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Title: Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club
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Title: Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club
Physical Description: 25 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Torrey Botanical Club
Publisher: Torrey Botanical Club etc.
Torrey Botanical Club etc.
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Publication Date: May 1890
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Subject: Botany   ( lcsh )
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Botanique -- Pâeriodiques   ( rvm )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1-25; May 25, 1889-Sept. 1993.
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MEMOIRS




OF' THE




TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.


VOL. I.

















PUBLISHED FOR THE CLUB.
NEW YORK.
MAY, ISS9-MAY, I89o.

























CONTENTS.





No. I. PAGES.
IES OF THE TYPES OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF THE GENUS Carex. By
H. Bailey .............................................. 1-86

No. 2.
LGA OF THE NEW JERSEY COAST AND ADJACENT WATERS OF
ATEN ISLAND. By Isaac C. Martindale........................ 87-112

No. 3.
EPATICAI BOLIVIANA, IN ANDIBUS BOLIVIA ORIENTALIS, ANNIS 1885-6,
A CL. H. H. RUSBY LECT.;E. By Richard Spruce................. 113-140

No. 4.
ON SEEDLESS FRUITS. By E. Lewis Sturtevant. ...................... 141-186





The numbers are each indexed separately.











MEMOIRS
OF THE

TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB.


Vol. I. No. 4.


SEEDLESS FRUITS.
BY E. LEWIS STURTEVANT, South Framingham, Mass.
If we seek in nature an occurrence which is distinctly preju-
dicial to the continuance and distribution of species, we find an
illustration in seedless fruits. Unless correlated with a develop.
ment or.increase of other means of propagation, as by suckering,
off-shoots or bulbs, seedlessness must eventually bring about the
destruction of the variety which its advent marks. Hence, seed-
lessness is more apt to be noted in cultivated or protected plants.
In nature we would suppose that seedless fruits would necessarily
be confined to the restricted locality wherein they have origi-
nated, for it is only under man's care, as it would seem, that they
can receive a general distribution, although the habit of a spe-
cies towards seedlessness may cause similar variety originations
in different localities. Hence it is with extreme surprise that
we note the wide extension of Acorus Calamus, a plant that so
rarely perfects its fruit that this has been seen by but few bota-
nists.' Yet sterility is but the extreme of the partial sterility, or
more or less fruitfulness, which is so constantly noted, and we
cannot consider the causes of one without more or less consider-
ing the causes of the other.
The causes of sterility, either partial or complete, must be
many and complicated. The various factors combined under the
term season are an influential series, as we note the increased
fruitfulness of various wild fruits in one season as against another;
I Darwin, An. and P1. ii. 207.








as for illustration, the dangle-berry, (Gaylussaccia frondosa) in a
Massachusetts locality, bore little fruit in 1888, the bloom failing
to form, while in 1889, in the same locality the shrubs were ex-
tremely prolific. We find excellent illustration of the effect of
climate in Humboldt's statement that on the slopes of the moun-
tains of Mexico and Xalapa, at 677 toises of height, the luxuri-
ance of vegetation is such that wheat does not form ears; and in
India, Firminger notes quite a large number of plants that rarely
blossom or seed, such as Convolvulus tricolor, Geum atrosanguin-
eum, Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis, H. liliiflorus, etc. Brandis in his
Forest Flora names also the Populus alba, Bambusa Balcova,
etc., and Seemann in the Feejee Islands the Dioscorea alata. Such
instances could be almost indefinitely extended. A correlation
between tuber bearing and seeding also seems to exist. Thus the
Agave vivipara, when grown in rich soil in India invariably pro-
duces bulbs, but no seed, while on a poor soil and under arid
conditions the opposite result occurs.' The sweet potato in
China, according to Dr. Fortune,2 never yields seed; in our re-
gion the sweet potato never blossoms, or if at all very rarely, yet
in Alabama it blossoms, but, as Dr. Newman writes me, when
forwarding the bloom, that he had never known seeds to be
formed. The potato was noted by Knights as having varieties
that do not bloom, and at the present time the majority of our
cultivated varieties, while blooming freely, yield no fruit or seed.
The sugar cane rarely seeds, and Darwin quotes testimony that
it never seeds in the West Indies, Malaga, India, Cochin China
or the Malay Archipelago, yet recently at Barbadoes sugar cane
has seeded and the seed has yielded seedlings4. A most inter-
esting case of barrenness has come under my own observation at
Nonquit, Massachusetts, where a gold-striped form of Spartina
cynosuroides has been sterile for two years, while the ordinary
green form alongside has seeded abundantly. Hybridity may
also be ascribed as a cause, and Darwin cites a number of in-
stances, and quotes Kolreuter as expressing astonishment that

I Royle. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 563.
2 Darwin An. and P1. ii. 206.
3 Hort. and Phys. papers, 321. Goodrich, Trans. N. Y. Ag. Soc. 1847, 447.
4Agricultural Science, March, 1889, p. 58.










hybrids are not only frequently sterile, but show a strong ten-
dency to develop gigantic or tuberous roots, and as almost in-
variably tending to increase largely by suckers. We must not,
however, ignore those obscure observations wherein we note an
influence of pollen in developing the ovarium, although incapable
of developing the ovule, and Darwin's statement that "with an
orchid, the Bonatia speciosa, the development of the ovaria
could be effected by mechanical irritation of the stigma" has not
received the attention from investigators that its importance de-
serves. Gaertner often insists, says Darwin, t iat the flowers of
uttterly sterile hybrids, which do not produce any seed, gener-
ally yield perfect capsules or fruit, a fact which Naudin has re-
peatedly observed in the Cucurbitacee. It seems to be well as-
certained that certain plants can produce not only fruit, but fer-
tile seed, without having been subjected to the action of pollen.
Thus, as good authorities as Quatrefages', says this is unquestion-
ably true, and Hooker' quotes facts of this character from Spallanz-
ani, Bernhardi, Ch. Naudin, Fresenius and Tenore, and Jussieu3
and Darviin4 express also their belief Treviranuss, however, states
that a perfect development of fruits, but with barren seeds will
take place with some plants without the process of fertilization.
There seems to exist in fruits a correlation between seedless-
ness and quality, especially when that quality is expressed by the
term tenderness of tissue. In fruits of a fine quality, tenderness
of the seed coating often seems a marked characteristic, as in
grapes, where' the seeds of the improved varieties are distinctly
softer and more brittle than in those of the wild species; as in
peaches and plums, where the tendency of a split stone is often
noticeable in fruit of varieties of high quality. It certainly should
not be overlooked that universal experience usually recognizes
lack of hardiness in trees of the most highly improved and de-
veloped varieties. This idea of correlation between seedlessness
and quality is by no means a new one. Thus Bacon6 wrote,
I Quatrefages, Metamorphoses of Man. 271.
2 Hooker, Journ. of Bot. ix. 53.
3 Jussieu, Cours element. de Bot. 1840, 463.
4 Darwin, An. and P1. i. 484.
5 Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. 1854, 112.
6Bacon's'Works, Bohn. Ed. i. 142.










(born 165 ): "The making of fruits without core or stone is
likewise a curiosity, and somewhat better, because whatsoever
maketh them so, is like to make them more tender and delicate."
With such authority is it surprising that the Christian Advo-
cate,"' properly a disciple of humanism or idealism rather than of
realism, soberly says: Fruit of all kinds may be grown without
seed by reversing the cion-rooting the top end of the cion. *
Apples are grown without cores, peaches without seed,
and grapes, plums, cherries, blackberries and every other kind of
fruit may be grown without seed by simply reversing the cion.
Persimmons without seed are not to be excelled by any other
fruit in this country when dried. Apples cooked without cores
are delightful. Grapes have been raised for five thousand years
without seed. Peaches dried whole without seed would be a
hundred times better than those shaved up and dried. The
seeding of cherries has been a great trouble to cooks." !
The taking the pith from the vine in order to produce seed-
lessness, received the approval, if not the trial, of the ancients, as
we find directions from Democritus, Palladius, Columella, and
the well-read Bacon2.
In the present stage of this investigation, I prefer to give such
facts and statements regarding seedlessness, mostly in fruit, used
in the horticultural sense, that have come to my attention, allow-
ing the facts to speak for themselves. If such a correlation be-
tween quality and seedlessness exists, as I infer, this presentation
has a value in calling attention to a possible method whereby our
cultivated fruits may be more improved, and wild fruits be more
successfully brought into cultural use.
It may be proper to call attention in advance to the fact that
as regards size of fruit, there seems to be no way of generalizing
at present. In the bunches of our cultivated grapes the larger
berries contain usually the most seed; in the banana, increase
of size apparently accompanies seeding, and the opposite conclu-
sion is stated by Balfour also in relation to the breadfruit as
well as the banana.3
I Quoted in the New York Analist, Sept. I, 1885.
2 Democritus, Geopon. lib. 4, c. 7. Palladius, De re rust. Feb. c. 29. Colum-
ella, De arb. c. 9. Bacon, notes, 1. c,
3 Balfour, Bot. 261,










APPLE. PYRUS MALUS, L. (ROSACEE).
The apple is a fleshy fruit consisting of the ovary and calyx.
The outer skin or epicarp is composed of the epidermis of the
calyx combined with the ovary; the fleshy portion is the meso-
carp, formed by the cellular portion of the calyx and ovary; while
the scaly layer forming the walls of the seed-bearing cavities in
the centre, is the endocarp. The carpelslie towards the centre
of the fruit and form the core, while the edible pulp is formed by
the calyx, which is adherent to the exterior of the ovary.
The better varieties of the apple usually contain some abor-
tive seeds, and are sometimes individually to be found seedless.
As a rule, where there is a tendency to abortive seeds, the larger
and finer the apple the greater the number of abortive seeds.
Thus five Baldwin apples, weighing thirty ounces, had eleven
plump and nine shrivelled seeds; five others from the same bar-
rel, and weighing seventeen ounces, furnished twenty-five plump
and three abortive seeds.
The ancients were acquainted with the fruits of but limited
areas as compared with our knowledge of to-day, for transporta-
tion and travel were then difficult. However, a goodly number
of varieties are named. Pliny' gives the names of seventeen kinds
as known to the Romans. In the sixteenth century Cordus' de-
scribes thirty-four German sorts; Le Jardinier Solitaire, 1612,
describes ten French varieties; Parkinson, in his Paradisus, 1629,
names or briefly describes fifty-seven sorts; J. Bauhin, in 1650,
figures fifty-nine varieties and describes seventy-four; Rea, in his
Flora of 1665, describes twenty sorts; Ray, in his History, 1688,
names seventy-eight; Quintyne, in the English edition of his
Compleat Gardener, 1693, catalogues twenty-five; Zwingerus, in'
1696, in his Kreuterbuch gives a list of two hundred and thirty-
four apples; Langley's Pomona, 1729, describes thirty-nine;
Miller's Dictionary, 173I, commends forty kinds; Knoop's Po-
mologia, 1760-'66, gives colored figures of two hundred and fif-
teen; Mawe's Gardiner, 1778, enumerates sixty-seven varieties;
Don, in 1832, offers a list of one thousand three hundred and
ninety-six distinct apples; Downing, in 1866, notices six hun-
I Pliny, lib. xv. c. 15.
2 J. Bauh. Hist. 1650, i. p. 5.










hred and forty-three kinds; and the American Pomological So-
ciety in 1877, approves for culture three hundred and twenty-
two apples and thirteen crabs.
Seedless apples were known to the ancient Greeks', and the
Romans,2 called such the spadonium' of the Belgae. In the
twelfth century, Ibn-al-awam3, a Moorish-Spaniard, cites Abou'l-
Khari, of Seville, who describes the Sckakaly apple as produc-
ing no flowers, and the fruit containing no seed. Camerarius4,
in 1588, mentions apples without seed, but also quotes Thro-
phrastus; Bauhin,s in 1623, quotes Camerarius, and the apple
not flowering, yet fruit-bearing of Gesner, which doubtless was
seedless. Parkinson,6 in 1629, speaks of the apple without
bloom" neither a good eating nor baking fruit, and in 16407,
speaks of the Poma nana, the same name Camerarius uses, as
having no kernels within the core. In 1650 we have Gesner
and Camerarius quoted by John Bauhin, the former describing
his tree in the vicinity of Tiguri, the latter as Poma nana, and a
wood-cut of the Malus non florida dicta, which he states is wont
to be seedless:8 This same figure, not accurately copied, is given
by Jonston' in 1662, who apparently had not seen the variety,
and a better copy by Chabraeuslo who claims to have seen the
fruit in the garden under charge of J. Bauhin; he calls it Malus
nonflorida dicta, Gall. Pommier sansfleur. In 1665 the Hort.
Reg. Paris, as quoted by Miller" had the Malus fructifera, flore
fugaci, or fig apple. He had not seen a specimen himself, but
refers to a letter written from New England by Paul Dudley, and
published in the Phil. Trans. No. 385, as being of this kind. This
letter" says, "This tree was no graft, and the fruit but ordinary
I Theoph. de caus. pi. lib. 3 c. 23.
2Pliny, lib. xv. c. 15.
3 Le lirve de l'Agric. d' Ibn-al-awam. Trad. par J. J. Clement Mullett, Paris,
1864, i. 308.
4 Cam. Hort. 1588, 95.
5 Bauh. pin. 1623. 433.
6Park. par. 1629, 588.
7 Park. that. 164o, 1502.
8J. Bauh. Hist. 1650. i. 22.
9Jonston, dend. 1662, p. 2, t. 2.
ioChatraeus, stirp. sciag. 1677, p. i ; also ed. of 1666, p. i.
ii Miller, Gard. Diet, 1731, art. malus.
12Phil. Trans. 1724, 200.









for taste." In 1719 Tournefort' makes like reference to the Paris
Garden, and gives as synonyms the Malus nonflorida dicta of J.
Bauhin, and the common name Pomme figue. In 1768 Duha-
mel2 describes the same variety, and in his second edition gives
a figure of the fruit. In 1834. there was exhibited at the Mas-
sachusetts Horticultural Society's exhibition,3 from Shrewsbury,
Massachusetts, "A curious apple produced without blossoms,
and having neither core nor seed." October 13, 1888, some
" No Blow apples were brought to the society by Mr. L. C.
Durkie, ofNorthfields Farms, and these were identical in shape,
but a little redder in color, than Duhamel's figure. I secured
good colored drawings and dissections, and found them double-
cored and seedless. The taste acid, crisp, sprightly, reminding
of the Porter apple. December 15, 1888, O. B. Hadwin, of
Worcester, informed me that the Shrewsbury seedless apple was
well-known to him, and was the same variety as the No Blow."
In 1778 Mawe4 describes the Fig apple, and accounts for the
name by the trees producing fruit without any visible flowers,
like the Fig, but he adds that the tree does produce flowers
that are visible, but almost apetalous. The Pomme figue is
described, with Bauhin's and Tournefort's names as synonyms by
Poiret5 in 1804, and under the names Pomme figure sans pepin
and Pomme d'Adam by Noisette6 in 1829, who describes it as
yellow striped with pale red, with firm and acid flesh. This fruit
is also referred to by Ray,7 in 1688, who but quotes from Bau-
hin's Pinax, and apparently by Joncquit, in 1659, under the name
Malus fructifera.sine flore d'Robin.
From this review it seems placed among the strong proba-
bilities that many of these seedless apples were one and the same
variety which has been continued through the years, and if so,
illustrates either that it occasionally produces seed which con-
tinues the variety, or else that the present trees have been con-
tinued from grafts for over two thousand years.

SInst. rei herb. 1719, 635.
2 Duhamel du Monceau, arb. fruit, 1768, i. 318 ; 2d ed. i. pl. 28.
3 Hist. Mass. Hort. Soc. p. 234. Mass. Hort. Soc. Rept. 1834, 22.
4 Mawe and Abercrombie, Gardener, under Pyrus.
5 Enc. method. bot. v. 562.
6 Noisette, Man. du Jard. 1829, 437.
7 Ray, Hist. 1688, ii. 1446.










Other remarks on seedless apples are those of Darwin,' who
speaks of the curious St. Valery apple, in France, which although
it bears fruit, rarely produces seed; that of the Bon Jardinier',
which describes the Sans Trognon de Menocker, an excellent win-
ter apple of the valley of Digomier, of which is said : We do not
know of a finer apple; it is well named coreless, for it has noth-
ing within the skin which resembles a core, neither seed nor seed
cells; it is excellent, of large medium size "
As to causes, the apple becomes seedless in Jamaica accord-
ing to Lunan,3 apparently the effect of climate. In Knight's4 ex-'
periment of grafting the apple on the pear, the fruit was seedless.
In 1882 some Carolina Red Sour apple trees bore a second crop
in Georgia, and these were seedless; There was not the least
evidence that any embryo had ever been present in the core or
cavities of the endocarp."5
In a case reported in France6 of a seedling apple one-half of
which was red and acid, the other half green and sweet, suggest-
ing hybridization, there was said to be scarcely ever a perfectly
developed seed.
In counting the seed of a number of variety of apples, the fol-
lowing figures were obtained.7
Variety. No. of Specimens. Average.No. Average No.
of Plump Seed. Total Seed.
Baldwin, 67 3.73 5.74
Bellefleur, 5 9,5 11.5
Yellow, 2 8 8
Blue Pearmain 3 12 12.66
Greening, I 4 7
naked limb I 10 10
Palmer I 3 3
Rhode Island 6 6.87 11.21
Winthrop I 6 7
Gilliflower, 3 5 7
Grimes' Golden, I 1o 10

I Darwin, An. and P1. ii. 203. See also Bailey, The Bloomless Apple, Am.
Garden, Jan. I8go, 6.
2 Bon Jardinier, 1882, p. xlvii.
3 Lunan. Hort. Jam. p. 24.
4 Phys. and Hort. Papers, 222.
5 Country Gentleman, Nov. 30, 1882.
6 Loudon's Gard. Mag. xiii. 230.
7 N. Y. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rept. 1882, 82; Proc. Soc. for P. of Ag. Sc. 1881, 114.











Variety. No. of Specimens. Average No. Average No.
of Plump Seed. Total Seed.
Hubbardson, 4 3.75 6.33
Hyde, 2 8.5 8.5
Jelly, I 8 8
King of Tompkins County, 3 7.6 8.6
Lady Apple, 2 7 7
Northern Spy, 4 12.75 13.75
Pippin, Golden 2 4 7
Monmouth I 8 8
Newtown I I Io
S New York I o o1
Russet, I 6 8
English I 9 9
Golden 3 3 7
Gray .1 6
Roxbury 4 3.25 8.66
Seek no Further, Westfield i 16 18
Smith's Cider, I 9 9
Spitzenburg, 3 6 7.6
Esopus 6 10.7 1.I
Swaar, I 13 13
Tolman Sweeting, 8 7.7 8.7
Vandevere, I 9 o1
Willow Twig, I Io II
Winter Blush, Tewksbury, I 6 6

AVOCADO PEAR. PERSEA GRATISSIMA, GARTN. (LAURACEE).

There are several species or varieties of this fruit. Morelet'
describes them in Central America; the advocate, the omtckon,
and a third called anison on account of its flavor. In the normal
plant the fruit is of the size of a large pear, and contains a large
oval stone, which rattles when the fruit is ripe; the pulp is of a
delicate coffee color, unctuous, without odor, resembling fresh
butter. Long' mentions a green and a red sort in Jamaica.
In Ceylon the fruit is said to be smaller, harder, less buttery,
thicker skined and more stony than in other climes.3
I introduce this statement among seedless fruit on account
of the decrease of quality accompanying the stony seed, whatever
that may mean.

I Travels, p. 265.
2 Jamaica, p. 808.
3 H. L. C. Gard. Chron. Apr. 19, 1884, p. 520.










AZAROLE. CRATEGUS AZAROLUS, L. (ROSACE2E).
This fruit is usually two-seeded, and when fully ripe is said
to have an agreeable taste. It is esteemed in Italy and the Levant,
where it is served at dessert. It is said to be much cultivated'.
The fruit is cherry size, and is a pome resembling a very small
pear. Duhamel,2 says there are numerous varieties, the small
yellow fruited, the small red fruited, and the large deep red
fruiting. Noisette3 mentions as varieties the fruit longes, rouges
and jaunes.
Athenaeus4, a Greek author of the second and third century,
speaks of the Azarole as sweet and seedless. Darwins mentions
this plant amongst those in which the best varieties bear none or
few seed.
BANANA. MUSA, SP. (MUSACE&E).
The banana is a prominent instance of a seedless fruit. The
fruit is composed of three adherent carpels surrounded by the
external coat of the ovarium. There are very many varieties.
Rumphius6 says there are as many different kinds as there are of
apples and pears in Europe. There are no fewer than thirty
varieties cultivated by the natives of Tahiti, according to Ellis7,
besides twenty kinds, very large and serviceable that grow wild in
the mountains. In Feejee, Wilkes8 mentions five or six kinds
besides the wild form, as cultivated. In India, Mueller9 says
about fifty.distinct kinds are grown, and Firminger'0 enumerates
twenty-one sorts under five species. Carey", however, says the
cultivated varieties are infinite. Simmonds" estimates twenty
varieties in Tenasserim, ten in Ceylon and thirty in Burmah.

I Bot. Reposit. ix. pl. 579.
2Duhamel du Monceau, arb. fruit, 1768, i. 325, fig. p. 334.
3 Man. du Jard. 1829, 444.
.4Sprengel. Hist. Rei Herb. i. 25.
5 Darwin, An. and Pl. ii. 208.
6Rumph. Amb. v. p. 126, t. 60.
7 Polynesian Researches, i. 372.
8 U. S. Ex. Exp. iii. 333.
9 Mueller, Sel. Pl. 136.
IoGard. in India.
II Hort. Bengal. 18.
12 Trop. Agr. 457.










Forster' does not attempt to enumerate, but says the plantain
varies almost ad infinitum like an apple. A few more quotations
will suffice. Heuze2 says the banana has produced fourteen varie-
ties in Malabar, twenty-nine in Tahiti, fifteen in Tonga, sixteen
in Malaysia and eighty in Batavia. On the Amazon, Castelnau3
notes an enormous number of varieties, and Grant4 mentions very
distinct kinds in Central Africa.
This very abundance of varieties shows that the fruit must
occasionally produce seed, and such instances are .corded. On
the coast of Paria, near the Golfo Triste, Humboldt5 says the
banana is said to occasionally produce germinating seeds if the fruit
be allowed to ripen on the stem. At Bordones, also, near Cumana,
perfectly formed and matured seeds have been occasionally found
in this fruit. Other examples of seeding are given as we proceed.
Musa ensete, Gmelin, is cultivated6 in Abyssinia in large plan-
tations for the inner portion of the stem and the young spike,
which is used as a staple vegetable. Its fruit is dry and in-
edible, containing a few large stony seeds.7 There are many in-
stances given of other banana fruit containing seed. Burton8, in
Central Africa says the best bananas are grown by the Arabs at
Unyamyembe, but poor specimens, coarse and insipid, stringy
and full of seed; upon Lake Tanganyika there is a variety called
Mikono t'fumbo, or elephant's hands, very large, the skin brick-
dust red, the pulp a dull yellow, with black seeds, and the flavor
harsh, strong and drug-like. On the Coromandel Coast, Rox-
burgh9 found both bananas and plantains under culture, and says
the original wild Musa from which all the cultivated varieties of
both plantain and banana proceed, bears numerous seeds. In the
Himalayas, Hooker'1 notes two species of wild plantain, which
ripen austere and small fruits which are full of seeds, and quite
I Forster, Obs. 177.
2 Les. pl. alim. ii. 569.
3 Quoted by Herndon, Amazon, 181.
4Speke's Nile, 583.
5 Views of Nature, 305.
6 Bruce, Voy. v., 50, t. 8 and 9.
7 Masters Treas of Bot. art. Musa.
8 Burton, Lake Region of Central Africa, 316,
9 Roxburgh, Coromandel P1. iii. 74.
jo Hooker, Himalayan Journal, i. 143,










uneatable. At Manilla, Meyen' states that there is a variety of
banana full of seeds. At Luzon, he says' there is a permanent
variety, Platano de Pepita, propagated by shoots, and though it
contains a great number of seeds, the pulpy substance of the
fruit is exceedingly well flavored. In India, Cochin China and
Java, this variety is also found, the fruit full of seeds, and there-
fore, less esteemed for eating. Finlayson3 expressly mentions the
cultivated Musa with perfect seeds, and on the island of Ubi he
found a wild Iusa with fruit full of seeds, and little edible pulp.
At Batavia in 1790, Captain Cook4 found the variety called Pis-
sang Batu or Pissang Bidjie to be full of seed, but he adds that
it had no excellence to recommend it to the taste, but the Malays
use it as a remedy for the flux. At New Holland5 he speaks of
a variety of wild plaintain with seeds and well tasted, although
on a previous page he says plantains are not found there. At
another page he says these wild plantains were so full of stones
as to be scarcely eatable.
Among the more definite mentions of seedy bananas, we may
note Musa glauca, Roxb.,6 native of Pegu, the fruit containing
little else but seed, and scarcely fit for a monkey to eat. Royle7
records Musa Nepalensis as apparently wild in Nepal, the fruit
containing little else than the hard dry seeds. Loureiro8 in Co-
chin China describes Musa semenifera in three varieties, one with
seeds and scarcely any pulp, another with many seeds and a
sweet pulp, the third which rarely seeds and the pulp very sweet.
Roxburgh on the Coromandel Coast describes Musa superba as
ripening seed, the fruit of no use, and Musa troglodytarum is de-
scribed in Miller's Dictionary as having nunierous seeds and in-
edible fruit. The same is said of its synonym Musa uranoscopus
by Loureiro. On the contrary Mueller9 says the edible fruits

i Quoted by Darwin, An. and P1. ii. 205, note.
2 Meyen, Outlines of the Geog. of P1. London, 1846, p. 326.
3 Jour. of Voy. to Siam, 1826, p. 86.
4 Cook, Voy. i. 304.
5 Cook, Voy. i. 234, 235.
6 Roxburgh, Coromandel P1. Plate 300.
7 Royle, Ill. of Bot. of the Himalayas, 355.
8 Loureiro, Cochin Ch. 644.
9 Mueller, Select Plants, under Musa, p. 136.










are small, reddish or orange colored, upright and edible, and by
the context seedless; and at the Edinburgh Botanical Garden',
Musa superba furnished a great quantity of high flavored, and
from the context, seedless fruits.
Musa rubra, the Vai of Cook, and Fakie of Wilkes, grows
both wild and cultivated atiTahiti. Wilkes' says it is destitute of
seed, and praises the fruit very highly. Another authority says
there are five varieties, and still another4 states that there are
twenty sorts, found wild. Mueller 1. c. seems to consider this
species as synonymous with Musa troglodytarum.
The cultivated bananas and plantains have been assigned to
quite a number of species, and furnish almost innumerable varie-
ties, all of which are normally seedless, and all of which are de-
scribed as more or less delicious for those kinds which are eaten
raw.
BARBERRY. BERBERIS VULGARIS, L. (BERBERIDE2E).
The fruit hangs in pendulous racemes, the berry a one-celled
ovary containing from one to eight seeds. The culture is scarcely
of sufficient importance to justify expectation of varieties, yet
Duhamels mentions the common red, the seedless, the purple, the
white, the broad-leaved, the box-leaved, etc., and the black
fruited of Tournefort, from the'banks of the Euphrates, which, is
said to be of a delicious flavor. The purple-leaved in orna-
mental gardening, is familiar to us all.
The first mention of a seedless barberry that we find is by
Gerarde6, in 1597. The second edition of his works in 1636, also
speaks of it in the same words. "We have likewise another
without any stone; the fruit is like the rest of the barberries,
both in substance and taste." In 1601, Clusius7 had seen this
kind at a village near Frankfort, and he pronounces it by far the
best sort for preserves. It is mentioned by name by Bauhin8, in
I Bot. Mag. quoted Gard. Chron. 1841, Mar. 20. p. 182.
2 U. S. Exp. Exp. ii. 28, iii. 333.
3 Voy. of the Novara, iii. 243.
4 Ellis, Polynesian Researches, i. 372.
5 Duhamel du Monceau, arb. fruit, 1768, i. 151.
6 Herbal. 1579, p. 1144; 1636, p. 1325.
7Clus. rar. plant, 160o, i. 121.
8 Bauhin, pin. 1623, p. 454,










1623, and shortly by Parkinson,' in 1629 and r64o, who evidently
had never seen it, and also is recorded by Coles,2 in 1657, by name,
by Jonston3 in 1662 by name, by Ray,4 in 1688, Tournefort,s in
1719, and Miller,6 in 1731. In 1750, an anonymous French
work on gardening7 describes it as being the most desirable sort,
and Duhamel,8 in 1755, says it is subject to occasional seeding;
in 1768 he9 says it is the variety most deserving of culture.
Mawe,'1 in 1778, just mentions it by name, and it is noted by
Willdenow," in 1799, by Poiret," in 1808, Noisette,'"in 1829, and
is described apparently from Duhamel by Downing14 in recent
times. I have found occasionally seedless fruits on hedge plants
in Maine.
It would seem that this stoneless fruit has been unknown in
England and America, or at least not recorded, but has been
grown in Germany, and we find it stated by several authors that
it is especially valued about Rouen, in France, for the making of
preserves.

BEECH NUTS. FAGUS FERRUGINEA, AIT. (CUPULIFERIE).

The beech nut is usually abortive in South Framingham,
Massachusetts, while the empty shells are in some seasons abun-
dant, yet I have never seen there perfect seed. In other locali-
ties, the nuts usually appear plump and well filled.

BREADFRUIT. ARTOCARPUS INCISA, L. (URTICACE2E).
The edible portion is formed by the cohesion into a single
mass of the floral envelopes and ovaria of a large number of

I Parkinson, parad. 1629, p. 561, that. 1640, p. 1559.
2 Coles, Adam in Eden, 1657, p. 273,
3 Jonston, dendrog. 1662, p. 220.
4 Ray, Hist. 1688, ii. p. 1605.
5 Tournefort, Inst. 1719, p. 614.
6 Miller's Dict. 1731, under Berberis.
7 Les agremens de la Campagne, 1750, 159.
8 Duhamel du Monceau, Traite, 1755, i. p. 98.
9 Duhamel du Monceau, arb. fruit, 1768, ii. 151.
IoMawe., Gard. 1778, under Berberis.
II Willdenow, sp. pl. 1799, ii. p. 228.
12 Poiret, Enc. Meth. Bot. viii. p. 616.
13 Noisette, Man. du Jard. 1829, p. 448,
14 Downing, Fruits, 1866, p. 244.











flowers, arranged on a central fleshy column or spike. Rumph-
ins' reports the tree wild in Banda. At Tahiti2 they reckon no
less than thirty varieties. In the Samoan group, Wilkes3 says
there are twenty varieties, and in the Feejee Islands nine differ-
ent kinds distinguished by fruit of different sizes and shapes, and
the figure of the leaves. Peschal4 says that twenty-seven trees,
which would about cover an English acre with their shade,
are sufficient for the support, during the eight months of fruit-
bearing of from ten to twelve people.
The earliest record of the breadfruit is by the writer of the
account of Mendana's5 voyage to the Marquesas Islands in 1595.
It was again noted by Dampier,6 in 1688, who in his description
says there is neither seed nor stone in the inside. Seeding forms
are, however, described by Sonnerat,7 and by Rumphius,8 the
latter figuring the Soccus granosus, which contains seed, and
the Soccus lanosus, whose cavity contained no seed except in one
variety which contained a few seed. Forster,9 1786, makes two
varieties, one seedless, the other seed .bearing. Of the first, he
notes five different kinds, and of the second he remarks that on
account of the superiority of the seedless kind, it has become
neglected. Thunberg,'" in 1779, says the fruit, the size of a
child's head, sometimes has abortive seeds and sometimes none.
Meyen" says the fruit generally contains seeds, and that by cul-
ture a number of seedless varieties have been formed. The seeds
are said by Wilkes12 to be often abortive in Tahiti. This tree
came to Jamaica in February, 1793, and in 1814, Lunan'3 says
that the varieties in Jamaica, save one, are seedless, and this ex-

I Rumph. amb. I, p. 113, pl. 33.
2Enc. Brit. xviii. 280.
3 U. S. Ex. Exped. ii. 121; iii. 333.
4 Races of Man. 156.
5 Enc. Brit. xviii. 281.
6Dampier,.Voy. i. c. io.
7 Sonnerat, Voy. 99, t. 57-60.
8 Rumphius, amb. i, 1no, t. 32.
9 Forster, P1. esc. 1786, p. 23, See also obs, p. 179.
Io Thunberg, Phil. Trans. 1779, vol.. 69, p. 465.
II Meyen, Outlines of Geog. of P1. 1846, pp. 322, 323.
12 U. S. Ex. Exped. ii. 50.
13 Lunan. Hort. Jam. 1814, i. 113.










ception has but a small number, and is not good unless baked.
He says in Otaheite they reckon eight varieties without seed, and
one with seed, but it is inferior to the others. Wallace2 says that
the seeds are entirely abortive by cultivation; he praises the
taste and compares it to Yorkshire pudding; a friend said it was
like mashed potatoes and milk. It is generally about the size
of a melon, a little fibrous towards the centre, but everywhere
else quite smooth and puddingy, something in consistence be-
tween yeast dumplings and batter pudding. It is in no way as
good as simply baked. With meat and gravy, it is a vegetable
superior to any I know." The seed-bearing variety, he continues,
is common all over the tropics, and though the seeds are very
good eating, resembling chestnuts, the fruit is quite worthless as
,a vegetable.

CABBAGE. BRASSICA OLERACEA, L. (CRUCIFERE).

Although not a fruit, yet it is interesting to note the relation
of the seed to the recognized quality. Thus arranging the races
in the order of delicacy, we have the following table:

No. of Var. or Tials. Wt. of Ioo Seed in grains.
Cauliflower, / 24 4.55
Broccoli 4 5.03
Brussels Sprouts, 2 4.06
Cabbage, Savoy 8 5.08
White 38 5.62
Red 4 6.17

CHAMEROPS STAURACANTHA. PALMER) .
This tree has the character of producing sterile fruit, but
mixed with fertile on the same panicle. The pulp of the fruit is
of a peculiar delicate, spongy consistence and of a pure white and
shining on the outside. The fruit is oblong, about one inch in
longest diameter. It has probably, says Prestoe,' been brought
under a certain amount of cultivation from very remote times.

2 Wallace, Malay Archipelago, p. 310.
I Prestoe, Rept. Trinidad Bot. Gard, 1880, p. 39.










CHERRY. CERASUS VULGARIS, MILL. (ROSACEE).
The cherry fruit is formed by a change in the substance of
the carpellary leaf. The internal surface of this becomes har-
dened into the stone or endocarp, whilst the external surface or
epicarp remains as a thin cuticle or skin, and the pulp or meso-
carp is formed by the increase of the iarenchyma or fleshy tissue
of the leaf. There is much confusion in the cultivated species.
The griottes of the French belong to Cerasus caproniana, DC.;
the bigarreaus to C. duracina, DC.; the Merisiers or wild, to C.
avium, DC.; the guigniers or geans, to C. Juliana, DC. Don'
gives eleven sorts referred to C. avium, sixty-one to C. duracina,
and thirty-eight to C. Yuliana. In all, he names two hundred
and twenty sorts. The London Horticultural Society'in 1832
recognized two hundred and nineteen varieties. In 1866 Downing
describes one hundred and thirty-two sorts, and in 1887, the
American Pomological Society approves of forty-one kinds as
deserving of culture. In the first century Pliny2 speaks of the
Apronianan as the reddest variety, the Lutatian as the blackest, the
Coecilian as perfectly round, the Junianian as agreeable, but very
delicate and not bearing transportation, the Plinianan as the finest,
the Lusitanian and those of the Rhine, besides several of doubt-
ful interpretation. The Rhine cherry, he says, has a third color,
being a mixture of black, red and green, and has the appearance
of being just on the turn to ripening.
In the Geoponics,3 directions are given by Democritus for
raising grapes without kernels, and he says the same method
will produce seedless cherries. Martial, as quoted by Palladius4,
avers the same. I find, however, very little on seedless cherries
in later writers. Knights says he crossed the Morello and Com-
mon Cherry, and obtained five cherries from nearly as many
thousand blossoms, and four of these did not contain seed. In
the best varieties of the cherry, I have found many of the kernels
to be abortive, thus:6
I Gard. Dict. Vol. 2, p. 505.
2 Pliny, lib. xv. c. 30.
3 Geop. lib. 4, c. 7.
4 Pall. lib. 3. c. 29 ; lib. II, c. 12.
5 Phys. and Hort. Papers, 277.
6 Rep. N. Y. Ag. Exp. Sta. 1882, p. 81,








158

Variety. Total Pits Examined. Per Cent. Abortive.
Black Tartarean ............... 30. ......................... 37
Elton..........................20 ..........................15
Governor Wood. ................30... ............... ... ... .50
Black Eagle................... ..... .... .. ... ..... ...... 17
Burr's Seedling ................ 30. .............. ...........93
In October, 1884, I had planted quite a large number of
cherry pits. July 24, 1885, the following numbers were found
vegetated :
Variety.
Black Tartarean................ ............. ..3 per cent.
Elton ............... ............................ o
Black Eagle................... .. ................ .22
Buttner's Yellow ................................... 19
Napolean Bigarreau .............................13
Yellow Spanish ................................... 4

Average.............................. 1
This limited data, supplemented by a large mass of un-
recorded observation, leads me to believe that our improved
varieties of the cherry are subject to partial sterility, which seems
to be corelated with quality.

CITRON. CITRUS MEDICAL, L. (RUTAC"AE).

This is a large oblong or ovate fruit, the skin rough with pro-
tuberances, and of the well known citron color when-ripe. There
are very many varieties, some round, some oval, others oblate
spherical, and others fingered. Very many fingered forms are fig-
ured by the early writers. It is a pulpy fruit with a spongy
rind. It is supposed by many botanists that the citron, the
orange, the lemon, and the lime, are all derived from this species'.
Brandis and Sir Joseph Hooker distinguished four cultivated
varieties: Citrus medical, the Cedratier of the French, the Citron
of the English, the Cedro of the Italians, called Vijapura in Sans-
crit; Citrus medical Limonum, the Citrionnier of the French, the
Lemon of the English; Citrus medical acida (C. acida, Roxb.),
called in Sanscrit Jambira; Citrus medical Limetta (C. Limetta
and C. Lumia, Risso), the Sweet Lime.2
The Chinese citron, the cedrat of Florence, and several others

I Lindley, Jour. of Hort. Soc., x. 171.
2 DeCandolle, L'Orig. des. pl. cult. 1883, 142.










which resembl'e-them, are sterile or nearly so; the Ponciere is
always seedless; the large orange citron has a thin and acid
pulp, and never contains seed.' The Troon or Tabernacle citron
is so highly prized at Mogador by the faithful observers of Israel-
ite traditions, that specimens without blemish are sold at a very
high price. It is rather larger than a lemon, and is said to con-
tain only one pip, to be of a very fine nature, and to keep sound
for a very long period.2
CUCUMBER, CUCUMIS SATIVUS, L. (CUCURBITACEAE).
This fruit consists of three carpels united together and form-
ing one cell, but having the ovules arranged on three lines which
pass up the sides. It has been planted in gardens from most
ancient times, and often appears as an escape in suitable climates,
and has been described under a number of specific names3. There
are many varieties. Ibn-al-awam describes five in Spain in the
twelfth century. Parkinson in England, in 1629, describes six;
L'Horticulteur Francais, 1824, names seven kinds; Noisette, in
1829, names or describes ten sorts; the New York Agricultural
Experiment Station Report for 1887 describes twenty-six varie-
ties under one hundred and thirty-two synonyms.
In the Geoponics, lib. xii. c. 19, directions are given how to raise
cucumbers without seed, so also by Palladius, and seedless cucum-
bers are mentioned by Ibn-al-awam, a Moorish-Spaniard of the
twelfth century. Loudon4 says many persons prefer cucumbers
which have not been fecundated, on account of the much smaller
size of the seed integuments, which never contain kernels. These
seedless cucumbers of the English Frame varieties frequently ap-
pear under forced culture in our greenhouses, and also when grown
in the open air. In 1882 an advertisement of Sharpe's Epicurian
Cucumber in the Gardener's Chronicle," says it is a variety that
seldom produces seeds, not one in a hundred containing a trace."
Large cucumbers of fine quality are usually little seedy. At the
New York Agricultural Experiment Station in 1885, the follow-
ing varieties contained but few seed as compared with the rest,
I Gallesio, Citrus Family, Fla. Agr. Trans. p. 16.
2 Gard. Chron. Nov, 8, 1834, p. 601.
3 Cogniaux in DC., Monog. iii. 498.
4 Loudon, Hort. 1860, p. 495.










viz.: Vert long de Chine; Turkey Long Green; Peerless White
Spine; Perfect Pickling; Large White Bonneville; and Carter's
Best of All. In 1882 the English Frame Cucumber, Giant of
Armstadt, was the finest flavored of all varieties tested, but con-
tained no fertile seed.' In the glass culture for our markets
seedless cucumbers are frequently found, and as under the con-
ditions that seedless fruits occur the vines set badly, it is often
the custom for the growers to place a hive of bees within the
glass-house so that these insects may further the act of fertili-
zation.
CURRANT. RIBES RUBRUM, L. (SAXIFRAGEE).
The berries are one-celled, and contain numerous seeds sus-
pended in pulp by long threads. Thory2 recognizes eight botani-
cal varieties, the large-berried, the rosy-fruited, the white, the
pearl, the variegated leaved, the white-nerved, the flowers in
spikes, and the reddish. Duhamel3, in 1768, describes the large
red, the flesh-colored, the white and the pearl. Forsyth4, in
1803, recognizes seven varieties; Thomas5, in 1867, describes
eighteen sorts, and Fuller6 twenty-six.
The number of seed to the berry varies considerably in the
currant. In some counting7 the Cherry variety averaged 14.1
seed to a berry, but some extra large berries averaged 15.2 seed
and one large bunch gave fruit with twenty seed. Some Red
Dutch berries averaged 4.8 seed, and some White Dutch 9.8
seed. In some unreported observations, seedling plants were
grown from seed taken from berries with few and many seeds.
The plants from the very seedful fruits were larger, coarser and
hardier than those grown from the few-seeding. The best fruit
was found in the few-seeded, but not equal to the fruit of named
varieties. The trial as regards correlation between seedlessness
and quality was indecisive, yet full of suggestion. In the case of

I Rept. N. Y. Ag. Ex. Sta. 1882, p. 126.
2 Monog. du genre Groseillier, 1829, p. 9.
3 Duhamel du'Monceau, arb. fruit, 1768, i. 266.
4 Fruit Trees, Albany, 1803, p, 113.
5 Americam Fruit Culturist, 1867, 427.
6 Small Fruit Culturist, 1867, 203.
7 N. Y. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rept. 1882, p.'80.











the currant we have the largest berries containing the most seed,
as is the case with the grape. In the same bunch. berries may
be found containing three to eighteen seeds.
CYCADS.
In Focke's work-Die Pflanzen Mischlinge-he states that
female plants of Cycads often produce apparently perfect cones
in greenhouses in Europe, yet their seed contains no embryo'.
DATE. PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA, L. (PALMAE).
In the date the epicarp is the outer brownish skin, the pulpy
matter is the mesocarp, and the paper-like lining is the endocarp
covering the hard seed. This seed is composed of horny albu-
men with a groove down the front and the embryo placed at the
back. The two sexes are borne on distinct trees, and the female
tree is usually fertilized artificially. In India, Arabia, and
elsewhere, this is done before the flower-spathes open, by boring
a hole in the sheath of the female flowers and inserting therein a
few bits of the male panicle2. Theophrastus was acquainted with
this method, and Pliny also had knowledge of the necessity.
The fruit of the wild date consists more of seed than of pulp,
and altogether is only about one-fourth the size of the Arabian
kind brought annually to Calcutta for sale3. On the oasis of
Sirvah, four kinds were seen by St. John, the Sultana, a long
blue one; Farayah, white and said not to grow in Egypt; the
Saidi, a common date; the Weddee, good only for camels and
donkeys; also a very luscious yellow soft. Dr. James Richard-
son found no less than forty-six sorts cultivated in the oases of
Northern Africa5. Those of Gomara, says Mueller6, are large
and contain no seed. Seedless dates are mentioned by Theo-
phrastus7, the third century before Christ, and by Pliny8 in the

I Gard. Chron. Apr. 14, 1883, p. 466.
2 Stocks, Hooker's Journ. of Bot. vii. 551.
3S. N. Robinson, Jour. Agric.-Hort. Soc., ix. quoted by Firminger, Gard. in
Ind. p. 172.
4 Adventures in the Libyan Desert, p. 188.
5Archer, Profit. plants, p. 31.
6 Mueller, Sel. P1. p, 162.
7Theop. De plant. Bodaeus a Stapel ed. 1644, 90, 102.
8 Pliny, lib. xiii, c. 7.











first century, who says small fruit without seed are often found on
the same shoots with others. At Maesaba, in Palestine, there is
a date palm in a convent courtyard, said to have been planted
by St. Saba, A.D., 490, which always bears stoneless fruit', and
at Mooltan, India, there is one tree which bears a stoneless fruit,
and in former years it was considered a royal tree and the fruit
was reserved for the reigning sovereign2.
DIOSCOREA ACULEATA, L- (DIOSCOREACEE).
The fruit of this yam, eaten by the common people of Mala-
bar, according to Rheede,3 has no seed.
DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON, ROXB. (EBENACEZE).
This species has an ovoid or globose yellow fruit, about an
inch to an inch and a half in diameter, with yellow pulp, soft,
sweet and slightly astringent. The seeds four, to eight. In In-
dia, Forsyth5 mentions a cultivated variety without stones.
DIOSPYROS SCHI'TSE, BUNGE. (EBENACE-E).
This large orange-colored fruit of northern China, as sold in
the streets of Peking, according to Bretschneider,6 is always
aspermous.
FIG. FICUS CARICA, L. (URTICACEAE).
This is an anthocarpous fruit, in which the axis or the ex-
tremity of the peduncle, is hollowed, so as to bear within numer-
ous flowers, all of which are united in one mass to form the fruit.
Dr. Presl7 enumerates no less than forty varieties that are culti-
vated in Sicily. Dr. Robert Hogg8 enumerates sixty-five. In
the United States a leading firm of nurserymen9 offer twenty-five
varieties in its list. The London Horticultural Society's Cata.-
loguelo give forty-two varieties.

I Gard. Chron. Jan. 23. 1886, p. 114.
2 Journ. Agri.-Hort. Soc. of Ind., 1867, Nov. 20.
3 Rheede, Malabar, vol. vii., p. 71.
4 Brandis, Forest Flora, p 294.
5 Highlands of Central India, p. 463.
6Bretschn. Bot. Sin. III.
7 Hooker's Journ. of Bot. i. 142.
8 Fruit Manual, 3d ed. p. 102.
9 Ellwanger & Barry, Desc. Cat. 1880.
so Downing, Fruit, 1866, p. 290.









The flowers of the wild fig are used for the caprification of
the cultivated fig in various parts of the East. This process was
known to the ancients'.
The cultivated fig bears two sorts of fruit; in the spring early
figs or fioiones, and in the summer late figs. In the fioroncs
male flowers are very rarely found, and the few that may be
present cannot serve for fecundation, for they do not appear un-
til long after the stigmata of the female flowers are dried and
destroyed. "I have never been able," says Prof. Gasparrini2" to find
seeds with embryos in the fiorones." The summer fruit, on the.
contrary, have no male flowers, and yet nearly all of their ovaries
become perfect, that is, furnished with embryos. Many kinds
of figs, says Brandis3, have sterile seed, that is, seed in which the
embryo has not been developed, and therefore, fecundation is not
an essential condition to the ripening of figs.

GOURD. LAGENARIA VULGARIS, SER. (CUCURBITACAE).

Directions for making the gourd seedless are given in the
Geoponics, lib. xii. c. 19, and Ibn-al-awam, in the twelfth cen-
tury, a Moorish-Spaniard, mentions seedless gourds. Since the
appearance of the pumpkin and squash, at the discovery of
America, the gourd has scarcely been grown in Europe for edible
purposes, and hence has been but little under observation.

GRAPE. VITIS SP. (VITACE.E).

The grape is botanically a berry, an indehiscent fruit which is
fleshy or pulpy throughout. The seeds nestle in pulp formed
from the placentas. The berry is formed from the ovaries alone.
All the true grape vines bear fertile flowers on one stock, and
sterile flowers on another separate stock, and are, therefore, called
polygamous, or not quite correctly, dicecious. The sterile plants
bear male flowers with abortive pistils, so that while they
never produce fruit themselves, they may assist in fertilizing
the others; the fertile flowers, however, are hermaphrodites, con-

I Diosc. lib. I. c. 184; Theoph. lib. I. c. 8: Arist. U. An. lib. v. c. 26. See
also Walpole's Turkey, xxiii. 241, note. Pliny, lib, xv. c. 19 and lib. xvii. c. 27.
2 Ann. des Sc. (III). t. 5, p. 306.
3 Forest Flora, p. 419.








164


training both organs-stamens and pistils-and are capable of
ripening fruit without the assistance of the male plant'.

GRAPE. VITIS LABRUSCA, L.

In 1884 I saw bunches of the Wyoming grape which carried
many seedless berries; the seedless grapes were small and ripe,
with scarcely any toughness to the pulp, while the seeded berries
were of the usual size and unripe. Professor Bailey2 records an
analagous example with a hybrid form. The larger part of the
bunch bore fruit of the ordinary size, and the ordinary almost in-
sipid flavor, but one bunch bore fruit about half as large, with
thinner skin, an entirely different and better flavor and seedless.
On account of the uncertainty attending the classification of
our cultivated varieties, I offer such notes as I possess under this
heading. I am indebted to Professor E. S. Goff, of Madison,
Wis., for assistance in this counting.


Variety. No. of Berries.
Vitis Labrusca, (Wild.) 521
Vitis cordifolia, (Wild.) 75
Brighton, (Labrusca) 91
Catawba, (Labrusca) 385
Clinton, (Riparia) 184
Concord, (Labrusca) 719
Delaware, (Lab. x Vinif.. ?) 1311
Iona, (Labrusca) 20
Isabella, (Labrusca) 55
Salem, (Lab. x Vinif.) 151
Vergennes, (Labrusca) III
In a number.of counting I
in another form : thus-
No. of Berries.


Vitis, Labrusca
Vitis cordifolia
Brighton,
Catawba,
Clinton,
Concord,
Delaware,
Isabella,
Salem,
Vergennes,


o Pips.
0
0
2
o
0
I
5

0
o
3


No. of Seed. Av Seedper Berry.
1406 2.69
191 2.54
146 i.6o
825 2.14
280 1.52
1I323 1.84
1722 1.31
45 2.25
88 i.6o
355 2.35
186 1.67
have the material for arranging


No. of Berries With


2 Pips.
138
25
31
158
89
323
329
10
62
41


3 Pips. 4 Pips.
172 112
20 17
10 2
99 13
6 o
117 15
42 I
I o
44 18
17 I


5 Pips.
8
o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


6 Pips.
7
o
* 0
o
0
0
0
0
0
o

o

0
o
o


I Engelmann, Bushberg Cat., 1883, p. 9.
2 Bull. No. 31, Mich. Ag. Coll. 1887, 85.







165

In the case of these grapes, the largest berries have the most
seed.
GRAPE. VITIS VINIFERA, L.
The Geoponics', as also Columella2, gives directions for ob-
taining grapes without kernels, and Palladius3 mentions a beauti-
ful sort without stones, and Pliny4 mentions the Rhetica, as
possessing the thinnest skin of all the grapes and but a single
stone. The description does not further suggest the Muscat of
Alexandria grape, but specimens of raisins from these made in
California, I found, in 1881, to contain but a single seed, with
one other abortive remnant of a seed. In 1503-8, Ludovico de
Varthemas found at Reame, a city of Arabia Felix, a white grape,
which had no seeds within, than which, he says, 1 never tasted
better. Parkinson6, in 1629, says "the grape without stones is
also a kind of it selfe, and growth naturally neere Ascalon, as
Brochard affirmeth,-the wine whereof is redde, and of good taste."
The word "raysons of corannte occurs in The Forme of
Cury an English cook book compiled about A. D. I3907, and
is the first reference I find to the Corinth grape. Dalechamp8, in
1586, speaks of the apurenoi, that is, seedless, which are com-
monly called Corinth, and grow in the gardens of Italy atd
Piedmont. Modern authors describe the white and purple
varieties of the Corinth grape as seedless, and this grape furnishes
the dried currants of our kitchens. In California I am told
that the Zante or Corinth grape so fre'tuently'seeds as to check
the attempt to prepare this article of commerce, and that in Aus-
tralia the same thing happens9. It would appear that this grape
has been transmitted through cuttings for unknown centuries.
Among the grapes of Cabul is the ungoor-i-Kishmishee a
fruit not large, round, transparent, seedless, sweet and luscious.

I Geopon. lib. 4, c. 7.
2 Col. de arb. c. 9.
3 Pal. de re rust, Feb. c. 29.
4 Pliny, lib. xiv. c. 4.
5 Travels of. Hakl. Soc. ed. p. 77.
6 Parad. 1629, p. 564.
7 Warner, Antiq. Culin. 1791. The Forme of Cury, Receipt, 14, etc.
8 Dalechamp, hist. gen. 1586, p. 1406.
9 E. J. Wickson, San Francisco, Cal., in letter of Feb. 13, 1880.










In Bulkh, the sweetest and best wine grape is called Kishmish.;
it is black, oval, of good size and seedless'. The white wine of
Ispahan is made from a white grape called Kishmish, which has
no pips'. Niebuhr3 says the Arabians dry a small sort of grape
called Kischmish which has no stone, but only soft and almost
impalpable seeds. Pallas4 says in Astracan, the Kyshmish or the
grape without stones ranks first and is esteemed the best kind.
The Sultana grape in California is seedless, as Mr. Wickson
informs me, and in the graperies of the Department of Agricul-
ture at Washington, Mr. Saunders tells me it is also seedless.
Arnolds speaks of the small stoneless grapes in Persia, which
when dried, are sold as Sultana" raisins, and praises their
quality. The grapes of Eschol6 have generally a transparent
membranous seed, though some are said to have no seed at all,
and Le Bruyn describes similar grapes without seed in Persia.
In the Punjaub they have an indigenous stoneless grape called
the Bedana7.
The grapery of the late M. H. Simpson, of Saxonville, Mass.,
contains a seedless Black Hamburg vine, of which I have fre-
quently eaten the fruit. The quality is exceptionally fine, but
the berry is small. The brittle nature of the seed of our green-
house grapes is familiar to all.
In counting the seeds of the Vinifera class of grapes, I have
found:
No. of Berries No. of Berries with Seeds to a
Variety. Examined. Berry.
o Pips. I Pip. 2 Pips. 3 Pips. 4 Pips. 5 Pips. 6 Pips.
Black Hamburg, 102 3 27 31 32 9 o o 2.18
Morocco (Calif,) 126 3 83 32 5 3 o o 1.38
Tokay, (Calif.) 268 13 83 Ioo 46 21 4 I 1.97
GUAVA. PSIDIUM GUAYAVA, RADDI. (MYRTACEAE).
In this fruit the seeds nestle in pulp formed by the placentas.
The savory fruit, of the size of an apple, is highly relished in

I J. Harlan. U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1861, 529, 534.
2 Redding quoted, U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1860, 367.
3 Travels through Arabia.
4Travels, i. 313.
5 Arnold, Through Persia by Caravan, 151.
6 Calmet, Dict. of the Bible.
7 Firminger, Gard. in Ind. 212









'many localities, and is eaten raw or made into a conserve. It is
covered with a rind of some thickness, within which are the seeds
contained in the pulp, without any shell. The contained pulp is
of white, red or yellow color in the varieties, full of bony seeds,
as Lunan remarks'. Its cultivation has been carried on by the
primitive inhabitants of the main land of America from Mexico
to Brazil, from time immemorial, says Unger2, and it is frequently
without seed.

KAKI, OR JAPANESE PERSIMMON. DIOSPYROS KAKI.
(EBENACE-E).
In California Mr. E. J. Wickson3 writes that some Japan persim-
mons bear seedless fruit the first year, but the second year seeds
appear. In a southern paper4 the Zingi variety is stated to have
buttery melting sweet flesh, and to be without trace of seed. C. C.
Georgesons, in 1887, figures and describes twelve sorts in Japan,
one sort with seed is described as best "; one with the fact of
seedlessness or otherwise, or quality not noted; two with seed
not noted, but quality best; one, seed not noted, quality very
good; three seedless, quality best; three seedless and quality
delicious; one seedless, quality very good. J. B. Berckmans6 fig-
ures and describes eleven varieties; of these one with seed is
pronounced excellent; of two he gives no particulars; one, no
statement regarding seed, but quality very sweet, and another
with no mention of seed, quality good; of the seedless, one has
no statement of quality, one is pronounced good, two are very
sweet, one is excellent, and one is best. Mr. N. E. Vandeman7
Seems to be able to separate but three varieties in this country
as sufficiently well recognized out of the confusion of very many
names. Of these the Hachiya has numerous seeds, the quality
below that of some varieties; the Tane-nashi is seedless, and one
of the choicest sorts; the Yemon is seedless, and the best in

I Hort. Jam. i. 350.
2 U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1859, 349.
3 Letter dated Feb. 13, 1880.
4 Southern Enterprise, Dec. 188o, p. 72.
5 Orchard and Garden, Oct. 1887, Figures.
6Rural New Yorker, Oct. 8, 1887.
7 U. S. Dept. Ag. Rept. 1887, p. 643.









quality. In Japan there are recognized some fifty varieties, thir-
teen of which Henry Loomis, pronounces as constituting the
leading sort. Of these the Yemon has some specimens seedless,
especially when the trees are young. The quality seems to be
excellent, superior to many, but not equal to the Gosho.

LAUREL CHERRY. PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS, L. (ROSACEAE).

Bauhin in his Pinax, 1623, speaks of the Cerasus folio laurino
as commonly having a stone fruit, but that at Trebizond there is a
stoneless form. This species, a native of Trebizond, is said by
Baillon' to have been introduced to Europe in 1576, and is abun-
dantly.cultivated in England and France. Its leaves are used
for aromatic flavoring in cookery.

LEMON. CITRUS MEDICAL, VAR. LIMONUM, L. (RUTACE2E).

The common lemon, says Gallesio3, contains many seeds. It
produces hybrids and varieties that have few seeds, and some-
times no seeds, and it is always in those deviating most from the
types that we remark this sterility. The double flowered lemon
is a tree whose flowers have many petals, but are not entirely
sterile. It has no seeds. In California, Carey's Eureka variety
bears fruit nearly seedless, the rind thin and sweet, the pulp very
juicy4. In South Africa, Thunbergs writes that he met with a
lemon which contained another within it, furnished with a red
rind, and that neither of these two lemons had any seed.

LIME. CITRUS LIMETTA, RISSO. (RUTACE.E).

The lime of Naples, the fruit the smallest of European lemons,
has a smooth, thin, odorous rind. Its pulp is abundant, its juice
acid and agreeable because of its delicacy and aroma. It has no
seeds, and as Gallesio6 states, is one of the most highly esteemed
lemdns.

I Scientific Farmer 1879, p. 78.
2 Baillon, Hist. of Plants, i. 441.
3 Treatise on the Citrus Family. Florida Ag. Trans. pp. 16, 23,
4 Carey, Lecture on Orange and Lemon Culture, p. 14.
5 Travels, ii. 141.
6 Gallesio, Treatise on the Citrus Family, p. 24.










LoTos. ZIZYPiUS LOTUS, DESF. (RHAMNE/E).
Theophrastus, says the lotos without stones is the best.
Pliny2 says that the fruit which has no stone in the inside is the
best. Decandolle identifies this lotos with Zizyphus lotos, Des-
font. This fruit is of the size of sloes, containing large stones3,
and is an important article of food in Tunis and Barbary. The
Arabs are excessively fond of it, and Park in Africa describes the
small farinaceous berries as of a delicious taste. Consult Spren-
gels Hist. Rei Herb. p. 22, 83 and 251.

LUCUMA BIFERA, MOL. (SAPOTACEAE).

This Chilian tree, according to Molina4, bears fruit twice a year.
The one set early in summer, have no kernels; the other set in
autumn have two kernels. It is cultivated.

MALAY APPLE. EUGENIA MALACCENSIS, L. (MYRTACEiE).

This tree is cultivated in the Indian Archipelago, the Pacific
Islands, China, India, etcs. Firminger says the fruit is of the
size and form of a very small apple, perfectly smooth, of a pure
translucent white with a crimson blush, that some persons eat it,
but that it is not worth the eating. Cook6 says the fruits at Bata-
via are pleasant and cooling, but not possessing much flavor.
Seemann describes the flavor as delicate : Lindley says when well
ripened, delicious. Louriero commends it in Cochin China.
There are apple-shaped, quince-shaped and pear-shaped varie-
ties mentioned. Bauhin in his Pinax, 1623, mentions a stoneless
variety.

MANGO. MANGIFERA INDICA, L. (ANACARDIACEE).

Of this fruit there are numberless varieties, differing in color,
form and savor as do the pears and apples of Europe, says
Loureiro. In some of its varieties it is esteemed delicious. About

I Theop. Hist. pl. lib. iv. c. 4.
2 Pliny, lib. xiii. c. 32.
3 Don. Gard. Dict.
4 Molina, Hist. nat. du Chili, Paris, 1789, p. 169.
5 Firminger, Gard. in India, 265,
6 Cook, Voy. i. 305,










A. D., 1300, Friar Jordanus' says it is a fruit so sweet and deli-
cious as it is impossible to utter in words." Acosta2 says that a
stoneless variety is found, which is especially grateful to the
palate. Garcia ab Horto3 somewhat earlier records a variety
called Guzarateus on account of its excellence, somewhat smaller
than the common sorts, yet superior in savor and odor, and hav-
ing a very small nut or stone. Rumphius4, in 1741, describes
the best variety in Amboinia as having a small stone. The man-
go differs greatly in its varieties, and while some receive the
highest encomium, others resemble in taste, as is commonly said,
a mixture of tow and turpentine. In India it seems to occupy
the place that apples do with us.

MANGOSTEEN. GARCINIA MANGOSTANA, L. (CLUSIACEE).
The first mangosteen which ripened in England was of the
size of a St. Michaels orange. It was of a deep plum color, and
upon being opened was found perfect in every respect except the
formation of seeds, of which there was no trace. Its quality was
delicious5. F. W. Burbridge6 says that in its wild state the in-
terior of the fruit consists of four divisions only, all four containing
each a perfect seed, whereas in the much larger cultivated fruits
there are seven or eight divisions, and of these rarely more than
one contains a perfect seed. Rumphius7 says that some segments in
the cultivated fruit are often seedless, and that frequently some
fruit contain no fertile seed.
This fruit is deemed by many the most delicious fruit of the
world. Bayard Taylor thus describes it: Beautiful to sight,
smell and taste, it hangs among its glossy leaves, the prince of
fruits. Cut through the shaded green and purple of the rind, and
lift the upper half of it as if it were the cover of a dish, and the
pulp of half-transparent, creamy whiteness stands in segments
like an orange, but rimmed with darkest crimson where the rind

I Marvels described by Friar Jordanus. Hakl. Soc. ed. p. 14.
2Acosta. Aromaticum, 1582, p'. 70.
3 Aromatum, 1567, 217.
4Amb. 1741, i. 94.
5Gard. Chron. 1855, p. 259.
6Gard. Chron., Jan. 5, 1884, P. 23.
7 Amb. i. 132,










was cut. It looks too beautiful to eat; but how the rarest
sweetest essence of the tropics seem to dwell in it as it melts to
your delighted taste."

MEDLAR. MESPILUS GERMANICA, L. (ROSACEE).

Duhamel' describes and figures a medlar without'seeds, and
says it is preferred as being more delicate and of a softer texture
than the common kind. Noisette2 speaks of it as a singular fruit,
but small and of mediocre quality. Don3 mentions the stoneless
medlar as bearing a small fruit of little merit, and Loudon4 gives
the same description. In 1880 a French nursery catalogue ad-
vertises a variety of medlar under the name of Stoneless."5

MELON. CUCUMIS MELO, L. (CUCURBITACEIE).

Melons of the highest quality contain fewer seed than do
varieties of medium or inferior quality, as I have often observed.
This even seems to hold true as between individual fruits of the
same variety'to a marked extent. Casalpinus, in 1538, notes that
melons with small seed are the best for eating. In four varieties
selected for their high quality, the following particulars were
obtained.
Variety. No. of Spec. Av. No. of Av. Wt. of Av. Wt. of Per Cent.
Seed. Seed Grs. Fruit Grs. of Seed.
Christiana, 3 512 234 18,621 1.25
Hackensack, I 550 273 29,181 .93
New Surprise, 3 530 231 12,443 1.85
Shaw's Golden Superb, I 494 203 12,632 1.60

MULBERRY. MORUS ALBA, L. AND VAR. NIGRA, L.
(URTICACEAE).

The edible portion of the mulberry is formed by the cohesion
into a single mass, of the floral envelopes and ovaries of a large
number of flowers arranged on a central fleshy column or spike,
the calyces becoming succulent, and investing the pericarps. In

I Duhamel du Monceau, arb. fruit. 1768, i. 331.
2 N'oisette, Man. du Jard. 1829, 439.
3 Don. Gard. dict. 1832, ii. 605.
4 Loudon, Hort. 552.
5 Transon Bros. Orleans, France. Cat. of 1880-1.










Asiatic countries the fruit is held in esteem. In Kashmere and
Afghanistan, says Brandis', there are varieties sweet and acid, of
all shades of color from a white to a deep blackish purple.
Downing2 describes one cultivated variety of M. rubra, one of
the Ml. nigra, and one the Everbearing, derived from M. multi-
caulis. The fruit of several other species are, however, valued
in the Orient.
Forskal3 notes about Constantinople the cultivated mulberry as
having a succulent pulp and few seeds. Brandis4 quotes Stocks
that in Beloochistan there is a seedless variety called Bedana.
Schuylers says that in Turkistan the Khorasmi mulberry from
Khiva, large white, almost seedless, is greatly used for food
both when fresh and dried. Harlan6 says that in the markets of
Cabul, the white-seeded mulberry or Shah-toot, the thickness of
the small finger, is very sweet, and in its season forms the chief
food of the poor. It is a grafted fruit.

MYRTLE. MYRTUS COMMUNIS, L. (MYRTACEIE).

The fruit of the myrtle is eaten by the modern as it was by
the ancient Athenians7. It is, however, of little prominence in the
cookery of even southern nations. Camerarius8 speaks of a tree
that produced fruit without seed.

OLIVE. OLEA. EUROP(EA. (OLEACEAE).

The recent prominence given to olive culture in California,
has brought to view some facts concerning the corelations of seed-
lessness with quality. The following is taken from the bulle-
tin of Feb. 5tEh, 1890, from the University of California Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, (No. 85).


I Forest Flora, 407.
2 Fruits, 1866, p. 347.
3 Forskal, fl. Aeg. Arab. 1775, p. xxxiii.
4 Brandis. Forest Flora, p. 408.
5 Schuyler, Turkistan, i. 196.
6 J. Harlan, U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1861, 529.
7 Hogg, Jour. of Bot. i. 117.
8 Camerarius, Hort. med. 1588, 95.








1?3

Dimensions in 16 6ts of an inch.
Variety of Olive. Whole fruit. Pit. Pit per cent.
Length. Width. Length. Width. by bulk.
Regalis, 17 13 9 5 7.8
Manzanillo No. I, 16 13 9 5 8.3
Nevadillo Blanco, 16 0 10o 4 10.0
Pendulina, 12 9 7 4 11.5
Columella, 14 11 8 5 Ii.8
Mission, 16 I1 Io 5 15.6
Polymorpha, 19 I2 12 6 15.8
Rubra, 12 8 8 4 16.7
Rock's Oblonga, 15 8 II 4 18.3
Redding Picholine, 8 6 6 4 33.3
Uvaria, 13 9 io 6 34.2

ONION. ALLIUM CEPA, L. (LILIACE/E).

The top-onion may be mentioned as a plant not bearing
seeds, yet I have often observed a few seeds arising from among
the bulbs. In one case an onion of the ordinary sort became in-
jured in the stalk. From the split a cluster of bulbs protruded,
and the top failed to produce seed.

OPUNTIA. (CACTEE).

Opunltia Davisii, Engelm., is common on the Upper Canadian,
near the Llano Estacado, Tex. All the fruits observed were
sterile, and most of them elongated, one to one and a quarter
inches long, as Engelmann states'. In Sicily a variety of Opun-
tia Ficus-indica has fruits without seeds2.

ORANGE. CITRUS AURANTIUM, L. (RUTACEJE).

This fruit is botanically a hesperidium, or a berry with a
leathery rind. It consists of the carpels surrounded by the ex-
ternal coat of the ovarium, and having the space between their
inner wall and the seeds they contain filled with a very succulent

I Engelmann, Pac. R. R. Report, iv. 49, Fig. pl. xvi.
2 P. L. S., Gard. Chron. Aug. 9, 1884, p. 171.










cellular tissue. The rind consists of epicarp and nesocarp, while
the endocarp forms partitions in the interior filled with pulpy
cells which are produced from the inner lining of the pericarp.
There are many varieties, In Sicily' fourteen kinds are recog-
nized; Loudon2 mentions nineteen; Downing3 twelve; Gallesio
describes forty of the principal kinds cultivated in Italy. The
varieties named in Florida and California are very numerous, and
some as the mandarin and tangerin have been described as
species.
Gallesio asserts that in cross-breeding oranges, often mons-
trous fruits were produced, which included little pulp, and had
no seeds or imperfect seeds." Darwin,4 in commenting upon this,
states that a myrtle-leaved orange in his father's greenhouse, dur-
ing many years rarely yielded any seed, but at last produced
one; and the tree thus raised was identical with the parent form.
D. J. Brownes speaks of the varieties of orange, some with a
navel-like protuberance with no seeds. This appears to be the
the Navel or Bahia variety, which in the State of California is
perfectly seedless6, as also in Florida, as I have myself observed.
Mr. H. E. Vandeman7 speaks of the variety as being almost en-
tirely seedless. Another seedless orange in California is Garey's
Mediterranean Sweet; it is of large size, excellent flavor, very
delicate texture, and the larger number are entirely seedless8.
A Japanese orange, the Miushin Tane Naski Mikaw is said9 to
bear a seedless fruit on a thornless tree. The St. Michael orange
is also of the seedless kind. Dr. Balfour'" states that the thinness
of the rind and its freedom from pips depend on the age of the
tree. The young trees when in full vigor bear fruit with a thick

I Hogg, Hooker's Jour. of Bot. i. io6.
2 Hort. p. 608.
3 Fruits, i860, p. 691.
4 Darwin, An. and PI., i. 405.
5 U. S. Pat. Of. Rept. 1858, 266.
6 E. J. Wickson, Ed. of Pac. Rural Press, in letter of Feb. 13, 1880.
7 U. S. Dept. Ag. Rept. 1887, 641.
8 Pacific Rural Press, Aug. 1877.
9 South Cal. Hort. Jour. 1878, p. 292.
Io Balfour's Botany, p. 280.









pulpy rind and abundance of seed, but as the vigor of the tree
declines, the peel becomes thinner and the seeds gradually dimin-
ish in number till they disappear altogether. Browne' says the
St. Michael orange, one of the most delicious of all varieties, is
known by its small seedless fruit. Loudon2 says this variety is
generally without seed and Downing3 says the pulp is often seed-
less, juicy and lusciously sweet.
Seedless oranges were known several centuries ago! Bauhin4,
in 1623, refers to the "malus aurantia major alia
absque semine sunt," and Ferrarius5, in 1646, describes and
figures a seedless orange as does also Aldrovandus in 1668. The
Navel or Bahia, with synonyms Washington Navel and Riverside
Navel, certainly ranks as the most delicious sort. In a wild
orange grove near Matanzas Inlet, Florida, in 1869, I found one
wild orange tree bearing fruit with a sweet pulp and bitter rind;
this contained fewer seed than did the bitter oranges adjoining.
In counting the seed of some oranges in 1881 and 1882, the
varieties were sorted according to quality before the counting
was concluded. The following figures were obtained:

iVo. of Spec. Av. No. Good Av. No. Abortive Wt. of Seed
Seed. Seed. Grs.
Florida Orange, tender 5 6.2 0.8 18.6
tough 2 11.0 1.5 47.7
Valencia Orange, tender 15 8.8 1.6 29.8
tough io 12.8 1.5 40.0
Messina Orange, good I 4. 2. 19.

OTAHEITE APPLE. SPONDIAS DULCIS, FORST.
(ANACARDIACEtE).

The Otaheite apple, says Forster6, which contains a hard cap-

1 Trees of Am., 59.
2 Hort. p. 608.
3 Fruits, p. 694.
4 Bauhin, Pinax, 1623, 436.
5 Hesperides, 1646, lib. 4, c. 4, p. 383. Aldrovandus, Dend. 1668. 488.
6 Forster, obs. p. 179.









sule, commonly has no seeds in the documents or divisions. Ellis',
however, says it has a hard and spiked core, containing a num-
ber of seed. He calls it an excellent fruit. Forster in his De
Plantis Esculentis says the seeds are solitary, ovate, compressed,
usually abortive, thus recognizing both states of seeding and
seedless. Firminger2 says he is told that in India the stones
never germinate, but young plants are usually obtained by graft-
ing upon seedlings of Spondias mangifera, another species.

PEACH. AMYGDALUS PERSICA, L. (ROSACE/E).
It seems to be a general rule that the sweetest, honest
peaches have usually a split stone. Africanus in the Geoponics3,
give directions how to raise the peach without stones.

PEACH PALM. GULIELMA SPECIOSA, MART. (PALM/E).
The peach palm, says Humboldt4, bears a fruit which is gener
ally devoid of seed, owing to the extreme luxuriance of the vegeta-
tion. He5 also says that the piritu or piriiao palm bears clusters
containingfrom fifty to eighty fruit, yellow like apples, and purpling
as they ripen, two or three inches thick, and generally, from abortion
without a kernel. Seemann6 says in most instances the seed is
abortive, the whole fruit being a farinaceous mass. Occasionally,
however, fruit are found containing the perfect stony seed, and
they are then double the usual size. The tree is not found wild
in the Amazon districts, but is invariably planted. Bates7 says
bunches of sterile or seedless plants sometimes occur at Ega and
at Para. It is one of the principal articles of food at Ega while
in season, and is boiled and eaten with treacle and salt. Pres-
toe8 says the tree is extremely prolific, bearing two distinct crops
a year, and sometimes more. At one season all seedless fruit are
produced, and with a greatly enlarged fruit pulp, while at the
other season only seeded or fertile fruits are produced. The

I Ellis, Polynesian Researches, i. 374.
2 Gard. in India, p. 234.
3 Geop. lib. x. c. 16.
4 Views of Nature, p. 161.
5 Humboldt, Trav. ii. 336.
6 Popular Hist. of Palms, p. 208.
7 A Naturalist on the Amazon, p. 268.
8 Rept. of the Bot. Garden of Trinidad, 188o, 39.










seedless fruits are highly appreciated by all classes, both unripe
as well as ripe.

PEAR. PYRUS COMMUNIS, L. (ROSACEAE).

This fruit is botanically a pome, a fleshy fruit with the calyx
adherent, and forming along with the epicarp or skin and the
mesocarp or pulp, a thick cellular mass which is eatable, while
the endocarp is scaly or horny, and forms separate cells enclosing
the seeds. Its varieties are exceedingly numerous. Pliny' enum-
erates forty-two kinds as known to the Romans, and Columel-
la2 names eighteen sorts. Macrobius3, as quoted by Gesner, al-
so furnishes a list, from which Gesner4 quotes with other Roman
authors as furnishing twenty praiseworthy varieties. In Tuscany,
in the times of the Medici there were catalogued two hundred
and thirty-two kindss; Le Jardinier Solitaire, 1612, describes fif-
ty-five varieties in France; Meager, in his English Gardener, 1683,
gives a list of one hundred and five; Knoop, in his Pomologia,
1760-6, figures one hundred and eighty-four kinds in color;
Mawe, in his Gardeners' Dictionary of 1748, enumerates ninety-
five; Don, in his Gardeners' or Botanists' Dictionary, 1832, gives
a classified list of six hundred and seventy-seven sorts; Field, in
his Fruit Culture, 1886, offers a catalogue of eight hundred and
fifty varieties, of which six hundred and eighty-three are of for-
eign and one hundred and sixty-seven of American origin.
The more delicate varieties of pears, such as the Gansel's Ber-
gamot and the Chaumontelle, says Lindley6, have rarely any seeds.
On the other hand, R. Manning, deservedly a high authority on
pears, tells me that certain varieties, such as Vicar of Wakefield
and Beurre Diel have most of the seeds abortive, and the first
named is not a delicate pear. The coreless pear7 is frequently
destitute of seeds, but always contains the cells. .The flesh is apt
to decay at the core. It is a good bearer, but the fruit is ex-

I Pliny, lib. xv. c. 16.
2 Col. de re rust. lib. v. c. Jo.
3 Saturnalia, 2. 15.
4 Gesner. Lexicon Rusticum, 1788.
5 Targioni-Tozetti, Hort. Trans. 1854, 159.
6 Lindley. Theory of Hort., 1859, p. 170.
7 Gard. Chron. 1843, 737.











about seed in those references we have consulted'. A white kind
which in the East Indies has run wild, is said by Unger2 to still
contain seeds in its fruit. Hughes3 in the Barbadoes mentions
the seed as being very small and almost kidney-shaped, as if he
had seen them. Rumphius notes a semi-wild pineapple in Am-
boina, bearing seeds, austere and rarely eaten. Arruda in Brazil
speaks of a pineapple with small seeds, for the most part abortive4.
PISTACIA. PISTACIA VERA, L. (ANACARDIACEAE).
The pistacia, says J. Harlans, in his Fruits of Cabul, yields a
crop of fruit one year, followed always by a crop of blighted
fruit. The latter is like the former in external appearance, but is
somewhat larger and quite destitute of kernel.

PLUM. PRUNUS DOMESTIC, L. (ROSACE-E).
A stoneless variety of the plum is described by Duhamel6 and
by Downing7, who says the fruit is small, the flesh greenish,
harsh, acid, and the kernel without any stone surrounding. As
Darwin says8, the kernel lies in a rough cavity surrounded only
by the pulp.
In the richest, sweetest large plums, it cannot have escaped
observation, that we have often the splitting of the stone within
the fruit, as in the peach.
Prunus Americana, Marsh., is subject in New Brunswick to
an anomalous form, which render it seedless and inedible9. I
have observed this occurrence in Maine, the seed swollen, pulp-
less, seedless and tasteless. Sometimes the remnant of an em-
bryo is to be found. This monstrosity seems more often to oc-
cur when the spring season is cold and rainy"o, and is perhaps due
to a fungus attack.
I Montiero, Angola, p. o10. Afzelius (for Sierra Leone) quoted by Sabine.
Hort. Trans. v. 461. Titford (Jamaica), Hort. Bot. Am. p. 54.
2 U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1889, 331.
3 Hughes, Barb. 1750, p. 230.
4 Roem-et Schult. 7, 1284.
5 U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1861, 533, notes.
6 Duhamel du Monceau, arb. fruit, 1768, ii. Ilo.
7 Downing, Fruit, 1885, p. 949.
8 An. and PI. i. 417.
9 Hooker's Journ. of Bot. iii. 99.
io See Dr. Harris in Hovey's Mag., viii. 247.











An examination of a few samples of plums gave the follow-
ing figures:
Variety. No. Samples. Av. Wt. Av. Wt. Per Cent. Wt. of
Fruit Grs. Seed Grs. Seed to Fruit.
Smith's Orleans, 10 736.0 18.2 2.47
Jefferson, Io 348.4 8.5 2.44
Frost Gage, 8 245.3 8.6 3.50
Suisse, o1 439.0 13.4 3.05
Fellenberg, 10 383.5 17.o 4.43
Golden Gage, 10 379.6 13.9 3.66
Bingham, Io 511.8 25.1 4.90
Blecker's Gage, o1 279.3 13.9 4.98
Hudson's Gage, o1 254.9 13.1 5.13
Pond's Seedling, Io 517.7 19.o 3.67

POMEGRANATE. PUNICA GRANATUM,L. (LYTHRARIEAE).

This is a peculiar baccate many-celled fruit, having a tough
rind formed by the calyx, enclosing two rows of carpels placed
above each other. The seeds are immersed in pulp, and are at-
tached irregularly to the varieties, base and center. This pulp
is apparently formed by the placentas. It is a fruit in much es-
teem in many localities in the Orient. Ibn-al-awam', a Moor-
ish-Spaniard of the twelfth century, describes eleven varieties.
The pomegranate, with the ancients, was a mystical fruit, on
account of the profusion of its seeds, typifying procreation, in-
crease and abundance. There are many varieties. Capt. Bur-
ton' describes three in Arabia. The Shami, almost stoneless,
and an exceedingly fine fruit; the Turki and the Misri, from the
context seeding, and not of as fine quality. Barnes3 says Kaja
is famed for its pomegranates without seed, although by far the
finest are brought from villages half way up the mountains. The
tree only grows in a few Afghan villages. Harlan4 enumerates
the seedless pomegranates from Jillalabod among the fruits in the
markets of Cabul. Barness, in his Travels in Bokhara, remarks on
the pomegranate seeding in Magenderan as a remarkable pecu-
liarity. In India, the best fruits, having sweet juice and very
I Le Livre de l'Agric., d' Ibn-al-awam, 1864, i. 252.
2 Pilgrimage to El Medina and Mecca, i. 388.
3 Cabul, 1842.
4 J. Harlan, U. S. Pat. Off. Rept. 1861, 530.
5 Darwin, An. and Pl. ii. 205, note.











small seeds, come from Cabul'. Hasselquist2 observes the inhab-
itants of Cyprus called a variety having a small stem and barren
flowers Balaustia. In 1860 cuttings from a seedless variety from
Palestine, described as bearing fruit much esteemed in Syria, were
distributed from the United States Patent Office3.
This seedless fruit was mentioned also by the ancients. Pli-
ny4 says the sweet pomegranates known by the name of apyrena
are generally considered to be injurious to the stomach. He
further describes this apyrena as being seedless, of a whiter color
than the others, and of a more agreeable flavor. In the Geopo-
nicss Africanus gives directions how to raise pomegranates that
shall be seedless, and so also does Palladius6 and Columella7 from
hearsay.
POMELO. CITRUS DECUMANA, L. (R UTACE.E.)
A seedless variety of the Pomelo is said to be grown in Flor-
ida, as Mr. Vandeman informs me.

PUMPKIN. CUCURBITA, SP. (CUCURBITACEE).
According to the experience of Ch. Naudin, when the Cu-
curbita maxima, C. Pepo and C. moschata are crossed, no seed or
only sterile seed are produced8. I have also observed that the
finer quality squashes and C. moschata pumpkins contain fewer
seed than those of inferior quality. In the Barbadoes9 there are
mentioned by Hughes four kinds, the white, the blue, the mar-
bled and the garden pumpkin. The latter differs from all the
rest by having no seed; but is propagated by slips."
RASPBERRY. RUBUS, SP. (ROSACEAc).
In some observations made on the number of seed'0 to a berry,
the Davidson's Thornless averaged 34.2 ; the Caroline 47 ; the
1 Dutt. Hindw. Mat. Med. 166.
2 Voy. and Trav. in the Ievant, 1766, p. 247.
3 U. S. Pat. Off. Rept., 1860, 34.
4 Pliny, lib. xxiii. c. 57; lib. xiii. c. 34.
5 Geoponics, lib. 4. c. 7 ; lib. to, c. 31.
6 Pall. lib. 3, c. 29.
7 Col. lib. v. c. io ; also Col. arb. c. 23.
8 Darwin, An. and P1. i.430.
9 Hughes, Barb. 1750, p. 137.
io N. Y. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rept. 1882, p. 80.










Clarke 57.6 seed to a berry. In some reported trials' the seed-
lings from few-berried fruits gave distinctly better quality but
smaller size fruit than corresponding seedlings from many-seeded
berries. The trials were with Rubus occidentalis varieties.

RIBES ALPINUM, L. (SAXIFRAGACEAE).
Thory says he has often found seedless berries upon whole
branches of fruit of this species'.

SAPPODILLA PLUM. ACHRAS SAPOTA, L. (SAPOTACEAE).
The medlar-like fruit of the Sappodilla plum, of a milky,
quince-like taste, is much esteemed in tropical America and In-
dia. It has usually from six to twelve cells with several seeds in
each, but Swartz3 remarks that most of the seed are usually lost
by cultivation.

SERVICE. PYRUS LANUGINOSA, DC. (ROSACEE).
The flowers and fruit of this tree resemble those of the moun-
tain ash, but are smaller, the flowers are frequently abortive, and
the fruit, when it is produced, is generally without seeds.

STRAWBERRY. FRAGARIA, SP. (ROSACEE).
In this fruit the enlarged and conical receptacle bearing the
pistils on its surface, becomes the edible portion in fruit. The
varieties are endless, and the various classes have been referred
to different species. Merrick,5 in 1870 catalogues eight hundred
and thirteen kinds. The name Strawberry refers to the run-
ning stems strewed ancientlyy strawed) over the ground. This
reminds us of Virgil's description * humi nascentia fragra."
Servius Grammaticus, A.D., 412, calls them "fructus terra et
mora terrestria," the equivalent of which is found in the Swedish
and Danish name of jordbar, earth berry. Pliny's name was al-
so terrestrisfraga, ground berry. The earliest picture of the
strawberry that I possess is in Herbarius cum Herbarium, Mo-
gwntie, 1484, chap. lxiii., which is evidently of Fragaria vesca, as
I N. Y. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rept. 1885, 257. See alsoib. 1855, 257.
2 Thory. Grosseilier, 20.
3 Miller's Dict., Ed. of I807.
4 Loudon, Arb. p. 924.
5 Strawberry Cultur. 1870.








i84

the fruit is borne above the leaves. The figure is a rude one, but
recognizable.
A mule plant from the Hautbois and Alpine strawberry, says
Knight', blossoms very freely and its blossoms set well; but the
growth of the fruit subsequently remains very nearly stationary
during the whole period in which the Hautbois strawberry grows
and ripens; after which it swells and acquires maturity. It is
then rich and high flavored, but of less size than the Hautbois,
and without seeds. Duchesne2 remarks upon the sterility of the
Breslinge, known in France under the name of Covcov. It is
not completely sterile, however, but has produced a strawberry
of fine flavor, the Fraises mignones. Mr. Saunders of the De-
partment of Agriculture at Washington, told me February I6th,
1880, that he once had a bed of pistillate strawberries which
fruited but bore no seed; the quality was fine. In my owntrials
I have found that the most superior varieties have contained few-
er seeds to the berry than other varieties of inferior quality.
In some counting of seed3, fine specimens averaged seed to
a berry as follows: Hervey Davis, 115; Triumph de Gand, 152;
Monarch of the West, 232; Sharpless, 239. This corresponds
in order very closely to the quality. Small, inferior samples of
Wilson's Albany, however, had but seventy-two seed to a berry.

TOMATO. LYCOPERSICUM ESCULENTUM, MILL. (SOLANACEE).
It is a matter of common observation that the finest quality
tomato fruit contains fewer seed than do those of inferior varie-
ties. Burr4 also says there is a seedless variety, smooth and
handsome, with few seeds.
A fair sample of four varieties gave seed as follows:
Variety. Wt. of Seed to a WIt. of Per cent. Seed
Fruit Grs. Berry. Seed Grs. to Berry.
Mayflower, 1419 244 6.5 .38
Paragon, 3834 531 21.6 .56
Trophy, 3208 476 22.6 .70
Early Acme, 3449 491 24.7 .71

I Knight, Phys. and Hort. Papers, p. 276.
2 In Lam. Enc. Meth. 1786, ii. 535.
3 N. Y. Agric. Ex. Sta. Rept. 1882, p. 80.
4 Garden Vegetables, p. 208.










WATERMELON. CITRULLUS VULGARIS, SCHRAD.
(CUCURBITACEA.).
The watermelon was observed by Caesalpinius' in 1583, in a
seedless state, and this is quoted by Bauhin in 1596 and 1623, as
alss by J. Bauhin in 165 1. I find no other recorded instance.


In the above list of sixty-one species, we find quality either
stated or inferred, in varying degrees, in the case of thirty-three;
in the remaining twenty-eight either no, or insufficient, mention. It
is more than probable that in every case of high development, for
thus we class horticultural selections, the seed is changed in some
respect from the seed of the wild type, either recognizable in re-
duction of number, size, weight or fragility. In many instances,
such as the melon and tomato, the orange and the peach, and
many others, this is effected through corelations, the horticultur-
ist indifferent to the seed, but keen for the quality of juiciness,
tenderness and flavor. It seems a legitimate field for horticul-
tural effort, to experiment with seed from nearly seedless forms, or
with seed which is more fragile or seemingly imperfect, in the en-
deavor to produce increased quality, as also with seed from un-
ripe fruit.
I Caesalpinus, lib. 5, c. 5, p. 200.

















INDEX.


Achras sapota, 183.
Allium cepa, 173.
Amygdalus Persica, 176.
Ananassa sativa, 179.
Artocarpus incisa, 154.
Berberis vulgaris, 153.
Brassica oleracea, 156.
Capsicum, 178.
Cerasus vulgaris, 157.
Chamaerops stauracantha, 156.
Citrullus vulgaris, 185.
Citrus aurantium, 173.
decumana, 182.
Limetta, 168.
medical, 158.
medical, var. Limonum, 168.
Cratzegus Azarolus, 150.
Cucumis Melo, 171.
sativus, 159.
Cucurbita, 182.
Cycads, 161.
Dioscorea aculeata, 162.
Diospyros Kaki, 167.
melanoxylon, 162.
schi'tse, 162.
Virginiana, 178.
Eugenia Malaccensis, 169.
Fagus ferruginea, 154.
Ficus carica, 162.
Fragaria, 183.
Garcinia Mangostana, 170.


Gulielma speciosa, 176.
Lagenaria vulgaris, 163.
Lucuma bifera, 169.
Lycopersicum esculentum, 184.
Mangifera Indica, 169.
Mespilus Germanica, 171.
Morus, 171.
Musa, 150.
Myrtus communis, 172.
Olea Europea, 172.
Opuntia Davisii, 173.
Ficus-indica, 173.
Persea gratissima, 149.
Phcenix dactylifera, 161.
Pistacia vera, 180.
Prunus Americana, 18o.
domestic, 18o.
laurocerasus, 168.
Psidium Guayava, 166.
Punica granatum, 181.
Pyrus communis, 177.
lanuginosa, 183.
malus, 145.
Ribes alpinum, 183.
rubrum, 160.
Rubus, 182.
Spondias dulcis, 175.
Vitis Labrusca, 164.
vinifera, 165.
Zizyphus Lotus, 169.


[Issued May 30th, 189o].




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