Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Half Title
 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity...
 The French and Indian War -- preparation...
 The quadrilateral campaign of 1755...
 The quadrilateral campaign of 1755...
 The quadrilateral campaign of 1755...
 The campaign of 1756 -- Oswego
 The campaign of 1757 -- Fort William...
 Pitt plans the campaign of...
 The campaign of 1758 -- the capture...
 The campaign of 1758 -- Ticonderoga...
 The campaign of 1758 -- the fall...
 The campaign of 1759 -- the...
 The campaign of 1759 -- on lakes...
 Wolfe and Saunders before...
 The battle of the plains of Abraham...
 The fall of New France (1760)
 The peace of Paris (1759-63)
 The Cherokee War (1759-63)
 The Pontiac War (1763-64)
 Bibliographical appendix

Group Title: History of the United States and its people, : from their earliest records to the present time.
Title: A history of the United States and its people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076585/00004
 Material Information
Title: A history of the United States and its people from their earliest records to the present time
Series Title: history of the United States and its people,
Physical Description: 7 v. : col. fronts., illus. (part col.) plates (part fold.) ports. (part col.) maps (part fold.) plans (part fold.) facsims. (part fold.) ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Avery, Elroy McKendree, 1844-1935
Abbatt, William, 1851-1935
Publisher: Burrows Bros. Co.
Place of Publication: Cleveland
Publication Date: 1904-10
Subject: History -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: "Bibliographical appendix" at end of each volume.
Statement of Responsibility: by Elroy McKendree Avery ...
General Note: On t.p. of v. l, "in twelve volumes"; on t.-p. of v. 2-4, "in fifteen volumes"; on t.-p. of v. 5-7, "in sixteen volumes." No more published.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076585
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01466912
lccn - 04032329

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Half Title
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
    From Louisburg to Fort Necessity (1745-54)
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The French and Indian War -- preparation (1754)
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 50a
        Page 50b
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The quadrilateral campaign of 1755 -- the Braddock expedition
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 60b
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    The quadrilateral campaign of 1755 -- Crown Point and Niagara
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 90a
        Page 90b
        Page 91
        Page 92
    The quadrilateral campaign of 1755 -- the removal of the Acadians
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    The campaign of 1756 -- Oswego
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    The campaign of 1757 -- Fort William Henry
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Pitt plans the campaign of 1758
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    The campaign of 1758 -- the capture of Louisburg
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 166a
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    The campaign of 1758 -- Ticonderoga and Fort Frontenac
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    The campaign of 1758 -- the fall of Fort Duquesne
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    The campaign of 1759 -- the contestants
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    The campaign of 1759 -- on lakes Champlain and Ontario
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Wolfe and Saunders before Quebec
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    The battle of the plains of Abraham (1759)
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 276a
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    The fall of New France (1760)
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
    The peace of Paris (1759-63)
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
    The Cherokee War (1759-63)
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
    The Pontiac War (1763-64)
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 354a
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 356a
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 374a
        Page 374b
        Page 375
        Page 376
    Bibliographical appendix
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
Full Text

A History of

the United



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* IQ

N the preceding volume, I tried faithfully to trace
the continued and intensifying conflict between
"prerogative" and popular rights in the English
colonies in America, a conflict that was irrepressible from
the beginning and that was leading to a more serious
struggle in which the issue was to be fought to a finish.
In this volume, I have told, as well as ability and space
limitations would permit, how the shackles of an ever-
present menace were broken and the colonists were
schooled and nerved for the coming grapple.
I shall be disappointed if the careful reader of these
volumes does not understand, even before he takes up
the next, that the American Revolution was in the blood
and that the stamp act and George III. were simply irri-
tants that hastened what could not be avoided.
In working out my purpose, I have been encouraged
by the general approval with which readers and reviewers
have received the successive instalments of this work. I
have been further assisted by friendly suggestions from
many members of the great but well-defined constituency
that I am seeking to serve.
I am under deep obligation to my able helper, Dr.
Paul L. Haworth, sometime lecturer in history at Colum-
bia University. Dr. Haworth has given me valuable
assistance in the collection, verification, and interpretation
of material and in the preparation of this volume.
Special acknowledgments are also due to Lieutenant-
colonel Crawford Lindsay, my mentor for the five busy
days that I gave to the study of Quebec and its environs;

Iai 8d. ~

viii Preface

to Mr. Victor H. Paltsits, the state historian of New
York; to Mr. A. S. Salley Jr., the secretary of the his-
torical commission of South Carolina, who, for a week,
gave me friendly guidance among the unprinted treasures
in his keeping; and to Professor William MacDonald of
Brown University for his revision of the final chapter.
I am sure that no one who has this volume in his hand
will care for even a suggestion from me concerning the
enterprising liberality of my publishers.
Cleveland, August, 1907


Introductory: Preface; Lists of Maps and Illustrations.
I. From Louisburg to Fort Necessity ( 1745-
54) i
II. The French and Indian War-Preparation
(1754)-. 48
III. The Quadrilateral Campaign of 1755-
The Braddock Expedition 6
IV. The Quadrilateral Campaign of 1755-
Crown Point and Niagara 80
V. The Quadrilateral Campaign of 1755-
The Removal of the Acadians 93
VI. The Campaign of 1756-Oswego 113
VII. The Campaign of 1757-Fort William
Henry. 33
VIII. Pitt Plans the Campaign of 1758 15
IX. The Campaign of 1758-The Capture of
Louisburg 16
X. The Campaign of 1758 -Ticonderoga and
Fort Frontenac .. 172
XI. The Campaign of 1758-The Fall of Fort
Duquesne .. 192
XII. The Campaign of 1759-The Contestants 214
XIII. The Campaign of 1759-On Lakes Cham-
plain and Ontario 227
XIV. Wolfe and Saunders before Quebec 243
XV. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
(1759) . 273
XVI. The Fall of New France (1760) 296
XVII. The Peace of Paris (1759-63) 320

x Contents

XVIII. The Cherokee War (1759-63 )
XIX. The Pontiac War (1763-64) .
Bibliographical Appendix
NoTE.-A general index will be found in the last volume of this work.

* 337
* 351
* 377




Benjamin Franklin Frontispiece
Portrait :
From original oil painting in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington,
D. C., by Joseph Sifrede Duplessis, painted in Paris, according to inscription
on back, in 1782.
Duplessis was born in Carpentras, Vaucluse, September zz, 1725, and died
at Versailles, where he was conservator of the museum, April I, 182.
He attained a high rank as a portrait painter and was received into the
Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1774. His various portraits of
Franklin are among the most noted of this famous man. His first portrait
was painted in 1778 for M. Donatien le Ray de Chaumont, whose "petite
maison," at Passy, Franklin occupied during his residence in France. It
was exhibited in the Salon of 1779.
Another and different portrait of Franklin was drawn by Duplessis, in pastel,
in 1783, which belongs to the Hon. John Bigelow; but the majority of
the portraits of Franklin, attributed to him, are copies by other hands.
Much of the information we furnish upon this artist and his work is from
Mr. Charles Henry Hart's Life Portraits of Great Americans. Mr. Hart
is recognized as the most eminent living authority on American historical
From an original letter in the Library of Congress.
Letter to Sir W illiam Pepperrell .
From the Massachusetts general court, dated December 24, 1745, con-
gratulating him on the capture of Louisburg. Reproduced from original
document in the Archives of Massachusetts, State House, Boston.
Portrait of Reverend Thomas Prince 2
Pastor of Old South Church, Boston (b. 1687, d. 1758). Reproduced
from original oil painting (name of artist unknown) in possession of the
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts, by permission.
Autograph of Commodore Charles Knowles 3
From original document in the Archives of Massachusetts, State House,
Massachusetts Three-Penny Bill, 1750 3
From original in Library of Harvard University.
"A Mournful Lamentation for the Sad and Deplor-
able Death of Mr. Old Tenor" 4
Curious broadside with black border. In possession of the Massachusetts
Historical Society, Boston.

xii Illustrations

Manuscript Declaration of War against the Penob-
scot [and other] Indians by Governor Benning
Wentworth of New Hampshire, August 30,
1745 5
From original in Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Governor Benning Wentworth (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 6
Portrait reproduced from copy of the Blackburn painting in Representatives
Hall, State House, Concord, New Hampshire.
Autograph from original document in the Archives of Massachusetts, State
House, Boston.
Map Showing the Territory of Vermont, Histor-
ically Treated 6
Prepared by Miss Susan Myra Kingsbury, Ph. D., Boston.
Map Showing the Frontiers of New Hampshire,
1737-64. 7
Prepared by Miss Susan Mxra Kingsbury, Ph. D., Boston.
New Hampshire Merchants' Note for Ten Shillings,
1734 (face and back) 8
From original in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society,
The Royal Arms 9
Probably painted about 1724. Before the Revolution, thev hung above
the speaker's chair in the House of Representatives, Hartford. B\ per-
mission of the Connecticut Historical Society.
Memorial of the Susquehanna Company, num-
bering about 850 Persons, to the Assembly of
Connecticut, dated May 7, 1755 9
The original one-page document, signed by Edwards, Wyllys, Seymour, and
Dyer is in the Connecticut State Library, Hartford, vol. i., Susquehannah
Settlers, Document No. 4.
"A View in Hudson's River of Pakepsey and the
Catts Kill Mountains" .11
Sketched on the spot by Governor Pownall. From original print in tle
New York Public Library.
Seal of King's College from 1754 to 1775 12
From print supplied by the secretary to Columbia University.
King's College in 1760 12
From view supplied by the secretary to Columbia University.
Crown on Flag-staff of King's College (Columbia
University) 12
This crown is of iron, size about 9 x ix inches. It surmounted the flag-
staff of the first building of King's College and remained there until its
destruction about fifty years ago. Now in the trustees' room.
From sketch supplied by the secretary to Columbia University.

Illustrations xiii

Seal of Princeton University. 13
Supplied by the reference librarian.
Autograph of Reverend Samuel Davies 13
Traced from original in the New York Public Library.
Title-page of Benjamin Franklin's Tract Plain Truth,
published anonymously, Philadelphia, 1747 4
From copy in Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia.
Title-page of Poor Richard's Almanack, 1733 1 5
Reproduced from the only known copy. 1733 was the year this was first
issued, but the reproduction is from the third impression. No copy of
either of the earlier impressions is known to exist.
In possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Autograph of James Hamilton 16
From New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Manuscript Indian Treaty, July 23, 1748 6
On parchment with signatures and Indian sign-manuals and seals. From
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Autograph of Thomas Bladen .17
From document in possession of the Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
Autograph of Samuel Ogle 17
From New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Heading of The Maryland Gazette 17
Issue of December 17, 1728. In the collection of the Maryland Historical
Relics of M aryland Palatines 18
(a) The Old Glatz (Schultz) House. The first stone house built west
of the Susquehanna River, 1734.
(b) Ancient Communion Service, Flagon and Chalice. Flagon dated
1747. Discovered by Reverend George Zacharias of Baltimore in the
garret of an old schoolhouse near Walkerville, Maryland. Made of Ger-
man silver, about fifteen inches high, and very heavy. Chalice about
twelve inches high.
Both reproduced from Schultz's First Settlers of Germans in Maryland.
Autograph of Daniel Dulany 18
From New York Public Library.
Frederick, Sixth Lord Baltimore (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 19
Portrait from large oil painting in State House, Annapolis, Maryland.
Autograph from original in collection of Maryland Historical Society,
View of Baltimore in 1752 19
From lithographed print of John Moale's original drawing of Baltimore
town in 1752. In New York Public Library.
Portrait of James Edward Oglethorpe 20
From old engraving in possession of Mr. Wymberly Jones De Renne,
Savannah, Georgia. The following note appear- beneath the portrait in the
original: "General James Oglethorpe. Died 30th June 1785 Aged
o02 said to be the oldest General in Europe -Sketch'd from Life at the sale
of DrJohnsons books FebY 18, 1785 where the Gen' was reading a
book he had purchased without spectacles."

xiv Illustrations

Autographs of William Stephens, Henry Parker,
and John Reynolds 22
Traced from original documents in Public Record Office, London.
Proclamation by Governor James Glen 22
Establishing a general fast on account of the declaration of war against
France ( King George's War), dated August 30, 1744. From original in
the Library of Congress.
North Carolina Nine-Shilling Proclamation M oney 23
Issue of April 4, 1748. Size of original 23/ x 412 inches. From speci-
men in New York Public Library.
Title-page of the First Printed Collection of North
Carolina Laws 24
Published at Newbern in 175x. This is Samuel Swann's revisal-the
first ever printed of North Carolina laws. It is so excessively rare that
in 1891 Doctor Stephen B. Weeks wrote that it is almost "unknown."
It has escaped the notice of all historians of the state, and it has even been
confidently affirmed that it never was printed. Doctor Weeks then knew
of but one copy-in the Charlemagne Tower collection. There is another
in the New York Public Library from which our reproduction is taken.
Autographs of Gabriel Johnston and Arthur Dobbs 24
From original document in North Carolina State House.
Autograph of William Gooch 25
From New York Public Library.
Governor Robert Dinwiddie (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 25
Portrait painted by Allan Ramsay in I 760. The original painting is owned
by Miss Mary Dinwiddie, of London, who kindly supplied us a photograph.
Autograph from his letter reproduced elsewhere in this volume.
Coat of Arms of Robert Dinwiddie 26
Reproduced in colors by the prismaprint process.
Marquis de la Galissoniere (Portrait and Autograph) 26
Portrait reproduced from a copy, at Quebec, of original in possession of
the family in France.
Autograph from Canadian Archives, Ottawa.
M ap of Route of Celoron de Bienville 27
Showing where plates were buried.
Facsimile of One of the Lead Plates Buried by
Celoron de Bienville
From original in possession of the Virginia Historical Society.
Autograph of Thomas Lee .27
From original document, dated June I, 1749, in New York Public Library,
Emmet Collection.
Lawrence W ashington (Portrait and Autograph) 28
Portrait from original painting owned by Mr. Lawrence Washington, of
Alexandria, Virginia. It is the only known original portrait of the half-
brother of General Washington.
Autograph from original in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.

Illustrations xv

Autographs of Christopher Gist, Joshua Fry, and
George Croghan 28
From original documents in New York Public Library.
Autograph of Duquesne 29
Map of the French Creek Route 29
From Presque Isle to Fort Le Bceuf.
Letter by Robert Dinwiddie to Governor James
Hamilton of Pennsylvania .30, 31
Dated May 21, 1753. In it he speaks of the French encroachments on
the Ohio, the raising of troops, and a protest to the governor of Canada.
Reproduced from original in New York Public Library.
Map Showing Location of Birthplace of George
Washington 32
Silver Bowl Used at Christening of George Washing-
ton 33
It was also used by the two preceding generations of his family. Repro-
duced by permission of the heirs of Mary Hemenway of Boston.
Facsimile of a Survey made by George W ashington 34
SDated November 20, 1750. Made when he was less than nineteen years
of age. From original in New York Public Library.
Map of Washington's Route .. 35
From Wills Creek (now Cumberland, Maryland) to Fort Le Beuf.
Title-page of Washington's Journal 39
From the fine Brinley copy of the original Williamsburg edition of 1754 in
New York Public Library.
Plan of Fort Duquesne 41
Reproduced from a copperplate engraving in Jefferys's General Topography
of Nortb America and the West Indies, London, 1768. In the New
York Public Library.
Autograph of Jumonville 43
Autograph of Contrecoeur 43
From a report dated November 28, 1758, made by him to the Minister of
Marine. Procured from original by Mr. Henry Vignaud, secretary to the
American Embassy, Paris.
Letter by Robert Dinwiddie. 43
Undated, probably written in 1754. We reproduce the second page In
the fourth line, he mentions Washington as follows: "' Mr Washington
had many of the Indians with him." From original in Library of Congress,
Washington, D. C.
Francois Coulon de Villiers (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 46
(B. Montreal, 1712, d. New Orleans, May 22, 1794.) An original por-
trait of him was lost at Montgomery, Alabama, during the War of Seces-
sion. Its duplicate is now in possession of Mr. George A. Viller6 of Saint
Bernard Parish, Louisiana, who supplied a photograph for our work. Gay-
arre made a cut for Wasbington's Surrender at Fort Necessity from the
same painting.



Autograph from Notes sur la Familie Coulon de Vifliers by the Abbe Amedee
E. Gosselin, 1906.
Map of Claims in North America, 1754 49
Prepared by David Maydole Matteson, A. M., Cambridge, Mass.
Autograph of the Duke of Newcastle 50
From original dated September 18, 1745, in the Public Record Office,
Bowen and Gibson's Map of North America [1755]
between 50 and 5
Original measures 41 x 46 inches. Reproduced in facsimile from colored
copy in Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Des Barres's View of Annapolis 5
From photograph supplied by Harvard University.
Signatures of the Members of the Albany Conven-
tion of 1754 between 52 and 53
From original letters and documents in the New York Public Library,
Emmet Collection. This list includes the names of all the delegates, but
not those of governors, even if present. John Wentworth and James
De Lancey, governors respectively of New Hampshire and New York,
while given in some lists, were not delegates.
M ap of Pennsylvania, 1754. 53
Letter by James Alexander, February 3, 1755 54
Written to James Brown of Norwalk, Connecticut, mentioning lands con-
firmed to Penn and his heirs by the Iroquois, and Connecticut claims to
lands westward. From original in New York Public Library.
Franklin's Device of the Divided Snake 55
Reproduction of part of a page of Franklin's paper, The Pensrilvania
Gazette, May 9, 1754, in which first appeared the cut of the divided snake
labeled "Join, or Die." We reproduce from a copy of this issue in the
New York Public Library.
First Page of Benjamin Franklin's "Short Hints" <6
Reproduced from original manuscript in New York Historical Society. It
contains Franklin's plan for uniting the northern colonies, which he pro-
pounded at the Albany Congress of 1754.
Autograph of Andrew Lewis .58
From document in New York Public Library.
Map of Portages and French and English Forts
between 60 and 6
Prepared by Doctor Paul Leland Haworth.
Portrait of Sir Peter Halket 63
From mezzotint by J. McArdell, in Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
after painting by Allan Ramsay.
Page from Braddock's Order-Book in Washington's
Handwriting 64
From original in Library of Congress.
Braddock's Order for the Protection of the Wives of
Certain Soldiers .6
From original manuscript in the Library of Congress.



Autograph of Sir John Saint Clair. 66
From original in New York Public Library.
Map of Braddock's Route .67
Showing places of encampment on successive dates.
Portrait of Hyacinthe Marie Li6nard de Beaujeu 68
From copy in the Chateau de Ramezay Portrait Gallery, painted by Charles
Gill from original miniature in possession of the family in Montreal.
Map Showing Braddock's Method of Encampment 69
Two Maps of Braddock's Battlefield 71, 72
Showing distribution of his forces before and after the attack.
Letter by Governor Horatio Sharpe to Governor
Morris 76
Dated January 13, 1755. Refers to the obstinacy of the Pennsylvania
legislature and the sending of a belt to the Six Nations in behalf of Mary-
land. From original in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Letter by Governor Robert Hunter Morris to Gov-
ernor Sharpe 77
Dated July 24, 1755, and relates to Braddock's defeat, etc. From original
in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Map of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania, Mary-
land, and Virginia during the French and
Indian War 78
Prepared by Miss Susan Myra Kingsbury, Ph. D., Boston, Massachu-
William Johnson (Portrait and Autograph) 80
Portrait from mezzotint engraving by Spooner, in New York Public Library,
Emmet Collection, after painting by T. Adams.
Autograph from letter dated June 13, 1755, in New York Public Library,
Emmet Collection.
View of Fort Niagara 8
Captured by Sir William Johnson, July 25, 1759. Drawn on the spot in
1758. From copperplate engraving in New York Public Library, Emmet
Autograph of Ludwig August, Baron de Dieskau 82
From letter dated October 12, 1755. In New York Public Library,
Emmet Collection.
View of Fort Saint Frederick on Lake Champlain 82
From Mrmoires sur ie Canada, Quebec, 1873.
An Order Signed by Vaudreuil 83
Dated September 20, 1755. From original in the collection of Mr.
Victor Hugo Paltsits, state historian of New York.
Autograph of Phineas Lyman 83
From original document in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Monument to General John Stark 84
Erected at Manchester, New Hampshire. From a photograph.
Map of Lake Champlain Country. 85

xviii Illustrations

Portrait of "The Brave Old Hendrick". 86
From a copperplate engraving in New York Public Library, Emmet Col-
Boulder Marking the Grave of Colonel Ephraim
W illiams 86
From photograph supplied by Mr. Fred H. Bullard of Glens Falls, New
Clement's Survey of Lake George Region, 1756 87
From original manuscript in possession of the American Antiquarian Society,
Worcester, Massachusetts.
Monument Commemorating the Battle at Lake
George 88
From a photograph.
Plan of the Battle of Lake George between 88 and 89
Drawn by Samuel Blodget who was present during the battle as a sutler;
engraved by Thomas Johnston, a native painter and engraver of Boston.
Original plate measures about 174 x 13 3 inches. Of this plate there are
two issues. Our reproduction is from an original copy of the earlier state
in New York Public Library.
Map of the Country Between Crown Point and Fort
Edward 89
Redrawn from Mante's History of the Late War in NAortb America, London,
Letter by W illiam Johnson 90
From Camp at Lake George, 6 Octbr 1755." Reproduced from original
in Library of Congress.
The South View of Oswego on Lake Ontario
between 90 and 91
From William Smith's History of the Province of New-Tork, London,
1757. Original is a copperplate engraving, measuring 84 x I4y4 inches.
Reproduced from original in New York Public Library.
Autograph of James F. M ercer 92
In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
View of Halifax in 1764 93
Drawn on the spot by R. Short and engraved by James Mason. Original
in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Autograph of Edward Cornwallis 94
From a letter written the latter part of I749, in Archives of Massachusetts,
State House, Boston.
Plan of Fort Halifax. Plan of the Town of Hali-
fax 94
Redrawn from Le Rouge's Recueil des Plans de l'Amerique Septentrionale,
Paris, 1755. The Pequot Library, Southport, Connecticut, kindly placed
this volume at our disposal for use in making these illustrations.
Folling's Plan of Fort Canso, Nova Scotia, in 1745 97
From original pen-and-ink plan in New England Historical and Genealogi-
cal Society, Boston.

Illustrations xix

Seal of Nova Scotia at the Time of George II. 98
From original impression in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Map of Nova Scotia 99
Autograph of Charles Lawrence 100
Plan of Fort Lawrence. 100
From Memoires sur le Canada, Quebec, 1873.
Plan of Fort Beausejour 101
From Mante's History of the Late War in North America, London, 1772.
The illustration shows a small part only of the original map.
Robert Monckton (Portrait and Autograph) 102
Portrait from an original mezzotint in New York Public Library, Emmet
Autograph from his letter of May 19, 1755, to Apthorpe, Hancock, and
Irving, about Governor Shirley's Provincial Regiment. In New York
Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Portrait of General John W inslow I03
(B. 1702, d. 1774.) From painting in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth, Massa-
chusetts, probably painted by Blackburn.
View of Grand Pre Meadows 107
From a photograph.
Portrait of Madame de Pompadour 15
From pastel by Latour in the Gallery of the Louvre, regarded as her best
Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm-Gozon de
Saint-Veran (Portrait and Autograph) 116
The reproduction given is from a private photograph of the original oil
painting in possession of the present Marquis of Montcalm, Chateau d'Avzze,
France, who courteously supplied it, colored in facsimile of the original oil
painting. It is reproduced by us in colors, from this copy.
We are indebted to the interest taken in historical matters by Mr. Henry
Vignaud, secretary to the American Embassy, Paris, for courteous aid in
procuring this and many other items.
Autograph from his letter of August 27, 1757, in the New York Public
Library, Emmet Collection.
Map of the Mohawk-Oneida Route to Canada 118
Showing portage where Rome, New York, now stands.
Coat of Arms of W illiam Shirley 118
From a copy in possession of the Bostonian Society, Old State House,
Portrait of Thomas Pownall 119
From mezzotint engraved by Earlom, after Cotes, in the collection of the
Bostonian Society, Old State House, Boston.
Coat of Arms of Thomas Pownall 120
Reproduced in colors from a copy in the collection of the Bostonian Society,
Old State House, Boston.
John Campbell, Earl of Loudoun (Portrait and
Autograph) 120
Portrait from an original drawing, of which a print was made in 1765.
In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.

xx Illustrations

Plan of Fort Frederick at Albany 122
Redrawn from Roque's A Set of Plans and Forts in America, London,
Plan of the City of Albany .. 122
From Roque's A Set of Plans and Forts in America, London, 1763.
Map of the Eastern End of Lake Ontario 123
Plan of Forts Ontario and Pepperrell (Chouaguen,
Oswego) .. 124
From Mimoires sur le Canada, Quebec, 1873.
Map of Montcalm's Attack on Oswego (Chouaguen) 124
Redrawn from map in Casgrain's lIanuscrits du Chevalier de Levis,
Quebec, 1891.
Map of the Forts at the Oneida Portage, 1756 126
Reproduced in the colors of the original, in the British Museum. Shows
plans of the forts at the Great Carrying Place at this date.
Autograph of Israel Putnam 127
From New York Public Library.
Robert Rogers "the Ranger" (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 128
Portrait from a mezzotint in New York Public Library, name of engraver
Autograph from New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Map of Pennsylvania, showing Battle of Kittanning 13 I
Chevalier de Levis (Portrait and Autograph) 134
Portrait from a private photograph of painting owned by Count Levis
Mirepoix. Procured for us by the courteous help of Mr. Henry Vignaud,
secretary to the American Embassy, Paris.
Autograph from New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Plan of the Vicinity of Fort Edward 137
From Roque's A Set of Plans and Forts in America, London, 1763.
Portraits of Marquis and Madame Bougainville 139
From Doughty's .l,. of uebec, by permission. The original r:-r- r-
in the possession ot Madame la Comtesse de Saint Sauveur li ..'.
Plan of the Attack on Fort William Henry 141
Redrawn from Casgrain's 3lanuscrits du Chevalier de Levis, Quebec, 1891.
Plan of Fort William Henry and Vicinity at the
Time of the Siege 42
Autograph of Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro,
of the Thirty-fifth Fusileers 43
From a letter, dated November '-, 1753, recommending the promotion
of an officer. Supplied by the Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland
through the English War Office. All great libraries and important archives
of the United States and Canada, as well as the government depositories of
France and England, were ransacked in vain for a signature of Monro, until
this was discovered after a search extending over more than a year.

Illustrations xxi

Relation des Avantages 47
The original is a small quarto leaf, of which we reproduce part of the first
page and ending of the second. From original in the collection of E.
Dwight Church, Esq., Brooklyn, New York.
Uniform of a French Soldier, 1755 (in colors) 148
Shows coat of steel gray, trimmed with blue and orange.
After water-9olor sketch in Documents Collected in France, vol. ix, p. 377,
in Archives of Massachusetts, State House, Boston.
William Pitt, First Earl of Chatham (Portrait and
Autograph) 51
Portrait from original painting by Hoare formerly in Viscount Bridgport's
collection; now in the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Autograph from Netherclift's Autographs of the Kings and Queens, and
Eminent Men, of Great Britain, London, 1835.
Portrait of W illiam Pitt 153
From original painting by Brompton, now in National Portrait Gallery,
Autograph of James Abercromby 158
In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Autograph of Edward Boscawen 161
From letter of May 19, 1758, in New York Public Library, Emmet
Sir Jeffrey Amherst (Portrait and Autograph) 161
Portrait from Cust's Catalogue of National Portrait Gallery. Original
painted by Thomas Gainsborough.
Autograph from New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Map of the Siege of Louisburg, 1758 162
A French Frigate 165
From engraving in Lacroix's XVIIIme Siicle.
View of Louisburg during the Siege of 1758
between 166 and 167
From copperplate engraving published in 1760, in New York Public
Library, Emmet Collection.
Admiral Edward Boscawen (Portrait and Auto-
graph) .167
Portrait from Cust's Catalogue of National Portrait Gallery. Original
painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in I760.
"Louisburg Taken" Medal 168
Issued by Pingo, in 1758, and believed to have been an official issue. Repro-
duced from a specimen in the collection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan,
treasurer and curator, Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Chateau de
Ramezay, Montreal, Canada.
"Admiral Boscawen" M edal 169
From a specimen in the collection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan, treasurer
and curator, Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Chateau de Ramezay,
Montreal, Canada.
View of the Ruins of Louisburg Casemates 170
From a photograph.



Pownall's Commission to Sir W illiam Pepperrell 171
A lieutenant-general's commission, on parchment, dated August 8, 1757.
Original in possession of Massachusetts Historical Society.
Letter by Fran0ois Bigot 74
Dated November 7, 1752. From the collection of Bigot letters belong-
ing to Mr. Victor Hugo Paltsits, State Historian of New York.
Portrait of Pierre Rigaud, M arquis de Vaudreuil 176
Reproduced by permission from print of the original painting in Doughty's
Siege of 4uebec.
Portrait of Sir George Augustus, Third Viscount
Howe. 177
From photograph of original painting owned by the present Lord Howe,
Leicestershire, England.
M ap Illustrating the English Advance against
Ticonderoga. 179
Showing spot where Lord Howe was killed.
Monument to Lord Howe I8
Erected in Westminster Abbey by an order of the General Court of Massa-
chusetts Bay.
Map of the French Works at Ticonderoga 18
Adapted from map in Casgrain's Manuscrits du Chevalier de Levis, Quebec,
Facsimile Map of Fort Ticonderoga, 1758, by
Jefferys .182
From original in Library of Congress, Map Division.
An Old Powder-Horn :,.
Neatly decorated, bearing inscription: Parson Marther His Horn Made at
Lake George october ye 13th 1758." From original at Connecticut His-
torical Society, Hartford.
Autograph of John Bradstreet I88
View of Fort Frontenac 189
From Mimoires sur le Canada, Quebec, 1873.
Plan of Fort Stanwix, 1758 19
From Roque's A Set of Plans and Forts in America, London, 1763.
Autograph of John Forbes 92
From his letter reproduced elsewhere in this volume.
Pennsylvania Ten-Shilling Bill, 1758 193
From original in Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Portrait of Henry Bouquet 195
From original painting in possession of Mr. George H. Fisher, of Philadel-
phia, by permission.
M ap of Forbes's Route, 1758 199
Covers territory between Bedford, Pennsylvania, and Fort Duquesne.
Autograph of Governor William Denny 203
From original in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Title-page of M minutes of Conferences held at Easton 205
Printed by Franklin, 1758. From original in New York Public Library.



Title-page of the Second Journal of Christian Fred-
erick Post 206
From original in New York Public Library.
Washington's Manuscript Sketch of Fort Cumber-
land 207
Size of original about 2 x 13 inches. The original is one of Washington's
manuscript maps in the Jared Sparks Collection, Cornell University, Ithaca,
New York.
Forbes's Order Appointing Washington President
of a General Court Martial 208
Dated October 6, 1758. From original in Library of Congress.
Washington's Letter to Colonel Henry Bouquet 209
Dated "Camp at Fort Cumberland 7th Aug' 1758." From original
among the Bouquet Papers in the British Museum.
Uniform of a French Soldier, 1755 (in colors) 216
Shows coat blue, faced with red.
After water-color sketch in Documents Collected in France, vol. ix., p.
377, in Archives of Massachusetts, State House, Boston.
Uniform of a British Soldier of the Forty-eighth
Regiment, 1742-64 224
Painted by Mr. H. A. Ogden, from sketch in A Representation of the
Cloathing of his Majesty's Household, and of all the Forces upon the Establish-
ments of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 1742.
Map of the Two Highways to Canada 228
Portrait of Chevalier de La Corne Saint Luc 229
From original miniature in possession of F. D. Monk, K. C., M. P.,
Montreal, Canada, by special permission.
Pouchot's Map of Fort Niagara 229
From his Memoires sur la derniere Guerre de l'Amerique Septentrionale,
Yverdon, 1781.
Map of the Region of the French and Indian War 230
Map of Niagara River 232
Showing Prideaux's landing and portage around the falls.
Plan of Fort George .. 236
From Roque's A Set of Plans and Forts in America, London, 1763.
Plan of Fort Saint Frederick at Crown Point. 238
Redrawn from Le Rouge's Recueil des Plans de l'Amerique Septentrionale,
Paris, 1755, kindly loaned by the Pequot Library, Southport, Connecticut.
View of the Ruins at Crown Point 241
From a recent photograph.
Home of General James Wolfe 243
From Doughty's Siege of -Ouebec, by permission.
Part of Last Page of Wolfe's Letter to Pitt, Sep-
tember 2, 1759 245
It is a long report of the progress of the campaign against Quebec. From
original in Public Record Office, London.

xxiv Illustrations

Portrait of Miss Lowther (Duchess of Bolton) 246
From Doughty's Siege of quebec, by permission. The original is a minia-
ture in possession of Lord Barnard of Raby Castle, Darlington, England.
Portrait of General James W olfe (in colors) 248
From photograph of portrait in National Portrait Gallery, London, colored
in facsimile of original.
General George Townshend (Portrait and Auto-
graph). 248
Portrait from Doughty's Siege of Quebec, by permission; autograph from
his letter of September 8, 1759, in the New York Public Library, Emmet
Sir Charles Saunders (Portrait and Autograph) 249
Portrait from Doughty's Siege of .uebec, by permission.
Autograph from New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
M ap of the Saint Lawrence River. 252
Showing line of advance of Saunders and Wolfe.
An Early View of Quebec, about 1758 254
From original print in the Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford.
M ontcalm's Headquarters at Beauport 257
Taken down in 1879.
Light Dragoon and Grenadier, 1744-60 261
From careful study by Mr. H. A. Ogden, correcting errors in Luard's
plate, also supplying colors.
The color of the grenadier's uniform was that of the Guard ( First and
Second Foot) Regiment, and was also the color of the other roval regiments
as, Seventh Royal English Fusileers, Twenty-first Scotch Fusileers, and
Twenty-third Royal Welsh Fusileers. Each regiment had its company of
grenadiers who wore, up to about 7-64, the tall cloth cap shown in the
The Taking of Quebec 266
Facsimile from a contemporary engraving in the British Museum.
Portrait of James W olfe 274
From autotype copy of the original painting by Joseph Highmore in the
possession of J. Scobell Armstrong, Esq.
Map of Wolfe's Quebec Campaign, between 276 and 277
Compiled by Major William Wood, Canadian Artillery, and author of
The Fight for Canada, aided by Lieutenant-colonel Crawford Lindsay,
Canadian Artillery, and Dr. A. Doughty, Archivist of Canada.
While based on the "Engineers' Map," it corrects many obvious errors
that appear therein. Practically all material of importance bearing on this
subject was carefully studied by Major Wood and his helpers.
View of Quebec from Point Levi 278
From an engraving appearing on Melish's Plan of Quebec and Adjacent
Country during the Siege by General Wolfe in 1759.'
Sir John Jervis, Earl Saint Vincent (Portrait and
Autograph) 281
Portrait from Doughty's Siege of ebec, by permission.
Autograph from Netherclift's Autographs of the Kings and Qeens. and
Eminent Alen, of Great Britain, London, 1835.



View of Quebec from Point Levis, 1906 287
From a photograph.
One of W olfe's Pistols 292
From Doughty's Siege of Quebec, by permission.
Wolfe's Monument on the Plains of Abraham 293
From a recent photograph.
House in which Montcalm Died 293
From photograph copyrighted by Mr. F. C. Wiirtele, librarian of the
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. To this house Montcalm,
mortally wounded, was conducted, and there spent the few remaining hours
of his life.
Wolfe and Montcalm Monument at Quebec 294
Standing in the "Governor's Garden," formerly the garden of the Chateau
Saint Louis. The monument faces the river. On one side of it Wolfe's
name appears; on the other, Montcalm's. The rear bears a long Latin
inscription regarding the erection of the monument; the front, a tablet
with the following inscription, also in Latin: AMortem virtues commune,
famam historic, monumentum posteritas dedit-" Their valor gave them a
common death, history a common fame, and posterity a common monu-
First Page of the London Gazette Extraordinary,
October 17, 1759 299
Announces the surrender of Quebec.
Reproduced from original in the British Museum.
"Quebec Taken" M edal, 1759 300
Issued by the Society for Promoting Arts and Commerce. From the col-
lection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan, treasurer and curator, Numismatic and
Antiquarian Society, Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal, Canada.
Title-page of A Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving 301
Page 8 of same 301
From original in New York Public Library.
Thanksgiving Proclamation by Governor Thomas
Pownall 302
Broadside, dated November 1o, 1759, issued on account of the capture of
Quebec. From original in collection of the Bostonian Society, Old State
House, Boston.
Title-page of Samuel Cooper's Sermon 303
Preached October 16, 1759, before Governor Pownall. It is apparently
the earliest sermon preached in New England on the reduction of Quebec.
Plan of the Battle at Quebec, April 28, 1760 307
Adapted from Casgrain's Manuscrits du Chevalier de Lcvis, Quebec,
Ordinance for Twenty-four Livres 311
Signed by Bigot. From original specimen in the collection of Mr. R. W.
McLachlan, treasurer and curator, Numismatic and Antiquarian Society,
Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal, Canada.
View of M ontreal in 1760 3 4
From an old print in New York Public Library.



"Montreal Taken" M edal, 1760 316
From the collection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan, treasurer and curator,
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal,
Title-page of MImoire pour M essire Franfois Bigot 317
From original in John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode Island.
"Canada Subdued" Medal 318
From the collection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan, treasurer and curator,
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal,
Portrait of Frederick the Great 321
From an engraving by A. Sartain after painting by Vanloo. In New York
Public Library.
George III. (Portrait and Autograph) 324
Portrait from the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Autograph from Netherclift's Autographs of the Kings aird .ueens, and
Eminent Men, of Great Britain, London, 1835.
Arms of George III. .. 325
From a photograph, in the Old State House, Boston, of the arms originally
set up in the council chamber of the town-house of Boston; removed to
Halifax, Nova Scotia, upon the evacuation of Boston by the British, March
17, 1776.
John Stuart, Third Earl of Bute (Portrait and Auto-
graph) 325
Portrait from painting by Allan Ramsay, reproduced in Caw's Scttish Por-
traits, London, 19o5.
Autograph from New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Portrait of Lord Holderness when a Bo 328
From original, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, February, I-55. Ey
gracious permission of the owner, Lady Alleyne of Chevin House, Belper,
Title-page of Tuhe Definitive Treaty of Peace and
Friendship 33
Reproduced from original in John Carter Brown Library, Providence,
Rhode Island.
Autograph of Henry Fox 334
In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Autograph of William Henry Lyttelton, First Baron
Lyttelton 33
From his letter to William Dennv of Pennsylvania, dated Charles TuIwn
November 3, 1756." In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
Autograph of W illiam Bull 340
From a document of 1768 in New York Public Library, Emmet Collection.
M ap Illustrating the Cherokee Campaign 341
From data specially compiled for this volume from hitherto unpublished



Monument Erected on the Site of the Massacre of
Long Canes Settlers 342
Henry Timberlake's "A Draught of the Cherokee
Country" 346
Original measures 1534x9/Y inches. Reproduced from copy in New
York Public Library.
Title-page of Some Observations on the Two Cam-
paigns against the Cherokee Indians 349
From original in possession of the Library Company of Philadelphia.
Seal of the English Province of West Florida .351
From original in the New England Historical and Genealogical Society,
Map of North America under Treaty of 1763 352
Prepared by David Maydole Matteson, A. M., Cambridge, Mass.
Facsimile Map of Detroit River, 1749 -
between 354 and 355
From unpublished manuscript journal of Joseph Gaspard de Lery, Engineer.
Original in archives of Laval University, Quebec. From copy colored in
facsimile of original furnished by the archivist, the Abb6 Amedee E.
Medal Showing View of Montreal 355
Inscription on reverse reads: Taken from an Indian Chief in the American
War, 1761." From the collection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan, treasurer
and curator, Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Chateau de Ramezay,
Montreal, Canada.
Plan of Detroit in 1749 between 356 and 357
From the above journal. This is the earliest known map of Detroit and
has never before been reproduced in colors. Silas Farmer's History of
Detroit and Michigan, Detroit, 1884, gives a crude woodcut from this,
printed in black only.
Title-page of Robert Rogers's A Concise Account of
North America 362
A Page from the same .363
From the original edition, London, 1765, in New York Public Library.
Title-page of Robert Rogers's Ponteach 364
From a copy in John Carter Brown Library.
Plan of the Battle of Bushy Run 367
From Smith's Historical Account, Philadelphia, 1765. In New York
Public Library.
Title-page of Smith's An Historical Account 369
From a copy of the original American edition of 1765, in New York
Public Library.
"A Plan of the New Fort at Pitts-burgh" 370
Redrawn from Roque's A Set of Plans and Forts in America, London,
The Redoubt at Pittsburg 372
From a photograph.

xxviii Illustrations

Map of Bouquet's March 374
Close facsimile of map in Relation Historigue de l'Expedition, centre les
Indiens de Ohio, Amsterdam, 1769.
Indians Having a Talk with Bouquet over a Council
Fire 374
From copperplate by Grignion, after Benjamin West's painting, reproduced
in Smith's Historical Account, London, 1766.
Indians Delivering up English Captives to Bouquet 375
Copperplate by Canot, after Benjamin West's painting, in Smith's Histori-
cal Account, London, 1766.
Hutchins's Map of the Ohio Country, 1765
between 374 and 375
From the original edition, Philadelphia, I765, of Smith's Historical Account.
Medal Presented to the Indian Chiefs at the Treaty
of 1764 after the Pontiac Conspiracy 376
On reverse, the lion represents England protecting the church and school
(civilization) from the wolf (a return of barbarism). Reproduced from
specimen in the collection of Mr. R. W. McLachlan, treasurer and curator,
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal,

A History of the United States
and its People

THE COLONIES: 1745-1764



IN June, 1746, Pepper-
rell, the commander of
the troops that had
lately taken Louisburg, was
received at Boston with noisy
enthusiasm. In the same
month, a French fleet was
sent under Admiral D'An-
ville to recapture the lost
fortress, destroy Boston, and
ravage the New England
coast. Rumors of its com-
ing produced great terror in
the threatened region. In
Massachusetts, forts and
batteries were repaired and
manned, coast lookouts were
reestablished, and, by the
thousand, troops poured into
Boston. On a fast-day, a
rising storm rattled the win-
dows of the Old South
Church, and Thomas Prince
prayed that it might bring
confusion to the enemy. In
truth, the elements seemed
once more to fight for Eng-


. I 7 4 5
I 7 S 4

A French

r~ J

.. ... .... .. '

better from General Court of Massachu-
setts, Congratulating Pepperrell on
the Capture of Louisburg

2 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 6 land. Contrary winds prolonged the voyage; a violent
I 7 4 7 gale drove some of the vessels back to France, some to
the West Indies, and pounded some to pieces on Sable
Island. In September, a
part of the fleet cast anchor
in Chebucto (now Hali-
fax) harbor; other vessels
straggled in later. Before
the end of the month,
D'Anville died suddenly
--of apoplexy said some,
of poison whispered
others. A council of war
determined to attack Ann-
apolis (Port Royal);
D'Estournelle, the com-
manding vice-admiral,
opposed the plan and, in a
rage born of being over-
ruled, committed suicide.
Thomas Prince Smallpox broke out
among the crews, other vessels were lost or scuttled, and
the crippled remnant returned to France without strik-
ing a blow.
A Forgotten Equally without result was a now almost forgotten
Failure plan for the conquest of Canada. This plan involved
the old idea of a duplex movement, one expedition to
go by land, the other by sea. In April, 1746, the duke
of Newcastle sent letters to the governors of all the prov-
inces from New England to Virginia directing them to
assist. Great preparations were made; troops were
raised; much money was spent. A fleet was assembled
at Portsmouth in southern England, but the British
regulars were diverted to a descent on Brittany and the
colonial auxiliaries were disbanded.
An English To Massachusetts, which under Shirley had again
Press-gang taken the lead in these fruitless preparations, the remain-
ing years of the war brought no greater excitement than
that growing out of the desertion of some sailors from

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

Commodore Knowles's fleet in Nantasket Harbor. A I 7 4 7
press- I 7 4 8
ga ng
sent to ,
Boston Z November 7,
tomake .; '747
good { '
this -
lo s s
seized : .;.- ..-- -
whom Autograph of Commodore Charles Knowles
they would and bore them off-unwilling recruits
for the royal navy. This was an outrage not to be tol-
erated in the American metropolis. Shirley was fright-
ened by what he called the "mobbishness" of the
people, and officers of the fleet who happened to be on
shore were seized and held as hostages. In the end,
Knowles released most of those who had been impressed
and, to the great joy of the people of Boston, put to
The feeling aroused by this incident was not lessened Louisburg
by the terms of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle whereby Restored to
England gave back the hard-won Louisburg for far-away October 7-I8,
Madras. This surrender of the fruit of a conquest 1748
-. -- .. largely won by
the colonists
was grievous
.. for Massa-
chusetts men
Ste at to bear. A
year later,
However, a
salve was
found for the
...s.t-- -- Massachu-
Massachusetts Three-penny Bill, I750 setts hurt
when parliament voted that the various colonies should
be reimbursed for their expenses in the expedition
against Louisburg. Two hundred and seventeen chests

4 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 8 of Spanish dollars and a hundred casks of copper coin
(183,649) were landed at the Long Wharf-more coin
than had ever been seen in Boston before and the har-

New Tenor
and Old Tenor

Curious Broadside in Verse Referring to the Discon-
tinuance of Old Tenor Bills of Credit
in Massachusetts

oiurtmful lamtntation

Mr. Old Tenor,
A N'u-i *I -" if'. 1 C n t h lap u .. .l o.. .

A -I -: "
A -N. -A- -o

. '*1,."-" |"

destroyed, the parliamentary grant met about nine-
tenths of those presented; a tax was levied for the
retirement of the other tenth. The bills of other
provinces were excluded by legislation and the finances
of Massachusetts were once more on a sure founda-

In New In New Hampshire, owing to her greater proximity
Hampshire to Canada, the realities of war had been brought closer

binger of a new pros-
Massachusetts ex-
pended wisely the
money thus obtained.
In 1743, Shirley had
given his assent to the
issue of "new tenor"
bills of credit which
circulated at a higher
rate than those of the
"old tenor," an enor-
mous flood of which
was in circulation.
One pound sterling in
specie was counted as
equivalent to thirty
shillings of the new or
to eleven pounds of
the old. The indem-
nity was devoted to
the redemption of the
old tenor bills. One
pound in money took
up about ten in paper,
and, as many of the
bills had been lost or


-.I -

S ..
-,r -- ---
A~l b m!t U

n I I f k- J

a- - 7

t ... '

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 5

home than in Massachusetts. After the capture of I 7 4 5
Louisburg it was hoped that the frontiers would be left I 7 6 4
in peace, but the Indian ravagings still continued and
July, 1745, 4 ,/ '
and August, ."'/" ..... '
1746, thirty ( ,,:,r
persons were '
k ille d a n d I I .. .,. .... .. ...... ,. . ...
twenty car- . .,.... ...
ried off cap- *" .... r.
tiv e A s /*->*<* ** *^/*- *' "^ **-'; "
t r e v 1 e..... . ..'" " ....... 7 -"1 ""11., .. ...' ,.* ..... . **
a result, ,.. ,
the rem ote ., ,.
g a rr i so n s ... ... .... .: '
were discon- ..
tinued and ; ; . ..
many dwell- '. .
ings were .. .
abandoned. -, .
When The
peace came, .. Hampshire
the fron- r -4
tiersmen re- .; .. ,.
turned to -
their homes /
and ere long ,-. ,
the tide of
s te e ment Manuscript Declaration of War Against the Penobscot Indians
was pushing further westward. In January, 1749-50,
Governor Wentworth granted lands where Bennington,
Vermont, now stands; by 1764, he had granted more than
one hundred additional townships. His right to do this
was sharply called in question by New York which,
under the patent given by Charles II., claimed to the
Connecticut River-the beginning of a long-continued
and acrimonious dispute over the "Hampshire Grants,"
and the bone of contention between belligerent factions,
the "Yorkers" and the "Green Mountain Boys." The

6 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

dispute was referred to the king but,
before it was determined, the territory
passed from royal control. It ulti-
mately became the first addition to the
original thirteen states that made up
the American union.
Certain moneys that had been prom-
ised in consideration of a release from
the Mason claim had stood unpaid for
six years, and when the young heir,
John Tufton Mason, returned from the
Louisburg expedition, he notified the
New Hampshire assembly that unless

1 7 4 6 payment was
The Old made he would
Mason Claim sell to some one
else. The assem-
bly did not act
promptly and
January 30 Mason conveyed
his interest to
of Portsmouth
who were known
as the "Mason-
ian Proprietors."
Governor The boundary
Wentworth line with Massa-
has Trouble
chusetts also led
to complications.
In 1744, Gov-

I It )1 0 T X .T

u. i ', ,. ,- i f IC H

; .. .... ...... .. I .
a : J B -. ..,
... .

t I.

SA SS AC H U 8 T T SF. ,-
Map Showing the Territory of Vermont, Historically Treated
Prepared by Miss Susan Myra Kingsbury, Ph. D., Boston

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 7

included in his
election writs a few
towns that had
been looked upon
as belonging to
The deputies
claimed the right
to determine what
towns should be
represented in their
body and the cus-
tomary quarrel fol-
lowed. For three
years, the assembly
transacted no legal
business, public
accounts remained
unadjusted, offices
that depended on
legislative appoint-
ment became
vacant and so con-
tinued, the soldiers
of the late war suf-
fered for want of
their pay, and even
the governor got
only a part of his.
When a new as-

-.^ -

Map Showing the Frontiers of New Hampshire,
Prepared by Miss Susan Myra Kingsbury, Ph. D.,

sembly met in 1752, Wentworth was able, by means of
promises and patronage, to bring about more amicable
relations. His salary was increased and the speaker
chosen was satisfactory to him. The subsidy received
from England on account of the Louisburg expedition
(16,355) was judiciously invested without quarrel and
the active opposition to the governor disappeared. For
a little time, New Hampshire enjoyed the novel experi-
ence of quiet and prosperity.

T 7 4 6
1 7 5 2



8 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 5 In the remaining New England colonies, Rhode Island
I 7 5 4 and Connecticut, the years 1745 to 1754 were not pro-
In Rhode ductive of many important events. The troops sent by
island Rhode Island to assist in the siege of Louisburg arrived


.-'o.. _(..

New Hampshire Merchants' Note for Ten Shillings, 17g 4
too late to participate in the siege, but in the course
of one year her privateers sent more than twenty prizes
into Newport. The sea was the better field for her
warfare. In 1747, the long-contested northern bound-
ary was run. The colony shared in the money received
from England as an indemnity for war expenses, but
the wise policy of Massachusetts in using the specie
thus obtained (y6,332) to redeem her paper money was
not imitated.

connecticut's The charter of 1662 had extended Connecticut's
western norter hern and southern boundaries westward to the South
Domain .
Sea, excepting from the grant the territory then possessed
ary was run. The colony shared in the money received
from England as an indemnity for war expenses, but
the wise policy of Massachusetts in using the specie
thus obtained (,C6,332) to redeem her paper money was
not imitated.

Connecticut's The charter of 1662 had extended Connecticut's
Western northern and southern boundaries westward to the South
Sea, excepting from the grant the territory then possessed
or inhabited by any other Christian prince or state."
New York lay athwart this course of Connecticut empire,
but beyond the boundaries of that province the lines

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 9

authorized by the Connecti-
cut charter included a vast
territory, part of which was
overlapped in I681 by the
domain granted to William
Penn. In 1750, "some tired
Puritans climbed the last
summits of the Blue Ridge
and looked down into the
valley of Wyoming." The
beauty of the new-found par-
adise among the western hills
kindled Connecticut enthusi-
asm and, season after season,
men were sent to spy out the The Royal Arms
land. In '753, the Susquehanna company was organ- I 7 5 0
ized. In the following I 7 5 3
.. year, representatives of
this company met the
Six Nations in council
S. at Albany and, in spite
.' . -
I .._ .. of Pennsylvania agents,
.. bought from the Mo-
;, hawks for two thou-
....... sand pounds in New
.. ,~, York money a vast
S. ,' tract of land including
"..... :..-":- part of the Wyoming
''' valley.

-t -.. -: -.... -
,_T" -...... ) .. ..
S. -. -,r .. .-

. .'. : .

: _

Memorial of the Susqueha

_-: In New York, after In New York
.'.... 4 ol peace had been made,
-' "- Governor Clinton
thought that the fron-
-. tier needed protection
..! and ordered the militia
to be held in readiness
S- :^, to march at a moment's
nna Company notice. After a parade

S1 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 8 of the city troops, he wrote to England that "every man
I 7 5 3 unanimously refused to obey any orders from the crown
unless an act of assembly was passed in the province for
that purpose."
Shirley and In July, 1748, commissioners from New York and
Clinton Massachusetts, together with the governors of those
colonies, met at Albany. The Massachusetts com-
missioners presented a memorial urging that the remote
colonies be compelled to contribute to the defense of the
frontiers of New England and New York, the common
barrier against the common enemy. But there were
deeper plans than this in the brains of the two royal gov-
ernors. The petition to the king was forwarded with a
joint expression of gubernatorial opinion that "the
colonies will never agree on quotas for that purpose, and
therefore their respective quotas must be settled by royal
instructions; . there has been so little regard
paid in several colonies to the royal instructions that it is
requisite to think of some method to inforce them."
Clinton Forces There seems to have been a secret agreement between
an Issue the two to bring the long-continued contention between
royal governors and colonial assemblies to a crisis. To
October, 1748 begin the contest, Clinton demanded a five years' grant
of revenue, but the New York delegates were "fully con-
vinced that the method of an annual support is most
wholesome and salutary and that the faithful repre-
sentatives of the people will never depart from it."
Clinton said that this "set up the people as the high
court of American appeal," begged the king to "make
a good example for all America," and, in blunt and
defiant language, told the assembly that "there is a
power able to punish you and that will punish you, if
you provoke that power to do it by your misbehavior."
The assembly answered with a remonstrance which the
governor forbade the public printer to publish.. The
remonstrance was printed. After a two years' trial,
Clinton ended his attempt with an unconditional sub-
mission. Unable to secure support in England and
weary of his losing struggle with a jealous and resolute

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

assembly, he resigned his office in 1753. He carried
back with him to England a substantial fortune as a
reward for his zealous ten years' service-a sovereign
balm for many an enforced concession.
Clinton's successor was Sir Danvers Osborne, son-in-
law of the earl of Halifax. The new governor brought
as his private secretary one Thomas Pownall who was

S7 5 3

Osborne and

Pownall's "View in Hudson's River of Pakepsey and the Catts Kill Mountains"
destined to play a part in American history more impor-
tant than his own. Osborne took the oath of office on
the tenth of October and committed suicide two days
later. By virtue of a lieutenant-governor's commission,
issued in 1747 but suppressed by Clinton until the last
meeting of his council, the chief magistracy passed to
James De Lancey, who for twenty years had been chief- Governor
justice of the province and was now the leader of the De Lancey
popular faction. De Lancey's position was a difficult one.
As a political leader, he had made a record to which con-
sistency and inclination pledged him. As a royal gov-


From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

ernor, he took an oath that bound him to maintain the
prerogatives of the king.
In 1746, the provincial assembly passed an act author-
izing a lottery in aid of a
college and, in 1751, named
ten trustees to take charge
of the moneys raised for
that purpose. The Rever-
end Samuel Johnson was
chosen president in 1753;
on the seventeenth of July,
1754, he began the instruc-
tion of the first class in the .
vestry-room of the school- PT '
house of Trinity Church.
On the thirty-first of Octo- Seal of King's College from 1754 to 1775
ber in the same year, the institution, "King's College,"

ANAL, lia k

King's College in 1760
received a royal charter. In 1755, the trustees of Trinity
Church deeded to the college a large plot of land
and, on the twenty-third of August, 1756, the
corner-stone of the first building was laid in what
was subsequently the block bounded by College
Place, Barclay, Church, and Murray streets-at
Crown on Flag-staffof that time a beautiful situation with surroundings
King's College of groves and green fields and a fine view of the

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

Hudson. The institution is now known as Columbia 1 7 4 6
University. 1 7 5 8

In 1746, the year in which the New York legislature The College
took the first steps toward founding an Episcopal college, ofNewJersey
certain prominent Presbyterians obtained from the pro-
vincial authorities in the colony ..
across the Hudson a charter for .f ('.
the "College of New Jersey." .
Two years later, a royal charter
was obtained. The Reverend i' ,
Jonathan Dickinson, as president, ', \'
began the first term of the college --
at Elizabethtown in May, 1747. -"'" l
Upon his death in the following / I ,'
October, he was succeeded by the K .. ,
Reverend Aaron Burr, father of a \ /
son more famous. The college \ ,
was soon removed to Newark
where the first commencement Seal of Princeton University
was celebrated with much ceremony. Eight years later November 9,
it was again moved, this time to Princeton where it was 1748
developed into the Princeton University of today. Burr
died in 1757, and, in the following February, his father-
in-law, the famous Jonathan Edwards, was installed as
his successor. After a brief service of thirty-four days
Edwards died. The next president was the Reverend March 22,

SAutograph L of~1 5758
Samuel Davies .

Samuel Davies, who, in 1755, had established the first
presbytery in Virginia. Davies died in 1761.
Governor Hamilton, who had succeeded Morris as Belcher in
chief magistrate of New Jersey, died in 1747. In the NewJersey
same year, Jonathan Belcher, lately of Massachusetts,
secured a consolation appointment as Hamilton's succes-

14 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 6 sor. He greeted the New Jersey legislature with an
I 7 5 7 assurance of strict obedience to "the king's royal orders
to me." The delegates voted him a salary for a single
year, "not a penny more" than that granted to the late
governor who has harassedd and plagued them suffi-
ciently." Belcher would bow gracefully to the assembly
until he touched his royal instructions; beyond this, he
would not, could not, yield.
The Quota-bill As in most other colonies, there were warm contests
Controversy over money matters. As a result of a quarrel arising in
1747 between the council and the assembly over the
"quota bill," no appropriation was made for the support
of the government for several years. The contest
involved royal instructions and the proprietary interests
of several members of the council on one side and, on
the other side, the stubbornness characteristic of Ameri-
can assemblies in this period. The controversy between
the two houses became very warm and the messages and
i P LAIN T R rTH: minutes very spicy. Despite
these troubles, however, Bel-
o R, cher managed to maintain
SERIOUS CONSIDERATIONS comparative quiet until his
On the PRar.tr STATE of the death in 1757.


By a TRADESMAN of PLiiade i,:.
S; i ft -.: l S-,d, ,, 'D - .

p,, ,. s .i ... ,.. , -
na, ig m ii l:a, i ,j, l' :::. t",,I. r! .s r.'

,,,. M P. C, ., s 'T,. '

Printed in the YEAR MDCCXLVII.
Title-page of Franklin's Tract
Plain Truth

Across the Delaware River
in Pennsylvania the task of
the executive had been ren-
dered even more difficult than
in most other colonies by the
old aversion of the Quaker
inhabitants to all warlike
measures. In 1746, Gov-
ernor Thomas succeeded in
obtaining a grant of five thou-
sand pounds in paper money
"for the king's use" and with
it was able to equip four
companies of troops and to
send them to Albany. But


From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 15

when, in the following year, the people of Philadelphia, I 7 4 7
greatly alarmed by rumors of Spanish privateers coming
up the Delaware, appealed to the assembly, no help was
given. Later in the same year, Franklin wrote his
famous pamphlet called Plain Truth, urging that the way November
to secure peace is to be prepared for war, and promising
soon to lay before his fellow citizens "a form of associa-
tion for the purposes herein mentioned."
At a public meeting, a plan for such an "association" The
was signed by more than twelve hundred persons. In Associators
a short time there were ten thousand associators who
furnished themselves with arms, formed themselves
into companies and regiments, chose their own offi-
cers, and met every week for military drill. A success-
ful lottery was held to meet the expenses of building
a battery below the town and furnishing it with can-
nons. A few old guns were bought at Boston, and
some were borrowed at New York. In his character-

istic way, Franklin, who was
went to New York on this r
errand, relates that Governor
Clinton "at first refused us
peremptorily, but at dinner
with his council, where there
was great drinking of Madeira
wine, as the custom of the
place then was, he softened
by degrees, and said that he
would lend us six. After a
few more bumpers he ad-
vanc'd to ten; and at length
he very good-naturedly con-
ceded eighteen. They were
fine cannon, eighteen pound-
ers, with their carriages, which
we soon transported and
mounted on our battery."
Governor Thomas resigned
in 1747 and Anthony Palmer, T

one of the agents who

P .o A ,

7 3 3 I
Bcin ,the Fir -fter IF AP YE- R

S I. . .. .I

1 i. . ,- . ,- ;

.f .li' Governor
itle-page of Franklin's Poor Richard

16 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 8 as president of the council, exercised the executive author-
ity until the coming of a new governor in 1748. This
new governor was James Hamilton, son of the leading

the famous trial at New York
W .in 1735. As fear of French
influence had resulted in an
Autograph of James Hamilton enormous increase in the
amount expended for gifts to
the Indians, the assembly demanded that the proprietors
should bear part of the burden. But the Penns claimed


Manuscript Indian Treaty, July 23, 1748
that they were already paying an undue share of the
public charges and declined to do more. In 1753, they
expressed a hope that "in any matter of like nature the
house would be content with such answer as the govern-
ment was instructed to give them." In an address
prepared by Franklin, the house sent back word that
"no king of England had ever taken upon himself such
state as to refuse personal application from the meanest
of his subjects."

In Maryland In the neighboring proprietary province of Maryland

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 17

also, the authorities had great difficulty in securing money I 7 4 6
for war purposes. In 1746, the province had sent three I 7 4 7
companies to Albany to aid in the conquest of Canada.
In that year, Governor Bladen went back to England;
in 1747, Governor
Samuel Ogle came to
Maryland. When
Ogle asked for money
with which to pay the
forces in the field, he
was told that the
assembly had raised, Autographs of Bladen and Ogle
provisioned, and transported the troops and would
do no more. Some years later when French activity
showed that the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was only an
opportunity for the traditional enemies to catch breath
and that a new war must be undertaken, the delegates
still were backward about voting money for defense, and
Governor Sharpe accounted for the perversity by saying
that there were "too many instances of the lowest per-
sons, at least those of small fortunes, no soul, and very
mean capacities, appearing as representatives."
Prior to 1747, many Marylanders had mixed poor Inspection
with good tobacco and had successfully resisted all at- of Tobacco
tempts at regulation. In that year there was much dis-
cussion on the subject in the columns of the Maryland
1 The Gazette, and an inspection act
-A l dc.% .nW jwas passed. It provided for a
wharf, a warehouse, and scales
-----in each of eighty specified places
S-- .--.- ..- and forbade the exportation of
S-...-- any tobacco that had not been
'i: Z7 inspected at one of these places.
_..- The improvement in the qual-
Heading of The Maryland Gazette ity of the Maryland product
soon raised the price from eight to twelve shillings per
hundred pounds. The results were so satisfactory that
the law was continued with little change until 1770.
But something more than an improved tobacco culture

i 8 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 7 was needed to make Maryland prosperous and indus-
I 7 5 2 trially independent. Owing to the abundance of good
Wheat, Iron, tobacco land about Chesa-
and Prosperity peake Bay, the development
of the mineral and cereal pos- "
sibilities of the province had
been long delayed. The -
needed impetus finally came e l
from the opening up of the
rich wheat-lands and the iron-
mines in the central part of
the colony. This was chiefly The Old Glatz (Schultz) House
the work of industrious Palatines, who settled in what
became Frederick County. In 1745, Daniel Dulany
wrote to Ogle: You would
be surprised to see how
much the country has im-
proved beyond the moun-
Autograph of Daniel Dulany tains, especially by the
Germans who are the best people that can be to settle a
wilderness." In the meantime, iron-mines were discov-
ered and opened up and, in I749, there were eight fur-
naces for making pig-iron and nine forges for making
bar-iron. By the middle of the century, the population
of the province was about a hundred and thirty thousand.
The Sorry While Maryland prospered, its proprietary family
End of a degenerated. In '75I, the fifth Lord Baltimore died
e L and the title to the palatinate passed to his
c- oson Frederick. As to Mvaryland, this

rents and dues that he might spend in
riotous living in London. A "noble"
author, he wrote an indifferent book of
travels; a "noble" criminal, the record of
his trial (and acquittal on a technicality)
"fills one of the most loathsome chapters
of the Newgate Calendar." To such a
Ancient Commun.ion Serice, proprietor, there could be no feeling of
Relics of Maryland Palatines personal loyalty. Governor Ogle died in

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

1752 and, in August, 1753, I 7 4 8
Horatio Sharpe came as his 1 7 5 3
successor. Twenty years
after succeeding to the title,
the sixth Lord Baltimore
died, leaving his province,
by will, to an illegitimate son.
Before the chancery court
rendered a decision on that
son's claim to proprietor-
ship, the province was safely
moored in the snug harbor
from which she has never

When Oglethorpe went In Georgia
back to England, as recorded
in the preceding volume,
Colonel William Stephens of
Savannah became president
of Georgia, a colony with an
unprosperous popu-
lation of not more *"
than fifteen hundred. ,
The olive-trees and
grape-vines languished and the silkworms failed to yield

View of Baltimore in 1752

. I.X _~1~-"

20 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 8 the hoped-for profit. Cotton was still a garden-plant
I 7 5 4 not yet grown into royalty, and rice-culture lacked the
negro labor that made it suc-
cessful in South Carolina.
S. There was less of commerce
.Ba than of agriculture and few
sought homes in a colony that
had failed to realize the expec-
tations of its early friends.
l Moved by the persistent peti-
tions of the settlers, the trus-
tees removed some of the
restrictions that were thought
Whitei.i to hinder the development of
and SlIj, -I the province. They permit-
ted the tenure of land to be
extended to an absolute
i .inheritance and, largely
through the influence of
Whitefield who com-
S i plained because he had
s to keep his orphans in
Sone colony and his slaves
ar l in another, annulled the
James Edward Oglethorpe prohibition of negro
May 7, slavery. For years, they had resisted the constantly
'749 swelling demand for slaves; the wonder is that they
held out so long. By 1754, about one-third of the pop-
ulation of the colony were slaves.
An Indian Mary Musgrove was allied by blood to the white race
Queen" and the red, for many years had sold furs to the one and
rum to the other, and was recognized by the Creek
Indians as their queen. She now claimed to be the peer
of King George, threatened to destroy the whites if all
July 20, 1748 land south of the Savannah was not evacuated, and led
into Savannah an Indian host far outnumbering the Eng-
lish inhabitants. At the head marched "Queen" Mary
and her husband Thomas Bosomworth, former chaplain
to Oglethorpe and a missionary of the society for the

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 2 I

propagation of Christian knowledge-she in queenly I 7 4 8
garb and he in canonical robes. Then came the princi- I 7 5 2
pal chiefs of the Creeks and, after them, a tumultuous,
hideous, howling mob.
On the day following, the Indians, now armed, marched A Dangerous
about the streets in a sullen manner as if bent on mis- Comedy
chief. Persuasion, supplemented by force, separated the
queen and her husband from their followers; arguments
and the more seductive influence of gifts convinced many
of the Creeks that Mary Musgrove was but the daughter
of some common squaw by some obscure white man and
that Bosomworth was an undoubted cheat and liar; those
who remained loyal were overawed by the guards. As
their followers fell away, he stormed and threatened, while
she, in a drunken rage, called down disaster upon the white
intruders. For years, her claims continued a source of
annoyance to the colony, but she never again seriously
endangered its peace and safety.
On the fifteenth of January, 1751, a provincial assem- TheFirst
bly convened at Savannah; as the right of legislation was egisaure
vested exclusively in the trustees, the powers of the six-
teen delegates were limited to discussion and suggestion.
Later in the year, wearied by the twelve years' wailing of
the decayed people whom they had transplanted from
British almshouses to Georgia homes and there fed and
fostered, the trustees sent a petition to the king asking August, 1751
permission to surrender the charter. On the twenty-
third of June, 1752, the deed of surrender was executed
by the trustees and Georgia became a royal province.
For twenty years the trustees had worked with philan- A Record
thropic zeal. They had made mistakes, of course; of Honor
their policy had sometimes been narrow and some of their
agents ill-chosen; but their purpose had been unselfish
and their administration had been guided by a consci-
entious regard for what they thought the best interests of
the colony. In the executive department of the state of
Georgia may be seen the original manuscript folio that
contains a general account of all moneys and effects
received and expended by the trustees, the names of the

22 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 2 benefactors, and the sums contributed by each, all duly
I 7 5 4 certified by their accountant.
A Royal Early in July, 1752, the home government issued a
Province proclamation temporarily continuing in office President
Parker, who had succeeded Stephens in 1751, and the
other officials appointed
by the trustees. Upon
S Parker's death in 1753
he was succeeded by Pat-
rick Graham and, in the
following year, Captain
John Reynolds was ap-
pointed "captain-general
August 6, and governor-in-chief of
'754 his majesty's province of
Georgia and vice-admiral
of the same." The
"king's council" consti-
tuted the upper house of
Autographs of Stephens, Parker, and Reynolds assembly; its members
were appointed by the crown. The representatives,

//c&4 t o/N a A/ / /.- .-, .

P* camto b4Gf,'oro _m Gl

S ... .Proclamation by oer .... no ames .len .
Lr <" 'T/ f.

Proclamation by Governor James Glen

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 23

chosen by the people, constituted the "commons house I 7 4 4
of assembly." I 7 5 2

In the neighboring colony of South Carolina, political In South
affairs moved on in much their old channel. The chronic Carolina
quarrel between executive and legislature continued and
Glen, the new governor, soon complained to the duke of February 6,
Newcastle that the colony was bent on governing itself. '744
In 1745, the lower house reasserted its sole right of
introducing, framing, and amending subsidy bills and
held that this 'right was superior to royal instructions.
Three years later, Glen wrote to the duke of Bedford
that "the people have the whole of the administration in
their hands, and the governor, and thereby the crown, is
stripped of its power."

Not less interesting than the quarrels between royal In North
governors and colonial assemblies was the tide ofimmigra- Carolina
tion that was flowing into the Carolinas. Some of these
immigrants came directly by sea and others crossed the
southern border of
the Old Dominion
and the tributaries
of the Chowan and
the Roanoke in
search of fruitful
"bottom lands."
As early as 1736,
Henry McCullock
had obtained a North Carolina Nine-shilling Proclamation Money
grant of sixty-four thousand acres in the present county
of Duplin, and upon it settled between three and four
thousand of his Scotch-Irish countrymen. After the
defeat of the Pretender at Culloden, many of his High- ,746
land adherents emigrated to North Carolina and secured
Scotch ascendancy in the central part of the colony. In
the meantime, the stream of Ulster emigrants had entered
the colonies by way of Philadelphia, flowed westward to
the mountain region beyond the Susquehanna, and turned

24 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

1 7 4 6

All theP U B LIC
Now in FORCE and USE.
Together wi th e T IT L E S of all fulh LAW S aW are Obfol
pir'd, or EpcI'd.
And ato, an at T A B L E of the Tiict of the ACTS in

R r -- ... anAEf GENtRA
S I r t Pre and Examried

S NE BE RN. Printed by JAMl DAvIS, fM.DCC,LI.

Title-page of the First Printed Collection o
North Carolina Laws

harvests and, in the older settlements, horses, cattle,
sheep, hogs, and poultry became abundant. North Caro-
lina exported yearly a hundred thousand hogsheads of
and large
of staves
and the
"enumer- i /
ated naval f I ( / /rig
stores-- '- I W64
tar, tur-
pentin e, Autographs of Gabriel Johnston and Arthur Dobbs

'southward through
the valleys beyond
N the Blue Ridge
until, in the up-
country of the
,Y, Carolinas, it met a
similar stream that
was moving up
from Charles
A.- Town. This was
the beginning of a
remarkable immi-
'te, Er gration, the ad-
o vance-guard of an
army of hardy and
L _, liberty-loving Ger-
~-""1 man and Scotch-
Irish settlers who
made the central
and western sec-
tions of North
Carolina distinct
from the rest of the
S- The rich earth
yielded generous


From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 25

and pitch." In Governor Johnston's beneficent admin- I 7 4 9
istration, which lasted from 1734 until his death in 1752, I 7 5 5
the population of the colony increased from not more
than fifty thousand to about ninety thousand. Arthur
Dobbs, a native of Ireland, became governor in 1754
and held the office until 1765. In 1755, a newspaper,
The North Carolina Gazette, "with freshest advices,
foreign and domestic," made its appearance.

North Carolina was prosperous, but in the Old In Virginia
Dominion history was mak-
ing. Virginia sent four hun-
dred men as her quota on
the Cartagena expedition and,
after the death of Spotswood, Autograph of William Gooch
the command of the colonial contingents devolved
upon Governor
Gooch. In
1749, Gooch left
the province to
the care of the
council and
went back to
England. The
government de-
volved upon the
president of the
council, John
Robinson, who
died within the
year. He was
succeeded as
president by
Thomas Lee of
the father of
many distin-
Z t Z guished sons.
Lee died early

." ".:.. ... '.... .
... ...... .. ..

. .-...

26 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 4 5 ^ in 1751, and was succeeded by Lewis
1 7 5 I Burwell.
Governor In 1751, Lord Albemarle, the titular
Dinwiddie governor of Virginia, sent out as his
S A deputy Robert Dinwiddie, a gentleman
Sof Scotch descent who, for some years,
had been "surveyor-general of the cus-
toms of the southern ports of the continent
of America." The new governor came to
his office at a critical time. For more than
.. sixty years, Great Britain had been engaged
h in a second Hundred Years' war for com-
mercial and colonial supremacy. The truce
that had been arranged in 1748 was about
to be broken; the first outbreak was to
Coat of Arms of Dinwiddie take place on the frontiers of Virginia.
Galissoniere When Beauharnois, the governor-general of Canada,
was recalled in 1745, La
Jonquiere, marquis and
admiral, was named as
his successor. He was
in D'Anville's fleet that
met with misfortune in
1746. In 1747, when
again at sea bound for
Quebec, he was captured
by the English, after
which the Marquis de
la Galissoniere became
governor-general of
C6loron Canada. In 1749, the
new governor sent an
expedition under Cil-
oron de Bienville to
make friends with the
Indians, to warn out the
English traders who
were beginning to
swarm over the Alle-

..'.; .

... .* : .

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 27

ghenies,and to bury leaden s .,, .... I-.' I 7 4 8
plates upon which were + ,I..... I 7 4 9
engraved the claims of ... "-
France to the Ohio valley. V
Here was a Thus far and ,- ot.'
no farther." Galissoniere .. V
was recalled in September, p *
1749. La Jonquiere had 4- y La Jonquiere
been liberated by the peace + Z
of Aix-la-Chapelle and, in
August, 1749, arrived in
Canada. Tohim, Celoron .
made his report. Map of Route of Celoron de Bienville
Meanwhile, the English were not inactive. In 1748, The Ohio
Colonel Thomas Lee, the president of his majesty's Vir- company

Facsimile of One of Lead Plates Buried by C6loron de Bienville
ginia council, and twelve other persons in Maryland and
Virginia (among whom were Lawrence and Augustine
Washington), with the aid of John Hanbury, a London
p merchant, organized the Ohio com-
vMf d.e.cpany. By an order of council dated
Autograph of Thomas Lee March 16, 1749, they were granted

28 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity


Gist and

9 half a million acres on
2 the south side of the
Ohio River between the
Monongahela and Ka-
nawha rivers.
In 1750, the Ohio
company sent out Chris-
topher Gist to select the
land thus granted. In
the same year, Pennsyl-
vania despatched thither
George Croghan, an
Irishman who had
traded as far as the shores
of Lake Erie, and An-
drew Montour, a half-
breed interpreter. In
1751, Gist was com-
missioned "to look out
& observe the nearest &
most convenient Road
you can find from the
Company's Store at Will's Creek to a Landing at Mo-
hongeyela." In June, 1752, Gist, as agent of the Ohio
company, Joshua Fry, Lunsford Lomax, and James Pat-
ton, as commissioners on the part of Virginia, and George

Croghan and An-
drew Montour
representing Penn-
sylvania, met the
Treaty of Indians at Logs-
Logstown town on the Ohio
River and obtained
a formal confirma-
tion of the treaty
made at Lancaster
in I744. Colonel
Trent was then
sent into the

Autographs of Gist, Fry, and Croghan

6~-rxF, J~r~


From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 29

country of the Miamis to confirm the alliance of those
western tribes. English traders continued to enter the
debatable region and spared no pains to gain over the
Indians; some of these traders were seized by the French
and sent to France. In June, 1752, the English trading-
post at Pickawillany near the junction of the Great Miami
River and Loramie Creek, near the site of Piqua, Ohio,
was broken up by Charles Langlade and a party of
Ottawas and Ojibwas from the upper lakes. The French
felt that the act was necessary if they were to maintain
their position at Detroit, but after it there was no peace
beyond the mountains.
In the year following the capture of Pickawillany, the
Marquis Duquesne, the new governor of Canada, sent
Pierre Paul, Sieur de
Marin, with troops
across Lake Erie to
secure the disputed
region by forts and
garrisons. They land-
ed at Presque Isle and Autograph of Duquesn
built a fort within the
present limits of Erie, Pennsylvania. Marin began the
building of a military road southward from Fort Presque
Isle to the Riviere aux Bceufs (the River of Buffaloes),
thirteen miles distant. To this day, the old road is for
S"", seven miles the main highway
S"'southward from the city of Erie.
SIt is claimed that it was the first
[ white man's road made in the
S Central West. The Riviere aux
Boeufs was a tributary of the Alle-
c -'1,., gheny River, we call it French
SI Creek. Here, on the site of
S, Waterford, Marin built Fort Le
S. \ Boeuf. Later in the season, he
r ,,. sent men to build a third fort at
'"7- ( ........ the junction of French Creek
Map of the French Creek Route with the Allegheny River, the

i 7 5 2
1 7 5 3

The French
Occupy the
Ohio Valley




k. .. ;; ''"'A' "O `h61in ,7/I '

/ IC '/ ~ ~ A-' // '?. A 'O A.,, h(j

A 1 t .ArJ' IJ. */ r1 / v1 1IA 0 1 /,~ /

loI "A "11 0/ -Ile1AA~/ 1.A

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P..' / y ..0C4, ~ ~

(Firt Page)

.'I' "" z ,I ,f~ AVjtll0i~; oILIil ,va
I ..? "I, K !0 I A.,hy0 to Ink #,

d& .g," it
91 /(njr1Fl /~; ui~~ r

lair/ ~ I, A 1/1 01 1 ~ / ,. 1" "A) '/sI"
ta ri r eai r ?,'I 4n/c lna',

'Y") I)& /i r al a, lo Ik p inod
'de It

40 jaow~aara IIIauh
71 I I) ,,/ w an a4i :;1 .i l/a,. 0`111 1.1 u/ 4 fl,


:1,,, .,iLr e~a,7zn'c/ r ,,,/ / '
p Hi 1, P n... r it

ai Af I .

1, #/a YtA'& tw a 109 ww

(Second Page)

32 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 3 site of Venango, now called Franklin, Pennsylvania. In
spite of the protests of an Indian chieftain called "Half
King," Captain Chabert de Joncaire took possession of
the chosen site. Joncaire passed the winter in the cabin
of a trader by the name of John Frazier, where we shall
meet him again; Marin soon died. The new fort was
completed in the spring of 1754 and, in honor of a favor-
ite of La Pompadour, was named Fort Machault.
Dinwiddie's It was not long before the news of these French aggres-
Protest sions crossed the mountains to Governor Dinwiddie in
Virginia. The situation was serious, for it was unmis-
takably the French purpose to hem in the English be-
tween the Alleghenies and the Atlantic, and the military
occupation of the disputed territory had made a great
impression upon the Indian tribes resident therein. Din-
widdie determined to send a protest demanding the with-
November 17 drawal of the intruders. In a letter to the lords of trade
the governor said: "The person sent as a commissioner
to the commandant of the French forces neglected his
duty and went no further than Logstown on the Ohio.
He reports the French were then one hundred and fifty
miles further up the river and I believe was afraid to go
to them." He then selected for the dangerous mission
a tall youth, unknown to fame, Major George Washing-
ton, an adjutant-general of the Virginia militia.
George George Washington was born at Pope's Creek, in
Washington . .-. Westmore-
*.. ... . ,. landCounty,
H 'Virginia, on
R.'i,, the twenty-
February II, Jii J)i second of
173', o.1S. ~ Y February,
S f 1732. His
elder half-
Map Showing Location of Birthplace of George Washington had been
with Admiral Vernon at Cartagena and had given the
name "Mount Vernon" to his country seat on the

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 33

Potomac. In 1747, George took up his residence at I 7 4 7
Mount Vernon with his brother Lawrence who had mar- i 7 5 0
ried Anne, the daughter
of Sir William Fairfax,
manager of the great
estate of his cousin,
Thomas, sixth Lord Fair-
Lord Fairfax, a grandson
of Lord Culpeper, had in- Lord
herited more than five mil- Fairfax
lion acresinVirginia. Hewas
a graduate of Oxford and had
written for Addison's Specta-
tor. To a somewhat eccentric
disposition, disappointment
in love had added a desire for
seclusion, so that, in 1745, he
had left England for his Vir-
ginia domain. Lord Fairfax
soon made the acquaintance Silver Bowl used at Christening
of George Washington and of George Washington
was so well impressed by the boy of sixteen that, in 1748,
he sent him to survey certain of his lands beyond the
Blue Ridge. On the favorable report of the young sur-
veyor, Lord Fairfax took up his residence at Greenway
Court, a manor of ten thousand acres on the Shenandoah
River, about twelve miles southeast of the present town of
Winchester. Washington was a frequent visitor at Green-
way Court and, from its owner and those about him,
gained a knowledge of men and manners that was to exer-
cise a profound influence upon his character and career.
Through Fairfax's favor he obtained a commission as a
public surveyor of Culpeper County. This entitled his
surveys to a place in the county office; they are still held
in high esteem for their completeness and accuracy.
For three years, the young man "roughed it" on the Major
border, strengthening his physique against stress of days Washington
to come, learning much of Indian and of Indian trader,

34 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

1 7 5 0
i 7 S 3

and becoming familiar with the varying phases of frontier
life. When nineteen years of age, he was appointed an
... .. .-1 adjutant-gen-
Seral of militia
....'- with the rank
-- of major.
-AR -A A 60 A 'o >. Before he had
S fairly entered
S upon the
S. duties of his
S- office, he was
; called to ac-
Scompany his
,< brother Law-
rence to the
West Indies
on a voyage
S for the health
of the latter.
In this four
months' ab-
sence, and in
-, ^. ,. consequence
of his punctil-
S, ious regard
,- for the re-
;v. ') quirements of
courtesy, he
i experienced

I..' __ __ j an attack of
Facsimile of a Survey made by George Washington smallpox and
thus secured an immunity that was to be of priceless
value. Meantime, a new executive had renewed his com-
mission and assigned him to the command of one of the
The Envoy four military divisions of the province. Then came his
selection as the bearer of Governor Dinwiddie's message
to the French-the flood in the tide of his affairs that
was to lead him on to fortune.


36 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 3 At the end of October, 1753, Washington set out
On the Way from Williamsburg on his journey of six hundred miles,
much of which was over mountains and through a wilder-
ness. Faith, you're a brave lad and, if you play your
cards well, you shall have no cause to repent your
bargain," exclaimed the old Scotch governor. The next
November I day at Fredericksburg, he engaged as his French interpre-
ter Jacob Van Braam, who had been his fencing-master
and had served under Lawrence Washington in the Car-
tagena expedition. Thence he went by way of Alexandria
to Winchester where he got baggage, horses, etc. From
Winchester he followed the new Road" used by the
Ohio company to Wills Creek, the last Virginian outpost.
November 14 At Wills Creek (now Cumberland), he engaged Christo-
pher Gist, who had lately established a plantation near
the Youghiogheny, as guide to pilot us out." On the
following day, Gist led the party of seven horsemen along
the main trail to the Ohio, later known as the Nemacolin
path from the name of the Delaware Indian who blazed
its course under the direction of Thomas Cresap who was
acting for the Ohio company.
At Venango The winter came on fierce and early; rain and snow
made the way difficult of passage; it took a week to
reach the Monongahela. At the mouth of Turtle Creek,
Washington met Frazier, the trader whom Joncaire had
driven from his cabin at Venango a few weeks before.
At the Forks of the Ohio, the wise young strategist chose
the site for a fort. At Logstown, fifteen miles down the
river, he lingered several days and, diplomat as well as
strategist, held a friendly council with the Indians. From
Logstown, he was accompanied northward by Half King
and three other Indian guides and guards. At Venango,
December 4 the messenger saw the French flag floating over the Eng-
lish trader's house that had been seized as an outpost for
Fort Le Bceuf. Joncaire, the French commander of the
outpost, received Washington "with the greatest Com-
plaisance and, over the wine, disclosed the purpose of
his government. In his journal Washington wrote:
The Wine, as they dosed themselves pretty plentifully

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 37

with it, soon banished the Restraint which at first I 7 5 3
appeared in their Conversation; and gave a Licence to
their Tongues to reveal their Sentiments more freely.
They told me, That it was their absolute Design to take
Possession of the Ohio, and by G- they would do it:
For that altho' they were sensible the English could
raise two Men for their one; yet they knew their
Motions were too slow and dilatory to prevent any
Undertaking of theirs." A brave, shrewd, observant
English youth in the wilderness, hundreds of miles from
home; tipsy Frenchmen with oaths and boasts; the
blazing log fire within and the December cold without-
it will be easy for each reader of this page to fill in
the picture for himself.
After sunset of the eleventh of December, Washington At the
arrived at Fort Le Bceuf and, on the following day, French Fort
delivered to the newly arrived commandant, Legardeur
de Saint Pierre, Dinwiddie's protest against the building
of French forts on English territory. On the fourteenth,
Saint Pierre delivered his answer which was to the effect
that he must obey orders and hold the fort while the pro-
test was forwarded to the Marquis Duquesne at Quebec.
While the reply was being prepared, the envoy made
good use of his Opportunity of taking the Dimensions
of the Fort, and making what observations I could."
Because of the snow and the weakened condition of his
horses, Washington sent them off unloaded to Venango,
"intending myself to go down by Water as I had the
Offer of a Canoe or two." The wily French made every
effort to win over the Indians, and Washington wrote in
his journal: "I can't say that ever in my Life I suffered
so much Anxiety as I did in this Affair. I saw that
every Stratagem which the most fruitful Brain could
invent, was practised, to win the Half-King to their
Interest; and that leaving him here was giving them the
Opportunity they aimed at." But Half King kept his
word and, on the sixteenth, Washington began the ter-
rible homeward march.
After a strenuous six days' voyage, they arrived at The Return

38 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 3 Venango. After spending four days with Joncaire,
I 7 5 4 Washington and Gist, abandoning Indians and horses,
set out afoot for the Forks of the Ohio, leaving Van
Braam to bring up the baggage and horses. Washing-
ton's journal says: "I took my necessary Papers;
pulled off my Cloaths; and tied myself up in a Match
Coat. Then with Gun in Hand and Pack at my Back,
in which were my Papers and Provisions, I set-out with
Mr. Gist, fitted in the same Manner, on Wednesday the
26th." On the second of January, they were at Gist's
house where the major bought a horse and saddle.
Four days later, they "met 17 Horses loaded with
Materials and Stores, for a Fort at the Forks of Ohio,
and the Day after some Families going out to settle "-
an enterprise of the Ohio company and the indefatigable
Dinwiddie. Just a month from the day he left Fort Le
Bceuf and after perilous adventures, marvelous escapes,
January x6, and much suffering, he arrived at Williamsburg and
1754 delivered to Dinwiddie the reply of the chevalier com-
mandant. The governor's council was to meet on the
following day. In the interval, the lad of twenty-one
rewrote from the "rough minutes" he had made his
"Journal" of ten thousand words-a remarkable literary
performance. From that moment," says Irving, he
was the rising hope of Virginia."
Virginia As his protest had thus come to nothing, Dinwiddie
reparesto assembled his council and, by their advice, determined to
French expel the French from the disputed territory. One com-
pany of a hundred men was to be raised among the
traders on the frontier and commanded by Captain Wil-
liam Trent. In February, this company was dispatched
across the mountains to the Forks of the Ohio, the gate-
way of the great West, to complete a fort already begun
there by the Ohio company. The command of a second
company, to be raised in Frederick and Augusta counties,
was given to Major Washington who was ultimately to
have command over both. Washington's instructions
were to follow Trent as soon as all things were in readi-
ness. He was to act on the defensive, but, in case any

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 39

attempts should be made to interfere with the English I 7 5 4
settlements by any persons whatsoever, he was to restrain
all such offenders and in case of resistance to make pris-
oners of or kill and destroy them."
As soldiers could not be put in the field and kept there The Sister
without money, Dinwiddie called on the other colonies Colonies
for aid and, in order to show the true situation of affairs,
transmitted printed copies of Washington's journal of
his mission to the French.
His reasonable expecta- ""..
tions led to little more "
than disappointment.U ItN A' F
was thought not wise to o r
risk a border war to ad- a1jo'r itearg' WiP[ng',
vance the interests of the I.. ROBERTDI. 'IDDIE, El
Ohio company and there H. Mbajely's Luieuna-nt-Governor, and
was a growing suspicion Commandei in Cb.eof F1RGINIR,
that the Virginia govern- o M M 'N D A N T
or s aims were personal o E.
and political rather than FR E NCH FORCES
patriotic. In New York, oN
Lieutenant-governor De 0 H I 0.
Lancey was urging the ................
assembly to give support tOVERNORi LETTER,
to Virginia, and the assem- A. r ^ R ANS L T ION or i..
bly replied that the French P"', OFFcE R' ANSWE. I
fort "may but does not I L L I .I .IISBDv O .. .
by any evidence or infor- .gq ',LaM us.& ra;J
mation appear to us to be. ..:. _.
an invasion of any of his Title-page of Washington's Journal
Majesty's colonies." The western boundary of Pennsyl-
vania had not yet been run and it was not certain whether
that province or Virginia had the better claim to the
head of the Ohio. Cautiously reserving his territorial
rights, the Pennsylvania proprietary was ready to aid
Virginia, and Governor Hamilton manifested sympathy,
but the Quaker element made determined opposition
and the assembly was not sure that the French fortifi-
cations were within his majesty's dominions. Governor

40 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 4 Glen of South Carolina was offensively indifferent.
North Carolina was the only one of all the colonies to
vote assistance and even that proved of little use.
From his own burgesses, Dinwiddie obtained a grant of
ten thousand pounds, but with the proviso that the
money should be expended under the direction of a
committee-an encroachment that the governor tolerated
because of the extreme urgency of the hour.
Lieutenant- Meanwhile, Dinwiddie hastened forward military prepa-
colonel rations. Before Washington had had an opportunity to
carry out the instructions that he had received, steps were
taken to organize a Virginia regiment of which Joshua
Fry, formerly a professor in William and Mary college,
was made colonel, and George Washington, lieutenant-
colonel. To encourage enlistments, the governor had
February issued a proclamation offering to divide a hundred thou-
9-'9 sand acres of land on the Ohio among those who would
defend it. Washington's new commission was dated on
the fifteenth of March, 1754, and received by him on
the thirty-first. On the second of April, he set out from
Alexandria with two companies for the fort that Captain
Trent was building at the Forks of the Ohio (Pittsburg).
On the way, he was joined by a detachment under Cap-
tain Stephen. On the twentieth, he was at Wills Creek
where he learned that the fort at the Forks had been
April 17 captured by Contreccrur and an overwhelming force of
French who had come down the Allegheny in bateaux
and canoes. As his own force amounted to only about
one hundred and fifty men, Washington was in no con-
dition to attempt to recapture the lost position. Two
days later, the bad news was confirmed and a communi-
cation was received from Half King announcing that We
are now ready to fall upon them [the French], waiting
only for your assistance." At a council of war held on
the twenty-third with his captains, "the youngest of
whom was old enough to have been his father," it was
decided to go forward for the purpose of clearing a road '
*It is claimed that this was the first wagon road from the Atlantic slope into the
Mississippi basin.

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 41

over which artillery could pass to the Monongahela I 7 5 4
and of establishing a fortification at the mouth of Red-
stone Creek where the Ohio company had magazines
"ready to receive our Ammunition & supplies; and
[whence] our heavy artillery may be sent by Water
whenever it was agreed to attack the Fort." Meantime,
the French, untrammeled by colonial jealousies or dis-
putative assemblies, had been building at the Forks of

\- *A,

\ ,.., ... . ,

Plan of Fort Duquesne
the Ohio a larger and stronger defensive work that they
named Fort Duquesne.
The advance from Wills Creek was begun on the

42 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 4 twenty-ninth of April, threescore men having been sent
At the Great ahead to widen the Indian trail. The march was so diffi-
Crossings cult that it took ten days to advance twenty miles. It
was slow work "opening a road and building bridges for
a colonel and an army" that were never to come, and the
lieutenant-colonel in command of the expedition deter-
mined to test the possibility of transportation down the
Youghiogheny and up the Monongahela to his proposed
destination at the mouth of Redstone Creek. On the
ninth of May, he wrote to Dinwiddie from Little Mead-
ows. On the eleventh, he sent a reconnoitering party
forward to Gist's settlement to look for a party of French
that the Indians reported had left Fort Duquesne. On
the eighteenth, he wrote from the Great Crossings of the
Youghiogheny to the governor, concluding his letter
with the assurance that, "as the road to this place is made
as good as it can be, having spent much time and great
labor upon it, I believe wagons may travel now with
o150 or I800 weight on them, by doubling the teams
at one or two pinches only." The Youghiogheny River
being too wide to bridge and too deep to ford "deter-
mined me to place myself in a Posture of Defense
against any immediate Attack from the Enemy and to go
Myself down to observe the river." On the twentieth,
he accordingly embarked in a canoe with four men and an
Indian. By night, they were at the Turkey Foot (Con-
fluence) where Washington mapped the site for a fort.
Below this point, the explorers found the stream difficult
and finally "a great rapid obliged us to stop and to come
ashore." On the twenty-third, Washington reported to
Colonel Fry that the river, I am sorry to say, can never
be made navigable."
At Great After reaching the Youghiogheny, Washington
Meadows received a message from Half King to the effect that a
French detachment sent out by Contrecceur was march-
ing against him. Washington hastened to take up a
position at Great Meadows, fifty-one miles from Wills
Creek and five from Laurel Hill. Here he caused a
level tract of ground to be cleared of bushes thereby

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 43

forming what he termed "a charming field for an en- I 7 5 4
counter." Parties were sent M. May 27
out to discover the lurking
enemy but without success.
He was expecting reinforce-
ments soon; on the twelfth ,
of June, an express had C_. k1-2_Z
come in "with Letters ac-
quainting us that Colonel Autographs of Contrecceur and Jumo mille
Fry with a Detachment of
more than One Hundred Men was at Winchester, and
was to set out in a few Days to join us; as also that
Colonel Innes was marching with Three Hundred and
Fifty Men raised
......... ...... '. .. .; ,...... .-. in N north Carolina;
.. . that it was expected
Maryland would
., ,,, ... .., .. ... raise Two H un-
C Z"ot22' ",,,,,; 2. .; ". .. ",'- dred M en, and that
S ',* ... .. .. ..'.-... ., -. .... Pennsylvania had
*' .' .,. " raised Ten Thou-
........ .. ........ .... sand Pounds." In
-' .. addition to these
a-. 'i .C D u a a . ........- . ""
,, .. ... ., . promises of materi-
S.. ... '..... .. '-- . al, Governor Din-
i -.,,,...,, '. ... widdie had written
,." ,', .. .......... & ..: ... ... to him that "the May 4
.' ...... Independ't Compa
i...... .
- ... .. . from So. Car.
S . ... ., ,,. ,, ,, arrive d two days
." ', ..... ... .... ;.,.. ... ... ago; is compleat;
S... .,, a. ..A..- ..0 Ioo M en besides
. '..'.. .... ,-. "'"; .- .. ..'. : .... O officers, and will
Sr .. re-embark for
"' "\-, Alexa next Week,
....... thence proceed im-
',. mediately to join
<...... ..' -,-,2s. Col Fry and You.
Letter by Robert Dinwiddie The two Inde-

44 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 4 pend't Compa's from N. York may be Expected in ab't
ten days."
The Death of On the evening of the twenty-seventh, a messenger
Jumonville from Half King arrived with the news that the French
lay hidden in a glen not far from his village. With a force
of forty men Washington hurried to join his Indian ally.
The night was rainy, the path was "scarce broad enough
for one man," and the forest was, to use Washington's
own words, "as dark as pitch." Half King and some of
his warriors joined the party and, a little after sunrise, the
French camp was discovered. Washington did not
know, he could not have known, that the French were
the escort of an ambassador-its behavior for the last
few days had not been that of an embassy. The Eng-
lish who had floundered and stumbled in a difficult ten-
hour night march made the attack. A sharp conflict
followed; Jumonville, the French leader, was killed and
all of his men but one were killed or captured. The
French later asserted that Jumonville had intended
merely to warn the English to withdraw and charged
Washington with "assassination."
At Fort Expecting soon to be attacked by a larger force,
Necessity Washington returned with his men to Great Meadows
where, while waiting for Fry and the promised reinforce-
ments, he employed his men in completing the intrench-
ments that he called Fort Necessity. On the ninth of
June, the rest of the Virginia regiment arrived with
Major Muse and nine swivels, but without Colonel Fry
who had been thrown from his horse and had died from
the injuries thus sustained. Washington therefore found
himself continued in command. On the tenth, his force
of three hundred men was increased by the arrival of
Captain Mackay and his independent company from
South Carolina. Colonel Innes, an experienced officer
to whom from the first Dinwiddie had intended to give
the chief command of the expedition, and his North
Carolina regiment did not get to the front, and as Captain
Mackay had a commission from the king while Washing-
ton had only a commission from a colonial governor, the

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 45

South Carolinians were somewhat inclined to "look upon I 7 5 4
themselves as a distinct body, and will not incorporate
and do duty with our men, but keep separate guards and
encamp separately." On the fifteenth, Washington "set
about clearing the Roads." On the sixteenth, leaving
Mackay and his company at Fort Necessity, he "set out
for Red-Stone Creek . our Waggons breaking
very often." On the way, he held a council in the camp
with forty Indians, most of them doubtless spies sent by
the French-" treacherous devils" he wrote them down.
On the twenty-eighth, the road was completed as far as
Gist's and thence eight of the sixteen miles to the mouth
of Redstone Creek. It is probable that at this time
Washington secretly hoped to capture Fort Duquesne.
Repeatedly warned by friendly Indians that he would
soon be attacked by the French in overwhelming num-
bers, he sent for Mackay and his men; they arrived
on the twenty-eighth of June. Upon receipt of fresh
information that the garrison at Fort Duquesne had been
reinforced and that a strong French force was moving up
the Monongahela, a council of war was held at Gist's
house, and it was resolved to fall back. On the first of June 30
July, the Virginians and the South Carolinians, quite
exhausted, were again at Fort Necessity. Although this
position was the best in the neighborhood, it was not
altogether favorable; it is said that Washington would
have retreated further but for the condition of his men.
Under the circumstances he decided that the only practi-
cable thing would be to stay and fight.
The second of July was spent in strengthening the Washington's
fortifications. On the third, the fort was attacked by a Surrender
force under command of Coulon de Villiers, a brother
of the "murdered" Jumonville. In spite of the numeri-
cal superiority of the French, Washington maintained
his position from eleven in the morning until eight at
night. During that time, a desultory firing was kept up
through a dismal rain, and, at nightfall, the little fort was
" half-leg deep of mud." Then Villiers asked for a par-
ley which Washington declined, he thinking it a pretext

46 From Louisburg to Fort Necessity

I 7 5 4 to introduce a spy. When the proposal was repeated,
Washington sent Captain Van Braam, "who knew little
English and no more
French." After a long
absence, Van Braam re-
turned with the articles of
capitulation that Villiers
offered. The officers
gathered in the rain and,
by the glimmer of a sput-
tering candle, the Dutch-
man Englished the French
paper, mistranslating sev-
eral passages and render-
ing the words I'assassinat
du Sieur de M'umonville as
"the death of Sieur de
Jumonville." Washing-
ton accepted the terms as
he understood them.
On the following day,
he gave up the fort,
his troops marching
July 4 out with the honors of war. Captains Jacob Van Braam
and Robert Stobo were delivered as hostages for the
return to Fort Duquesne of the French prisoners taken
when Jumonville was killed, they having been sent east-
ward. We shall hear of Stobo again. The Indian allies
of the French killed the cattle and horses of the little
English army and murdered and scalped twvo of the
wounded soldiers. Washington led the remnant of his
regiment back to Wills Creek where they arrived on the
ninth of July. Not an English flag floated in the great
Ohio valley on which they turned their backs.
Looking On the thirtieth of August, the Virginia burgesses passed
Backward a vote of thanks to Colonel George Washington, Captain
Mackay of his Majesty's Independent Company, and the
officers under his command," for their gallant and brave
Behaviour in Defense of their Country." For Washing-

From Louisburg to Fort Necessity 47

ton, the humiliation of defeat was mitigated by the public I 7 5 4
realization of the disparity of the forces engaged and of
Dinwiddie's failure to forward provisions and reinforce-
ments, but, to the end of his life, the Fourth of July was
saddened by his memories of his first and last capitula-
tion. His mortification was further deepened by the
governor's obstinate refusal to return the French prisoners
as provided by the articles of the treaty signed at
Fort Necessity. All in all, it was not a glorious
beginning of a military career. But to the young officer
who led back from the Great Meadows his defeated and
dispirited men it had been given to strike the first blow
in a conflict that was to be fought out not only in the
forests of America but on the plains of Germany, in far
away Bengal, and on most of the Seven Seas-a war
that was to settle the long mooted question of colonial
and commercial supremacy, that was to decide the mastery
of the North American continent, and that was to prepare
the way for a more important conflict in which he was to
be the central figure.



S7 5 4 T this time, there were three European claimants
The Three for territory in North America. In somewhat
Claimants general terms it may be said that Spain held
Florida and the vast region beyond Louisiana to the
Pacific and to Panama; this she called New Spain.
France held Canada and Louisiana with the two great
waterways that led into the heart of the continent; this
she called New France. England held the Hudson Bay
country, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Atlantic
slope as far south as Georgia. She had clipped her con-
tinental claims and was willing "to see the South Sea in
the Mississippi River." But Washington and his Vir-
ginians had turned their backs on the great valley, leaving
France in possession of territory that England claimed
and was determined to have.
The Coming The antagonistic French and English had long been
Crisis advancing on converging lines and, as we have seen, the
ways met in the Ohio valley. The story of the succes-
sive steps of each advance has been told-the pictur-
esque exploration of the country beyond the Blue Ridge
by Governor Spotswood and his knights of the golden
horseshoe; the fortification of Oswego and the diversion
of the profitable traffic with the "Far Indians" from
Montreal to Albany; Shirley, Pepperrell, and Louisburg;
Iberville, Bienville, and Louisiana; Galissoniere and Celo-
ron and the lead plates of the latter; the organization
of the Ohio company and the sending out of Gist and

..'cA'- ., ."'1"
'h John's

L .,

Spanish Ter.l Russlans tradln t t .

Solid color i Cin ot actively r(tested. S
Stripes indicale contested territory. r b b ,
elid Line around Hludon Bay approximate to the French idea of

Ithe oounary of the H plaree's bay Coy under the Trelaty of Utrecht. eabrdg, Mass.
Wterehed oef Hdeocn B ul and extreme claim of tt e Hudso's Bay Co., under L. feartr-na
fist rtier lowlicec s:-c, -Line described by the E. B. Co. ts acceptable
bocncdtary in 1750 heeotn thts:+4 +++c+-
Scal coMlle :, SOU .H
S* s ' oe Mf OtrFcWs.-,notle wan, aorao 0 AM RICA

Prepared by David Maydole Matteson, A. M., Cambridge, Mass.
Sp..ih Tor= Rutl~no -dLn lil1
S. d--tC inettitlcoteod Se

50 The French and Indian War-Preparation

I 7 5 4 Croghan; Duquesne and the French fort at the Forks of
the Ohio; the death of Jumonville and Washington's
capitulation at Fort Necessity.
An The two nations were seeking the same end by differ-
Irrepressible ent means. One aimed at a series of fortified posts along
Conflict the great lakes and the river highways from the Gulf of
Saint Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. They intended
to keep the foothold that they had back of the English
settlements. The English method was to establish colo-
nies west of the Alleghenies and to make them bases
for further advances into the country beyond. The two
schemes were irreconcilable; the peace of Aix-la-Chap-
elle, never more than an historical fact, was a mere
reminiscence; a crisis was at hand.
France and The parties to the coming conflict were not unequally
England in matched. Great Britain was less populous than France
Europe and her regular military force was far inferior, but she was
wealthier, her finances were in much better condition, and
her navy was far superior. In that age, there were no
railroads, and land transportation was necessarily slow.
Sea power, important as it is today, was vastly more
important then. In the end, England's command of the
sea was to prove decisive. The short-sightedness and
the selfishness of the mistress-ridden French court were
well balanced by the imbecility of the English ministry.
In France, Madame de Pompadour controlled the king,
filled the great offices with her creatures, wasted the
revenues wrung from the half-starved peasants, and made
her personal caprice the source of governmental policy.
The head of the government in England was the duke
of Newcastle who
was strongly in-
clined to leave
unopened official
/of importance and
to let the colo-
nists take care of
Autograph of the Duke of Newcastle themselves. His


(From original in

\\ t -.


I I i
,-. ' A L',- A N "I i

'" l" '- ,- I -T --' I-
.- : ,------- ----.'.. '.

-- :* -l I- -,-- -
----... - .- .
-a' ....
,, ='- ,..I -- -- ..v-1- .. .

. .. ..: -.. r"
__.._ .

"to*f 7, i- -- n > ... .t
S- l '----. r' r r)
.-- -..
,Iu7 -
I 'I. .

te Library of Congress)

-I I

The French and Indian War-Preparation 5 i

ignorance of colonial affairs was so intense that he was I 7 5 4
credited by literary men of his time with not suspecting
that Cape Breton was an island or that Annapolis was

-- .,.... '.', - . .

Des Barres's View of Annapolis
in America. It is said that from his office letters were
addressed "To the Governour of the Island of New
England." He is described by Addison as a statesman
without capacity, a secretary who could not write, a finan-
cier who did not know the multiplication table, and the
treasurer of a vast empire who could never balance
accounts with his own butler. He ruled by bribery and
hung about the neck of power with a tenacity like that
of the "Old Man of the Sea."
As regards their American colonies, each belligerent France and
had some sources of strength and some of weakness. England in
The population of New France was probably little more
than eighty thousand; that of the English continental
colonies about a million and a quarter. Nearly all of the
English colonists were concentrated in the long coastal
plain east of the Appalachians. The population of New
France was scattered all the way from the Saint Lawrence
gulf westward and southward to far-away New Orleans.
But this vastness of New France and this dispersion of
its population had an element of strength as well as one

52 The French and Indian War-Preparation

I 7 5 4 of weakness. Ensconced behind shaggy peaks and laby-
rinthine forests, her inhabitants were well protected
from serious overland attack, while they, inured to
hardship and trained to border warfare, could sally forth
with their barbarian allies, fall upon some unguarded
settlement, and then vanish into the wilderness whence
they had come.
Characteristics Furthermore, the people of New France were more
unified than were their opponents. Omitting the Hud-
son Bay company, there were, in the continental English
colonies, thirteen separate governments in addition to the
home authorities. In most of these thirteen, chronic
quarrels between governors and assemblies made any
continuous policy impossible, while in Pennsylvania the
problem was still further complicated by the fact that a
large part of the population was made up of non-resistant
Quakers and of Germans who cared little for the British
empire. Provincial ignorance and short-sightedness were
equaled only by English inefficiency. In New France,
there was no popular legislature to embarrass the central
authority. The people obeyed the word of command;
the autocratic government forced every man into the
ranks; there were no troublesome questions about the
length of service or the amount of pay. The commis-
sariat and the transport departments were, however,
honeycombed with corruption.
Indian French policy left the Indian in possession of his
Relations ancestral hunting-grounds; the English colonist pro-
fessed to pay for his title to the soil before he occupied it.
Perplexed by the relative advantages of the two methods,
some of the aborigines accepted one and some the other
and, in cases not a few, were willing to take one today and
the other tomorrow. Both of the rival claimants under-
stood the importance of an energized alliance with the
Iroquois, and the New World Romans" understood
it just as well. There were moments of indecision and
occasional defections but, in general, the Iroquois adhered
to the English as against the French. Most of the other
Indian tribes were active allies of the French.


^ Ito"-e7
A4 0<

(.~n/^ ^/








(From originals in the New York Public Libraryv



The French and Indian War-Preparation 53

The importance of maintaining the ancient alliance 1 7 5 4
with the Six Nations was well understood by the Eng- The Albany
lish. In obedience to an order from the lords of trade conference
(probably issued at the instigation of Governor Shirley
of Massachusetts) and under the incentive of a common
peril, commissioners from seven colonies met at Albany
on the nineteenth of June, 1754, and there held a
number of conferences with the Iroquois. New Hamp-
shire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland were represented by
twenty-five delegates, conspicuous among whom were
Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts, Stephen Hop-
kins of Rhode Island, Roger Wolcott of Connecticut,
William Johnson of New York, and Benjamin Franklin
of Pennsylvania. Virginia and South Carolina sent
expressions of sympathy but no representatives.
The Indians were in a bad humor and made many Indian
complaints. Holding in his hand the chain belt of Complaints
wampum presented by the commissioners, Hendrick, a
SLo K i,.it.de Wa f0om r. It wic
r,,:t'G 9\ N E W T 0 T X -

Map of Pennsylvania, 1754
sachem of the Mohawks, who spoke for all the nations,
promised that the "covenant chain of friendship with

54 The French and Indian War-Preparation

I 7 5 4 the English should be renewed and brightened, but he
admitted that some of his people had been drawn away
to the French and attributed it to English neglect.
Taking a stick and throwing it backward, he said: You
have thus thrown us behind your back and disregarded
us, whereas the French are a subtle and vigilant people,
ever using their utmost endeavors to seduce and bring
our people over to them. . The governor of
Virginia and the governor of Canada are both quarreling
"- -......-.. about lands which belong
..., to us, and such a quarrel
as this may end in our
destruction." He and
S:'- other Indians spoke with
::-' equal directness of the sale
-at Albany of arms and
... ..... ammunition to be used
........... against the English and
' their allies in the valley of
.... the Ohio.
Troublesome ..:;: '.. : .. Although the Iroquois
Land Cessions :.::. .....: were somewhat conciliated
.... by gifts and promises, the
,,,::.ll ':. ;-. :':"-..- results of the conference
with them were in the
main unsatisfactory; in
some respects, the confer-
... ence was productive of
Letter by James Alexander Relative to Lands more evil than good.
Confirmed to Penn by the Iroquois While it was in progress,
agents from two colonies obtained land cessions that
were to be sources of much future trouble. Despite the
protests of Pennsylvania, the agents of the Susquehanna
July II company secured from the Mohawks a cession of lands
covered by overlapping royal grants to Connecticut and
Pennsylvania, as related in the preceding chapter. For
four hundred pounds in coin, half of which was paid
down, the Pennsylvania proprietors obtained from the
Iroquois a grant to all lands in Pennsylvania south and

The French and Indian War-Preparation 55

west of a line drawn northwest to Lake Erie from the I 7 5 4
mouth of what is now Penn's Creek, about four or five
miles south of the forks of the Susquehanna. This ces-
sion was not agreed upon in the council of Onondago
and, in 1755, the Indians declared they would not receive
the second installment of the pay agreed upon. Three
years later, the proprietors, as a matter of good policy,
deeded back all of the land that lay west of the Alle-
ghenies. Both these cessions were made without the con-

sent of the
Shawnees rm,
and the Dela- ,i",
wares, the
real occu-
pants of the
territory, and
tended still
further to
embitter the
relations be- ''
tween the
Indians and
the English.
Wh i l e
these negoti-
ations were th'c
going on at h,
Albany, the Tre
commission- !,o
ers had been in
considering the
another im-
portant sub-
ject. The first

Ires, iv i dtake .'n cif, --I' nji,. af u Pit Parrs sJ r Lt:e'Jir V1r-
ry a s :1 fyrl pt .S f inCo pr ris. i twh-eb if tb.'y w.e pet
eii ito ,Q, er in the De,11 a:i;n cf sbe Btui Inte? Jrw V, Isad
Pl'Iaehti vs itt /lmeirca.

J -


or DI E.

e hear that the General AfMmbly of this Province have voted
sum of Ten Thouland Pounds to be given to the King's Ufe at
Timn ; and allo Five Hundred Pounds, to be given in. Behalf of
PiWovince, as a Prz.ent to the Indialrs of the Six Nations at the
at)y aropfed to be h-id at Albany in June next.
J,;i." nCotton, frcm Barbdics, advifes, that off of. Guada-
pe he was icairded by a Frinch Guard de Coaft, who, after a!k-
him fame Q(cftions, and trying his Rum, Sugar, &c. left
i, and a ent on board Capt. Lowther, of and for this Place from
fame Illand, of whom there is no Account fince.
Part of First Page of Pennstlvaania Gazette, May 9, 1754,
where Franklin's Device "Join, or Die" appeared
for the First Time

Plans for

sharp clang of war struck by the young Vrginian was
still sounding, and the necessity of some form of union
for mutual defense had taken firm hold of many minds
and had been graphically expressed by the Pennsylvania

7 A' /"
<" ," 7 -" "

-7' '<,' t // ,7 "/ f /7
/; / / , I L 1"

r -

/ / ,

.- I_ .. L,,

) IS Ptcy4 /-^ FR {^/^ffIt^^ (LSOi HIN aI AR UNIIN s,^. CLN IESA

The French and Indian War-Preparation 57

Gazette's rough imagery in which the provinces were I 7 5 4
represented as a snake cut in pieces, with the motto
beneath it, "Join, or Die." Before the congress was a
week old, a motion was made "that the commissioners
deliver their opinion whether a Union of all the Colonies
is not at present absolutely necessary for their security
and defence and it passed in the affirmative unani- June 24
mously." Then it was ordered that "a Committee be
appointed to prepare and receive Plans or Schemes
for the Union of the Colonies, and to digest them into
one general plan for the inspection of this Board," and
that the committee consist of one member from each of
the seven colonies represented.
Among the plans presented was one prepared by Franklin's
Franklin who, in his autobiography, says: "Mine hap- Plan
pen'd to be preferred, and, with a few amendments, was
accordingly reported. By this plan the general govern-
ment was to be administered by a president-general,
appointed and supported by the crown, and a grand coun-
cil was to be chosen by the representatives of the several
colonies, met in their respective assemblies. The debates
upon it in Congress went on daily hand in hand with the
Indian business. Many objections and difficulties were
started but at length they were all overcome and the
plan was unanimously agreed to and copies ordered to be
transmitted to the Board of Trade and to the assemblies
of the several provinces. Its fate was singular: the
assemblies did not adopt it as they thought there was too
much prerogative in it, and in England it was judg'd to
have too much of the democratic."
Although the proposed plan came to naught, represent- The Effect
ative men had formally declared that colonial union was
a necessity. Thus the congress of 1754 paved the way
for the congresses of 1765 and 1774. Governor Shirley
said that it showed the need, not only of a parlia-
mentary union but also of taxation by parliament for the
preservation of his majesty's dominions, "which the sev-
eral dominions have in so great a measure abandoned the
defence of." But the Albany conference soon dropped

58 The French and Indian War-Preparation

I 7 5 4 out of the minds of most men. English colonists and
English statesmen had more pressing things of which to
Indian Following the military disaster at Fort Necessity and
Activity the Albany congress, came an unwonted activity of the
Indians on the border. Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia
sent Andrew
/ Lewis with a force
of rangers and
a.,- ,.'-) *Cherokees to
j patrol the fron-
Stiers and did all
Autograph of Andrew Lewis that man could do
to rouse his burgesses and the other English colonies to
active cooperation. After one failure to obtain from the
burgesses a grant unencumbered with restrictions that he
could not accept, he was able, in October, to secure an
appropriation of twenty thousand pounds, but the
responses he received from the other colonies were, in
the main, discouraging.
General By this time, however, the death of Jumonville, the
Braddock surrender of Fort Necessity, and Governor Dinwiddie's
appeals had roused the English ministry to more ener-
getic action. With these influences must be counted the
fact that, in 1748, the young earl of Halifax had been
made president of the board of trade, and that Hali-
fax was disposed to magnify his office. It was largely
through his efforts that the home government resolved
no longer to submit to French encroachments in America.
Although the ambassadors of both powers continued to
give assurances of pacific intentions, instructions were
sent from England to raise in the colonies two royal regi-
ments as colonels of which Shirley and Pepperrell were
designated. The forty-fourth and the forty-eighth regi-
ments of the line of five hundred men each were given
orders to sail from Ireland for Virginia where each was to
be increased by enlistment to seven hundred men; ten
thousand pounds, permission to draw bills for ten thou-
sand more, and two thousand stands of arms were also

The French and Indian War-Preparation 59

sent. General Edward Braddock, a soldier of the bull- I 7 5 4
dog type, rough, brutal, narrow, and brave, was appointed September 24
to the chief command.
The French court soon received news of this English vaudreuil
activity and resolved to send to sea a counter-expedition. and Dieskau
A fleet of eighteen vessels under command of Admiral
Dubois de la Motte with three thousand troops under
Baron Dieskau, a German veteran, set sail for Canada
in the spring of 1755. With them went as governor- May 3
general, Duquesne's successor, Marquis de Vaudreuil, a
younger son of the former governor of that name.
With secret instructions to intercept this French fleet,
two English fleets were sent to sea, one under Admiral
Boscawen and another under Admiral Holbourne. The
actual belligerents were nominally at peace and "the dip-
lomats of the two crowns bowed across the Channel and
protested to each other that it all meant nothing."
Most of the French vessels, including the one that car-
ried Vaudreuil, eluded the English, but three of them
fell in with Boscawen's fleet off Cape Race. Without June 8
giving warning, the English began to pour in broadsides
which the French returned as best they could. Favored
by a fog, one of the three escaped but the other two
were forced to strike their colors. As the French gov-
ernment had given notice that the first hostile gun fired
at sea would be accepted as a declaration of war, Admiral
Boscawen's interference gave a shock to the diplomatic
fiction that England and France were at peace.



I 7 55 ENERAL Braddock arrived at Hampton, Vir-
Braddock ginia, in February, and his two regiments dis-
Meets the embarked at Alexandria before the end of
Governors March. One of his first important measures was to
convoke an assembly of provincial governors. On the
fourteenth of April, at Alexandria, he met Sharpe of
Maryland who, before Braddock's arrival, had held an
appointment as provisional commander-in-chief; De Lan-
cey of New York; Morris of Pennsylvania; Shirley of
Massachusetts, who, despite the fact that a few years
before at Paris he had married the daughter of his land-
lord, was still as anxious as ever to conquer New France;
and the now optimistic Dinwiddie.
Great With these governors Braddock arranged the details
Expectations of a plan for a fourfold attack upon the French. Brad-
dock was to march upon Fort Duquesne, Governor
Shirley upon Niagara, Colonel William Johnson upon
Crown Point, and Lieutenant-colonel Monckton was to
capture Fort Beausejour on the isthmus connecting Nova
Scotia with the mainland and to reduce the French
inhabitants in that region to subjection. All these places
were upon territory claimed by the English-it was
held that to attack them would be merely to expel
intruders; in fact, however, the French had been in
possession of Crown Point for almost a generation and of
Niagara for three-quarters of a century. After capturing

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The Braddock Expedition 61

Fort Duquesne, Braddock was to join Shirley at or before I 7 5 5
Niagara and, after the success expected there, turn his
attention to Crown Point if Johnson needed his assist-
ance. We shall see that none of these schemes brought
any glory to English arms and that one of them left a
stain upon the English name.
The carrying out of Braddock's movement against Dinwiddie's
Fort Duquesne was greatly hampered by the slowness Irritation
displayed by many of the colonies in bending their backs
to the common burden. On the thirtieth of April, Din-
widdie wrote to Lord Halifax: "Our assembly meets
tomorrow, w'n I shall strongly solicit them for a further
Supply, but I greatly dread Success from the Backward-
ness of the two Proprietary gov'ts of Pennsylvania and
M'yl'd who have refused any Supply on y's Emergency.
I am sorry there are any Proprietary Gov'ts on y's Con't,
for they are litigiously wanton of their Liberties and
Charters. I wish the Proprietors well, but I wish the
Crown w'd make a proper purchase from them, or at
least take the Rules of Gov't into their own Hands, for
I think there never was such monstrous ill-conduct from
any set of People in Time of so great Danger. An
Union of the Colonies is greatly to be desired, but even
then these Colonies will continue obstinate and fractious,
unless a general Tax is laid on all the Colonies by a Brit-
ish Act of Parliament." In subsequent letters he had
somewhat more favorable news to report, but of all the
contributions promised by the colonies, the grant made
by South Carolina was the only one any part of which
reached the hands of the general-in-chief.
Braddock himself chafed exceedingly at what an Ameri- Braddock's
can writer has called "the equivocating system of shuffling Complaints
delay and petty economy which too often characterized"
the assemblies. Like Dinwiddie, he was especially bitter
against Pennsylvania which, he wrote, "will do nothing
and furnisheth the French with whatever they have occa-
sion for." In another letter he said: "I cannot suffici-
ently express my indignation against the colonies of
Pennsylvania and Maryland, whose interest being alike

62 The Braddock Expedition

I 7 5 5 concerned in the event of this expedition, and much
more so than any on this continent, refuse to contribute
anything towards the project; and what they propose is
made upon no other terms than such as are altogether
contrary to the king's prerogatives and to the instructions
he has sent their governors." He commended the New
England colonies as having shown a martial spirit and
excepted Virginia from reproach, but he declared that
in general the colonies had "shown much negligence
for his Majesty's service and their own interests" and
recommended the "laying of a tax upon all of his Maj-
esty's dominions in America agreeably to the result of
council, for reimbursing the great sums that must be
advanced for the service and interest of the colonies in
this important crisis."
The Braddock and Dinwiddie were not alone in believing
clamor for that a policy of taxation and enforced unity of action in
interference American affairs was necessary. The governors at the
Alexandria conference had unanimously expressed a like
opinion, and the king had done what he could to unite
his American dependencies by military rule. In all the
colonies, soldiers and civilians were declaring that there
was no hope of securing united effort and a general fund
by appeals to the local legislatures. In fact, the British
ministry heard a general clamor from Englishmen in
America for parliamentary action along this line. The
most consistent and conspicuous opponent of this policy
was Benjamin Franklin. Undoubtedly the behavior of
the assemblies in this crisis and the recommendations
resulting therefrom had much to do with the adoption of
such measures after the close of the war.
The Virginia The difficulties in Braddock's way were still further
Route increased by the fact that a mistake had been made in
choosing the route to be taken. If the troops had been
landed at Philadelphia instead of Alexandria, much of the
way to Fort Duquesne would have lain through the more
settled country of Pennsylvania, the distance would have
been shortened, and time, labor, and money would have
been saved. It is said that the route actually taken was

The Braddock Expedition

prescribed by the duke of Newcastle as a result of influ- I 7 5 5
ence brought to bear by John Hanbury, one of the found-
ers of the Ohio company, which would be benefited if
the expedition took the route it actually did. Moreover,
previous expeditions had blazed the way that Braddock
was to follow; Dinwiddie, who had been the leading
spirit in the enterprise, was willing to have the Virginia
route developed; and Pennsylvania had been provok-
ingly indifferent.
Sir John Saint Clair, Braddock's deputy quartermaster- Franklin's
general, who had passed through Maryland and Virginia, Effciency
had already decided upon the route to Fort Cumberland,
the point of rendezvous. Braddock had written to the
duke of Newcastle that he would be beyond the Alle-
gheny mountains by the end of
April, but at that time he was at
Frederick, Maryland, and unable
to advance because the horses and
wagons needed had not been fur-
nished according to promise. When
all other means of securing them
had failed and Braddock had
become impatient, the adroitness
and personal influence of Franklin
obtained them from the Pennsyl-
vania farmers. Braddock character-
ized Franklin's action as almost the
first instance of integrity, address,
and ability he had met with in all
the provinces.
By the tenth of May, Braddock
was at Fort Cumberland (Wills
Creek), one hundred and thirty
miles from the Forks of the Ohio,
where, about this time, Contrecceur, Sir Peter Halket
the French commander, completed Fort Duquesne. By at Fort
the middle of the month, the force collected at Fort Cumberland
Cumberland numbered a little more than two thousand
men, including the two regular regiments that had been


64 The Braddock Expedition

I 7 5 5 increased by enlistment to about seven hundred men
each, nine companies of Virginians, and a detachment of
thirty sailors. The troops were divided into two brigades,
of which the first
,: was commanded
by Sir Peter Hal-
ket and the second
A by Colonel Dun-
bar. The general's
. ... 5' aides-de-camp were
S/." captains Robert
L ". Orme, Roger Mor-
ris, and Colonel
/ George Washing-
ton. Washington
S.: ... was making the
e./ -, i --,- ^ .C 1-lA campaign at Brad-
h dock's invitation.
S' In the preceding
S..October, he had
resigned because,
z.. ,rt-. .- -/- under the new mili-
.r,.,----. --- tary system estab-
Page from Braddock's Order-Book in Washington's lished by Dinwid-
Handwriting die, there would be
no officer in the Virginia regiment above the rank of cap-
tain and he was unwilling to accept a lower commission
than the one he held. As Braddock's invitation to serve
as a member of his staff surmounted the difficulties regard-
ing rank, he had accepted it with pleasure.
Braddock's Unfortunately, the general was not always equally wise.
Complacence It was not long before Shirley's son, who was Braddock's
secretary, was writing that the general was in almost every
respect disqualified for the task he had undertaken, and
Washington expressed the opinion that he was incapable
of giving up any point he had asserted, "be it ever so
incompatible with reason or common sense." Braddock
had an unbounded confidence in the almost exclusive
merits of regular troops and methods, was little inclined

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