularly three-sided, and
extends nearly to the vent; the middle lobe is thick above, and joined to the left, without a distinct
fissure, but does not extend more than half as far back; the right lobe is thick, and about half as
long as the middle lobe; both right and left lobes project into the hypochondria. The gall-bladder
is a long tube, reaching nearly to the vent, and is very slightly enlarged behind. The stomach is
rather small, though long, sub-cylindrical, and pointed behind in the undistended state; when full,
it fills much of the abdominal cavity; the pyloric portion begins at the posterior fourth, and is
small, though rather long; there are four large ecccal appendages. The small intestine runs half
way to the vent, then returns to the base of the pylorus, whence it is reflected, after one or two
short convolutions, to end in the rectum. The spleen is very small, oblong, and flattened. The
air-bladder is large, broad before, and narrow behind, where it terminates in two horns. There is
no urinary bladder, though the kidney is tolerably thick.


HABITS. The Salt-water Bream is found in our waters at all seasons of the
year, though it is most abundant in May and June. It feeds on various crusta-
ceous animals, and on smaller fish.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. This fish abounds along the southern shores of
the United States, from Cape Hatteras to Lake Pontchartrain, where it was ob-
served by Lesueur; what may be its extreme northern limit is not yet well deter-
mined. Cuvier and Valenciennes suppose it common in the waters of New York,
because they have received "numerous specimens" from that city; but Dr. DeKay
declares that he has never seen it in that latitude, though it certainly is an inhab-
itant of Chesapeake Bay.


GENERAL REMARKS. Linnaeus published the first account of this fish, from
notes and specimens sent him by Dr. Garden of Charleston, who called it Salt-
water Bream. Gmelin, Shaw, and Lacepede have only copied Linneus, without
alteration, and this seems to be all that was known-of our animal previous to the
publication of the great work of Cuvier and Valenciennes; for I cannot believe,
with them, that the Poki or Porgee of Schoepff has any reference to this fish; as
Schoepff expressly says, that the whole body of his Porgee is silver-colour, and
without stripes or spots; and he furthermore remarks, that it might possibly be
identical with the Sparus argyrops of Linnaeus (and so it really is), though he con-











FAMILY SCOMBRIDDE.


fesses he could not see the three anterior prolonged dorsal rays. This animal
cannot be retained in the genus Sargus, where it has been placed by ichthyologists;
nor yet even in the family Sparidae, because it lacks its most distinctive character,
"jaws not protractile; nor can it be arranged with the Menide, though its jaws
are protractile, for it has the broad incisor teeth of Sargus; I have, therefore,
established for it the genus Lagodon, to which must also be referred the Sargus
unimaculatzs of Cuvier and Valenciennes.




FAMILY SCOMB RID 2E.-Agassiz.

CHARACTERS. Body more or less elongated, and in general fusiform; ventral
fins thoracic or jugular; two dorsal fins contiguous or remote; anterior dorsal
spinous, posterior with soft rays; with or without finlets behind the dorsal and
anal fins; vertical fins without scales; opercle and pre-opercle without spines or
serratures; scales cycloid and small; branchiostegal rays, seven.

REMARKS. Such are the characters of this family, as it now stands restricted
by Agassiz; and it will be seen by a reference to his work,* that he has removed
from it many of the fishes which were formerly included among the Scombride
of Cuvier; and yet this family is still one of the most extensive, comprising more
than fifty genera, and more than three hundred known species.

These fishes are in general more gregarious, and much more roving in their
habits, than the Percidae or the Sciaenide, as some of the species, according to
Cuvier and Valenciennes, are common not only to the Atlantic shores of Europe,
Africa, and America, but to the more distant seas of Asia and New Holland.
Perhaps, of all the different families of fish, this may be considered as the most
useful to man, especially when we look to its many varieties, the excellent food
they all afford, and the immense numbers that are taken from this apparently
inexhaustible source.


* Rech. Poiss. Foss., tom. v. p. 16.












TEMNODON SALTATOR.


GENUS TEMNODON.-Cuvier.


CHARACTERs. Body oblong, compressed; jaws each with a single row of sepa-
rated, compressed, sharp-pointed, lancet-shaped teeth; upper jaw with an internal
series of crowded, villiform teeth; vomerine and palatine teeth minute, villiform;
tongue with similar small teeth near its root; anal fin preceded by two small
spines, sometimes covered with skin; tail without a carina; branchiostegal rays,
seven.


REMARKs. This genus of the family Scombridee was first established by Cuvier,
for the reception of a single species, the Gasterosteus saltatrix of Linnaeus.




TEMNODON SALTATOR. Linnceus.


Plate IX. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body oblong, compressed, silvery, shaded with bluish-
green above; a dusky spot at the root of the pectoral fin. D. 8 27. P. 16.
V. 1 5. A. 2 28. C. 20.


SYNONYIES. Skipjack, Catesby, Carolina, &c., vol. ii. p. 14, t. 14.
Gasterosteus saltatrix, Lin., Syst. Nat., tom. i. p. 491.
Gasterosteus saltatrix, Ginel., Ed. Syst. Nat., tom. i. pars iii. p. 1326.
Pomatome skib, Lacip., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. iv. p. 268.
Gasterosteus saltatrix, Shaw, Gen. Zo6l., vol. iv. part ii. p. 609.
Scomber plumbeus, Mitch., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 424, pl. 4, fig. 1.
Temnodon saltator, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ix. p. 225, pl. 260.
Temnodon saltator, Storer, Report, &c., p. 57.
Temnodon saltator, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part ix. p. 130, pl. 26, fig. 81.
Temnodon saltator, Webb et Berth., Hist. Nat. des Isles Canaries (Ichth. par Val.),
p. 58, pl. 26, fig. 2.
Temnodon saltator, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 360.










TEMNODON SALTATOR.


Temnodon saltator, Storer, Synops., p. 108.
Temnodon saltator, Baird, 9th Ann. Rep. Smithson. Inst., 1854.
Temnodon saltator, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 159, pl. 15, fig. 1.
Skipjack, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish is oblong, compressed, thicker above, and
almost sharp below. The head is rather large, thick, with the line of the profile
slightly convex, and the snout rounded. The eyes are of moderate size, and
placed about the anterior third of the head, and near its median plane; the pupil
is dusky, and the iris golden. The nostrils are closely approximated, and about
one third the distance between the orbit and the snout, on a plane above the orbit,
and on a line within the supra-orbital ridge; the posterior is large and semi-
lunar; the anterior is nearly round.

The mouth is large, and opens to the anterior border of the orbit; the lips are
thick, and the upper is slightly protractile; the lower jaw is thick in the vertical
direction, and slightly longer than the upper; both are armed with a single row of
straight, sharp-pointed, compressed, or lancet-shaped teeth, about twenty-four in
the upper, and twenty in the lower jaw, which are slightly longer, and received
within those of the upper; the upper jaw has, besides, an internal and less exten-
sive row of smaller teeth. The vomer is furnished at its anterior part with a
small, sub-triangular patch of minute pointed, villiform teeth; each palate-bone
has a narrow, oblong group, directed outward and backward, of similar teeth.
The tongue is small, narrow, rounded in front, tolerably free, and is smooth, except
near its base, where there are two small groups of very minute teeth. The pha-
ryngeal bones are all armed with numerous small, villiform teeth.

The pre-opercle is very thin, rounded at its angle, with its ascending border
slightly emarginate, and directed upwards and backwards. The opercle terminates
behind, in two flat and pointed processes, covered with skin, which projects be-
yond them and gives a rounded form to its angle. The sub-opercle and the inter-
opercle are both large, and appear sub-ciliated at their free margin; the cheeks,
the opercle, and the pre-opercle are covered with scales, but the jaws and snout
are smooth. The gill-openings are wide; there are seven branchiostegal rays.
9










TEMNODON SALTATOR.


The anterior dorsal fin arises opposite the middle of the pectoral, and has eight
delicate spines; the fourth is longest, the eighth very minute, and all are con-
nected by a membrane, delicate, thin, and transparent, and are completely received
in a groove when the fin is closed; the posterior dorsal is much more elevated, and
has twenty-seven rays; the first and second are longest, and all are united by a
thin, transparent membrane, on which minute scales ascend for some distance.
The pectoral is short, thick at its root, though it terminates rather pointedly be-
hind; it has sixteen rays, with a triangular fold of scaly skin in the axilla above.
The ventral is very short, and has one spine and five soft rays ; it begins nearly at
the posterior border of the root of the pectoral, is very close to its fellow, and is
bound by a fold of skin, for half its length, to the belly. The anal is shaped like
the soft dorsal fin, and terminates behind it; it has twenty-eight soft rays, and is
preceded by two minute spines, which are at times covered with skin. The caudal
is thick at its root, deeply forked, has twenty rays, and is covered with minute
scales for three fourths of its length.

The scales are small, sub-pentagonal, with two sides directed forwards; the
lateral line begins above the opercle, and is at first arched upwards, but it soon
takes a straight course, and thus continues to the tail,

COLOUR. When first taken from the water, the Skipjack is of a brilliant silver-
colour; but it soon becomes shaded with pale green along the back, which finally
darkens into a greenish-blue, especially in the old fish, and hence it is called Blue-
fish in some parts of the country, and Green-fish in others. The connecting mem-
brane of the dorsal spines is perfectly transparent; that of the soft dorsal is semi-
transparent, and slightly tinted with yellowish-green below; the pectoral fin is
yellowish, transparent in its middle, with a few minute dusky spots at its tip, and
has a bluish-black blotch at its base, which is most distinct on its inner face; the
anal is yellowish, with a slight tint of olive, and a few minute dusky freckles; the
caudal is yellowish-olive, with dusky points to near its tip, which is yellowish.

DIMENSIONs. The length from the opercle to the tip of the tail is equal to
three heads and one eighth; the greatest elevation is about seven eighths of a
head; total length, three feet.











TEMNODON SALTATOR.


SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver is large and trilobate, as the central portion is prolonged backwards,
nearly as far as the right lobe, and is its thickest part; the right and left lobes are both long and
slender, the former shorter and narrower. The ccecal appendages are delicate, and extremely
numerous. The gall-bladder is an elongated tube, nearly of the same size throughout, with several
convolutions, and closed at its posterior -::,. ir r., which is near the vent. The stomach is large,
sub-cylindrical, with very thick walls, and extends three fourths of the length of the abdomen; its
pyloric branch is small, very short, goes off from the stomach at its anterior fifth, and has a well-
marked pyloric contraction. The spleen is dark purple, slender, and very long, as it extends from
the right lobe of the liver to near the vent. The ovaries are small, oblong, and unite in substance
far back. The kidney is large, near the esophagus, narrow and thick in the middle, and pointed
behind; there is no urinary bladder. The air-bladder is simple, and has exceedingly thin walls.

HABITS. These fishes have many of the habits of the common Mackerel; they
collect in great multitudes, and often swim near the surface of the water, thus
causing a thousand ripples, and at times they leap a foot or more into the air,
whence the common name Skipjack; they feed upon smaller fish, and are very
voracious; they seize the hook greedily, when baited with small living fish, or any
artificial bait, if it be kept in motion, or dragged behind a boat under easy sail.
Their flesh is not much esteemed at the South, where they are generally small;
but at the North they reach a much larger size, and are there highly prized.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Skijpjack has the widest geographical distri-
bution; it is found on the Atlantic coast of America, from Massachusetts Bay,
where it has been observed by Storer, to Brazil, where it was seen by the Prince
de Wied; Webb and Berthollet saw it at the Canary Islands; and Cuvier asserts
that it not only inhabits the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, but is
also found along the shores of Madagascar, Amboyna, and New H-olland.


GENERAL REMARKs. Catesby, in his Natural History of Carolina, &c., gave the
first account of this fish, and accompanied it with a figure; the description is
short and imperfect, and the figure is very defective, as it represents the animal
wanting the anterior dorsal fin, which is, in fact, so small, thin, and delicate, and
so completely received in a groove when the fin is closed, that it might easily be
overlooked by a careless observer.










CYBIUM MACULATUM.


Linneus's description is next in order, and is very good, as it was drawn from
recent specimens sent him by Dr. Garden.

Lac6pide described it at first as the Pomatome skib, from drawings done in
Carolina, by Bosc; and again, according to Cuvier and Valenciennes, as the Chei-
lodiptere heptacanth, from a drawing of Commerson, made at Madagascar.

Gmelin and sli:w have done no more than retain the name, and copy the de-
scription, of Linneus.

Dr. Mitchill observed this fish in the waters of New York, and, supposing it to
be an undescribed species of Scomber, he applied to it the specific name of plum-
beus, and gave a very good figure of it.

Cuvier and Valenciennes have published the most accurate description of the
Skipjack, and cleared up the obscurity of its history.




GENUS CYBIUM.-Cuvier.

CHARACTERS. Body elongated or lanceolate, without a corselet; finlets behind
the dorsal and anal fins; a carina on each side the tail; intermaxillary and man-
dibular teeth rather large, sharp, more or less compressed; vomerine and palatine
teeth villiform, short, equal; minute asperities on the tongue and branchial arches;
branchiostegal rays, seven.



CYBIUM MACULATUM. Mitchill.

Plate IX. Fig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body sub-cylindrical, elongated; above 'silvery, clouded
with bluish-green; jaws, opercle, sides, and belly satin-white, with occasional











PI. IX


'A'


* l


T Smclair'sa lit Phil'-


S *
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I


i r *
I.rL r


rcl~~~atlo~, oc~ti-c~vr











CYBIUM MACULATUM.


purple tints; several bright cupreous spots, both above and below the lateral line,
which terminates in a strong carina; eight finlets each to the dorsal and anal fins.
D. 18-1-15 8. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 2-15 =8. C. 22.


SYNONYMES. Scomber maculatus, Mitch., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 426, pl. 6, fig. 8.
Cybium maculatum, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. viii. p. 181.
Cybium maculatum, Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 179.
Cybium maculatum, DeKay, Zoil. N. Y., part iv. p. 108, pl. 73, fig. 232.
Cybium maculatum, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 344.
Cybium maculatum, Storer, Synops., p. 92.
Cybium maculatum, Baird, 9th Ann. Rep. of Smithson. Inst., 1854.
Cybium maculatum, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 146, pl. 13, fig. 1.
Spanish Mackerel, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. This is a beautiful fish, with somewhat the form of the Mack-
erel; the body is, however, more elongated, slender, arid compressed both above
and below, so that a transverse section of it appears semi-oval; it is smooth and
without scales, except near the base of the dorsal fin. The head is long, com-
pressed, the outline above nearly straight. The snout is prolonged, narrow, and
terminates in a point, which is slightly incurved in front; the lower jaw is equally
long, and very thick in the vertical direction. The posterior nostril is large, oval,
narrow, vertical, very near the orbit, and on a plane with its middle; the anterior
is sub-oval, situated at a distance from the posterior, and on a plane with the
upper margin of the eye. The eye is of moderate size, and placed about midway
between the snout and posterior border of the opercle, above the median plane of
the head, and near the facial line; the pupil is dusky, and the iris a pale golden
colour.


The mouth is large, extending beyond the middle of the orbit of the eye; both
jaws are armed with a single row of elongated, conical, and slightly compressed,
very pointed and trenchant teeth; there are about eighteen in each jaw, and
nearly of the same size; the upper may be a little larger, but the lower are quite
as long; they are all directed obliquely forward; those of the lower jaw are re-
ceived within those of the upper, and decussate them when the mouth is shut.










CYBIUM MACULATUM.


On the anterior part of the vomer is a small patch of minute teeth or as-
perities; a narrow, oblong group of similar teeth exists on the palate-bones.
The tongue is short, slightly movable, pointed at the tip, broad behind, and
roughened with innumerable minute teeth. The pharyngeal bones are small,
long, narrow, and thickly studded with small, sharp teeth, curved backwards at
their point.

The pre-opercle is incurved at its ascending border, and smooth. The opercle
is rounded, smooth, flat, and slightly projecting at its angle.

The anterior dorsal fin is rather low, and has eighteen spinous rays; the first is
longest, and the posterior very short, almost concealed in the anterior root of the
second dorsal; these are received in a groove when the fin is closed. The second
dorsal is elevated in front, but soon becomes depressed, and in this way termi-
nates; it has one spinous*and fifteen soft rays, the anterior stout and strong, like
a concealed spine; the second,-third, and fourth are longest. Behind this fin are
eight small finlets, round at their roots, but compressed and broad above; the last
portion of the dorsal appears like a finlet, but is not perfectly separated. The
pectoral arises close to the opercle, and is rather long and narrow, though broad at
its root; it is sub-falciform, and terminates in a point about the tenth dorsal spine;
it has eighteen rays; and the axilla is deepened by a portion of skin adhering to
the fin and to the belly. The ventrals are very small, short, and close together;
they begin on a line with the posterior margin of the root of the pectorals, and
terminate about their posterior third; their internal margins are connected by a
fold of skin to the belly, and each has one spinous and five soft rays. The anal fin
has two spinous and fifteen soft rays, and is falciform; it begins opposite the third
dorsal ray, and terminates beyond its ninth; there are eight finlets behind it. The
caudal is bi-lobed; each lobe is long, slender, and pointed; there are twenty-two
rays.

The lateral line is slightly undulated, though concurrent at first with the out-
line of the back; it runs nearly along the upper third of the body, to the anterior
part of the second dorsal, when it suddenly curves down to the median plane, and











CYBIUM MACULATUM.


thus is continued with slight flexures to the tail, where it terminates in a crest or
carina, which appears large and sub-triangular if seen from above, as its elevation
is one fourth of its length. Both above and below this crest is another, less promi-
nent, though nearly as long; these begin on a line vertical with the middle of the
first, and run along the roots of the lobes of the caudal fin.

CoLoun. This is a beautiful animal, with a bluish-green tint along the upper
part of the head and back, above the lateral line, and a white, satin-like appear-
ance below it; the sides, both above and below the lateral line, are ornamented
with numerous sub-round, shining, cupreous spots; the anterior dorsal is black,
with a narrow longitudinal line of white at its base; the pectoral is semi-trans-
parent, with a dusky shade at its root; the ventral is white, with a yellow tint in
front; the second dorsal and anal fins are yellowish, with dusky lines; the caudal
is dusky, with yellowish tints.

DIMENSIONs. The head is one sixth of the total length; the elevation of the
body without the dorsal fin is less than a head; total length of the specimen here
described, twenty-two inches; they are occasionally taken more than two feet in
length.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver is of moderate size; its central portion is thick and prolonged, to form
a middle lobe. The gall-bladder is oblong and narrow, but does not pass beyond the right lobe, to
which it is attached. The stomach is long, narrow, and reaches three fourths of the extent of the
abdomen; its walls are of moderate thickness; its pyloric portion is very small, short, narrow, and
leaves the stomach at- an acute angle; the small intestine runs nearly to the vent, then makes a
short convolution, and returns to end in the rectum.

HABITS. But little is known of the habits of this fish; it seems, however, more
solitary than the fishes of its family generally are, as it seldom happens that more
than four or five are taken at the same time. It appears on the coast of Carolina
in April and May, but is rarely seen during the summer months; it feeds on vari-
ous species of small fish.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Cybium maculatum is found on the Atlantic










SERIOLA CAROLINENSIS.


shores of America, from Brazil to Massachusetts. Cuvier received specimens from
South America, and Dr. Storer from the waters near Boston.

GENERAL REMARKs. Dr. Mitchill gave the first account of this fish, and called
it by the appropriate specific name it still bears.




GENUS SERIOLA.- Cvier.


CHARACTERS. Body elongated, fusiform, sub-compressed: first dorsal fin with
a continuous membrane; no finlets; lateral line with scales not larger than those
on the rest of the body; branchiostegal rays, seven.



SERIOLA CAROLINENSIS. Holbrook.

Plate X. Fig. 2.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Head olive-brown above, with a dark band from each
orbit to the anterior dorsal; body above bluish-slate colour; sides yellow; belly
white; a yellow band from the opercle tp the tail; a dimple above and below the
root of the caudal fin. D. 7-1 36. P. 18. V. 1 5. A. 2-1-22. C. 20.

SYNONYME. Jack-fish, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. This fish is of an elongated, slightly compressed, sub-fusiform
shape; it is thin along the back, and almost carinated in front of the dorsal fin,
thicker and rounded along the belly, though thickest just below the lateral line.
The head is large, long, and very broad between the eyes, with orbits rather pro-
jecting; the snout is narrow, though rounded. The eye is large, rather longest
horizontally, with its posterior border nearer the snout than the angle of the oper-
cle, and with its inferior margin above the median plane of the head; the pupil
is nearly circular, and deep blue with a golden iris, covered behind with a nicti-











SERIOLA CAROLINENSIS.


stating membrane. The nostrils are midway between the eye and the snout; they
are elliptical in form, closely approximated, and nearly of the same size; the an-
terior is rather the lower, though both are above the median plane of the eye, and
on a line within the margin of the orbit.

The mouth is large, the posterior extremity of the upper jaw reaching to the
middle of the orbit; the lips are tolerably thick. The upper jaw is protractile,
and appears shorter than the lower when the mouth is open, but when shut, they
are of the same length; both are armed with a large group, which is broadest in
front, of numerous small, pointed, villiform teeth; there is an arrow-headed group
on the vomer, and an oblong patch of minute teeth on each palate-bone. The
tongue is broad, thick, rounded in front, and tolerably free, with its superior
surface armed with an oblong group of minute teeth along its centre. The pharyn-
geal bones are furnished with teeth similar to those of the jaws, but smaller. The
pre-opercle is nearly semicircular, and slightly prolonged at its angle. The opercle
is irregularly quadrilateral, with its anterior inferior angle prolonged and trun-
cated, to articulate with the inter-opercle. The sub-opercle is elongated, trian-
gular, with its base downwards, to unite with the concave margin of the inter-
opercle, which is broad. There are seven rather stout branchiostegal rays.

There are two dorsal fins; the anterior begins nearly opposite the anterior third
of the pectoral, and is preceded by a short recumbent spine, directed forwards;
it has seven spines, the sixth and seventh being very short, and all are placed in a
groove. The posterior dorsal is long, as it terminates only at the root of the cau-
dal, and has one spinous and thirty-six soft rays, of which the third, fourth, and
fifth are the longest. The pectoral fin is short and broad, though pointed behind;
it begins behind the opercle, and has eighteen rays. The ventral is large, and
arises with the pectoral, though it extends farther back; it has one spine and five
soft rays, of which the first and last are so joined to the body as to make a deep
cavity. The anal is in shape like the soft dorsal fin, and, though shorter, is con-
terminal with it behind; it has one spinous and twenty soft rays, and is preceded
by two small spines, which are often concealed by the skin. The caudal is widely
forked, though at the junction of the forks it is crescentic; it has twenty rays.











SERIOLA CAROLINENSIS.


The scales are minute, and mostly covered by the skin. The lateral line is at
first concurrent with the outline of the back, and runs along the superior third of
the body; but at the beginning of the second dorsal it gradually descends to the
median plane, and thus continues to the tail, where it is raised on a slightly
elevated carina, though the scales are not larger there than in other parts of the
body.


COLOUR. The head above is olive-brown, and from each orbit runs backward
a broad black band, to meet at an acute angle in front of the dorsal fin; the lower
jaw, the pre-opercle, and opercle are silvery, tinted yellow; the back is bluish
slate-colour; the sides are golden, and the belly white; there is a broad yellow
band extending from the opercle to the root of the caudal fin; the pectoral is
transparent, of a yellowish tint in front, and white behind; the rays of the ventral
fin are white below, but above they have a bluish shade, though the membrane is
everywhere transparent; the anal is semi-transparent, clouded with blue, and
having a strong yellow tint in front; the tips of the two or three anterior rays are
white; the caudal is olive-brown, with yellowish tints, especially near its tip.


DIMENSIONS. The entire length, from the opercle to the tip of the tail, is equal
to three heads and one fourth; the greatest elevation is seven eighths of the head;
total length, two feet four inches.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver is large, consisting of two lobes, and a middle or transverse portion;
yet these divisions are only seen on its dorsal face; the lobes are nearly of the same size, but the
left is rather longer, and pointed at its posterior extremity, while the right is broader and lobu-
lated, and both send pointed lobules forward; the central portion is thick, with a thin posterior
margin, irregular, and often subdivided into short, small lobules. The gall-bladder is long,
slender, and only slightly increased in size, near the right lobe of the liver, in which it is
partially imbedded. The stomach is cylindrical, pointed behind, with thick walls, and is very
long, extending to the posterior fourth of the abdominal cavity. The pyloric portion is very
short, not half an inch long, but very thick and firm; it begins near the anterior fourth of the
stomach, and has a remarkable pyloric contraction. The small intestine runs to the posterior
fourth of the abdomen, when it makes a short convolution forward, and then returns to end in
the rectum; its walls are very thick, hard, and firm, with its mucous coat minutely reticulated;
the rectal valve is very small. The coecal appendages are very numerous, ranging from forty to











SERIOLA ZONATA.


fifty in number; but all do not come directly from the intestine, as one root is subdivided into
several branches. The spleen is rather thick and long, though it is concealed, in a great measure,
by the small intestine. The air-bladder is conical, large, and long, as it extends the whole length
of the abdominal cavity; its apex is behind and pointed, its basis is before and has a minute horn
on each side, directed forwards and outwards; these horns are so small as to resemble, at first sight,
ligamentous bands; yet examination shows them to be pervious.


HABITS. The Seriola Carolinensis lives in deep water, and is taken along the
coast of South Carolina at all seasons of the year, but is never abundant.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. As yet, this fish has only been observed in the
waters of our State.

GENERAL REMARKS. At first, I supposed the Jack-fish might be the Ceriola
Boscii of Cuvier and Valenciennes; but it does not agree with their description,
in many -particulars, as in its colour, in the number of its dorsal fin-rays, or
in size.



SERIOLA ZONATA. Mitchill.

Plate X. Fig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body above pale bluish slate-colour; belly silvery;
sides with vertical dusky bands, indistinct below the lateral line; three anterior
dorsal rays, white at their tips; a dimple above and below the root of the caudal
fin. D. 7-1-34. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 2-19. C. 19.

SYNONYMES. Scomber zonatus, Mitch., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., vol. i. p. 427, pl. 4, fig. 3.
Seriola zonata, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ix. p. 213.
Seriola zonata, DeKay, Zo6l. N. Y., part iv. p. 128, pl. 9, fig. 26.
Seriola zonata, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 357.
Seriola zonata, Storer, Synops., p. 105.
Seriola zonata, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. v. p. 157, pl. 15, fig. 5.
Banded Mackerel, Vulgo.









SERIOLA ZONATA.


DESCRIPTION. The form of this fish is elongated, sub-fusiform, slightly com-
pressed, and moderately curved along the back, where it is thin, and even cari-
nated in front of the dorsal fin; it is straighter and thicker at the belly, though
the thickest part is just below the lateral line. The head is large, broad be-
tween the eyes, and the snout is rounded, though narrow. The eyes are of
moderate size, and placed nearer to the snout than to the posterior border of
the opercle; the pupil is of the deepest blue, and nearly circular, only a little
angular in front; the iris is light silvery-gray, with golden tints along its superior
half. The nostrils are closely approximated, and midway between the eye and
snout; they are sub-elliptical in shape, nearly of the same size, rather above the
middle plane of the eye, and on a line within the orbit.

The mouth is rather large, as the superior maxillary bone extends nearly to the
middle of the orbit; the lips are thin; the upper jaw is slightly protractile, rather
longer than the lower, and both are armed with numerous small, pointed, card-like
teeth. There is an irregular, arrow-headed patch on the vomer; and an oblong
group of minute teeth on each palate-bone. The tongue is broad, thin, white,
and rough, with minute teeth. The pre-opercle is large, thin, rounded, and rather
prolonged at its angle, with several slight radiating depressions. The opercle is
irregularly quadrilateral, slightly notched at its posterior border, and with its an-
terior inferior angle prolonged and pointed. The sub-opercle is long, narrow,
triangular, with its base below. The inter-opercle is rounded at its base. The
gill-openings are large; there are seven branchiostegal rays.

There are two dorsal fins; the anterior begins behind the root of the pectoral,
and is preceded by a short recumbent spine; it is but slightly elevated, and has
seven spines, of which the third and fourth are longest, and all are perfectly
concealed in a groove when the fin is closed; the posterior dorsal is very long,
extending nearly to the root of the caudal fin, and has one spinous and thirty-
four soft rays, the anterior longest. The pectoral fin is short; it begins just
behind the opercle, and terminates on a line with the middle of the ventral; it
has nineteen rays. The ventral is large, broad, and has one spinous and five soft
rays; the internal being connected, for some distance, to the body, by a fold of

















P1. X.


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SERIOLA ZONATA.


skin. The anal is long; it begins about the middle of the soft dorsal, and is
conterminal with it behind; it has one spinous and nineteen soft rays, and is pre-
ceded by two minute spines. The caudal is broadly forked, and is preceded by a
dimple, both above and below; it has nineteen rays.

The scales are minute. The lateral line runs at first, with very slight undula-
tions, near the superior fourth of the body, and is concurrent with the outline of
the back; but at the second dorsal it gradually descends to the median plane, and
at the extremity of the dorsal it is slightly elevated into a carina.

COLOUR. The head above is dusky, with an olive tint; below the eyes it is
silvery, with yellowish-brown shades; from each orbit runs upward and back-
ward a broad dusky band, to meet in front of the dorsal fin; the body, above
the lateral line, is a very pale bluish slate-colour, and on each side it is marked
with vertical dusky bands; these are most remarkable above the lateral line,
indistinct below it, and are, in fact, not seen at all when the fish is just taken
from the water; the anterior band runs to the root of the pectoral fin, but seldom
below it; the second is longer, and touches the posterior extremity of the pectoral
fin; the third is between the ventral and anal fins, and is most distinct of all at
the belly; the fourth is at the origin of the anal fin, and the fifth about its
middle; and besides these bands, there is a dusky blotch at the root of the caudal.
A yellow horizontal band extends from the opercle to the tail, and a second band
of similar colour, but less distinct, is often found below it; these bands are scarcely
visible when the fish has been for some time out of water.

The anterior dorsal is bluish, dusky, interspersed with lighter tints, and is
light-coloured at its base; the posterior dorsal is semi-transparent, dusky-bluish,
with lighter tints, especially near its superior border, and the three first rays
have their tips white; the pectoral is transparent, with the slightest yellow
tint, and a dusky blotch on the inner face, at its origin; the anal is dusky-olive,
with a yellowish tint at its anterior part, and with its lower margin white; the
rays of the ventral fin are white, but the membrane uniting them is bluish below,
and yellowish-brown above; the caudal is yellowish-olive, darkest near its root.











SERIOLA ZONATA.


DIMENSIONS. The entire length, from the opercle to the tip of the caudal fin,
is equal to three heads and one sixteenth; the elevation without the dorsal fin, is
equal to one head; total length, fourteen inches.

SPLANCHNOLOGY. The liver has two lobes, and a transverse portion; yet they are so joined on their
ventral face, as to show scarcely any mark of separation, unless the viscus be removed from them;
both lobes are short, but the right is rather the longer, and has its posterior border thin and irreg-
ular, or even divided into small lobules, where it conceals the ccecal appendages; both send forward
pointed lobes to the hypochondria; the gall-bladder is placed mostly behind the right lobe, and is
long and slender. The stomach is elongated, cylindrical, and extends nearly to the vent; it has
tolerably thick walls, with numerous folds on its inner face; the pyloric portion goes off near the
diaphragm, and is very short. The small intestine runs two thirds the length of the stomach, and is
then reflected to the pylorus, whence it returns to end in the rectum; it has very firm and thick
walls, and its mucous membrane is finely reticulated; the rectal valve is circular, and very promi-
nent. The coccal appendages are numerous, clustered together, and bound about the pylorus;
they are all very slender, though they vary in length, some of them being an inch and a half
long. The air-bladder is long, extending the entire length of the abdomen; it is pointed behind,
truncated, and broad before, with a minute short horn on each side, that runs upward and outward,
and appears at first like a ligamentous band, but it is pervious; its walls are very thin.


HABITS. This fish is so rarely seen on our coast, that nothing can be said of
its habits.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Banded Mackerel inhabits the Atlantic
coast of America, from Massachusetts to Georgia; and what may be its farther
limit north or south remains to be determined.


GENERAL REMARKS. Dr. Mitchill first observed this animal, and described it as
a new species of Scomber, with the appropriate specific name zonatus, which has
been very justly retained by succeeding naturalists.











SERIOLA CHLORIS.


SERIOLA CHLORIS. Bloch.

Plate XI. Fig. 1.

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. Body compressed; back slightly and belly much
arched; pale green above, silvery-white below, with pinkish-coloured reflections;
a dark spot at the opercle, and another above the root of the caudal fin. D. 8 1
-27. P. 18. V. 1 5. A. 2 1 27. C. 17.

SYNONYMES. Scomber Chloris, Bloch, Ichth., pl. 339.
Seriola cosmopolita, Cuv. et Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., tom. ix. p. 219, pl. 259.
Seriola cosmopolita, DeKay, Zo5l. N. Y., part iv. p. 129.
Seriola cosmopolita, Storer, Mem. Amer. Acad., N. S., vol. ii. p. 358.
Seriola cosmopolita, Storer, Synops., p. 106.
Green Mackerel, Vulgo.

DESCRIPTION. This fish belongs to the section of the genus Seriola with very
short ventral fins, long, slender, falciform pectorals, and a compressed body. Its
form without the tail is elliptical, with the lower line of the ellipse most arched,
though both the lines of the back and belly meet at the snout under the same
angle; the body is thin along the back, and almost carinate at the belly; its thick-
est part is just below the lateral line, so that a transverse section appears as a nar-
row ellipse, broadest above. The head is short, elevated, uncovered with scales,
and the snout narrow, though rounded.


The eye is very large, and is placed midway between the posterior angle of the
opercle and the tip of the lower jaw, and is just its diameter from each, with its
lower margin above the median plane of the head. The pupil is dark, the iris
golden, intermixed with green, and has its posterior margin covered with a thin
nictitating membrane, which, however, does not encroach upon the pupil. The
nostrils are midway between the eye and snout; the posterior is large and oval,
the anterior is a narrow fissure, and both are near the facial outline, and on a line
within the orbit. The mouth is small, compressed, opens obliquely downward










SERIOLA CHLORIS.


and backward, and ascends above the lower margin of the eye; the upper jaw is
very protractile; the lower is thick in the vertical direction, and longer than the
upper, so as to make part of the facial outline when the mouth is closed; and both
are armed with minute, card-like, and pointed teeth; the vomer has a small patch
in front, and the palate-bones have a narrow group of similar asperities; the tongue
is slightly roughened along its central portion; the pharyngeal bones are closely
covered with minute teeth, similar to those in the jaws, but smaller.

The pre-opercle is round, and rather prolonged at its angle, with the skin beau-
tifully arranged in minute plaits or folds. The opercle is sub-rhomboidal, with
its anterior inferior angle prolonged and pointed, and its posterior border so emar-
ginate as to form two flattened points, from which the skin hangs. The sub-oper-
cle is an isosceles triangle, with its base below; the inter-opercle is rounded and
broad, and does not join the opercle. The gill-openings are large; there are seven
branchiostegal rays.

There are two dorsal fins; the anterior is preceded by a minute recumbent spine,
and has eight erect spines, the first and last short, the third and fourth longest;
it is completely received in a groove. The posterior dorsal is very long, low, and
has one spinous and twenty-seven soft rays, covered with a delicate skin at their
roots. The pectoral is falciform, slender, and very long, as it begins at the oper-
cle, and terminates with the origin of the tenth dorsal soft ray; it has eighteen
rays. The ventrals are very short, near together, and placed in a depression, as is
also the vent; each ventral has one spinous and five soft rays. The anal is pre-
ceded by.two prominent spines, placed in a groove, and connected by a delicate
membrane; it is almost as long as the soft dorsal, with which it terminates behind;
it has one spinous and twenty-seven soft rays. The caudal is broad, widely forked,
and has seventeen rays.

The scales are minute, and mostly concealed by the skin. The lateral line is
arched, and concurrent with the outline of the back in its anterior half, with slight
undulations in its course; but at the sixth dorsal soft ray it descends to the
median plane, and then runs straight to the tail, where it is slightly elevated.

















P1 XI.






























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