Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introdoctory: Lists of maps and...
 Half Title
 Carolina (1663-91)
 Virginia -- Bacon's rebellion...
 Maryland after the restoration...
 New York (1664-90)
 New Jersey (1664-88)
 Pennsylvania (1681-89)
 The King Philip War (1671-78)
 The dominion of New England...
 The French exploration of the West...
 The wars of the Royal William,...
 British colonial policy -- Economic...
 British colonial policy -- Political...
 The end of proprietary rule in...
 The end of proprietary rule in...
 Proprietary rule in Pennsylvania,...
 Royal rule in Maryland and Virginia...
 Royal rule in New York (1689-9...
 Royal rule in New York and New...
 Massachusetts under Bradstreet...
 Massachusetts under Stoughton,...
 Rhode Island and Connecticut...
 Canada and Louisiana (1689-174...
 Florida (1688-1745)
 Georgia and the Carolinas...
 Virginia and Maryland (1715-45...
 The middle colonies (1719-45)
 New England (1716-45)
 Bibliographical appendix
 Back Cover

Group Title: History of the United States and its people, : from their earliest records to the present time.
Title: A history of the United States and its people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076585/00003
 Material Information
Title: A history of the United States and its people from their earliest records to the present time
Series Title: history of the United States and its people,
Physical Description: 7 v. : col. fronts., illus. (part col.) plates (part fold.) ports. (part col.) maps (part fold.) plans (part fold.) facsims. (part fold.) ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Avery, Elroy McKendree, 1844-1935
Abbatt, William, 1851-1935
Publisher: Burrows Bros. Co.
Place of Publication: Cleveland
Publication Date: 1904-10
Subject: History -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: "Bibliographical appendix" at end of each volume.
Statement of Responsibility: by Elroy McKendree Avery ...
General Note: On t.p. of v. l, "in twelve volumes"; on t.-p. of v. 2-4, "in fifteen volumes"; on t.-p. of v. 5-7, "in sixteen volumes." No more published.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076585
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01466912
lccn - 04032329

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Table of Contents
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introdoctory: Lists of maps and illustrations; English prime ministers and secretaries of state; chronology; genealogy
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
        Page xxxviii
        Page xxxix
        Page xl
        Page xli
        Page xlii
        Page xliii
        Page xliv
    Half Title
        Page xlv
        Page xlvi
    Carolina (1663-91)
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Virginia -- Bacon's rebellion (1676-91)
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Maryland after the restoration (1661-92)
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    New York (1664-90)
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    New Jersey (1664-88)
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Pennsylvania (1681-89)
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The King Philip War (1671-78)
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The dominion of New England (1650-89)
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    The French exploration of the West (1634-89)
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
        Page 181
    The wars of the Royal William, Anne, and George (1689-1745)
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    British colonial policy -- Economic (1689-1745)
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
    British colonial policy -- Political (1689-1745)
        Page 206
        Page 206a
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    The end of proprietary rule in South Carolina (1690-1721)
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 224a
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 226a
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
    The end of proprietary rule in North Carolina (1690-1731)
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 236a
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 238a
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Proprietary rule in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey (1688-1718)
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 246a
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Royal rule in Maryland and Virginia (1690-1715)
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
    Royal rule in New York (1689-98)
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Royal rule in New York and New Jersey (1698-1719)
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
    Massachusetts under Bradstreet and Phips (1688-95)
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 280a
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 286a
        Page 287
        Page 288
    Massachusetts under Stoughton, Bellomont, and Dudley (1695-1715)
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
    Rhode Island and Connecticut (1690-1715)
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
    Canada and Louisiana (1689-1745)
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
    Florida (1688-1745)
        Page 327
        Page 328
    Georgia and the Carolinas (1721-45)
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 334a
        Page 334b
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 338a
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 344a
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
    Virginia and Maryland (1715-45)
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
    The middle colonies (1719-45)
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
    New England (1716-45)
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
    Bibliographical appendix
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
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        Page 431
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        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
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        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
    Back Cover
        Page 447
        Page 448
Full Text

A History of

the United




A L-

: a

f .4








*~. .






* .

* *

.= ~ ;.

~: ': : :

'r .


HIS volume is devoted to the period between
active colonization and the final struggle for
the conquest of New France. As a whole, the
period herein treated, "the neglected period of American
history," lacks the dramatic characteristics of the years
that went before and of those that came after. It is
convenient to divide it into three parts, one point of
division coinciding with the accession of William and
Mary to the English throne and the other falling about
the year 1715.
In the second section of the story herewith given, we
have the elaboration of a British colonial system, the
enactment of more comprehensive navigation acts, and
the introduction of machinery intended to secure their
efficient administration. These years were also years in
which England was engaged in war with France and
Spain, struggles that endangered the peace and security
of the colonies and intensified the desire of the mother
country to make her American plantations helpful to
herself. The American colonists felt and resented the
laying on of the heavy hand and evinced a disposition to
stand for rights that they felt were theirs by inheritance
and contract. They thus laid themselves open to the
charge of breaking the laws and of failing in military
duties. In no other period were the complaints of royal
officers and English merchants in America so frequent,
and seizures for illegal trading so numerous as they were
in the years from 1690 to 1715. At no period were the
rights of the crown and the rights of the inhabitants




more difficult to distinguish than they were then. In
those years, proprietary governments were forced to the
wall and colonial charters were subjected to inquisitorial
The third part of this period stands in sharp contrast
with the second. Added to the historical neglect that
clings also to the earlier is what Burke called the "wise
and salutary neglect" of governmental policy. On the
heels of the accession of the Hanoverians to the English
throne and the passing of pressing danger from French-
men and red men came a disposition that eliminated
much of the galling rigidity of the navigation acts and
suffered "a generous nature to take her own way to per-
fection." Some of the old conflicts were continued but
the browbeating of the colonists by such officials as
Dudley and Randolph was mitigated and a political and
economic advance stood where had been repression and
distress. As this was the period in which were trained
the men who later sat in the stamp-act congress and in
the continental congresses, its importance should not be
measured by the standard of conspicuousness.
I am well aware that there is a growing desire on the
part of many Americans of culture for information con-
cerning the social and economic history of their ancestors.
This knowledge has not been without effect upon the
chapters herewith submitted. If any reader of this book
wants a more minute study of domestic, religious, and
industrial life in the first half of the eighteenth century
than is here given, he will find, in the bibliographical
appendix at the end of the volume, references to some of
the best of the numerous works treating specifically of
that phase of the history of the period now under con-
In the preparation of this volume, as in that of the
two that preceded it, I have been under deep obligation
to many friends for kind words of suggestion, caution,
and encouragement. I desire to recognize the help given
to me by Professor William Robert Shepherd and Albert
Cook Myers in their reading of the chapters on Pennsyl-

Preface ix

vania; by Newton D. Mereness in his reading of the
chapters on Maryland; by Professor W. Roy Smith and
A. S. Salley Jr. in their reading of the chapters on South
Carolina; by Professor Frank Heywood Hodder in his
reading of all the chapters. Especially am I indebted
for the valuable assistance rendered by Victor H. Paltsits
of the New York Public Library (Lenox), and by Dr.
Paul L. Haworth of the department of history of Colum-
bia University.
Cleveland, February 22, 1907.


Introductory : Lists of Maps and Illustrations; English Prime
Ministers and Secretaries of State ; Chronology ; Genealogy.
I. Carolina (1663-91) .
II. Virginia--Bacon's Rebellion (1676-91) 28
III. Maryland after the Restoration (1661-92) 46
IV. New York (1664-90) 57
V. New Jersey (1664-88) 79
VI. Pennsylvania (1681-89) 94
VII. The King Philip War (1671-78) I
VIII. The Dominion of New England (1650-
89) 25
IX. The French Exploration of the West
(1634-89) 155

X. The Wars of the Royal William, Anne,
and George (1689-1745) -. 182
XI. British Colonial Policy- Economic
(1689-1745) 192
XII. British Colonial Policy-Political (1689-
1745) 206
XIII. The End of Proprietary Rule in South
Carolina (1690-1721) .. 217
XIV. The End of Proprietary Rule in North
Carolina (1690-1731) 234
XV. Proprietary Rule in Pennsylvania, Dela-
ware, and New Jersey (1688-1718) 243
XVI. Royal Rule in Maryland and Virginia
(1690-1715) 252

xii Contents

XVII. Royal Rule in New York (1689-98) 260
XVIII. Royal Rule in New York and New
Jersey (1698-1719) 269
XIX. Massachusetts under Bradstreet and Phips
(1688-95) 278
XX. Massachusetts under Stoughton, Bello-
mont, and Dudley (1695-1715). 289
XXI. Rhode Island and Connecticut (1690-
1715) 298

XXII. Canada and Louisiana (1689-1745) 309
XXIII. Florida (1688-1745) 327
XXIV. Georgia and the Carolinas (1721-45) 329
XXV. Virginia and Maryland (1715-45). 350
XXVI. The Middle Colonies (1719-45) 363
XXVII. New England (1716-45) 383
Bibliographical Appendix 407
NOTE.-A general index will be found in the last volume of this work.

Si i.i


William Penn Frontispiece
Portrait :
From a photograph of an ivory carving by Bevan. No portrait of Penn,
painted from life, is known with certainty to exist, hence we use a repro-
duction of this carving which doubtless gives the most accurate representation
of Penn's appearance obtainable. A certain Sylvanus Bevan, a Quaker
apothecary in London, skilful in carving, learned that no good portrait of
Penn was to be found, and made this little ivory bust from personal recol-
lection for Lord Cobham, who on receiving it exclaimed: "It is Penn him-
self. The original is in the possession of Alfred Waterhouse, Esq.,
Yattendon Court, Berkshire, England.
From his letter to his children, reproduced on page Io1.
From his book-plate appearing in his Bible, now in possession of the Penn-
sylvania Historical Society.
M ap of the South Atlantic Coast .
Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 2
The original wax impression is in the Public Record Office, London.
Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon 3
From photograph of original painting by Gerard Soest, now in the National
Portrait Gallery, London.
Popple's Map of North America, 1733 .
between 4 and 5
Close facsimile considerably reduced in size from colored original in the
Library of Congress.
Autographs of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 5
The signatures of John Colleton, George Monk, and Ashley Cooper were
traced from original documents in the British Museum; the other signa-
tures have previously appeared in many works.
John Locke (Portrait and Autograph) 6
Portrait from photograph of original painting by T. Brownover, now in the
National Portrait Gallery, London. Autograph from Netherclift's Hand-
Book to Autograpbs. London, x862.



Half-title of Locke's Fundamental Constitutions 7
Last Page of the Fundamental Constitutions, Contain-
ing Rules of Precedency 8
The two foregoing are reproduced from edition of 1669-70 in the New
York Public Library (Lenox Building). There were five different issues
of the Fundamental Constitutions printed between z669 and 1698: (I)July
21, 1669, had 81 articles; (2) March I, 1669-70, had 2zo articles; (3)
January 12, 1681-82, had zo2 articles; (4) one of a still later date had
I2I articles; (5) one dated April II, 1698, had only 41 articles.
Facsimile of Map of Carolina, about 1670 9
Photographed from a copy of original in Ogilby's America, 1670-71, in
the New York Public Librar) (Lenox Building).
Portrait of Sir George Carteret .
From a photograph of original painting, by Lely, in the possession of
Francis John Thynne, Esq., of London.
Map of Port Royal and Vicinity .13
Map of Charles Town Harbor, at about 1670-90 14
Corrected for this work by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr., Columbia, S. C.
Autograph of Joseph West .14
Traced from an original furnished by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Portrait of Anthony Ashley Cooper, First Earl of
Shaftesbury 5
From original painting by John Greenhill, now in the National Portrait
Gallery, London.
Order of Governor and Council to Lay out Charles
Town, dated April 30, 1672 16
From photograph of original supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Portrait of George Monk, Duke of Albemarle 18
From original painting in the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Portrait of Henry Morgan 19
Reproduced from Esquemeling's De Americaensche Zee-Roovers, Amster-
dam, 1678, wherein he is named "Johan." This is the original Dutch
edition of his Bucaniers of Aerica.
Morgan's Destruction of the Spanish Armada at
Maracaibo 20
From the same.
Engraved Title-page o:- the First Dutch Edition of
Esquemeling, 1678 .
From copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Signatures to Oath of Allegiance to King James II.
and the Lords Proprietors, 1685 (two plates) 22
From photographs of the documents supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Autograph of James Colleton .23
Traced from original in the British Museum. This autograph is often in-
cluded in lists of the Lords Proprietors in place of that of John Colleton,
his brother.

Illustrations xv

Morden's Map of Carolina, 1687 24
First published in Blome's Present State of his Majesty's Isles and terri-
tories in America. London, 1687.
Autographs of Seth Sothell and his Council 26
Supplied from original documents by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Tobacco Proclamation, 1630. 29
From an original broadside in the collection of the Virginia Historical
Society, Richmond.
Autograph of Nathaniel Bacon 30
From MS. in the Virginia State Library, Richmond.
Plan of the Foundations of Jamestown Buildings 37
On the plan are shown the foundations of the state-house and other buildings
burned by Nathaniel Bacon's troops in September, 1676. These founda-
tions were unearthed in 1903. We are enabled to reproduce by the
courtesy of Mr. Samuel H. Yonge.
Foundations of Jamestown Buildings 38
A view of the preceding from a photograph supplied by courtesy of Mr.
Samuel H. Yonge.
Ruins of Berkeley's Plantation 39
First Page of MS. Journal of the Virginia House of
Burgesses, June 8, 168 40
Reproduced from original in the Public Record Office, London. These
records began in 1680 and continued to 1732.
Portrait of Lord Culpeper 41
From a painting in possession of the Virginia Historical Society.
Plate Given to the Queen of Pamunkey 42
Presented by the English at the time of peace with the Indians the year after
Bacon's rebellion. It is now in possession of the Virginia Historical Society.
Portrait of Lord Howard of Effingham. 44
From original painting in the Virginia State Library.
Coat of Arms of Nathaniel Bacon 45
From original supplied by courtesy of Mr. Leon Brooks Bacon.
Baltimore Coins 46
Note the misspelling MVLTILICAMINI instead of MVLTIPLI-
CAMINI on the sixpence, the middle coin. These are reproduced from
photograph of the originals owned by the Maryland Historical Society,
Alsop's M ap of Maryland, 1666 47
Reproduced from A Character of the Province of Maryland, by George
Alsop, London, 1666. From copy in possession of the John Carter Brown
Library, Providence, R. I.
Augustine Herman's Map of Virginia and Mary-
land, 1673 48
From original furnished by Dr. Julius F. Sachse, Philadelphia.
Autograph of Charles Calvert, Third Lord Balti-
more 49



Photographed from original in possession of the Maryland Historical Society.
The parchment containing this autograph is a lease, dated "29 Charles II,
8 March. From James Clement of London and Charles, Lord Baltimore,
to Richard Allibond of Greys Inn. Middlesex."
Portrait of Charles Calvert, Third Lord Balti-
more o
From original painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller, now in possession of Sir
William Eden at Windlestone Hall, Durham, by whose permission it was
photographed for this work.
Portrait of Augustine Herman 5
From photograph of original furnished by Dr. Julius F. Sachse.
James II. (Portrait and Autograph) 52
Portrait from Cust's Catalogue of the portraits in the National Portrait
Gallery, London.
Flag of M aryland 53
Reproduced in correct original colors from the Maryland Manual for 1905.
The state flag of Maryland of the present day is the same.
First page of the "Declaration" of Coode and the
Insurgents 54
The original is a folio tract of eight pages, published in 1689. We repro-
duce title-page from copy in the John Carter Brown Library.
M ap of Saint M arys and Vicinity. .55
Autograph of Richard Nicolls .58
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library ( Lenox Building ).
A Dutch Tavern in Beaver Street, New York .61
Photographed from a plate in Valentine's Manual for 1853, entitled,
Dutch Cottage in Beaver Street, 1679."
Great Seal of the Province of New York 62
From O'Callaghan's Documentary History of New York.
The "Duke's Plan" of New York, 1664
between 62 and 63
This map, known as the "Duke's Plan," shows New York as it was in
September, 1661, and is the earliest extant English map of New York. We
follow a photograph specially taken for this work from the original in the
British Museum. The colors are from a copy in possession of the New
York Historical Society.
Autograph of Francis Lovelace 63
Portrait of Sir Edmund Andros 64
Reproduced from an engraving in the Andros Tracts which was made from a
photograph of an original painting owned by Amias Andros, Esq., of London.
Coat of Arms of Andros 66
From a copy in the collection of the Bostonian Society, Old State House,
New York in 1679 67
Reproduced from a lithograph in Dankers and Sluyter's Voyage to Newr
York, 1679-8o. First published by the Long Island Historical Society.



Autograph of Thomas Dongan 68
The Magna Charta 0. . 7
From a heliotype print of the original document in the British Museum.
First Page of the Dongan Charter. 74
From a photograph of the original owned by the city of New York, depos-
ited in the New York Public Library ( Lenox Building).
Seal Accompanying the Dongan Charter, and Silver
Box in which the Seal is Preserved. 75
Somewhat reduced in size. On the box is engraved the name of Nicholas
Bayard, then mayor of New York City.
Letter by Andros while at Pemaquid, January 26,
1688-89 76
From the original in the Massachusetts Archives, State House, Boston.
Great Seal of New England under Andros 77
From original wax impression in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Leisler's Autograph and Seal 77
Lease from the Duke of York to Berkeley and
Carteret, June 23, 1664. 8
From original in possession of the New Jersey Historical Society.
The Re-lease from the Duke of York to Berkeley
and Carteret, June 24, 1664
between 80 and 81
From original in possession of the New Jersey Historical Society.
Seal of Berkeley and Carteret 8
From a wax impression in possession of the New Jersey Historical Society.
Autograph and Seal of George Carteret 81
From a document of July 29, 1674, in possession of the New Jersey
Historical Society.
Autograph of Philip Carteret 82
From an original in possession of the New Jersey Historical Society.
Autograph of Elizabeth, Lady Carteret 82
From an original in possession of the New Jersey Historical Society.
Letter by Abraham Pierson, September 27, 1667 83
From original in the New York Public Library (Ford Collection).
Autograph of Edward Byllynge 84
Map of New Jersey, Showing Division Lines of
1674, 1687, and 1743 84
The Quintipartite Deed 86
From the original document in possession of the New Jersey Historical
Title-page of A Brief Account of the Province of
East-Jersey 88
From original edition in the John Carter Brown Library.

xviii Illustrations

Seal of East Jersey 89
From Whitehead's East Jersey.
Autograph of Robert Barclay 89
Autograph of Gawen Lawrie 90
From an original in the New Jersey Historical Society.
Title-page of The Model of the Government of East-
New-Jersey 90
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of the Earl of Perth 9
Autograph of Andrew Hamilton of New Jersey 92
From a reproduction in Documents Relative to the History of the State of
New Jersey. Newark, 1881.
Portrait of William Penn in Armor (Age Twenty-
two) .95
From original painting in the collection of the Pennsylvania Historical
Society, by an unknown artist, probably Sir Peter Lely, but its authenticity
like that of other Penn portraits is not beyond question.
George Fox's Watch-seal and Wax Impression
Therefrom 96
From originals in possession of Samuel Alexander, Esq., through courtesy
of the Friends Society of London.
Map of the Pennsylvania and Delaware Boundary 97
Title-page of Penn's Some Account of the Province
of Pennsilvania 98
From original copy in the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Size of page
of original is I I Y x 714 inches.
Autograph and Seal of William Markham .99
Oath and Signatures of the Members of Mark-
ham's Council .99
From A History of Philadelphia, by Scharf and Westcott.
Title-page of The Frame of Government 100oo
From Penn's personal copy containing his book-plate in possession of the
Pennsylvania Historical Society.
William Penn's Letter to his Children 101
From original in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Letitia Cottage .. 102
Supposed to have been Penn's first residence in Philadelphia. Its original
location was on Front Street, south of the present Market Street, but it
is now in Fairmount Park.
Seal and Signatures Affixed to the Frame of Gov-
ernment .. 103
Reduced from a facsimile in Smith and Watson's American Historical
and Literary Curiosities.
Autograph of Thomas Wynne 104



Seal of the Province of Pennsylvania o5
From rear Book of the Pennsylvania Society, 1903.
Part of John Harris's Map Showing Pennsbury
Manor. .. 107
From original in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Penn's Clock o8
In possession of the Library Company of Philadelphia.
Portrait of William Penn (Age Fifty-two) o8
From the original in the Pennsylvania Historical Society (but see note to
Penn's Portrait in Armor, p. 95).
Autograph of John Blackwell .. o19
Map of New England at the Time of the King
Philip War 12
King Philip's Letter to Governor Prence, Written
by his Secretary, John Sassamon, a Christian
Convert, 1663 i13
From original in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth, Mass.
Letter by John Eliot 14
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building) given
to that institution by Robert C. Winthrop, Esq.
Miniature Portrait of Governor John Leverett 1
From photograph of the original by courtesy of the present owner, Mr.
Richard M. Saltonstall of Boston.
Map of English Settlements in Massachusetts and
Rhode Island at the Time of the King Philip
War 116
Autograph of Robert Treat 117
From a letter in the Massachusetts Archives.
Map of the Great Swamp Fight, in which King
Philip was Killed 17
Pynchon House, built in 1660, at Springfield, Mass. 118
From an original drawing by Rev. William B. O. Peabody (1832) in pos-
session of the Massachusetts Historical Society. This was the first brick
house erected in the Connecticut valley. It was called also "Old Fort"
because used as a refuge in King Philip's war.
Josiah Winslow (Portrait and Autograph) 118
Portrait from original in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth.
Autograph of James Avery 119
Autograph of John Gallop 9
King Philip's Samp Bowl 121
This relic is of wood and is in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical
Autograph of Benjamin Church 12
From an original letter in the Massachusetts Archives.

xx Illustrations

Title-page of the Earliest General History of the
King Philip War 122
From a copy of the original edition in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building). Only about six copies are known.
First Page of Tompson's Poem Commemorating the
King Philip War 123
Benjamin Tompson was the earliest native American poet. His tomb-
stone at Roxbury styles him a "learned schoolmaster & physician & ye
renouned poet of N: Engl: The only known copy of his New-Englands
Crisis is in the Boston Athenaeum, but lacks the title-page. A facsimile
edition was brought out in 1894 by the Club of Odd Volumes. For further
information consult Dr. Green's Ten Fac-simile Reproductions relating to
New England, Boston, 190o, pp. 25-30.
Title-page of Endecott's Humble Petition 125
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
First Page of Text of Endecott's Humble Petition 126
From the same.
Title-page of the Earliest Printed Collection of
Massachusetts Acts and Laws 127
From a copy of the originalin the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Simon Bradstreet (Portrait and Autograph) 128
Photograph from the original painting in the senate chamber of the Massa-
chusetts State House.
Autographs of the Four Royal Commissioners, Rich-
ard Nicolls, Robert Carr, George Cartwright,
and Samuel Maverick 129
William Hack's Manuscript Map of New England,
Drawn about 1663 and said to be the Earliest
Draft of the Territory of New England 130
From original in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth.
William Hack came to New England in x660, and went back to England
in 1664, and never returned. He became later a noted maker of maps.
Map of Boston Harbor 131
Portrait of Charles II. 134
From Cust's Catalogue of the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Autograph of Anne Bradstreet 135
Title-page of Anne Bradstreet's Tenth Muse 135
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Portrait of Thomas Thacher, First Minister of Old
South Church 136
From oil portrait in Old South Meeting House, Boston.
The Earliest Treatise on a Medical Subject Printed
in English America, by Thomas Thacher 137
Printed in 1677. Reproduced from a copy in the Massachusetts Historical



Beginning and Ending of Letter from Edward Ran-
dolph to the King, November 17, 1676 138
From the original document now in the Public Record Office, London.
It is his reply to the Boston magistrates for not convening the general court.
Autograph of Edward Cranfield 140
From an original letter in the office of the secretary of state, Concord,
N. H. Furnished by E. N. Pearson, Esq.
Autograph of Joseph Dudley .. 141
Autograph of John Richards 142
Traced from an original signature in the Massachusetts Archives.
Advertisement of a Runaway Servant 142
From original in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Title-page of The Key of Wealth 144
From Davis's Currency and Banking.
New England Colors, 1686 146
This was the flag of New England under the administration of Sir Edmund
Andros. In the British State Paper Office is a draft of this flag with de-
scription, namely, it shows the cross of Saint George borne on a white field
occupying the whole flag, the center of the cross emblazoned with a yellow
or gilt crown over the cipher of the sovereign, King James I.
Autograph of Andros 146
From original document in the Massachusetts Archives.
Fitzhugh's Copy, 1694, of Captain Cyprian South-
ake's Map of Boston Harbor, 1689 147
Facsimile of original in the British Museum. It is said to be the earliest
map of Boston Harbor. Reproduced from a copy in the collection of the
Bostonian Society, Old State House, Boston.
Heading of a Petition of Sir William Phips and In-
crease Mather to William and Mary, Asking that
Andros be removed, dated January 20, 1689 148
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Part of Broadside Published upon the Occasion
of the Seizure of Andros 148
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Broadside Address of the Principal Inhabitants, Re-
questing Andros to Surrender up the Govern-
ment 149
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Instructions for the Agents of Massachusetts Bay
Colony to Justify their Conduct in Removing
Andros 0
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
The so-called Charter Oak 153
Showing it as it appeared in 1855 or x856. After the painting by C. D.
Brownell, now in the Boston Athenaum. In an unpublished manuscript,

xxii Illustrations

Isaac W. Stuart, who owned the tree at the time, tefs of its fall. "On
August 21, 1856, at one o'clock in the morning, this historic oak was
struck by a terrific gust, and, owing to its trunk being reduced to a mere
shell of a few inches, it fell with a sharp thud and crackling sound." The
site at Hartford, Conn., where this tree stood, is now marked by a slab.
Map of the English Colonies, Showing the "Fall
Line". 155
Map of the French, English, and Spanish Posses-
sions 156
Isaac Jogues (Portrait and Autograph) 58
Portrait shows hand mutilated by torture of Iroquois. Reproduced from
Jesuit Relations, vol. 23, frontispiece.
The Maisonneuve Monument at Montreal 59
From a photograph.
French Arms 160
Woven upon a cope given by Louis XIV. to Bishop Laval and supposed
to have been worked by Anne of Austria. Now owned by the bishopric of
M ap of the Jesuit M missions in Huronia 161
Compiled by the Rev. Arthur Edward Jones, S. J., archivist Saint Mary's
College, Montreal, Canada.
Portrait of Bishop Laval 162
From photograph of original supplied by Msgr. T. E. Hamel, of Laval
University, Quebec.
Autograph of Tracy 163
Talon's Portrait and Coat of Arms 163
Reproduced from the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of
Canada, 1903. The original is, however, a modern painting by Theophile
Autograph of Claude Allouez 164
From a letter, dated April z8, 1662, to Paul Ragueneau. Original is in
the archives of Saint Mary's College, Montreal.
A Canadian Trapper on Snow-shoes 164
From La Potherie's Histoire de I'Amerique Sptentrionale. Paris, 1753.
Coat of Arms of the Hudson Bay Company 166
Frontenac Statue at Quebec 67
From statue by Hebert, placed in one of the niches of the central fore-
front of the Legislative Building. There is no known authenticated por-
trait of Frontenac. See Gagnon's Le Palais Ligislatif de uibbec.
Quebec, 1897.
Autograph of Jolliet 68
Portrait of Jacques M arquette 168
From an oil portrait discovered at Montreal in I897. For a full discussion
of the grounds for a belief that it is a genuine contemporary portrait, and
a much more creditable likeness than the fanciful features of Trentanove's
statue, see Yesuit Relations, vol. 71, p. 400, and note 5 .

Illustrations xxiii

The Calumet .. 168
From Report of the United States Bureau of American Ethnology.
Thevenot's Map, Showing Extent of Marquette's
Discovery 169
Closely facsimiled from original.
The Burial of Marquette .. 170
From a bronze relief on Marquette Building, Chicago, by MacNeil, repro-
duced in Thwaites's Father Marquette. After that, the Body was carried
to the church .. "-Jesuit Relations, vol. 59, p. 203.
Marquette's Tombstone 170
Erected at Saint Ignace, Michigan, over the spot where the bones of
Marquette repose.
Map of Fort Frontenac and Vicinity, Kingston,
Ontario 7
Plan of Fort Frontenac and Saint Lawrence River,
1785 .172
Fort Frontenac, after a Plan by Denonville, No-
vember 13, 1685 172
From Faillon's Histoire de la Colonie Franfaise.
La Salle (Portrait and Autograph). 73
Portrait shows him at twenty-two or twenty-three years of age, at about
the time he came to Canada. As to the portrait of La Salle . I
have not been able to trace its origin . and I have been forced to
choose that which offered the greatest degree of resemblance."-- Margry,
Introduction to Voyages des Franfais.
Map Showing Locality where the "Griffon" was
Built and Launched 174
The "Griffon" Tablet 174
Erected at the village of LaSalle, five miles from Niagara Falls, in com-
memoration of the building of the first vessel used by white men in
navigating the upper lakes. It is claimed that on that spot La Salle con-
structed and launched the Griffon."
The Launching of the "Griffon" 175
From the French edition of Hennepin's Voyage. Amsterdam, 1704.
Although issued twenty-five years after 1679, the date of the building, it
shows, nevertheless, some traces of correctness.
Starved Rock 76
From a photograph.
Title-page of Hennepin's New Discovery 176
From copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of Tonty 177
From Shea's Charlevoix.
Arms of La Salle. 178
Reproduced from Gravier's Decouvertes et etablissements de Cavelier de
La Salle de Rouen dans I'Amerique du Nord. Paris, 1870.



Murder of La Salle 79
Facsimile from Hennepin's New Discovery, 1698.
Autograph of Denonville 79
Supplied by Mr. Victor H. Paltsits.
Title-page of Tonty's Dernieres Decouvertes de M .
De la Salle I80
From original edition in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Map of Indian Tribes and Stocks of Eastern
United States and Canada, 1700-50
between 180 and 181
Prepared by Mr. James Mooney of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Autograph of Frontenac 181
From Shea's Charlevoix.
Queen Mary II. (Portrait and Autograph) 83
Portrait from Wheatley's Historical Portraits. London, 1897. The
original painting, by William Wissing, is in the National Portrait Gallery,
London. Autograph from Netherclift's Hand-Book.
King W illiam (Portrait and Autograph) 184
Reproduced from Cust's Catalogue. The original, painted by Jan Wyck,
was transferred, in 1897, from the British Museum to the National Portrait
Gallery. Autograph from Netherclift's Hand-Book.
King Louis XIV. (Portrait and Autograph) 85
From original by Rigaud in the gallery of the Louvre.
America after the Treaty of Utrecht 188
Queen Anne (Portrait and Autograph) 189
From Cust's Catalogue. The original painting, by John Closterman, is
in the National Portrait Gallery, London.
The Salt Act, dated January 13, 1729 194
From the original edition of 1730, in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Act to Encourage the Making of Indigo, dated
November 10, 1747 195
From the original edition of 1748, in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Shoes of the Palatines 196
These relics are in the possession of the New York Agricultural Society.
The Frey House, Palatine Bridge, Built in 1739 197
From photograph supplied by courtesy of the present owner, Mr. S. L.
Frey. It was built by his great-great-grandfather, Henry Frey, and is a
good type of the dwelling of a prosperous Palatine in the Mohawk valley.
Shipping Bill, dated May 22, 1718 197
From original in the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
A Copper Rosa Americana, 1722 198
Reproduced from a specimen in the collection of the New York Public
Library (Lenox Building).

Illustrations xxv

Act to Prevent the Exportation of Hats from the
American Colonies, dated January 13, 1731 200
From the original edition of 1732, in the New York Public Library (Lenox
Act Forbidding the Erection of Iron Mills in the
American Colonies, dated November 16, 1749 201
Act to Encourage the Importation into England of
American Pig and Bar Iron, dated November
16, 1749 201
This and the preceding appear in the edition of 1750, pp. 519 and 523.
Reproduced from a copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
The Molasses Act 203
From the original edition in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Map of Forms of Government in the English Colo-
nies, 1620-1733 between 206 and 207
Portrait of Robert Walpole, First Earl of Orford 214
From Cust's Catalogue of the National Portrait Gallery. Painted in
1740 by Jean Baptiste Vanloo.
Portrait of Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke of New-
castle 215
Drawn in crayon by William Hoare, R. A. In 1887, it was presented
to the National Portrait Gallery by Walter, fourth earl of Chichester. We
follow reproduction in Cust's Catalogue.
Arms of Philip Ludwell 217
Saint James Church, Goose Creek, near Charles-
ton, S.C. .. 218
Interior of Saint James Church 218
These views were furnished by Samuel G. Stoney of Charleston, S. C.,
secretary of the Vestry of Saint James Church, Goose Creek.
Autographs of Joseph Blake and John Archdale 219
From originals furnished by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Medal of the Carolina Company .. 219
Of this there were two distinct issues both of which are given in Crosby's
Early Coins of America. The obverse is the same in each but the reverse
of the earlier issue has the misspelling Proprieters which is corrected in
the later issue.
Title-page of Archdale's New Description 220
Reproduced from a copy of the original in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Autograph of Sir Nathaniel Johnson 222
From photograph of an original document supplied by Mr. A. S. SalleyJr.
Autograph of Edward Tynte. 224
Supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Autograph and Seal of Robert Gibbes .. 224
From an original supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.



John Lawson's Map of Carolina, 1709 .
between 224 and 225
From original in the Library of Congress.
Title-page of Trott's Printed Laws of South Caro-
lina .. 225
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
George I. (Portrait and Autograph) 225
Portrait from Cust's Catalogue. It was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller.
In z879, it was transferred from the British Museum to the National Por-
trait Gallery, London. Autograph from Netherclift's Hand-Book.
Last Page of Act to Settle and Regulate the Indian
Trade, June 17, 1712 226
From original in the Library of Congress.
Autographs and Seals of Robert Daniell and his
Council 226
From originals supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Moll's Map of Carolina between 226 and 227
Based upon his map of 1715, but to save space we have inserted in left
upper corner a plan of the town from another portion of the map.
Autograph and Seal of Robert Johnson 227
From an original supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Signatures to a South Carolina Act of December I,
1717 .228
From original in the Library of Congress.
Title-page of Johnson's General History of
the Pyrates 229
Reproduced from a copy of the original in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Portrait of William Rhett 229
From original owned by Miss Claudia S. Rhett, Charleston, S. C.
Title-page of Francis Yonge's Narrative 230
Reproduced from the very rare original in the British Museum.
Autograph and Seal of James Moore 231
From original supplied by Mr. A. S. Salley Jr.
Document Signed by Thomas Cary .. 235
Title-page of Lawson's New Voyage .. 236
Reproduced from the original in the New York Public Library (Lenox
Map of North Carolina Precincts, 1663-1729
between 236 and 237
From Hawks's History of North Carolina.
Map of North Carolina, Illustrating the Indian
Wars 237
Plan of Eden, 1736 between 238 and 239
From original in the John Carter Brown Library.



Autograph of Charles Eden 239
From photograph of original document.
"Blackbeard" the Pirate 239
From the first edition (1724) of Johnson's General History of the .
Pyrates, in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of George Burrington 240
Traced from an original document in the Public Record Office, London.
Signatures to an Act of the General Assembly of
North Carolina, 1729 240
From an original act of the general assembly. Photograph supplied by
Mr. Clarence S. Brigham.
Title-page of The Liberty and Property of British
Subjects Asserted .. 241
Reproduced from original in the John Carter Brown Library.
Act by which the Proprietors of Carolina Surren-
dered their Rights in that Province to the Crown 242
Reproduced from original in the British Museum.
Autograph of Thomas Lloyd 243
Old Swedes' Church, Wilmington, Delaware 244
From a photograph.
Memoranda from Hannah Penn's Household
Expense Book 245
Now in possession of the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Portrait of James Logan 246
Reproduced from original in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
Seal of Philadelphia, 1701 246
Penn's Order for the Survey of the Circular Bound-
ary Between the Counties of Chester (Pennsyl-
vania) and New Castle (now Delaware). Report
of the Commission Appointed by Penn to
Survey the Pennsylvania Boundary
between 246 and 247
Reproduced from originals in the possession of the Pennsylvania Historical
Penn's Seal, Attached to a Land Patent, dated
July 20, 1713 247
From original in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
View of Philadelphia, painted by Peter Cooper,
about 1718 248, 249
The original painting now hangs in the entrance hall of the Library Com-
pany of Philadelphia, by whose permission it is reproduced. It is the
oldest known view of the city. For use in reproduction, we employed a
large and excellent photograph (copyrighted) of the original furnished by
Dr. Julius F. Sachse, .and had this colored in facsimile of the original



Autograph of Charles Gookin 248
Part of Page 139 of The Laws of the Province of
Pennsilvania .. 249
This was the first printed collection of the laws of Pennsylvania. It was
published in 1714. From copy of the original in the New York Public
Library (Lenox Building).
A Broadside List of the Members of the Society of
Merchants of London, 1692-93 251
From original in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Autograph of Francis Nicholson 252
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of Lionel Copley 253
From an original in the Public Record Office, London.
Autograph of James Blair 255
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collec-
First Page of A Modest Answer to a Malicious Libel 255
From the original edition of 1706 in the British Museum.
Autograph of Nathaniel Blackiston 256
From an original in the Public Record Office, London.
Autograph of Thomas Bray. 256
From tracing supplied by Messrs. Stevens & Brown, London.
Autograph of Benedict Leonard Calvert 257
From a tracing supplied by the Maryland Historical Society.
Alexander Spotswood (Portrait and Autograph) 258
From painting in possession of the Virginia State Library.
Autographs of Philipse, Van Cortlandt, and Bayard 260
Tracings from original documents in the New York State Library, Albany.
Massachusetts Bill for Commissioners of Several
Colonies to meet at New York and Confed-
erate for Defense against French and Indians,
dated March 19, 1690 262
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Map of the Lake Champlain Country 264
Autograph of Henry Sloughter 265
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Autograph of Richard Ingoldesby. 265
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Myers Col-
Autograph of Benjamin Fletcher 266
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Myers Col-
Fletcher's Lord's Day Proclamation 267
Of greatest rarity. The New York Public Library has a photograph of it
from which the present reproduction has been made.

Illustrations xxix

Receipt by William Bradford 267
From the original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Benjamin Fletcher's Proclamation, June 6, 1695,
Ordering a Ship and Detachment of Soldiers to
Guard the Coast Against French Privateers 268
From an original in the New York State Library, Albany.
The Earl of Bellomont (Portrait and Autograph) 269
Portrait from a heliotype in Frederic de Peyster's Life and Administration
of Richard, Earl of Bellomont. New York, 1879.
Autograph from an original in the New York Public Library (Myers
Bellomont's Coat of Arms 270
From a copy in the collection of the Bostonian Society, Old State House,
Autograph of John Nanfan 270
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Autograph of Lord Cornbury 271
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Autograph of Lord Lovelace 273
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Myers Col-
Portrait of one of the Four Mohawk Chiefs Taken
to England 273
From a mezzotint in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
The original painting is by I. Verelst, who also painted the portraits of the
other chiefs.
Signatures of the Four Mohawk Chiefs Appearing
on a Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury 274
From the original in the Library of Congress.
Autograph of Robert Hunter 274
From a letter of October 17, 1712, in the New York Public Library
(Emmet Collection).
A Page from Sir Hovenden W alker's Journal of
his Expedition to Canada 275
From the Journal: Or Full Account of the late Expedition to Canada.
London, 1720. Reproduced from copy in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Autograph of Lewis Morris. 276
Traced from an original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Col-
Portrait of Peter Schuyler 276
From original painting in possession of the Schuyler family, Albany.
Photograph of this portrait was furnished by General James Grant Wilson.

xxx Illustrations

Autograph of Daniel Coxe 277
From a facsimile published in Documents Relative to the Colonial History
of the State of New Jersey. Newark, 1881.
A Massachusetts Bay Broadside, dated June 22,
1689 278
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Autograph of Richard Mather 278
Portrait of Isaac Addington 279
Long-time secretary of Massachusetts Bay.
From original painting in the New England Historical and Genealogical
Society, Boston.
Increase Mather (Portrait and Autograph) 279
From original painting, by John Vanderspriet, in the Massachusetts His-
torical Society.
Map of New England 280
Autograph of William Phips 280
Facsimile of Publick Occurrences and the Order of
the Governor and General Court Suppressing
the Publication between 280 and 281
The first American newspaper. The only known copy is in the Public
Record Office, London, from which our reproduction was taken.
The order for the suppression of Publick Occurrences is from a copy in the
Massachusetts Historical Society. Another copy is in the American
Antiquarian Society at Worcester. These two are the only known copies
of this item.
Moll's Map of Port Royal, 1720. 281
Appearing as an inset on his A New Map of the North Parts of America,
copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Autograph of John Walley 281
Order of the Council Appointing Phips as General
of the Canada (Quebec) Expedition 282
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Lahontan's Map of Quebec, 1703 282
From his Nouveaux Voyages, in the New York Public Library (Lenox
Massachusetts Indented Bill of Twenty Shillings,
1690 .283
Reproduced from a specimen in the collection of the New York Public
Library (Lenox Building).
William Stoughton (Portrait and Autograph) 284
Portrait from an engraving in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Autograph of Samuel Willard 286
Autograph of Thomas Danforth 286
Map of Salem Village, 1692 between 286 and 287
Adapted from map in Upham's Salem Witchcraft by Mr. William Van
Sittert of The Burrows Brothers Company.



Samuel Sewall (Portrait and Autograph) 287
Portrait from a painting in the Massachusetts Historical Society, which is
a good copy of the original owned (1885) by the Misses Ridgeway of
Sewall was judge of supreme court of Massachusetts Bay from 1692 to
Coat of Arms of John Leverett 290
Seal of Harvard College .. 290
From an original supplied by William C. Lane, Librarian of Harvard Uni-
Autograph of John Leverett. 291
Portrait of Joseph Dudley 291
From a photograph of the original painting made about 1701 in the New
England Historical and Genealogical Society, Boston.
Joseph Dudley's Coat of Arms 292
From a copy in the Bostonian Society, Old State House, Boston.
First Number of the Boston News-Letter
between 292 and 293
From a copy in the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.
There are two issues of this number, which vary in the setting of an adver-
tisement on the last page.
Proclamation by Joseph Dudley 293
From an original copy in the American Antiquarian Society.
Massachusetts Indented Bill of Twenty Shillings 295
From a specimen in the collection of the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Cotton Mather (Portrait and Autograph) 296
From Pelham's painting in the American Antiquarian Society.
Seal of Rhode Island, 1672 299
From an excellent impression in green wax found on a document of the
General Assembly met at Newport, April 30, x672, now in the Rhode
Island State House.
This form of the seal is the one destroyed by Andros.
Map of the Territory in Dispute between Connecti-
cut and Rhode Island 301
Engagement between an English and French Ship 302
From Lahontan's Nouveaux Voyages, 1703, in the New York Public
Library (Lenox Building).
Portrait of Fitz-John Winthrop 304
From original painting in possession of the Connecticut Historical Society,
Autograph of Gurdon Saltonstall 305
From an original document in the Massachusetts Archives, Boston.
Surveyors' Draft, Showing the Line of 1684 305
From original in Connecticut State Library.



Order of the General Court of Connecticut Relative
to Church Discipline 306
The Saybrook Platform resulted from this. Reproduced from original in the
Connecticut State Library.
Statue of Abraham Pierson, on the Yale Campus 307
From a photograph.
Portrait of Elihu Yale 307
From a painting by Enoch Zeeman in Alumni Hall, Yale University.
Autograph of Nicholas Perrot 309
Map of Canada and Adjacent Country 310
Medal Given to Indian Chiefs in 1693 311
There were five sizes, all of the same design, of which this is the second
largest. Photographs of this and numerous other contemporary French
medals were kindly supplied by Mr. R. W. MacLachlan, secretary of
the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal.
Portrait of Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaud-
reuil 312
From original painting in possession of De Lery MacDonald, Esq., Manor
House, Rigaud, Quebec, who courteously supplied a photograph for our use.
French Card Money, Twenty-four Livres, issued in
1735 312
Signed by Beauharnois the governor, Hocquart the intendant, and Varin
the controller.
Reproduced from photograph of the original in the collection of R. W.
MacLachlan, Esq.
Map of Acadia, Cape Breton Island, and Louis-
burg.. 313
Medal Commemorating the Founding of Louis-
burg 314
From a specimen in the Yale Collection. Issued in 1720, by the govern-
ment of France.
Hennepin's Map of New France and Louisiana,
1683 315
From Father Louis Hennepin's Description de la Louisiane, published in
Map of Louisiana 316
Monument (erected in 1902) Marking the Site of
Fort Louis de la Mobile 318
Louisiana in 1753 320
From Butel-Dumont's Memoires Historiques sur la Louisiane, Paris, 1753,
copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Portrait of John Law 321
From photograph of the original painting by Alexis Simeon Bell, now in
the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Illustrations xxxiii

One of Law's Bank-Notes 321
The original measures 6%Y x 4 inches and is for zoo livres, dated January
I, 720. From original supplied by Mr. Benjamin Betts, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Document with Law's Signature 322
Original measures 7X x 13 inches, and is a very interesting document in
ornate script with signatures of Law and others, dated in August, 1717,
which was just about the time when Law's bank was established. From
original supplied by Mr. Benjamin Betts.
A John Law Medal issued in 1720 323
From the Yale collection.
Many different Law medals were issued. This, which is one of the most
interesting, is described at length in Betts's Medals, pp. 58 and 59.
Contemporary Dutch Caricature of John Law 323
From original supplied by Mr. Benjamin Betts. Law is represented being
taken to the hospital in a chariot drawn by two game-cocks with devil's
tails (cockatrices) (the two cocks being a part of the family arms of Law).
Plan of New Orleans in 1753 324
From Butel-Dumont's Memoires Historifues sur la Louisiane, Paris, 1753,
copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
A French Colonial Coin, 1722 325
From the collection in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Old City Gate of Saint Augustine. 328
From a recent sketch.
James Edward Oglethorpe (Portrait and Auto-
graph). 329
Portrait from an original engiaving in the possession of Wymberly Jones
DeRenne, Savannah, Georgia. Autograph from the New York Public
Library (Emmet Collection).
Seal of the Georgia Trustees. 330
From Third Report of the Daughters of the American Revolution, which
follows wax impressions of original seal from documents in England.
Map of Settlements from Charlestown to Saint
Augustine 331
Title-page of Tailfer's A True and Historical
Narrative 331
From original edition in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Contemporary Print Showing Costume of Salz-
burger Man and Woman 333
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Tablet Marking the Ruins of Fort Frederica. 334
Facsimile of a Contemporary German Map of
Georgia, A Plan of New Ebenezer, and Mill
at New Ebenezer between 334 and 335
From original furnished by Dr. Julius F. Sachse.



George Whitefield (Portrait and Autograph) 335
Portrait follows a reproduction, in Cust's Catalogue, of the original painting
which is now in the National Portrait Gallery, London. It was painted
by Woolaston. Autograph from original in the New York Public Library
(Lenox Building).
Autograph of Admiral Vernon .336
From an autograph letter in the British Museum.
Royal Seal of South Carolina 338
From photograph of a wax impression supplied by Mr. A. S. SalleyJr.
John Senex's Map of America between 338 and 339
Published in A New and General Atlas. London, 1721.
From copy in the Library of Congress.
Map of South Carolina, 1730 341
Heading of the First Number of The South Caro-
lina Gazette 342
Issued in January, 1732.
Autograph of William Bull Sr. 344
From original in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Charlestown in 1739 between 344 and 345
From the Charleston rear Book, 1884. The original of this very rare
plan is owned by the city of Charleston.
Map of North Carolina, Showing Counties and
Precincts in 1737 348
Facsimile from The Natural History of North Carolina, by John Brickell.
Dublin, 1737.
We reproduce from a copy in the Library of Congress (Map Department).
Title-page of An Address to the Inhabitants of North
Carolina, 1746 349
From a copy of the original edition in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Map of Spotswood's Route 35
Engraved Title-page of Robert Beverly's History of
Virginia, 1722 352
From copy in possession of The Burrows Brothers Company.
Statue of Andrew Lewis 353
From a photograph. It stands at the base of the Washington monument
on Capitol Square, Richmond.
Portrait of William Byrd of W estover 354
Photographed from the original painting at Westover, Virginia, by per-
mission of Mrs. William McCreery Ramsay.
Map of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania 355
Heading of The Virginia Gazette 356
From original in the Virginia Historical Society.
Title-page of the First Book Printed in Virginia,



Poems on Several Occasions 357
Washington's personal copy, bearing his signature on the title-page. It is
at present owned by the Boston Atheneum.
The Oaths of Allegiance, Abhorrency, and Abjura-
tion .. 358
This is the so-called "Test Act." It appears as page x62 of A Compleat
Collection of the Laws of Maryland, a folio volume printed at Annapolis
in 1727 by William Parks. This was the first edition of Maryland's laws
to be printed in the province. Reproduced from a copy of the original in
the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Maryland Twenty-Shilling Bill, I745 361
From an original in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Beginning of First Page of A Dialogue Between
Mr. Robert Rich and Roger Plowman 364
The original is in possession of the Library Company of Philadelphia. It
is a debate on the paper money question, in that day a topic of interest.
Heading of the Pennsylvania Gazette 364
Printed by B. Franklin and H. Meredith.
From a copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
A Page from Franklin's Articles of Belief, Written
in 1728 365
From the original in the Library of Congress.
Keith's House at Graeme Park 365
From the original painting in the Pennsylvania Historical Society. The so-
called Grame Park was at Horsham, Montgomery County, Pa.
Autograph of George Thomas 367
From the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).
Arms of George Thomas 367
From an engraving in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Pennsylvania Ten-Shilling Bill, 1723 367
From an original in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Map of Pennsylvania, 1717-45 368
Postmaster's Bill, Signed by Franklin, 1745 371
From the original in the collection of the Bostonian Society.
Coat of Arms of William Burnet .371
From a copy in the collection of the Bostonian Society.
Portrait of Andrew Hamilton 376
From the original by Adolf Ulrik Wertmiiller, in the Pennsylvania His-
torical Society.
Map of Lake Champlain, 1740 379
From original recently discovered in Europe, now in the Library of Congress,
Map Department. The present reproduction is a facsimile in colors of the
Lewis Morris's Book-plate .. 381
From a copy in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
An Early Autograph of Franklin, 1724 382
From original in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.



The Province House Arms 383
From the original in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Autograph of Samuel Shute 383
From original document in the Massachusetts Archives.
Autograph of Elisha Cooke 384
From an original letter in the Massachusetts Archives.
Great Seal of Massachusetts about 1715 384
From original document in the Massachusetts Archives.
Portrait of John Wentworth. 388
From the original painting in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Autograph of Thomas Westbrook .. 388
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Autograph of Jeremiah Dummer 389
From a letter of September 9, 1719, in the Massachusetts Archives.
Autographs of Moulton and Harmon 389
From originals in the Massachusetts Archives.
Last Paragraph of Captain Lovewell's Journal of
his March against the Indians 390
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Map of Lovewell's Fight 390
Autograph of William Tailer 392
From original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Jonathan Belcher (Portrait and Autograph). 392
From an original portrait, painted in 1729 by F. Leopoldt, in the Massachu-
setts Historical Society. Autograph from an original in the Massachusetts
Autograph of Spencer Phips. 393
From his "Memorial," of November 26, 1742, in the Massachusetts
Portrait of William Shirley 394
From a mezzotint engraving by McArdell, after Hudson, in the collection
of the Bostonian Society.
Autograph of Shirley .394
From a letter of November 26, 1742, in the Massachusetts Archives.
"A South East View ofye Great Town of Boston,"
by William Price, 1743 395
From an original print in possession of the Bostonian Society.
Portrait of Sir William Pepperrell. 396
From original, painted by John Smibert in 1751, owned by Mrs. Underhill
A. Budd, of New York, a great-great-great-granddaughter of the hero of
Autograph of Richard Gridley 396
From an original in the Massachusetts Archives.
Map of the Siege of Louisburg, 1745 397
Letter by Pepperrell and Warren, May 7, 1745 398
The original is a summons to surrender, addressed to the French commander
at Louisburg. It is in the New York Public Library (Emmet Collection).

Illustrations xxxvii

Louisburg Memorial Medal. 399
Struck in 1895. Reproduced from a specimen in the American Anti-
quarian Society.
New Hampshire Ten-Shilling Bill of 1737 400
From engraver's proof preserved in the collection of the New Hampshire
Historical Society.
Map of Rhode Island and Massachusetts Disputed
Territory 402
Portrait of John Wanton 403
From the original painting in the Rhode Island State House.
Portrait of William Wanton 403
From the original painting in the Rhode Island State House.
Portrait of Richard Ward 404
From the original painting in the Rhode Island State House.
A Copper Threepence of Connecticut, 1737 404
From a specimen in the New York Public Library (Lenox Building).
Connecticut Act Relative to Taxation for the Main-
tenance of the Clergy 405
From Acts and Laws of Connecticut, session begun on May s th, 1727.
In the Connecticut State Library.


AS explained in the second chapter of the second
volume of this history, English monarchs could
not legally act in public matters without the
counsel of a body of official advisers which came to be
known as the privy council. Gradually the practice of
consulting a few confidential advisers instead of the whole
council came into use. In the reign of Charles I., the
burden of state affairs was borne by a committee of state
which Clarendon says was enviously called the "cabinet
council." After the revolution of 1688 and the develop-
ment of the system of parliamentary government, much
of the power formerly exercised by the privy council
passed into the hands of an irregular select committee
unknown to English law and the English "constitution."
Prior to the reign of William III., "there were ministers
but no ministry in the modern sense of the word." With
the development of the system of parliamentary govern-
ment, authority was transferred from the crown to the
ministry, until now the leading principles of what the
average American looks upon as the somewhat nebulous
English constitution "are the personal irresponsibility of
the sovereign, the responsibility of ministers, and the
inquisitorial power of parliament." At the head of the
cabinet is the premier or prime minister, another anomaly
unknown to law and constitution and yet the pivot on
which the whole administration turns. The prime min-
ister is nominated by the sovereign. He appoints his
colleagues and his resignation dissolves the ministry.
"No prime minister could carry on the government of
the country for any length of time who did not possess

xl English Prime Ministers, Etc.

the confidence of the House of Commons; and royal
favour, if it was ever invidiously exercised, would ulti-
mately have to yield to a regard for the public interests."
Although there was no ministry (and of course no
prime minister) in the modern sense of the word prior
to the reign of William III., from an early period we
find mention of such an official. Thus, at the restor-
ation of 1660, Edward Hyde, later and better known as
the first earl of Clarendon, became the prime minister
of Charles II. and held that position until 1667. "But
there is an obvious distinction between the prime minister
of a monarch under prerogative government and the
premier of a modern cabinet. The one was simply
known as the king's favourite, whose rise and fall
depended solely upon his retaining the goodwill of his
royal master, while the other is the acknowledged head
of a responsible administration, whose tenure of office
mainly depends upon his ability to obtain parliamentary
support." William III. is entitled to the credit of
forming the first administration upon the basis of party,
of carrying on the government in accordance with the
general political views of the house of commons, and
thus of protecting the rights and liberties of English
subjects for infringing which King James had forfeited
his crown. Still William III. was really his own premier;
he relied much less upon the advice of his cabinet than
would now be expected of an English king. As the
idea of personal government faded away, the office of
prime minister took on added importance. After the
accession of the non-English-speaking George I., the
king ceased to sit in the cabinet and, when Walpole
entered office in 1721, the several cabinet ministers were
generally looked upon as equals. In his own person,
Walpole created the prime ministership and thus gave
to cabinet government the unity that earlier governments
had possessed by reason of the presidency of the king.
The change thus completed was of great importance.
By it, the English constitution was "altered from an
hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary regulative

English Prime Ministers, Etc. xli

agency to a parliamentary government with an heredi-
tary regulative agency." Walpole had been the leading
member of the cabinet from 1715 to 17I7, and held
the premiership from 1721 to 1742. After a short
interval, he was succeeded by Henry Pelham, who held
the office until his death in 1754. Pelham was a
younger brother of the duke of Newcastle who, for
thirty years, had been one of the secretaries of state, as
will appear in the following list.


(Not designated as "Northern" or Southern" until 1702)

Under Charles II.

1660 Sir Edward Nicholas
1662 Sir Henry Bennet (created
earl of Arlington in
1668 (Continued)
1672 (Continued)
1674 Sir Joseph Williamson
1678 Robert, earl of Sunderland
1680 (Continued)
1681 Edward, Lord Conway
1683 Robert, earl of Sunderland
1684 (Continued)
1684 (Continued)

Sir William Morrice

Sir John Trevor
Henry Coventry
Sir Leoline Jenkins
Sidney Godolphin
Charles, earl of Middleton

Under James II.

1685 Robert, earl of Sunderland

Richard, Viscount Preston

Under William and Mary

Charles, earl of Shrewsbury
Henry, Viscount Sidney
Sir John Trenchard

Daniel, earl of Nottingham
Charles, earl of Shrewsbury


English Secretaries of State



Edward, earl of Jersey
Charles, earl of Manchester

Under Queen Anne
Northern Southern
1702 Sir Charles Hedges (Con- Daniel, earl of Nottingham
1704 (Continued) Robert Harley (earl of
1706 Charles, earl of Sunderland (Continued)
1707 (Continued) Henry Boyle (Lord Car-
1710 William, Lord Dartmouth St. John (Lord Boling-
1713 William Bromley (Continued)

Under George I.
Northern Southern
1714 James Stanhope (later earl) Charles, Viscount Towns-
1716 Paul Methon (acting for (Continued)
1717 Charles, earl of Sunderland Joseph Addison
1718 James, Earl Stanhope James Craggs
1721 Charles, Viscount Towns- John, Lord Carteret
1723 Robert Walpole (Continued)
1724 (Continued) Thomas Pelham, duke of

Under George II.
Northern Southern
1727 Charles, Viscount Towns- Duke of Newcastle (con-
hend tinued)
1730 William, Lord Harrington (Continued)
1742 John, Lord Carteret (Continued)
1744 William, Lord Harrington (Continued)

Sir William Trumbull
James Vernon
Sir Charles Hedges

English Chronology, Etc.



Charles II.
James II.
William and Mary
William III.
George I.
George II.

1689- 1697 King William's War
Ended by Treaty of Ryswick
1702-1713 Queen Anne's War
(Spanish Succes-
Ended by Treaty of Utrecht
1744-1748 King George's War
(Austrian Succes-
Ended by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle


(Names of English Monarchs are printed in bold-face type.)
James I.

Charles I.

Charles II. James II.
1660-x685 1685-1688

Mary, m. Anne James
William III. 1702-1714
of Orange
and became
Mary II.
of England

Mary, m.
William II.
of Orange

William III.
of Orange
m. Mary, dau. of
James II.
and became
William III.
of England

Elizabeth, m. Frederick,
the elector-palatine

Sophia, m.
Ernest Augustus,
the elector of

George, the
elector of
George I.
of England

George II.




1694- 1702




A History of the United States
and its People

THE COLONIES: 1660-1745





ROM the darkness ; x I 6 6 3
that we have 6 9 E
allowed to hang wno-
over the domain in which
Ayllon stole Indian slaves f.
and Ribault and Ralegh
vainly planted, twin stars ..
were emerging. As early ,
as I609, the Virginia settle-
ments extended to the .ORXT 11 C 0 I
Nansemond River; in
1622, the fruitful lands on
the Chowan River were soUT
explored and, in 1629, oAROLiN o"'-' ,..
Charles I. granted to Sir .
Robert Heath lands south r ,
( T a irtrlkn To* n
of Virginia, a domain five .0
degrees of latitude in 3-,
width and extending from !' A T L A .T rI
sea to sea. This grant of Caroiana
Carolana remained a dead o c E A X
letter and, in 1663, the August 12-22
king in council ordered I
that the attorney-general
proceed forthwith "in the ...,.,
revoking all former Letters T
patent and grants of the Map of the South Atlantic Coast

2 Carolina

I 6 6 2 said Province." The Virginia assembly encouraged
I 6 6 3 settlements in that region and, on the first of March,
1662, an Indian chief granted lands between the Chowan
precinct and the sea to George Durant; "Durant's
Neck" still holds its place in the geographies and
Proprietary James I. had given the island of Barbados to the earl
Provinces of Marlboro. Charles I. ignored the gift and included
June 2, 1629 Barbados in a grant of all the Caribbean Islands to the
earl of Carlisle. In 1629, came the Carolana grant; in
1632, the grant of Maryland to Lord Baltimore; and,
in 1639, the grant of Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges.
No charters were granted by Cromwell but the restora-
tion brought its rewards for the faithful friends of royalty
and the proprietary province became the favorite form
The First of colonial establishment. In 1663, Charles II. gave to
harder eight gentlemen about his court a county palatine extend-

Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina
ing from "the north end of the Island called Lucke-
Island, which lieth in the Southern Virginia Seas, and
within six and thirty degrees of the Northern Latitude
March 24, and to the West as far as the South Seas, and so South-
I666April early as far as the river St. Matthias [Saint Marys], which
bordereth upon the coast of Florida, and within one and

Carolina 3

thirty degrees of Northern Latitude, and so west in a I 6 6 3
direct line as far as the South Seas aforesaid." I 6 6 4
The patentees who thus became proprietors and sov- The Carolina
ereigns, for it might almost be said that neither the rights Patentees
of the crown nor the liberties of the people were with-
held, were "our right trusty and right well beloved
cousins and counsellors," the earl of Clarendon, the duke
of Albemarle, William, Lord Craven, John, Lord Berke-
ley, and his younger brother Sir William Berkeley, then
the governor of Virginia, Sir John Colleton, Sir George
Carteret, and Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, now better
known as the earl of Shaftesbury.
Edward Hyde had been a confidential counselor of Faithful
Charles I. and the chief adviser of his son while the latter Royalists
was in exile. In I66o, he became
lord chancellor of England and
prime minister of Charles II.
In I661, he became the first earl
of Clarendon a royal reward
for fidelity. Lord Berkeley had
been another faithful follower of
the prince in exile. William
Berkeley had held Virginia firm
in loyalty to the house of Stuart
while, for his treason to the
commonwealth, General Monk
had been created duke of Albe- Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon
marle. The head and hand of the Carolina patentees
was Anthony Ashley Cooper, the chancellor of the
exchequer. The names of the king and his precious
eight may be found upon the Carolina map today.
The proprietors soon authorized Sir William Berkeley Albemarle
to institute local government in the North Carolina September 8,
region which took the name of Albemarle. These plan- '663
stations were chiefly northeast of the river Chowan and,
as the mouth of that river is north of the thirty-sixth
parallel, they were not included in the Carolina patent.
In 1664, William Drummond was appointed governor
and an Albemarle assembly was instituted. This assem-

4 Carolina

I 6 6 4 bly, probably the first in Carolina and often called the
I 6 6 5 "grand assembly," met late in 1664 or early in 1665.
Clarendon In the summer of 1663, the proprietors offered certain
August 25 "declarations and proposals" to planters who would settle
in their territory. These "proposals" as well as the
"concessions" of the seventh of January, 1665, were
very liberal and especially democratic for the seventeenth
century. The "concessions" contemplated the division
of the province into eight counties, each to be named for
one of the proprietors; the country from the Cape Fear
to the Saint Johns River was called the county of Clar-
endon. Then several Barbados planters bought from the
Indians a tract of land thirty-two miles square, up the
Cape Fear River. John Yeamans, one of the planters,
January II, was knighted and made governor of this second Carolina
1664-6s colony. Yeamans led several hundred settlers from Bar-
bados and began a town on the south bank of the river.
By 1666, the plantation had a population of eight hun-
dred. In the following year, most of the colonists
abandoned the town.
The Second The Carolina charter of 1663 was granted before the
Carolina formal forfeiture of the Carolana patent to Sir Robert
Heath. After the annulling of that grant, the Carolina
June 3o-july proprietors obtained another patent that crowded further
o0, 1665 both the Virginians and the Spanish. The new charter
granted the territory from "the degrees of twenty-nine
inclusive northern latitude" to a certain straightt westerly
line which lies within or about the degrees of
thirty-six, and thirty minutes northern latitude, and so
west in a direct line as far as the South-seas."
The Carolina With the soil went the sovereignty, limited by a mild
palatinate allegiance to the crown. There were other differences
between the grant of 1663 and that of 1665, but not
enough to change the fact that the Carolina palatinate
differed from that of Maryland chiefly in the number
of proprietors. The favored eight might establish
cities and counties, baronies and manors, and confer
orders of nobility, provided they were unlike those used
in England. They might levy war upon their enemies

tfHe QUXE.NE nMol
>i M~PribnAh

14n ,J l ,

~.ff k

crihe T/BIJIf C VPIRC n r.
w.th the FRE VtCwndJ eNft/ .lJt
SETTLCAE.TJ'adjacentl ihew

8 As 84 d*3 Az

SI ',. "r '.. i .',re ,,r, . I r

Carolina 5

and do the several things therein implied. The patent i 6 6 5
contained a remarkable provision in favor of those who
could not "conform to the public exercise of religion
according to the
liturgy, form, and C
ceremonies of the
Church of Eng-
land." Such per-
sons were to enjoy
freedom of con-
science, "the y
behaving them-
selves peaceably,
and not using this


Autographs of the

Lords Proprietors of Carolina

liberty to licentiousness, nor to the civil injury or out-
ward disturbance of others." The way was clear for
philosophy or fancy and Locke's "Grand Model" was
Lord Ashley could, with equal ease, flatter a crowd or John Locke
court a king. He had the wisdom early to appreciate
John Locke and became his patron and intimate friend.
Locke became Ashley's political adherent and able helper.
Careful student as he was of Bacon's analysis of nature
and Descartes's analysis of thought, Locke adopted from
tradition or framed in fancy notions which, by their
absurdity, amaze as often as they fail to excite a smile.

, /-A";e --


6 Carolina

I 6 6 3 The first set of "The Fundamental Constitutions of
I 6 6 9 Carolina" was finished in 1669. By these eighty-one
The articles, the eight proprietors were made a close cor-
Fundamental portion of
July 2 -31 ~ hereditary sov-
Snereigns, "self-
S, renewing and
The last of
this original set
provided that
these constitu-
tions "and
every part
thereof, shall
be and remain
the sacred and
form and rule
of government
of Carolina for-
ever." Still,
a second set,
one hundred
y and twenty in
number, was
March I-i, issued in 1670,
1669-70 and others fol-
lowed until five
sets had been framed. The code was repeatedly rejected
and the formal consent of the settlers never was given.
The contest was kept up until 1702. The discussions
involved in the struggle cleared colonial ideas of political
Territory, The provisions of the Carolina charter of 1663 present
Titles, and marked differences from those of the Rhode Island and
villeinage the Connecticut charters granted about the same time, a
good illustration of the easy disposition of the king.
The Carolina constitutions magnified these differences.

Carolina 7

The eldest proprietor was to be palatine of the I 6 6 3
province a king on a small scale. For his seven associ- I 6 6 9
ates, seven high offices were provided. The territory was
to be divided into counties and each county was to have
one landgrave (Carolinian synonym for earl) and two
caciques (i. e., barons). The legislative power was vested A wise
in a non-existent nobility and an uncreated landed aristoc- Man's Folly
racy; the judiciary was placed beyond the reach of popu-
lar influence. Provision was made for the voluntary
registry of leet-men or serfs-an intended revival of a
moribund English institution. Leet-men and leet-women
might not leave the lands of their leet-lords without
license under hand and seal. All in all, Locke's funda-
mental constitutions, as an attempt to connect political
power with hereditary rank and wealth, has no equal in
American history. It was a crude expression of the reac-

tionary sentiment of
the English restora-
While Locke was
building his grand
model, the settlers of '
Albemarle were fram-
ing such regulations as
they found themselves
to need. Fresh emi-
grants came from New
England and the Ber-
mudas and soon there
were settlements all
along the north shore
of the sound. The
earlier haphazard I
methods of the patent-
ees had given way to L
the general plan of the
"concessions of 1665.
ment, each colony or
distinctk" government.

Growth and

l l


...-. m- ,
,F U N LA M; ?^i,^



m ,. ". '. ,n
Half-title of Locke's Fundamental Constitutions
By the provisions of this docu-
county was to have its own
In October, 1667, Samuel

8 Carolina

I 6 6 7 Stephens was commissioned as governor of Albemarle,
I 6 6 9 successor to William Drummond, and a very simple form
of government was put in operation. The executive
consisted of the gov-
Sernor and a council.
As the councilors were
appointed by the gov-
ernor, the independ-
ence of the latter was
not seriously impaired
by the nominal divi-
sion of power. The
,. assembly was com-
a* posed of the gov-
S. ernor, the council, and
S twelve delegates from
,. the freeholders of the
_41' infant settlements.
'' Drummond returned
to Virginia where, in
the next decade, he
was hanged, as will be
more fully told in the
following chapter.
Debtors, Last Page of the Fundamental Constitutions, In 1669, this gov-
Ministers, and Containing Rules of Precedency ernment ex emptied
new settlers from taxation for a year and granted lands
to all who would live on them. Albemarle was made a
refuge for absconding debtors and marriage became a
civil contract easy of execution. Ministers were few and
matrimony must be encouraged. Traffic with the Indi-
ans was restricted and a tax of thirty pounds of tobacco
was assessed on every lawsuit, whereby revenue for the
expenses of the governor and council was provided
and needless litigation checked. These sufficient laws
remained in effect for more than half a century.
Council and In 1669, the patentees began their formal organization
Legislature by the creation of the palatine's court. After that, the
governor of Albemarle was the immediate representative

ct. .--..s-ji



rr i

~I rr

~If d .1

S1 Carolina

I 6 6 9 of the palatine. Each of the other proprietors had his
1 6 7 0 resident deputy and the concurrence of at least three of
these was necessary to give validity to executive action.
For a time, there was an ordinary council consisting of
five deputies of the proprietors and five members chosen
by the legislative assembly but it was abolished in 1691,
after which functions of administration devolved on the
governor and the proprietary deputies. When the "grand
model" was forwarded to Albemarle, it was rejected by
the colonists; its enforcement seems hardly to have been
seriously attempted. There was no room for a court of
heraldry among the scattered cabins of this embryo North
Discontent in In the meantime, the proprietors were making a direct
Albemarle attempt to plant a colony further south, of which more
hereafter. Then came a time of general discontent in
Albemarle. The navigation act was working mischief
with the affections of the colonists just as it was all along
the American seaboard. It was declared that the more
aristocratic southern colony was being favored at the
expense of the northern and rumored that Albemarle
was to be turned over to the hated Sir William Berkeley
as its sole proprietor. The recent grant of Virginia to
Arlington and Culpeper was well known and gave color
to the rumor of unwelcome annexation.
In the Fog The colonial records of this period are very vague and
the successive changes in governmental affairs are not to
be traced with ease or certainty. The duke of Albe-
marle had been elected the first palatine in October,
1669. He having died, the Carolina proprietors held a
January 30, meeting on the twentieth of the following January.
1670, n. s. Lord Berkeley being the eldest in years of the surviving
proprietors succeeded him [Albemarle] and was admitted
the second pallatin of Carolina." The record of this
meeting shows that the new palatine "commissionated
Samuell Stephens to be his Deputy and Governor of
Albemarle." It is probable that, for part of 1670 at
least, Peter Carteret acted as governor of Albemarle
under the first palatine and that he was superseded by

Carolina 11

the second palatine's appointment of Stephens, as above I 6 7 0
recorded. At all events, Carteret's official term was short I 6 7 7
and Stephens came again into the chief magistracy. In
this waste of uncertainty is one solid fact there were a
rapidly changing succession of governors or acting gov-
ernors and a kaleidoscopic political drama, largely comedy
and farce.
In 1676, the Albemarle assembly sent its speaker, Cupid
Thomas Eastchurch, to England to seek redress for
grievances. Thomas Miller, who had been charged with
sedition in Carolina and carried to Virginia for trial, also
went to demand satisfaction for his wrongs. The pro-
prietors promised not to part with Albemarle and
appointed Eastchurch governor. Miller was made
Shaftesbury's Carolina deputy and secretary of the prov-
ince and received from the crown a commission as col-
lector of the customs.
The new governor and the
secretary sailed together
for Carolina but stopped
at the West Indies on the
way. Here Eastchurch
fell in love and lingered
and deputed Miller to rule
for him at Albemarle.
Miller reached the prov-
ince in July, 1677, to
enter upon the duties of
his triple office as gov-
ernor, secretary, and col-
Miller found at Albe- Cupidity
marle a motley popula-
tion of planters, New
England traders, and Vir-
ginia fugitives whom the Sir George Carteret
suppression of Bacon's rebellion had driven from the
Old Dominion. Carolina had refused to give up the
"runaways, rogues, and rebels" at Virginia's demand.

12 Carolina

I 6 7 7 Miller tried to enforce the navigation acts and from the
I 6 8 9 commerce of the colony wrung an annual revenue equiva-
lent to twelve thousand dollars. The enormous burden
hastened an insurrection under the leadership of John
Culpeper, a demagogical surveyor-general who had fled
northward from the hangman at Charles Town. The
governor and council were imprisoned, a new govern-
ment was organized, and money that Miller had col-
lected for the king was seized.
Sothell in Then came a decade of chronic insurrection in which
Albemarle the leading part was played by Seth Sothell who, having
become one of the proprietors by purchase from Lord
Clarendon, had been commissioned as governor of
Albemarle. On his outward journey, Governor Sothell
was captured by the Turks and taken to Algiers. He
escaped from captivity and reached the colony in 1683.
It would have been better for the colonists and the pro-
prietors had the Turks kept better watch. After five
years' endurance of Sothell's misrule, the colonists
1688 wrought his bloodless deposition and again appealed to
the proprietors, who appointed Colonel Philip Ludwell in
1689 Sothell's place until the matter could be investigated.
Sothell suddenly appeared in southern Carolina just in
time to take the lead in a ripening revolution.
Old Charles Soon after they had commissioned Sir John Yeamans
Town, 66as governor of Clarendon, the proprietors began prepa-
rations for planting a new colony. By August, 1669,
they had three ships with emigrants and stores ready
to sail from England. Joseph West was commissioned
as governor and commander-in-chief until the arrival of
the fleet at Barbados. In October, Sir John Yeamans
wrote, in a commission that had been sent to him in blank
for that purpose, the name of William Sayle as governor
of the new colony. After serious maritime disasters, the
February z6, emigrants moved on to Port Royal. In March, their
1670, o.s. remaining boats rode the waters where Ayllon's ships and
Ribault's fleet had anchored years before. Here the
colonists chose five "freemen" members of the council,
five others being named by the proprietors. The

Carolina 13

Spaniards were not far distant and the beautiful bay was I 6 7 o
easily accessible from the sea; the governor and council
thought it prudent to seek another site for their settle-
ment. In April, they moved up the coast and, about
three miles from the mouth of the Ashley (Kiawah)
River at "the first high land convenient for pasturage /'
and tillage" (Albemarle Point), laid the founda-
tions of the first Charles Town, the third '
Carolina colony.
The governor had been in-
structed to summon the free- / '
holders to choose twenty ./ w .
persons who, with the -
deputies, were to con-
stitute a parliament, The D,.:ii.r,
but the paucity of '. '
the people and the .. .'
want of landgraves ca;-. .
and caciques made it ..
impossible to put the grand model into practice. So,
in spite of the efforts of the earliest strict construc-
tionist party of South Carolina, the governor and council
governed by "instructions" from the proprietors. John
Locke, James Carteret, and Sir John Yeamans were made
landgraves but, from the beginning, there was a political
feud between the proprietors and the people. Although
the province was not authoritatively divided until 1729,
its people had already practically divided it into North
and South Carolina, and it is best that we should begin
to call them so.
Governor Sayle did not live long; upon his death-bed, The First
he nominated Joseph West to act in his stead until the Negro Slaves
proprietary pleasure could be ascertained. In the sum-
mer of 1671, Sir John Yeamans came to live at Charles
Town, bringing the first negro slaves into the colony.
The blacks soon outnumbered the whites two to one, a
ratio that had no parallel north of the West Indies. In
1672, four of the eight proprietors were members of the
Royal African company of England of which James, the

14 Carolina

I 6 7 I duke of York, was the head. This association of Ashley,
I 6 7 2 Craven, Carteret, and Colleton with the slave trade has a
peculiar significance when it is remembered that the fun-
damental constitutions assumed the existence of negro
slavery in Carolina several
i (- years before the first impor-
V' Vc station was made.
Yeamans t Before the death of Gov-
SucceedsWest ernor Sayle, it had been
<, ,' reported that the proprie-
.. "-. .o tors would appoint Sir John
rL. Yeamans as governor.
.-a ...caraes Town "The people did not incline
Harbo' to salute him [Yeamans]
Governor," and West
_reported to Lord Ashley
that the hint "doth breed
Map of Charles Town Harbor a very great dissatisfaction."
August 21, But the appointment was made as foreshadowed and
167mer 6 Lord Ashley wrote to West that the change was due not
December 16
to any dissatisfaction with him but because the nature
of the government required that a landgrave should be
preferred to any commoner. The new governor was
proclaimed at Charles Town on the nineteenth of April,
1672, and the freemen were summoned to elect a new
parliament on the following day.
West Succeeds The new administration took up the important work
Yeamans of surveying the granted lands, making records thereof,
and laying out
a town on the
site of the pres-
ent Charleston.
The proprie-
tors com-
plained of the
Autograph of Joseph West ex pense and
soon heard of Yeamans's attempt to grasp the government
April 23, before he had received his commission. Lord Ashley,
1672 now the earl of Shaftesbury, sent a "masterpiece of


composition" in remonstrance and rebuke. In the mean- I 6 7 2
time, West was made a cacique and continued in the
employ of the proprietors. Before long, they issued a
governor's commission to West April 25,
"as the fittest man for this 1674
trust." When, a few May xs
weeks later, they for-
warded the commis-
sion, they sent with
it a patent as land-
grave. Yeamans
had already taken
himself in feeble
health and robust
estate back to Bar-
bados where he
died in August.
In 1672, the pro- Dutch and
prietors had author- tFrench
ized a random scatter-
ing of titles and hereditary
rights; whoever furnished
Carolina with six hundred
men should be a land-
grave. The few emigrants
sent out were, for the
greater part, ill fitted for
successful pioneers and the Anthony Ashley Cooper
colony kept up a steady drain upon the treasury of the
discontented proprietors. But West was moderate and
wise and the condition of affairs was soon changed for
the better. When confidence was established, emigrants
were willing to go at their own expense and men of estate
to venture. When New Netherland fell, many Dutch
colonists moved thence to South Carolina; their prosperity
there led many of their race from the Old World to the
New. Huguenots sought there a refuge from persecu-
tion as they had done in Coligny's time and infused some
of their peculiarly emotional temperament into South


I 6 7 2 Carolinian character. The names of some of their
I 6 8 o descendants are inseparably connected with American
A New The point of land between the two rivers that, in
Charles Town honor of Shaftesbury, were named the Ashley and the
Cooper was known as Oyster Point. It was soon seen

April 30,


"j -j

...r.i.- Not townhouse har s n. d oth' .- ..

,.n,. i c,-. .' ,,r. P ti L .c.r w s . oo :. ." i.

nial port' I. 6 the ol o as orly aban
Order of Governor and Councilto lay ut Charle Town, dated April 3 67

that old Charles Town was too far up-stream and

uses were reserved, and, on the orner where now stands
Saint Michael's, Saint Philip's church was soon built.
The new town grew rapidly and became the chief colo-
nial port. In 168o, the old town was formally aban-
doned as the seat of government. The new provincial
capital was known as Charles Town or Charlestown until

after the Revolution.
The fundamental constitutions committed to the grand
council the power "to make peace and war, leagues and

treaties with any of the neighboring Indians." Acting
under this constitutional authority, the council had already
declared war against the tribesmen. The governor was
an able leader and the colonists were well armed. Indian
captives were sold into West Indian bondage to provide

Carolina 17

means for carrying on the war, and the red barbarians I 6 8 o
soon were glad to make terms. When, in violation of I 6 8 2
the treaty of peace, the profitable traffic was continued
and the proprietors forbade the kidnapping, the governor
and his council openly ignored the prohibition. Then
the proprietors traded a few glittering trinkets and bright-
colored cloths and ribbons for land tenures that reached
as far as the Appalachian Mountains. As the grantor
caciques occupied only the lowland country while the
northwest portion of the province was possessed by the
powerful Cherokees, "the chief value of the deeds was
as a color of title against other possible European
No proprietary policy was more energetic and success- South
ful than that which gave reality and importance to town Carolina
life and prevented the Carolina settlers from establishing Prospe
scattered plantations as they did in Virginia. The tide
of emigration still was strong and Charles Town attained
a degree of importance and completeness unknown in any
other city of the southern colonies. The proprietary adver-
tisements gave pleasing accounts of the healthfulness of
the country and the progress of the colony. The winters
were so mild that there was no need of providing fodder
and the proprietary rent for lands was so small that "an
ox was raised with almost as little expense in Carolina as
a hen is in England." Living was cheap, soil productive,
and wild game plenty. Governor West "was distin-
guished for his piety as well as for his justice and mod-
eration," but he exported Indian slaves purchased from
the neighboring Indian tribes. This interference with
what they considered one of their own perquisites gave
offense to the proprietors and, for this and for another
reason soon to be mentioned, they resolved to depose him.
The breaking out of a "Popish terror" in England and Scottish
the possibility of the accession of a Roman Catholic to Accessions
the throne caused many influential nonconformists to
turn their thoughts westward. For their encourage-
ment, the Carolina proprietors announced several modifi- May so,
cations of the fundamental constitutions. A few months '68S

18 Carolina

I 6 8 2 later, another set was sent out "at the request of certain
I 6 8 3 Scots and other considerable persons." To each set, the
people were solemnly required to subscribe; to neither
of them was any recogni-
tion subsequently given.
Among the leaders of
these migrating English
dissenters was Joseph
Morton. Five hundred
such immigrants arrived
in Carolina in a single
month and in two years
the population of the
colony was doubled.
Chiefly to encourage this
important movement,
Morton was made a land-
grave in 1681 and com-
missioned governor on
the eighteenth of May,
Nullification In May, 1682, the
George Monk, Duke of Albemarle proprietors had divided
South Carolina into three counties. Craven County joined
Berkeley County on the north and Colleton County on
the south. Hitherto the twenty members of the parlia-
ment had been chosen by election held at the provincial
capital, but the proprietors now ordered that elections
should be held on the same day in Berkeley and in Col-
leton counties, each to choose ten members. Craven
County was so sparsely settled that it was given no rep-
resentation. The provision of an additional voting-place
was a convenience, but the assignment of as many
deputies to Colleton as to the more populous Berkeley
was unfair. It is not certain that Morton had received
September, these instructions when he convoked the assembly but
'683 the election was held at Charles Town as usual. To allow
the proprietors to change the election precincts and to
make the apportionment of representatives was incon-

Carolina 4 19

sistent with popular government and the germ of nullifi- I 6 8 3
cation was in Charles Town ahead of the proprietary
About the time that the new parliament assembled at A
Charles Town, the proprietors wrote to Governor Mor- Gubernatorial
ton repeating their instructions and directing that, if the Kaleidoscope
election had been held at Charles Town only, the parlia-
ment should be dissolved and a new election ordered.
When this letter was received by the governor, the legis-
lature was dissolved. In April, 1684, the proprietors
removed Morton and appointed Sir Richard Kyrle of
Ireland in his place. Kyrle died within a few months
after his arrival in the country and the council again
chose Joseph West. As West was absent from the
province, the second choice of the council fell upon
Robert Quarry, the secretary of the province. Quarry,
of whom we shall
hear more in later
chapters, was soon September I,
charged with har- 1684
boring pirates.
Although the truth
of the charge is still
denied, the proprie-
tors issued a com- March 12,
mission to Joseph 1684=
West. In the fol- 1685
lowing September,
West resumed the
office that two years
before he had
resigned to Morton.
A Pdmirate
navies were but ., ..... ...O.... Admiral
feebly nationalized
and the line of sepa- Henry Morgan
ration between privateering and piracy was not clearly cut.
The most famous of the seventeenth century successors
of Drake and Ralegh was Henry Morgan, who gathered


I 6 8 2 a fleet of nearly twoscore sail, captured forts, pillaged
towns, bore off prisoners by the hundred and piastres by
the million:
Stripped the church and monastery,
Racked the prior for his gold,
With the traders' wives made merry,
Lipped the young and mocked the old.

The self-styled "admiral" was called to England to
answer the complaints of the Spanish court and, through


Morgan's Destruction of the Spanish Armada at Maracaibo
the royal whim, became Sir Henry Morgan and deputy-
governor of Jamaica where he married and "ended his
days in peace."
Piracy and Carolina was settled just when bucaneering was at the
Profit height of its power. The inlets on the Carolina coast
afforded to these adventurers a safe refuge from pursuit
and convenient snug harbors in which to strip their
prizes, to repair and refit their craft, to plan their infa-
mous schemes, and possibly to bury their ill-gotten
treasures. Charles Town was a convenient market and
the pirates were profitable customers. The statement of

Carolina 21

John Fiske and other historians that at Charles Town I 6 8 2
the bucaneers found an open port and a hearty welcome I 6 8 5
is vigorously denied by later historical writers of South
Carolina, one of
whom informs me
that "hundreds of
records in South
Carolina prove
[said reports] to
be absolutely
false." 120....
Governor West A..P., Exit
land thed p e el ou rnrWest
now found him- Wed t
self surrounded by s-
political difficulties o
of increased sever-
ity. The inhabit-
ants of Berkeley
County were
warmly opposed
to the injustice of
the parliamentary
The first funda- Engraved Title-page of the first Dutch Edition of
mental constit u- Esquemeling, x678
tions had provided for the tenure of land for the rental
of a penny an acre "or the value thereof." When, in
clear violation of the contract, payment of quit-rent in
money was demanded and the settlers urged that money
was scarce and proffered the merchantable produce of the
land, the proprietors replied, "We insist to sell our
lands in our own way." When the proprietors ordered
that the third set of the fundamental constitutions should
be put in practice, even the grand council protested.
Recognizing the impossibility of obeying his instructions
without incurring the enmity of the colonists, Governor
West became disheartened and gave up his office. The
council chose Morton as governor and, in September,
1685, the proprietors sent him a commission.

22 Carolina

atures to Oath of Allegiance to King James II.
and the Lords Proprietors, 1685

gation act of
Charles II. As
the Carolina char-
ter was granted
subsequently to
the passage of the
act in question,the
Carolina colonists
-strict construc-
tionists even then
-assumed that the
charter superseded
the statute, disre-
garded the king's
collector, and
traded as they
pleased, just as
they would have

Morton's second admin-
istration was short and
lively. Of the twenty com-
moners who were members
of the parliament that assem-
bled in November, 1685,
one was absent and twelve
refused to subscribe to the
fundamental constitutions.
' Morton turned the twelve
out of doors, leaving the
other seven representatives
of the people and the five
deputies of the pioprietors
to enact all the legislation of
the session. The next
important event was the
arrival of George Mus-
champ, the first collector of
the king's revenue and the
special guardian of the navi-

. ... .-.


La ~ ,,

S6 8 5
A King's

Carolina 23

done had the pretext not been found. James II. had I 6 8 3
already been proclaimed, the suppression of the proprie- I 6 8 6
tary governments had been determined upon and pro-
ceedings were then pending against the Massachusetts
charter. The action of the Carolina colonists therefore
agitated the proprietors, but the expected storm did not
In 1683, a Scotch colony of persecuted Presbyterians, Cardross at
led by Lord Cardross, made at Port Royal a settlement Port Royal
known as Stuart Town. At that time, Claverhouse was
enforcing in England the penal laws against Covenanters
and making his name odious. The Presbyterian pilgrims
had heard of Port Royal's excellent harbor but they did
not sufficiently consider its nearness to Saint Augustine.
In spite of the protection thus provided, the Charles
Town authorities received the Scotch exiles with little
favor. Discouraged by discourtesies, Lord Cardross soon
went back to Scotland-the end of a grand scheme for
planting ten thousand sturdy Covenanters in Carolina.
In the summer of 1686, three Spanish galleys suddenly The
appeared off Port Royal; in time of nominal peace, the Devastaing
Scottish settlement was laid waste. Many of the immi-
grants were killed, some returned to Scotland, and
others mingled with the planters of the counties further
north. The Carolinians resolved to carry the war into
Florida. The provincial parliament approved and aided
the bold project. Two vessels were
about to sail with four hundred men
for an attack on Saint Augustine when
James Colleton arrived at Charles Autograph of James Colleton
Town as governor of South Carolina. As Colleton
threatened to hang any one who persisted in the project,
the provincial expedition was given up.
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 685, Dissent and
"Carolina became a general rendezvous for French Division
Protestants." While a majority of the settlers were dis-
senters from the doctrine and authority of the Anglican
church, many adherents to the royal cause had come to
Carolina. As these cavaliers were generally preferred by

24 Carolina

I 6 8 6 the proprietors for offices of authority and trust, the
seeds of strife began not only to spring up but to grow
rank. One party stood in support of the proprietors'
prerogative; the other in defense of the people's rights.
One contended for implicit obedience to the laws received

Morden's Map of Carolina, 1687
from England; the other insisted that the colonists were
under obligation to observe such laws only so far as they
were consistent with their interests and the prosperity of
the province. With this double division between cava-
liers and dissenters and between colonists and proprietors,
no governor could long support his authority. Governor

Carolina 25

followed governor in rapid succession, no one holding I 6 8 6
office long enough to accomplish much for good or ill. I 6 9 o
Although the new chief magistrate was a landgrave Colleton and
and a brother of one of the proprietors, his career in His Troubles
South Carolina was unhappy. The proprietors com-
mended his suppression of the projected expedition against
Saint Augustine, but the people were indignant. Before
this excitement had died out, the king's collector seized a
vessel for violating the navigation act, the charge being April, 1687
that four-fifths of the crew were Scottish and not English.
The local court released the vessel and the matter was
referred to Powis, the attorney-general of England. In
the report of that official the proprietors thought they
saw a hint of danger to their charter. At the same time,
the more vigorously Colleton exerted his authority, the
more turbulent and riotous the people became.
A parliament was called in the fall of 1686. At that An Incipient
time, says Oldmixon, factions were "as rampant as if the Rebellion
people had been made wanton by many ages of pros-
perity." The South Carolina representatives defiantly
rejected the revised fundamental constitutions, unani-
mously declared that the government must be directed
solely according to the charters, and denied "that any
bill must necessarily pass the grand council before it can
be read in parliament." For this downright insubordi-
nation, the governor turned them out of doors in true
Cromwellian fashion, much as Morton had done in 1685.
When, in 1687, a new parliament was called, it proved
more intractable than its predecessor. As the deputies
insisted on proceeding according to the fundamental con-
stitutions, a procedure that the delegates would not toler-
ate, a legislative deadlock ensued. So violent was the
contention that for two years or more no laws were
passed. As the operation of the laws was limited to
twenty-three months, there was, in 1690, not one stat-
ute law in force in South Carolina. When Colleton A Helpless
attempted to collect arrears of quit-rents, the Carolina Governor
parliament imprisoned the provincial secretary, seized the
records, and defied the governor. Colleton declared

: ... ..- .
...... .... ..
'.'*. ..' **
.. .".

26 Carolina

1 6 9 o
1 6 9 1
Sothell in
South Carolina

martial law, but dissatisfaction was general, the militia was
unavailable, the governor was helpless.
For the overthrow of parliamentary government in
South Carolina, the great need was a leader. At this
crucial moment, Seth Sothell was freed from his Albe-
marle engagements by a decree of banishment. As one
of the Carolina proprietors, he claimed the right to act
as governor at Charles Town, a claim that was well sup-
ported by his certificate of September, 1681, and the
clause from the fundamental constitutions therein quoted.
The colonists had never recognized the fundamental con-
stitutions but, as the "unalterable" laws served their
present purpose, they waived the point; only with ill

( "

.. rI, A

"]'7 if ,eg

Autographs of Seth Sothell and his Council
grace could the proprietors offer an objection. Having
December, seized the South Carolina government, Sothell assembled
1690 a parliament of his adherents. In 1691, Colleton and
many of his council and supporters were disfranchised and
banished from South Carolina. "A queer spectacle it
was, the victim of one popular revolution becoming the
ringleader of another!" Sothell filled his coffers by wide-
spread confiscations and "oppression extended her iron
rod over the distracted colony." Meanwhile, the middle

S *.. 5 '
+_ . 5. 5 5.

Carolina 27

Carolina colony had been dwindling and, in 1690, Clar- I 6 9 o
endon was abandoned. I 6 9 I
In Barbados, a social order had been built upon The social
the basis of negro slavery. Thence Sir John Yeamans Foundation
brought the first negro slaves into South Carolina.
Many of the earliest settlers came from the same little
island bringing with them a fully developed colonial
society that exerted a dominating influence upon that of
Charles Town and therefore upon that of the province.
So many negro slaves were imported that few white
servants came of their own accord and, to this day, it is
a matter of local pride that "fewer criminals were sent to
Carolina than to other colonies." In 1691, the first slave
code of South Carolina was enacted, closely following
regulations lately enacted in Barbados. The worst fea-
ture of the code lay in the provisions that practically
placed the life and death of the slave in the hands of the
master without any protection for the black except such
as arose from the interest of his owner. South Caro-
linians still point us to the fact that the penal codes
under which white men then lived in England were
scarcely less harsh.



1 6 7 6 I E left the Old Dominion in peril of insurrec-
S6 9 I // tion; Governor Berkeley was driving even
An Oppressed V cavaliers into opposition. Virginia had no
People printing-press but Virginians knew, from personal experi-
ence and court-day gossip, that they were exorbitantly
taxed for the benefit of a few, that Berkeley and his
friends were growing richer, that there was little use in
an appeal to England, and (no trivial consideration)
that the governor was "old and hard of hearing, and was,
moreover, married to a young wife who was believed
to be the very devil of the whole situation." Added to
these home-made burdens were the lease of Virginia to
Culpeper and Arlington, an injustice to settlers who in
good faith had purchased lands, and the English naviga-
tion acts that were devouring the substance of the
planters. In 1667, Virginia tobacco sold for a halfpenny
per pound. European commodities had to be brought
in by way of England and prices were arbitrarily high.
The Virginia candle was burning at both ends for the
profit of about forty English merchants. To these
provocations now were added the horrors of Indian
Indian For thirty years, the Virginia Indians had been peace-
Depedati ful and the beaver trade had been profitable. About
this time, the Iroquois drove the Susquehannas southward
along both sides of the Potomac. Disputes and depre-
dations followed and, in the summer of 1675, the

"& I ^<- ~ as- J
FJ .-c- -IE W I ow_ _. -t,




30 Virginia-Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 7 6 Virginia and Maryland militia pursued and punished
"the heathen." A score or more of the Indians were
killed, some of them in disregard of a flag of truce, and
others escaped to the mountains. One night in January,
1676, nearly twoscore whites were murdered in the upper
settlements. Lieutenant-governor Chicheley prepared to
take the field with a force of five hundred men. At
the moment of its departure, the force was disbanded by
the governor. Berkeley's action was unaccountable to
the people except on the ground of self-interest, for he
held the profitable monopoly of the Indian traffic. In
his account of the troubles in Virginia, Nathaniel Bacon
says that the governor "granted licenses to others to
Berkeley trade wth ym for wch hee had every 3rd skinne." The
ake Acton exasperated populace declared that if the governor would
not defend them they would defend themselves.
While the King Philip war was raging in New Eng-
land, the Susquehannas and their allies were doing bloody
work along the Rappahannock and the James. In
seventeen days, one parish was reduced from seventy-one
plantations to eleven. In March, 1676, the Virginian
assembly met; it "was the old and rotten one chosen
fourteen years before," and it continued to do "what the
governor desired and what the people detested." The
settlers vainly begged the governor to appoint a com-
mander to lead them against the foe. When they heard
that a large body of Indians was within fifty miles of the
A Leader plantations, the citizens of Charles City County beat their
Wanted drums for volunteers. Here is a cause; this is the time;
where is the leader?
Nathaniel Nathaniel Bacon had been nursed in the fierce strifes
Bacon of the Cromwellian era. His address was pleasing and

quent. At the age of
about twenty-six, he
came with wealth of
Autograph of Nathaniel Bacon worldly goods to make
Virginia his home. He had an estate at Curies, just
below the old city of Henricus, and another at Bacon

Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion 3

Quarter Branch, a small stream within the suburbs of I 6 7 6
the present city of Richmond. In spite of his youth
and recent coming, he was soon honored with a seat in
the colonial council, of which his second cousin, Nathaniel
Bacon the elder, had long been a member. Although
he had never seen a hostile Indian, the younger Bacon's
neighbors repeatedly sought for him a commission to lead
them against the Indians but no commission came. In
the spring of 1676, when Bacon had been in Virginia less
than three years, the Indians killed three servants of
his neighbor, Captain Byrd, one of his own servants,
and the overseer of his upper estate. Bacon swore
vengeance for the murders and resolved to march
against the Indians with or without a commission.
As a leader, Bacon was distinctively of the frontier General
type-passionate, forceful, wilful-the avant-courier of Bacon
Sevier, Robertson, and Jackson. He was now persuaded,
perhaps easily, to cross the James River to see the volun-
teers assembled on the other side. As he came near,
they, after the old English fashion, set up a sudden
shout, "A Bacon, a Bacon!" Elected thus by acclama-
tion, he consented to lead in the defense of threatened
homes and in the recovery of lost liberties. The three
hundred volunteers wrote their names in a round-robin
and took an oath to stick fast to one another and to him.
They sent once more to Berkeley for a commission and
gave notice that if it did not come by a specified day they
would march without it. The day but no commission
came. Bacon was as good as his word and the expedition
moved. He was at once proclaimed a rebel, a price was
set upon his head, and they who followed him were put
under ban.
Berkeley had not forgotten the rebellion in England CasarCrosses
thirty years before. He seems to have recognized that the Rubicon
that was but the prototype of this, that Bacon was a
transplanted Cromwell. He therefore quickly raised a
force and set out in pursuit. Bacon says that "with
about 70 men only wch engaged and stood by me (y'
service being too hott for ye rest) wee fell upon a town

32 Virginia-Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 7 6 of ye Indians consisting of 3 forts strongly mann'd ..
Their king making a sally was killed wth most of his
men, soe yt wee reckned, wee destroyed about 1oo men
and 2 of their kings, besides women & children." The
fight, which lasted nearly a night and a day, was on an
island in the Roanoke River, near Clarkesville, Meck-
lenberg County. Mrs. Bacon wrote: "Never was such
a victory known in Virginia before." Thinking that the
Indian troubles were ended, the volunteers quickly dis-
persed. Berkeley and his gentlemen had not had the
stomach to follow the "rebels" into the Indian country
May 1o but the governor issued another proclamation and deposed
Bacon from the council and from his office as magistrate.
So far as Virginia is concerned, the next twenty weeks
with Bacon make richer history than twenty years of the
English commonwealth and of the restoration.
Berkeley When Berkeley left his capital to follow Bacon, the
Arrests Bacon lower counties rose in arms and demanded the immedi-
ate dissolution of the oft-prorogued assembly. Brought
back by this fire in the rear, Berkeley made a merit of
May x8 necessity, dissolved the old assembly, and issued writs
for a new election. Bacon was unanimously chosen a
burgess from Henrico County and with him a majority
pledged to support the principles of which he was the
recognized exponent. The representatives assembled on
the fifth of June, 1676, and chose as speaker, Thomas
Godwin, an open friend to all "the rebellion and treason
which distracted Virginia." Bacon had been arrested on
his way to the assembly but he gave his parole and
took his seat with the other burgesses. The executive
clemency was wise, for men from the upper settlements
quickly moved "with dreadful threatening to double
revenge all wrongs."
Berkeley The reconciliation of Berkeley and Bacon, the restora-
Forgives Bacon tion of the latter to his seat in the council, and the
promise of a commission for ending the Indian war dis-
persed the excited up-countrymen who had crowded into
Jamestown. But Bacon did not get the commission and
seems to have feared intended treachery and arrest. He

Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion 33

therefore "took the next horse," to use his own expres- I 6 7 6
sion, escaped in the night, and, in spite of his parole,
appealed from the governor to his friends. A few days The Rebels
later, he reappeared at Jamestown with about five hun- occupy
dred armed "householders" and, without resistance, took Jamestown
possession of the city. The Virginia masses were siding
with Bacon and they had the active sympathy of Richard
Lawrence, an Oxford scholar who had lost an estate by
an unjust decision of Berkeley on the bench, and of
William Drummond, the hard-headed Scotchman who
had been governor of the North Carolina colony of Albe-
marle. Naturally enough, Virginians of fortune hesitated
at any act that would put their estates in jeopardy.
Although the white servants who every year passed out
of bondage and received each his fifty acres of land con-
stituted a formidable democracy, the great influx of
cavaliers that began in 1649 had been followed by a
tendency toward oligarchical government. The efforts
of the "Bacon assembly" to check this tendency and the
fact that a majority of the wealthy and influential men in
the Old Dominion were arrayed against Bacon, should
stand for study side by side. In great degree, Bacon's
cause was the cause of the humble folk against the
grandees, as the rich planters were called; the democracy
of the frontier against the aristocracy of the tide-water
On receipt of the rumor that Bacon was coming, the Berkeley's
governor had summoned the train-bands of York and Defiance
Gloucester. This call set in slow motion only "one
hundred shoulders and not one half of them sure neather,"
and the "rebels" were in Jamestown before the loyal army
was in sight. Bacon entered the Virginia capital in
early afternoon while the governor and his council were
in session and, with little loss of time, paraded his troops
in front of the state-house. Berkeley came upon the
green and told Bacon before his men that he was a
rebel and should have no commission. The burgesses
crowded to the windows of their "long room" as the
governor marched up and down between the lines of

34 Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 7 6 Bacon's troops and in his fury bared his breast and bade
them shoot. "'Fore God, a fair mark! Shoot!"
Berkeley's When Berkeley's pyrotechnic display had ended,
concession Bacon's began. The people shouted, "The commission,
we will have it!" and Bacon ordered his men to aim their
guns at the crowded windows. As the men cocked their
guns, a pacifick handkercher was shaken out." Berke-
ley yielded, Bacon got his commission, and the assembly
passed an act of amnesty. Then, for once, the wheels of
legislation moved rapidly. The monopoly of the Indian
trade was broken, the close corporation of the parish was
thrown open, arbitrary taxation by irresponsible magis-
trates was put away, natural rights were restored to dis-
franchised freemen, protection was thrown around the
ballot-box, and the governor and his council ratified the
The Bacon legislation of the assembly. The "Bacon's laws," enacted
Laws at gun-muzzle, have been called an oasis in the Virginia
legislation of the seventeenth century. That legislation
was completed, according to the new style of computation,
on the fourth day of July, 1676. The Virginia rebellion
was the prophecy of the American revolution.
violation of Before the completion of this legislation, there came a
role and report of Indian murders on the York River, only
twenty-three miles from the capital and forty miles within
the line of the Indian frontier. The next day, Bacon
marched for the falls of the James River (Richmond),
preparatory to a raid upon the Indians in the Pamunkey
country. No sooner were the general and his men out
of Jamestown than the governor crossed the York, mus-
July 29 tered the militia of the peninsula, and proclaimed Bacon
and his soldiers rebels and traitors. Drummond bore
the news to Bacon, who called his troops together and
proposed that they turn back to face the governor. The
troops responded with enthusiasm. Berkeley's adherents
gathered in such feeble force that he, "with very grief
and sadness of spirit for so bad success, fainted away on
horseback" in 'their presence and fled across the
Bacon Chesapeake to Accomac which had always remained
Governor r a a
de fact loyal. Bacon, now practically dictator and governor

Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion 35

de facto, established his headquarters at Middle Plan- I 6 7 6
station (now Williamsburg), a few miles north of James-
Bacon sent out an invitation to "the gentlemen of Vir- A Virginia
ginia to come in and consult with him for the present Convention
settlement of his majesty's distracted colony." "None
were willing to sit idle in the time of general calamity" August 3
and the leading men of Virginia answered the call. They
took an oath to support Bacon against the Indians; to
protect him against any attempt that Berkeley might put
forth; and even to resist any troops that might come
from England, until an appeal could be made to the
king. The first two clauses met with no opposition, but
the third, which smacked of flat rebellion, caused a
"bloody debate" of twelve hours' duration. Just in the
nick of time, came a fresh Indian raid and the oath was
agreed to. The magistrates administered the obligation
to the people "none, or very few refusing," and writs
were issued for a new assembly. Bacon then led his
troops once more against the barbarians and won another
victory that put away for years the possibility of any
dangerous Indian war in Virginia.
Meanwhile, Bacon had seized ships and sent Giles Berkeley
Bland with a force across the Chesapeake to capture Retakes
Berkeley. It would have been better had he gone in Jamestown
person. Berkeley's adherents overpowered the sleeping
"rebels" and captured the fleet without firing a shot.
After adding sloops and smaller craft to the captured
four, Sir William sailed for Jamestown with a force of six
hundred, retook his capital without resistance, restored September 17
his friends to office, and, for a third time, indulged in the
proclamation of Bacon and his followers as rebels and
traitors. When Bacon came forth from the wilderness
with his little army exhausted by fatigue and want of
rations, he heard of Berkeley's return to Jamestown. He
promptly led his "wan and weather-beaten little company"
toward the doomed capital and threw up intrenchments
regardless of Berkeley's "three grate guns" and the fleet
close to shore.

36 Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 7 6 An old chronicle says that Bacon "thought it not
The White amiss, since the lion's strength was too weak, to strengthen
Aprons the same with the fox's brains. . For immediately
he despatcheth two or three parties of horse . to
bring into the camp some of the prime gentlewomen
whose husbands were in town; where, when arrived, he
sends one of them to inform her own and the others'
husbands for what purpose he had brought them into the
camp, namely, to be placed in the forefront of his men,
at such time as those in town should sally forth upon
him." The story of the white aprons and forlorn
husbands has been denied, but it probably is true. At all
events, when the governor's forces made a sudden assault,
they were "repulsed in a twinkling." Under cover of
the night, Berkeley's fleet dropped down the stream and
with them went the governor and his troops, the towns-
people and their goods.
Jamestown The fleet had anchored just below the town and Colonel
Burned Brent was advancing with a thousand royalists from the
northern plantations. Bacon's council of war determined
on burning the only town in Virginia that it might not
again give shelter to an enemy. The records were removed
September 19 and, at night, Drummond set fire to his own house as
Lawrence did to his. They were the best in town and
with them went the rest, even the church, the oldest in
Virginia, and the state-house, newly built, not more than
a score in all. The church-tower ruin still marks the
site of the church. From excavations made in 1903, it
appears that the state-house was at the eastern end of a
row of buildings of which it formed a part. It was a two-
story building, about seventy-four by twenty feet within
the walls. The foundations at the western end of the
row have been clipped by the sea-wall lately built by the
national government.
Bacon's Death Bacon hastened from Jamestown's smoking ruins and,
at Gloucester Point, made ready to receive the royalists
who, a thousand strong, were marching to attack him.
Young Cromwell commands the drums to beat and his
soldiers gather under their colors. They make hasty

Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion 37

preparation for an advance against the oncoming host. I 6 7 6
But Brent's ten hundred did not care to fight and Bacon
soon heard that they "were all run away and left him
[Brent] to shift for himself." Brent was "mightily
CopYlEgtL 1o0. by 4SamloLH. YsgE

ij n I E, ,. '*F s j | f.
Ir |l-.-.,._ $ | | I E 'S


.I I I A, o s E
4- I'll 0.


L..I L iI LJ
Plan of the Foundations of Jamestown Buildings
astonished." Even the Gloucester people took the oath
of fidelity to Bacon. Then malarious Jamestown wreaked
its vengeance upon its destroyer. Exposure brought on
an illness and, at the very floodtide of victory, "all his
strength and provisions being spent, [Bacon] surrendered
up the Fort he was no longer able to keepe, into the
hands of the grim and all conquering Captaine Death."
The date of the death of this four months' meteor is
variously stated by authorities that I have consulted.
The preponderance of evidence seems to indicate October
26, 1676, as the most probable date. As if fearing that
Berkeley might put some indignity upon the body, "the
thoughtful Mr. Lawrence" had the body buried with
great secrecy. When the royalists proposed to hang
Bacon's bones in chains upon a gibbet, the body could
not be found. The place of his burial is a secret that
time has not yet revealed.
When living, Bacon had been loved and hated with a Bacon's
fervor won by few; dead, his career and character have Character
been praised and vilified; to this day, there are opposing
views as to the merits of his restless life. For a hun-
dred and fifty years, historians grotesquely misrepresented
his character. Not long after the Revolution of 1776,

-- --

38 Virginia Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 7 6 it was found that an old Virginia family had certain
I 6 7 7 manuscripts, now known as the "Burwell Papers," evi-
dently written by one or more of Bacon's adherents and
casting much new light upon the man and upon the
events with which his name is connected. The tradi-
tional perversion is being cut away.
Berkeley's When the head fell, the hand withered. The rank and
Ferocity file of the insurgents promptly scattered to their homes,

C. ..

Foundations of Jamestown Buildings, Unearthed in 1903
while the speedy capture and execution of the lead-
ers added to the general panic. Berkeley's return was
accepted as a matter of course. The victorious governor
issued a proclamation of amnesty from which Drum-
mond, Lawrence, and others were excepted. Drumhead
courts-martial with short shrift were the order of the day.
Drummond was captured in the White Oak swamp,
January 2o, condemned at one o'clock, and hanged at four. The
1677 still "thoughtful Mr. Lawrence" escaped.
A Reign of Then fell upon the Old Dominion a veritable reign of
Terror terror. Berkeley visited imprisonment and banishment
upon his enemies and added greatly to his wealth by
February fines and confiscations. The assembly voted an address
praying "that the governor would spill no more blood"
and Charles II. affirmed that "the old fool had taken

Virginia-Bacon's Rebellion 39

away more lives in that naked country than I did here I 6 7 7
for the murder of my father." About this time, a fleet
brought a regiment of soldiers to quell the rebellion, the
first English troops introduced into the English colonies of
this continent. Colonels Herbert Jeffreys and Francis
Moryson and Sir John Berry also brought appointments
as royal commissioners of inquiry. Berkeley treated
the commissioners with mock courtesy and ignored their
authority; their
report was fatal
to the govern-
or's reputa-
tion. When Sir
William took
his departure, Exit Berkeley
guns were fired i cnu May 5
and bonfires
kindled and the 7'
people shouted -
till their throats c
were sore Ruins of Berkeley's Plantation
,well-worn safety-valves of pent-up ecstacy. In Eng-
land, he found his conduct bitterly censured in parlia-
ment and at court. He was broken-hearted and
disgraced and "dyed soon after without having seen
his Majesty; which shuts up this tragedy." Most
of the troops that had come from England early in
the year were sent back in the summer, the others
remaining to become Virginia planters; in the fall,
Berry and Moryson also returned to England. Jeffreys
remained as lieutenant-governor of Virginia.
England was not ready for any toleration of the princi- After the
ples represented by the insurrection. His majesty sent Flood
out letters announcing that the Bacon insurrection was November 3,
to the great detriment of his colony of Virginia "and to ,676
the danger of others near adjoyneing therevnto," and even
the Connecticut council forbade "all and euery person or
persons to joyne with the sayd rebels, or to afford them
any armes, ammunition, provision or assistance of any

40 Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 7 7 kind whatsoeuer." The legislation of the Bacon assem-
I 6 7 8 bly was repealed; familiar grievances returned; the Vir-
ginia aristocracy was once more in the saddle. The
royalists were so overbearing and some of them were so
eager to profit personally at the expense of the rebels,
that Jeffreys found it difficult to hold his ship of state
on even keel. The rebellion cost Virginia much but it
also taught her sons something of their rights and
April, 1677 power. When the English commissioners demanded the
journals of the burgesses, they were told that "such
power had never been exercised by the king of England."
When the clerk of the
-". ""-' ': ';,"";" -"; i house declined to give
.. ..... .' ... up the books, they
were wrested from
".. him. The burgesses
.... ......-. declared the seizure "a
........ "...... violation of their privi-
.' ,.. ,... ..leges and desired satis-
:. .. . faction to be given them
S .. .. ... that no such viola-
;.,. ,tion should be offered
them for the future."
It was "an inspiring
,. flash in the black dark-
i ness of overthrow"
Y. a mere flash.
The Coming . ...... Jeffreys concluded
of Culpeper a treaty of peace with
S.the Indians and died
-" in December, 1678.
*. * '*.- He was succeeded by
S.c:-, .- Sir Henry Chicheley
.'.. __1.. ; : -. who has been variously
First Page of MS. Journal of the Virginia described as superan-
House of Burgesses, June 8, 1680 nuated, sickly, and
crazy. He held the office but a year. Then came the
coproprietor of Virginia, the easy-going Lord Culpeper,
whom the king had appointed as governor of Virginia

Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion 41

for life. Berkeley and his immediate predecessors had I 6 8 o
looked upon the Old Dominion as their home, Culpeper
"regarded the Virginians simply as people to be fleeced."
In 1680, Culpeper visited his province. In May, he
took the oath of office and
organized a council that
was "friendly to preroga-
tive." In June, he sub-
mitted to the assembly
three acts framed in Eng-
land and already confirmed
by the great seal. One
of these provided for gen-
eral amnesty and oblivion
for past political offenses.
This was welcome. An-
other transferred the
power of naturalization
from the assembly to the
governor. This was less
welcome. The last laid a
perpetual export duty of Lord Culpeper
two shillings per hogshead on tobacco and appropri-
ated the proceeds for the support of the government.
The colonists had to accept the hated third to get the
needed first. The salary of the governor was doubled;
allowances for house-rent and other perquisites were
added. George Bancroft says of him, "Nay, the peer
was not an honest man." In August, Culpeper returned
to England, leaving Chicheley as deputy-governor.
While the tax on tobacco went up, the price of tobacco The Plant-
went down. Over-production flooded the market and cutting
the assembly petitioned the king to forbid the planting of
tobacco for a year. This would reduce the royal reve-
nues and so the king refused assent. Towns were wanted
and the assembly tried, by what was called a "cohabitation
act," to compel settlements to thrive at fixed landings.
Ships were forbidden to pick up cargoes along the river-
banks, going, as had been their wont, from plantation to

42 Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 8 2 plantation. Of course, such legislation failed. Tobacco
would grow; towns would not grow. Then from planta-
tion to plantation the "plant-cutters" went, destroying
crops to prevent over-production and thus to bring back
better times! Two thousand hogsheads of tobacco were
destroyed and two hundred Gloucester plantations were
laid waste. When the daytime was made dangerous, the
plant-cutting was carried on by night; when the men
dropped it for fear of punishment, the women took it up.
So general was the "rebellion" that soldiers were posted
along the Potomac, a Maryland quarantine against the
Virginia contagion. This contraction of the currency
was suppressed by the militia but the purchasing power
of tobacco was increased.
By Prerogative In December, 1682,
Culpeper came back to
Virginia, hanged two of
the leading "plant-cut-
ters" for their treason in
reducing the royal rev-
enue, and, by permission
of the king, decreed that
a five-shilling coin should
pass current for six shil-
lings between colonist
and colonist but not in
payment for bills of ex-
change, taxes, or the gov-
ernor's salary. When
the burgesses, indignant
at the decree that five
should sometimes equal
six, ventured on remon-
strance, Lord Culpeper
Plate given to the Queen of Pamunkey turned them out of
doors. With the approval of the king, it was announced
that no appeal should be taken from the general court
(which consisted of the governor and a council of his
choosing) to the assembly, and none to the king in

Virginia--Bacon's Rebellion 43

council in any case under the value of one hundred I 6 8 3
pounds. Culpeper's debtors of the Northern Neck I 6 8 5
were now at his mercy and had to make terms with him.
Lord Arlington had transferred his Virginia claims to Virginia
Lord Culpeper and, for a consideration, Culpeper gave Becomes a
up his proprietary patent. When, in 1683, he again left Province
his province and returned to England without permis-
sion, his colonial governorship was promptly taken from
him. Virginia thus became again a royal province and
Lord Howard of Effingham was commissioned as Gov- September
ernor Culpeper's successor. It would be difficult to tell
wherein Virginia gained by the change.
In 1685, came the death of King Charles, the accession The Bloody
of James II., the invasion of England by the duke of Assizes
Monmouth in June, the defeat of Monmouth's army at
Sedgemoor in July, and the capture of the duke. Close
on the heels of these events came the butcheries of
Colonel Percy Kirke and his infamous "lambs," and
the not less infamous "bloody assizes" of Chief-justice
Jeffreys and his judges. The details of the excesses are
too well known to need repetition here; Monmouth
begged in vain for life at any price and a new meaning
was given to the judicial declaration, "I can smell a Pres-
byterian forty miles." According to Macaulay, eight Convict
hundred and forty-one prisoners were transported. colonists
Among these were many of good birth and education,
accustomed to elegance and ease. Many of these were
sent to Jamaica; it is a matter of dispute whether any of
them were sent to Virginia.
There is no need to shrink from the truth in this An Old
matter. The English view, less common now than it English
was a generation or two ago, has been tinged by an
exaggeration of the facts. Thus, in 1769, the famous
Doctor Johnson said that the Americans "are a race of
convicts and ought to be content with anything we may
allow them short of hanging." To this, Johnson's little-
less-famous biographer, the incomparable Boswell, adds
the explanatory statement that "convicts were sent to
nine of the American settlements. According to one

44 Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion

I 6 8 5 estimate, about two thousand had been sent for many
years annually. Dr. Lang, after comparing various
estimates concludes that the number sent might be about
fifty thousand altogether." More than a century later,
i878 the Encyclopedia Britannica tells us that "when on the
revolt of the New Eng-
land colonies the convict
establishments in Amer-
ica were no longer avail-
able, the attention of the
British government, then
under the leadership of
Pitt, was turned to
Botany Bay." Right
well may Mr. Butler say
that "these English views
of the United States in
the colonial period as
penal settlements and
convict establishments
move incredulity and in-
dignation in Americans,
Lord Howard of Efflingham with whom Plymouth
stands for a colony of conscience, Massachusetts for an
asylum of martyrs, and Virginia for the old dominion of
high-bred cavaliers." If, two or three centuries ago,
England did send some of her rogues to America, they
came in through the ports of no single settlement and
of all who thence came hither some were good and some
were bad-just as were those who stayed at home.
Effingham in The accession of James II. was greeted with "extraor-
Virginia dinary joy" in Virginia where Effingham was holding
carnival, but the pleasing sentiment did not long endure.
In England, king and church were soon at odds and,
in Virginia, according to a Virginian historian, "planters
tell each other in a whisper that the Papists in their
own midst are concocting a terrible plot. . They
mean to steep Virginia in gore and make her a depend-
ency of Rome." Even Virginians will not tolerate that.

Virginia- Bacon's Rebellion 45

The Rappahannock men grasp their guns and the men of I 6 8 5
Stafford are aroused and urged to defend the Protestant I 6 9 1
cause. "The horse-racing and fox-hunting Virginians
are actually going to fight for their religion!" Some
were prosecuted and some put in irons for treasonable
utterances, but nothing came of all the excitement. Effing-
ham hastened to England. The king hastened to France
and left the governor waiting. When the king came
back, it was not James II.
The weakness of this attempted tyranny in Virginia The Dutch
lay in the fact that the governor could not execute his inc"ethe
plans. Prerogative in the Old Dominion had reached its English King
highest level but even on the rising flood the people
rode and raised their cry of liberty and rights. Philip
Ludwell was sent to England to tell the king and council
the story of Effingham's rule; about that time the prince
of Orange landed. Effingham was still in England; he
never returned to America. In April, 1689, at James
City, William and Mary, king and queen of England,
were proclaimed "lord and lady of Virginia." In 1691,
the new king sent back to America the absconding Gov-
ernor Nicholson of New York as lieutenant-governor
of the Old Dominion. It was the beginning of a new

Coat of Arms of Nathaniel Bacon



I 6 6 i AFTER the restoration of proprietary power in
I 6 9 2 Maryland, Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert)
Governor -- sent over his son, Charles Calvert, as governor
Charles of the province, retaining his brother and late deputy,
1661 Philip Calvert, as chancellor. Negro slaves had been
held in Maryland for a score of years and indented
white servants were numerous. Between 1660 and
1665, the population increased from twelve thousand to
sixteen thousand and, by 1676, it had increased to
twenty thousand.
Quakers and Fendall and his associates had done violence to the
Aliens traditional policy of the province by their treatment of
Quakers. After the suppression of the rebellion, the
discrimination disappeared and Maryland became a refuge
for many such who fled from Puritan persecution in New
England and from Cavalier intolerance in Virginia.
Many others of
-' /" secuted has-
= tened thither,
from France
^ -W Baltimore Comn and children of
misfortune from Bohemia and Holland. It has been said
that with Lord Baltimore "toleration was a matter quite
as much of business as of conscience"-a mere transfer
of credit from one page of the ledger to another.

~Si~S~T;T' .- :
~OnL.- .:~

Maryland after the Restoration 47

Maryland had few manufactures and no large towns. I 6 6 I
Occupation meant little more than the production of I 6 6 6
tobacco, the currency of the province. Large profits Currency and
led to over-production, closely following which came Coin
the navigation acts. As the market value of the staple
decreased, the inconveniences of the provincial currency

i." 31-

Alsop's Map of Maryland, 1666
were multiplied. In 1661, the Maryland assembly
prayed for a mint and Lord Baltimore ordered a coin-
age of shillings, sixpences, and groats. This did not
accomplish all that was hoped for and tobacco con-
tinued to be the principal currency. As the market was
restricted by English law, prices were crowded down by
economic law and the only visible relief lay in a limita-
tion of the crop. Such a proposal was made in 1664,
but Lord Baltimore did not approve it and the privy
council killed it. It was also suggested to take the duty
off naval stores exported from the colonies into England,
but the planters of Maryland and Virginia would not
abjure tobacco for such uncanny things as pitch and tar
and hemp. Things went from bad to worse and, in
1666, the council passed a bill concerning the "cessation

Maryland after the Restoration

I 6 6 9 of tobacco" for a year. The burgesses gave assent but
the proprietor vetoed the act.
Practical Gradually the differences between the two branches of
Politics the legislature became more frequent and more serious,
the upper house persistently protecting proprietary pre-
rogative and checking the liberalizing tendencies of the
representatives. The writs for the election that followed
the session of 1669 restricted the suffrage to freemen who
held "fifty Acres of Land at the least or Visible personal
Estates to the Value of forty Pounds Sterling at the least."
The authority for the restriction is not apparent. In spite
of this limitation of the suffrage, "a sheer assertion of pre-

Augustine Herman's Map of Virginia and Maryland, 1673
rogative," some of the chosen burgesses were men who
would oppose some of the measures of the governor and
council. The names of those whose attendance might
be dangerous to the projects of the political "bosses"
of the palatinate were omitted from the summons to the

Maryland after the Restoration


assembly. This was done under the pretense of saving I 6 7 5
to the people part of the expense of the session. The I 6 7 6
house of burgesses thus sifted was kept alive until 1676.
Saint Marys was not far removed from Jamestown.
Cecilius, the second Lord Baltimore, died on the thir- From Father
tieth of November, 1675, and Charles Calvert, who had to Son
administered the government for fourteen years, became
the third
Lord Balti-
more and
of Mary-
land. He
many of his
noble pur-
poses but
was inferior : r
to him in 'i.
tact and .. --
ability. In Autograph of Charles Calvert, Third Lord Baltimore
1676, he convoked the assembly. A thorough revision
of the laws was made and the famous toleration act of
1649 was confirmed.
Lord Baltimore appointed Thomas Notley deputy- Religion and
governor and, in the spring of 1676, sailed for England. Morality
Everything was quiet and seemed to promise well for
province and proprietor but complaints followed. A
letter from a Maryland clergyman to the archbishop of May 25,
Canterbury, couched in terms probably more vigorous b 676
than justifiable, declared that "the Popish Priests and
Jesuits .. are encouraged & Provided for & the Quak-
ers take care & provide for those that are speakers in
their conventicles, but noe care is taken or Provision
made for the building up Christians in the Protestant
Religion by means whereof not only many Dayly fall
away either to Popery, Quakerism, or phanaticisme but
also the lord's day is proffaned, Religion despised, &

50 Maryland after the Restoration

I 6 7 6 all notorious vices committed, soe that it is become
i 6 8 o a Sodom of uncleanness and a pest-house of iniquity."
Although the proprietor pointed out that there were but
few adherents of the Anglican church, the privy council
directed that ministers of the church of England be
supported and that the laws against vice be enforced.
Lord Baltimore returned to his province in 1680, and
ignored the orders of the council.
constitutional In the proprietor's absence, some of the spirit of Bacon's
Struggle rebellion had been wafted across the Potomac. The col-
lapse of the insurrection in Virginia doubtless averted
bloodshed in Maryland and extinguished the incipient
Davis and Pate rebellion there. Davis and Pate were
hanged, peace was preserved in the palatinate, and Thomas
Notley was continued as Calvert's deputy. The assembly
placed the elective franchise on a more liberal basis but,
after his return, Lord Baltimore annulled the new rule
and restored the limitations
of 1670. The proprietor
had not only his veto, but
in the upper house of the
assembly he had a per-
manent and irreversible
majority. Most of the
members of this council
were Roman Catholics, re-
latives, and trusted friends
of the proprietor. In a
community where Protest-
ants outnumbered Cath-
olics more than ten to one,
this was likely to provoke
Charles Calvert, Third Lord Baltimore opposition. Between the
oligarchical council and the democratic burgesses there
arose a fierce constitutional struggle. The idea of a feu-
dal principality was quite out of keeping with the times;
manorial and proprietary rights were irreconcilable with
the principles of civil equality that were showing life
and growth in all the American and English colonies.

Maryland after the Restoration 5 i

Soon after Lord Baltimore's return to Maryland, the I 6 8 o
ever-active Fendall and John Coode, an English clergy- Political
man of little worth, attempted to rouse the Protestants Trouble
to insurrection. The movement was quickly crushed
and Fendall was fined
and banished. Com-
plaints of favoritism
for Catholics, many of
them unfounded, were
continually sent to
England and, in 1681,
the privy council noti-
fied Lord Baltimore
that sectarian partiality
would not be tolerated.
In spite of the exemp-
tions of the charter,
the navigation act of
1662 imposed custom-
house duties. The
collectors for the
crown accused Lord
Baltimore of interfer- Augustine Herman
ing with their work and the king preferred a claim for
revenues thus lost. The charges were persistently
pushed and weakened the proprietary government.
The increasing tendency of the British administration
to treat the American colonies not as isolated provinces
but as a connected whole was irreconcilable with the
sovereignty of Lord Baltimore. The logic of events
was fast undermining the palatinate.
After the conquest of New Sweden by the Dutch in The Duke's
1655, Governor Stuyvesant sent Augustine Herman and Enrach-
Resolved Waldron as envoys to the Maryland govern-
ment. Herman began by claiming nearly everything
for the Dutch and ended by transferring his allegiance
to the English and accepting from Lord Baltimore a
manorial grant of five thousand acres on Elk River. Bohemia
The English king had given New Netherland to the Manor

Maryland after the Restoration

I 6 8 I duke of York, but the grant did not convey title to
I 6 8 5 the lands west of Delaware Bay which were expressly
included in the Maryland charter. In spite of this, the
duke's officers trespassed on the palatinate by taking
charge of the Dutch and Swedish settlements there.
Penn's In 1681, King Charles granted to William Penn a
Encroachments province north of Maryland and west of the Delaware
River. This Pennsylvania was to be bounded "on the
South by a Circle drawne at twelve miles distance from
New Castle Northward and Westward unto the beginning
of the fortieth degree of Northern Latitude, and then by
a straight Line Westward." The circle would not reach
to the fortieth parallel and "the beginning of the
fortieth degree" might mean the thirty-ninth parallel.
Penn needed a bit of seacoast. Bent upon that salt-
August, 1682 water margin, he secured from the duke of York his
claim to the counties
that the Dutch had taken
from the Swedes- the
greater part of what now
constitutes the state of
Delaware. Penn must
have known that the
duke had no title to the
lands asked for and both
of them doubtless knew
that the duke's father
had given them to Lord
A Boundary Lord Baltimore pro-
Dispute tested against the con-
templated robbery only
to find that "in such
matters there was not
much profit in contend-
ing against princes." In April, 1684, he appointed a
council of nine deputy-governors and sailed for Eng-
land. In November, 1685, the board of trade decided
that the Maryland charter included only "lands unculti-

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