Title: Comparative Timeline of General American History and Florida History, 1492 to 1823
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076597/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparative Timeline of General American History and Florida History, 1492 to 1823
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: University of Florida
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Colonies -- Spain -- America
Temporal Coverage: Spanish Colonial Period ( 1594 - 1920 )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns County -- Saint Augustine -- Historic city
Funding: Funded by a grant from the Florida Humanities Council
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076597
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Board of Trustees of the University of Florida on behalf of authors and contributors. All rights reserved.


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A Comparative Timeline of General American History and Florida History, 1492 to 1823
Early exploration and establishment of colonies. Observe the trajectory of Spanish exploration in the Southeast versus English exploration along the Atlantic seaboard. Note the conflict in territorial interests beginning in 1586. While the Spaniards were expending efforts on creating Indian missions, the English of Virginia were rapidly expanding into commercial export of tobacco. By 1670 the Spaniards were entrenching behind defenses and encouraging slaves to runaway from their English masters, while English settlers retaliated with attacks on St. Augustine and the mission system. How did this rivalry between colonists and empires affect the region? Look at the dates around the War of Jenkin's Ear (1739-1742). What's the relationship between the founding of Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the Stono slave revolt in Carolina, and Oglethorpe's attack on Spanish Florida? Can you relate this to issues about the American Civil War?

Major dates in the history of Spanish Florida
Comparative dates in British colonial history
Columbus sails into the Caribbean.

Columbus sails into the Caribbean.
Columbus founds the town of La Isabela on Hispaniola.

John Cabot explores the Atlantic coast of North America.
Juan Ponce de Len explores the Florida coast.

Giovanni de Verrazano explores the coast of North America.
Pnfilo de Narvez leads an expedition through Florida.

(Religious and dynastic turmoil in England dampen interest in further exploration overseas)
Tristan de Luna tries unsuccessfully to start a colony at Escambia Bay (Pensacola).

Tristan de Luna tries unsuccessfully to start a colony at Escambia Ba1562
Jean Ribault and French settlers land in northeast Florida.

Jean Ribault and French settlers land in northeast Florida.

French settlers build Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River.

Pedro Menndez de Avils destroys the expedition from France and establishes St. Augustine.

English settlers make their first attempt to settle Roanoke (Virginia)
Menndez founds his capital for La Florida at Santa Elena (Port Royal Sound) in what is today South Carolina.

Spaniards begin to conquer Florida, allying or fighting with local native American tribes and chiefdoms.

Pedro Menndez de Avils
Pedro Menndez de Avils
A detail of Francis Drake's attack on the town of St.Augustine in 1586.
A detail of Francis Drake's attack on the town of St. Augustine in 1586.
Sir Francis Drake, after raiding the Spanish Caribbean, attacks and burns St. Augustine.
Sir Francis Drake visits Roanoke and takes the settlers back to England.
Spanish settlers abandon Santa Elena and leave the Carolina coast. Settlement focuses on the Florida peninsula.
Sir Walter Raleigh sends a second group of colonists to reestablish Roanoke.
Replacing the unsuccessful Jesuits, members of the Franciscan order start a mission for Indians on Cumberland Island (now part of Georgia).
English ships destroy the Spanish Armada in the English Channel, altering the balance of naval power in Europe.

The latest wave of English colonists to Roanoke find the colony abandoned and return home to England.
The Guale Indians of coastal Georgia rebel against Spanish rule and efforts at religious conversion.

The Franciscans begin to establish missions among the Timucuan Indians of northeast and north central Florida.
Captain John Smith establishes Jamestown.
Plague spreads among the 16,000 Indian converts of Florida.

The new colony of Virginia exports 2500 pounds of tobacco.

The Pilgrims establish Plymouth colony.
The Franciscans reintroduce religious instruction among the Guale and establish more missions.

Parish church of St. Augustine
The parish church of St. Augustine (constructed 1797)
Cross found at an early mission site
A cross from an early mission site.

The Dutch establish New Amsterdam (later, New York)

Virginia exports 333,000 pounds of tobacco. Boston is founded.
For the first time, the Franciscans try to establish missions among the Apalachee of the panhandle region.

The colony of Maryland is established.
The colony of Maryland is established.

There are at least 41 missions among the Indians of northern Florida, with an estimated population of 30,000 Indians.
The Reverend Thomas Hooker petitions to create Connecticut.
Possible founding date for San Luis de Talimali, soon to be the most important settlement in Apalachee, and the western capital of La Florida.
Virginia exports 3.1 million pounds of tobacco.
War erupts in Apalachee between Christian and non-Christian Indians.

The missions of La Florida reach their greatest extent. Yellow fever and small pox kill hundreds of Native Americans throughout the decade.
Although slaves only comprise a small proportion of Virginia's labor force (which is mostly indentured servants), colonial authorities legalize chattel slavery, opening the path to keeping Africans and their children in bondage.
Census shows 26,000 Christian Indians in 38 missions.

Angered by Spanish demands for labor, the Timucua Indians rebel against Spanish rule and Gov. Diego de Rebolledo.

The Council of the Indies in Spain orders the arrest of Gov. Diego de Rebolledo for mishandling Indian affairs. A measles epidemic kills an estimated 10,000 Indians.

The colony of Carolina is chartered.
The colony of Carolina is chartered.
The Treaty of Madrid defines Spain's territorial claims in North America.

Officials in St. Augustine commence the building of a stone fortress, the Castillo de San Marcos.

A bishop's census shows 33 missions with 13,152 people.

Governor Juan Marquez Cabrera begins to employ former slaves as soldiers in Florida's militia.

La Salle brings a French expedition into the Gulf Coast.

Eleven slaves (eight men, two women, and a child) flee from slavery in Carolina and go to St. Augustine.

King Charles II declares that slaves fleeing English possessions will be set free upon arriving in Spanish territory.

Charles II issues a royal order to occupy Pensacola Bay.

Spaniards establish Pensacola to block French expansion along the Gulf of Mexico.

Detail from Thomas Lopez's map of St. Augustine showing the free black community of Fort Mo

Fears grow in Carolina that slaves, now numerous, might be encouraged by Spain to rebel against slave-owners.
An expedition led by James Moore of Carolina invades Spanish Florida and burns down St. Augustine but fails to capture the Castillo.
War of the Spanish Succession/Queen Anne's War
In a second expedition, James Moore sends Indian allies of the English to raid and destroy the Spanish missions.

From a population of perhaps 8000 in the 1670s, only 401 refugees survive the attacks on the missions. They settle near St. Augustine for protection.
Colonists in Carolina put down an attempted slave revolt.

Colonists in New York put down an attempted slave revolt.

Colonists in Carolina put down a second slave revolt.

Escaped slaves help the Yamassee Indians make war on Carolina colony.

The English aid the Creeks in retaliations against the Yamassee.
Ten runaway slaves reach St. Augustine.

Carolinians under Col. John Palmer attack Nombre de Dios.

James Oglethorpe founds Ft. Frederica, Georgia.
Spanish officials establish Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, outside St. Augustine, as a town for freed slaves.
Mose outside St. Augustine as a town for freed slaves.
War of Jenkin's Ear between Spain and Great Britain.
Angolan slaves at the Stono River, South Carolina, kill twenty whites in a revolt and are caught trying to flee to Florida.
James Oglethorpe leads Georgia and Carolina militia on a military expedition to destroy St. Augustine.
The population of South Carolina reaches 40,000. Two-thirds of the colony's inhabitants are slaves.

Colonists in New York put down another slave revolt.
Governor Manuel de Montiano sends a retaliatory strike into Georgia.

Age of Empire: The French and Indian War (1754-1763) redrew the map of colonial North America, eliminating French possessions in Quebec and Louisiana. Spain was forced to cede its colony of Florida to England. In compensation, it received the Louisiana territory from France. English colonies stretched along all of the Atlantic seaboard from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. This new "status quo" lasted less than 20 years, as thirteen of Britain's colonies rose in revolt against Crown and parliamentary policies. How did Spanish ambitions to regain the Floridas affect the American Revolution? What problems did a Spanish presence in Florida and Louisiana pose for the young United States? Consider how the administrations of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe resolved these problems in the years between the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the First Seminole War (1817-1818). Original art, British ships, from Flags of Florida, Lt. Col. A.L.L. Martin.
1745 to 1763
The French and Indian War.
1745 to 1763
The French and Indian War.
England divides its new colony of Florida into two colonies, East and West, with the capital of the former at St. Augustine and the capital of the latter at Pensacola.
Parliament passes the Revenue, or Sugar, Act.
John Bartram, Royal Botanist, travels through British East Florida, including visits to the Seminole Indians.
Parliament passes the Stamp Act.
Dr. Andrew Turnbull of Scotland brings indentured servants from the Mediterranean to Florida to work his indigo plantation at New Smyrna.

Eight British soldiers in the 29th Regiment fire on a mob in Boston, killing five.
John Bartram's son, William, returns to East Florida.
American patriots stage the Boston Tea Party.

The First Continental Congress meets.

The American Revolution starts at Lexington and Concord.

Congress declares the colonies independent.
Indentured servants at New Smyrna rebel and go to St. Augustine, creating the "Minorcan" community there.

France and Spain agree to aid the American cause.
Settlers loyal to George III flee into East Florida from South Carolina and Georgia.
The British capture Savannah.
Spanish forces from Louisiana capture Mobile in British West Florida.
The British capture Charleston.
An expedition under Bernardo de Glvez lays siege to Pensacola and forces the British army defending it to surrender
American and French forces, assisted by a French fleet, trap Lord Cornwallis's entire army at Yorktown, Virginia.
England acknowledges Spanish sovereignty over British West Florida and cedes British East Florida.
Britain recognizes the independence of the United States.
Spanish officials were horrified when Napoleon Bonaparte acquired the Louisiana territory from Spain and then sold it to the United States. Americans now had a wedge of settlement between the Floridas and Texas, and complete control over the Mississippi River. But when President Jefferson claimed all the lands between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains as part of Louisiana, the United States and Spain came to the verge of war. Tensions lasted from 1803 until 1807, when Americans became distracted by growing problems with the British. Detail from the French map "Lower Louisiana and West Florida" in Vue de la Colonie Espagnole du Mississipi, &c. (1803)

Nine states ratify the U.S. Constitution, establishing a new federal system of government for the United States.

Parisians storm the Bastille, starting the French Revolution. George Washington becomes the first president of the United States.
Spain establishes new laws for East Florida, responding in part to the proximity of the United States. The Crown ends its policy of giving sanctuary to runaway slaves. It opens Florida to immigration. New settlers must take an oath of loyalty to the Crown. It opens trade between Florida and "neutral powers," which includes all ports of the U.S.
Thomas Jefferson, as Secretary of State, proposes an expedition to explore the Missouri River.
William Bartrams's Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida comes out in print.

The cornerstone of St. Augustine's parish church (now the Cathedral Basilica) is laid. The church is finished in 1797.
French republicans execute King Louis XVI for crimes against the people. England and Spain declare war on France. Thomas Jefferson again proposes an expedition to the Missouri.
French agents in Savannah make plans to help Americans living in East Florida rebel against Spanish rule.
Farmers in western Pennsylvania rebel over a proposed tax on whiskey. Alexander Hamilton leads troops to suppress trouble.
Spanish forces in East Florida suppress a revolt by American settlers. Rebel leaders flee into Georgia.
The Treaty of San Lorenzo between Spain and the United States guarantees Americans free use of the Mississippi River and duty-free passage through the port of New Orleans.
The early 1800s saw the people of the young American republic involved in disputes with France and Britain over safe passage of shipping on the high seas and with Spain over ownership of East and West Florida. Territorial acquisitions that started through negotiation were eventually concluded by war as the United States used the War of 1812 to push Spain into surrendering its Florida possessions. American troops occupied Spanish East Florida in 1812 and 1813. Meanwhile, Americans fought their second war against the British, sealing the verdict of the American Revolution. Image from William Walton's The Army & Navy of the United States (1900)

France begins to attack American commerical shipping, leading to the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval conflict.

Under pressure, Spain returns the territory of Louisiana to France. President Jefferson fears this will mean a strong French military presence in the West.

The United States purchases Louisiana from France. President Jefferson claims the Purchase also includes Spanish Texas and portions of Spanish West Florida.

Nelson destroys the French and Spanish fleet at Trafalgar. The U.S. Navy punishes the Barbary pirates for preying on American shipping. The Lewis and Clark expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean.
Dr. Daniel Turner, a Rhode Island physician living in St. Marys, Georgia, tells friends that tensions with Spanish settlers over the Louisiana Purchase and other matters have reached a fever pitch and might lead to an invasion of Florida.

Slave traders begin to use Amelia Island, East Florida, as a base of operations for the African slave trade.
Britain and the United States ban the African slave trade from their possessions. The French invade Spain.
American settlers in the Baton Rouge District of Spanish West Florida rebel against Spanish rule.
President James Madison orders American troops from Louisiana to occupy Baton Rouge and hold it for the United States.
Governor David Mitchell of Georgia pledges to put an end to Spanish "piracy" at Amelia Island.

[March 17-18]. Encouraged by an American agent, Georgia militia, rebel Floridians, and U.S. troops occupy Spanish East Florida.
[June 18]. The U.S. Senate declares war on England but the next day refuses to declare war on Spain.
Between 1812 and 1821 Spain struggled to hold on to the Floridas. Gregor McGregor (right) led troops against Amelia Island in 1817. That same year the First Seminole War broke out, and in 1818 Andrew Jackson led forces against the Miccosukee and Seminole towns between the Apalachiola and Suwannee rivers. Original artwork, Flags of Florida, Lt. Col. A.L.L. Martin.
After one full year, the U.S. troops occupying East Florida withdraw to Georgia, burning many plantations as they go.
Andrew Jackson takes on the Creek Confederation and defeats hostile Creeks at Horseshoe Bend. Georgia and Tennessee militias move against the Seminoles in Spanish East Florida.
Andrew Jackson's forces occupy Pensacola in Spanish West Florida and force a British fleet to abandon the area.
British forces burn the government buildings in Washington but retreat from an attempt to take Baltimore.

Andrew Jackson defeats a British invasion of New Orleans.
Escaped slaves congregate around a fort the British set up on the Apalachicola River in Florida.
The U.S. Army enters Spanish territory to wipe out the "Negro Fort" at Apalachicola.

Slave traders begin to use Amelia Island, East Florida, as a base of operations for the African slave trade.
Britain and the United States ban the African slave trade from their possessions. The French invade Spain.
American settlers in the Baton Rouge District of Spanish West Florida rebel against Spanish rule.
Gregor McGregor, an adventurer in the pay of Spanish liberationists, seizes Amelia Island in East Florida. Reacting to McGregor's take-over, American forces again occupy Amelia Island on behalf of the United States.
James Monroe becomes president of the United States. Andrew Jackson (1818) leads troops into Florida to destroy the towns of Indians who have met force with force on the frontiers.

Spain agrees in principle to cede East and West Florida to the United States.
The Spanish Floridas are merged into a single American territory with a new capital at Tallahassee. Andrew Jackson becomes the first (absentee) governor.
A treaty acknowledging the transfer is ratified.

President James Monroe outlines the Monroe Doctrine, that no European power will be allowed to establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
The sentry towers of the city gate of St. Augustine.
The remains of the city gate of St. Augustine.

Fort Mose
British Ships
Lower Louisiana and West Florida
Image from William Walton's The Army & Navy of the United States (1900)
Gregor McGregor

y (Pensacola).

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