Title: Comparative Timeline of General American History and Florida History, 1492 to 1823
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 Material Information
Title: Comparative Timeline of General American History and Florida History, 1492 to 1823
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: University of Florida
 Subjects
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Colonies -- Spain -- America
Temporal Coverage: Spanish Colonial Period ( 1594 - 1920 )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns County -- Saint Augustine -- Historic city
 Notes
Funding: Funded by a grant from the Florida Humanities Council
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076597
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Board of Trustees of the University of Florida on behalf of authors and contributors. All rights reserved.

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A Comparative Timeline of General American History and Florida History, 1492 to 1823
Early exploration and establishment of colonies. Observe the trajectory of Spanish exploration in the Southeast versus English exploration along the Atlantic seaboard. Note the conflict in territorial interests beginning in 1586. While the Spaniards were expending efforts on creating Indian missions, the English of Virginia were rapidly expanding into commercial export of tobacco. By 1670 the Spaniards were entrenching behind defenses and encouraging slaves to runaway from their English masters, while English settlers retaliated with attacks on St. Augustine and the mission system. How did this rivalry between colonists and empires affect the region? Look at the dates around the War of Jenkin's Ear (1739-1742). What's the relationship between the founding of Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the Stono slave revolt in Carolina, and Oglethorpe's attack on Spanish Florida? Can you relate this to issues about the American Civil War?
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Major dates in the history of Spanish Florida
Comparative dates in British colonial history
1492
Columbus sails into the Caribbean.

1492
Columbus sails into the Caribbean.
1493
Columbus founds the town of La Isabela on Hispaniola.




1497
John Cabot explores the Atlantic coast of North America.
1513
Juan Ponce de Len explores the Florida coast.




1524
Giovanni de Verrazano explores the coast of North America.
1528
Pnfilo de Narvez leads an expedition through Florida.

(Religious and dynastic turmoil in England dampen interest in further exploration overseas)
1539
Tristan de Luna tries unsuccessfully to start a colony at Escambia Bay (Pensacola).

1559
Tristan de Luna tries unsuccessfully to start a colony at Escambia Ba1562
Jean Ribault and French settlers land in northeast Florida.



1562
Jean Ribault and French settlers land in northeast Florida.


1564
French settlers build Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River.


1565
Pedro Menndez de Avils destroys the expedition from France and establishes St. Augustine.
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1585
English settlers make their first attempt to settle Roanoke (Virginia)
1566
Menndez founds his capital for La Florida at Santa Elena (Port Royal Sound) in what is today South Carolina.


1577
Spaniards begin to conquer Florida, allying or fighting with local native American tribes and chiefdoms.


Pedro Menndez de Avils
Pedro Menndez de Avils
A detail of Francis Drake's attack on the town of St.Augustine in 1586.
A detail of Francis Drake's attack on the town of St. Augustine in 1586.
1586
Sir Francis Drake, after raiding the Spanish Caribbean, attacks and burns St. Augustine.
1586
Sir Francis Drake visits Roanoke and takes the settlers back to England.
1587
Spanish settlers abandon Santa Elena and leave the Carolina coast. Settlement focuses on the Florida peninsula.
1587
Sir Walter Raleigh sends a second group of colonists to reestablish Roanoke.
1588
Replacing the unsuccessful Jesuits, members of the Franciscan order start a mission for Indians on Cumberland Island (now part of Georgia).
1588
English ships destroy the Spanish Armada in the English Channel, altering the balance of naval power in Europe.




1590
The latest wave of English colonists to Roanoke find the colony abandoned and return home to England.
1597
The Guale Indians of coastal Georgia rebel against Spanish rule and efforts at religious conversion.


1607
The Franciscans begin to establish missions among the Timucuan Indians of northeast and north central Florida.
1607
Captain John Smith establishes Jamestown.
1610s
Plague spreads among the 16,000 Indian converts of Florida.




1616
The new colony of Virginia exports 2500 pounds of tobacco.


1620
The Pilgrims establish Plymouth colony.
1623
The Franciscans reintroduce religious instruction among the Guale and establish more missions.


Parish church of St. Augustine
The parish church of St. Augustine (constructed 1797)
Cross found at an early mission site
A cross from an early mission site.


1626
The Dutch establish New Amsterdam (later, New York)


1630
Virginia exports 333,000 pounds of tobacco. Boston is founded.
1633
For the first time, the Franciscans try to establish missions among the Apalachee of the panhandle region.


1634
The colony of Maryland is established.
1634
The colony of Maryland is established.



1635
There are at least 41 missions among the Indians of northern Florida, with an estimated population of 30,000 Indians.
1635
The Reverend Thomas Hooker petitions to create Connecticut.
1638
Possible founding date for San Luis de Talimali, soon to be the most important settlement in Apalachee, and the western capital of La Florida.
1638
Virginia exports 3.1 million pounds of tobacco.
1647
War erupts in Apalachee between Christian and non-Christian Indians.


1650
The missions of La Florida reach their greatest extent. Yellow fever and small pox kill hundreds of Native Americans throughout the decade.
1650
Although slaves only comprise a small proportion of Virginia's labor force (which is mostly indentured servants), colonial authorities legalize chattel slavery, opening the path to keeping Africans and their children in bondage.
1656
Census shows 26,000 Christian Indians in 38 missions.


1658
Angered by Spanish demands for labor, the Timucua Indians rebel against Spanish rule and Gov. Diego de Rebolledo.


1659
The Council of the Indies in Spain orders the arrest of Gov. Diego de Rebolledo for mishandling Indian affairs. A measles epidemic kills an estimated 10,000 Indians.


1663
The colony of Carolina is chartered.
1663
The colony of Carolina is chartered.
1670
The Treaty of Madrid defines Spain's territorial claims in North America.


1672
Officials in St. Augustine commence the building of a stone fortress, the Castillo de San Marcos.


1675
A bishop's census shows 33 missions with 13,152 people.




1683
Governor Juan Marquez Cabrera begins to employ former slaves as soldiers in Florida's militia.


1684
La Salle brings a French expedition into the Gulf Coast.


1687
Eleven slaves (eight men, two women, and a child) flee from slavery in Carolina and go to St. Augustine.


1693
King Charles II declares that slaves fleeing English possessions will be set free upon arriving in Spanish territory.


1694
Charles II issues a royal order to occupy Pensacola Bay.


1698
Spaniards establish Pensacola to block French expansion along the Gulf of Mexico.


Detail from Thomas Lopez's map of St. Augustine showing the free black community of Fort Mo


1700
Fears grow in Carolina that slaves, now numerous, might be encouraged by Spain to rebel against slave-owners.
1702
An expedition led by James Moore of Carolina invades Spanish Florida and burns down St. Augustine but fails to capture the Castillo.
1702
War of the Spanish Succession/Queen Anne's War
1704
In a second expedition, James Moore sends Indian allies of the English to raid and destroy the Spanish missions.


1711
From a population of perhaps 8000 in the 1670s, only 401 refugees survive the attacks on the missions. They settle near St. Augustine for protection.
1711
Colonists in Carolina put down an attempted slave revolt.




1712
Colonists in New York put down an attempted slave revolt.


1714
Colonists in Carolina put down a second slave revolt.


1715
Escaped slaves help the Yamassee Indians make war on Carolina colony.


1723
The English aid the Creeks in retaliations against the Yamassee.
1724
Ten runaway slaves reach St. Augustine.


1728
Carolinians under Col. John Palmer attack Nombre de Dios.




1733
James Oglethorpe founds Ft. Frederica, Georgia.
1738
Spanish officials establish Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, outside St. Augustine, as a town for freed slaves.
1738
Mose outside St. Augustine as a town for freed slaves.
1739
War of Jenkin's Ear between Spain and Great Britain.
1739
Angolan slaves at the Stono River, South Carolina, kill twenty whites in a revolt and are caught trying to flee to Florida.
1740
James Oglethorpe leads Georgia and Carolina militia on a military expedition to destroy St. Augustine.
1740
The population of South Carolina reaches 40,000. Two-thirds of the colony's inhabitants are slaves.


1741
Colonists in New York put down another slave revolt.
1742
Governor Manuel de Montiano sends a retaliatory strike into Georgia.


Age of Empire: The French and Indian War (1754-1763) redrew the map of colonial North America, eliminating French possessions in Quebec and Louisiana. Spain was forced to cede its colony of Florida to England. In compensation, it received the Louisiana territory from France. English colonies stretched along all of the Atlantic seaboard from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. This new "status quo" lasted less than 20 years, as thirteen of Britain's colonies rose in revolt against Crown and parliamentary policies. How did Spanish ambitions to regain the Floridas affect the American Revolution? What problems did a Spanish presence in Florida and Louisiana pose for the young United States? Consider how the administrations of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe resolved these problems in the years between the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the First Seminole War (1817-1818). Original art, British ships, from Flags of Florida, Lt. Col. A.L.L. Martin.
1745 to 1763
The French and Indian War.
1745 to 1763
The French and Indian War.
1764
England divides its new colony of Florida into two colonies, East and West, with the capital of the former at St. Augustine and the capital of the latter at Pensacola.
1764
Parliament passes the Revenue, or Sugar, Act.
1765
John Bartram, Royal Botanist, travels through British East Florida, including visits to the Seminole Indians.
1765
Parliament passes the Stamp Act.
1767
Dr. Andrew Turnbull of Scotland brings indentured servants from the Mediterranean to Florida to work his indigo plantation at New Smyrna.


1770
Eight British soldiers in the 29th Regiment fire on a mob in Boston, killing five.
1773
John Bartram's son, William, returns to East Florida.
1773
American patriots stage the Boston Tea Party.


1774
The First Continental Congress meets.


1775
The American Revolution starts at Lexington and Concord.


1776
Congress declares the colonies independent.
1777
Indentured servants at New Smyrna rebel and go to St. Augustine, creating the "Minorcan" community there.


1778
France and Spain agree to aid the American cause.
1779
Settlers loyal to George III flee into East Florida from South Carolina and Georgia.
1779
The British capture Savannah.
1780
Spanish forces from Louisiana capture Mobile in British West Florida.
1780
The British capture Charleston.
1781
An expedition under Bernardo de Glvez lays siege to Pensacola and forces the British army defending it to surrender
1781
American and French forces, assisted by a French fleet, trap Lord Cornwallis's entire army at Yorktown, Virginia.
1783
England acknowledges Spanish sovereignty over British West Florida and cedes British East Florida.
1783
Britain recognizes the independence of the United States.
Spanish officials were horrified when Napoleon Bonaparte acquired the Louisiana territory from Spain and then sold it to the United States. Americans now had a wedge of settlement between the Floridas and Texas, and complete control over the Mississippi River. But when President Jefferson claimed all the lands between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains as part of Louisiana, the United States and Spain came to the verge of war. Tensions lasted from 1803 until 1807, when Americans became distracted by growing problems with the British. Detail from the French map "Lower Louisiana and West Florida" in Vue de la Colonie Espagnole du Mississipi, &c. (1803)


1788
Nine states ratify the U.S. Constitution, establishing a new federal system of government for the United States.


1789
Parisians storm the Bastille, starting the French Revolution. George Washington becomes the first president of the United States.
1790
Spain establishes new laws for East Florida, responding in part to the proximity of the United States. The Crown ends its policy of giving sanctuary to runaway slaves. It opens Florida to immigration. New settlers must take an oath of loyalty to the Crown. It opens trade between Florida and "neutral powers," which includes all ports of the U.S.
1790
Thomas Jefferson, as Secretary of State, proposes an expedition to explore the Missouri River.
1791
William Bartrams's Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida comes out in print.


1793
The cornerstone of St. Augustine's parish church (now the Cathedral Basilica) is laid. The church is finished in 1797.
1793
French republicans execute King Louis XVI for crimes against the people. England and Spain declare war on France. Thomas Jefferson again proposes an expedition to the Missouri.
1794
French agents in Savannah make plans to help Americans living in East Florida rebel against Spanish rule.
1794
Farmers in western Pennsylvania rebel over a proposed tax on whiskey. Alexander Hamilton leads troops to suppress trouble.
1795
Spanish forces in East Florida suppress a revolt by American settlers. Rebel leaders flee into Georgia.
1795
The Treaty of San Lorenzo between Spain and the United States guarantees Americans free use of the Mississippi River and duty-free passage through the port of New Orleans.
The early 1800s saw the people of the young American republic involved in disputes with France and Britain over safe passage of shipping on the high seas and with Spain over ownership of East and West Florida. Territorial acquisitions that started through negotiation were eventually concluded by war as the United States used the War of 1812 to push Spain into surrendering its Florida possessions. American troops occupied Spanish East Florida in 1812 and 1813. Meanwhile, Americans fought their second war against the British, sealing the verdict of the American Revolution. Image from William Walton's The Army & Navy of the United States (1900)


1797
France begins to attack American commerical shipping, leading to the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval conflict.


1800
Under pressure, Spain returns the territory of Louisiana to France. President Jefferson fears this will mean a strong French military presence in the West.


1803
The United States purchases Louisiana from France. President Jefferson claims the Purchase also includes Spanish Texas and portions of Spanish West Florida.


1805
Nelson destroys the French and Spanish fleet at Trafalgar. The U.S. Navy punishes the Barbary pirates for preying on American shipping. The Lewis and Clark expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean.
1806
Dr. Daniel Turner, a Rhode Island physician living in St. Marys, Georgia, tells friends that tensions with Spanish settlers over the Louisiana Purchase and other matters have reached a fever pitch and might lead to an invasion of Florida.



1808
Slave traders begin to use Amelia Island, East Florida, as a base of operations for the African slave trade.
1808
Britain and the United States ban the African slave trade from their possessions. The French invade Spain.
1810
American settlers in the Baton Rouge District of Spanish West Florida rebel against Spanish rule.
1810
President James Madison orders American troops from Louisiana to occupy Baton Rouge and hold it for the United States.
1811
Governor David Mitchell of Georgia pledges to put an end to Spanish "piracy" at Amelia Island.


1812
[March 17-18]. Encouraged by an American agent, Georgia militia, rebel Floridians, and U.S. troops occupy Spanish East Florida.
1812
[June 18]. The U.S. Senate declares war on England but the next day refuses to declare war on Spain.
Between 1812 and 1821 Spain struggled to hold on to the Floridas. Gregor McGregor (right) led troops against Amelia Island in 1817. That same year the First Seminole War broke out, and in 1818 Andrew Jackson led forces against the Miccosukee and Seminole towns between the Apalachiola and Suwannee rivers. Original artwork, Flags of Florida, Lt. Col. A.L.L. Martin.
1813
After one full year, the U.S. troops occupying East Florida withdraw to Georgia, burning many plantations as they go.
1813
Andrew Jackson takes on the Creek Confederation and defeats hostile Creeks at Horseshoe Bend. Georgia and Tennessee militias move against the Seminoles in Spanish East Florida.
1814
Andrew Jackson's forces occupy Pensacola in Spanish West Florida and force a British fleet to abandon the area.
1814
British forces burn the government buildings in Washington but retreat from an attempt to take Baltimore.


1815
Andrew Jackson defeats a British invasion of New Orleans.
1816
Escaped slaves congregate around a fort the British set up on the Apalachicola River in Florida.
1816
The U.S. Army enters Spanish territory to wipe out the "Negro Fort" at Apalachicola.



1808
Slave traders begin to use Amelia Island, East Florida, as a base of operations for the African slave trade.
1808
Britain and the United States ban the African slave trade from their possessions. The French invade Spain.
1810
American settlers in the Baton Rouge District of Spanish West Florida rebel against Spanish rule.
1817
Gregor McGregor, an adventurer in the pay of Spanish liberationists, seizes Amelia Island in East Florida. Reacting to McGregor's take-over, American forces again occupy Amelia Island on behalf of the United States.
1817
James Monroe becomes president of the United States. Andrew Jackson (1818) leads troops into Florida to destroy the towns of Indians who have met force with force on the frontiers.


1819
Spain agrees in principle to cede East and West Florida to the United States.
1821
The Spanish Floridas are merged into a single American territory with a new capital at Tallahassee. Andrew Jackson becomes the first (absentee) governor.
1821
A treaty acknowledging the transfer is ratified.


1823
President James Monroe outlines the Monroe Doctrine, that no European power will be allowed to establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
The sentry towers of the city gate of St. Augustine.
The remains of the city gate of St. Augustine.


Fort Mose
British Ships
Lower Louisiana and West Florida
Image from William Walton's The Army & Navy of the United States (1900)
Gregor McGregor


y (Pensacola).




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